Solitary Waves in Relativistic Electromagnetic Plasma
XIE Bai-Song; HUA Cun-Cai
2005-01-01
Solitary waves in relativistic electromagnetic plasmas are obtained numerically. The longitudinal momentum of electrons has been taken into account in the problem. It is found that in the moving frame with electromagnetic field propagating the solitary waves can exist in both cases, where the vector potential frequency is larger or smaller than the plasma characteristic frequency.
Relativistic diffusive motion in random electromagnetic fields
Haba, Z, E-mail: zhab@ift.uni.wroc.pl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, 50-204 Wroclaw, Plac Maxa Borna 9 (Poland)
2011-08-19
We show that the relativistic dynamics in a Gaussian random electromagnetic field can be approximated by the relativistic diffusion of Schay and Dudley. Lorentz invariant dynamics in the proper time leads to the diffusion in the proper time. The dynamics in the laboratory time gives the diffusive transport equation corresponding to the Juettner equilibrium at the inverse temperature {beta}{sup -1} = mc{sup 2}. The diffusion constant is expressed by the field strength correlation function (Kubo's formula).
A relativistic correlationless kinetic equation with radiation reaction fully incorporated
Lai, H. M.
1984-06-01
The Landau-Lifshitz expression for the Lorentz-Dirac equation is used to derive a relativistic correlationless kinetic equation for a system of electrons with radiation reaction fully incorporated. Various situations and possible applications are discussed.
Artru, X. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Collaboration: IPN-Lyon, IRMM (Gell), LURE (Orsay); Collaboration: IPN-Lyon, LAL and IEF (Orsay), HIP (Helsinki), INFN (Frascati, Milan)
1998-12-31
We have studied different effects related to electromagnetic interaction of relativistic electrons in matter and investigated their use in beam profile measurements. (authors) 4 refs. Short communication
Fully Relativistic Calculations of Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect
Li, Ming-Fang; Ariizumi, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Shugo
2007-05-01
We study the magneto-optical Kerr effect using fully relativistic calculations. Spin-orbit coupling is dealt with exactly solving the Dirac equation directly and the matrix elements of the Dirac matrices α are used in a fully relativistic expression of the Kubo formula for the optical conductivity derived with a relativistic sum rule. We also perform approximate calculations of the optical conductivity to examine the accuracy of a partly relativistic expression in which the matrix elements of the momentum operator p are used instead. As an example, we carry out calculations for bcc Fe and fcc Ni using the fully relativistic full-potential linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals method. It is found that the partly relativistic treatment is good for the diagonal optical conductivity while it is not very good for the off-diagonal optical conductivity, the Kerr rotation angle, and the Kerr ellipticity. The results of the present study are compared to those of experimental and other theoretical studies.
Rezzolla, Luciano; Ahmedov, Bobomurat J.
2016-07-01
An important issue in the asteroseismology of compact and magnetized stars is the determination of the dissipation mechanism which is most efficient in damping the oscillations when these are produced. In a linear regime and for low-multipolarity modes, these mechanisms are confined to either gravitational-wave or electromagnetic losses. We here consider the latter and compute the energy losses in the form of Poynting fluxes, Joule heating and Ohmic dissipation in a relativistic oscillating spherical star with a dipolar magnetic field in vacuum. While this approach is not particularly realistic for rapidly rotating stars, it has the advantage that it is fully analytic and that it provides expressions for the electric and magnetic fields produced by the most common modes of oscillation both in the vicinity of the star and far away from it. In this way, we revisit and extend to a relativistic context the classical estimates of McDermott et al. Overall, we find that general-relativistic corrections lead to electromagnetic damping time-scales that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than in Newtonian gravity. Furthermore, with the only exception of g (gravity) modes, we find that f (fundamental), p (pressure), i (interface) and s (shear) modes are suppressed more efficiently by gravitational losses than by electromagnetic ones.
Stable Propagating Waves and Wake Fields in Relativistic Electromagnetic Plasma
DUAN Yi-Shi; XIE Bai-Song; TIAN Miao; YIN Xin-Tao; ZHANG Xin-Hui
2008-01-01
Stable propagating waves and wake fields in relativistic electromagnetic plasma are investigated. The incident electromagnetic field has a finite initial constant amplitude meanwhile the longitudinal momentum of electrons is taken into account in the problem. It is found that in the moving frame with transverse wave group velocity the stable propagating transverse electromagnetic waves and longitudinal plasma wake fields can exist in the appropriate regime of plasma.
Rezzolla, Luciano
2016-01-01
An important issue in the asteroseismology of compact and magnetized stars is the determination of the dissipation mechanism which is most efficient in damping the oscillations when these are produced. In a linear regime and for low-multipolarity modes these mechanisms are confined to either gravitational-wave or electromagnetic losses. We here consider the latter and compute the energy losses in the form of Poynting fluxes, Joule heating and Ohmic dissipation in a relativistic oscillating spherical star with a dipolar magnetic field in vacuum. While this approach is not particularly realistic for rapidly rotating stars, it has the advantage that it is fully analytic and that it provides expressions for the electric and magnetic fields produced by the most common modes of oscillation both in the vicinity of the star and far away from it. In this way we revisit and extend to a relativistic context the classical estimates of McDermott et al. Overall, we find that general-relativistic corrections lead to electro...
Noether Theorem of Relativistic-Electromagnetic Ideal Hydrodynamics
Elsas, J H Gaspar; Kodama, T
2014-01-01
We present a variational approach for relativistic ideal hydrodynamics interacting with electromagnetic fields. The momentum of fluid is introduced as the canonical conjugate variable of the position of a fluid element, which coincides with the conserved quantity derived from the Noether theorem. We further show that our formulation can reproduce the usual electromagnetic hydrodynamics which is obtained so as to satisfy the conservation of the inertia of fluid motion.
Self-Guiding of Electromagnetic Beams in Degenerate Relativistic Electron-Positron Plasma
Berezhiani, V I
2016-01-01
The possibility of self-trapped propagation of electromagnetic beams in the fully degenerate relativistic electron-positron plasma has been studied applying Fluid-Maxwell model; it is shown that dynamics of such beams can be described by the generalized Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation with specific type of saturating nonlinearity. Existence of radially symmetric localized solitary structures is demonstrated. It is found that stable solitary structures exist for the arbitrary level of degeneracy.
Nonlinear dynamics of electromagnetic pulses in cold relativistic plasmas
Bonatto, A.; Pakter, R.; Rizzato, F.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Fisica, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)
2004-07-01
The propagation of intense electromagnetic pulses in plasmas is a subject of current interest particularly for particle acceleration and laser fusion.In the present analysis we study the self consistent propagation of nonlinear electromagnetic pulses in a one dimensional relativistic electron-ion plasma, from the perspective of nonlinear dynamics. We show how a series of Hamiltonian bifurcations give rise to the electric fields which are of relevance in the subject of particle acceleration. Connections between these bifurcated solutions and results of earlier analysis are made. (authors)
Relativistic electromagnetic waves in an electron-ion plasma
Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Kennel, Charles F.
1987-01-01
High power laser beams can drive plasma particles to relativistic energies. An accurate description of strong waves requires the inclusion of ion dynamics in the analysis. The equations governing the propagation of relativistic electromagnetic waves in a cold electron-ion plasma can be reduced to two equations expressing conservation of energy-momentum of the system. The two conservation constants are functions of the plasma stream velocity, the wave velocity, the wave amplitude, and the electron-ion mass ratio. The dynamic parameter, expressing electron-ion momentum conversation in the laboratory frame, can be regarded as an adjustable quantity, a suitable choice of which will yield self-consistent solutions when other plasma parameters were specified. Circularly polarized electromagnetic waves and electrostatic plasma waves are used as illustrations.
Noldus, Johan
2005-01-01
This paper can be seen as an exercise in how to adapt quantum mechanics from a strict relativistic perspective while being respectful and critical towards the experimental achievements of the contemporary theory. The result is a fully observer independent relativistic quantum mechanics for N particle systems without tachyonic solutions. A remaining worry for the moment is Bell's theorem.
Zhevago, N. K.; Glebov, V. I.
2017-06-01
We have developed the theory of electromagnetic interaction of relativistic charged particles with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The electrostatic potential and electron number density distribution in MOFs were calculated using the most accurate data for the atomic form factors. Peculiarities of axial channeling of fast charged particles and various types of electromagnetic radiation from relativistic particles has been discussed.
PIC Simulation of Relativistic Electromagnetic Plasma Expansion with Radiation Damping
Noguchi, Koichi; Liang, Edison; Wilks, Scott
2004-11-01
One of the unsolved problems in astrophysics is the acceleration of nonthermal high-energy particles. Nonthermal radiation is observed from pulsars, blazers, gamma-ray bursts and black holes. Recently, a new mechanism of relativistic nonthermal particle acceleration, called the Diamagnetic Relativistic Pulse Accelerator(DRPA), discovered using multi-dimensional Particle-in-Cell(PIC) simulations. When a plasma-loaded electromagnetic pulse expands relativistically, the self-induced drift current creates ponderomotive trap, which drags only the fast particles in the trap and leave slow ones behind. Here we study the effect of radiation on an electron-positron plasma accelerated by the DRPA, by introducing the radiation force in our 2D PIC code. In the radiation case, particles are accelerated by the EM pulse but decelerated by the radiation reaction simultaneously, whereas particles are accelerated indefinitely in the non-radiation case. We find that even with the radiation dumping the DRPA mechanism remains robust and particles are accelerated to over γ>100. After the simulation reaches the quasi-equilibrium state, kinetic energy becomes constant, and field energy is converted to radiation using particles as the transfer agent. We will also produce sample light waves of the radiation output.
Toward a fully relativistic theory of quantum information
Adami, Christoph
2011-01-01
Information theory is a statistical theory dealing with the relative state of detectors and physical systems. Because of this physicality of information, the classical framework of Shannon needs to be extended to deal with quantum detectors, perhaps moving at relativistic speeds, or even within curved space-time. Considerable progress toward such a theory has been achieved in the last fifteen years, while much is still not understood. This review recapitulates some milestones along this road, and speculates about future ones.
Probing the early-time dynamics of relativistic heavy-ion collisions with electromagnetic radiation
Vujanovic, Gojko; Denicol, Gabriel S; Luzum, Matthew; Schenke, Bjoern; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles
2014-01-01
Using 3+1D viscous relativistic fluid dynamics, we show that electromagnetic probes are sensitive to the initial conditions and to the out-of-equilibrium features of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Within the same approach, we find that hadronic observables show a much lesser sensitivity to these aspects. We conclude that electromagnetic observables allow access to dynamical regions that are beyond the reach of soft hadronic probes.
Kholmetskii, Alexander; Missevitch, Oleg; Yarman, Tolga
2016-02-01
We address to the Poynting theorem for the bound (velocity-dependent) electromagnetic field, and demonstrate that the standard expressions for the electromagnetic energy flux and related field momentum, in general, come into the contradiction with the relativistic transformation of four-vector of total energy-momentum. We show that this inconsistency stems from the incorrect application of Poynting theorem to a system of discrete point-like charges, when the terms of self-interaction in the product {\\varvec{j}} \\cdot {\\varvec{E}} (where the current density {\\varvec{j}} and bound electric field {\\varvec{E}} are generated by the same source charge) are exogenously omitted. Implementing a transformation of the Poynting theorem to the form, where the terms of self-interaction are eliminated via Maxwell equations and vector calculus in a mathematically rigorous way (Kholmetskii et al., Phys Scr 83:055406, 2011), we obtained a novel expression for field momentum, which is fully compatible with the Lorentz transformation for total energy-momentum. The results obtained are discussed along with the novel expression for the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor.
Noureen, S.; Abbas, G.; Farooq, H.
2017-09-01
Using Vlasov-Maxwell's equations, the spectra of the perpendicular propagating Bernstein wave and Extraordinary wave in ultra-relativistic fully degenerate electron plasma are studied. The equilibrium particle distribution function is assumed to be isotropic Fermian. The analysis of high frequency spectra of the waves is carried out in the weak propagation limit Ω≫k .v and in the weak magnetic field limit |ω-k .v | ≫Ω and graphically observed.
De Sanctis, M; Santopinto, E; Vassallo, A
2015-01-01
We briefly describe our relativistic quark-diquark model, developed within the framework of point form dynamics, which is the relativistic extension of the interacting quark-diquark model. In order to do that we have to show the main properties and quantum numbers of the effective degree of freedom of constituent diquark. Our results for the nonstrange baryon spectrum and for the nucleon electromagnetic form factors are discussed.
Relativistic electromagnetic mass models in spherically symmetric spacetime
Maurya, S K; Ray, Saibal; Chatterjee, Vikram
2015-01-01
Under the static spherically symmetric Einstein-Maxwell spacetime of embedding class one we explore possibility of electromagnetic mass model where mass and other physical parameters have purely electromagnetic origin (Tiwari 1984, Gautreau 1985, Gron 1985). This work is in continuation of our earlier investigation (Maurya 2015a) where we developed an algorithm and found out three new solutions of electromagnetic mass models. In the present letter we consider different metric potentials $\
Noether's theorem of relativistic-electromagnetic ideal hydrodynamics
Elsas, J.H. Gaspar; Koide, T.; Kodama, T., E-mail: jhelsas@gmail.com, E-mail: kodama.takeshi@gmail.com, E-mail: tomoikoide@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica
2015-06-15
We present a variational approach for relativistic ideal hydrodynamics interacting with electromagnetic fields. The momentum of fluid is introduced as the canonical conjugate variable of the position of a fluid element, which coincides with the conserved quantity derived from Noether's theorem. We further show that our formulation can reproduce the usual electromagnetic hydrodynamics which is obtained so as to satisfy the conservation of the inertia of fluid motion. (author)
Relativistic quark model for the Omega- electromagnetic form factors
G. Ramalho, K. Tsushima, Franz Gross
2009-08-01
We compute the Omega- electromagnetic form factors and the decuplet baryon magnetic moments using a quark model application of the Covariant Spectator Theory. Our predictions for the Omega- electromagnetic form factors can be tested in the future by lattice QCD simulations at the physical strange quark mass.
A relativistic quark model for the Omega- electromagnetic form factors
Ramalho, G; Gross, Franz
2009-01-01
We compute the Omega- electromagnetic form factors and the decuplet baryon magnetic moments using a quark model application of the Covariant Spectator Theory. Our predictions for the Omega- electromagnetic form factors can be tested in the future by lattice QCD simulations at the physical strange quark mass.
Fully Relativistic Electron Impact Excitation Cross-Section and Polarization for Tungsten Ions
Priti
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Electron impact excitation of highly charged tungsten ions in the framework of a fully relativistic distorted wave approach is considered in this paper. Calculations of electron impact excitation cross-sections for the M- and L-shell transitions in the tungsten ions Wn+ (n = 44–66 and polarization of the decay of photons from the excited tungsten ions are briefly reviewed and discussed. New calculations in the wide range of incident electron energies are presented for M-shell transitions in the K-like through Ne-like tungsten ions.
The Diagnostics Of Hydrogen-Cesium Plasma Using Fully Relativistic Electron Impact Cross Sections
Priti, Priti; Dipti, Dipti; Gangwar, Reetesh; Srivastava, Rajesh
2016-10-01
Electron excitation cross-sections and rate coefficients have been calculated using fully relativistic distorted wave theory for several fine-structure transitions from the ground as well as excited states of cesium atom in the wide range of incident electron energy. These processes play dominant role in low pressure hydrogen-cesium plasma relevant to the negative ion based neutral beam injectors for the ITER project. The calculated cross-sections are used to construct a reliable collisional radiative (CR) model to characterize the hydrogen-cesium plasma. The calculated plasma parameters are compared with the available experimental and theoretical results.
Octet baryon electromagnetic form factors in a relativistic quark model
Ramalho, G
2011-01-01
We study the octet baryon electromagnetic properties by applying the covariant spectator quark model, and provide covariant parametrization that can be used to study baryon electromagnetic reactions. While we use the lattice QCD data in the large pion mass regime (small pion cloud effects) to determine the parameters of the model in the valence quark sector, we use the nucleon physical and octet baryon magnetic moment data to parameterize the pion cloud contributions. The valence quark contributions for the octet baryon electromagnetic form factors are estimated by extrapolating the lattice parametrization in the large pion mass regime to the physical regime. As for the pion cloud contributions, we parameterize them in a covariant, phenomenological manner, combined with SU(3) symmetry. We also discuss the impact of the pion cloud effects on the octet baryon electromagnetic form factors and their radii.
Octet Baryon Electromagnetic Form Factors in a Relativistic Quark Model
Gilberto Ramalho, Kazuo Tsushima
2011-09-01
We study the octet baryon electromagnetic properties by applying the covariant spectator quark model, and provide covariant parametrization that can be used to study baryon electromagnetic reactions. While we use the lattice QCD data in the large pion mass regime (small pion cloud effects) to determine the parameters of the model in the valence quark sector, we use the nucleon physical and octet baryon magnetic moment data to parameterize the pion cloud contributions. The valence quark contributions for the octet baryon electromagnetic form factors are estimated by extrapolating the lattice parametrization in the large pion mass regime to the physical regime. As for the pion cloud contributions, we parameterize them in a covariant, phenomenological manner, combined with SU(3) symmetry. We also discuss the impact of the pion cloud effects on the octet baryon electromagnetic form factors and their radii.
Relativistic electromagnetic mass models in spherically symmetric spacetime
Maurya, S. K.; Gupta, Y. K.; Ray, Saibal; Chatterjee, Vikram
2016-10-01
Under the static spherically symmetric Einstein-Maxwell spacetime of embedding class one we explore possibility of constructing electromagnetic mass model where mass and other physical parameters have purely electromagnetic origin (Lorentz in Proc. Acad. Sci. Amst. 6, 1904). This work is in continuation of our earlier investigation of Maurya et al. (Eur. Phys. J. C 75:389, 2015a) where we developed an algorithm and found out three new solutions of electromagnetic mass model. In the present work we consider different metric potentials ν and λ and have analyzed them in a systematic way. It is observed that some of the previous solutions related to electromagnetic mass model are nothing but special cases of the presently obtained generalized solution set. We further verify the solution set and especially show that these are extremely applicable in the case of compact stars.
A fully relativistic approach for calculating atomic data for highly charged ions
Sampson, Douglas H. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zhang Honglin [Applied Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: zhang@lanl.gov; Fontes, Christopher J. [Applied Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: cjf@lanl.gov
2009-07-15
We present a review of our fully relativistic approach to calculating atomic data for highly charged ions, highlighting a research effort that spans twenty years. Detailed discussions of both theoretical and numerical techniques are provided. Our basic approach is expected to provide accurate results for ions that range from approximately half ionized to fully stripped. Options for improving the accuracy and range of validity of this approach are also discussed. In developing numerical methods for calculating data within this framework, considerable emphasis is placed on techniques that are robust and efficient. A variety of fundamental processes are considered including: photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation, electron-impact ionization, autoionization, electron capture, photoionization and photorecombination. Resonance contributions to a variety of these processes are also considered, including discussions of autoionization, electron capture and dielectronic recombination. Ample numerical examples are provided in order to illustrate the approach and to demonstrate its usefulness in providing data for large-scale plasma modeling.
A fully relativistic approach for calculating atomic data for highly charged ions
Zhang, Hong Lin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fontes, Christopher J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sampson, Douglas H [PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIV
2009-01-01
We present a review of our fully relativistic approach to calculating atomic data for highly charged ions, highlighting a research effort that spans twenty years. Detailed discussions of both theoretical and numerical techniques are provided. Our basic approach is expected to provide accurate results for ions that range from approximately half ionized to fully stripped. Options for improving the accuracy and range of validity of this approach are also discussed. In developing numerical methods for calculating data within this framework, considerable emphasis is placed on techniques that are robust and efficient. A variety of fundamental processes are considered including: photoexcitation, electron-impact excitation, electron-impact ionization, autoionization, electron capture, photoionization and photorecombination. Resonance contributions to a variety of these processes are also considered, including discussions of autoionization, electron capture and dielectronic recombination. Ample numerical examples are provided in order to illustrate the approach and to demonstrate its usefulness in providing data for large-scale plasma modeling.
Fully General Relativistic Simulations of Black Hole-Neutron Star Mergers
Etienne, Zachariah B; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Baumgarte, Thomas W
2007-01-01
Black hole-neutron star (BHNS) binaries are expected to be among the leading sources of gravitational waves observable by ground-based detectors, and may be the progenitors of short-hard gamma ray bursts (SGRBs) as well. Here, we discuss our new fully general relativistic calculations of merging BHNS binaries, which use high-accuracy, low-eccentricity, conformal thin-sandwich configurations as initial data. Our evolutions are performed using the moving puncture method and include a fully relativistic, high-resolution shock-capturing hydrodynamics treatment. Focusing on systems in which the neutron star is irrotational and the black hole is nonspinning with a 3:1 mass ratio, we investigate the inspiral, merger, and disk formation in the system. We find that the vast majority of material is promptly accreted and no more than 3% of the neutron star's rest mass is ejected into a tenuous, gravitationally bound disk. We find similar results for mass ratios of 2:1 and 1:1, even when we reduce the NS compaction in th...
Strong electromagnetic waves in a magnetized relativistic electron-positron plasma
Yu, M.Y.; Shukla, P.K.; Rao, N.N. (Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik)
1984-12-01
It is shown that in a strongly magnetized relativistic electron-positron plasma, strongly localized large amplitude circularly polarized electromagnetic wave pulses exist. The localization is due to relativistic mass variation as well as ponderomotive force effects. Three types of pulses are found analytically: the sharply spiked pulse in a strongly magnetized cold plasma, the smooth pulse in a weak magnetized warm plasma, and the moderately spiked pulse for a weakly magnetized cold plasma. The physical mechanisms giving rise to these pulses are distinct for each case. Possible implications of our investigation to pulsar radiation are discussed.
Electromagnetic dissociation of relativistic [sup 28]Si by nucleon emission
Sonnadara, U.J.
1992-12-01
A detailed study of the electromagnetic dissociation of [sup 28]Si by nucleon emission at E[sub lab]/A = 14.6 (GeV/nucleon was carried out with [sup 28]Si beams interacting on [sup 208]Pb). [sup 120]Sn. [sup 64]C targets. The measurements apparatus consists of detectors in the target area which measure the energy and charged multiplicity, and a forward spectrometer which measures the position, momentum and energy of the reaction fragments. The exclusive electromagnetic dissociation cross sections for decay channels having multiple nucleons in the final state have been measured which enables the selection of events produced in pure electromagnetic interactions. The measured cross sections agree well with previous measurements obtained for the removal of a few nucleons as well as with measurements on total charge removal cross sections from other experiments. The dependence of the integrated cross sections on the target charge Z[sub T] and the target mass AT confirms that for higher Z targets the excitation is largely electromagnetic. Direct measurements of the excitation energy for the electromagnetic dissociation of [sup 28]Si [yields] p+[sup 27]Al and [sup 28]Si [yields] n+[sup 27]Si have been obtained through a calculation of the invariant mass in kinematically, reconstructed events. The excitation energy spectrum for all targets peak near the isovector giant dipole resonance in [sup 28]Si. These distributions are well reproduced by combining the photon spectrum calculated using the Weizsaecker-Williams approximation with the experimental data on the photonuclear [sup 28]Si([sub [gamma],p])[sup 27]Al and [sup 28]Si([sub [gamma],n])[sup 27]Si. The possibilities of observing double giant dipole resonance excitations in [sup 28]Si have been investigated with cross section measurements as well as with excitation energy reconstruction.
Electromagnetic dissociation of relativistic {sup 28}Si by nucleon emission
Sonnadara, U.J.
1992-12-01
A detailed study of the electromagnetic dissociation of {sup 28}Si by nucleon emission at E{sub lab}/A = 14.6 (GeV/nucleon was carried out with {sup 28}Si beams interacting on {sup 208}Pb). {sup 120}Sn. {sup 64}C targets. The measurements apparatus consists of detectors in the target area which measure the energy and charged multiplicity, and a forward spectrometer which measures the position, momentum and energy of the reaction fragments. The exclusive electromagnetic dissociation cross sections for decay channels having multiple nucleons in the final state have been measured which enables the selection of events produced in pure electromagnetic interactions. The measured cross sections agree well with previous measurements obtained for the removal of a few nucleons as well as with measurements on total charge removal cross sections from other experiments. The dependence of the integrated cross sections on the target charge Z{sub T} and the target mass AT confirms that for higher Z targets the excitation is largely electromagnetic. Direct measurements of the excitation energy for the electromagnetic dissociation of {sup 28}Si {yields} p+{sup 27}Al and {sup 28}Si {yields} n+{sup 27}Si have been obtained through a calculation of the invariant mass in kinematically, reconstructed events. The excitation energy spectrum for all targets peak near the isovector giant dipole resonance in {sup 28}Si. These distributions are well reproduced by combining the photon spectrum calculated using the Weizsaecker-Williams approximation with the experimental data on the photonuclear {sup 28}Si({sub {gamma},p}){sup 27}Al and {sup 28}Si({sub {gamma},n}){sup 27}Si. The possibilities of observing double giant dipole resonance excitations in {sup 28}Si have been investigated with cross section measurements as well as with excitation energy reconstruction.
Crater, Horace; van Alstine, Peter
2004-08-01
A large number of treatments of the meson spectrum have been tried that consider mesons as quark-antiquark bound states. Recently, we used relativistic quantum “constraint” mechanics to introduce a fully covariant treatment defined by two coupled Dirac equations. For field-theoretic interactions, this procedure functions as a “quantum mechanical transform of the Bethe-Salpeter equation.” Here, we test its spectral fits against those provided by an assortment of models: Wisconsin model, Iowa State model, Brayshaw model, and the popular semirelativistic treatment of Godfrey and Isgur. We find that the fit provided by the two-body Dirac model for the entire meson spectrum competes with the best fits to partial spectra provided by the others and does so with the smallest number of interaction functions without additional cutoff parameters necessary to make other approaches numerically tractable. We discuss the distinguishing features of our model that may account for the relative overall success of its fits. Note especially that in our approach for QCD, the resulting pion mass and associated Goldstone behavior depend sensitively on the preservation of relativistic couplings that are crucial for its success when solved nonperturbatively for the analogous two-body bound states of QED.
Asymmetric Neutrino Reaction in Magnetized Proto-Neutron Stars in Fully Relativistic Approach
Yasutake Nobutoshi
2012-02-01
Full Text Available We calculate asymmetric neutrino absorption and scattering cross sections on hot and dense magnetized neutron-star matter including hyperons in fully relativistic mean-field theory. The absorption/scattering cross sections are suppressed/enhanced incoherently in the direction of the magnetic field B = Bẑ. The asymmetry is 2–4% at the matter density ρ0 ≤ ρB ≤ 3ρ0 and temperature T ≤ 40MeV for B = 2 × 1017G. Then we solve the Boltzmann equation for the neutrino transport in 1D attenuation approximation, and get the result that the kick velocity becomes about 300 km/s for the proto-neutron star with 168 solar mass at T = 20MeV.
On electromagnetic instabilities at ultra-relativistic shock waves
Lemoine, Martin
2009-01-01
(Abridged) This paper addresses the issue of magnetic field generation in a relativistic shock precursor through micro-instabilities. The level of magnetization of the upstream plasma turns out to be a crucial parameter, notably because the length scale of the shock precursor is limited by the Larmor rotation of the accelerated particles in the background magnetic field and the speed of the shock wave. We discuss in detail and calculate the growth rates of the following beam plasma instabilities seeded by the accelerated and reflected particle populations: for an unmagnetized shock, the Weibel and filamentation instabilities, as well as the Cerenkov resonant longitudinal and oblique modes; for a magnetized shock, in a generic oblique configuration, the Weibel instability and the resonant Cerenkov instabilities with Alfven, Whisler and extraordinary modes. All these instabilities are generated upstream, then they are transmitted downstream. The modes excited by Cerenkov resonant instabilities take on particula...
Berard, A.; Grandati, Y.; Mohrbach, H. [Universite Paul Verlaine, Institut de Physique, Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, ICPMB, IF CNRS 2843, Metz, Cedex 3 (France); Ghosh, Subir [Indian Statistical Institute, Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Kolkata (India); Pal, Probir [S.N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata (India)
2011-11-15
In this paper we have considered the dynamics of an anomalous (g{ne}2) charged relativistic spinning particle in the presence of an external electromagnetic field. A constraint analysis is done and the complete set of Dirac brackets are provided that generate the canonical Lorentz algebra and dynamics through Hamiltonian equations of motion. The spin-induced effective curvature of spacetime and its possible connection with Analogue Gravity models are commented upon. (orig.)
Relativistic Strain and Electromagnetic Photon-Like Objects
Donev, Stoil
2014-01-01
This paper aims to relate some properties of photon-like objects, considered as spatially finite time-stable physical entities with dynamical structure, to well defined properties of the corresponding electromagnetic strains defined as Lie derivatives of the Minkowski (pseudo)metric with respect to the eigen vector fields of the Maxwell-Minkowski stress-energy-momentum tensor. First we recall the geometric sense of the concept of strain, then we introduce and discuss the notion for photon-like objects (PhLO). We compute then the strains along the eigen vectors of the stress-energy-momentum tensor $T_{\\mu}^{\
SU Zhen-Peng; ZHENG Hui-Nan
2009-01-01
The bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck equation is solved to study the relativistic electron phase space density(PSD)evolution in the outer radiation belt due to resonant interactions with plasmaspheric plume electromagnetic ion cyclotron(EMIC)waves.It is found that the PSDs of relativistic electrons can be depleted by 1-3 orders of magnitude in 5h,supporting the previous finding that resonant interactions with EMIC waves may account for the frequently observed relativistic electron flux dropouts in the outer radiation belt during the main phase of a storm.The significant precipitation Joss of ～Me V electrons is primarily induced by the EMIC waves in H~+ and He~+ bands.The rapid remove of highly relativistic electrons(＞5 MeV)is mainly driven by the EMIC waves in O~+ band at lower pitch-angles,as well as the EMIC waves in H~+ and He~+ bands at larger pitch-angles.Moreover,a stronger depletion of relativistic electrons is found to occur over a wider pitch angle range when EMIC waves are centering relatively higher in the band.
Octet to decuplet electromagnetic transition in a relativistic quark model
Ramalho, G
2013-01-01
We study the octet to decuplet baryon electromagnetic transitions using the covariant spectator quark model, and predict the transition magnetic dipole form factors for those involving the strange baryons. Utilizing SU(3) symmetry, the valence quark contributions are supplemented by the pion cloud dressing based on the one estimated in the $\\gamma^\\ast N \\to \\Delta$ reaction. Although the valence quark contributions are dominant in general, the pion cloud effects turn out to be very important to describe the experimental data. We also show that, other mesons besides the pion in particular the kaon, may be relevant for some reactions such as $\\gamma^\\ast \\Sigma^+ \\to \\Sigma^{*+}$, based on our analysis for the radiative decay widths of the strange decuplet baryons.
Zhang, Ruili; He, Yang; Xiao, Jianyuan; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Tang, Yifa
2016-01-01
Relativistic dynamics of a charged particle in time-dependent electromagnetic fields has theoretical significance and a wide range of applications. It is often multi-scale and requires accurate long-term numerical simulations using symplectic integrators. For modern large-scale particle simulations in complex, time-dependent electromagnetic field, explicit symplectic algorithms are much more preferable. In this paper, we treat the relativistic dynamics of a particle as a Hamiltonian system on the cotangent space of the space-time, and construct for the first time explicit symplectic algorithms for relativistic charged particles of order 2 and 3 using the sum-split technique and generating functions.
Dan, Li; Guo, Li-Xin; Li, Jiang-Ting; Chen, Wei; Yan, Xu; Huang, Qing-Qing
2017-09-01
The expression of complex dielectric permittivity for non-magnetized fully ionized dusty plasma is obtained based on the kinetic equation in the Fokker-Planck-Landau collision model and the charging equation of the statistical theory. The influences of density, average size of dust grains, and balanced charging of the charge number of dust particles on the attenuation properties of electromagnetic waves in fully ionized dusty plasma are investigated by calculating the attenuation constant. In addition, the attenuation characteristics of weakly ionized and fully ionized dusty plasmas are compared. Results enriched the physical mechanisms of microwave attenuation for fully ionized dusty plasma and provide a theoretical basis for future studies.
Vujanovic, Gojko; Denicol, Gabriel S; Luzum, Matthew; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles
2016-01-01
The penetrating nature of electromagnetic signals makes them suitable probes to explore the properties of the strongly-interacting medium created in relativistic nuclear collisions. We examine the effects of the initial conditions and shear relaxation time on the spectra and flow coefficients of electromagnetic probes, using an event-by-event 3+1D viscous hydrodynamic simulation (MUSIC).
Relationship of quantum mechanics to classical electromagnetism and classical relativistic mechanics
Field, J H [Departement de Physique Nucleaire et Corpusculaire, Universite de Geneve, 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)
2004-05-14
Some connections between quantum mechanics and classical physics are explored. The Planck-Einstein and De Broglie relations, the wavefunction and its probabilistic interpretation, the canonical commutation relations and the Maxwell-Lorentz equation may be understood in a simple way by comparing classical electromagnetism and the photonic description of light provided by classical relativistic kinematics. The method used may be described as 'inverse correspondence' since quantum phenomena become apparent on considering the low photon number density limit of classical electromagnetism. Generalization to massive particles leads to the Klein-Gordon and Schroedinger equations. The difference between the quantum wavefunction of the photon and a classical electromagnetic wave is discussed in some detail.
Electromagnetic properties of light and heavy baryons in the relativistic quark model
Nicmorus Marinescu, Diana
2007-06-14
One of the main challenges of nowadays low-energy physics remains the description of the internal structure of hadrons, strongly connected to the electromagnetic properties of matter. In this vein, the success of the relativistic quark model in the analysis of the hadron structure constitutes a solid motivation for the study carried out throughout this work. The relativistic quark model is extended to the investigation of static electromagnetic properties of both heavy and light baryons. The bare contributions to the magnetic moments of the single-, double- and triple-heavy baryons are calculated. Moreover, the relativistic quark model allows the study of the electromagnetic properties of the light baryon octet incorporating meson cloud contributions in a perturbative manner. The long disputed values of the multipole ratios E2/M1 and C2/M1 and the electromagnetic form factors of the N{yields}{delta}{gamma} transition are successfully reproduced. The relativistic quark model can be viewed as a quantum field theory approach based on a phenomenological Lagrangian coupling light and heavy baryons to their constituent quarks. In our approach the baryon is a composite object of three constituent quarks, at least in leading order. The effective interaction Lagrangian is written in terms of baryon and constituent quark fields. The effective action preserves Lorentz covariance and gauge invariance. The main ingredients of the model are already introduced at the level of the interaction Lagrangian: the three-quark baryon currents, the Gaussian distribution of the constituent quarks inside the baryon and the compositeness condition which sets an upper limit for the baryon-quark vertex. The S-matrix elements are expressed by a set of Feynman quark-diagrams. The model contains only few parameters, namely, the cut-off parameter of the Gaussian quark distribution and the free quark propagator, which are unambiguously determined from the best fit to the data. The heavy quark limit
High-Order Fully General-Relativistic Hydrodynamics: new Approaches and Tests
Radice, David; Galeazzi, Filippo
2013-01-01
We present a new approach for achieving high-order convergence in fully general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations. The approach is implemented in WhiskyTHC, a new code that makes use of state-of-the-art numerical schemes and was key in achieving, for the first time, higher than second-order convergence in the calculation of the gravitational radiation from inspiraling binary neutron stars Radice et al. (2013). Here, we give a detailed description of the algorithms employed and present results obtained for a series of classical tests involving isolated neutron stars. In addition, using the gravitational-wave emission from the late inspiral and merger of binary neutron stars, we make a detailed comparison between the results obtained with the new code and those obtained when using standard second-order schemes commonly employed for matter simulations in numerical relativity. We find that even at moderate resolutions and for binaries with large compactness, the phase accuracy is improved by a factor 50 or mo...
Fully relativistic description of spin-orbit torques by means of linear response theory
Wimmer, S.; Chadova, K.; Seemann, M.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Ebert, H.
2016-08-01
Symmetry and magnitude of spin-orbit torques (SOT), i.e., current-induced torques on the magnetization of systems lacking inversion symmetry, are investigated in a fully relativistic linear response framework based on the Kubo formalism. By applying all space-time symmetry operations contained in the magnetic point group of a solid to the relevant response coefficient, the torkance expressed as torque-current correlation function, restrictions to the shape of the direct and inverse response tensors are obtained. These are shown to apply to the corresponding thermal analogs as well, namely the direct and inverse thermal SOT in response to a temperature gradient or heat current. Using an implementation of the Kubo-Bastin formula for the torkance into a first-principles multiple-scattering Green function framework and accounting for disorder effects via the so-called coherent potential approximation, all contributions to the SOT in pure systems, dilute as well as concentrated alloys can be treated on equal footing. This way, material specific values for all torkance tensor elements in the fcc (111) trilayer alloy system Pt| FexCo1 -x|Cu are obtained over a wide concentration range and discussed in comparison to results for electrical and spin conductivity, as well as to previous work—in particular concerning symmetry with respect to magnetization reversal and the nature of the various contributions.
Uzbekov, Bogdan; Shprits, Yuri Y.; Orlova, Ksenia
2016-10-01
Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) waves are transverse plasma waves that are generated in the Earth magnetosphere by ring current protons with temperature anisotropy in three different bands: below the H+, He+ and O+ ion gyrofrequencies. EMIC events are enhanced during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm when intensifications in the electric field result in enhanced injections of ions and are usually confined to high-density regions just inside the plasmapause or within drainage plumes. EMIC waves are capable of scattering radiation belt electrons and thus provide an important link between the intensification of the electric field, ion populations, and radiation belt electrons. Bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients computed with the assumption of parallel wave propagation are compared to the results of the code that uses the full cold plasma dispersion relation taking into account oblique propagation of waves and higher-order resonances. We study the sensitivity of the scattering rates to a number of included higher-order resonances, wave spectral distribution parameters, wave normal angle distribution parameters, ambient plasma density, and ion composition. Inaccuracies associated with the neglect of higher-order resonances and oblique propagation of waves are compared to potential errors introduced by uncertainties in the model input parameters.
Two-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic dromion-like soliton in a cold transparent plasma
Wang Yun-Liang; Zhou Zhong-Xiang; Yuan Cheng-Xun; Jiang Xiang-Qian; Qin Ru-Hu
2006-01-01
By using a standard multiple scale method, a Davey-Stewartson (DS) equation has been derived and also applied to a multi-dimensional analytical investigation on the interaction of an ultra-intense laser pulse with a cold unmagnetized transparent electron-ion plasma. The regions of instability are found by considering the modulation instability of a plane wave solution of the DS equation. The DS equation is just of the Daveylution, i.e. a two-dimensional (2D) dromion soliton decaying exponentially in all spatial directions. A 2D relativistic electromagnetic dromion-like soliton (2D REDLS) is derived for a vector potential.
Relativistic two-boson system in presence of electromagnetic plane waves
Droz-Vincent, Philippe
2015-01-01
The relativistic two-body problem is considered for spinless particles subject to an external macroscopic electromagnetic field. When this field is made of the monochromatic superposition of two conter-propagating plane waves (and provided the mutual interaction between particles is known), it is possible to write down explicitly a pair of coupled wave equations (corresponding to a pair of mass-shell constraints) which takes into account also the field contribution. These equations are manifestly covariant; constants of the motion are exhibited, so one ends up with a reduced problem concerning five degrees of freedom.
Entropy production for a relativistic simple fluid in a weak electromagnetic field
García-Perciante, A. L.; Sandoval-Villalbazo, A.; Brun-Battistini, D.
2016-11-01
Thermal dissipation in plasmas includes a variety of effects, most of them arising from the fact that these gases are usually composed of at least two species. In the case of a mild temperature single component charged fluid kinetic theory indicates that the temperature gradient is the only source of vector-type dissipation. However, if the temperature increases to a point in which the molecule's velocities approach the speed of light, electrothermal dissipation is possible even for the single component charged gas. The modification to the structure of the entropy production introduced by this effect is established in order to address the second law of thermodynamics for such a system. The entropy balance equation is obtained from the relativistic Boltzmann equation and the vector contribution to the entropy production is calculated in terms of the thermodynamic forces and the electromagnetic field using Chapman-Enskog's expansion. It is shown that the structure is consistent with the constitutive equation previously reported, in which a thermoelectric effect was found for a single component relativistic fluid. This effect does not have a non-relativistic counterpart and presents no ambiguity regarding the frame chosen as the comoving frame, which is an issue in the mixture case.
Gisin, Boris V
2012-01-01
Dirac's equation in the field of a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave and constant magnetic field has exact localized non-stationary solutions. The solutions corresponds relativistic fermions only. Among them singular solutions with energy eigenvalues close to each other are found. The solutions are most practicable and can be separated by means of the phase matching between the momentum of the electromagnetic wave and spinor. Characteristic parameters of the singular states are defined.
Multidimensional, fully implicit, exactly conserving electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations
Chacon, Luis
2015-09-01
We discuss a new, conservative, fully implicit 2D-3V particle-in-cell algorithm for non-radiative, electromagnetic kinetic plasma simulations, based on the Vlasov-Darwin model. Unlike earlier linearly implicit PIC schemes and standard explicit PIC schemes, fully implicit PIC algorithms are unconditionally stable and allow exact discrete energy and charge conservation. This has been demonstrated in 1D electrostatic and electromagnetic contexts. In this study, we build on these recent algorithms to develop an implicit, orbit-averaged, time-space-centered finite difference scheme for the Darwin field and particle orbit equations for multiple species in multiple dimensions. The Vlasov-Darwin model is very attractive for PIC simulations because it avoids radiative noise issues in non-radiative electromagnetic regimes. The algorithm conserves global energy, local charge, and particle canonical-momentum exactly, even with grid packing. The nonlinear iteration is effectively accelerated with a fluid preconditioner, which allows efficient use of large timesteps, O(√{mi/me}c/veT) larger than the explicit CFL. In this presentation, we will introduce the main algorithmic components of the approach, and demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency properties of the algorithm with various numerical experiments in 1D and 2D. Support from the LANL LDRD program and the DOE-SC ASCR office.
Electromagnetic heavy-lepton pair production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Senguel, M.Y. [Atakent Mahallesi, 3. Etap, Halkali-Kuecuekcekmece, Istanbul (Turkey); Gueclue, M.C.; Mercan, Oe.; Karakus, N.G. [istanbul Technical University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Istanbul (Turkey)
2016-08-15
We calculate the cross sections of electromagnetic productions of muon- and tauon-pair productions from the ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Since the Compton wavelengths of muon and tauon are comparable to the radius of the colliding ions, nuclear form factors play important roles for calculating the cross sections. Recent measurement (Abrahamyan et al., Phys Rev Lett 108:112502, 2012) indicates that the neutrons are differently distributed from the protons; therefore this affects the cross section of the heavy-lepton pair production. In order to see the effects of the neutron distributions in the nucleus, we used analytical expression of the Fourier transforms of the Wood-Saxon distribution. Cross section calculations show that the Wood-Saxon distribution function is more sensitive to the parameter R compared to the parameter a. (orig.)
Goncalves, Bruno; Dias Junior, Mario Marcio [Instituto Federal de Educacacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia Sudeste de Minas Gerais, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)
2013-07-01
Full text: The discussion of experimental manifestations of torsion at low energies is mainly related to the torsion-spin interaction. In this respect the behavior of Dirac field and the spinning particle in an external torsion field deserves and received very special attention. In this work, we consider the combined action of torsion and magnetic field on the massive spinor field. In this case, the Dirac equation is not straightforward solved. We suppose that the spinor has two components. The equations have mixed terms between the two components. The electromagnetic field is introduced in the action by the usual gauge transformation. The torsion field is described by the field S{sub μ}. The main purpose of the work is to get an explicit form to the equation of motion that shows the possible interactions between the external fields and the spinor in a Hamiltonian that is independent to each component. We consider that S{sub 0} is constant and is the unique non-vanishing term of S{sub μ}. This simplification is taken just to simplify the algebra, as our main point is not to describe the torsion field itself. In order to get physical analysis of the problem, we consider the non-relativistic approximation. The final result is a Hamiltonian that describes a half spin field in the presence of electromagnetic and torsion external fields. (author)
Zheleznyakov, V. V.; Bespalov, P. A.
2016-04-01
In part I of this work [1], we study the dispersion characteristics of low-frequency waves in a relativistic electron-positron plasma. In part II, we examine the electromagnetic wave instability in this plasma caused by an admixture of nonrelativistic protons with energy comparable with the energy of relativistic low-mass particles. The instability occurs in the frequency band between the fundamental harmonic of proton gyrofrequency and the fundamental harmonic of relativistic electron gyrofrequency. The results can be used for the interpretation of known observations of the pulsar emissions obtained with a high time and frequency resolution. The considered instability can probably be the initial stage of the microwave radio emission nanoshots typical of the pulsar in the Crab Nebula.
Pétri, J
2014-01-01
Pulsars are believed to loose their rotational kinetic energy primarily by a large amplitude low frequency electromagnetic wave which is eventually converted into particle creation, acceleration and followed by a broad band radiation spectrum. To date, there exist no detailed calculation of the exact spin-down luminosity with respect to the neutron star magnetic moment and spin frequency, including general-relativistic effects. Estimates are usually given according to the flat spacetime magnetodipole formula. The present paper pursue our effort to look for accurate solutions of the general-relativistic electromagnetic field around a slowly rotating magnetized neutron star. In a previous work, we already found approximate stationary solutions to this problem. Here we address again this problem but using a more general approach. We indeed solve the full set of time-dependent Maxwell equations in a curved vacuum space-time following the 3+1 formalism. The numerical code is based on our pseudo-spectral method exp...
Aznauryan, I G
2012-01-01
We utilize a light-front relativistic quark model (LF RQM) to predict the 3q core contribution to the electroexcitation amplitudes for the Delta(1232)P33, N(1440)P11, N(1520)D13, and N(1535)S11 up to Q2= 12GeV2. The parameters of the model have been specified via description of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors in the approach that combines 3q and pion-cloud contributions in the LF dynamics.
Relativistic gravity fields and electromagnetic fields generated by flows of matter
Bogdan, Victor M
2009-01-01
One of the highlight of this note is that the author presents the relativistic gravity field that Einstein was looking for. The field is a byproduct of the matter in motion. This field can include both the discrete and continuous components. In free space the waves produced in this field propagate with velocity of light. Another highlight is the proof of amended Feynman's formulas for electromagnetic potentials. This makes the formulas mathematically complete and precise. The main result can be stated as follows. In a fixed Lorentzian frame given is a trajectory $r_2(t,r_0)$ of flow of matter. The parameter $r_0$ changes in a compact set $F$ representing the position of the matter at some initial time $t_0.$ The flow must satisfy certain conditions of regularity. Given any signed measure $q(Q)$ of finite variation defined on Borel subsets of $F,$ representing total charge contained in the set $Q\\subset F,$ such a flow determines the scalar $\\phi$ and the vector $A$ potentials for a pair $(E,B)$ of fields sati...
Balsara, Dinshaw S; Garain, Sudip; Kim, Jinho
2016-01-01
In various astrophysics settings it is common to have a two-fluid relativistic plasma that interacts with the electromagnetic field. While it is common to ignore the displacement current in the ideal, classical magnetohydrodynamic limit, when the flows become relativistic this approximation is less than absolutely well-justified. In such a situation, it is more natural to consider a positively charged fluid made up of positrons or protons interacting with a negatively charged fluid made up of electrons. The two fluids interact collectively with the full set of Maxwell's equations. As a result, a solution strategy for that coupled system of equations is sought and found here. Our strategy extends to higher orders, providing increasing accuracy. Three important innovations are reported here. In our first innovation, the magnetic field within each zone is reconstructed in a divergence-free fashion while the electric field within each zone is reconstructed in a form that is consistent with Gauss' law. In our seco...
Hale, Alison C
2009-01-01
The spectrum of electromagnetic fields satisfying perfectly conducting boundary conditions in a segment of a straight beam pipe with a circular cross-section is discussed as a function of various source models. These include charged bunches that move along the axis of the pipe with constant speed for which an exact solution to the initial-boundary value problem for Maxwell's equations in the beam pipe is derived. In the ultra-relativistic limit all longitudinal components of the fields tend to zero and the spectral content of the transverse fields and average total electromagnetic energy crossing any section of the beam pipe are directly related to the properties of the ultra-relativistic source. It is shown that for axially symmetric ultra-relativistic bunches interference effects occur that show a striking resemblance to those that occur due to CSR in cyclic machines despite the fact that in this limit the source is no longer accelerating. The results offer an analytic description showing how such enhanced ...
Wang, Xin; Wen, Zhen; Guo, Hengyu; Wu, Changsheng; He, Xu; Lin, Long; Cao, Xia; Wang, Zhong Lin
2016-12-27
Ocean energy, in theory, is an enormous clean and renewable energy resource that can generate electric power much more than that required to power the entire globe without adding any pollution to the atmosphere. However, owing to a lack of effective technology, such blue energy is almost unexplored to meet the energy requirement of human society. In this work, a fully packaged hybrid nanogenerator consisting of a rolling triboelectric nanogenerator (R-TENG) and an electromagnetic generator (EMG) is developed to harvest water motion energy. The outstanding output performance of the R-TENG (45 cm(3) in volume and 28.3 g in weight) in the low-frequency range (energy conversion efficiency and broaden the operating frequency simultaneously. In terms of charging capacitors, this hybrid nanogenerator provides not only high voltage and consistent charging from the TENG component but also fast charging speed from the EMG component. The practical application of the hybrid nanogenerator is also demonstrated to power light-emitting diodes by harvesting energy from stimulated tidal flow. The high robustness of the R-TENG is also validated based on the stable electrical output after continuous rolling motion. Therefore, the hybrid R-TENG and EMG device renders an effective and sustainable approach toward large-scale blue energy harvesting in a broad frequency range.
Fully enclosed hybrid electromagnetic-triboelectric nanogenerator to scavenge vibrational energy
Ting Quan; Ya Yang
2016-01-01
We propose a fully enclosed hybrid nanogenerator consisting of five electromagnetic generators (EMGs) and four triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs).Under a vibration frequency of 15.5 Hz,one TENG can deliver a high output voltage of approximately 24 V and a low output current of approximately 24 μA,whereas one EMG can deliver a low output voltage of approximately 0.8 V and a high output current of approximately 0.5 mA.By integrating five rectified EMGs in series and four rectified TENGs in parallel,the hybrid nanogenerator can be used to charge a home-made Li-ion battery from 1 to 1.9 V in 6.3 h.By using the hybrid nanogenerator to scavenge the vibrational energy produced by human hands,a temperature-humidity sensor can be sustainably powered by the nanogenerator,which is capable of charging the 200 μF system power capacitor from 0 to 2 V in 15 s,and sustainably power the sensor in 29 s.
Chandra, S.K.
1976-01-01
The perturbation method of Lindstedt is applied to study the relativistic nonlinear effects for an elliptically polarized transverse monochromatic wave in a cold dissipative plasma in the absence of a static magnetic field. Amplitude-dependent wavelength and frequency shifts including relativistic correlations are derived.
Arcisauskaité, Vaida; Knecht, Stefan; Sauer, Stephan P. A.
2012-01-01
We investigate the magnitude and interplay of relativistic and electron correlation effects on the electric field gradient (EFG) at the position of Hg in linear and bent HgL2 (L=CH3, Cl, Br, I) and trigonal planar [HgCl3]- complexes using four-component relativistic Dirac-Coulomb (DC) and non...
Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Amano, Takanobu; Garain, Sudip; Kim, Jinho
2016-08-01
In various astrophysics settings it is common to have a two-fluid relativistic plasma that interacts with the electromagnetic field. While it is common to ignore the displacement current in the ideal, classical magnetohydrodynamic limit, when the flows become relativistic this approximation is less than absolutely well-justified. In such a situation, it is more natural to consider a positively charged fluid made up of positrons or protons interacting with a negatively charged fluid made up of electrons. The two fluids interact collectively with the full set of Maxwell's equations. As a result, a solution strategy for that coupled system of equations is sought and found here. Our strategy extends to higher orders, providing increasing accuracy. The primary variables in the Maxwell solver are taken to be the facially-collocated components of the electric and magnetic fields. Consistent with such a collocation, three important innovations are reported here. The first two pertain to the Maxwell solver. In our first innovation, the magnetic field within each zone is reconstructed in a divergence-free fashion while the electric field within each zone is reconstructed in a form that is consistent with Gauss' law. In our second innovation, a multidimensionally upwinded strategy is presented which ensures that the magnetic field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of Faraday's law and the electric field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of the generalized Ampere's law. This multidimensional upwinding is achieved via a multidimensional Riemann solver. The multidimensional Riemann solver automatically provides edge-centered electric field components for the Stokes law-based update of the magnetic field. It also provides edge-centered magnetic field components for the Stokes law-based update of the electric field. The update strategy ensures that the electric field is always consistent with Gauss' law and the magnetic field is always divergence-free. This
Balsara, Dinshaw S., E-mail: dbalsara@nd.edu [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame (United States); Amano, Takanobu, E-mail: amano@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Garain, Sudip, E-mail: sgarain@nd.edu [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame (United States); Kim, Jinho, E-mail: jkim46@nd.edu [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame (United States)
2016-08-01
In various astrophysics settings it is common to have a two-fluid relativistic plasma that interacts with the electromagnetic field. While it is common to ignore the displacement current in the ideal, classical magnetohydrodynamic limit, when the flows become relativistic this approximation is less than absolutely well-justified. In such a situation, it is more natural to consider a positively charged fluid made up of positrons or protons interacting with a negatively charged fluid made up of electrons. The two fluids interact collectively with the full set of Maxwell's equations. As a result, a solution strategy for that coupled system of equations is sought and found here. Our strategy extends to higher orders, providing increasing accuracy. The primary variables in the Maxwell solver are taken to be the facially-collocated components of the electric and magnetic fields. Consistent with such a collocation, three important innovations are reported here. The first two pertain to the Maxwell solver. In our first innovation, the magnetic field within each zone is reconstructed in a divergence-free fashion while the electric field within each zone is reconstructed in a form that is consistent with Gauss' law. In our second innovation, a multidimensionally upwinded strategy is presented which ensures that the magnetic field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of Faraday's law and the electric field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of the generalized Ampere's law. This multidimensional upwinding is achieved via a multidimensional Riemann solver. The multidimensional Riemann solver automatically provides edge-centered electric field components for the Stokes law-based update of the magnetic field. It also provides edge-centered magnetic field components for the Stokes law-based update of the electric field. The update strategy ensures that the electric field is always consistent with Gauss' law and the magnetic field is
Eliasson, B.; Papadopoulos, K.
2017-10-01
A theoretical study of the propagation of left-hand polarized shear Alfvén waves in spatially decreasing magnetic field geometries near the EMIC resonance, including the spectrum and amplitude of the mode converted EMIC waves and the pitch angle scattering of relativistic electrons transiting the resonant region, is presented. The objective of the paper is to motivate an experimental study of the subject using the UCLA LAPD chamber. The results are relevant in exploring the possibility that shear Alfvén waves strategically injected into the radiation belts using either ionospheric heating from ground based RF transmitters or injected by transmitters based on space platforms can enhance the precipitation rate of trapped relativistic electrons. Effects of multi-ionic composition are also investigated.
Numerical study of ultra-relativistic electromagnetic filamentation in boosted frames
Martins, S. F.; Fonseca, R. A.; Mori, W. B.; Silva, L. O.
2007-11-01
We address the simulation of relativistic shocks in astrophysics, namely the numerical implications of ultra-relativistic particles and the large time/space scales associated with these systems. It was recently shown [1] that performing simulations in optimized Lorentz frames can decrease simulation run times by orders of magnitude, completely changing computational resources required. The Lorentz transformation for a boosted frame was implemented in osiris 2.0 [2] and encompassed several difficulties that will be discussed. For instance, transformation of quantities back to the laboratory frame may require massive data handling and complex diagnostic/visualization, and can cancel the potential gains from the time scale reduction due to the boost. The possibility of using a boosted frame to suppress numerical noise (e.g. due to numerical Cerenkov radiation) will also be explored. [1] J.-L. Vay, PRL 98, 130405 (2007) [2] R. A. Fonseca et al, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2329, III-342 (Springer-Verlag, 2002)
Cooray, G. V.; Cooray, G. K.
2011-12-01
Gurevich et al. [1] postulated that the source of narrow bipolar pulses, a class of high energy pulses that occur during thunderstorms, could be a runaway electron avalanche driven by the intense electric fields of a thunderstorm. Recently, Watson and Marshall [2] used the modified transmission line model to test the mechanism of the source of narrow bipolar pulses. In a recent paper, Cooray and Cooray [3] demonstrated that the electromagnetic fields of accelerating charges could be used to evaluate the electromagnetic fields from electrical discharges if the temporal and spatial variation of the charges in the discharge is known. In the present study, those equations were utilized to evaluate the electromagnetic fields generated by a relativistic electron avalanche. In the analysis it is assumed that all the electrons in the avalanche are moving with the same speed. In other words, the growth or the decay of the number of electrons takes place only at the head of the avalanche. It is shown that the radiation is emanating only from the head of the avalanche where electrons are being accelerated. It is also shown that an analytical expression for the radiation field of the avalanche at any distance can be written directly in terms of the e-folding length of the avalanche. This makes it possible to extract directly the spatial variation of the e-folding length of the avalanche from the measured radiation fields. In the study this model avalanche was used to investigate whether it can be used to describe the measured electromagnetic fields of narrow bipolar pulses. The results obtained are in reasonable agreement with the two station data of Eack [4] for speeds of propagation around (2 - 2.5) x 10^8 m/s and when the propagation effects on the electric fields measured at the distant station is taken into account. [1] Gurevich et al. (2004), Phys. Lett. A., 329, pp. 348 -361. [2] Watson, S. S. and T. C. Marshall (2007), Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 34, L04816, doi: 10
Nucleon electromagnetic form factors in a relativistic quark model with chiral symmetry
Barik, N.; Das, M.
1987-05-01
The nucleon electromagnetic form factors are computed in an independent quark model based on the Dirac equation. Corrections for centre-of-mass motion and pion-cloud effects are incorporated. Results for static quantities are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data.
The Relativistic Transformation for an Electromagnetic Plane Wave with General Time Dependence
Smith, Glenn S.
2012-01-01
In special relativity, the transformation between inertial frames for an electromagnetic plane wave is usually derived for the time-harmonic case (the field is a sinusoid of infinite duration), even though all practical waves are of finite duration and may not even contain a dominant sinusoid. This paper presents an alternative derivation in which…
Particle Production in Strong Electromagnetic Fields in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions
Kirill Tuchin
2013-01-01
Full Text Available I review the origin and properties of electromagnetic fields produced in heavy-ion collisions. The field strength immediately after a collision is proportional to the collision energy and reaches ~mπ2 at RHIC and ~10mπ2 at LHC. I demonstrate by explicit analytical calculation that after dropping by about one-two orders of magnitude during the first fm/c of plasma expansion, it freezes out and lasts for as long as quark-gluon plasma lives as a consequence of finite electrical conductivity of the plasma. Magnetic field breaks spherical symmetry in the direction perpendicular to the reaction plane, and therefore all kinetic coefficients are anisotropic. I examine viscosity of QGP and show that magnetic field induces azimuthal anisotropy on plasma flow even in spherically symmetric geometry. Very strong electromagnetic field has an important impact on particle production. I discuss the problem of energy loss and polarization of fast fermions due to synchrotron radiation, consider photon decay induced by magnetic field, elucidate J/ψ dissociation via Lorentz ionization mechanism, and examine electromagnetic radiation by plasma. I conclude that all processes in QGP are affected by strong electromagnetic field and call for experimental investigation.
V. Pohjola
2010-03-01
Full Text Available We have developed a fully kinetic electromagnetic model to study instabilities and waves in planetary plasma environments. In the particle-in-a-cell (PIC model both ions and electrons are modeled as particles. An important feature of the developed global kinetic model, called HYB-em, compared to other electromagnetic codes is that it is built up on an earlier quasi-neutral hybrid simulation platform called HYB and that it can be used in conjunction with earlier hybrid models. The HYB models have been used during the past ten years to study globally the flowing plasma interaction with various Solar System objects: Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Saturnian moon Titan and asteroids. The new stand-alone fully kinetic model enables us to (1 study the stability of various planetary plasma regions in three-dimensional space, (2 analyze the propagation of waves in a plasma environment derived from the other global HYB models. All particle processes in a multi-ion plasma which are implemented on the HYB platform (e.g. ion-neutral-collisions, chemical processes, particle loss and production processes are also automatically included in HYB-em model.
In this brief report we study the developed approach by analyzing the propagation of high frequency electromagnetic waves in non-magnetized plasma in two cases: We study (1 expansion of a spherical wave generated from a point source and (2 propagation of a plane wave in plasma. The analysis shows that the HYB-em model is capable of describing these space plasma situations successfully. The analysis also suggests the potential of the developed model to study both high density-high magnetic field plasma environments, such as Mercury, and low density-low magnetic field plasma environments, such as Venus and Mars.
Some electromagnetic properties of the nucleon from Relativistic Chiral Effective Field Theory
Pascalutsa, V
2005-01-01
Considering the magnetic moment and polarizabilities of the nucleon we emphasize the need for relativistic chiral EFT calculations. Our relativistic calculations are done via the forward-Compton-scattering sum rules, thus ensuring the correct analytic properties. The results obtained in this way are equivalent to the usual loop calculations, provided no heavy-baryon expansion or any other manipulations which lead to a different analytic structure (e.g., infrared regularization) are made. The Baldin sum rule can directly be applied to calculate the sum of nucleon polarizabilities. In contrast, the GDH sum rule is practically unsuitable for calculating the magnetic moments. The breakthrough is achieved by taking the derivatives of the sum rule with respect to the anomalous magnetic moment. As an example, we apply the derivative of the GDH sum rule to the calculation of the magnetic moment in QED and reproduce the famous Schwinger's correction from a tree-level cross-section calcualation. As far as the nucleon p...
Gabriel, G. J.
1980-01-01
A new theorem on a class of four-dimensional skew-symmetric tensors is demonstrated. Coupled with the relativistic covariant form of Maxwell's equations, this theorem consolidates the classifications of guided waves by combining the three types - TE, TM, TEM - under a uniform condition applied to the generating four-potential which is Lorentz invariant. Each type corresponds to a potential of which a pair of the four components vanishes in a particular frame. Through appropriate normalization conditions, the resulting time-domain equations for the field amplitudes are readily reduced to modified telegraphist equations, which in turn lead to distributed network representations for each of the three types. The ambiguity of distributed network formalisms in general is elucidated and the concept of network parameter densities such as traditionally employed in TEM transmission line theory is questioned.
Roy, Sourav; Majumder, Sonjoy
2014-01-01
Hyperfine constants and anomalies of ground as well as few low lying excited states of $^{113,115,117}$In III are studied with highly correlated relativistic coupled-cluster theory. The ground state hyperfine splitting of $^{115}$In III is estimated to be 106.8 GHz. A shift of almost 1.9 GHz of the above frequency has been calculated due to modified nuclear dipole moment. This splitting result shows its applicability as communication band and frequency standards at $10^{-11}$ sec. Correlations study of hyperfine constants indicates a few distinct features of many-body effects in the wave-functions in and near the nuclear region of this ion. Astrophysically important forbidden transition amplitudes are estimated for the first time in the literature to our knowledge. The calculated oscillator strengths of few allowed transitions are compared with recent experimental and theoretical results wherever available.
Mode conversion of large-amplitude electromagnetic waves in relativistic critical density plasmas
Pesch, T.C.; Kull, H.J. [Aachen Univ., Institute of Theoretical Physics A, RWTH (Germany)
2009-01-15
The propagation of linearly polarized large-amplitude electromagnetic waves in critical density plasmas is studied in the framework of the Akiezer-Polovin model. A new mechanism of mode conversion is presented. The well-known periodic solutions are generalized to quasiperiodic solutions taking into account additional electrostatic oscillations. Nearly periodic circle-like solutions are found to be stabilized by intrinsic mode coupling whereas for nearly periodic eight-like solutions an effective mode conversion mechanism is discovered. Finally, the modulation timescales are considered. (authors)
Zhang, Site; Asoubar, Daniel; Hellmann, Christian; Wyrowski, Frank
2016-01-20
The propagation of electromagnetic fields between non-parallel planes based on a spectrum-of-plane-wave analysis is discussed and formulations for an efficient numerical implementation are presented in detail. It is shown that with the help of interpolation techniques, the numerical implementation can be done with the standard uniform fast Fourier transform (FFT) of easy access. Different interpolation techniques are numerically examined, and it turns out that the use of cubic interpolation, together with the uniform FFT, brings both significantly increased computational efficiency and high simulation accuracy. Apart from the aspect of computational efficiency, all formulations in this work are generalized in a fully vectorial manner in comparison to previous works.
Toroidal Electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell Code with Gyro-kinetic Electron and Fully-kinetic ion
Lin, Jingbo; Zhang, Wenlu; Liu, Pengfei; Li, Ding
2016-10-01
A kinetic simulation model has been developed using gyro-kinetic electron and fully-kinetic ion by removing fast gyro motion of electrons using the Lie-transform perturbation theory. A particle-in-cell kinetic code is developed based on this model in general magnetic flux coordinate systems, which is particularly suitable for simulations of toroidally confined plasma. Single particle motion and field solver are successfully verified respectively. Integrated electrostatic benchmark, for example the lower-hybrid wave (LHW) and ion Bernstein wave (IBW), shows a good agreement with theoretical results. Preliminary electromagnetic benchmark of fast wave at lower hybrid frequency range is also presented. This code can be a first-principal tool to investigate high frequency nonlinear phenomenon, such as parametric decay instability, during lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD) and ion cyclotron radio frequency heating (ICRF) with complex geometry effect included. Supported by National Special Research Program of China For ITER and National Natural Science Foundation of China.
AlMuhammad, Anwar S
2002-01-01
Relying on the magnetic dipole model of the pulsar, we use the extension of the work of Haxton-Ruffini [31] for single charges by DePaolis-Ingrosso-Qadir [32] for an obliquely rotating magnetic dipole, to incorporate the effect of the gravitational mass. So, by using the numerical and analytical solutions of the differential equation for the radiation, we construct the energy spectra for different masses of the dipole-NS. These spectra show that, in relatively low angular momentum l, the effect of the gravitational mass is very significant in suppressing the relativistic enhancement factor, which had been found [27, 28, 32], by two to three orders of magnitude, as the mass changes from 0.5 solar mass to 3 solar masses. It is an indication that most of the angular momentum of the NS is retained as rotational kinetic energy instead of being radiated as an electromagnetic energy. Also, the suppressing in radiation energy is more or less independent of the angular momentum, and the high rotational velocity. We al...
Electromagnetic rho-meson form factors in point-form relativistic quantum mechanics
Biernat, Elmar P
2014-01-01
The relativistic point-form formalism which we proposed for the study of the electroweak structure of few-body bound states is applied to calculate the elastic form factors of spin-1 mesons, such as the rho, within constituent-quark models. We treat electron-meson scattering as a Poincare-invariant coupled-channel problem for a Bakamjian-Thomas mass operator and extract the meson current from the resulting invariant 1-photon-exchange amplitude. Wrong cluster properties inherent in the Bakamjian-Thomas framework are seen to cause spurious contributions in the current. These contributions, however, can be separated unambiguously from the physical ones and we end up with a meson current with all required properties. Numerical results for the rho-meson form factors are presented assuming a simple harmonic-oscillator bound-state wave function. The comparison with other approaches reveals a remarkable agreement of our results with those obtained within the covariant light-front scheme proposed by Carbonell et al.
Scattering of strong electromagnetic wave by relativistic electrons: Thomson and Compton regimes
Potylitsyn, A. P.; Kolchuzhkin, A. M.
2017-04-01
The processes of the nonlinear Compton and the nonlinear Thomson scattering in a field of intense plane electromagnetic wave in terms of photon yield have been considered. The quantum consideration of the Compton scattering process allows us to calculate the probability of a few successive collisions k of an electron with laser photons accompanied by the absorption of n photons (nonlinear regime) when the number of collisions and the number of absorbed photons are of random quantities. The photon spectrum of the nonlinear Thomson scattering process was obtained from the classical formula for intensity using the Planck's law. The conditions for which the difference between the classical and the quantum regimes is manifested was obtained. Such a condition is determined by a discrete quantum radiation mechanism, namely, by the mean number of photons k bar emitted by an electron passing through the laser pulse.
Bates, Jefferson E.; Shiozaki, Toru [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)
2015-01-28
We develop an efficient algorithm for four-component complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) methods on the basis of the Dirac equation that takes into account spin–orbit and other relativistic effects self-consistently. Orbitals are optimized using a trust-region quasi-Newton method with Hessian updates so that energies are minimized with respect to rotations among electronic orbitals and maximized with respect to rotations between electronic and positronic orbitals. Utilizing density fitting and parallel computation, we demonstrate that Dirac–Coulomb CASSCF calculations can be routinely performed on systems with 100 atoms and a few heavy-elements. The convergence behavior and wall times for octachloridodirhenate(III) and a tungsten methylidene complex are presented. In addition, the excitation energies of octachloridodirhenate(III) are reported using a state-averaged variant.
Bates, Jefferson E.; Shiozaki, Toru
2015-01-01
We develop an efficient algorithm for four-component complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) methods on the basis of the Dirac equation that takes into account spin-orbit and other relativistic effects self-consistently. Orbitals are optimized using a trust-region quasi-Newton method with Hessian updates so that energies are minimized with respect to rotations among electronic orbitals and maximized with respect to rotations between electronic and positronic orbitals. Utilizing density fitting and parallel computation, we demonstrate that Dirac-Coulomb CASSCF calculations can be routinely performed on systems with 100 atoms and a few heavy-elements. The convergence behavior and wall times for octachloridodirhenate(III) and a tungsten methylidene complex are presented. In addition, the excitation energies of octachloridodirhenate(III) are reported using a state-averaged variant.
Potekhin, A Yu
2000-01-01
The analytic equation of state of nonideal Coulomb plasmas consisting of pointlike ions immersed in a polarizable electron background (physics/9807042) is improved, and its applicability range is considerably extended. First, the fit of the electron screening contribution in the free energy of the Coulomb liquid is refined at high densities where the electrons are relativistic. Second, we calculate the screening contribution for the Coulomb solid (bcc and fcc) and derive an analytic fitting expression. Third, we propose a simple approximation to the internal and free energy of the liquid one-component plasma of ions, accurate within the numerical errors of the most recent Monte Carlo simulations. We obtain an updated value of the coupling parameter at the solid-liquid phase transition for the one-component plasma: Gamma_m = 175.0 (+/- 0.4).
Ku, Seung-Hoe; Hager, R.; Chang, C. S.; Chacon, L.; Chen, G.; EPSI Team
2016-10-01
The cancelation problem has been a long-standing issue for long wavelengths modes in electromagnetic gyrokinetic PIC simulations in toroidal geometry. As an attempt of resolving this issue, we implemented a fully implicit time integration scheme in the full-f, gyrokinetic PIC code XGC1. The new scheme - based on the implicit Vlasov-Darwin PIC algorithm by G. Chen and L. Chacon - can potentially resolve cancelation problem. The time advance for the field and the particle equations is space-time-centered, with particle sub-cycling. The resulting system of equations is solved by a Picard iteration solver with fixed-point accelerator. The algorithm is implemented in the parallel velocity formalism instead of the canonical parallel momentum formalism. XGC1 specializes in simulating the tokamak edge plasma with magnetic separatrix geometry. A fully implicit scheme could be a way to accurate and efficient gyrokinetic simulations. We will test if this numerical scheme overcomes the cancelation problem, and reproduces the dispersion relation of Alfven waves and tearing modes in cylindrical geometry. Funded by US DOE FES and ASCR, and computing resources provided by OLCF through ALCC.
Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.
2007-01-01
We consider the effect of oblique EMIC waves on relativistic electron scattering in the outer radiation belt using simultaneous observations of plasma and wave parameters from CRRES. The main findings can be s ummarized as follows: 1. In 1comparison with field-aligned waves, int ermediate and highly oblique distributions decrease the range of pitc h-angles subject to diffusion, and reduce the local scattering rate b y an order of magnitude at pitch-angles where the principle absolute value of n = 1 resonances operate. Oblique waves allow the absolute va lue of n > 1 resonances to operate, extending the range of local pitc h-angle diffusion down to the loss cone, and increasing the diffusion at lower pitch angles by orders of magnitude; 2. The local diffusion coefficients derived from CRRES data are qualitatively similar to the local results obtained for prescribed plasma/wave parameters. Conseq uently, it is likely that the bounce-averaged diffusion coefficients, if estimated from concurrent data, will exhibit the dependencies similar to those we found for model calculations; 3. In comparison with f ield-aligned waves, intermediate and highly oblique waves decrease th e bounce-averaged scattering rate near the edge of the equatorial lo ss cone by orders of magnitude if the electron energy does not excee d a threshold (approximately equal to 2 - 5 MeV) depending on specified plasma and/or wave parameters; 4. For greater electron energies_ ob lique waves operating the absolute value of n > 1 resonances are more effective and provide the same bounce_averaged diffusion rate near the loss cone as fiel_aligned waves do.
Attosecond Electro-Magnetic Forces Acting on Metal Nanospheres Induced By Relativistic Electrons
Lagos, M. J.; Batson, P. E.; Reyes-Coronado, A.; Echenique, P. M.; Aizpurua, J.
2014-03-01
Swift electron scattering near nanoscale materials provides information about light-matter behavior, including induced forces. We calculate time-dependent electromagnetic forces acting on 1-1.5 nm metal nanospheres induced by passing swift electrons, finding both impulse-like and oscillatory response forces. Initially, impulse-like forces are generated by a competition between attractive electric forces and repulsive magnetic forces, lasting a few attoseconds (5-10 as). Oscillatory, plasmonic response forces take place later in time, last a few femtoseconds (1- 5 fs), and apparently rely on photon emission by decay of the electron-induced surface plasmons. A comparison of the strength of these two forces suggests that the impulse-like behavior dominates the process, and can transfer significant linear momentum to the sphere. Our results advance understanding of the physics behind the observation of both attractive and repulsive behavior of gold nano-particles induced by electron beams in aberration-corrected electron microscopy. Work supported under DOE, Award # DE-SC0005132, Basque Gov. project ETORTEK inano, Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion, No. FIS2010-19609-C02-01.
Electromagnetic fluctuations in magnetized plasmas. I. The rigorous relativistic kinetic theory
Schlickeiser, R., E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Yoon, P. H., E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-07-15
Using the system of the Klimontovich and Maxwell equations, the general linear fluctuation theory for magnetized plasmas is developed. General expressions for the electromagnetic fluctuation spectra (electric and magnetic fields) from uncorrelated plasma particles in plasmas with a uniform magnetic field are derived, which are covariantly correct within the theory of special relativity. The general fluctuation spectra hold for plasmas of arbitrary composition, arbitrary momentum dependences of the plasma particle distribution functions, and arbitrary orientations of the wave vector with respect to the uniform magnetic field. Moreover, no restrictions on the values of the real and the imaginary parts of the frequency are made. The derived fluctuation spectra apply to both non-collective fluctuations and collective plasma eigenmodes in magnetized plasmas. In the latter case, kinetic equations for the components of fluctuating electric and magnetic fields in magnetized plasmas are derived that include the effect of spontaneous emission and absorption. In the limiting case of an unmagnetized plasmas, the general fluctuation spectra correctly reduce to the unmagnetized fluctuation spectra derived before.
Priti; Dipti; Gangwar, R. K.; Srivastava, R.
2017-01-01
Electron impact excitation cross-sections and rate coefficients have been calculated using fully relativistic distorted wave theory for several fine-structure transitions from the ground as well as excited states of cesium atom in the wide range of incident electron energy. These processes play dominant role in low pressure hydrogen-cesium plasma, which is relevant to the negative ion based neutral beam injectors for the ITER project. As an application, the calculated detailed cross-sections are used to construct a reliable collisional radiative (CR) model to characterize the hydrogen-cesium plasma. Other processes such as radiative population transfer, electron impact ionization and mutual neutralization of Cs+ ion with negative hydrogen ion along with their reverse processes are also taken into account. The calculated cross-sections and the extracted plasma parameters from the present model are compared with the available experimental and theoretical results.
Covariant electromagnetic field lines
Hadad, Y.; Cohen, E.; Kaminer, I.; Elitzur, A. C.
2017-08-01
Faraday introduced electric field lines as a powerful tool for understanding the electric force, and these field lines are still used today in classrooms and textbooks teaching the basics of electromagnetism within the electrostatic limit. However, despite attempts at generalizing this concept beyond the electrostatic limit, such a fully relativistic field line theory still appears to be missing. In this work, we propose such a theory and define covariant electromagnetic field lines that naturally extend electric field lines to relativistic systems and general electromagnetic fields. We derive a closed-form formula for the field lines curvature in the vicinity of a charge, and show that it is related to the world line of the charge. This demonstrates how the kinematics of a charge can be derived from the geometry of the electromagnetic field lines. Such a theory may also provide new tools in modeling and analyzing electromagnetic phenomena, and may entail new insights regarding long-standing problems such as radiation-reaction and self-force. In particular, the electromagnetic field lines curvature has the attractive property of being non-singular everywhere, thus eliminating all self-field singularities without using renormalization techniques.
Without the electromagnetic force, you would not be solid. The atoms of your body are held together by electromagnetism: negatively charged electrons are held around the positively charged nucleus. Atoms share electrons to form molecules, so building up the structure of matter. As its name suggests, electromagnetism has a double nature: a moving electric charge creates a magnetic field. This intimate connection between electricity and magnetism was described by James Maxwell in 1864. The electromagnetic force can be both positive and negative : opposite charges attract, whereas like charges repel. Electromagnetic radiation, such as radio, microwaves, light and X-rays, is emitted by charges when they are made to move. For example, an oscillating current in a wire emits radio waves. Text for the interactive: Why do the needles move when you switch on the current ?
Gangwar, Reetesh K.; Dipti; Srivastava, Rajesh; Stafford, Luc
2016-06-01
A collisional-radiative (C-R) model for krypton plasma using fully relativistic distorted-wave cross sections for electron excitations was developed. The model was applied to the characterization of inductively coupled Kr plasma with cylindrical geometry over the pressure regime 1-50 mTorr. Radially averaged emission intensities from transitions of Kr (4p55p → 4p55s) in the range 500-900 nm were recorded at 17 cm from the planar RF-driven coil, with the plasma operated in the inductive regime (H mode). The measured emission intensities were then fitted by varying the electron density, n e, and electron temperature, T e, in the C-R model. At both low and high pressures, variations of the electron density by over two orders of magnitude had only a minor role on the relative emission intensities. On the other hand, T e values deduced from the comparison between experiment and model decreased from 6.7 to 2.6 eV as pressure increased from 1 to 50 mTorr. These results are found to be in good agreement with the effective electron temperature determined from Langmuir probe measurements and the predictions of a model based on the particle balance equation of charged particles.
Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Z.; Hayashi, Yukio; Kando, Masaki; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Koga, James K.; Kondo, Kiminori; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Bulanov, Stepan S.; Zhidkov, Alexei G.; Chen, Pisin; Neely, David; Kato, Yoshiaki; Narozhny, Nikolay B.; Korn, Georg
2011-06-01
The critical electric field of quantum electrodynamics, called also the Schwinger field, is so strong that it produces electron-positron pairs from vacuum, converting the energy of light into matter. Since the dawn of quantum electrodynamics, there has been a dream on how to reach it on Earth. With the rise of laser technology this field has become feasible through the construction of extremely high power lasers or/and with the sophisticated use of nonlinear processes in relativistic plasmas. This is one of the most attractive motivations for extremely high power laser development, i.e. producing matter from vacuum by pure light in fundamental process of quantum electrodynamics in the nonperturbative regime. Recently it has been realized that a laser with intensity well below the Schwinger limit can create an avalanche of electron-positron pairs similar to a discharge before attaining the Schwinger field. It has also been realized that the Schwinger limit can be reached using an appropriate configuration of laser beams. In experiments on the collision of laser light and high intensity electromagnetic pulses generated by relativistic flying mirrors, with electron bunches produced by a conventional accelerator and with laser wake field accelerated electrons the studying of extreme field limits in the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves is proposed. The regimes of dominant radiation reaction, which completely changes the electromagnetic wave-matter interaction, will be revealed. This will result in a new powerful source of high brightness gamma-rays. A possibility of the demonstration of the electronpositron pair creation in vacuum via multi-photon processes can be realized. This will allow modeling under terrestrial laboratory conditions neutron star magnetospheres, cosmological gamma ray bursts and the Leptonic Era of the Universe.
Bonnaud, G.; Dussy, S.; Lefebvre, E. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee; Bouchut, F. [Orleans Univ., 45 (France). Dept. de Mathematiques, UMR CNRS
1998-12-31
This report presents a numerical model to simulate the electromagnetic processes involved by electrically-charged relativistic fluids. The physical model is first given. Second, the numerical methods are explained with the various packages of the code RHEA, with indication methods are explained with the various packages of the code RHEA, with indication of its performances, within a 1.5.- dimensional framework. Results from test-simulations are shown to validate the use of the code, for both academic situations and realistic context of laser-plasma interaction, for which the code has been designed: the non-linear phenomena in the context of inertial confinement fusion and the ultra-intense laser pulses. (author) 25 refs.
Bonnaud, G.; Dussy, S.; Lefebvre, E. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France). Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee; Bouchut, F. [Orleans Univ., 45 (France). Dept. de Mathematiques, UMR CNRS
1998-12-31
This report presents a numerical model to simulate the electromagnetic processes involved by electrically-charged relativistic fluids. The physical model is first given. Second, the numerical methods are explained with the various packages of the code RHEA, with indication methods are explained with the various packages of the code RHEA, with indication of its performances, within a 1.5.- dimensional framework. Results from test-simulations are shown to validate the use of the code, for both academic situations and realistic context of laser-plasma interaction, for which the code has been designed: the non-linear phenomena in the context of inertial confinement fusion and the ultra-intense laser pulses. (author) 25 refs.
A fully relativistic radial fall
Spallicci, Alessandro D A M
2014-01-01
Radial fall has historically played a momentous role. It is one of the most classical problems, the solutions of which represent the level of understanding of gravitation in a given epoch. A {\\it gedankenexperiment} in a modern frame is given by a small body, like a compact star or a solar mass black hole, captured by a supermassive black hole. The mass of the small body itself and the emission of gravitational radiation cause the departure from the geodesic path due to the back-action, that is the self-force. For radial fall, as any other non-adiabatic motion, the instantaneous identity of the radiated energy and the loss of orbital energy cannot be imposed and provide the perturbed trajectory. In the first part of this letter, we present the effects due to the self-force computed on the geodesic trajectory in the background field. Compared to the latter trajectory, in the Regge-Wheeler, harmonic and all others smoothly related gauges, a far observer concludes that the self-force pushes inward (not outward) ...
董烨; 董志伟; 周海京; 陈虹; 莫则尧; 陈军; 杨温渊; 赵强; 夏芳; 肖丽; 马彦; 廖丽; 孙会芳
2011-01-01
介绍了自主编制的3维全电磁粒子模拟大规模并行程序NEPTUNE的基本情况.该程序具备对多种典型高功率微波源器件的3维模拟能力,可以在数百乃至上千个CPU上稳定运行.该程序使用时域有限差分(FDTD)方法更新计算电磁场,采用Buneman-Boris算法更新粒子运动状态,运用质点网格法(PIC)处理粒子与电磁场的耦合关系,最后利用Boris方法求解泊松方程对电场散度进行修正,以确保计算精度.该程序初步具备复杂几何结构建模能力,可以对典型高功率微波器件中常见的一些复杂结构,如任意边界形状的轴对称几何体、正交投影面几何体,慢波结构、耦合孔洞、金属线和曲面薄膜等进行几何建模.该程序将理想导体边界、外加波边界、粒子发射与吸收边界及完全匹配层边界等物理边界应用于几何边界上,实现了数值计算的封闭求解.最后以算例的形式,介绍了使用NEPTUNE程序对磁绝缘线振荡器、相对论返波管、虚阴极振荡器及相对论速调管等典型高功率微波源器件进行的模拟计算情况,验证了模拟计算结果的可靠性,同时给出了并行效率的分布情况.%A massively parallel code named NEPTUNE for 3D fully electromagnetic and particle-in-cell(PIC) simulations is introduced , which can run on the Linux system with hundreds or even thousands of CPUs. NEPTUNE is capable of three-dimensional simulation of various typical high power microwave( HPM) devices. In NEPTUNE code, electromagnetic fields are updated by using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to solve Maxwell equations and particles are moved by using Buneman-Boris method to solve the relativistic Newton-Lorentz equation. The electromagnetic fields and particles are coupled by using linear weighing interpolation PIC method, and the electric field components are corrected by using Boris method to solve the Poisson e-quation in order to ensure charge
Gusakov, Mikhail
2016-01-01
The relativistic dynamic equations are derived for a superfluid-superconducting mixture coupled to the electromagnetic field. For definiteness and bearing in mind possible applications of our results to neutron stars, it is assumed that the mixture is composed of superfluid neutrons, superconducting protons, and normal electrons. Proton superconductivity of both I and II types is analysed, and possible presence of neutron and proton vortices (or magnetic domains in the case of type-I proton superconductivity) is allowed for. The derived equations neglect all dissipative effects except for the mutual friction dissipation and are valid for arbitrary temperatures (i.e. they do not imply that all nucleons are paired), which is especially important for magnetar conditions. It is demonstrated that these general equations can be substantially simplified for typical neutron stars, for which a kind of magnetohydrodynamic approximation is justified. Our results are compared to the nonrelativistic formulations existing ...
Gusakov, M. E.; Dommes, V. A.
2016-10-01
The relativistic dynamic equations are derived for a superfluid-superconducting mixture coupled to an electromagnetic field. For definiteness, and bearing in mind possible applications of our results to neutron stars, it is assumed that the mixture is composed of superfluid neutrons, superconducting protons, and normal electrons. We analyze the proton superconductivity of both types I and II and allow for the possible presence of neutron and proton vortices (or magnetic domains in the case of type-I proton superconductivity). The derived equations neglect all dissipative effects except for the mutual friction dissipation and are valid for arbitrary temperatures (i.e., they do not imply that all nucleons are paired), which is especially important for magnetar conditions. It is demonstrated that these general equations can be substantially simplified for typical neutron stars, for which a kind of magnetohydrodynamic approximation is justified. Our results are compared to the nonrelativistic formulations existing in the literature, and a number of discrepancies are found. In particular, it is shown that, generally, the electric displacement D does not coincide with the electric field E , contrary to what is stated in previous works. The relativistic framework developed here is easily extendable to account for more sophisticated microphysics models, and it provides the necessary basis for realistic modeling of neutron stars.
Keenan, Brett; Ford, Alex; Medvedev, Mikhail
2014-10-01
Plasma turbulence in some astrophysical objects (e.g., weakly magnetized collisionless shocks in GRBs and SN) has small-scale electro-magnetic field fluctuations. We study spectral characteristics of radiation produced by particles moving in such turbulence and relate it to transport properties (diffusion) of these particles. It was shown earlier that relativistic particles produce jitter radiation, which spectral characteristics are markedly different from synchrotron radiation. Here we study radiation produced by non-relativistic particles. Unlike radiation in homogeneous field, which spectrum consists of a single cyclotron harmonic, radiation in the sub-Larmor-scale turbulence reflects statistical properties of the underlying magnetic field. We present both analytical estimates and results of ab initio numerical simulations. We also show that particle propagation in such turbulence is diffusive and evaluate the diffusion coefficient. We demonstrate that the diffusion coefficient correlates with some spectral parameters. These results can be very valuable for remote diagnostics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Supported by grant DOE grant DE-FG02-07ER54940 and NSF grant AST-1209665.
Haba, Z
2009-02-01
We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.
Grigoriyn, G V
1995-01-01
The pseudoclassical hamiltonian and action of the $D=2n$ dimensional Dirac particle with anomalous magnetic moment interacting with the external electromagnetic field is found. The Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation of motion for the Pauli-Lubanski vector is deduced. The canonical quantization of $D=2n$ dimensional Dirac spinning particle with anomalous magnetic moment in the external electromagnetic field is carried out in the gauge which allows to describe simultaneously particles and antiparticles (massive and massless) already at the classical level. Pseudoclassical Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation is used to obtain canonical (Newton-Wigner) coordinates and in terms of this variables the theory is quantized. The connection of this quantization with the deGroot and Suttorp's description of Dirac particle with anomalous magnetic moment in the external electromagnetic field is discussed.
Grant, Ian S
1990-01-01
The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient
Dubenskiy, V P; CERN. Geneva; Tsimbal, F A
1995-01-01
Here we present the results of our estimates of upper limits for heating induced by the relativistic beams of charged particles at the future LHC in the MCP detector placed inside the beam pipe. The energy losses are small for the uppermost intensities of the beams to be expected: less than 0.0033 Wt for the conductive cromium MCP cladding and not greater than 0.02 Wt for the dialectric MCP body (for the whole MCP disk of 100 sq.cm area). The special measurements of the dispersion law e(w) of the MCP dialectric material have been performed in order to get the reference data to the analytical calculations. The approaches outlined here could be applied to any detector positioned in the vicinity of the beams. The possible problems of the beam induced electrical signal in the detector circuits are touched also.
Bandiera, Laura; Bagli, Enrico; Guidi, Vincenzo [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Tikhomirov, Victor V. [Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Belarusian State University, Minsk (Belarus)
2015-07-15
The analytical theories of coherent bremsstrahlung and channeling radiation well describe the process of radiation generation in crystals under some special cases. However, the treatment of complex situations requires the usage of a more general approach. In this report we present a C++ routine, named RADCHARM++, to compute the electromagnetic radiation emitted by electrons and positrons in crystals and complex structures. In the RADCHARM++ routine, the model for the computation of e.m. radiation generation is based on the direct integration of the quasiclassical formula of Baier and Katkov. This approach allows one taking into account real trajectories, and thereby the contribution of incoherent scattering. Such contribution can be very important in many cases, for instance for electron channeling. The generality of the Baier–Katkov operator method permits one to simulate the electromagnetic radiation emitted by electrons/positrons in very different cases, e.g., in straight, bent and periodically bent crystals, and for different beam energy ranges, from sub-GeV to TeV and above. The RADCHARM++ routine has been implemented in the Monte Carlo code DYNECHARM++, which solves the classical equation of motion of charged particles traveling through a crystal under the continuum potential approximation. The code has proved to reproduce the results of experiments performed at the MAinzer MIkrotron (MAMI) with 855 MeV electrons and has been used to predict the radiation spectrum generated by the same electron beam in a bent crystal.
NEPTUNE:并行三维全电磁粒子模拟软件%NEPTUNE:A 3-D Fully Electromagnetic Particle Parallel Software
陈军; 董烨; 杨温渊; 董志伟
2009-01-01
为求解具有复杂几何的高功率微波电磁场问题,本文研制了一个三维全电磁粒子并行软件NEPTUNE.本文介绍了该并行软件的基本结构和采用的一些并行算法.目前,该软件已经成功模拟了多种高功率源器件,并可扩展到数千台处理器核上运行.%We developed a three-dimensional fully electromagnetic particle parallel software based on the parallel adaptive structure mesh application infrastructure, ,to solve the electromagnetic problem in the high power microwave devices with complex geometry. This paper presents the basic numerical method and parallel algorithm used in the parallel program. A typical device with complex geometry is simulated by the parallel program on thousands of processors, and the results show the good scalability. Currently it has been simulated many high power microwave devices successfully.
Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics
Hernandez, Juan; Kovtun, Pavel
2017-05-01
We present the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics coupled to dynamical electromagnetic fields, including the effects of polarization, electric fields, and the derivative expansion. We enumerate the transport coefficients at leading order in derivatives, including electrical conductivities, viscosities, and thermodynamic coefficients. We find the constraints on transport coefficients due to the positivity of entropy production, and derive the corresponding Kubo formulas. For the neutral state in a magnetic field, small fluctuations include Alfvén waves, magnetosonic waves, and the dissipative modes. For the state with a non-zero dynamical charge density in a magnetic field, plasma oscillations gap out all propagating modes, except for Alfvén-like waves with a quadratic dispersion relation. We relate the transport coefficients in the "conventional" magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using Maxwell's equations in matter) to those in the "dual" version of magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using the conserved magnetic flux).
3维全电磁粒子软件NEPTUNE中的并行计算方法%Parallelization methods in 3D fully electromagnetic code NEPTUNE
陈军; 莫则尧; 董烨; 杨温渊; 董志伟
2011-01-01
NEPTUNE is a three-dimensional fully parallel electromagnetic code to solve electromagnetic problem in high power microwaveC HPM) devices with complex geometry. This paper introduces the following three parallelization methods used in the code. For massively computation, the "block-patch" two level parallel domain decomposition strategy is provided to scale the computation size to thousands of processor cores. Based on the geometry information, the mesh is reconfigured using the adaptive technology to get rid of invalid grid cells, and thus the storage amount and parallel execution time decrease sharply. On the basis of traditional Boris' successive over relaxation (SOR) iteration method, a parallel Poisson solver on irregular domains is provided with red and black ordering technology and geometry constraints. With the above methods, NEPTUNE can get 51. 8% parallel efficiency on 1 024 cores when simulating MILO devices.%介绍了NEPTUNE软件采用的一些并行计算方法:采用“块-网格片”二层并行区域分解方法,使计算规模能够扩展到上千个处理器核.基于复杂几何特征采用自适应技术并行生成结构网格,在原有规则区域的基础上剔除无效网格,大幅降低了存储量和并行执行时间.在经典的Boris和SOR迭代方法基础上,采用红黑排序和几何约束,提出了非规则区域上的Poisson方程并行求解方法.采用这些方法后,当使用NEP-TUNE软件模拟MILO器件时,可在1024个处理器核上获得51.8％的并行效率.
Relativistic radiative transfer in relativistic spherical flows
Fukue, Jun
2017-02-01
Relativistic radiative transfer in relativistic spherical flows is numerically examined under the fully special relativistic treatment. We first derive relativistic formal solutions for the relativistic radiative transfer equation in relativistic spherical flows. We then iteratively solve the relativistic radiative transfer equation, using an impact parameter method/tangent ray method, and obtain specific intensities in the inertial and comoving frames, as well as moment quantities, and the Eddington factor. We consider several cases; a scattering wind with a luminous central core, an isothermal wind without a core, a scattering accretion on to a luminous core, and an adiabatic accretion on to a dark core. In the typical wind case with a luminous core, the emergent intensity is enhanced at the center due to the Doppler boost, while it reduces at the outskirts due to the transverse Doppler effect. In contrast to the plane-parallel case, the behavior of the Eddington factor is rather complicated in each case, since the Eddington factor depends on the optical depth, the flow velocity, and other parameters.
Bruce, Adam L
2015-01-01
We show the traditional rocket problem, where the ejecta velocity is assumed constant, can be reduced to an integral quadrature of which the completely non-relativistic equation of Tsiolkovsky, as well as the fully relativistic equation derived by Ackeret, are limiting cases. By expanding this quadrature in series, it is shown explicitly how relativistic corrections to the mass ratio equation as the rocket transitions from the Newtonian to the relativistic regime can be represented as products of exponential functions of the rocket velocity, ejecta velocity, and the speed of light. We find that even low order correction products approximate the traditional relativistic equation to a high accuracy in flight regimes up to $0.5c$ while retaining a clear distinction between the non-relativistic base-case and relativistic corrections. We furthermore use the results developed to consider the case where the rocket is not moving relativistically but the ejecta stream is, and where the ejecta stream is massless.
Martin, J M L
2001-01-01
A benchmark study has been carried out on the ground-state potential curve of the hydroxyl anion, OH^{-}, including detailed calibration of both the 1-particle and n-particle basis sets. The CCSD(T) basis set limit overestimates $\\omega_e$ by about 10 cm^{-1}, which is only remedied by inclusion of connected quadruple excitations in the coupled cluster expansion --- or, equivalently, the inclusion of the $2\\pi$ orbitals in the active space of a multireference calculation. Upon inclusion of scalar relativistic effects (-3 cm^{-1} on $\\omega_e$), a potential curve of spectroscopic quality (sub-cm^{-1} accuracy) is obtained. Our best computed EA(OH), 1.828 eV, agrees to three decimal places with the best available experimental value. Our best computed dissociation energies, D_0(OH^-)=4.7796 eV and D_0(OH)=4.4124 eV, suggest that the experimental D_0(OH)=4.392 eV may possibly be about 0.02 eV too low.
Relativistic quantum revivals.
Strange, P
2010-03-26
Quantum revivals are now a well-known phenomena within nonrelativistic quantum theory. In this Letter we display the effects of relativity on revivals and quantum carpets. It is generally believed that revivals do not occur within a relativistic regime. Here we show that while this is generally true, it is possible, in principle, to set up wave packets with specific mathematical properties that do exhibit exact revivals within a fully relativistic theory.
Brik, M. G.; Ogasawara, K.
2007-11-01
Systematic analysis of the energy level scheme and ground state absorption of the Cr4+ ion in Li2CaSiO4 crystal was performed using the exchange charge model of the crystal field [B.Z. Malkin, in: A.A. Kaplyanskii, B.M. Macfarlane (Eds.), Spectroscopy of Solids Containing Rare-earth Ions, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987, pp. 33-50] and recently developed first-principles approach to the analysis of the absorption spectra of impurity ions in crystals based on the discrete variational multielectron (DVME) method [K. Ogasawara, T. Iwata, Y. Koyama, T. Ishii, I. Tanaka, H. Adachi, Phys. Rev. B 64 (2001) 115413]. Using the former method, the values of parameters of crystal field acting on the Cr4+ ion valence electrons were calculated using the Li2CaSiO4 crystal structure data. Energy levels of the Cr4+ ion obtained after diagonalizing the crystal field Hamiltonian are in good agreement with those obtained from the experimental spectra. The latter method is based on the numerical solution of the Dirac equation; therefore, all relativistic effects are automatically considered. As a result, energy level scheme of Cr4+ and its absorption spectra in both polarizations were calculated, assigned and compared with experimental data; energy of the lowest charge transfer transition was evaluated and compared with theoretical predictions for the CrO44- complex available in the literature. The main features of the experimental spectra shape are reproduced well by the calculations. By performing analysis of the molecular orbitals (MO) population, it was shown that the covalent effects play an important role in formation of the spectral properties of Cr4+ ion in the considered crystal.
Relativistic Cyclotron Instability in Anisotropic Plasmas
López, Rodrigo A.; Moya, Pablo S.; Navarro, Roberto E.; Araneda, Jaime A.; Muñoz, Víctor; Viñas, Adolfo F.; Alejandro Valdivia, J.
2016-11-01
A sufficiently large temperature anisotropy can sometimes drive various types of electromagnetic plasma micro-instabilities, which can play an important role in the dynamics of relativistic pair plasmas in space, astrophysics, and laboratory environments. Here, we provide a detailed description of the cyclotron instability of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves in relativistic pair plasmas on the basis of a relativistic anisotropic distribution function. Using plasma kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we study the influence of the relativistic temperature and the temperature anisotropy on the collective and noncollective modes of these plasmas. Growth rates and dispersion curves from the linear theory show a good agreement with simulations results.
Relativistic GLONASS and geodesy
Mazurova, E. M.; Kopeikin, S. M.; Karpik, A. P.
2016-12-01
GNSS technology is playing a major role in applications to civil, industrial and scientific areas. Nowadays, there are two fully functional GNSS: American GPS and Russian GLONASS. Their data processing algorithms have been historically based on the Newtonian theory of space and time with only a few relativistic effects taken into account as small corrections preventing the system from degradation on a fairly long time. Continuously growing accuracy of geodetic measurements and atomic clocks suggests reconsidering the overall approach to the GNSS theoretical model based on the Einstein theory of general relativity. This is essentially more challenging but fundamentally consistent theoretical approach to relativistic space geodesy. In this paper, we overview the basic principles of the relativistic GNSS model and explain the advantages of such a system for GLONASS and other positioning systems. Keywords: relativistic GLONASS, Einstein theory of general relativity.
Relativistic theories of materials
Bressan, Aldo
1978-01-01
The theory of relativity was created in 1905 to solve a problem concerning electromagnetic fields. That solution was reached by means of profound changes in fundamental concepts and ideas that considerably affected the whole of physics. Moreover, when Einstein took gravitation into account, he was forced to develop radical changes also in our space-time concepts (1916). Relativistic works on heat, thermodynamics, and elasticity appeared as early as 1911. However, general theories having a thermodynamic basis, including heat conduction and constitutive equations, did not appear in general relativity until about 1955 for fluids and appeared only after 1960 for elastic or more general finitely deformed materials. These theories dealt with materials with memory, and in this connection some relativistic versions of the principle of material indifference were considered. Even more recently, relativistic theories incorporating finite deformations for polarizable and magnetizable materials and those in which couple s...
Relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in deformed nuclei
Pena Arteaga, D.
2007-06-25
Covariant density functional theory is used to study the influence of electromagnetic radiation on deformed superfluid nuclei. The relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov equations and the resulting diagonalization problem of the quasiparticle random phase approximation are solved for axially symmetric systems in a fully self-consistent way by a newly developed parallel code. Three different kinds of high precision energy functionals are investigated and special care is taken for the decoupling of the Goldstone modes. This allows the microscopic investigation of Pygmy and scissor resonances in electric and magnetic dipole fields. Excellent agreement with recent experiments is found and new types of modes are predicted for deformed systems with large neutron excess. (orig.)
Electromagnetic Structure of Few-Nucleon Ground States
Marcucci, L E; Pena, M T; Piarulli, M; Schiavilla, R; Sick, I; Stadler, A; Van Orden, J W; Viviani, M
2015-01-01
Experimental form factors of the hydrogen and helium isotopes, extracted from an up-to-date global analysis of cross sections and polarization observables measured in elastic electron scattering from these systems, are compared to predictions obtained in three different theoretical approaches: the first is based on realistic interactions and currents, including relativistic corrections (labeled as the conventional approach); the second relies on a chiral effective field theory description of the strong and electromagnetic interactions in nuclei (labeled $\\chi$EFT); the third utilizes a fully relativistic treatment of nuclear dynamics as implemented in the covariant spectator theory (labeled CST). For momentum transfers below $Q \\lesssim 5$ fm$^{-1}$ there is satisfactory agreement between experimental data and theoretical results in all three approaches. However, at $Q \\gtrsim 5$ fm$^{-1}$, particularly in the case of the deuteron, a relativistic treatment of the dynamics, as is done in the CST, is necessary....
Relativistic quasi-solitons and embedded solitons with circular polarization in cold plasmas
Sánchez-Arriaga, G
2016-01-01
The existence of localized electromagnetic structures is discussed in the framework of the 1-dimensional relativistic Maxwell-fluid model for a cold plasma with immobile ions. New partially localized solutions are found with a finite-difference algorithm designed to locate numerically exact solutions of the Maxwell-fluid system. These solutions are called quasi-solitons and consist of a localized electromagnetic wave trapped in a spatially extended electron plasma wave. They are organized in families characterized by the number of nodes $p$ of the vector potential and exist in a continuous range of parameters in the $\\omega-V$ plane, where $V$ is the velocity of propagation and $\\omega$ is the vector potential angular frequency. A parametric study shows that the familiar fully localized relativistic solitons are special members of the families of partially localized quasi-solitons. Soliton solution branches with $p>1$ are therefore parametrically embedded in the continuum of quasi-solitons. On the other hand,...
Black Sun: Ocular Invisibility of Relativistic Luminous Astrophysical Bodies
Lee, Jeffrey S
2015-01-01
The relativistic Doppler shifting of visible electromagnetic radiation to beyond the human ocular range reduces the incident radiance of the source. Consequently, luminous astrophysical bodies (LABs) can be rendered invisible with sufficient relativistic motion. This paper determines the proper distance as a function of relativistic velocity at which a luminous object attains ocular invisibility.
Parity violation and dynamical relativistic effects in $(\\vec{e},e'N)$ reactions
González-Jiménez, R; Donnelly, T W
2015-01-01
It is well known that coincidence quasielastic $(\\vec{e},e'N)$ reactions are not appropriate to analyze effects linked to parity violation due the presence of the fifth electromagnetic (EM) response $R^{TL'}$. Nevertheless, in this work we develop a fully relativistic approach to be applied to parity-violating (PV) quasielastic $(\\vec{e},e'N)$ processes. This is of importance as a preliminary step in the subsequent study of inclusive quasielastic PV $(\\vec{e},e')$ reactions. Moreover, our present analysis allows us to disentangle effects associated with the off-shell character of nucleons in nuclei, gauge ambiguities and the role played by the lower components in the nucleon wave functions, i.e., dynamical relativistic effects. This study can help in getting clear information on PV effects. Particular attention is paid to the relativistic plane-wave impulse approximation where the explicit expressions for the PV single-nucleon responses are shown for the first time.
The 2p-2h electromagnetic response in the quasielastic peak and beyond
De Pace, A. E-mail: depace@to.infn.it; Nardi, M.; Alberico, W.M.; Donnelly, T.W.; Molinari, A
2003-10-20
The contribution to the nuclear transverse response function R{sub T} arising from two particle-two hole (2p-2h) states excited through the action of electromagnetic meson exchange currents (MEC) is computed in a fully relativistic framework. The MEC considered are those carried by the pion and by {delta} degrees of freedom, the latter being viewed as a virtual nucleonic resonance. The calculation is performed in the relativistic Fermi gas model in which Lorentz covariance can be maintained. All 2p-2h many-body diagrams containing two pionic lines that contribute to R{sub T} are taken into account and the relative impact of the various components of the MEC on R{sub T} is addressed. The non-relativistic limit of the MEC contributions is also discussed and compared with the relativistic results to explore the role played by relativity in obtaining the 2p-2h nuclear response.
Demianski, Marek
2013-01-01
Relativistic Astrophysics brings together important astronomical discoveries and the significant achievements, as well as the difficulties in the field of relativistic astrophysics. This book is divided into 10 chapters that tackle some aspects of the field, including the gravitational field, stellar equilibrium, black holes, and cosmology. The opening chapters introduce the theories to delineate gravitational field and the elements of relativistic thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. The succeeding chapters deal with the gravitational fields in matter; stellar equilibrium and general relativity
Chaos and Maps in Relativistic Dynamical Systems
Horwitz, L P
1999-01-01
The basic work of Zaslavskii et al showed that the classical non-relativistic electromagnetically kicked oscillator can be cast into the form of an iterative map on the phase space; the resulting evolution contains a stochastic flow to unbounded energy. Subsequent studies have formulated the problem in terms of a relativistic charged particle in interaction with the electromagnetic field. We review the structure of the covariant Lorentz force used to study this problem. We show that the Lorentz force equation can be derived as well from the manifestly covariant mechanics of Stueckelberg in the presence of a standard Maxwell field, establishing a connection between these equations and mass shell constraints. We argue that these relativistic generalizations of the problem are intrinsically inaccurate due to an inconsistency in the structure of the relativistic Lorentz force, and show that a reformulation of the relativistic problem, permitting variations (classically) in both the particle mass and the effective...
Relativistic Hydrodynamics with Wavelets
DeBuhr, Jackson; Anderson, Matthew; Neilsen, David; Hirschmann, Eric W
2015-01-01
Methods to solve the relativistic hydrodynamic equations are a key computational kernel in a large number of astrophysics simulations and are crucial to understanding the electromagnetic signals that originate from the merger of astrophysical compact objects. Because of the many physical length scales present when simulating such mergers, these methods must be highly adaptive and capable of automatically resolving numerous localized features and instabilities that emerge throughout the computational domain across many temporal scales. While this has been historically accomplished with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) based methods, alternatives based on wavelet bases and the wavelet transformation have recently achieved significant success in adaptive representation for advanced engineering applications. This work presents a new method for the integration of the relativistic hydrodynamic equations using iterated interpolating wavelets and introduces a highly adaptive implementation for multidimensional simulati...
Jost, G.; Tran, T.M.; Appert, K. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Wuethrich, S. [CRAY Research, PATP/PSE, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)
1996-12-01
A two-dimensional PIC code aimed at the investigation of electron-cyclotron beam instabilities in gyrotrons and their effects on the beam quality is presented. The code is based on recently developed techniques for handling charge conservation and open boundaries and uses an electromagnetic field which is decomposed in its transverse magnetic (TM) and electric (TE) components. The code has been implemented on the massively parallel computer CRAY T3D, and on the CRAY Y-MP. (author) figs., tabs., refs.
Relativistic impulse dynamics.
Swanson, Stanley M
2011-08-01
Classical electrodynamics has some annoying rough edges. The self-energy of charges is infinite without a cutoff. The calculation of relativistic trajectories is difficult because of retardation and an average radiation reaction term. By reconceptuallizing electrodynamics in terms of exchanges of impulses rather than describing it by forces and potentials, we eliminate these problems. A fully relativistic theory using photonlike null impulses is developed. Numerical calculations for a two-body, one-impulse-in-transit model are discussed. A simple relationship between center-of-mass scattering angle and angular momentum was found. It reproduces the Rutherford cross section at low velocities and agrees with the leading term of relativistic distinguishable-particle quantum cross sections (Møller, Mott) when the distance of closest approach is larger than the Compton wavelength of the particle. Magnetism emerges as a consequence of viewing retarded and advanced interactions from the vantage point of an instantaneous radius vector. Radiation reaction becomes the local conservation of energy-momentum between the radiating particle and the emitted impulse. A net action is defined that could be used in developing quantum dynamics without potentials. A reinterpretation of Newton's laws extends them to relativistic motion.
Manifestly covariant electromagnetism
Hillion, P. [Institut Henri Poincare' , Le Vesinet (France)
1999-03-01
The conventional relativistic formulation of electromagnetism is covariant under the full Lorentz group. But relativity requires covariance only under the proper Lorentz group and the authors present here the formalism covariant under the complex rotation group isomorphic to the proper Lorentz group. The authors discuss successively Maxwell's equations, constitutive relations and potential functions. A comparison is made with the usual formulation.
Relativistic Thermodynamics: A Modern 4-Vector Approach
J. Güémez
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Using the Minkowski relativistic 4-vector formalism, based on Einstein's equation, and the relativistic thermodynamics asynchronous formulation (Grøn (1973, the isothermal compression of an ideal gas is analyzed, considering an electromagnetic origin for forces applied to it. This treatment is similar to the description previously developed by Van Kampen (van Kampen (1969 and Hamity (Hamity (1969. In this relativistic framework Mechanics and Thermodynamics merge in the first law of relativistic thermodynamics expressed, using 4-vector notation, such as ΔUμ = Wμ + Qμ, in Lorentz covariant formulation, which, with the covariant formalism for electromagnetic forces, constitutes a complete Lorentz covariant formulation for classical physics.
Relativistic diffusion equation from stochastic quantization
Kazinski, P O
2007-01-01
The new scheme of stochastic quantization is proposed. This quantization procedure is equivalent to the deformation of an algebra of observables in the manner of deformation quantization with an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). We apply this method to the models of nonrelativistic and relativistic particles interacting with an electromagnetic field. In the first case we establish the equivalence of such a quantization to the Fokker-Planck equation with a special force. The application of the proposed quantization procedure to the model of a relativistic particle results in a relativistic generalization of the Fokker-Planck equation in the coordinate space, which in the absence of the electromagnetic field reduces to the relativistic diffusion (heat) equation. The stationary probability distribution functions for a stochastically quantized particle diffusing under a barrier and a particle in the potential of a harmonic oscillator are derived.
Luciano, Rezzolla
2013-01-01
Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solut...
Body-fixed relativistic molecular Hamiltonian and its application to nuclear spin-rotation tensor.
Xiao, Yunlong; Liu, Wenjian
2013-04-07
A relativistic molecular Hamiltonian that describes electrons fully relativistically and nuclei quasi-relativistically is proposed and transformed from the laboratory to the body-fixed frame of reference. As a first application of the resulting body-fixed relativistic molecular Hamiltonian, the long anticipated relativistic theory of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) tensor is formulated rigorously. A "relativistic mapping" between experimental NSR and NMR is further proposed, which is of great value in establishing high-precision absolute NMR shielding scales.
Sahoo, Raghunath
2016-01-01
This lecture note covers Relativistic Kinematics, which is very useful for the beginners in the field of high-energy physics. A very practical approach has been taken, which answers "why and how" of the kinematics useful for students working in the related areas.
Relativistic Mirrors in Laser Plasmas (Analytical Methods)
Bulanov, Sergei V; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K
2016-01-01
Relativistic flying mirrors in plasmas are realized as thin dense electron (or electron-ion) layers accelerated by high-intensity electromagnetic waves to velocities close to the speed of light in vacuum. The reflection of an electromagnetic wave from the relativistic mirror results in its energy and frequency changing. In a counter-propagation configuration, the frequency of the reflected wave is multiplied by the factor proportional to the Lorentz factor squared. This scientific area promises the development of sources of ultrashort X-ray pulses in the attosecond range. The expected intensity will reach the level at which the effects predicted by nonlinear quantum electrodynamics start to play a key role.
Certified Randomness from a Two-Level System in a Relativistic Quantum Field
Thinh, Le Phuc; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo
2016-01-01
Randomness is an indispensable resource in modern science and information technology. Fortunately, an experimentally simple procedure exists to generate randomness with well-characterized devices: measuring a quantum system in a basis complementary to its preparation. Towards realizing this goal one may consider using atoms or superconducting qubits, promising candidates for quantum information processing. However, their unavoidable interaction with the electromagnetic field affects their dynamics. At large time scales, this can result in decoherence. Smaller time scales in principle avoid this problem, but may not be well analysed under the usual rotating wave and single-mode approximation (RWA and SMA) which break the relativistic nature of quantum field theory. Here, we use a fully relativistic analysis to quantify the information that an adversary with access to the field could get on the result of an atomic measurement. Surprisingly, we find that the adversary's guessing probability is not minimized for ...
Relativistic quantum mechanics and introduction to field theory
Yndurain, F.J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica
1996-12-01
The following topics were dealt with: relativistic transformations, the Lorentz group, Klein-Gordon equation, spinless particles, spin 1/2 particles, Dirac particle in a potential, massive spin 1 particles, massless spin 1 particles, relativistic collisions, S matrix, cross sections, decay rates, partial wave analysis, electromagnetic field quantization, interaction of radiation with matter, interactions in quantum field theory and relativistic interactions with classical sources.
Hakim, Rémi
1994-01-01
Il existe à l'heure actuelle un certain nombre de théories relativistes de la gravitation compatibles avec l'expérience et l'observation. Toutefois, la relativité générale d'Einstein fut historiquement la première à fournir des résultats théoriques corrects en accord précis avec les faits.
Jones, Bernard J. T.; Markovic, Dragoljub
1997-06-01
Preface; Prologue: Conference overview Bernard Carr; Part I. The Universe At Large and Very Large Redshifts: 2. The size and age of the Universe Gustav A. Tammann; 3. Active galaxies at large redshifts Malcolm S. Longair; 4. Observational cosmology with the cosmic microwave background George F. Smoot; 5. Future prospects in measuring the CMB power spectrum Philip M. Lubin; 6. Inflationary cosmology Michael S. Turner; 7. The signature of the Universe Bernard J. T. Jones; 8. Theory of large-scale structure Sergei F. Shandarin; 9. The origin of matter in the universe Lev A. Kofman; 10. New guises for cold-dark matter suspects Edward W. Kolb; Part II. Physics and Astrophysics Of Relativistic Compact Objects: 11. On the unification of gravitational and inertial forces Donald Lynden-Bell; 12. Internal structure of astrophysical black holes Werner Israel; 13. Black hole entropy: external facade and internal reality Valery Frolov; 14. Accretion disks around black holes Marek A. Abramowicz; 15. Black hole X-ray transients J. Craig Wheeler; 16. X-rays and gamma rays from active galactic nuclei Roland Svensson; 17. Gamma-ray bursts: a challenge to relativistic astrophysics Martin Rees; 18. Probing black holes and other exotic objects with gravitational waves Kip Thorne; Epilogue: the past and future of relativistic astrophysics Igor D. Novikov; I. D. Novikov's scientific papers and books.
Dodin, I Y; Fraiman, G M
2003-01-01
The Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions describing average motion of a relativistic particle under the action of intensive high-frequency electromagnetic radiation are obtained. In weak, low-frequency background fields, such a particle on average drifts with an effective, relativistically invariant mass, which depends on the intensity of the electromagnetic field.
Electromagnetism from counting
Noyes, H.P.
1992-12-01
The fact that experimental accuracy is finite makes the measurement of particle positions and velocities non-local and often non- commutative even in a scale invariant theory. Applied to electromagnetic and gravitational phenomena, we argue that this leads to a relativistic action at a distance theory in which fields'' are simple a quasi-local interpolating concept extrapolated from macroscopic conservation laws. We sketch how this analysis could lead to classical field equations as a macroscopic approximation to relativistic quantum mechanics, but do not construct a formal proof.
Electromagnetism from counting
Noyes, H.P.
1992-12-01
The fact that experimental accuracy is finite makes the measurement of particle positions and velocities non-local and often non- commutative even in a scale invariant theory. Applied to electromagnetic and gravitational phenomena, we argue that this leads to a relativistic action at a distance theory in which ``fields`` are simple a quasi-local interpolating concept extrapolated from macroscopic conservation laws. We sketch how this analysis could lead to classical field equations as a macroscopic approximation to relativistic quantum mechanics, but do not construct a formal proof.
Relativistic RPA in axial symmetry
Arteaga, D Pena; 10.1103/PhysRevC.77.034317
2009-01-01
Covariant density functional theory, in the framework of self-consistent Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) and Relativistic Random Phase approximation (RPA), is for the first time applied to axially deformed nuclei. The fully self-consistent RMF+RRPA equations are posed for the case of axial symmetry and non-linear energy functionals, and solved with the help of a new parallel code. Formal properties of RPA theory are studied and special care is taken in order to validate the proper decoupling of spurious modes and their influence on the physical response. Sample applications to the magnetic and electric dipole transitions in $^{20}$Ne are presented and analyzed.
Special Relativistic Hydrodynamics with Gravitation
Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim
2016-12-01
Special relativistic hydrodynamics with weak gravity has hitherto been unknown in the literature. Whether such an asymmetric combination is possible has been unclear. Here, the hydrodynamic equations with Poisson-type gravity, considering fully relativistic velocity and pressure under the weak gravity and the action-at-a-distance limit, are consistently derived from Einstein’s theory of general relativity. An analysis is made in the maximal slicing, where the Poisson’s equation becomes much simpler than our previous study in the zero-shear gauge. Also presented is the hydrodynamic equations in the first post-Newtonian approximation, now under the general hypersurface condition. Our formulation includes the anisotropic stress.
Special relativistic hydrodynamics with gravitation
Hwang, Jai-chan
2016-01-01
The special relativistic hydrodynamics with weak gravity is hitherto unknown in the literature. Whether such an asymmetric combination is possible was unclear. Here, the hydrodynamic equations with Poisson-type gravity considering fully relativistic velocity and pressure under the weak gravity and the action-at-a-distance limit are consistently derived from Einstein's general relativity. Analysis is made in the maximal slicing where the Poisson's equation becomes much simpler than our previous study in the zero-shear gauge. Also presented is the hydrodynamic equations in the first post-Newtonian approximation, now under the {\\it general} hypersurface condition. Our formulation includes the anisotropic stress.
Problem of interactions: electromagnetic particles interaction
Sannikov-Proskuryakov, S S
2001-01-01
The electromagnetic interactions between charged particles are derived on the basis of the particles dynamic theory, proposed in the work of Sannikov. The electromagnetic interactions exist only in the relativistic model of the bihamiltonian system, based on the Heisenberg algebra. Existence of this type of interactions is connected with the U sub e (1)-degeneration of the basic state of the relativistic bihamiltonian system, lying in the basis of the given theory
Chaos and maps in relativistic rynamical systems
L. P. Horwitz
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The basic work of Zaslavskii et al showed that the classical non-relativistic electromagnetically kicked oscillator can be cast into the form of an iterative map on the phase space; the resulting evolution contains a stochastic flow to unbounded energy. Subsequent studies have formulated the problem in terms of a relativistic charged particle in interaction with the electromagnetic field. We review the structure of the covariant Lorentz force used to study this problem. We show that the Lorentz force equation can be derived as well from the manifestly covariant mechanics of Stueckelberg in the presence of a standard Maxwell field, establishing a connection between these equations and mass shell constraints. We argue that these relativistic generalizations of the problem are intrinsically inaccurate due to an inconsistency in the structure of the relativistic Lorentz force, and show that a reformulation of the relativistic problem, permitting variations (classically in both the particle mass and the effective “mass” of the interacting electromagnetic field, provides a consistent system of classical equations for describing such processes.
Relativistic mirrors in laser plasmas (analytical methods)
Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh; Kando, M.; Koga, J.
2016-10-01
Relativistic flying mirrors in plasmas are realized as thin dense electron (or electron-ion) layers accelerated by high-intensity electromagnetic waves to velocities close to the speed of light in vacuum. The reflection of an electromagnetic wave from the relativistic mirror results in its energy and frequency changing. In a counter-propagation configuration, the frequency of the reflected wave is multiplied by the factor proportional to the Lorentz factor squared. This scientific area promises the development of sources of ultrashort x-ray pulses in the attosecond range. The expected intensity will reach the level at which the effects predicted by nonlinear quantum electrodynamics start to play a key role. We present an overview of theoretical methods used to describe relativistic flying, accelerating, oscillating mirrors emerging in intense laser-plasma interactions.
Rehman, M. A.; Qureshi, M. N. S. [Department of Physics, GC University, Kachery Road, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Shah, H. A. [Department of Physics, Forman Christian College, Ferozepur Road, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan); Masood, W. [COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology, Park Road, Chak Shehzad, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); National Centre for Physics (NCP) Shahdra Valley Road, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2015-10-15
Nonlinear circularly polarized Alfvén waves are studied in magnetized nonrelativistic, relativistic, and ultrarelativistic degenerate Fermi plasmas. Using the quantum hydrodynamic model, Zakharov equations are derived and the Sagdeev potential approach is used to investigate the properties of the electromagnetic solitary structures. It is seen that the amplitude increases with the increase of electron density in the relativistic and ultrarelativistic cases but decreases in the nonrelativistic case. Both right and left handed waves are considered, and it is seen that supersonic, subsonic, and super- and sub-Alfvénic solitary structures are obtained for different polarizations and under different relativistic regimes.
Relativistic and non-relativistic geodesic equations
Giambo' , R.; Mangiarotti, L.; Sardanashvily, G. [Camerino Univ., Camerino, MC (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica e Fisica
1999-07-01
It is shown that any dynamic equation on a configuration space of non-relativistic time-dependent mechanics is associated with connections on its tangent bundle. As a consequence, every non-relativistic dynamic equation can be seen as a geodesic equation with respect to a (non-linear) connection on this tangent bundle. Using this fact, the relationships between relativistic and non-relativistic equations of motion is studied.
Relativistic description of electron scattering on the deuteron
Hummel, E
1994-01-01
Within a quasipotential framework a relativistic analysis is presented of the deuteron current. Assuming that the singularities from the nucleon propagators are important, a so-called equal time approximation of the current is constructed. This is applied to both elastic and inelastic electron scattering. As dynamical model the relativistic one boson exchange model is used. Reasonable agreement is found with a previous relativistic calculation of the elastic electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron. For the unpolarized inelastic electron scattering effects of final state interactions and relativistic corrections to the structure functions are considered in the impulse approximation. Two specific kinematic situations are studied as examples.
Leardini, Fabrice
2013-01-01
This manuscript presents a problem on special relativity theory (SRT) which embodies an apparent paradox relying on the concept of simultaneity. The problem is represented in the framework of Greek epic poetry and structured in a didactic way. Owing to the characteristic properties of Lorenz transformations, three events which are simultaneous in a given inertial reference system, occur at different times in the other two reference frames. In contrast to the famous twin paradox, in the present case there are three, not two, different inertial observers. This feature provides a better framework to expose some of the main characteristics of SRT, in particular, the concept of velocity and the relativistic rule of addition of velocities.
Thermodynamics of polarized relativistic matter
Kovtun, Pavel
2016-07-01
We give the free energy of equilibrium relativistic matter subject to external gravitational and electromagnetic fields, to one-derivative order in the gradients of the external fields. The free energy allows for a straightforward derivation of bound currents and bound momenta in equilibrium. At leading order, the energy-momentum tensor admits a simple expression in terms of the polarization tensor. Beyond the leading order, electric and magnetic polarization vectors are intrinsically ambiguous. The physical effects of polarization, such as the correlation between the magneto-vortically induced surface charge and the electro-vortically induced surface current, are not ambiguous.
Thermodynamics of polarized relativistic matter
Kovtun, Pavel
2016-01-01
We give the free energy of equilibrium relativistic matter subject to external gravitational and electromagnetic fields, to one-derivative order in the gradients of the external fields. The free energy allows for a straightforward derivation of bound currents and bound momenta in equilibrium. At leading order, the energy-momentum tensor admits a simple expression in terms of the polarization tensor. Beyond the leading order, electric and magnetic polarization vectors are intrinsically ambiguous. The physical effects of polarization, such as the correlation between the magneto-vortically induced surface charge and the electro-vortically induced surface current, are not ambiguous.
$\\Delta$-N Electromagnetic Transition
Loan, M
1999-01-01
The EM ratio for a free Delta electromagnetic transition is discussed within the frame work of nonrelativistic approach. Such an approach gives a good account of data for a free Delta but is less important for an intrinsically relativistic nuclear many body problem.
Generalized magnetofluid connections in relativistic magnetohydrodynamics.
Asenjo, Felipe A; Comisso, Luca
2015-03-20
The concept of magnetic connections is extended to nonideal relativistic magnetohydrodynamical plasmas. Adopting a general set of equations for relativistic magnetohydrodynamics including thermal-inertial, thermal electromotive, Hall, and current-inertia effects, we derive a new covariant connection equation showing the existence of generalized magnetofluid connections that are preserved during the dissipationless plasma dynamics. These connections are intimately linked to a general antisymmetric tensor that unifies the electromagnetic and fluid fields, allowing the extension of the magnetic connection notion to a much broader concept.
Relativistic Tennis Using Flying Mirror
Pirozhkov, A. S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Ma, J.; Fukuda, Y.; Chen, L.-M.; Daito, I.; Ogura, K.; Homma, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Kotaki, H.; Sagisaka, A.; Mori, M.; Koga, J. K.; Kawachi, T.; Daido, H.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kimura, T.; Kato, Y.; Tajima, T.
2008-06-01
Upon reflection from a relativistic mirror, the electromagnetic pulse frequency is upshifted and the duration is shortened by the factor proportional to the relativistic gamma-factor squared due to the double Doppler effect. We present the results of the proof-of-principle experiment for frequency upshifting of the laser pulse reflected from the relativistic "flying mirror", which is a wake wave near the breaking threshold created by a strong driver pulse propagating in underdense plasma. Experimentally, the wake wave is created by a 2 TW, 76 fs Ti:S laser pulse from the JLITE-X laser system in helium plasma with the electron density of ≈4-6×1019 cm-3. The reflected signal is observed with a grazing-incidence spectrograph in 24 shots. The wavelength of the reflected radiation ranges from 7 to 14 nm, the corresponding frequency upshifting factors are ˜55-115, and the gamma-factors are y = 4-6. The reflected signal contains at least 3×107 photons/sr. This effect can be used to generate coherent high-frequency ultrashort pulses that inherit temporal shape and polarization from the original (low-frequency) ones. Apart from this, the reflected radiation contains important information about the wake wave itself, e.g. location, size, phase velocity, etc.
Magnetohydrodynamics of Chiral Relativistic Fluids
Boyarsky, Alexey; Ruchayskiy, Oleg
2015-01-01
We study the dynamics of a plasma of charged relativistic fermions at very high temperature $T\\gg m$, where $m$ is the fermion mass, coupled to the electromagnetic field. In particular, we derive a magneto-hydrodynamical description of the evolution of such a plasma. We show that, as compared to conventional MHD for a plasma of non-relativistic particles, the hydrodynamical description of the relativistic plasma involves new degrees of freedom described by a pseudo-scalar field originating in a local asymmetry in the densities of left-handed and right-handed fermions. This field can be interpreted as an effective axion field. Taking into account the chiral anomaly we present dynamical equations for the evolution of this field, as well as of other fields appearing in the MHD description of the plasma. Due to its non-linear coupling to helical magnetic fields, the axion field significantly affects the dynamics of a magnetized plasma and can give rise to a novel type of inverse cascade.
Similarity solutions for radiation in time-dependent relativistic flows
Lucy, L B
2004-01-01
Exact analytic solutions are derived for radiation in time-dependent relativistic flows. The flows are spherically-symmetric homologous explosions or implosions of matter with a grey extinction coefficient. The solutions are suitable for testing numerical transfer codes, and this is illustrated for a fully relativistic Monte Carlo code.
Relativistic effects in elastic scattering of electrons in TEM.
Rother, Axel; Scheerschmidt, Kurt
2009-01-01
Transmission electron microscopy typically works with highly accelerated thus relativistic electrons. Consequently the scattering process is described within a relativistic formalism. In the following, we will examine three different relativistic formalisms for elastic electron scattering: Dirac, Klein-Gordon and approximated Klein-Gordon, the standard approach. This corresponds to a different consideration of spin effects and a different coupling to electromagnetic potentials. A detailed comparison is conducted by means of explicit numerical calculations. For this purpose two different formalisms have been applied to the approaches above: a numerical integration with predefined boundary conditions and the multislice algorithm, a standard procedure for such simulations. The results show a negligibly small difference between the different relativistic equations in the vicinity of electromagnetic potentials, prevailing in the electron microscope. The differences between the two numeric approaches are found to be small for small-angle scattering but eventually grow large for large-angle scattering, recorded for instance in high-angle annular dark field.
This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis...
Multidimensional electron beam-plasma instabilities in the relativistic regime
BRET, ANTOINE; Gremillet, Laurent; Dieckmann, Mark Eric
2010-01-01
The interest in relativistic beam-plasma instabilities has been greatly rejuvenated over the past two decades by novel concepts in laboratory and space plasmas. Recent advances in this long-standing field are here reviewed from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The primary focus is on the two-dimensional spectrum of unstable electromagnetic waves growing within relativistic, unmagnetized, and uniform electron beam-plasma systems. Although the goal is to provide a unified picture ...
Radiation reaction in a system of relativistic gravitating particles
Galtsov, D. V.
A Lorentz-covariant approach is developed to the description of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation in general relativity. A model of a relativistic system of gravitating point particles is constructed in which energy losses can be interpreted in terms of radiation-reaction forces. These forces are applied not only to the point particles but also to fields generated by these particles in the near zone. It is concluded that radiation friction in a system of relativistic gravitating particles is collective in character.
Exact quantisation of the relativistic Hopfield model
Belgiorno, F., E-mail: francesco.belgiorno@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo 32, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); INdAM-GNFM (Italy); Cacciatori, S.L., E-mail: sergio.cacciatori@uninsubria.it [Department of Science and High Technology, Università dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, IT-22100 Como (Italy); INFN sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, IT-20133 Milano (Italy); Dalla Piazza, F., E-mail: f.dallapiazza@gmail.com [Università “La Sapienza”, Dipartimento di Matematica, Piazzale A. Moro 2, I-00185, Roma (Italy); Doronzo, M., E-mail: m.doronzo@uninsubria.it [Department of Science and High Technology, Università dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, IT-22100 Como (Italy)
2016-11-15
We investigate the quantisation in the Heisenberg representation of a relativistically covariant version of the Hopfield model for dielectric media, which entails the interaction of the quantum electromagnetic field with the matter dipole fields, represented by a mesoscopic polarisation field. A full quantisation of the model is provided in a covariant gauge, with the aim of maintaining explicit relativistic covariance. Breaking of the Lorentz invariance due to the intrinsic presence in the model of a preferred reference frame is also taken into account. Relativistic covariance forces us to deal with the unphysical (scalar and longitudinal) components of the fields, furthermore it introduces, in a more tricky form, the well-known dipole ghost of standard QED in a covariant gauge. In order to correctly dispose of this contribution, we implement a generalised Lautrup trick. Furthermore, causality and the relation of the model with the Wightman axioms are also discussed.
Exact quantisation of the relativistic Hopfield model
Belgiorno, F; Piazza, F Dalla; Doronzo, M
2016-01-01
We investigate the quantisation in the Heisenberg representation of a relativistically covariant version of the Hopfield model for dielectric media, which entails the interaction of the quantum electromagnetic field with the matter dipole fields. The matter fields are represented by a mesoscopic polarization field. A full quantisation of the model is provided in a covariant gauge, with the aim of maintaining explicit relativistic covariance. Breaking of the Lorentz invariance due to the intrinsic presence in the model of a preferred reference frame is also taken into account. Relativistic covariance forces us to deal with the unphysical (scalar and longitudinal) components of the fields, furthermore it introduces, in a more tricky form, the well-known dipole ghost of standard QED in a covariant gauge. In order to correctly dispose of this contribution, we implement a generalized Lautrup trick. Furthermore, causality and the relation of the model with the Wightman axioms are also discussed.
Cattaneo, Carlo
2011-01-01
This title includes: Pham Mau Quam: Problemes mathematiques en hydrodynamique relativiste; A. Lichnerowicz: Ondes de choc, ondes infinitesimales et rayons en hydrodynamique et magnetohydrodynamique relativistes; A.H. Taub: Variational principles in general relativity; J. Ehlers: General relativistic kinetic theory of gases; K. Marathe: Abstract Minkowski spaces as fibre bundles; and, G. Boillat: Sur la propagation de la chaleur en relativite.
Variational thermodynamics of relativistic thin disks
Gutiérrez-Piñeres, Antonio C.; Lopez-Monsalvo, Cesar S.; Quevedo, Hernando
2015-12-01
We present a relativistic model describing a thin disk system composed of two fluids. The system is surrounded by a halo in the presence of a non-trivial electromagnetic field. We show that the model is compatible with the variational multifluid thermodynamics formalism, allowing us to determine all the thermodynamic variables associated with the matter content of the disk. The asymptotic behavior of these quantities indicates that the single fluid interpretation should be abandoned in favor of a two-fluid model.
Weibel instability in relativistic quantum plasmas
Mendonça, J. T.; Brodin, G.
2015-08-01
Generation of quasi-static magnetic fields, due to the Weibel instability is studied in a relativistic quantum plasma. This instability is induced by a temperature anisotropy. The dispersion relation and growth rates for low frequency electromagnetic perturbations are derived using a wave-kinetic equation which describes the evolution of the electron Wigner quasi-distribution. The influence of parallel kinetic effects is discussed in detail.
Motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field
Arrayas, M; Trueba, J L, E-mail: joseluis.trueba@urjc.e [Area de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Camino del Molino s/n, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Madrid (Spain)
2010-06-11
In this paper we consider the classical relativistic motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field. After reviewing how to construct electromagnetic knots from maps between the three-sphere and the two-sphere, we introduce a mean quadratic radius of the energy density distribution in order to study some properties of this field. We study the classical relativistic motion of electrons in the electromagnetic field of the Hopf map, and compute their trajectories. It is observed that these electrons initially at rest are strongly accelerated by the electromagnetic force, becoming ultrarelativistic in a period of time that depends on the knot energy and size.
Towards Relativistic Atomic Physics and Post-Minkowskian Gravitational Waves
Lusanna, Luca
2009-01-01
A review is given of the formulation of relativistic atomic theory, in which there is an explicit realization of the Poincare' generators, both in the inertial and in the non-inertial rest-frame instant form of dynamics in Minkowski space-time. This implies the need to solve the problem of the relativistic center of mass of an isolated system and to describe the transitions from different conventions for clock synchronization, namely for the identifications of instantaneous 3-spaces, as gauge transformations. These problems, stemming from the Lorentz signature of space-time, are a source of non-locality, which induces a spatial non-separability in relativistic quantum mechanics, with implications for relativistic entanglement. Then the classical system of charged particles plus the electro-magnetic field is studied in the framework of ADM canonical tetrad gravity in asymptotically Minkowskian space-times admitting the ADM Poincare' group at spatial infinity, which allows to get the general relativistic extens...
Relativistic particle acceleration in developing Alfv\\'{e}n turbulence
Matsukiyo, S; 10.1088/0004-637X/692/2/1004
2009-01-01
A new particle acceleration process in a developing Alfv\\'{e}n turbulence in the course of successive parametric instabilities of a relativistic pair plasma is investigated by utilyzing one-dimensional electromagnetic full particle code. Coherent wave-particle interactions result in efficient particle acceleration leading to a power-law like energy distribution function. In the simulation high energy particles having large relativistic masses are preferentially accelerated as the turbulence spectrum evolves in time. Main acceleration mechanism is simultaneous relativistic resonance between a particle and two different waves. An analytical expression of maximum attainable energy in such wave-particle interactions is derived.
Fatyga, M.; Norbury, John W.
1992-01-01
An experimental program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) which is designed to study nonperturbative aspects of electrodynamics is outlined. Additional possibilities for new studies of electrodynamics via multiple electromagnetic processes are also described.
On the Galilean Non-Invariance of Classical Electromagnetism
Preti, Giovanni; de Felice, Fernando; Masiero, Luca
2009-01-01
When asked to explain the Galilean non-invariance of classical electromagnetism on the basis of pre-relativistic considerations alone, students--and sometimes their teachers too--may face an impasse. Indeed, they often argue that a pre-relativistic physicist could most obviously have provided the explanation "at a glance", on the basis of the…
Multipole analysis for electromagnetism and linearized gravity with irreducible Cartesian tensors
Damour, T.; Iyer, B.R. (Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques 91440 Bures sur Yvette, France Departement d' Astrophysique Relativiste et de Cosmologie, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique-Observatoire de Paris, 92195 Meudon CEDEX, France (FR))
1991-05-15
The relativistic time-dependent multipole expansion for electromagnetism and linearized gravity in the region outside a spatially compact source has been obtained directly using the formalism of irreducible Cartesian (i.e., symmetric trace-free) tensors. In the electromagnetic case, our results confirm the validity of the results obtained earlier by Campbell, Macek, and Morgan using the Debye potential formalism. However, in the more complicated linearized gravity case, the greater algebraic transparence of the Cartesian multipole approach has allowed us to obtain, for the first time, fully correct closed-form expressions for the time-dependent mass and spin multipole moments (the results of Campbell {ital et} {ital al}. for the mass moments turning out to be incorrect). The first two terms in the slow-motion expansion of the gravitational moments are explicitly calculated and shown to be equivalent to earlier results by Thorne and by Blanchet and Damour.
This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....
Relativistic mixtures of charged and uncharged particles
Kremer, Gilberto M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba (Brazil)
2014-01-14
Mixtures of relativistic gases within the framework of Boltzmann equation are analyzed. Three systems are considered. The first one refers to a mixture of uncharged particles by using Grad’s moment method, where the relativistic mixture is characterized by the moments of the distribution functions: particle four-flows, energy-momentum tensors, and third-order moment tensors. In the second Fick’s law for a mixture of relativistic gases of non-disparate rest masses in a Schwarzschild metric are derived from an extension of Marle and McCormack model equations applied to a relativistic truncated Grad’s distribution function, where it is shown the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the gravitational potential. The third one consists in the derivation of the relativistic laws of Ohm and Fourier for a binary mixtures of electrons with protons and electrons with photons subjected to external electromagnetic fields and in presence of gravitational fields by using the Anderson and Witting model of the Boltzmann equation.
Boosted high harmonics pulse from a double-sided relativistic mirror
Esirkepov, T Zh; Kando, M; Pirozhkov, A S; Zhidkov, A G
2009-01-01
A high-density thin plasma slab, accelerating in the radiation pressure dominant regime by a co-propagating ultra-intense electromagnetic wave, reflects a counter-propagating relativistically strong electromagnetic wave, producing strongly time-compressed and intensified radiation due to the double Doppler effect. The reflected light contains relativistic harmonics generated at the plasma slab, all upshifted with the same factor as the fundamental mode of the incident light.
魏刚
2011-01-01
For distinguishing the influencing factors from external environment, which can alter the electromagnetic radiation signal intensity when the electromagnetic radiation method is used to predict coal-rock dynamic hazard, a KBD7 electromagnetic radiation detector is installed in the driving face at west zone of Hongling coal mine, Shenyang Coal Trade Group Corporation Ltd. Co. To real-time monitor the influence factors for seven months. The results show that the change of electrical load caused by the start of road header is a major factor disturbing the electromagnetic radiation signal. The variation amplitude of the electromagnetic radiation signal after blasting in all-rock tunnel is higher than that during blasting.%为了应用电磁辐射法预测煤岩动力灾害,分辨出外界因素对于煤岩电磁辐射值的强度变化的影响,使用KBD7电磁辐射检测仪对沈阳煤业集团红菱煤矿西区综掘工作面进行了7个月的实时监测.对照信号异常期的生产活动时间段,分析综掘生产过程中的人为活动对于煤岩电磁辐射值的干扰情况.结果表明:综掘机的启动所引发的电力负荷对于电磁辐射信号影响较大；在全岩巷道的炮掘阶段,每次放炮后的电磁辐射值变化要高于放炮时的变化.
The relativistic geoid: redshift and acceleration potential
Philipp, Dennis; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Puetzfeld, Dirk; Hackmann, Eva; Perlick, Volker
2017-04-01
We construct a relativistic geoid based on a time-independent redshift potential, which foliates the spacetime into isochronometric surfaces. This relativistic potential coincides with the acceleration potential for isometric congruences. We show that the a- and u- geoid, defined in a post-Newtonian framework, coincide also in a more general setup. Known Newtonian and post-Newtonian results are recovered in the respective limits. Our approach offers a relativistic definition of the Earth's geoid as well as a description of the Earth itself (or observers on its surface) in terms of an isometric congruence. Being fully relativistic, this notion of a geoid can also be applied to other compact objects such as neutron stars. By definition, this relativistic geoid can be determined by a congruence of Killing observers equipped with standard clocks by comparing their frequencies as well as by measuring accelerations of objects that follow the congruence. The redshift potential gives the correct result also for frequency comparison through optical fiber links as long as the fiber is at rest w.r.t. the congruence. We give explicit expressions for the relativistic geoid in the Kerr spacetime and the Weyl class of spacetimes. To investigate the influence of higher order mass multipole moments we compare the results for the Schwarzschild case to those obtained for the Erez-Rosen and q-metric spacetimes.
Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A; Simovski, Constantin R; Tretyakov, Sergei A; Maslovski, Stanislav I
2015-01-01
The ideal black body fully absorbs all incident rays, that is, all propagating waves created by arbitrary sources. The known idealized realization of a black body is the perfectly matched layer (PML), widely used in numerical electromagnetics. However, ideal black bodies and PMLs do not interact with evanescent fields existing near any finite-size source, and the energy stored in these fields cannot be harvested. Here we introduce the concept of the ideal conjugate matched layer (CML), which fully absorbs energy of both propagating and evanescent fields of sources acting as an ideal sink for electromagnetic energy. Conjugate matched absorbers have exciting application potentials, as resonant attractors of electromagnetic energy into the absorber volume. We derive the conditions on the constitutive parameters of media which can serve as CML materials, numerically study the performance of planar and cylindrical CML and discuss possible realizations of such materials as metal-dielectric composites.
Relativistic Remnants of Non-Relativistic Electrons
Kashiwa, Taro
2015-01-01
Electrons obeying the Dirac equation are investigated under the non-relativistic $c \\mapsto \\infty$ limit. General solutions are given by derivatives of the relativistic invariant functions whose forms are different in the time- and the space-like region, yielding the delta function of $(ct)^2 - x^2$. This light-cone singularity does survive to show that the charge and the current density of electrons travel with the speed of light in spite of their massiveness.
Chen, Zaigao; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Yue; Qiao, Hailiang; Zhang, Dianhui; Guo, Weijie
2013-11-01
Optimal design method of high-power microwave source using particle simulation and parallel genetic algorithms is presented in this paper. The output power, simulated by the fully electromagnetic particle simulation code UNIPIC, of the high-power microwave device is given as the fitness function, and the float-encoding genetic algorithms are used to optimize the high-power microwave devices. Using this method, we encode the heights of non-uniform slow wave structure in the relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWO), and optimize the parameters on massively parallel processors. Simulation results demonstrate that we can obtain the optimal parameters of non-uniform slow wave structure in the RBWO, and the output microwave power enhances 52.6% after the device is optimized.
Collisional effects on the oblique instability in relativistic beam-plasma interactions
Hao, B.; Ding, W. J.; Sheng, Z. M.; Ren, C.; Kong, X.; Mu, J.; Zhang, J.
2012-07-01
The general oblique instability for a relativistic electron beam propagating through a warm and resistive plasma is investigated fully kinetically by a variable rotation method. Analysis shows that the electrostatic part of the oblique instability is attenuated and eventually stabilized by collisional effects. However, the electromagnetic part of the oblique instability (EMOI) is enhanced. Since the current-filamentation instability as a special case of the EMOI has a larger growth rate, it becomes dominant in the collisional case as shown in our two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. While the beam diverges in the collisionless case, it can become magnetically collimated in the collisional case due to stabilization of the electrostatic instabilities when the initial beam spreading angle is less than certain magnitude such as a dozen degrees.
Relativistic Plasma Polarizer: Impact of Temperature Anisotropy on Relativistic Transparency
Hazeltine, R. D.; Stark, David J.; Bhattacharjee, Chinmoy; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Toncian, Toma; Mahajan, S. M.
2015-11-01
3D particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate that the enhanced transparency of a relativistically hot plasma is sensitive to how the energy is partitioned between different degrees of freedom. We consider here the simplest problem: the propagation of a low amplitude pulse through a preformed relativistically hot anisotropic electron plasma to explore its intrinsic dielectric properties. We find that: 1) the critical density for propagation depends strongly on the pulse polarization, 2) two plasmas with the same density and average energy per electron can exhibit profoundly different responses to electromagnetic pulses, 3) the anisotropy-driven Weibel instability develops as expected; the timescales of the growth and back reaction (on anisotropy), however, are long enough that sufficient anisotropy persists for the entire duration of the simulation. This plasma can then function as a polarizer or a wave plate to dramatically alter the pulse polarization. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE Contract Nos. DE-FG02-04ER54742 and DE-AC05-06OR23100 (D. J. S.) and NNSA Contract No. DE-FC52-08NA28512.
Solitons in relativistic laser-plasma interactions
XIE Bai-song; DU Shu-cheng
2007-01-01
Single or/and multipeak solitons in plasma under relativistic electromagnetic field are reviewed.The incident electromagnetic field iS allowed to have a zero or/and nonzero initial constant amplitude.Some interesting numerical results are obtained that include a high-number multipeak laser pulse and single or/and low-number multipeak plasma wake structures.It is also shown that there exists a combination of soliton and oscillation waves for plasma wake field.Also,the electron density exhibits multi-caviton structure or the combination of caviton and oscillation.A complete eigenvalue spectrum of parameters is given wherein some higher peak numbers of multipeak electromagnetic solitons in the plasma are included.Moreover, some interesting scaling laws are presented for field energy via numerical approaches.Some implications of results are discussed.
Relativistic quantum mechanics
Wachter, Armin
2010-01-01
Which problems do arise within relativistic enhancements of the Schrödinger theory, especially if one adheres to the usual one-particle interpretation, and to what extent can these problems be overcome? And what is the physical necessity of quantum field theories? In many books, answers to these fundamental questions are given highly insufficiently by treating the relativistic quantum mechanical one-particle concept very superficially and instead introducing field quantization as soon as possible. By contrast, this monograph emphasizes relativistic quantum mechanics in the narrow sense: it extensively discusses relativistic one-particle concepts and reveals their problems and limitations, therefore motivating the necessity of quantized fields in a physically comprehensible way. The first chapters contain a detailed presentation and comparison of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac theory, always in view of the non-relativistic theory. In the third chapter, we consider relativistic scattering processes and develop the...
Playing relativistic billiards beyond graphene
Sadurni, E [Institut fuer Quantenphysik, Ulm Universitaet, Albert-Einstein Allee 11, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Seligman, T H [Centro Internacional de Ciencias A.C., Apartado Postal 6-101 C.P. 62131 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Mortessagne, F, E-mail: esadurni@uni-ulm.d, E-mail: seligman@fis.unam.m, E-mail: fabrice.mortessagne@unice.f [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, UMR 6622 Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice cedex 2 (France)
2010-05-15
The possibility of using hexagonal structures in general, and graphene in particular, to emulate the Dirac equation is the topic under consideration here. We show that Dirac oscillators with or without rest mass can be emulated by distorting a tight-binding model on a hexagonal structure. In the quest to make a toy model for such relativistic equations, we first show that a hexagonal lattice of attractive potential wells would be a good candidate. Firstly, we consider the corresponding one-dimensional (1D) model giving rise to a 1D Dirac oscillator and then construct explicitly the deformations needed in the 2D case. Finally, we discuss how such a model can be implemented as an electromagnetic billiard using arrays of dielectric resonators between two conducting plates that ensure evanescent modes outside the resonators for transversal electric modes, and we describe a feasible experimental setup.
Playing relativistic billiards beyond graphene
Sadurní, E.; Seligman, T. H.; Mortessagne, F.
2010-05-01
The possibility of using hexagonal structures in general, and graphene in particular, to emulate the Dirac equation is the topic under consideration here. We show that Dirac oscillators with or without rest mass can be emulated by distorting a tight-binding model on a hexagonal structure. In the quest to make a toy model for such relativistic equations, we first show that a hexagonal lattice of attractive potential wells would be a good candidate. Firstly, we consider the corresponding one-dimensional (1D) model giving rise to a 1D Dirac oscillator and then construct explicitly the deformations needed in the 2D case. Finally, we discuss how such a model can be implemented as an electromagnetic billiard using arrays of dielectric resonators between two conducting plates that ensure evanescent modes outside the resonators for transversal electric modes, and we describe a feasible experimental setup.
Playing relativistic billiards beyond graphene
Sadurni, Emerson; Mortessagne, Fabrice
2010-01-01
The possibility of using hexagonal structures in general and graphene in particular to emulate the Dirac equation is the basis of our considerations. We show that Dirac oscillators with or without restmass can be emulated by distorting a tight binding model on a hexagonal structure. In a quest to make a toy model for such relativistic equations we first show that a hexagonal lattice of attractive potential wells would be a good candidate. First we consider the corresponding one-dimensional model giving rise to a one-dimensional Dirac oscillator, and then construct explicitly the deformations needed in the two-dimensional case. Finally we discuss, how such a model can be implemented as an electromagnetic billiard using arrays of dielectric resonators between two conducting plates that ensure evanescent modes outside the resonators for transversal electric modes, and describe an appropriate experimental setup.
ZHANG Peng-Fei; RUAN Tu-Nan
2001-01-01
A systematic theory on the appropriate spin operators for the relativistic states is developed. For a massive relativistic particle with arbitrary nonzero spin, the spin operator should be replaced with the relativistic one, which is called in this paper as moving spin. Further the concept of moving spin is discussed in the quantum field theory. A new is constructed. It is shown that, in virtue of the two operators, problems in quantum field concerned spin can be neatly settled.
Relativistic Guiding Center Equations
White, R. B. [PPPL; Gobbin, M. [Euratom-ENEA Association
2014-10-01
In toroidal fusion devices it is relatively easy that electrons achieve relativistic velocities, so to simulate runaway electrons and other high energy phenomena a nonrelativistic guiding center formalism is not sufficient. Relativistic guiding center equations including flute mode time dependent field perturbations are derived. The same variables as used in a previous nonrelativistic guiding center code are adopted, so that a straightforward modifications of those equations can produce a relativistic version.
Relativistic Linear Restoring Force
Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.
2012-01-01
We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…
MALFLIET, R
1993-01-01
We discuss the present status of relativistic transport theory. Special emphasis is put on problems of topical interest: hadronic features, thermodynamical consistent approximations and spectral properties.
Ponderomotive Acceleration by Relativistic Waves
Lau, Calvin; Yeh, Po-Chun; Luk, Onnie; McClenaghan, Joseph; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Tajima, Toshiki
2014-01-01
In the extreme high intensity regime of electromagnetic (EM) waves in plasma, the acceleration process is found to be dominated by the ponderomotive acceleration (PA). While the wakefields driven by the ponderomotive force of the relativistic intensity EM waves are important, they may be overtaken by the PA itself in the extreme high intensity regime when the dimensionless vector potential $a_0$ of the EM waves far exceeds unity. The energy gain by this regime (in 1D) is shown to be (approximately) proportional to $a_0^2$. Before reaching this extreme regime, the coexistence of the PA and the wakefield acceleration (WA) is observed where the wave structures driven by the wakefields show the phenomenon of multiple and folded wave-breakings. Investigated are various signatures of the acceleration processes such as the dependence on the mass ratio for the energy gain as well as the energy spectral features. The relevance to high energy cosmic ray acceleration and to the relativistic laser acceleration is conside...
Bulanov, Stepan; Maksimchuk, Anatoly; Zhidkov, Alexei
2009-11-01
We report on the analytic and computer simulation study of a relativistic spherical wake wave. Such a wave in the breaking regime, traveling towards the center is able to reflect and focus the incoming radiation and up-shifting its frequency. The reflected and focused electromagnetic pulse can have such high intensity, that it is able to create e^+e^- pairs via Schwinger process.
Relativistic modeling capabilities in PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for HED plasmas
Hamlin, Nathaniel D., E-mail: nh322@cornell.edu [438 Rhodes Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States); Seyler, Charles E., E-mail: ces7@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States)
2014-12-15
We discuss the incorporation of relativistic modeling capabilities into the PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas, and present the latest hybrid X-pinch simulation results. The use of fully relativistic equations enables the model to remain self-consistent in simulations of such relativistic phenomena as X-pinches and laser-plasma interactions. By suitable formulation of the relativistic generalized Ohm’s law as an evolution equation, we have reduced the recovery of primitive variables, a major technical challenge in relativistic codes, to a straightforward algebraic computation. Our code recovers expected results in the non-relativistic limit, and reveals new physics in the modeling of electron beam acceleration following an X-pinch. Through the use of a relaxation scheme, relativistic PERSEUS is able to handle nine orders of magnitude in density variation, making it the first fluid code, to our knowledge, that can simulate relativistic HED plasmas.
Relativistic quantum mechanics; Mecanique quantique relativiste
Ollitrault, J.Y. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)
1998-12-01
These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.) 2 refs.
Towards relativistic quantum geometry
Ridao, Luis Santiago [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2015-12-17
We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner–Nordström black-hole is studied.
Electromagnetic Radiation and Motion of Really Shaped Particle
Klacka, J
2001-01-01
Relativistically covariant form of equation of motion for real particle (neutral in charge) under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. Various formulations of the equation of motion in the proper frame of reference of the particle are used. Main attention is devoted to the reformulation of the equation of motion in the general frame of reference, e. g., in the frame of reference of the source of electromagnetic radiation. This is the crucial form of equation of motion in applying it to motion of particles (cosmic dust, asteroids, ...) in the Universe if electromagnetic radiation acts on the particles. General relativistic equation of motion is presented.
Wave-induced loss of ultra-relativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts
Shprits, Yuri Y.; Drozdov, Alexander Y.; Spasojevic, Maria; Kellerman, Adam C.; Usanova, Maria E.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Agapitov, Oleksiy V.; Zhelavskaya, Irina S.; Raita, Tero J.; Spence, Harlan E.; Baker, Daniel N.; Zhu, Hui; Aseev, Nikita A.
2016-01-01
The dipole configuration of the Earth's magnetic field allows for the trapping of highly energetic particles, which form the radiation belts. Although significant advances have been made in understanding the acceleration mechanisms in the radiation belts, the loss processes remain poorly understood. Unique observations on 17 January 2013 provide detailed information throughout the belts on the energy spectrum and pitch angle (angle between the velocity of a particle and the magnetic field) distribution of electrons up to ultra-relativistic energies. Here we show that although relativistic electrons are enhanced, ultra-relativistic electrons become depleted and distributions of particles show very clear telltale signatures of electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave-induced loss. Comparisons between observations and modelling of the evolution of the electron flux and pitch angle show that electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves provide the dominant loss mechanism at ultra-relativistic energies and produce a profound dropout of the ultra-relativistic radiation belt fluxes. PMID:27678050
Wave-induced loss of ultra-relativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts.
Shprits, Yuri Y; Drozdov, Alexander Y; Spasojevic, Maria; Kellerman, Adam C; Usanova, Maria E; Engebretson, Mark J; Agapitov, Oleksiy V; Zhelavskaya, Irina S; Raita, Tero J; Spence, Harlan E; Baker, Daniel N; Zhu, Hui; Aseev, Nikita A
2016-09-28
The dipole configuration of the Earth's magnetic field allows for the trapping of highly energetic particles, which form the radiation belts. Although significant advances have been made in understanding the acceleration mechanisms in the radiation belts, the loss processes remain poorly understood. Unique observations on 17 January 2013 provide detailed information throughout the belts on the energy spectrum and pitch angle (angle between the velocity of a particle and the magnetic field) distribution of electrons up to ultra-relativistic energies. Here we show that although relativistic electrons are enhanced, ultra-relativistic electrons become depleted and distributions of particles show very clear telltale signatures of electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave-induced loss. Comparisons between observations and modelling of the evolution of the electron flux and pitch angle show that electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves provide the dominant loss mechanism at ultra-relativistic energies and produce a profound dropout of the ultra-relativistic radiation belt fluxes.
Relativistic nonlinear electrodynamics the QED vacuum and matter in super-strong radiation fields
Avetissian, Hamlet K
2016-01-01
This revised edition of the author’s classic 2006 text offers a comprehensively updated review of the field of relativistic nonlinear electrodynamics. It explores the interaction of strong and super-strong electromagnetic/laser radiation with the electromagnetic quantum vacuum and diverse types of matter – including free charged particles and antiparticles, acceleration beams, plasma and plasmous media. The appearance of laser sources of relativistic and ultra-relativistic intensities over the last decade has stimulated investigation of a large class of processes under such super-strong radiation fields. Revisions for this second edition reflect these developments and the book includes new chapters on Bremsstrahlung and nonlinear absorption of superintense radiation in plasmas, the nonlinear interaction of relativistic atoms with intense laser radiation, nonlinear interaction of strong laser radiation with Graphene, and relativistic nonlinear phenomena in solid-plasma targets under supershort laser pul...
Wave-induced loss of ultra-relativistic electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts
Shprits, Yuri Y.; Drozdov, Alexander Y.; Spasojevic, Maria; Kellerman, Adam C.; Usanova, Maria E.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Agapitov, Oleksiy V.; Zhelavskaya, Irina S.; Raita, Tero J.; Spence, Harlan E.; Baker, Daniel N.; Zhu, Hui; Aseev, Nikita A.
2016-09-01
The dipole configuration of the Earth's magnetic field allows for the trapping of highly energetic particles, which form the radiation belts. Although significant advances have been made in understanding the acceleration mechanisms in the radiation belts, the loss processes remain poorly understood. Unique observations on 17 January 2013 provide detailed information throughout the belts on the energy spectrum and pitch angle (angle between the velocity of a particle and the magnetic field) distribution of electrons up to ultra-relativistic energies. Here we show that although relativistic electrons are enhanced, ultra-relativistic electrons become depleted and distributions of particles show very clear telltale signatures of electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave-induced loss. Comparisons between observations and modelling of the evolution of the electron flux and pitch angle show that electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves provide the dominant loss mechanism at ultra-relativistic energies and produce a profound dropout of the ultra-relativistic radiation belt fluxes.
Coupling of (ultra- relativistic atomic nuclei with photons
M. Apostol
2013-11-01
Full Text Available The coupling of photons with (ultra- relativistic atomic nuclei is presented in two particular circumstances: very high electromagnetic fields and very short photon pulses. We consider a typical situation where the (bare nuclei (fully stripped of electrons are accelerated to energies ≃ 1 TeV per nucleon (according to the state of the art at LHC, for instance and photon sources like petawatt lasers ≃ 1 eV-radiation (envisaged by ELI-NP project, for instance, or free-electron laser ≃ 10 keV-radiation, or synchrotron sources, etc. In these circumstances the nuclear scale energy can be attained, with very high field intensities. In particular, we analyze the nuclear transitions induced by the radiation, including both one- and two-photon proceses, as well as the polarization-driven transitions which may lead to giant dipole resonances. The nuclear (electrical polarization concept is introduced. It is shown that the perturbation theory for photo-nuclear reactions is applicable, although the field intensity is high, since the corresponding interaction energy is low and the interaction time (pulse duration is short. It is also shown that the description of the giant nuclear dipole resonance requires the dynamics of the nuclear electrical polarization degrees of freedom.
Coupling of (ultra-)relativistic atomic nuclei with photons
Apostol, M
2013-01-01
The coupling of photons with (ultra-) relativistic atomic nuclei is presented in two particular circumstances: very high electromagnetic fields and very short photon pulses. We consider a typical situation where the (bare) nuclei (fully stripped of electrons) are accelerated to energies ~1TeV per nucleon (according to the state of the art at LHC, for instance) and photon sources like petawatt lasers \\simeq1eV -radiation (envisaged by ELI-NP project, for instance), or free-electron laser ~10keV -radiation, or synchrotron sources, etc. In these circumstances the nuclear scale energy can be attained, with very high field intensities. In particular, we analyse the nuclear transitions induced by the radiation, including both one- and two-photon processes, as well as the polarization-driven transitions which may lead to giant dipole resonances. The nuclear (electrical) polarization concept is introduced. It is shown that the perturbation theory for photo-nuclear reactions is applicable, although the field intensity...
Electromagnetic Sources in Moving Simple Medium
Johannsen, Günther
1970-01-01
A retarded potential tensor (4-vector) is derived in an arbitrary system of inertia for an arbitrary electromagnetic source in a moving homogeneous, isotropic, nondispersive, lossless dielectric. The velocity is uniform, and the result is relativistic correct. ©1970 The American Institute...
Electromagnetic Radiation and Motion of Real Particle
Klacka, J
2000-01-01
Relativistically covariant equation of motion for real dust particle under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. The particle is neutral in charge. Equation of motion is expressed in terms of particle's optical properties, standardly used in optics for stationary particles.
Relativistic Parker winds with variable effective polytropic index
Meliani, Z; Tsinganos, K; Vlahakis, N
2004-01-01
Spherically symmetric hydrodynamical outflows accelerated thermally in the vicinity of a compact object are studied by generalizing an equation of state with a variable effective polytropic index, appropriate to describe relativistic temperatures close to the central object and nonrelativistic ones further away. Relativistic effects introduced by the Schwarzschild metric and the presence of relativistic temperatures in the corona are compared with previous results for a constant effective polytropic index and also with results of the classical wind theory. By a parametric study of the polytropic index and the location of the sonic transition it is found that space time curvature and relativistic temperatures tend to increase the efficiency of thermal driving in accelerating the outflow. Thus conversely to the classical Parker wind, the outflow is accelerated even for polytropic indices higher than 3/2. The results of this simple but fully relativistic extension of the polytropic equation of state may be usefu...
The Sagnac Phase Shift Suggested by the Aharonov-Bohm Effect for Relativistic Matter Beams
Rizzi, Guido; Ruggiero, Matteo Luca
2003-10-01
The phase shift due to the Sagnac Effect, for relativistic matter beams counter-propagating in a rotating interferometer, is deduced on the bases of a formal analogy with the Aharonov-Bohm effect. A procedure outlined by Sakurai, in which non relativistic quantum mechanics and Newtonian physics appear together with some intrinsically relativistic elements, is generalized to a fully relativistic context, using the Cattaneo's splitting technique. This approach leads to an exact derivation, in a self-consistently relativistic way, of the Sagnac effect. Sakurai's result is recovered in the first order approximation.
The Sagnac Phase Shift suggested by the Aharonov-Bohm effect for relativistic matter beams
Rizzi, G; Rizzi, Guido; Ruggiero, Matteo Luca
2003-01-01
The phase shift due to the Sagnac Effect, for relativistic matter beams counter-propagating in a rotating interferometer, is deduced on the bases of a a formal analogy with the the Aharonov-Bohm effect. A procedure outlined by Sakurai, in which non relativistic quantum mechanics and newtonian physics appear together with some intrinsically relativistic elements, is generalized to a fully relativistic context, using the Cattaneo's splitting technique. This approach leads to an exact derivation, in a self-consistently relativistic way, of the Sagnac effect. Sakurai's result is recovered in the first order approximation.
Boyer, Timothy H.
2016-11-01
Electromagnetism is a relativistic theory, and one must exercise care in coupling this theory with nonrelativistic classical mechanics and with nonrelativistic classical statistical mechanics. Indeed historically, both the blackbody radiation spectrum and diamagnetism within classical theory have been misunderstood because of two crucial failures: (1) the neglect of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, and (2) the use of erroneous combinations of nonrelativistic mechanics with relativistic electrodynamics. Here we review the treatment of classical blackbody radiation, and show that the presence of Lorentz-invariant classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation can explain both the Planck blackbody spectrum and Landau diamagnetism at thermal equilibrium within classical electromagnetic theory. The analysis requires that relativistic electromagnetism is joined appropriately with simple nonrelativistic mechanical systems which can be regarded as the zero-velocity limits of relativistic systems, and that nonrelativistic classical statistical mechanics is applied only in the low-frequency limit when zero-point energy makes no contribution.
Does electromagnetic radiation accelerate galactic cosmic rays
Eichler, D.
1977-01-01
The 'reactor' theories of Tsytovich and collaborators (1973) of cosmic-ray acceleration by electromagnetic radiation are examined in the context of galactic cosmic rays. It is shown that any isotropic synchrotron or Compton reactors with reasonable astrophysical parameters can yield particles with a maximum relativistic factor of only about 10,000. If they are to produce particles with higher relativistic factors, the losses due to inverse Compton scattering of the electromagnetic radiation in them outweigh the acceleration, and this violates the assumptions of the theory. This is a critical restriction in the context of galactic cosmic rays, which have a power-law spectrum extending up to a relativistic factor of 1 million.
Haas, Roland; Bode, Tanja; Laguna, Pablo
2010-02-01
Observations of the gravitational and electromagnetic radiation from the tidal disruption of a white dwarf by an intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) could provide evidence for the existence of IMBHs. During the inspiral and violent disruption of the star, the system will emit both gravitational waves and possibly X-ray radiation from the remnant accretion disk around the IMBH, which together will allow both the system's location and internal parameters to be measured. We present results for the first fully general relativistic hydrodynamics simulations of these encounters focusing not only on the gravitational wave emission not but also the electromagnetic signatures during the disruption and subsequent accretion. Our code uses the successful puncture recipe as implemented in an enhanced version our vacuum MayaKranc code coupled to the hydrodynamics code Whisky. )
Relativistic and Non-relativistic Equations of Motion
Mangiarotti, L
1998-01-01
It is shown that any second order dynamic equation on a configuration space $X$ of non-relativistic time-dependent mechanics can be seen as a geodesic equation with respect to some (non-linear) connection on the tangent bundle $TX\\to X$ of relativistic velocities. Using this fact, the relationship between relativistic and non-relativistic equations of motion is studied.
Exact Relativistic Magnetized Haloes around Rotating Disks
Antonio C. Gutiérrez-Piñeres
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The study of the dynamics of magnetic fields in galaxies is one of important problems in formation and evolution of galaxies. In this paper, we present the exact relativistic treatment of a rotating disk surrounded by a magnetized material halo. The features of the halo and disk are described by the distributional energy-momentum tensor of a general fluid in canonical form. All the relevant quantities and the metric and electromagnetic potentials are exactly determined by an arbitrary harmonic function only. For instance, the generalized Kuzmin-disk potential is used. The particular class of solutions obtained is asymptotically flat and satisfies all the energy conditions. Moreover, the motion of a charged particle on the halo is described. As far as we know, this is the first relativistic model describing analytically the magnetized halo of a rotating disk.
Relativistic Positioning Systems: The Emission Coordinates
Coll, B; Coll, Bartolom\\'{e}; Pozo, Jos\\'{e} Mar\\'{I}a
2006-01-01
This paper introduces some general properties of the gravitational metric and the natural basis of vectors and covectors in 4-dimensional emission coordinates. Emission coordinates are a class of space-time coordinates defined and generated by 4 emitters (satellites) broadcasting their proper time by means of electromagnetic signals. They are a constitutive ingredient of the simplest conceivable relativistic positioning systems. Their study is aimed to develop a theory of these positioning systems, based on the framework and concepts of general relativity, as opposed to introducing `relativistic effects' in a classical framework. In particular, we characterize the causal character of the coordinate vectors, covectors and 2-planes, which are of an unusual type. We obtain the inequality conditions for the contravariant metric to be Lorentzian, and the non-trivial and unexpected identities satisfied by the angles formed by each pair of natural vectors. We also prove that the metric can be naturally split in such...
Electromagnetic modes in cold magnetized strongly coupled plasmas
Tkachenko, I. M.; Ortner, J.; Rylyuk, V. M.
1999-01-01
The spectrum of electromagnetic waves propagating in a strongly coupled magnetized fully ionized hydrogen plasma is found. The ion motion and damping being neglected, the influence of the Coulomb coupling on the electromagnetic spectrum is analyzed.
Non-relativistic particles in a thermal bath
Vairo Antonio
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Heavy particles are a window to new physics and new phenomena. Since the late eighties they are treated by means of effective field theories that fully exploit the symmetries and power counting typical of non-relativistic systems. More recently these effective field theories have been extended to describe non-relativistic particles propagating in a medium. After introducing some general features common to any non-relativistic effective field theory, we discuss two specific examples: heavy Majorana neutrinos colliding in a hot plasma of Standard Model particles in the early universe and quarkonia produced in heavy-ion collisions dissociating in a quark-gluon plasma.
Certified randomness from a two-level system in a relativistic quantum field
Thinh, Le Phuc; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo
2016-08-01
Randomness is an indispensable resource in modern science and information technology. Fortunately, an experimentally simple procedure exists to generate randomness with well-characterized devices: measuring a quantum system in a basis complementary to its preparation. Towards realizing this goal one may consider using atoms or superconducting qubits, promising candidates for quantum information processing. However, their unavoidable interaction with the electromagnetic field affects their dynamics. At large time scales, this can result in decoherence. Smaller time scales in principle avoid this problem, but may not be well analyzed under the usual rotating wave and single mode approximation (RWA and SMA) which break the relativistic nature of quantum field theory. Here, we use a fully relativistic analysis to quantify the information that an adversary with access to the field could get on the result of an atomic measurement. Surprisingly, we find that the adversary's guessing probability is not minimized for atoms initially prepared in the ground state (an intuition derived from the RWA and SMA model).
Introduction to the relativistic string theory
Barbashov, B M
1990-01-01
This book presents a systematic and detailed account of the classical and quantum theory of the relativistic string and some of its modifications. Main attention is paid to the first-quantized string theory with possible applications to the string models of hadrons as well as to the superstring approach to unifications of all the fundamental interactions in the elementary particle physics and to the "cosmic" strings. Some new aspects are provided such as the consideration of the string in an external electromagnetic field and in the space-time of constant curvature (the de Sitter universe), th
Variational thermodynamics of relativistic thin disks
Gutiérrez-Piñeres, A C; Quevedo, H
2013-01-01
We present a relativistic model describing a thin disk system composed of two fluids. The system is surrounded by a halo in the presence of a non-trivial electromagnetic field. We show that the model is compatible with the variational multi-fluid thermodynamics formalism, allowing us to determine all the thermodynamic variables associated with the matter content of the disk. The asymptotic behaviour of these quantities indicates that the single fluid interpretation should be abandoned in favour of a two-fluid model.
Microengineering laser plasma interactions at relativistic intensities
Jiang, S; Audesirk, H; George, K M; Snyder, J; Krygier, A; Lewis, N S; Schumacher, D W; Pukhov, A; Freeman, R R; Akli, K U
2015-01-01
We report on the first successful proof-of-principle experiment to manipulate laser-matter interactions on the microscale using highly ordered Si microwire arrays. The interaction of a high contrast short pulse laser with a flat target via periodic Si microwires yields a substantial enhancement in both total and cut-off energies of the produced electron beam. The self generated electric and magnetic fields behave as an electromagnetic lens that confines and guides electrons between the microwires as they acquire relativistic energies via direct laser acceleration (DLA).
Microengineering Laser Plasma Interactions at Relativistic Intensities.
Jiang, S; Ji, L L; Audesirk, H; George, K M; Snyder, J; Krygier, A; Poole, P; Willis, C; Daskalova, R; Chowdhury, E; Lewis, N S; Schumacher, D W; Pukhov, A; Freeman, R R; Akli, K U
2016-02-26
We report on the first successful proof-of-principle experiment to manipulate laser-matter interactions on microscales using highly ordered Si microwire arrays. The interaction of a high-contrast short-pulse laser with a flat target via periodic Si microwires yields a substantial enhancement in both the total and cutoff energies of the produced electron beam. The self-generated electric and magnetic fields behave as an electromagnetic lens that confines and guides electrons between the microwires as they acquire relativistic energies via direct laser acceleration.
Acceleration of Relativistic Protons during the 20 January 2005 Flare and CME
Masson, S; Buetikofer, R; Flueckiger, E; Kurt, V; Yushkov, B; Krucker, S
2009-01-01
The origin of relativistic solar protons during large flare/CME events has not been uniquely identified so far.We perform a detailed comparative analysis of the time profiles of relativistic protons detected by the worldwide network of neutron monitors at Earth with electromagnetic signatures of particle acceleration in the solar corona during the large particle event of 20 January 2005. The intensity-time profile of the relativistic protons derived from the neutron monitor data indicates two successive peaks. We show that microwave, hard X-ray and gamma-ray emissions display several episodes of particle acceleration within the impulsive flare phase. The first relativistic protons detected at Earth are accelerated together with relativistic electrons and with protons that produce pion decay gamma-rays during the second episode. The second peak in the relativistic proton profile at Earth is accompanied by new signatures of particle acceleration in the corona within approximatively 1 solar radius above the phot...
Relativistic calculation of deuteron threshold electrodisintegration at backward angles
Arriaga, A.; Schiavilla, R.
2007-07-01
The threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron at backward angles is studied in instant form Hamiltonian dynamics, including a relativistic one-pion-exchange potential (OPEP) with off-shell terms as predicted by pseudovector coupling of pions to nucleons. The bound and scattering states are obtained in the center-of-mass frame, and then boosted from it to the Breit frame, where the evaluation of the relevant matrix elements of the electromagnetic current operator is carried out. The latter includes, in addition to one-body, also two-body terms due to pion exchange, as obtained, consistently with the OPEP, in pseudovector pion-nucleon coupling theory. In order to estimate the magnitude of the relativistic effects we perform, for comparison, the calculation with a nonrelativistic phase-equivalent Hamiltonian and consistent one-body and two-body pion-exchange currents. Our results for the electrodisintegration cross section show that, in the calculations using one-body currents, relativistic corrections become significant (i.e., larger than 10%) only at high momentum transfer Q (Q2≃40 fm-2 and beyond). However, the inclusion of two-body currents makes the relativistic predictions considerably smaller than the corresponding nonrelativistic results in the Q2 region (18 40) fm-2. The calculations based on the relativistic model also confirm the inadequacy, already established in a nonrelativistic context, of the present electromagnetic current model to reproduce accurately the experimental data at intermediate values of momentum transfers.
Relativistic spherical plasma waves
Bulanov, S. S.; Maksimchuk, A.; Schroeder, C. B.; Zhidkov, A. G.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.
2012-02-01
Tightly focused laser pulses that diverge or converge in underdense plasma can generate wake waves, having local structures that are spherical waves. Here we study theoretically and numerically relativistic spherical wake waves and their properties, including wave breaking.
Bliokh, Konstantin Y
2011-01-01
We consider the relativistic deformation of quantum waves and mechanical bodies carrying intrinsic angular momentum (AM). When observed in a moving reference frame, the centroid of the object undergoes an AM-dependent transverse shift. This is the relativistic analogue of the spin Hall effect, which occurs in free space without any external fields. Remarkably, the shifts of the geometric and energy centroids differ by a factor of 2, and both centroids are crucial for the correct Lorentz transformations of the AM tensor. We examine manifestations of the relativistic Hall effect in quantum vortices, mechanical flywheel, and discuss various fundamental aspects of the phenomenon. The perfect agreement of quantum and relativistic approaches allows applications at strikingly different scales: from elementary spinning particles, through classical light, to rotating black-holes.
Exact Relativistic 'Antigravity' Propulsion
Felber, F S
2006-01-01
The Schwarzschild solution is used to find the exact relativistic motion of a payload in the gravitational field of a mass moving with constant velocity. At radial approach or recession speeds faster than 3^-1/2 times the speed of light, even a small mass gravitationally repels a payload. At relativistic speeds, a suitable mass can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest nearly to the speed of light with negligible stresses on the payload.
Exact Relativistic `Antigravity' Propulsion
Felber, Franklin S.
2006-01-01
The Schwarzschild solution is used to find the exact relativistic motion of a payload in the gravitational field of a mass moving with constant velocity. At radial approach or recession speeds faster than 3-1/2 times the speed of light, even a small mass gravitationally repels a payload. At relativistic speeds, a suitable mass can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest nearly to the speed of light with negligible stresses on the payload.
The homopolar motor: A true relativistic engine
Guala-Valverde, Jorge; Mazzoni, Pedro; Achilles, Ricardo
2002-10-01
This article discusses experiments which enable the identification of the seat of mechanical forces in homopolar-machines reported earlier in this journal [J. Guala-Valverde and P. Mazzoni, Am. J. Phys. 63, 228-229 (1995); J. Guala-Valverde, P. Mazzoni, and K. Blas, ibid. 65, 147-148 (1997)]. We provide a suitable variation on a recent work "The Unipolar Dynamotor: A Genuine Relational Engine" [J. Guala-Valverde and P. Mazzoni, Apeiron 8, 41-52 (2001)], where "relational" implies "absolutely relativistic." Our view agrees with both Weber's recognition in the 19th century of the importance of relative motion in electromagnetic phenomena [A. K. T. Assis, Electrodynamics (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1994)] and Einstein's 1905 statement concerning electromagnetism [Ann. Phys. 17, 891-921 (1905)].
Bremsstrahlung from relativistic heavy ions in matter
Sørensen, Allan Hvidkjær
2010-01-01
The emission of electromagnetic radiation by relativistic bare heavy ions penetrating ordinary matter is investigated. Our main aim is to determine the bremsstrahlung which we define as the radiation emitted when the projectile does not break up. It pertains to collisions without nuclear contact...... ("ultraperipheral collisions"). Requirement of coherent action of the nucleons in order to keep the penetrating projectile intact limits bremsstrahlung to relatively soft photons. The spectrum shows a resonance structure with peak position near 2γ times the position of the giant dipole resonance, that is, near 25γ....... As a result of its relative softness, bremsstrahlung never dominates the energy-loss process for heavy ions. As to the emission of electromagnetic radiation in collisions with nuclear break-up, it appears modest when pertaining to incoherent action of the projectile nucleons in noncontact collisions...
Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2011-08-01
A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.
Compton Sources of Electromagnetic Radiation
Geoffrey Krafft,Gerd Priebe
2011-01-01
When a relativistic electron beam interacts with a high-field laser beam, intense and highly collimated electromagnetic radiation will be generated through Compton scattering. Through relativistic upshifting and the relativistic Doppler effect, highly energetic polarized photons are radiated along the electron beam motion when the electrons interact with the laser light. For example, X-ray radiation can be obtained when optical lasers are scattered from electrons of tens-of-MeV beam energy. Because of the desirable properties of the radiation produced, many groups around the world have been designing, building, and utilizing Compton sources for a wide variety of purposes. In this review article, we discuss the generation and properties of the scattered radiation, the types of Compton source devices that have been constructed to date, and the prospects of radiation sources of this general type. Due to the possibilities of producing hard electromagnetic radiation in a device that is small compared to the alternative storage ring sources, it is foreseen that large numbers of such sources may be constructed in the future.
Hadronic and electromagnetic fragmentation of ultrarelativistic heavy ions at LHC
H. H. Braun
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Reliable predictions of yields of nuclear fragments produced in electromagnetic dissociation and hadronic fragmentation of ion beams are of great practical importance in analyzing beam losses and interactions with the beam environment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN as well as for estimating radiation effects of galactic cosmic rays on the spacecraft crew and electronic equipment. The model for predicting the fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions is briefly described, and then applied to problems of relevance for LHC. The results are based on the fluka code, which includes electromagnetic dissociation physics and dpmjet-iii as hadronic event generator. We consider the interaction of fully stripped lead ions with nuclei in the energy range from about one hundred MeV to ultrarelativistic energies. The yields of fragments close in the mass and charge to initial ions are calculated. The approach under discussion provides a good overall description of Pb fragmentation data at 30 and 158A GeV as well as recent LHC data for sqrt[s_{NN}]=2.76 TeV Pb-Pb interactions. Good agreement with the calculations in the framework of different models is found. This justifies application of the developed simulation technique both at the LHC injection energy of 177A GeV and at its collision energies of 1.38, 1.58, and 2.75A TeV, and gives confidence in the results obtained.
Radiation reaction in a system of relativistic gravitating particles
Galtsov, D.V.
1983-01-01
A Lorentz-covariant approach is developed to the description of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation in general relativity. A model of a relativistic system of gravitating point particles is constructed in which energy losses can be interpreted in terms of radiation-reaction forces. These forces are applied not only to the point particles but also to fields generated by these particles in the near zone. It is concluded that radiation friction in a system of relativistic gravitating particles is collective in character. 16 references.
Relativistic description of the Fermi motion effects on deuterium targets
Kusno, D.
1979-12-01
A comprehensive analysis of the inconsistencies of the conventional, non-relativistic approach, which has been used so far in the extraction of neutron data from deuterium targets, is given. A new approach dealing with the smearing effects, due to the nucleon's Fermi motion inside the deuteron, is developed as an alternative to the conventional one. This new approach is a spin-less, relativistic, simple and consistent approach. A new covariant model of the elastic electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron in the impulse approximation is also presented. The treatment includes spin and allows for a possibility of determining completely the two elastic structure functions.
Effective photon mass and exact translating quantum relativistic structures
Haas, Fernando; Manrique, Marcos Antonio Albarracin
2016-04-01
Using a variation of the celebrated Volkov solution, the Klein-Gordon equation for a charged particle is reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations, exactly solvable in specific cases. The new quantum relativistic structures can reveal a localization in the radial direction perpendicular to the wave packet propagation, thanks to a non-vanishing scalar potential. The external electromagnetic field, the particle current density, and the charge density are determined. The stability analysis of the solutions is performed by means of numerical simulations. The results are useful for the description of a charged quantum test particle in the relativistic regime, provided spin effects are not decisive.
Relativistic runaway breakdown in low-frequency radio
Füllekrug, Martin; Roussel-Dupré, Robert; Symbalisty, Eugene M. D.; Chanrion, Olivier; Odzimek, Anna; van der Velde, Oscar; Neubert, Torsten
2010-01-01
The electromagnetic radiation emitted by an electron avalanche beam resulting from relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere is investigated. It is found from theoretical modeling with a computer simulation that the electron beam emits electromagnetic radiation which is characterized by consecutive broadband pulses in the low-frequency radio range from ˜10 to 300 kHz at a distance of ˜800 km. Experimental evidence for the existence of consecutive broadband pulses is provided by low-frequency radio observations of sprite-producing lightning discharges at a distance of ˜550 km. The measured broadband pulses occur ˜4-9 ms after the sprite-producing lightning discharge, they exhibit electromagnetic radiation which mainly spans the frequency range from ˜50 to 350 kHz, and they exhibit complex waveforms without the typical ionospheric reflection of the first hop sky wave. Two consecutive pulses occur ˜4.5 ms and ˜3 ms after the causative lightning discharge and coincide with the sprite luminosity. It is concluded that relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere can emit broadband electromagnetic pulses and possibly generates sprites. The source location of the broadband pulses can be determined with an interferometric network of wideband low-frequency radio receivers to lend further experimental support to the relativistic runaway breakdown theory.
Milson, James L.
1990-01-01
Three activities involving electromagnetism are presented. Discussed are investigations involving the construction of an electromagnet, the effect of the number of turns of wire in the magnet, and the effect of the number of batteries in the circuit. Extension activities are suggested. (CW)
Relativistic spine jets from Schwarzschild black holes: "Application to AGN radioloud sources"
Meliani, Z; Tsinganos, K; Trussoni, E; Cayatte, V
2010-01-01
The two types of Fanaroff-Riley radio loud galaxies, FRI and FRII, exhibit strong jets but with different properties. These differences may be associated to the central engine and/or the external medium. Aims: The AGN classification FRI and FRII can be linked to the rate of electromagnetic Poynting flux extraction from the inner corona of the central engine by the jet. The collimation results from the distribution of the total electromagnetic energy across the jet, as compared to the corresponding distribution of the thermal and gravitational energies. We use exact solutions of the fully relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (GRMHD) equations obtained by a nonlinear separation of the variables to study outflows from a Schwarzschild black hole corona. A strong correlation is found between the jet features and the energetic distribution of the plasma of the inner corona which may be related to the efficiency of the magnetic rotator. It is shown that observations of FRI and FRII jets may be partially constrained by...
Bosanac, Slobodan Danko
2016-01-01
This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.
Bosanac, Slobodan Danko [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia). Physical Chemistry
2016-07-01
This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.
[Electromagnetic field intolerance: a nonexistent disease?].
Safářová, Sárka
2014-01-01
Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance Attributed to Electromagnetic Fields is a relatively new phenomenon, which is not fully understood. Extensive research has been carried out to exclude or confirm out that symptoms reported by sufferers are caused by electromagnetic field. This article describes outcomes of recent experiments and meta-analyses. The article may answer to the question if electromagnetic field does really cause reported symptoms, furthermore, it provides hypothetical explanation of this phenomenon.
Crane, Randolph W.; Marts, Donna J.
1994-01-01
An electromagnetic fastener for manipulating objects in space uses the matic attraction of various metals. An end effector is attached to a robotic manipulating system having an electromagnet such that when current is supplied to the electromagnet, the object is drawn and affixed to the end effector, and when the current is withheld, the object is released. The object to be manipulated includes a multiplicity of ferromagnetic patches at various locations to provide multiple areas for the effector on the manipulator to become affixed to the object. The ferromagnetic patches are sized relative to the object's geometry and mass.
Scaling of Magnetic Reconnection in Relativistic Collisionless Pair Plasmas
Liu, Yi-Hsin; Guo, Fan; Daughton, William; Li, Hui; Hesse, Michael
2015-01-01
Using fully kinetic simulations, we study the scaling of the inflow speed of collisionless magnetic reconnection in electron-positron plasmas from the non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic limit. In the anti-parallel configuration, the inflow speed increases with the upstream magnetization parameter sigma and approaches the speed of light when sigma is greater than O(100), leading to an enhanced reconnection rate. In all regimes, the divergence of the pressure tensor is the dominant term responsible for breaking the frozen-in condition at the x-line. The observed scaling agrees well with a simple model that accounts for the Lorentz contraction of the plasma passing through the diffusion region. The results demonstrate that the aspect ratio of the diffusion region, modified by the compression factor of proper density, remains approximately 0.1 in both the non-relativistic and relativistic limits.
Isolating relativistic effects in large-scale structure
Bonvin, Camille
2014-01-01
We present a fully relativistic calculation of the observed galaxy number counts in the linear regime. We show that besides the density fluctuations and redshift-space distortions, various relativistic effects contribute to observations at large scales. These effects all have the same physical origin: they result from the fact that our coordinate system, namely the galaxy redshift and the incoming photons' direction, is distorted by inhomogeneities in our universe. We then discuss the impact of the relativistic effects on the angular power spectrum and on the two-point correlation function in configuration space. We show that the latter is very well adapted to isolate the relativistic effects since it naturally makes use of the symmetries of the different contributions. In particular, we discuss how the Doppler effect and the gravitational redshift distortions can be isolated by looking for a dipole in the cross-correlation function between a bright and a faint population of galaxies.
Relativistic Quantum Communication
Hosler, Dominic
2013-01-01
In this Ph.D. thesis, I investigate the communication abilities of non-inertial observers and the precision to which they can measure parametrized states. I introduce relativistic quantum field theory with field quantisation, and the definition and transformations of mode functions in Minkowski, Schwarzschild and Rindler spaces. I introduce information theory by discussing the nature of information, defining the entropic information measures, and highlighting the differences between classical and quantum information. I review the field of relativistic quantum information. We investigate the communication abilities of an inertial observer to a relativistic observer hovering above a Schwarzschild black hole, using the Rindler approximation. We compare both classical communication and quantum entanglement generation of the state merging protocol, for both the single and dual rail encodings. We find that while classical communication remains finite right up to the horizon, the quantum entanglement generation tend...
Relativistic quantum mechanics
Horwitz, Lawrence P
2015-01-01
This book describes a relativistic quantum theory developed by the author starting from the E.C.G. Stueckelberg approach proposed in the early 40s. In this framework a universal invariant evolution parameter (corresponding to the time originally postulated by Newton) is introduced to describe dynamical evolution. This theory is able to provide solutions for some of the fundamental problems encountered in early attempts to construct a relativistic quantum theory. A relativistically covariant construction is given for which particle spins and angular momenta can be combined through the usual rotation group Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. Solutions are defined for both the classical and quantum two body bound state and scattering problems. The recently developed quantum Lax-Phillips theory of semigroup evolution of resonant states is described. The experiment of Lindner and coworkers on interference in time is discussed showing how the property of coherence in time provides a simple understanding of the results. Th...
Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry
Liu, Wenjian (ed.) [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Center for Computational Science and Engineering
2017-03-01
This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.
Dynamical Relativistic Systems and the Generalized Gauge Fields of Manifestly Covariant Theories
Horwitz, L P
1998-01-01
The problem of the classical non-relativistic electromagnetically kicked oscillator can be cast into the form of an iterative map on phase space. The original work of Zaslovskii et al showed that the resulting evolution contains a stochastic flow in phase space to unbounded energy. Subsequent studies have formulated the problem in terms of a relativistically charged particle in interaction with the electromagnetic field. We review the standard derivation of the covariant Lorentz force, and review the structure of the relativistic equations used to study this problem. We show that the Lorentz force equation can be derived as well from the manifestly covariant mechanics of Stueckelberg in the presence of a standard Maxwell field. We show how this agreement is achieved, and criticize some of the fundamental assumptions underlying these derivations. We argue that a more complete theory, involving ``off-shell'' electromagnetic fields should be utilized. We then discuss the formulation of the off-shell electromagne...
Relativistic Lagrangian model of a nematic liquid crystal
Obukhov, Yuri N; Rubilar, Guillermo F
2012-01-01
We develop a relativistic variational model for a nematic liquid crystal interacting with the electromagnetic field. The constitutive relation for an anisotropic uniaxial diamagnetic and dielectric medium is analyzed. We discuss light wave propagation in this moving uniaxial medium, for which the corresponding optical metrics are identified explicitly. A Lagrangian for the coupled system of a nematic liquid crystal and the electromagnetic field is constructed. We derive a complete set of equations of motion for the system. The canonical energy-momentum and spin tensors are systematically obtained. We compare our results with those within the non-relativistic models. As an application of our general formalism, we discuss the so-called Abraham-Minkowski controversy on the momentum of light in a medium.
Radiation from relativistic shocks with turbulent magnetic fields
Nishikawa, K -I; Medvedev, M; Zhang, B; Hardee, P; Nordlund, A; Frederiksen, J; Mizuno, Y; Sol, H; Pohl, M; Hartmann, D H; Oka, M; Fishman, G J
2009-01-01
Using our new 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code parallelized with MPI, we investigated long-term particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron jet propagating in an unmagnetized ambient electron-positron plasma. The simulations were performed using a much longer simulation system than our previous simulations in order to investigate the full nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability and its particle acceleration mechanism. Cold jet electrons are thermalized and ambient electrons are accelerated in the resulting shocks. Acceleration of ambient electrons leads to a maximum ambient electron density three times larger than the original value. Behind the bow shock in the jet shock strong electromagnetic fields are generated. These fields may lead to time dependent afterglow emission. We calculated radiation from electrons propagating in a uniform parallel magnetic field to verify the technique. We also used the new technique to calculate emission from electrons based on...
Relativistic electronic dressing
Attaourti, Y
2002-01-01
We study the effects of the relativistic electronic dressing in laser-assisted electron-hydrogen atom elastic collisions. We begin by considering the case when no radiation is present. This is necessary in order to check the consistency of our calculations and we then carry out the calculations using the relativistic Dirac-Volkov states. It turns out that a simple formal analogy links the analytical expressions of the differential cross section without laser and the differential cross section in presence of a laser field.
Fabian, A C; Parker, M L
2014-01-01
Broad emission lines, particularly broad iron-K lines, are now commonly seen in the X-ray spectra of luminous AGN and Galactic black hole binaries. Sensitive NuSTAR spectra over the energy range of 3-78 keV and high frequency reverberation spectra now confirm that these are relativistic disc lines produced by coronal irradiation of the innermost accretion flow around rapidly spinning black holes. General relativistic effects are essential in explaining the observations. Recent results are briefly reviewed here.
Relativistic Rotating Vector Model
Lyutikov, Maxim
2016-01-01
The direction of polarization produced by a moving source rotates with the respect to the rest frame. We show that this effect, induced by pulsar rotation, leads to an important correction to polarization swings within the framework of rotating vector model (RVM); this effect has been missed by previous works. We construct relativistic RVM taking into account finite heights of the emission region that lead to aberration, time-of-travel effects and relativistic rotation of polarization. Polarizations swings at different frequencies can be used, within the assumption of the radius-to-frequency mapping, to infer emission radii and geometry of pulsars.
Magnetic Moment Fields in Dense Relativistic Plasma Interacting with Laser Radiations
B.Ghosh1* , S.N.Paul 1 , S.Bannerjee2 and C.Das3
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Theory of the generation of magnetic moment field from resonant interaction of three high frequency electromagnetic waves in un-magnetized dense electron plasma is developed including the relativistic change of electron mass. It is shown that the inclusion of relativistic effect enhances the magnetic moment field. For high intensity laser beams this moment field may be of the order of a few mega gauss. Such a high magnetic field can considerably affect the transport of electrons in fusion plasma
The special relativistic shock tube
Thompson, Kevin W.
1986-01-01
The shock-tube problem has served as a popular test for numerical hydrodynamics codes. The development of relativistic hydrodynamics codes has created a need for a similar test problem in relativistic hydrodynamics. The analytical solution to the special relativistic shock-tube problem is presented here. The relativistic shock-jump conditions and rarefaction solution which make up the shock tube are derived. The Newtonian limit of the calculations is given throughout.
Investigation of Relativistic Electron Resonance with EMIC Waves
Woodger, L. A.; Millan, R. M.; Denton, R. E.
2008-12-01
Wave-particle interaction of relativistic electrons with EMIC waves has been proposed as an important loss mechanism for radiation belt electrons (e.g. Thorne and Andreoli, 1980). Lorentzen et al (2000) and Millan et al (2002) suggested this mechanism to be responsible for dusk side relativistic electron precipitation (REP) detected by balloon borne instrumentation. This study will use the linear electromagnetic dispersion code WHAMP to investigate the effects of density, magnetic field, anisotropy, and heavy ions on the minimum resonance energy for relativistic electrons with EMIC waves. Results will be compared with observations of REP during the MAXIS balloon campaign on Jan. 19, 2000 and the MINIS balloon campaign on Jan. 21, 2005.
Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F
1973-01-01
The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...
... causes cancer. Some people worry that wireless and cellular phones cause cancer or other health problems. The phones do give off radio-frequency energy (RF), a form of electromagnetic radiation. So far, scientific evidence has not found a ...
Shukla, Chandrasekhar; Patel, Kartik
2016-01-01
We carry out Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to study the instabilities associated with a 2-D sheared electron flow configuration against a neutralizing background of ions. Both weak and strong relativistic flow velocities are considered. In the weakly relativistic case, we observe the development of electromagnetic Kelvin Helmholtz instability with similar characteristics as that predicted by the electron Magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) model. On other hand, in strong relativistic case the compressibility effects of electron fluid dominate and introduce upper hybrid electrostatic oscillations transverse to the flow which are very distinct from EMHD fluid behaviour. In the nonlinear regime, both weak and strong relativistic cases lead to turbulence with broad power law spectrum.
A Relativistic Plasma Polarizer: Impact of Temperature Anisotropy on Relativistic Transparency
Stark, David J; Arefiev, Alexey V; Hazeltine, R D; Mahajan, S M
2014-01-01
3D particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate that the enhanced transparency of a relativistically hot plasma is sensitive to how the energy is partitioned between different degrees of freedom. For an anisotropic electron distribution, propagation characteristics, like the critical density, will depend on the polarization of the electromagnetic wave. Despite the onset of the Weibel instability in such plasmas, the anisotropy can persist long enough to affect laser propagation. This plasma can then function as a polarizer or a waveplate to dramatically alter the pulse polarization.
2012-03-01
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for Public Release Electromagnetic Railgun ASNE Combat System Symposium 26-29 March 2012 CAPT Mike...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electromagnetic Railgun 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Defense 3/29/2012 Slide 5 Distribution A Naval Railgun – Key Elements Capacitors or Rotating Machines Ship Integration Launcher Projectile
Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse
2015-01-01
Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....
Electron acceleration in the ionosphere by obliquely propagating electromagnetic waves
Burke, William J.; Ginet, Gregory P.; Heinemann, Michael A.; Villalon, Elena
The paper presents an analysis of the relativistic equations of motion for electrons in magnetized plasma and externally imposed electromagnetic fields that propagate at arbitrary angles to the background magnetic field. The relativistic Lorentz equation for a test electron moving under the influence of an electromagnetic wave in a cold magnetized plasma and wave propagation through the ionospheric 'radio window' are examined. It is found that at wave energy fluxes greater than 10 to the 8th mW/sq m, initially cold electrons can be accelerated to energies of several MeV in less than a millisecond. Plans to test the theoretical results with rocket flights are discussed.
A relativistic model of electron cyclotron current drive efficiency in tokamak plasmas
Lin-Liu Y.R.; Hu Y.J.; Hu Y.M.
2012-01-01
A fully relativistic model of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency based on the adjoint function techniques is considered. Numerical calculations of the current drive efficiency in a tokamak by using the variational approach are performed. A fully relativistic extension of the variational principle with the modified basis functions for the Spitzer function with momentum conservation in the electron-electron collision is described in general tokamak geometry. The model developed ...
WKB analysis of relativistic Stern–Gerlach measurements
Palmer, Matthew C., E-mail: m.palmer@physics.usyd.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Takahashi, Maki, E-mail: m.takahashi@physics.usyd.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Westman, Hans F., E-mail: hwestman74@gmail.com [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-B, 28006 Madrid (Spain)
2013-09-15
Spin is an important quantum degree of freedom in relativistic quantum information theory. This paper provides a first-principles derivation of the observable corresponding to a Stern–Gerlach measurement with relativistic particle velocity. The specific mathematical form of the Stern–Gerlach operator is established using the transformation properties of the electromagnetic field. To confirm that this is indeed the correct operator we provide a detailed analysis of the Stern–Gerlach measurement process. We do this by applying a WKB approximation to the minimally coupled Dirac equation describing an interaction between a massive fermion and an electromagnetic field. Making use of the superposition principle we show that the +1 and −1 spin eigenstates of the proposed spin operator are split into separate packets due to the inhomogeneity of the Stern–Gerlach magnetic field. The operator we obtain is dependent on the momentum between particle and Stern–Gerlach apparatus, and is mathematically distinct from two other commonly used operators. The consequences for quantum tomography are considered. -- Highlights: •Derivation of the spin observable for a relativistic Stern–Gerlach measurement. •Relativistic model of spin measurement using WKB approximation of Dirac equation. •The derived spin operator is distinct from two other commonly used operators. •Consequences for quantum tomography are considered.
Relativistic cosmology; Cosmologia Relativista
Bastero-Gil, M.
2015-07-01
Relativistic cosmology is nothing but the study of the evolution of our universe expanding from the General Theory of Relativity, which describes the gravitational interaction at any scale and given its character far-reaching is the force that dominate the evolution of the universe. (Author)
Antippa, Adel F.
2009-01-01
We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…
Relativistic length agony continued
Redžić D.V.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028
Illustrations of the Relativistic Conservation Law for the Center of Energy
Boyer, T H
2005-01-01
The relativistic conservation law involving the center of energy is reviewed and illustrated using simple examples from classical electromagnetic theory. It is emphasized that this conservation law is parallel to the conservation laws for energy, linear momentum, and energy, in arising from the generators of the Poincare group for electromagnetic theory; yet this relativistic law reflecting the continuous flow of energy goes virtually unmentioned in the text books. The illustrations here present situations both where external forces are present and are absent. The cases of a parallel plate capacitor, a flattened slip-joint solenoid, and two interacting charges are included.
Boosted High-Harmonics Pulse from a Double-Sided Relativistic Mirror
Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kando, M.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Zhidkov, A. G.
2009-07-01
An ultrabright high-power x- and γ-radiation source is proposed. A high-density thin plasma slab, accelerating in the radiation pressure dominant regime by an ultraintense electromagnetic wave, reflects a counterpropagating relativistically strong electromagnetic wave, producing extremely time-compressed and intensified radiation. The reflected light contains relativistic harmonics generated at the plasma slab, all upshifted with the same factor as the fundamental mode of the incident light. The theory of an arbitrarily moving thin plasma slab reflectivity is presented.
Naumenko, G. A.; Shevelev, M. V.; Popov, Yu A.
2016-08-01
During the interaction of the relativistic electrons field with a dielectric target various types of electromagnetic radiation, such as Cerenkov radiation, diffraction radiation, transition radiation can be generated. In this report we present the results of experimental studies of the diffraction radiation generated by relativistic electrons in a dielectric target at the interface vacuum-insulator and insulator-conductor in the millimeter wavelength range. The experimental results show that the component of the diffraction radiation of relativistic electrons at the interface insulator-conductor, for any significant refractive index of insulator, is suppressed. The analysis of the results from different points of view was done.
Ds and relativistic quantum mechanics in one dimension
Ruijgrok, TW
2003-01-01
It is recalled that a ten year old calculation of all meson masses may explain the low value of the recently discovered Ds(2317) meson. This calculation was based on a fully relativistic quasiparticle theory, which has been applied to a large number of bound state problems and scattering processes.
Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Koga, J. K.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Rosanov, N. N.; Zhidkov, A. G.
2011-01-01
We formulate the Flying Mirror Concept for relativistic interaction of ultra-intense electromagnetic waves with plasmas, present its theoretical description and the results of computer simulations and laboratory experiments. In collisionless plasmas, the relativistic flying mirrors are thin and dense electron or electron-ion layers accelerated by the high intensity electromagnetic waves up to velocity close to the speed of light in vacuum; in nonlinear-media and in nonlinear vacuum they are the ionization fronts and the refraction index modulations induced by a strong electromagnetic wave. The reflection of the electromagnetic wave at the relativistic mirror results in its energy and frequency change due to the double Doppler effect. In the co-propagating configuration, in the radiation pressure dominant regime, the energy of the electromagnetic wave is transferred to the ion energy providing a highly efficient acceleration mechanism. In the counter-propagation configuration the frequency of the reflected wave is multiplied by the factor proportional to the gamma-factor squared. If the relativistic mirror performs an oscillatory motion as in the case of the electron motion at the plasma-vacuum interface, the reflected light spectrum is enriched with high order harmonics.
A relativistic calculation of the deuteron threshold electrodisintegration at backward angles
Schiavilla, Rocco
2007-07-01
The threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron at backward angles is studied with a relativistic Hamiltonian, including a relativistic one-pion-exchange potential (OPEP) with off-shell terms as predicted by pseudovector coupling of pions to nucleons. The bound and scattering states are obtained in the center-of-mass frame, and then boosted from it to the Breit frame, where the evaluation of the relevant matrix elements of the electromagnetic current operator is carried out. The latter includes, in addition to one-body, also two-body terms due to pion exchange, as obtained, consistently with the OPEP, in pseudovector pion-nucleon coupling theory. The full Lorentz structure of these currents is retained. In order to estimate the magnitude of the relativistic effects we perform, for comparison, the calculation with a non-relativistic phase-equivalent Hamiltonian and the standard non-relativistic expressions for the one-body and two-body pion-exchange currents. Our results for the electrodisintegration cross section show that, in the calculations using one-body currents, relativistic corrections become significant (i.e., larger than 10%) only at high momentum transfer Q (Q2 ~ 40fm-2 and beyond). However, the inclusion of two-body currents makes the relativistic predictions considerably smaller than the corresponding non-relativistic results in the Q2 region (18-40) fm-2. The calculations based on the relativistic model also confirm the inadequacy, already established in a non-relativistic context, of the present electromagnetic current model to reproduce accurately the experimental data at intermediate values of momentum transfers.
Gravitational Stokes parameters. [for electromagnetic and gravitational radiation in relativity
Anile, A. M.; Breuer, R. A.
1974-01-01
The electromagnetic and gravitational Stokes parameters are defined in the general theory of relativity. The general-relativistic equation of radiative transfer for polarized radiation is then derived in terms of the Stokes parameters for both high-frequency electromagnetic and gravitational waves. The concept of Stokes parameters is generalized for the most general class of metric theories of gravity, where six (instead of two) independent states of polarization are present.
Electromagnetic probes of the QGP
Bratkovskaya E. L.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the properties of the QCD matter across the deconfinement phase transition in the scope of the parton-hadron string dynamics (PHSD transport approach. We present here in particular the results on the electromagnetic radiation, i.e. photon and dilepton production, in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. By comparing our calculations for the heavy-ion collisions to the available data, we determine the relative importance of the various production sources and address the possible origin of the observed strong elliptic flow v2 of direct photons. We argue that the different centrality dependence of the hadronic and partonic sources for direct photon production in nucleusnucleus collisions can be employed to shed some more light on the origin of the photon v2 “puzzle”. While the dilepton spectra at low invariant mass show in-medium effects like an enhancement from multiple baryonic resonance formation or a collisional broadening of the vector meson spectral functions, the dilepton yield at high invariant masses (above 1.1 GeV is dominated by QGP contributions for central heavy-ion collisions at ultra-relativistic energies. This allows to have an independent view on the parton dynamics via their electromagnetic massive radiation.
Quantum diffusion of electromagnetic fields of ultrarelativistic spin-half particles
Peroutka, Balthazar; Tuchin, Kirill
2017-10-01
We compute electromagnetic fields created by a relativistic charged spin-half particle in empty space at distances comparable to the particle Compton wavelength. The particle is described as a wave packet evolving according to the Dirac equation. It produces the electromagnetic field that is essentially different from the Coulomb field due to the quantum diffusion effect.
Hyperfine splitting of the dressed hydrogen atom ground state in non-relativistic QED
Amour, L
2010-01-01
We consider a spin-1/2 electron and a spin-1/2 nucleus interacting with the quantized electromagnetic field in the standard model of non-relativistic QED. For a fixed total momentum sufficiently small, we study the multiplicity of the ground state of the reduced Hamiltonian. We prove that the coupling between the spins of the charged particles and the electromagnetic field splits the degeneracy of the ground state.
Lopez, Rodrigo A.; Munoz, Victor [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Asenjo, Felipe A. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Alejandro Valdivia, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnologia, CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile)
2012-08-15
The nonlinear evolution of a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave in an electron-positron plasma propagating along a constant background magnetic field is considered, by studying its parametric decays. Relativistic effects, of the particle motion in the wave field and of the plasma temperature, are included to obtain the dispersion relation of the decays. The exact dispersion relation of the pump wave has been previously calculated within the context of a relativistic fluid theory and presents two branches: an electromagnetic and an Alfven one. We investigate the parametric decays for the pump wave in these two branches, including the anomalous dispersion zone of the Alfven branch where the group velocity is negative. We solve the nonlinear dispersion relation for different pump wave amplitudes and plasma temperatures, finding various resonant and nonresonant wave couplings. We are able to identify these couplings and study their behavior as we modify the plasma parameters. Some of these couplings are suppressed for larger amplitudes or temperatures. We also find two kinds of modulational instabilities, one involving two sideband daughter waves and another involving a forward-propagating electroacoustic mode and a sideband daughter wave.
General relativistic neutrino transport using spectral methods
Peres, Bruno; Penner, Andrew Jason; Novak, Jérôme; Bonazzola, Silvano
2014-02-01
We present a new code, Lorene's Ghost (for Lorene's gravitational handling of spectral transport) developed to treat the problem of neutrino transport in supernovae with the use of spectral methods. First, we derive the expression for the nonrelativistic Liouville operator in doubly spherical coordinates (r, θ, ϕ, ɛ, Θ, Φ), and further its general relativistic counterpart. We use the 3 + 1 formalism with the conformally flat approximation for the spatial metric, to express the Liouville operator in the Eulerian frame. Our formulation does not use any approximations when dealing with the angular arguments (θ, ϕ, Θ, Φ), and is fully energy-dependent. This approach is implemented in a spherical shell, using either Chebyshev polynomials or Fourier series as decomposition bases. It is here restricted to simplified collision terms (isoenergetic scattering) and to the case of a static fluid. We finish this paper by presenting test results using basic configurations, including general relativistic ones in the Schwarzschild metric, in order to demonstrate the convergence properties, the conservation of particle number and correct treatment of some general relativistic effects of our code. The use of spectral methods enables to run our test cases in a six-dimensional setting on a single processor.
Relativistic heavy ion reactions
Brink, D.M.
1989-08-01
The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.
Relativistic spherical plasma waves
Bulanov, S S; Schroeder, C B; Zhidkov, A G; Esarey, E; Leemans, W P
2011-01-01
Tightly focused laser pulses as they diverge or converge in underdense plasma can generate wake waves, having local structures that are spherical waves. Here we report on theoretical study of relativistic spherical wake waves and their properties, including wave breaking. These waves may be suitable as particle injectors or as flying mirrors that both reflect and focus radiation, enabling unique X-ray sources and nonlinear QED phenomena.
Relativistic Quantum Noninvasive Measurements
Bednorz, Adam
2014-01-01
Quantum weak, noninvasive measurements are defined in the framework of relativity. Invariance with respect to reference frame transformations of the results in different models is discussed. Surprisingly, the bare results of noninvasive measurements are invariant for certain class of models, but not the detection error. Consequently, any stationary quantum realism based on noninvasive measurements will break, at least spontaneously, relativistic invariance and correspondence principle at zero temperature.
Relativistic cosmological hydrodynamics
Hwang, J
1997-01-01
We investigate the relativistic cosmological hydrodynamic perturbations. We present the general large scale solutions of the perturbation variables valid for the general sign of three space curvature, the cosmological constant, and generally evolving background equation of state. The large scale evolution is characterized by a conserved gauge invariant quantity which is the same as a perturbed potential (or three-space curvature) in the comoving gauge.
Relativistic gravity gradiometry
Bini, Donato; Mashhoon, Bahram
2016-12-01
In general relativity, relativistic gravity gradiometry involves the measurement of the relativistic tidal matrix, which is theoretically obtained from the projection of the Riemann curvature tensor onto the orthonormal tetrad frame of an observer. The observer's 4-velocity vector defines its local temporal axis and its local spatial frame is defined by a set of three orthonormal nonrotating gyro directions. The general tidal matrix for the timelike geodesics of Kerr spacetime has been calculated by Marck [Proc. R. Soc. A 385, 431 (1983)]. We are interested in the measured components of the curvature tensor along the inclined "circular" geodesic orbit of a test mass about a slowly rotating astronomical object of mass M and angular momentum J . Therefore, we specialize Marck's results to such a "circular" orbit that is tilted with respect to the equatorial plane of the Kerr source. To linear order in J , we recover the gravitomagnetic beating phenomenon [B. Mashhoon and D. S. Theiss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1542 (1982)], where the beat frequency is the frequency of geodetic precession. The beat effect shows up as a special long-period gravitomagnetic part of the relativistic tidal matrix; moreover, the effect's short-term manifestations are contained in certain post-Newtonian secular terms. The physical interpretation of this effect is briefly discussed.
Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos
Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.
2017-09-01
Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.
Relativistic Radiation Mediated Shocks
Budnik, Ran; Sagiv, Amir; Waxman, Eli
2010-01-01
The structure of relativistic radiation mediated shocks (RRMS) propagating into a cold electron-proton plasma is calculated and analyzed. A qualitative discussion of the physics of relativistic and non relativistic shocks, including order of magnitude estimates for the relevant temperature and length scales, is presented. Detailed numerical solutions are derived for shock Lorentz factors $\\Gamma_u$ in the range $6\\le\\Gamma_u\\le30$, using a novel iteration technique solving the hydrodynamics and radiation transport equations (the protons, electrons and positrons are argued to be coupled by collective plasma processes and are treated as a fluid). The shock transition (deceleration) region, where the Lorentz factor $ \\Gamma $ drops from $ \\Gamma_u $ to $ \\sim 1 $, is characterized by high plasma temperatures $ T\\sim \\Gamma m_ec^2 $ and highly anisotropic radiation, with characteristic shock-frame energy of upstream and downstream going photons of a few~$\\times\\, m_ec^2$ and $\\sim \\Gamma^2 m_ec^2$, respectively.P...
Parker, Edward
2017-08-01
A nonrelativistic particle released from rest at the edge of a ball of uniform charge density or mass density oscillates with simple harmonic motion. We consider the relativistic generalizations of these situations where the particle can attain speeds arbitrarily close to the speed of light; generalizing the electrostatic and gravitational cases requires special and general relativity, respectively. We find exact closed-form relations between the position, proper time, and coordinate time in both cases, and find that they are no longer harmonic, with oscillation periods that depend on the amplitude. In the highly relativistic limit of both cases, the particle spends almost all of its proper time near the turning points, but almost all of the coordinate time moving through the bulk of the ball. Buchdahl's theorem imposes nontrivial constraints on the general-relativistic case, as a ball of given density can only attain a finite maximum radius before collapsing into a black hole. This article is intended to be pedagogical, and should be accessible to those who have taken an undergraduate course in general relativity.
Point form relativistic quantum mechanics and relativistic SU(6)
Klink, W. H.
1993-01-01
The point form is used as a framework for formulating a relativistic quantum mechanics, with the mass operator carrying the interactions of underlying constituents. A symplectic Lie algebra of mass operators is introduced from which a relativistic harmonic oscillator mass operator is formed. Mass splittings within the degenerate harmonic oscillator levels arise from relativistically invariant spin-spin, spin-orbit, and tensor mass operators. Internal flavor (and color) symmetries are introduced which make it possible to formulate a relativistic SU(6) model of baryons (and mesons). Careful attention is paid to the permutation symmetry properties of the hadronic wave functions, which are written as polynomials in Bargmann spaces.
Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina
2015-01-01
Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site...
A kinetic model for the one-dimensional electromagnetic solitons in an isothermal plasmapdf
tajima, Toshi
2002-02-22
Two nonlinear second order differential equations for the amplitude of the vector potential and for the electromagnetic potential are derived, starting from the full Maxwell equations where the field sources are calculated by integrating in the momentum space the particle distribution function, which is an exact solution of the relativistic Vlasov equation. The resulting equations are exact in describing a hot one-dimensional plasma sustaining a relativistically intense, circularly polarized electromagnetic polarized electromagnetic radiation. The case of standing soliton-like structures in an electron-positron plasma is then investigated. It is demonstrated that at ultrarelativistic temperatures extremely large amplitude solitons can be formed in a strongly overdense plasma.
Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in one dimension.
Lyutikov, Maxim; Hadden, Samuel
2012-02-01
We derive a number of solutions for one-dimensional dynamics of relativistic magnetized plasma that can be used as benchmark estimates in relativistic hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic numerical codes. First, we analyze the properties of simple waves of fast modes propagating orthogonally to the magnetic field in relativistically hot plasma. The magnetic and kinetic pressures obey different equations of state, so that the system behaves as a mixture of gases with different polytropic indices. We find the self-similar solutions for the expansion of hot strongly magnetized plasma into vacuum. Second, we derive linear hodograph and Darboux equations for the relativistic Khalatnikov potential, which describe arbitrary one-dimensional isentropic relativistic motion of cold magnetized plasma and find their general and particular solutions. The obtained hodograph and Darboux equations are very powerful: A system of highly nonlinear, relativistic, time-dependent equations describing arbitrary (not necessarily self-similar) dynamics of highly magnetized plasma reduces to a single linear differential equation.
A variational approach to resistive relativistic plasmas
Andersson, N; Hawke, I
2016-01-01
We develop an action principle to construct the field equations for a multi-fluid system containing charge-neutral fluids, plasmas, and dissipation (via resistive interactions), by combining the standard, Maxwell action and minimal coupling of the electromagnetic field with a recently developed action for relativistic dissipative fluids. We use a pull-back formalism from spacetime to abstract matter spaces to build unconstrained variations for both the charge-neutral fluids and currents making up the plasmas. Using basic linear algebra techniques, we show that a general "relabeling" invariance exists for the abstract matter spaces. With the field equations in place, a phenomenological model for the resistivity is developed, using as constraints charge conservation and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. A minimal model for a system of electrons, protons, and heat is developed using the Onsager procedure for incorporating dissipation.
A variational approach to resistive relativistic plasmas
Andersson, N.; Comer, G. L.; Hawke, I.
2017-06-01
We develop an action principle to construct the field equations for a multi-fluid system containing charge-neutral fluids, plasmas, and dissipation (via resistive interactions), by combining the standard, Maxwell action and minimal coupling of the electromagnetic field with a recently developed action for relativistic dissipative fluids. We use a pull-back formalism from spacetime to abstract matter spaces to build unconstrained variations for both the charge-neutral fluids and currents making up the plasmas. Using basic linear algebra techniques, we show that a general ‘relabeling’ invariance exists for the abstract matter spaces. With the field equations in place, a phenomenological model for the resistivity is developed, using as constraints charge conservation and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. A minimal model for a system of electrons, protons, and heat is developed using the Onsager procedure for incorporating dissipation.
a Relativistic Calculation of Baryon Masses
Giammarco, Joseph Michael
1990-01-01
We calculate ground state baryon masses using a saddle-point variational (SPV) method, which permits us the use of fully relativistic 4-component Dirac spinors without the need for positive energy projection operators. This variational approach has been shown to work in the relativistic domain for one particle in an external potential (Dirac equation). We have extended its use to the relativistic 3-body Breit equation. Our procedure is as follows: we pick a trial wave function having the appropriate spin, flavor and color dependence. This can be accomplished with a non-symmetric relativistic spatial wave function having two different size parameters if the the first two quarks are always chosen to be identical. We than calculate an energy eigenvalue for the particle state and vary the parameters in our wave function to search for a "saddle-point". We minimize the energy with respect to the two size parameters and maximize with respect to two parameters that measure the contribution from the negative-energy states. This gives the baryon's mass as a function of four input parameters: the masses of the up, down and strange quarks (m_{u=d },m_{s}), and the strength of the coupling constants for the potentials ( alpha_{s},mu). We do this for the eight Baryon ground states and fit these to experimental data. This fit gives the values of the input parameters. For the potentials we use a coulombic term to represent one-gluon exchange and a linear term for confinement. For both terms we include a retardation term required by relativity. We also add delta function and spin-spin terms to account for the large contribution of the coulomb interaction at the origin. The results we obtain from our SPV method are in good agreement with experimental data. The actual search for the saddle-point parameters and the fitting of the quark masses and the values of the coupling strengths was done on a CDC Cyber 860.
COUNTER-ROTATION IN RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS
Cayatte, V.; Sauty, C. [Laboratoire Univers et Théories, Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8102 du CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, F-92190 Meudon (France); Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K. [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Matsakos, T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lima, J. J. G., E-mail: veronique.cayatte@obspm.fr [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)
2014-06-10
Young stellar object observations suggest that some jets rotate in the opposite direction with respect to their disk. In a recent study, Sauty et al. showed that this does not contradict the magnetocentrifugal mechanism that is believed to launch such outflows. Motion signatures that are transverse to the jet axis, in two opposite directions, have recently been measured in M87. One possible interpretation of this motion is that of counter-rotating knots. Here, we extend our previous analytical derivation of counter-rotation to relativistic jets, demonstrating that counter-rotation can indeed take place under rather general conditions. We show that both the magnetic field and a non-negligible enthalpy are necessary at the origin of counter-rotating outflows, and that the effect is associated with a transfer of energy flux from the matter to the electromagnetic field. This can be realized in three cases: if a decreasing enthalpy causes an increase of the Poynting flux, if the flow decelerates, or if strong gradients of the magnetic field are present. An illustration of the involved mechanism is given by an example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jet simulation.
Hoffmann, T.; Strawinska, J. [Politechnika Poznanska, Poznan (Poland)
1993-12-31
The present considerations are devoted to the description of an electromagnetic field in deformable body within the framework of the conceptional extended electrodynamics. The formal tool used is the classical field theory based on methods of analytical mechanics. The deformation is described by applying the relativistic kinematics of a medium which makes it possible to obtain, as a particular case, three dimensional laws with simple physical interpretation. The dynamics of bodies interacting with an electromagnetic field has been expressed by Lagrange`s equation of motion with a view to obtaining linear field equations. In the domain of wave problems one-dimensional volume waves have been analysed. (author). 19 refs.
Three dimensional filamentary structures of a relativistic electron beam in Fast Ignition plasmas
Karmakar, Anupam; Pukhov, Alexander
2008-01-01
The filamentary structures and associated electromagnetic fields of a relativistic electron beam have been studied by three dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in the context of Fast Ignition fusion. The simulations explicitly include collisions in return plasma current and distinctly examine the effects of beam temperature and collisions on the growth of filamentary structures generated.
Radiation from relativistic particles in nongeodesic motion in a strong gravitational field
Aliev, A.N. (AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Abastumani. Abastumanskaya Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya); Galtsov, D.V. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Kafedra Teoreticheskoj Fiziki)
1981-10-01
The scalar and electromagnetic radiation emitted by relativistic particles moving along the stable nongeodesic trajectories in the Kerr gravitational field are described. Two particular models of the nongeodesic motion are developed involving a slightly charged rotating black hole and a rotating black hole immersed in an external magnetic field.
Visualizing Special Relativity: The Field of An Electric Dipole Moving at Relativistic Speed
Smith, Glenn S.
2011-01-01
The electromagnetic field is determined for a time-varying electric dipole moving with a constant velocity that is parallel to its moment. Graphics are used to visualize this field in the rest frame of the dipole and in the laboratory frame when the dipole is moving at relativistic speed. Various phenomena from special relativity are clearly…
Relativistic ab initio spectroscopy study of forbidden lines of singly ionized zinc
Dixit, Gopal; Sahoo, Bijaya K.; Chaudhuri, Rajat K.; Majumder, Sonjoy
2009-01-01
The ab initio calculation has been carried out to study the astrophysically important forbidden electromagnetic transition rates of singly ionized zinc (Zn II). Electron correlations are considered to all orders using coupled-cluster theory in the relativistic framework. Calculated excitation energi
Relativistic ab initio spectroscopy study of forbidden lines of singly ionized zinc
Dixit, Gopal; Sahoo, Bijaya K.; Chaudhuri, Rajat K.; Majumder, Sonjoy
2009-01-01
The ab initio calculation has been carried out to study the astrophysically important forbidden electromagnetic transition rates of singly ionized zinc (Zn II). Electron correlations are considered to all orders using coupled-cluster theory in the relativistic framework. Calculated excitation
Frequency conversion of probe wave produced by 2D interaction with relativistic ionization front
Yan Li-Xin; Zhang Yong-Sheng; Liu Jing-Ru; Lü Min
2005-01-01
Frequency conversion of probe electromagnetic wave induced by relativistic ionization front is theoretically analysed based on ray-tracing equations in different regimes. Downshifting as well as upshifting in frequency produced by the front is predicted. The reflected and transmitted angles can be also dramatically changed in certain cases.
On the energy conservation by weak solutions of the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system
Sospedra-Alfonso, Reinel
2010-01-01
We show that weak solutions of the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system preserve the total energy provided that the electromagnetic field is locally of bounded variation and, for any $\\lambda$> 0, the one-particle distribution function has a square integrable $\\lambda$-moment in the momentum variable.
Visualizing Special Relativity: The Field of An Electric Dipole Moving at Relativistic Speed
Smith, Glenn S.
2011-01-01
The electromagnetic field is determined for a time-varying electric dipole moving with a constant velocity that is parallel to its moment. Graphics are used to visualize this field in the rest frame of the dipole and in the laboratory frame when the dipole is moving at relativistic speed. Various phenomena from special relativity are clearly…
Computational Electromagnetics
Rylander, Thomas; Bondeson, Anders
2013-01-01
Computational Electromagnetics is a young and growing discipline, expanding as a result of the steadily increasing demand for software for the design and analysis of electrical devices. This book introduces three of the most popular numerical methods for simulating electromagnetic fields: the finite difference method, the finite element method and the method of moments. In particular it focuses on how these methods are used to obtain valid approximations to the solutions of Maxwell's equations, using, for example, "staggered grids" and "edge elements." The main goal of the book is to make the reader aware of different sources of errors in numerical computations, and also to provide the tools for assessing the accuracy of numerical methods and their solutions. To reach this goal, convergence analysis, extrapolation, von Neumann stability analysis, and dispersion analysis are introduced and used frequently throughout the book. Another major goal of the book is to provide students with enough practical understan...
Electromagnetic and Gravitational Waves: the Third Dimension
Marsh, Gerald E
2011-01-01
Plane electromagnetic and gravitational waves interact with particles in such a way as to cause them to oscillate not only in the transverse direction but also along the direction of propagation. The electromagnetic case is usually shown by use of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and the gravitational by a transformation to a local inertial frame. Here, the covariant Lorentz force equation and the second order equation of geodesic deviation followed by the introduction of a local inertial frame are respectively used. It is often said that there is an analogy between the motion of charged particles in the field of an electromagnetic wave and the motion of test particles in the field of a gravitational wave. This analogy is examined and found to be rather limited. It is also shown that a simple special relativistic relation leads to an integral of the motion, characteristic of plane waves, that is satisfied in both cases.
Aldridge, David F.
2014-11-01
A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories
Recurrence relation for relativistic atomic matrix elements
Martínez y Romero, R P; Salas-Brito, A L
2000-01-01
Recurrence formulae for arbitrary hydrogenic radial matrix elements are obtained in the Dirac form of relativistic quantum mechanics. Our approach is inspired on the relativistic extension of the second hypervirial method that has been succesfully employed to deduce an analogous relationship in non relativistic quantum mechanics. We obtain first the relativistic extension of the second hypervirial and then the relativistic recurrence relation. Furthermore, we use such relation to deduce relativistic versions of the Pasternack-Sternheimer rule and of the virial theorem.
Ida, Nathan
2015-01-01
This book provides students with a thorough theoretical understanding of electromagnetic field equations and it also treats a large number of applications. The text is a comprehensive two-semester textbook. The work treats most topics in two steps – a short, introductory chapter followed by a second chapter with in-depth extensive treatment; between 10 to 30 applications per topic; examples and exercises throughout the book; experiments, problems and summaries. The new edition includes: updated end of chapter problems; a new introduction to electromagnetics based on behavior of charges; a new section on units; MATLAB tools for solution of problems and demonstration of subjects; most chapters include a summary. The book is an undergraduate textbook at the Junior level, intended for required classes in electromagnetics. It is written in simple terms with all details of derivations included and all steps in solutions listed. It requires little beyond basic calculus and can be used for self-study. The weal...
Relativistic twins or sextuplets?
Sheldon, E S
2003-01-01
A recent study of the relativistic twin 'paradox' by Soni in this journal affirmed that 'A simple solution of the twin paradox also shows anomalous behaviour of rigidly connected distant clocks' but entailed a pedagogic hurdle which the present treatment aims to surmount. Two scenarios are presented: the first 'flight-plan' is akin to that depicted by Soni, with constant-velocity segments, while the second portrays an alternative mission undertaken with sustained acceleration and deceleration, illustrated quantitatively for a two-way spacecraft flight from Earth to Polaris (465.9 light years distant) and back.
Numerical Relativistic Quantum Optics
2013-11-08
µm and a = 1. The condition for an atomic spectrum to be non-relativistic is Z α−1 ≈ 137, as follows from elementary Dirac theory. One concludes that...peculiar result that B0 = 1 TG is a weak field. At present, such fields are observed only in connection with astrophysical phenomena [14]. The highest...pulsars. The Astrophysical Journal, 541:367–373, Sep 2000. [15] M. Tatarakis, I. Watts, F.N. Beg, E.L. Clark, A.E. Dangor, A. Gopal, M.G. Haines, P.A
Relativistic quantum information
Mann, R. B.; Ralph, T. C.
2012-11-01
Over the past few years, a new field of high research intensity has emerged that blends together concepts from gravitational physics and quantum computing. Known as relativistic quantum information, or RQI, the field aims to understand the relationship between special and general relativity and quantum information. Since the original discoveries of Hawking radiation and the Unruh effect, it has been known that incorporating the concepts of quantum theory into relativistic settings can produce new and surprising effects. However it is only in recent years that it has become appreciated that the basic concepts involved in quantum information science undergo significant revision in relativistic settings, and that new phenomena arise when quantum entanglement is combined with relativity. A number of examples illustrate that point. Quantum teleportation fidelity is affected between observers in uniform relative acceleration. Entanglement is an observer-dependent property that is degraded from the perspective of accelerated observers moving in flat spacetime. Entanglement can also be extracted from the vacuum of relativistic quantum field theories, and used to distinguish peculiar motion from cosmological expansion. The new quantum information-theoretic framework of quantum channels in terms of completely positive maps and operator algebras now provides powerful tools for studying matters of causality and information flow in quantum field theory in curved spacetimes. This focus issue provides a sample of the state of the art in research in RQI. Some of the articles in this issue review the subject while others provide interesting new results that will stimulate further research. What makes the subject all the more exciting is that it is beginning to enter the stage at which actual experiments can be contemplated, and some of the articles appearing in this issue discuss some of these exciting new developments. The subject of RQI pulls together concepts and ideas from
Corinaldesi, Ernesto
1963-01-01
Geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of physics, this text provides readers with a background in relativistic wave mechanics and prepares them for the study of field theory. The treatment originated as a series of lectures from a course on advanced quantum mechanics that has been further amplified by student contributions.An introductory section related to particles and wave functions precedes the three-part treatment. An examination of particles of spin zero follows, addressing wave equation, Lagrangian formalism, physical quantities as mean values, translation and rotat
Rössler, O E; Matsuno, K
1998-04-01
The two mindsets of absolutism and relativism are juxtaposed, and the relational or relativist stance is vindicated. The only 'absolute' entity which undeniably exists, consciousness has the reality of a dream. The escape hatch from this prison is relational, as Descartes and Levinas found out: Unfalsified relational consistency implies exteriority. Exteriority implies infinite power which in turn makes compassion inevitable. Aside from ethics as a royal way to enlightenment, a new technology called 'deep technology' may be accessible. It changes the whole world in a demonstrable fashion by manipulation of the micro frame--that is, the observer-world interface.
Electromagnetic theory for electromagnetic compatibility engineers
Toh, Tze-Chuen
2013-01-01
Engineers and scientists who develop and install electronic devices and circuits need to have a solid understanding of electromagnetic theory and the electromagnetic behavior of devices and circuits. In particular, they must be well-versed in electromagnetic compatibility, which minimizes and controls the side effects of interconnected electric devices. Designed to entice the practical engineer to explore some worthwhile mathematical methods, and to reorient the theoretical scientist to industrial applications, Electromagnetic Theory for Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineers is based on the
Interaction of Oblique Incident Electromagnetic Wave with Relativistic Ionization Front
无
2005-01-01
Interactions of oblique incident probe wave with oncoming ionization fronts have been investigated using moving boundary conditions. Field conversion coefficients of reflection,transmission and magnetic modes produced in the interactions are derived. Phase matching conditions at the front and frequency up-shifting formulas for the three modes are also presented.
Exotic Non-relativistic String
Casalbuoni, Roberto; Longhi, Giorgio
2007-01-01
We construct a classical non-relativistic string model in 3+1 dimensions. The model contains a spurion tensor field that is responsible for the non-commutative structure of the model. Under double dimensional reduction the model reduces to the exotic non-relativistic particle in 2+1 dimensions.
'Antigravity' Propulsion and Relativistic Hyperdrive
Felber, F S
2006-01-01
Exact payload trajectories in the strong gravitational fields of compact masses moving with constant relativistic velocities are calculated. The strong field of a suitable driver mass at relativistic speeds can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest to a speed significantly faster than the driver, a condition called hyperdrive. Hyperdrive thresholds and maxima are calculated as functions of driver mass and velocity.
A Simple Relativistic Bohr Atom
Terzis, Andreas F.
2008-01-01
A simple concise relativistic modification of the standard Bohr model for hydrogen-like atoms with circular orbits is presented. As the derivation requires basic knowledge of classical and relativistic mechanics, it can be taught in standard courses in modern physics and introductory quantum mechanics. In addition, it can be shown in a class that…
A Simple Relativistic Bohr Atom
Terzis, Andreas F.
2008-01-01
A simple concise relativistic modification of the standard Bohr model for hydrogen-like atoms with circular orbits is presented. As the derivation requires basic knowledge of classical and relativistic mechanics, it can be taught in standard courses in modern physics and introductory quantum mechanics. In addition, it can be shown in a class that…
Fuerst, Steven V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Mizuno, Yosuke; /USRA, Huntsville; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; /USRA, Huntsville /Alabama U., Huntsville; Wu, Kinwah; /Mullard Space Sci.
2007-01-05
We calculate the emission from relativistic flows in black hole systems using a fully general relativistic radiative transfer formulation, with flow structures obtained by general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic simulations. We consider thermal free-free emission and thermal synchrotron emission. Bright filament-like features protrude (visually) from the accretion disk surface, which are enhancements of synchrotron emission where the magnetic field roughly aligns with the line-of-sight in the co-moving frame. The features move back and forth as the accretion flow evolves, but their visibility and morphology are robust. We propose that variations and drifts of the features produce certain X-ray quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in black-hole X-ray binaries.
Accelerating electromagnetic magic field from the C-metric
Bicak, Jiri; 10.1007/s10714-009-0816-8
2009-01-01
Various aspects of the C-metric representing two rotating charged black holes accelerated in opposite directions are summarized and its limits are considered. A particular attention is paid to the special-relativistic limit in which the electromagnetic field becomes the "magic field" of two oppositely accelerated rotating charged relativistic discs. When the acceleration vanishes the usual electromagnetic magic field of the Kerr-Newman black hole with gravitational constant set to zero arises. Properties of the accelerated discs and the fields produced are studied and illustrated graphically. The charges at the rim of the accelerated discs move along spiral trajectories with the speed of light. If the magic field has some deeper connection with the field of the Dirac electron, as is sometimes conjectured because of the same gyromagnetic ratio, the "accelerating magic field" represents the electromagnetic field of a uniformly accelerated spinning electron. It generalizes the classical Born's solution for two u...
Regimes of enhanced electromagnetic emission in beam-plasma interactions
Timofeev, I. V.; Annenkov, V. V.; Arzhannikov, A. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk, Russia and Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2015-11-15
The ways to improve the efficiency of electromagnetic waves generation in laboratory experiments with high-current relativistic electron beams injected into a magnetized plasma are discussed. It is known that such a beam can lose, in a plasma, a significant part of its energy by exciting a high level of turbulence and heating plasma electrons. Beam-excited plasma oscillations may simultaneously participate in nonlinear processes resulting in a fundamental and second harmonic emissions. It is obvious, however, that in the developed plasma turbulence the role of these emissions in the total energy balance is always negligible. In this paper, we investigate whether electromagnetic radiation generated in the beam-plasma system can be sufficiently enhanced by the direct linear conversion of resonant beam-driven modes into electromagnetic ones on preformed regular inhomogeneities of plasma density. Due to the high power of relativistic electron beams, the mechanism discussed may become the basis for the generator of powerful sub-terahertz radiation.
Regimes of enhanced electromagnetic emission in beam-plasma interactions
Timofeev, I. V.; Annenkov, V. V.; Arzhannikov, A. V.
2015-11-01
The ways to improve the efficiency of electromagnetic waves generation in laboratory experiments with high-current relativistic electron beams injected into a magnetized plasma are discussed. It is known that such a beam can lose, in a plasma, a significant part of its energy by exciting a high level of turbulence and heating plasma electrons. Beam-excited plasma oscillations may simultaneously participate in nonlinear processes resulting in a fundamental and second harmonic emissions. It is obvious, however, that in the developed plasma turbulence the role of these emissions in the total energy balance is always negligible. In this paper, we investigate whether electromagnetic radiation generated in the beam-plasma system can be sufficiently enhanced by the direct linear conversion of resonant beam-driven modes into electromagnetic ones on preformed regular inhomogeneities of plasma density. Due to the high power of relativistic electron beams, the mechanism discussed may become the basis for the generator of powerful sub-terahertz radiation.
Electromagnetic and transport properties of QGP within PLSM approach
Tawfik, Abdel Nasser
2016-01-01
In order to study the response of the quantum chromodynamic matter to finite electromagnetic fields, we utilize the Polyakov linear - sigma model (PLSM) in mean-field approximation. Due to participants' momentum imbalance and off-center relativistic motion of the spectators' electric charges, localized, short-lived, huge electromagnetic fields are to be generated in the relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We report on various electromagnetic and transport properties of the new-state-of matter; the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) within the QCD-like approach, PLSM. We find an excellent agreement between our PLSM calculations and various recent lattice QCD simulations and notice that the magnetization and the magnetic susceptibility and the relative permeability obviously increase in the QGP phase. We predict that increasing the magnetic field remarkable decreases the viscosity, especially in hadron phase. while in QGP phase, the viscous properties seem not being affected with.
Sahu, Biswajit, E-mail: biswajit-sahu@yahoo.co.in [Department of Mathematics, West Bengal State University, Barasat, Kolkata 700126 (India); Sinha, Anjana, E-mail: sinha.anjana@gmail.com [Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar, E-mail: rroychoudhury123@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan - 731 204, India and Advanced Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, 1175 Survey Park, Kolkata 700 075 (India)
2015-09-15
A numerical study is presented of the nonlinear dynamics of a magnetized, cold, non-relativistic plasma, in the presence of electron-ion collisions. The ions are considered to be immobile while the electrons move with non-relativistic velocities. The primary interest is to study the effects of the collision parameter, external magnetic field strength, and the initial electromagnetic polarization on the evolution of the plasma system.
Komissarov, S S; Lyutikov, M
2015-01-01
In this paper we describe a simple numerical approach which allows to study the structure of steady-state axisymmetric relativistic jets using one-dimensional time-dependent simulations. It is based on the fact that for narrow jets with v~c the steady-state equations of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics can be accurately approximated by the one-dimensional time-dependent equations after the substitution z=ct. Since only the time-dependent codes are now publicly available this is a valuable and efficient alternative to the development of a high-specialized code for the time-independent equations. The approach is also much cheaper and more robust compared to the relaxation method. We tested this technique against numerical and analytical solutions found in literature as well as solutions we obtained using the relaxation method and found it sufficiently accurate. In the process, we discovered the reason for the failure of the self-similar analytical model of the jet reconfinement in relatively flat atmospheres a...
Robust relativistic bit commitment
Chakraborty, Kaushik; Chailloux, André; Leverrier, Anthony
2016-12-01
Relativistic cryptography exploits the fact that no information can travel faster than the speed of light in order to obtain security guarantees that cannot be achieved from the laws of quantum mechanics alone. Recently, Lunghi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030502 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030502] presented a bit-commitment scheme where each party uses two agents that exchange classical information in a synchronized fashion, and that is both hiding and binding. A caveat is that the commitment time is intrinsically limited by the spatial configuration of the players, and increasing this time requires the agents to exchange messages during the whole duration of the protocol. While such a solution remains computationally attractive, its practicality is severely limited in realistic settings since all communication must remain perfectly synchronized at all times. In this work, we introduce a robust protocol for relativistic bit commitment that tolerates failures of the classical communication network. This is done by adding a third agent to both parties. Our scheme provides a quadratic improvement in terms of expected sustain time compared with the original protocol, while retaining the same level of security.
A relativistic trolley paradox
Matvejev, Vadim N.; Matvejev, Oleg V.; Grøn, Ø.
2016-06-01
We present an apparent paradox within the special theory of relativity, involving a trolley with relativistic velocity and its rolling wheels. Two solutions are given, both making clear the physical reality of the Lorentz contraction, and that the distance on the rails between each time a specific point on the rim touches the rail is not equal to 2 π R , where R is the radius of the wheel, but 2 π R / √{ 1 - R 2 Ω 2 / c 2 } , where Ω is the angular velocity of the wheels. In one solution, the wheel radius is constant as the velocity of the trolley increases, and in the other the wheels contract in the radial direction. We also explain two surprising facts. First that the shape of a rolling wheel is elliptical in spite of the fact that the upper part of the wheel moves faster than the lower part, and thus is more Lorentz contracted, and second that a Lorentz contracted wheel with relativistic velocity rolls out a larger distance between two successive touches of a point of the wheel on the rails than the length of a circle with the same radius as the wheels.
Fractional Dynamics of Relativistic Particle
Tarasov, Vasily E
2011-01-01
Fractional dynamics of relativistic particle is discussed. Derivatives of fractional orders with respect to proper time describe long-term memory effects that correspond to intrinsic dissipative processes. Relativistic particle subjected to a non-potential four-force is considered as a nonholonomic system. The nonholonomic constraint in four-dimensional space-time represents the relativistic invariance by the equation for four-velocity u_{\\mu} u^{\\mu}+c^2=0, where c is a speed of light in vacuum. In the general case, the fractional dynamics of relativistic particle is described as non-Hamiltonian and dissipative. Conditions for fractional relativistic particle to be a Hamiltonian system are considered.
A reduced model for relativistic electron beam transport in solids and dense plasmas
Touati, M.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaï, Ph; Santos, J. J.; Gremillet, L.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.
2014-07-01
A hybrid reduced model for relativistic electron beam transport based on the angular moments of the relativistic kinetic equation with a special closure is presented. It takes into account collective effects with the self-generated electromagnetic fields as well as collisional effects with the slowing down of the relativistic electrons by plasmons, bound and free electrons and their angular scattering on both ions and electrons. This model allows for fast computations of relativistic electron beam transport while describing their energy distribution evolution. Despite the loss of information concerning the angular distribution of the electron beam, the model reproduces analytical estimates in the academic case of a monodirectional and monoenergetic electron beam propagating through a warm and dense plasma and hybrid particle-in-cell simulation results in a realistic laser-generated electron beam transport case.
Endrizzi, A.; Ciolfi, R.; Giacomazzo, B.; Kastaun, W.; Kawamura, T.
2016-08-01
We present new results of fully general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of binary neutron star (BNS) mergers performed with the Whisky code. All the models use a piecewise polytropic approximation of the APR4 equation of state for cold matter, together with a ‘hybrid’ part to incorporate thermal effects during the evolution. We consider both equal and unequal-mass models, with total masses such that either a supramassive NS or a black hole is formed after merger. Each model is evolved with and without a magnetic field initially confined to the stellar interior. We present the different gravitational wave (GW) signals as well as a detailed description of the matter dynamics (magnetic field evolution, ejected mass, post-merger remnant/disk properties). Our simulations provide new insights into BNS mergers, the associated GW emission and the possible connection with the engine of short gamma-ray bursts (both in the ‘standard’ and in the ‘time-reversal’ scenarios) and other electromagnetic counterparts.
Formation of relativistic jets. Magnetohydrodynamics and synchrotron radiation
Porth, Oliver Joachim Georg
2011-11-09
In this thesis, the formation of relativistic jets is investigated by means of special relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations and synchrotron radiative transfer. Our results show that the magnetohydrodynamic jet self-collimation paradigm can also be applied to the relativistic case. In the first part, jets launched from rotating hot accretion disk coronae are explored, leading to well collimated, but only mildly relativistic flows. Beyond the light-cylinder, the electric charge separation force balances the classical trans-field Lorentz force almost entirely, resulting in a decreased efficiency of acceleration and collimation in comparison to non-relativistic disk winds. In the second part, we examine Poynting dominated flows of various electric current distributions. By following the outflow for over 3000 Schwarzschild radii, highly relativistic jets of Lorentz factor Γ>or similar 8 and half-opening angles below 1 are obtained, providing dynamical models for the parsec scale jets of active galactic nuclei. Applying the magnetohydrodynamic structure of the quasi-stationary simulation models, we solve the relativistically beamed synchrotron radiation transport. This yields synthetic radiation maps and polarization patterns that can be used to confront high resolution radio and (sub-) mm observations of nearby active galactic nuclei. Relativistic motion together with the helical magnetic fields of the jet formation site imprint a clear signature on the observed polarization and Faraday rotation. In particular, asymmetries in the polarization direction across the jet can disclose the handedness of the magnetic helix and thus the spin direction of the central engine. Finally, we show first results from fully three-dimensional, high resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of jet formation from a rotating magnetosphere and examine the jet stability. Relativistic field-line rotation leads to an electric charge separation force that opposes the magnetic
Strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions
Postavaru, Octavian
2010-12-08
In this thesis we investigate strong-field relativistic processes in highly charged ions. In the first part, we study resonance fluorescence of laser-driven highly charged ions in the relativistic regime by solving the time-dependent master equation in a multi-level model. Our ab initio approach based on the Dirac equation allows for investigating highly relativistic ions, and, consequently, provides a sensitive means to test correlated relativistic dynamics, bound-state quantum electrodynamic phenomena and nuclear effects by applying coherent light with x-ray frequencies. Atomic dipole or multipole moments may be determined to unprecedented accuracy by measuring the interference-narrowed fluorescence spectrum. Furthermore, we investigate the level structure of heavy hydrogenlike ions in laser beams. Interaction with the light field leads to dynamic shifts of the electronic energy levels, which is relevant for spectroscopic experiments. We apply a fully relativistic description of the electronic states by means of the Dirac equation. Our formalism goes beyond the dipole approximation and takes into account non-dipole effects of retardation and interaction with the magnetic field components of the laser beam. We predicted cross sections for the inter-shell trielectronic recombination (TR) and quadruelectronic recombination processes which have been experimentally confirmed in electron beam ion trap measurements, mainly for C-like ions, of Ar, Fe and Kr. For Kr{sup 30}+, inter-shell TR contributions of nearly 6% to the total resonant photorecombination rate were found. (orig.)
Gamow-Teller Resonance of 90Zr in a Relativistic Approach
马中玉; 陈宝秋
2003-01-01
We establish the formalism of nuclear spin-isospin excitations, especially the Gamow-Teller resonance in a fully consistent relativistic random-phase approximation. A relativistic form of the Landau-Migdal parameter g′ is adopted as a residual spin-isospin correlation force. In the non-relativistic limit it reproduces the excitation energy of the giant Gamow-Teller resonance state obtained in the non-relativistic model. The Gamow-Teller resonance for finite nuclei is investigated in a relativistic approach for the first time. It is found that the Ikeda sum rule of90Zr is quenched about 8% in the Hartree as well as the correlated strengths due to the poles of the negative Dirac states at energies above 1 GeV.
Poszwa, A.; Rutkowski, A.
2007-03-01
The binding energies and magnetic susceptibilities for states evolving from 1s1/2 , 2s1/2 , 2p1/2 , 2p3/2 , 3s1/2 , 3d3/2 , and 3d5/2 are calculated using power-series solutions of the Dirac equation for hydrogenic atoms in static and uniform magnetic B . The accuracy of the binding energies for low and medium magnetic fields exceeds that of previous variational calculations. In the low-magnetic-field limit the highly accurate values of energies are used to determine the relativistic Paschen-Back effect and relativistic magnetic susceptibilities by expansion of the fully relativistic energy into power series of the parameter B/Z2 . The linear term of this series is related to the relativistic Paschen-Back effect and the square term is proportional to the relativistic dipole magnetic susceptibility of the atom.
General Relativistic Simulations of Magnetized Plasmas around Merging Supermassive Black Holes
Giacomazzo, Bruno; Miller, M Coleman; Reynolds, Christopher S; van Meter, James R
2012-01-01
Coalescing supermassive black hole binaries are produced by the mergers of galaxies and are the most powerful sources of gravitational waves accessible to space-based gravitational observatories. Some such mergers may occur in the presence of matter and magnetic fields and hence generate an electromagnetic counterpart. In this paper we present the first general relativistic simulations of magnetized plasma around merging supermassive black holes using the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code Whisky. By considering different magnetic field strengths, going from non-magnetically dominated to magnetically dominated regimes, we explore how magnetic fields affect the dynamics of the plasma and the possible emission of electromagnetic signals. In particular we observe a total amplification of the magnetic field of ~2 orders of magnitude which is driven by the accretion onto the binary and that leads to much stronger electromagnetic signals, more than a factor of 10^4 larger than comparable calculations don...
General Relativistic Simulations of Magnetized Plasmas around Merging Supermassive Black Holes
Giacomazzo, Bruno; Baker, John G.; Miller, M. Coleman; Reynolds, Christopher S.; van Meter, James R.
2012-06-01
Coalescing supermassive black hole binaries are produced by the mergers of galaxies and are the most powerful sources of gravitational waves accessible to space-based gravitational observatories. Some such mergers may occur in the presence of matter and magnetic fields and hence generate an electromagnetic counterpart. In this Letter, we present the first general relativistic simulations of magnetized plasma around merging supermassive black holes using the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code Whisky. By considering different magnetic field strengths, going from non-magnetically dominated to magnetically dominated regimes, we explore how magnetic fields affect the dynamics of the plasma and the possible emission of electromagnetic signals. In particular, we observe a total amplification of the magnetic field of ~2 orders of magnitude, which is driven by the accretion onto the binary and that leads to much stronger electromagnetic signals, more than a factor of 104 larger than comparable calculations done in the force-free regime where such amplifications are not possible.
Numerical Construction of Magnetosphere with Relativistic Two-fluid Plasma Flows
Kojima, Yasufumi
2009-01-01
We present a numerical model in which a cold pair plasma is ejected with relativistic speed through a polar cap region and flows almost radially outside the light cylinder. Stationary axisymmetric structures of electromagnetic fields and plasma flows are self-consistently calculated. In our model, motions of positively and negatively charged particles are assumed to be determined by electromagnetic forces and inertial terms, without pair creation and annihilation or radiation loss. The global electromagnetic fields are calculated by the Maxwell's equations for the plasma density and velocity, without using ideal MHD condition. Numerical result demonstrates the acceleration and deceleration of plasma due to parallel component of the electric fields. Numerical model is successfully constructed for weak magnetic fields or highly relativistic fluid velocity, i.e, kinetic energy dominated outflow. It is found that appropriate choices of boundary conditions and plasma injection model at the polar cap should be expl...
K-shell (e, 3e) double ionization of beryllium by relativistic electrons
Becher, M; Joulakian, B [Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, Member FR CNRS 2843 Jean Barriol 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France)
2009-03-28
The (e, 3e) process, producing hollow metastable Be{sup 2+}(2s{sup 2}) by very energetic electrons (>100 keV), is studied by using a relativistic procedure based on the application of the first term of the Born series for the determination of the corresponding fully differential cross section. The very fast projectile electron, impinging on the K shell of the neutral beryllium, is described by Dirac plane-wave solutions with the appropriate wave vectors. All atomic electrons and the two final-state-bound electrons are taken into account by non-relativistic Jastrow-type correlated functions. The two slow ejected electrons in the continuum are described by the fully correlated three-Coulomb (3C) function. The comparison of the results with those obtained by our recent non-relativistic approach shows the necessity of the introduction of the relativistic treatment.
Sobouti, Yousef
2013-01-01
That the universal constancy of the speed of light is a logical consequence of Maxwell's equations is common knowledge. Here we show that the converse is also true. That is, electromagnetism (EM) and electrodynamics (ED) in all their details can be derived from the simple assumption that the speed of light is a universal constant. The consequences reach far. Conventional EM and ED are observation based. The alternative we propose spares all observational foundations of EM, only to reintroduce them as theoretically derived and empiricism-free laws of Nature. Simplicity is beauty and there are merits to it. For instance, if $\
Remark on charge conjugation in the non relativistic limit
Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Rojas, H P; Socolovsky, M
2005-01-01
We study the non relativistic limit of the charge conjugation operation $\\cal C$ in the context of the Dirac equation coupled to an electromagnetic field. The limit is well defined and, as in the relativistic case, $\\cal C$, $\\cal P$ (parity) and $\\cal T$ (time reversal) are the generators of a matrix group isomorphic to a semidirect sum of the dihedral group of eight elements and $\\Z_2$. The existence of the limit is supported by an argument based in quantum field theory. Finally, if one complexifies the Lorentz group and therefore the galilean spacetime $x_\\mu$, then the explicit form of the matrix for $\\cal C$ allows to interpret it, in this context, as the complex conjugation of the spatial coordinates: $\\vec{x} \\to \\vec{x}^*$. This result is natural in a fiber bundle description.
Strong electron-scale instability in relativistic shear flows
Alves, Eduardo Paulo; Grismayer, Thomas; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luis
2013-10-01
Collisionless shear-driven plasma instabilities have recently been shown to be capable of generating strong and large-scale magnetic fields and may therefore play an important role in relativistic astrophysical outflows. We present a new collisionless shear-driven plasma instability, which operates in the plane transverse to the Kelvin Helmholtz instability (KHI). We develop the linear stability analysis of electromagnetic modes in the transverse plane and find that the growth rate of this instability is greater than the competing KHI in relativistic shears. The analytical results are confirmed with 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Simulations also reveal the nonlinear evolution of the instability which leads to the development of mushroom-like electron-density structures, similar to the Rayleigh Taylor instability. Finally, the interplay between the competing instabilities is investigated in 3D PIC simulations.
Dielectric effects on Thomson scattering in a relativistic magnetized plasma
Bindslev, H.
1991-01-01
the absorption is small. Symmetry between variables relating to incident and scattered fields is demonstrated and shown to be in agreement with the reciprocity relation. Earlier results are confirmed in the cold plasma limit. Significant relativistic effects, of practical importance to the scattering......The effects of the dielectric properties of a relativistic magnetized plasma on the scattering of electromagnetic radiation by fluctuations in electron density are investigated. The origin of the density fluctuations is not considered. Expressions for the scattering cross-section and the scattered...... power accepted by the receiving antenna are derived for a plasma with spatial dispersion. The resulting expressions allow thermal motion to be included in the description of the plasma and remain valid for frequencies of the probing radiation in the region of omega(p) and omega(ce), provided...
Towards manipulating relativistic laser pulses with 3D printed materials
Ji, L L; Pukhov, A; Freeman, R R; Akli, K U
2015-01-01
Efficient coupling of intense laser pulses to solid-density matter is critical to many applications including ion acceleration for cancer therapy. At relativistic intensities, the focus has been mainly on investigating various laser beams irradiating initially flat interfaces with little or no control over the interaction. Here, we propose a novel approach that leverages recent advancements in 3D direct laser writing (DLW) of materials and high contrast lasers to manipulate the laser-matter interactions on the micro-scales. We demonstrate, via simulations, that usable intensities >10^23Wcm^(-2) could be achieved with current tabletop lasers coupled to 3D printed plasma lenses. We show that these plasma optical elements act not only as a lens to focus laser light, but also as an electromagnetic guide for secondary particle beams. These results open new paths to engineering light-matter interactions at ultra-relativistic intensities.
Single electron detection and spectroscopy via relativistic cyclotron radiation
Asner, D M; de Viveiros, L; Doe, P J; Fernandes, J L; Fertl, M; Finn, E C; Formaggio, J A; Furse, D; Jones, A M; Kofron, J N; LaRoque, B H; Leber, M; McBride, E L; Miller, M L; Mohanmurthy, P; Monreal, B; Oblath, N S; Robertson, R G H; Rosenberg, L J; Rybka, G; Rysewyk, D; Sternberg, M G; Tedeschi, J R; Thummler, T; VanDevender, B A; Woods, N L
2014-01-01
It has been understood since 1897 that accelerating charges must emit electromagnetic radiation. Cyclotron radiation, the particular form of radiation emitted by an electron orbiting in a magnetic field, was first derived in 1904. Despite the simplicity of this concept, and the enormous utility of electron spectroscopy in nuclear and particle physics, single-electron cyclotron radiation has never been observed directly. Here we demonstrate single-electron detection in a novel radiofrequency spec- trometer. We observe the cyclotron radiation emitted by individual magnetically-trapped electrons that are produced with mildly-relativistic energies by a gaseous radioactive source. The relativistic shift in the cyclotron frequency permits a precise electron energy measurement. Precise beta elec- tron spectroscopy from gaseous radiation sources is a key technique in modern efforts to measure the neutrino mass via the tritium decay endpoint, and this work demonstrates a fundamentally new approach to precision beta sp...
Single-electron detection and spectroscopy via relativistic cyclotron radiation
Asner, David M.; Bradley, Rich; De Viveiros Souza Filho, Luiz A.; Doe, Peter J.; Fernandes, Justin L.; Fertl, M.; Finn, Erin C.; Formaggio, Joseph; Furse, Daniel L.; Jones, Anthony M.; Kofron, Jared N.; LaRoque, Benjamin; Leber, Michelle; MCBride, Lisa; Miller, M. L.; Mohanmurthy, Prajwal T.; Monreal, Ben; Oblath, Noah S.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rosenberg, Leslie; Rybka, Gray; Rysewyk, Devyn M.; Sternberg, Michael G.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Thummler, Thomas; VanDevender, Brent A.; Woods, N. L.
2015-04-01
It has been understood since 1897 that accelerating charges should emit electromagnetic radiation. Cyclotron radiation, the particular form of radiation emitted by an electron orbiting in a magnetic field, was first derived in 1904. Despite the simplicity of this concept, and the enormous utility of electron spectroscopy in nuclear and particle physics, single-electron cyclotron radiation has never been observed directly. Here we demonstrate single-electron detection in a novel radiofrequency spectrometer. We observe the cyclotron radiation emitted by individual electrons that are produced with mildly-relativistic energies by a gaseous radioactive source and are magnetically trapped. The relativistic shift in the cyclotron frequency permits a precise electron energy measurement. Precise beta electron spectroscopy from gaseous radiation sources is a key technique in modern efforts to measure the neutrino mass via the tritium decay endpoint, and this work is a proof-of-concept for future neutrino mass experiments using this technique.
Exact Electromagnetic Response of Landau Level Electrons
Nguyen, Dung Xuan
2016-01-01
We present a simple method that allows to calculate the electromagnetic response of non-interacting electrons in strong magnetic field to arbitrary order in the gradients of external electric and magnetic fields. We illustrate the method on both non-relativistic and massless Dirac electrons filling $N$ Landau levels. First, we derive an exact relation between the electromagnetic response of the non-relativistic and Dirac electrons in the lowest Landau level. Next, we obtain a closed form expression for the polarization operator in the large $N$ (or weak magnetic field) limit. We explicitly show that in the large $N$ limit the random phase approximation (RPA) computation of the polarization tensor agrees - in leading and sub-leading order in $N$ - with a Fermi liquid computation to {\\it all} orders in the gradient expansion and for arbitrary value of the $\\mathrm{g}$-factor. Finally, we show that in the large $N$ limit the non-relativistic polarization tensor agrees with Dirac's in the leading and sub-leading ...
Precipitation of relativistic electrons of the Van Allen belts into the proton aurora
Jordanova, Vania K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miyoshi, Y [NAGOYA UNIV; Sakaguchi, K [NAGOYA UNIV; Shiokawa, K [NAGOYA UNIV; Evans, D S [SEC/NOAA; Albert, Jay [AFRL; Connors, M [UNIV OF ATHABASCA
2008-01-01
The Van Allen electron belts consist of two regions encircling the earth in which relativistic electrons are trapped in the earth's magnetic field. Populations of relativistic electrons in the Van Allen belts vary greatly with geomagnetic disturbance and they are a major source of damage to space vehicles. In order to know when and by how much these populations of relativistic electrons increase, it is important to elucidate not only the cause of acceleration of relativistic electrons but also the cause of their loss from the Van Allen belts. Here we show the first evidence that left-hand polarized electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) plasma waves can cause the loss of relativistic electrons into the atmosphere, on the basis of results of an excellent set of ground and satellite observations showing coincident precipitation of ions with energies of tens of keV and of relativistic electrons into an isolated proton aurora. The proton aurora was produced by precipitation of ions with energies of tens of keV due to EMIC waves near the plasma pause, which is a manifestation of wave-particle interactions. These observations clarify that ions with energies of tens of keV affect the evolution of relativistic electrons in the Van Allen belts via parasitic resonance with EMIC waves, an effect that was first theoretically predicted in the early 1970's.
What Are Electromagnetic Fields?
... sources of electromagnetic fields Besides natural sources the electromagnetic spectrum also includes fields generated by human-made sources: ... ability to break bonds between molecules. In the electromagnetic spectrum, gamma rays given off by radioactive materials, cosmic ...
Momentum distribution of relativistic nuclei with Hartree-Fock mesonic correlations
Amaro, J.E. [Departamento de Fisica Moderna, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Barbaro, M.B. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1065, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Caballero, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1065, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Donnelly, T.W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Molinari, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Universita di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)
2002-12-01
The impact of Hartree-Fock correlations on the nuclear momentum distribution is studied in a fully relativistic one-boson-exchange model. Hartree-Fock equations are exactly solved to first order in the coupling constants. The renormalization of the Dirac spinors in the medium is shown to affect the momentum distribution, as opposed to what happens in the non-relativistic case. The unitarity of the model is shown to be preserved by the present renormalization procedure. (orig.)
Magnetic Dissipation in Relativistic Jets
Yosuke Mizuno
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The most promising mechanisms for producing and accelerating relativistic jets, and maintaining collimated structure of relativistic jets involve magnetohydrodynamical (MHD processes. We have investigated the magnetic dissipation mechanism in relativistic jets via relativistic MHD simulations. We found that the relativistic jets involving a helical magnetic field are unstable for the current-driven kink instability, which leads to helically distorted structure in relativistic jets. We identified the regions of high current density in filamentary current sheets, indicative of magnetic reconnection, which are associated to the kink unstable regions and correlated to the converted regions of magnetic to kinetic energies of the jets. We also found that an over-pressured relativistic jet leads to the generation of a series of stationary recollimation shocks and rarefaction structures by the nonlinear interaction of shocks and rarefaction waves. The differences in the recollimation shock structure due to the difference of the magnetic field topologies and strengths may be observable through mm-VLBI observations and space-VLBI mission.
Relativistic Fractal Cosmologies
Ribeiro, Marcelo B
2009-01-01
This article reviews an approach for constructing a simple relativistic fractal cosmology whose main aim is to model the observed inhomogeneities of the distribution of galaxies by means of the Lemaitre-Tolman solution of Einstein's field equations for spherically symmetric dust in comoving coordinates. This model is based on earlier works developed by L. Pietronero and J.R. Wertz on Newtonian cosmology, whose main points are discussed. Observational relations in this spacetime are presented, together with a strategy for finding numerical solutions which approximate an averaged and smoothed out single fractal structure in the past light cone. Such fractal solutions are shown, with one of them being in agreement with some basic observational constraints, including the decay of the average density with the distance as a power law (the de Vaucouleurs' density power law) and the fractal dimension in the range 1 <= D <= 2. The spatially homogeneous Friedmann model is discussed as a special case of the Lemait...
Relativistic Gravothermal Instabilities
Roupas, Zacharias
2014-01-01
The thermodynamic instabilities of the self-gravitating, classical ideal gas are studied in the case of static, spherically symmetric configurations in General Relativity taking into account the Tolman-Ehrenfest effect. One type of instabilities is found at low energies, where thermal energy becomes too weak to halt gravity and another at high energies, where gravitational attraction of thermal pressure overcomes its stabilizing effect. These turning points of stability are found to depend on the total rest mass $\\mathcal{M}$ over the radius $R$. The low energy instability is the relativistic generalization of Antonov instability, which is recovered in the limit $G\\mathcal{M} \\ll R c^2$ and low temperatures, while in the same limit and high temperatures, the high energy instability recovers the instability of the radiation equation of state. In the temperature versus energy diagram of series of equilibria, the two types of gravothermal instabilities make themselves evident as a double spiral! The two energy l...
Lock, Maximilian P E
2016-01-01
The conflict between quantum theory and the theory of relativity is exemplified in their treatment of time. We examine the ways in which their conceptions differ, and describe a semiclassical clock model combining elements of both theories. The results obtained with this clock model in flat spacetime are reviewed, and the problem of generalizing the model to curved spacetime is discussed, before briefly describing an experimental setup which could be used to test of the model. Taking an operationalist view, where time is that which is measured by a clock, we discuss the conclusions that can be drawn from these results, and what clues they contain for a full quantum relativistic theory of time.
Galilean relativistic fluid mechanics
Ván, Péter
2015-01-01
Single component Galilean-relativistic (nonrelativistic) fluids are treated independently of reference frames. The basic fields are given, their balances, thermodynamic relations and the entropy production is calculated. The usual relative basic fields, the mass, momentum and energy densities, the diffusion current density, the pressure tensor and the heat flux are the time- and spacelike components of the third order mass-momentum-energy density tensor according to a velocity field. The transformation rules of the basic fields are derived and prove that the non-equilibrium thermodynamic background theory, that is the Gibbs relation, extensivity condition and the entropy production is absolute, that is independent of the reference frame and also of the fluid velocity. --- Az egykomponensu Galilei-relativisztikus (azaz nemrelativisztikus) disszipativ folyadekokat vonatkoztatasi rendszertol fuggetlenul targyaljuk. Megadjuk az alapmennyisegeket, ezek merlegeit, a termodinamikai osszefuggeseket es kiszamoljuk az ...
Quasielastic Scattering from Relativistic Bound Nucleons: R{sub TL} Response
J. A. Caballero; E. Moya de Guerra; J. M. Udias; J. E. Amaro; T. W. Donnelly
1999-12-31
Predictions of relativistic calculations for electron induced knock-out from the p{sub 1/2} and p{sub 3/2} shells in {sup 16}O are presented. Results for differential cross-section, TL response function and left-right asymmetry are compared to recent (e,e'p) data at Q{sup 2} = 0.8 (GeV/c){sup 2} taken at TJNAF. We show that the trend of the fully relativistic results is closely followed by the experimental data, pointing to the importance of both kinematical and dynamical relativistic effects in the nucleonic current.
Relativistic Runaway Electrons
Breizman, Boris
2014-10-01
This talk covers recent developments in the theory of runaway electrons in a tokamak with an emphasis on highly relativistic electrons produced via the avalanche mechanism. The rapidly growing population of runaway electrons can quickly replace a large part of the initial current carried by the bulk plasma electrons. The magnetic energy associated with this current is typically much greater than the particle kinetic energy. The current of a highly relativistic runaway beam is insensitive to the particle energy, which separates the description of the runaway current evolution from the description of the runaway energy spectrum. A strongly anisotropic distribution of fast electrons is generally prone to high-frequency kinetic instabilities that may cause beneficial enhancement of runaway energy losses. The relevant instabilities are in the frequency range of whistler waves and electron plasma waves. The instability thresholds reported in earlier work have been revised considerably to reflect strong dependence of collisional damping on the wave frequency and the role of plasma non-uniformity, including radial trapping of the excited waves in the plasma. The talk also includes a discussion of enhanced scattering of the runaways as well as the combined effect of enhanced scattering and synchrotron radiation. A noteworthy feature of the avalanche-produced runaway current is a self-sustained regime of marginal criticality: the inductive electric field has to be close to its critical value (representing avalanche threshold) at every location where the runaway current density is finite, and the current density should vanish at any point where the electric field drops below its critical value. This nonlinear Ohm's law enables complete description of the evolving current profile. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DEFG02-04ER54742 and by ITER contract ITER-CT-12-4300000273. The views and opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of
Electromagnetism of rotating conductors revisited
Redzic, Dragan V. [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)]. E-mail: redzic@ff.bg.ac.yu
2002-03-01
The charge distribution and electromagnetic fields in a rotating, charged conductor under stationary conditions are investigated, assuming that the electrons are at rest relative to the conductor. The basic equations are found, referred to the inertial rest frame of the rotational axis, in the relativistic case, and applied to the case of a cylindrical conductor. The results obtained are compared with those of Groen and Voeyenli (Groen Oe and Voeyenli K 1982 Eur. J. Phys. 3 210-4) who considered the same problem but without taking into account the relative permittivity of the rotating conductor. It is found that the E- and B-fields do not depend on {epsilon}{sub r} and coincide with those calculated by Groen and Voeyenli; the space and surface charge densities, however, depend on {epsilon}{sub r}. (author)
Huddleston, Rob
2012-01-01
Fully loaded with the latest tricks and tips on your new Android! Android smartphones are so hot, they're soaring past iPhones on the sales charts. And the second edition of this muscular little book is equally impressive--it's packed with tips and tricks for getting the very most out of your latest-generation Android device. Start Facebooking and tweeting with your Android mobile, scan barcodes to get pricing and product reviews, download your favorite TV shows--the book is positively bursting with practical and fun how-tos. Topics run the gamut from using speech recognition, location-based m
On Fully Homomorphic Encryption
Fauzi, Prastudy
2012-01-01
Fully homomorphic encryption is an encryption scheme where a party can receive encrypted data and perform arbitrary operations on this data efficiently.The data remains encrypted throughout, but the operations can be done regardless, without having to know the decryption key.Such a scheme would be very advantageous, for example in ensuring the privacy of data that is sent to a third-party service.This is in contrast with schemes like Paillier where you can not perform a multiplication of encr...
What is "Relativistic Canonical Quantization"?
Arbatsky, D. A.
2005-01-01
The purpose of this review is to give the most popular description of the scheme of quantization of relativistic fields that was named relativistic canonical quantization (RCQ). I do not give here the full exact account of this scheme. But with the help of this review any physicist, even not a specialist in the relativistic quantum theory, will be able to get a general view of the content of RCQ, of its connection with other known approaches, of its novelty and of its fruitfulness.
Gravito-electromagnetism versus electromagnetism
Tartaglia, A; Ruggiero, M L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico and INFN, 10129 Torino (Italy)
2004-03-01
The properties of the gravito-magnetic interaction in non-stationary conditions are discussed. A direct deduction of the equivalent Faraday-Henry law is given. A comparison is made between gravito-magnetic and electromagnetic induction, and it is shown that there is no Meissner-like effect for superfluids in the field of massive spinning bodies. The impossibility of stationary motions in directions not along the lines of the gravito-magnetic field is found. Finally the results are discussed in relation to the behaviour of superconductors.
On the Galilean non-invariance of classical electromagnetism
Preti, Giovanni; De Felice, Fernando; Masiero, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Galileo Galilei' , Universita degli Studi di Padova (Italy)], E-mail: giovanni.preti@pd.infn.it, E-mail: fernando.defelice@pd.infn.it, E-mail: masieroluca@yahoo.it
2009-03-15
When asked to explain the Galilean non-invariance of classical electromagnetism on the basis of pre-relativistic considerations alone, students-and sometimes their teachers too-may face an impasse. Indeed, they often argue that a pre-relativistic physicist could most obviously have provided the explanation 'at a glance', on the basis of the presence of a parameter c with the dimensions of a velocity in Maxwell's equations, being well aware of the fact that any velocity is non-invariant in Galilean relativity. This 'obvious' answer, however popular, is not correct due to the actual observer-invariance of the Maxwell parameter c in pre-relativistic physics too. A pre-relativistic physicist would therefore have needed a different explanation. Playing the role of this physicist, we pedagogically show how a proof of the Galilean non-invariance of classical electromagnetism can be obtained, resting on simple pre-relativistic considerations alone.
Excitement tem-horn antenna by impulsive relativistic electron beam
Balakirev, V A; Egorov, A M; Lonin, Y F
2000-01-01
In the given operation the opportunity of reception powerful electromagnetic irradiation (EMI) is observationally explored by excitation by a impulsive relativistic electronic beam (IREB) of a TEM-horn antenna. It is revealed, that at such expedient of excitation of the TEM-horn antenna, the signal of radiation of the antenna contains three various components caused by oscillation of radiation by forward front IREB, high-voltage discharge between plates irradiation of TEM-horn antenna a and resonant properties of the antenna devices.
Chaotic Motion of Relativistic Electrons Driven by Whistler Waves
Khazanov, G. V.; Telnikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, Tatiana K.
2007-01-01
Canonical equations governing an electron motion in electromagnetic field of the whistler mode waves propagating along the direction of an ambient magnetic field are derived. The physical processes on which the equations of motion are based .are identified. It is shown that relativistic electrons interacting with these fields demonstrate chaotic motion, which is accompanied by the particle stochastic heating and significant pitch angle diffusion. Evolution of distribution functions is described by the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations. It is shown that the whistler mode waves could provide a viable mechanism for stochastic energization of electrons with energies up to 50 MeV in the Jovian magnetosphere.
Extended quasiparticle approximation for relativistic electrons in plasmas
V.G.Morozov
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Starting with Dyson equations for the path-ordered Green's function, it is shown that the correlation functions for relativistic electrons (positrons in a weakly coupled non-equilibrium plasmas can be decomposed into sharply peaked quasiparticle parts and off-shell parts in a rather general form. To leading order in the electromagnetic coupling constant, this decomposition yields the extended quasiparticle approximation for the correlation functions, which can be used for the first principle calculation of the radiation scattering rates in QED plasmas.
The Electron Trajectory in a Relativistic Femtosecond Laser Pulse
He Feng; Yu Wei; Lu Peixiang; Xu Han; Shen Baifei; Li Ruxin; Xu Zhizhan
2005-01-01
In this report, we start from Lagrange equation and analyze theoretically the electron dynamics in electromagnetic field. By solving the relativistic government equations of electron,the trajectories of an electron in plane laser pulse, focused laser pulse have been given for different initial conditions. The electron trajectory is determined by its initial momentum, the amplitude,spot size and polarization of the laser pulse. The optimum initial momentum of the electron for LSS (laser synchrotron source) is obtained. Linear polarized laser is more advantaged than circular polarized laser for generating harmonic radiation.
Relativistic Modeling of Quark Stars with Tolman IV Type Potential
Malaver, Manuel
2015-01-01
In this paper, we studied the behavior of relativistic objects with anisotropic matter distribution considering Tolman IV form for the gravitational potential Z. The equation of state presents a quadratic relation between the energy density and the radial pressure. New exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell system are generated. A physical analysis of electromagnetic field indicates that is regular in the origin and well behaved. We show as the presence of an electrical field modifies the energy density, the radial pressure and the mass of the stellar object and generates a singular charge density.
Electromagnetic waves in a strong Schwarzschild plasma
Daniel, J.; Tajima, T.
1996-11-01
The physics of high frequency electromagnetic waves in a general relativistic plasma with the Schwarzschild metric is studied. Based on the 3 + 1 formalism, we conformalize Maxwell`s equations. The derived dispersion relations for waves in the plasma contain the lapse function in the plasma parameters such as in the plasma frequency and cyclotron frequency, but otherwise look {open_quotes}flat.{close_quotes} Because of this property this formulation is ideal for nonlinear self-consistent particle (PIC) simulation. Some of the physical consequences arising from the general relativistic lapse function as well as from the effects specific to the plasma background distribution (such as density and magnetic field) give rise to nonuniform wave equations and their associated phenomena, such as wave resonance, cutoff, and mode-conversion. These phenomena are expected to characterize the spectroscopy of radiation emitted by the plasma around the black hole. PIC simulation results of electron-positron plasma are also presented.
Magnetic Field Structure in Relativistic Jets
Jermak Helen
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Relativistic jets are ubiquitous when considering an accreting black hole. Two of the most extreme examples of these systems are blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs, the jets of which are thought to be threaded with a magnetic field of unknown structure. The systems are made up of a black hole accreting matter and producing, as a result, relativistic jets of plasma from the poles of the black hole. Both systems are viewed as point sources from Earth, making it impossible to spatially resolve the jet. In order to explore the structure of the magnetic field within the jet we take polarisation measurements with the RINGO polarimeters on the world’s largest fully autonomous, robotic optical telescope: The Liverpool Telescope. Using the polarisation degree and angle measured by the RINGO polarimeters it is possible to distinguish between global magnetic fields created in the central engine and random tangled magnetic fields produced locally in shocks. We also monitor blazar sources regularly during quiescence with periods of flaring monitored more intensively. Reported here are the early polarisation results for GRBs 060418 and 090102, along with future prospects for the Liverpool Telescope and the RINGO polarimeters.
On general relativistic uniformly rotating white dwarfs
Boshkayev, Kuantay; Ruffini, Remo; Siutsou, Ivan
2012-01-01
Uniformly rotating white dwarfs (RWDs) are analyzed within the framework of general relativity. The Hartle's formalism is applied to construct self-consistently the internal and external solutions to the Einstein equations. The relativistic Feynman-Metropolis-Teller EoS that generalizes the Salpeter's one taking fully into account the finite size of nuclei, the Coulomb interactions as well as electroweak equilibrium in a self-consistent relativistic fashion is used to describe the WD matter. The mass, radius, angular momentum, eccentricity and quadrupole moment of RWDs are calculated as a function of the central density and rotation angular velocity. We construct the region of stability of RWDs taking into account the mass-shedding limit, inverse beta-decay instability, and the boundary established by the turning points of constant angular momentum sequences that separates stable from secularly unstable configurations. We found the minimum rotation periods 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 2.2 seconds and maximum masses 1.50...
Causal localizations in relativistic quantum mechanics
Castrigiano, Domenico P. L., E-mail: castrig@ma.tum.de; Leiseifer, Andreas D., E-mail: andreas.leiseifer@tum.de [Fakultät für Mathematik, TU München, Boltzmannstraße 3, 85747 Garching (Germany)
2015-07-15
Causal localizations describe the position of quantum systems moving not faster than light. They are constructed for the systems with finite spinor dimension. At the center of interest are the massive relativistic systems. For every positive mass, there is the sequence of Dirac tensor-localizations, which provides a complete set of inequivalent irreducible causal localizations. They obey the principle of special relativity and are fully Poincaré covariant. The boosters are determined by the causal position operator and the other Poincaré generators. The localization with minimal spinor dimension is the Dirac localization. Thus, the Dirac equation is derived here as a mere consequence of the principle of causality. Moreover, the higher tensor-localizations, not known so far, follow from Dirac’s localization by a simple construction. The probability of localization for positive energy states results to be described by causal positive operator valued (PO-) localizations, which are the traces of the causal localizations on the subspaces of positive energy. These causal Poincaré covariant PO-localizations for every irreducible massive relativistic system were, all the more, not known before. They are shown to be separated. Hence, the positive energy systems can be localized within every open region by a suitable preparation as accurately as desired. Finally, the attempt is made to provide an interpretation of the PO-localization operators within the frame of conventional quantum mechanics attributing an important role to the negative energy states.
Simulating relativistic binaries with Whisky
Baiotti, L.
We report about our first tests and results in simulating the last phase of the coalescence and the merger of binary relativistic stars. The simulations were performed using our code Whisky and mesh refinement through the Carpet driver.
Relativistic effects in atom gravimeters
Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang; Hu, Zhong-Kun
2017-01-01
Atom interferometry is currently developing rapidly, which is now reaching sufficient precision to motivate laboratory tests of general relativity. Thus, it is extremely significant to develop a general relativistic model for atom interferometers. In this paper, we mainly present an analytical derivation process and first give a complete vectorial expression for the relativistic interferometric phase shift in an atom interferometer. The dynamics of the interferometer are studied, where both the atoms and the light are treated relativistically. Then, an appropriate coordinate transformation for the light is performed crucially to simplify the calculation. In addition, the Bordé A B C D matrix combined with quantum mechanics and the "perturbation" approach are applied to make a methodical calculation for the total phase shift. Finally, we derive the relativistic phase shift kept up to a sensitivity of the acceleration ˜1 0-14 m/s 2 for a 10 -m -long atom interferometer.
Scattering in Relativistic Particle Mechanics.
de Bievre, Stephan
The problem of direct interaction in relativistic particle mechanics has been extensively studied and a variety of models has been proposed avoiding the conclusions of the so-called no-interaction theorems. In this thesis we study scattering in the relativistic two-body problem. We use our results to analyse gauge invariance in Hamiltonian constraint models and the uniqueness of the symplectic structure in manifestly covariant relativistic particle mechanics. We first present a general geometric framework that underlies approaches to relativistic particle mechanics. This permits a model-independent and geometric definition of the notions of asymptotic completeness and of Moller and scattering operators. Subsequent analysis of these concepts divides into two parts. First, we study the kinematic properties of the scattering transformation, i.e. those properties that arise solely from the invariance of the theory under the Poincare group. We classify all canonical (symplectic) scattering transformations on the relativistic phase space for two free particles in terms of a single function of the two invariants of the theory. We show how this function is determined by the center of mass time delay and scattering angle and vice versa. The second part of our analysis of the relativistic two-body scattering problem is devoted to the dynamical properties of the scattering process. Hence, we turn to two approaches to relativistic particle mechanics: the Hamiltonian constraint models and the manifestly covariant formalism. Using general geometric arguments, we prove "gauge invariance" of the scattering transformation in the Todorov -Komar Hamiltonian constraint model. We conclude that the scattering cross sections of the Todorov-Komar models have the same angular dependence as their non-relativistic counterpart, irrespective of a choice of gauge. This limits the physical relevance of those models. We present a physically non -trivial Hamiltonian constraint model, starting from
Soliton propagation in relativistic hydrodynamics
Fogaça, D A; 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2007.03.104
2013-01-01
We study the conditions for the formation and propagation of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons in nuclear matter. In a previous work we have derived a KdV equation from Euler and continuity equations in non-relativistic hydrodynamics. In the present contribution we extend our formalism to relativistic fluids. We present results for a given equation of state, which is based on quantum hadrodynamics (QHD).
Relativistic formulation and reference frame
Klioner, Sergei A.
2004-01-01
After a short review of experimental foundations of metric theories of gravity, the choice of general relativity as a theory to be used for the routine modeling of Gaia observations is justified. General principles of relativistic modeling of astronomical observations are then sketched and compared to the corresponding Newtonian principles. The fundamental reference system -- Barycentric Celestial Reference System, which has been chosen to be the relativistic reference system underlying the f...
Baryons as relativistic three-quark bound states
Eichmann, Gernot; Williams, Richard; Alkofer, Reinhard; Fischer, Christian S
2016-01-01
We review the spectrum and electromagnetic properties of baryons described as relativistic three-quark bound states within QCD. The composite nature of baryons results in a rich excitation spectrum, whilst leading to highly non-trivial structural properties explored by the coupling to external (electromagnetic and other) currents. Both present many unsolved problems despite decades of experimental and theoretical research. We discuss the progress in these fields from a theoretical perspective, focusing on nonperturbative QCD as encoded in the functional approach via Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations. We give a systematic overview as to how results are obtained in this framework and explain technical connections to lattice QCD. We also discuss the mutual relations to the quark model, which still serves as a reference to distinguish 'expected' from 'unexpected' physics. We confront recent results on the spectrum of non-strange and strange baryons, their form factors and the issues of two-photon proce...
Filson, Simon A; Yarhi, Danielle; Ramon, Yitzhak
2016-11-01
The authors present 25 cases and an in-depth 4-minute video of fully awake aesthetic breast reduction, which was made possible by thoracic epidural anesthesia. There are obvious and important advantages to this technique. Not only does this allow for intraoperative patient cooperation (i.e., patient self-positioning and opinion for comparison of breasts), meaning a shorter and more efficient intraoperative time, there also is a reduction in postoperative pain, complications, recovery, and discharge times. The authors have also enjoyed great success and no complications with this technique in over 150 awake abdominoplasty/total body lift patients. The authors feel that the elimination of the need for general anesthesia by thoracic epidural sensorial-only anesthesia is a highly effective and efficient technique, with very few disadvantages/complications, providing advantages to both patients and surgeons. Therapeutic, IV.
Barbosa, Gabriel Duarte; Ferreira, Renata Rosa; Thibes, Ronaldo [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), BA (Brazil)
2011-07-01
Full text: We consider a classical particle minimally coupled to an external electromagnetic field, in both non-relativistic and relativistic regimes. The coupling is constructed via the electromagnetic potential which is assumed to satisfy the classical Maxwell equations. We review Noether's theorem at classical level associating infinitesimal symmetries to conserved quantities. The fundamental space-time symmetries are investigated considering a non-relativistic action, a relativistic action in a particular reference frame and an explicitly Lorentz invariant Lagrangian. We work out in detail the corresponding conserved quantities for each case. The well-known Noether's theorem establishes a connection between continuous infinitesimal symmetries of the action and conserved quantities - given a particular action, for each infinitesimal symmetry there exists an explicit conserved quantity. In particular, a single particle subjected to an external electromagnetic field gives rise to an action which may enjoy space-time symmetries. For the non-relativistic particle, we analyze translations in space and time and spatial rotations, calculating the conserved quantities - linear momentum, energy and angular momentum. The relativistic particle enjoys space-time Lorentz symmetry. Thus we check the six symmetries of the homogeneous Lorentz group, corresponding to three spatial rotations and three boosts, and the four space-time translations extending to the non-homogeneous Lorentz group (Poincare group). We consider two distinct actions describing the relativistic particle minimally coupled to an external electromagnetic field - the first one describes the particle in a particular frame of reference enforcing the relativistic generalization of Newton's second law with the Lorentz force while the second one is obtained from a Lorentz scalar Lagrangian. In all cases the conserved quantities are explicitly calculated via Noether's theorem. (author)
General relativistic neutrino transport using spectral methods
Peres, Bruno; Novak, Jerome; Bonazzola, Silvano
2014-01-01
We present a new code, Lorene's Ghost (for Lorene's gravitational handling of spectral transport) developed to treat the problem of neutrino transport in supernovae with the use of spectral methods. First, we derive the expression for the nonrelativistic Liouville operator in doubly spherical coordinates (r, theta, phi, epsilon, Theta, Phi)$, and further its general relativistic counterpart. We use the 3 + 1 formalism with the conformally flat approximation for the spatial metric, to express the Liouville operator in the Eulerian frame. Our formulation does not use any approximations when dealing with the angular arguments (theta, phi, Theta, Phi), and is fully energy-dependent. This approach is implemented in a spherical shell, using either Chebyshev polynomials or Fourier series as decomposition bases. It is here restricted to simplified collision terms (isoenergetic scattering) and to the case of a static fluid. We finish this paper by presenting test results using basic configurations, including general r...
Electromagnetic topology: Characterization of internal electromagnetic coupling
Parmantier, J. P.; Aparicio, J. P.; Faure, F.
1991-01-01
The main principles are presented of a method dealing with the resolution of electromagnetic internal problems: Electromagnetic Topology. A very interesting way is to generalize the multiconductor transmission line network theory to the basic equation of the Electromagnetic Topology: the BLT equation. This generalization is illustrated by the treatment of an aperture as a four port junction. Analytical and experimental derivations of the scattering parameters are presented. These concepts are used to study the electromagnetic coupling in a scale model of an aircraft, and can be seen as a convenient means to test internal electromagnetic interference.
Radiative decays $V\\rightarrow P\\gamma^{*}$ in the instant form of relativistic quantum mechanics
Krutov, Alexander; Troitsky, Vadim
2016-01-01
Calculations of form factor for the radiative decays $V\\rightarrow P\\gamma^{*}$ process are performed in the framework of an instant form of relativistic quantum mechanics. The electromagnetic current operator for this decay is constructed. The transition form factor is obtained in the so called relativistic modified impulse approximation (MIA). The current operator satisfies the conditions of Lorentz-covariance and current conservation in MIA. The results of the calculations are compared with the analogous results in the light-front dynamics and in the model of vector meson dominance
Fully electric waste collection
Anaïs Schaeffer
2015-01-01
Since 15 June, Transvoirie, which provides waste collection services throughout French-speaking Switzerland, has been using a fully electric lorry for its collections on the CERN site – a first for the region! Featuring a motor powered by electric batteries that charge up when the brakes are used, the new lorry that roams the CERN site is as green as can be. And it’s not only the motor that’s electric: its waste compactor and lifting mechanism are also electrically powered*, making it the first 100% electric waste collection vehicle in French-speaking Switzerland. Considering that a total of 15.5 tonnes of household waste and paper/cardboard are collected each week from the Meyrin and Prévessin sites, the benefits for the environment are clear. This improvement comes as part of CERN’s contract with Transvoirie, which stipulates that the firm must propose ways of becoming more environmentally friendly (at no extra cost to CERN). *The was...
Refining a relativistic, hydrodynamic solver: Admitting ultra-relativistic flows
Bernstein, J. P.; Hughes, P. A.
2009-09-01
We have undertaken the simulation of hydrodynamic flows with bulk Lorentz factors in the range 102-106. We discuss the application of an existing relativistic, hydrodynamic primitive variable recovery algorithm to a study of pulsar winds, and, in particular, the refinement made to admit such ultra-relativistic flows. We show that an iterative quartic root finder breaks down for Lorentz factors above 102 and employ an analytic root finder as a solution. We find that the former, which is known to be robust for Lorentz factors up to at least 50, offers a 24% speed advantage. We demonstrate the existence of a simple diagnostic allowing for a hybrid primitives recovery algorithm that includes an automatic, real-time toggle between the iterative and analytical methods. We further determine the accuracy of the iterative and hybrid algorithms for a comprehensive selection of input parameters and demonstrate the latter’s capability to elucidate the internal structure of ultra-relativistic plasmas. In particular, we discuss simulations showing that the interaction of a light, ultra-relativistic pulsar wind with a slow, dense ambient medium can give rise to asymmetry reminiscent of the Guitar nebula leading to the formation of a relativistic backflow harboring a series of internal shockwaves. The shockwaves provide thermalized energy that is available for the continued inflation of the PWN bubble. In turn, the bubble enhances the asymmetry, thereby providing positive feedback to the backflow.
Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism
Barrett, Terrence W
2008-01-01
Topological Foundations of Electromagnetism seeks a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of electromagnetism; and marshals the evidence that in certain precisely defined topological conditions, electromagnetic theory (Maxwell's theory) must be extended or generalized in order to provide an explanation and understanding of, until now, unusual electromagnetic phenomena. Key to this generalization is an understanding of the circumstances under which the so-called A potential fields have physical effects. Basic to the approach taken is that the topological composition of electromagnetic field
Radiation reaction from electromagnetic fields in the neighborhood of a point charge
Singal, Ashok K.
2017-03-01
From the expression for the electromagnetic field in the neighborhood of a point charge, we determine the rate of electromagnetic momentum flow, calculated using the Maxwell stress tensor, across a surface surrounding the charge. From that we derive for a "point" charge the radiation reaction formula, which turns out to be proportional to the first time-derivative of the acceleration of the charge, identical to the expression for the self-force, hitherto obtained in the literature from the detailed mutual interaction between constituents of a small charged sphere. We then use relativistic transformations to arrive at a generalized formula for radiation reaction for a point charge undergoing relativistic motion.
Kolm, H.; Mongeau, P.; Williams, F.
1980-09-01
Recent advances in energy storage, switching and magnet technology make electromagnetic acceleration a viable alternative to chemical propulsion for certain tasks, and a means to perform other tasks not previously feasible. Applications include the acceleration of gram-size particles for hypervelocity research and the initiation of fusion by impact, a replacement for chemically propelled artillery, the transportation of cargo and personnel over inaccessible terrain, and the launching of space vehicles to supply massive space operations, and for the disposal of nuclear waste. The simplest launcher of interest is the railgun, in which a short-circuit slide or an arc is driven along two rails by direct current. The most sophisticated studied thus far is the mass driver, in which a superconducting shuttle bucket is accelerated by a line of pulse coils energized by capacitors at energy conversion efficiencies better than 90%. Other accelerators of interest include helical, brush-commutated motors, discrete coil arc commutated drivers, flux compression momentum transformers, and various hybrid electrochemical devices.
Electromagnetic probes in heavy-ion collisions
van Hees H.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Due to their penetrating nature, electromagnetic probes, i.e., lepton-antilepton pairs (dileptons and photons are unique tools to gain insight into the nature of the hot and dense medium of strongly-interacting particles created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, including hints to the nature of the restoration of chiral symmetry of QCD. Of particular interest are the spectral properties of the electromagnetic current-correlation function of these particles within the dense and/or hot medium. The related theoretical investigations of the in-medium properties of the involved particles in both the partonic and hadronic part of the QCD phase diagram underline the importance of a proper understanding of the properties of various hadron resonances in the medium.
WKB analysis of relativistic Stern-Gerlach measurements
Palmer, Matthew C.; Takahashi, Maki; Westman, Hans F.
2013-09-01
Spin is an important quantum degree of freedom in relativistic quantum information theory. This paper provides a first-principles derivation of the observable corresponding to a Stern-Gerlach measurement with relativistic particle velocity. The specific mathematical form of the Stern-Gerlach operator is established using the transformation properties of the electromagnetic field. To confirm that this is indeed the correct operator we provide a detailed analysis of the Stern-Gerlach measurement process. We do this by applying a WKB approximation to the minimally coupled Dirac equation describing an interaction between a massive fermion and an electromagnetic field. Making use of the superposition principle we show that the +1 and -1 spin eigenstates of the proposed spin operator are split into separate packets due to the inhomogeneity of the Stern-Gerlach magnetic field. The operator we obtain is dependent on the momentum between particle and Stern-Gerlach apparatus, and is mathematically distinct from two other commonly used operators. The consequences for quantum tomography are considered.
Numerical magneto-hydrodynamics for relativistic nuclear collisions
Inghirami, Gabriele; Beraudo, Andrea; Moghaddam, Mohsen Haddadi; Becattini, Francesco; Bleicher, Marcus
2016-01-01
We present an improved version of the ECHO-QGP numerical code, which self-consistently includes for the first time the effects of electromagnetic fields within the framework of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD). We discuss results of its application in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity of the plasma. After reviewing the relevant covariant $3\\!+\\!1$ formalisms, we illustrate the implementation of the evolution equations in the code and show the results of several tests aimed at assessing the accuracy and robustness of the implementation. After providing some estimates of the magnetic fields arising in non-central high-energy nuclear collisions, we perform full RMHD simulations of the evolution of the Quark-Gluon Plasma in the presence of electromagnetic fields and discuss the results. In our ideal RMHD setup we find that the magnetic field developing in non-central collisions does not significantly modify the elliptic-flow of the final hadrons. However, s...
Numerical magneto-hydrodynamics for relativistic nuclear collisions
Inghirami, Gabriele; Del Zanna, Luca; Beraudo, Andrea; Moghaddam, Mohsen Haddadi; Becattini, Francesco; Bleicher, Marcus
2016-12-01
We present an improved version of the ECHO-QGP numerical code, which self-consistently includes for the first time the effects of electromagnetic fields within the framework of relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics (RMHD). We discuss results of its application in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity of the plasma. After reviewing the relevant covariant 3+1 formalisms, we illustrate the implementation of the evolution equations in the code and show the results of several tests aimed at assessing the accuracy and robustness of the implementation. After providing some estimates of the magnetic fields arising in non-central high-energy nuclear collisions, we perform full RMHD simulations of the evolution of the quark-gluon plasma in the presence of electromagnetic fields and discuss the results. In our ideal RMHD setup we find that the magnetic field developing in non-central collisions does not significantly modify the elliptic flow of the final hadrons. However, since there are uncertainties in the description of the pre-equilibrium phase and also in the properties of the medium, a more extensive survey of the possible initial conditions as well as the inclusion of dissipative effects are indeed necessary to validate this preliminary result.
Numerical magneto-hydrodynamics for relativistic nuclear collisions
Inghirami, Gabriele [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, John von Neumann Institute for Computing, Juelich (Germany); Del Zanna, Luca [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Firenze (Italy); INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Beraudo, Andrea [INFN - Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Moghaddam, Mohsen Haddadi [INFN - Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Hakim Sabzevari University, Department of Physics, P. O. Box 397, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Becattini, Francesco [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Firenze (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, John von Neumann Institute for Computing, Juelich (Germany)
2016-12-15
We present an improved version of the ECHO-QGP numerical code, which self-consistently includes for the first time the effects of electromagnetic fields within the framework of relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics (RMHD). We discuss results of its application in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity of the plasma. After reviewing the relevant covariant 3 + 1 formalisms, we illustrate the implementation of the evolution equations in the code and show the results of several tests aimed at assessing the accuracy and robustness of the implementation. After providing some estimates of the magnetic fields arising in non-central high-energy nuclear collisions, we perform full RMHD simulations of the evolution of the quark-gluon plasma in the presence of electromagnetic fields and discuss the results. In our ideal RMHD setup we find that the magnetic field developing in non-central collisions does not significantly modify the elliptic flow of the final hadrons. However, since there are uncertainties in the description of the pre-equilibrium phase and also in the properties of the medium, a more extensive survey of the possible initial conditions as well as the inclusion of dissipative effects are indeed necessary to validate this preliminary result. (orig.)
Particle Acceleration in Relativistic Jets Due to Weibel Instability
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Richardson, G.; Preece, R.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.
2004-01-01
Shock acceleration is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a three-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic particle code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet front propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find only small differences in the results between no ambient and weak ambient magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. While some Fermi acceleration may occur at the jet front, the majority of electron acceleration takes place behind the jet front and cannot be characterized as Fermi acceleration. The simulation results show that this instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron s transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
Empirical Foundations of Relativistic Gravity
Ni, W T
2005-01-01
In 1859, Le Verrier discovered the mercury perihelion advance anomaly. This anomaly turned out to be the first relativistic-gravity effect observed. During the 141 years to 2000, the precisions of laboratory and space experiments, and astrophysical and cosmological observations on relativistic gravity have been improved by 3 orders of magnitude. In 1999, we envisaged a 3-6 order improvement in the next 30 years in all directions of tests of relativistic gravity. In 2000, the interferometric gravitational wave detectors began their runs to accumulate data. In 2003, the measurement of relativistic Shapiro time-delay of the Cassini spacecraft determined the relativistic-gravity parameter gammaγ with a 1.5-order improvement. In October 2004, Ciufolini and Pavlis reported a measurement of the Lense-Thirring effect on the LAGEOS and LAGEOS2 satellites to 10 percent of the value predicted by general relativity. In April 2004, Gravity Probe B was launched and has been accumulating science data for more than ...
Casas, Ricard; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castander, Francisco J.; Jiménez, Jorge; de Vicente, Juan
2014-08-01
The focal plane of the PAU camera is composed of eighteen 2K x 4K CCDs. These devices, plus four spares, were provided by the Japanese company Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. with type no. S10892-04(X). These detectors are 200 μm thick fully depleted and back illuminated with an n-type silicon base. They have been built with a specific coating to be sensitive in the range from 300 to 1,100 nm. Their square pixel size is 15 μm. The read-out system consists of a Monsoon controller (NOAO) and the panVIEW software package. The deafualt CCD read-out speed is 133 kpixel/s. This is the value used in the calibration process. Before installing these devices in the camera focal plane, they were characterized using the facilities of the ICE (CSIC- IEEC) and IFAE in the UAB Campus in Bellaterra (Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain). The basic tests performed for all CCDs were to obtain the photon transfer curve (PTC), the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) using X-rays and the EPER method, linearity, read-out noise, dark current, persistence, cosmetics and quantum efficiency. The X-rays images were also used for the analysis of the charge diffusion for different substrate voltages (VSUB). Regarding the cosmetics, and in addition to white and dark pixels, some patterns were also found. The first one, which appears in all devices, is the presence of half circles in the external edges. The origin of this pattern can be related to the assembly process. A second one appears in the dark images, and shows bright arcs connecting corners along the vertical axis of the CCD. This feature appears in all CCDs exactly in the same position so our guess is that the pattern is due to electrical fields. Finally, and just in two devices, there is a spot with wavelength dependence whose origin could be the result of a defectous coating process.
Background Electromagnetic Fields and NRQED Matching: Scalar Case
Lee, Jong-Wan
2013-01-01
The low-energy structure of hadrons can be described systematically using effective field theory, and the parameters of the effective theory can be determined from lattice QCD computations. Recent work, however, points to inconsistencies between the background field method in lattice QCD and effective field theory matching conditions. We show that the background field problem necessitates inclusion of operators related by equations of motion. In the presence of time-dependent electromagnetic fields, for example, such operators modify Green's functions, thereby complicating the isolation of hadronic parameters which enter on-shell scattering amplitudes. The particularly simple case of a scalar hadron coupled to uniform electromagnetic fields is investigated in detail. At the level of the relativistic effective theory, operators related by equations of motion are demonstrated to be innocuous. The same result does not hold in the non-relativistic effective theory, and inconsistencies in matching are resolved by ...
On the effects of geometry on guided electromagnetic waves
Tucker Robin W.
2007-01-01
Full Text Available The method of moving (Cartan coframes is used to analyze the influence of geometry on the behavior of electromagnetic fields in confining guides and the effect of such fields on their ultra-relativistic sources. Such issues are of relevance to a number of topical problems in accelerator science where the need to control the motion of high current-density micro-meter size bunches of relativistic radiating charge remains a technical and theoretical challenge. By dimensionally reducing the exterior equations for the sources and fields on spacetime using symmetries exhibited by the confining guides one achieves a unifying view that offers natural perturbative approaches for dealing with smooth non-uniform and curved guides. The issue of the back-reaction of radiation fields on the sources is approached in terms of a simple charged relativistic fluid model. .
Generation of radiation by intense plasma and electromagnetic undulators
Joshi, C.
1991-10-01
We examine the characteristics of the classical radiation emission resulting from the interaction of a relativistic electron beam that propagates perpendicularly through a large amplitude relativistic plasma wave. Such a study is useful for evaluating the feasibility of using relativistic plasma waves as extremely short wavelength undulators for generating short wavelength radiation. The electron trajectories in a plasma wave undulator and in an ac FEL undulator are obtained using perturbation techniques. The spontaneous radiation frequency spectrum and angular distribution emitted by a single electron oscillating in these two undulators are then calculated. The radiation gain of a copropagating electromagnetic wave is calculated. The approximate analytic results for the trajectories, spontaneous radiation and gain are compared with 3-D simulation results. The characteristics of the plasma wave undulator are compared with the ac FEL undulator and linearly polarized magnetic undulator. 50 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.
A molecular dynamics approach to dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics: propagation of fluctuations
Shahsavar, Leila; Montakhab, Afshin
2016-01-01
Relativistic generalization of hydrodynamic theory has attracted much attention from a theoretical point of view. However, it has many important practical applications in high energy as well as astrophysical contexts. Despite various attempts to formulate relativistic hydrodynamics, no definitive consensus has been achieved. In this work, we propose to test the predictions of four types of \\emph{first-order} hydrodynamic theories for non-perfect fluids in the light of numerically exact molecular dynamics simulations of a fully relativistic particle system in the low density regime. In this regard, we study the propagation of density, velocity and heat fluctuations in a wide range of temperatures using extensive simulations and compare them to the corresponding analytic expressions we obtain for each of the proposed theories. As expected in the low temperature classical regime all theories give the same results consistent with the numerics. In the high temperature extremely relativistic regime, not all conside...
Relativistic Engine Based on a Permanent Magnet
Tuval, Miron
2015-01-01
Newton's third law states that any action is countered by a reaction of equal magnitude but opposite direction. The total force in a system not affected by external forces is thus zero. However, according to the principles of relativity a signal can not propagate at speeds exceeding the speed of light. Hence the action cannot be generated at the same time with the reaction due to the relativity of simultaneity, thus the total force cannot be null at a given time. The following is a continuation of a previous paper \\cite{Tuval} in which we analyzed the relativistic effects in a system of two current conducting loops. Here the analysis is repeated but one of the loops is replaced by a permanent magnet. It should be emphasized that although momentum can be created in the {\\bf material} part of the system as described in the following work momentum can not be created in the {\\bf physical} system, hence for any momentum that is acquired by matter an opposite momentum is attributed to the electromagnetic field.
Relativistic causality and clockless circuits
Matherat, Philippe; 10.1145/2043643.2043650
2011-01-01
Time plays a crucial role in the performance of computing systems. The accurate modelling of logical devices, and of their physical implementations, requires an appropriate representation of time and of all properties that depend on this notion. The need for a proper model, particularly acute in the design of clockless delay-insensitive (DI) circuits, leads one to reconsider the classical descriptions of time and of the resulting order and causal relations satisfied by logical operations. This questioning meets the criticisms of classical spacetime formulated by Einstein when founding relativity theory and is answered by relativistic conceptions of time and causality. Applying this approach to clockless circuits and considering the trace formalism, we rewrite Udding's rules which characterize communications between DI components. We exhibit their intrinsic relation with relativistic causality. For that purpose, we introduce relativistic generalizations of traces, called R-traces, which provide a pertinent des...
Chargino production via Z-Boson Decay in a Strong Electromagnetic Field
Kurilin, Alexander V
2014-01-01
In the framework of MSSM the probability of $Z^0$-boson decay to charginos in a strong electromagnetic field, $Z^0\\rightarrow \\chi ^{+} \\chi ^{-}$, is analyzed. The method of calculations employs exact solutions of relativistic wave equations for charginos in a crossed electromagnetic field. Analytic expression for the decay width $\\Gamma(Z^{0}\\rightarrow \\chi ^{+} \\chi ^{-})$ is obtained at an arbitrary value of the parameter $\\varkappa=e m_Z^{-3}\\sqrt{-(F_{\\mu\
Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Koga, J.; Tajima, T.
2004-10-01
The plasma particle interaction with a relativistically intense electromagnetic wave under the conditions when the radiation reaction effects are dominant is considered. We analyze the radiation damping effects on the electron motion inside the circularly polarized planar wave and inside a subcycle crossed-field electromagnetic pulse. We consider the ion acceleration due to the radiation pressure action on a thin plasma slab. The results of 2D and 3D PIC simulations are presented.
Low energy analysis of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors
Kubis, B; Kubis, Bastian; Meissner, Ulf-G.
2001-01-01
We analyze the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon to fourth order in relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory. We employ the recently proposed infrared regularization scheme and show that the convergence of the chiral expansion is improved as compared to the heavy fermion approach. We also discuss the inclusion of vector mesons and obtain an accurate description of all four nucleon form factors for momentum transfer squared up to Q^2 \\simeq 0.4 GeV^2.
Effects of an electromagnetic quark form factor on meson properties
Silvestre-Brac, B. E-mail: silvestre@isn.in2p3.fr
2002-12-30
A form factor is introduced in the quark electromagnetic current. Its effect is analyzed on charge mean square radii and form factors in the mesonic sector. The decay of a vector meson into lepton-antilepton pair is also affected. Two different expressions for the form factors, and two different types of quark potential are tested and some relativistic kinematical corrections are proposed. In any case the introduction of a quark form factor greatly improves the agreement with experimental data.
Numerical instability due to relativistic plasma drift in EM-PIC simulations
Xu, Xinlu; Martins, Samual F; Tsung, Frank S; Decyk, Viktor K; Fonseca, Ricardo A; Lu, Wei; Silva, Luis O; Mori, Warren B
2012-01-01
The numerical instability observed in the Electromagnetic-Particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) simulations with a plasma drifting with relativistic velocities is studied using both theory and computer simulations. We derive the numerical dispersion relation for a cold plasma drifting with a relativistic velocity and find an instability attributed to the coupling between the beam modes of the drifting plasma and the electromagnetic modes in the system. The characteristic pattern of the instability in Fourier space for various simulation setups and Maxwell Equation solvers are explored by solving the corresponding numerical dispersion relations. Furthermore, based upon these characteristic patterns we derive an asymptotic expression for the instability growth rate. The results are compared against simulation results and good agreement is found. The results are used as a guide to develop possible approaches to mitigate the instability. We examine the use of a spectral solver and show that such a solver when combined with a...
Multifragmentation calculated with relativistic forces
Feldmeier, H; Papp, G
1995-01-01
A saturating hamiltonian is presented in a relativistically covariant formalism. The interaction is described by scalar and vector mesons, with coupling strengths adjusted to the nuclear matter. No explicit density depe ndence is assumed. The hamiltonian is applied in a QMD calculation to determine the fragment distribution in O + Br collision at different energies (50 -- 200 MeV/u) to test the applicability of the model at low energies. The results are compared with experiment and with previous non-relativistic calculations. PACS: 25.70Mn, 25.75.+r
Relativistic Stern-Gerlach Deflection
Talman, Richard
2016-01-01
Modern advances in polarized beam control should make it possible to accurately measure Stern-Gerlach (S-G) deflection of relativistic beams. Toward this end a relativistically covariant S-G formalism is developed that respects the opposite behavior under inversion of electric and magnetic fields. Not at all radical, or even new, this introduces a distinction between electric and magnetic fields that is not otherwise present in pure Maxwell theory. Experimental configurations (mainly using polarized electron beams passing through magnetic or electric quadrupoles) are described. Electron beam preparation and experimental methods needed to detect the extremely small deflections are discussed.
Vector Theory in Relativistic Thermodynamics
刘泽文
1994-01-01
It is pointed out that five defects occur in Planck-Einstein’s relativistic thermodynamics (P-E theory). A vector theory in relativistic thermodynamics (VTRT) is established. Defining the internal energy as a 4-vector, and supposing the entropy and the number of. particles to be invariants we have derived the transformations of all quantities, and subsequently got the Lagrangian and 4-D forms of thermodynamic laws. In order to test the new theory, several exact solutions with classical limits are given. The VTRT is free from the defects of the P-E theory.
Frontiers in relativistic celestial mechanics
2014-01-01
Relativistic celestial mechanics – investigating the motion celestial bodies under the influence of general relativity – is a major tool of modern experimental gravitational physics. With a wide range of prominent authors from the field, this two-volume series consists of reviews on a multitude of advanced topics in the area of relativistic celestial mechanics – starting from more classical topics such as the regime of asymptotically-flat spacetime, light propagation and celestial ephemerides, but also including its role in cosmology and alternative theories of gravity as well as modern experiments in this area.
General-Relativistic Resistive Magnetohydrodynamics in three dimensions: formulation and tests
Dionysopoulou, Kyriaki; Palenzuela, Carlos; Rezzolla, Luciano; Giacomazzo, Bruno
2013-01-01
We present a new numerical implementation of the general-relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations within the Whisky code. The numerical method adopted exploits the properties of Implicit-Explicit Runge-Kutta numerical schemes to treat the stiff terms that appear in the equations for small electrical conductivities. Using tests in one, two, and three dimensions, we show that our implementation is robust and recovers the ideal-MHD limit in regimes of very high conductivity. Moreover, the results illustrate that the code is capable of describing physical setups in all ranges of conductivities. In addition to tests in flat spacetime, we report simulations of magnetized nonrotating relativistic stars, both in the Cowling approximation and in dynamical spacetimes. Finally, because of its astrophysical relevance and because it provides a severe testbed for general-relativistic codes with dynamical electromagnetic fields, we study the collapse of a nonrotating star to a black hole. We show that als...
Relativistic MHD simulations of core-collapse GRB jets: 3D instabilities and magnetic dissipation
Bromberg, Omer
2015-01-01
Relativistic jets naturally occur in astrophysical systems that involve accretion onto compact objects, such as core collapse of massive stars in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and accretion onto supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN). It is generally accepted that these jets are powered electromagnetically, by the magnetised rotation of a central compact object. However, how they produce the observed emission and survive the propagation for many orders of magnitude in distance without being disrupted by current-driven non-axisymmetric instabilities is the subject of active debate. We carry out time-dependent 3D relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of relativistic, Poynting flux dominated jets. The jets are launched self-consistently by the rotation of a strongly magnetised central compact object. This determines the natural degree of azimuthal magnetic field winding, a crucial factor that controls jet stability. We find that the jets are susceptible to two types of instability: (i) a globa...
Long wavelength unstable modes in the far upstream of relativistic collisionless shocks
Rabinak, Itay; Waxman, Eli
2010-01-01
The growth rate of long wavelength kinetic instabilities arising due to the interaction of a collimated beam of relativistic particles and a cold unmagnetized plasma are calculated in the ultra relativistic limit. For sufficiently culminated beams, all long wave-length modes are shown to be Weibel-unstable, and a simple analytic expression for their growth rate is derived. For large transverse velocity spreads, these modes become stable. An analytic condition for stability is given. These analytic results, which generalize earlier ones given in the literature, are shown to be in agreement with numerical solutions of the dispersion equation and with the results of novel PIC simulations in which the electro-magnetic fields are restricted to a given k-mode. The results may describe the interaction of energetic cosmic rays, propagating into the far upstream of a relativistic collisionless shock, with a cold unmagnetized upstream. The long wavelength modes considered may be efficient in deflecting particles and co...
Post-Newtonian reference-ellipsoid for relativistic geodesy
Kopeikin, Sergei; Mazurova, Elena
2015-01-01
We apply general relativity to construct the post-Newtonian background manifold that serves as a reference level surface in relativistic geodesy for conducting calculation of geoid's undulation. We chose the perfect homogeneous fluid uniformly rotating around a fixed axis as a source of the background manifold. We, then, reformulate and extend rotating-fluid calculations done by a number of previous researchers for astrophysical applications to the realm of relativistic geodesy to find out the algebraic equation of the post-Newtonian reference-ellipsoid. We explicitly perform all integrals characterizing gravitational potentials inside the fluid body and represent them in terms of elementary functions depending on the body's eccentricity. We fully explore the coordinate freedom of the equations describing the post-Newtonian ellipsoid and demonstrate that the fractional deviation of the post-Newtonian level surface from the Maclaurin ellipsoid can be made much smaller than the previously anticipated estimate a...
Instabilities in relativistic two-component (super)fluids
Haber, Alexander; Stetina, Stephan
2016-01-01
We study two-fluid systems with nonzero fluid velocities and compute their sound modes, which indicate various instabilities. For the case of two zero-temperature superfluids we employ a microscopic field-theoretical model of two coupled bosonic fields, including an entrainment coupling and a non-entrainment coupling. We analyse the onset of the various instabilities systematically and point out that the dynamical two-stream instability can only occur beyond Landau's critical velocity, i.e., in an already energetically unstable regime. A qualitative difference is found for the case of two normal fluids, where certain transverse modes suffer a two-stream instability in an energetically stable regime if there is entrainment between the fluids. Since we work in a fully relativistic setup, our results are very general and of potential relevance for (super)fluids in neutron stars and, in the non-relativistic limit of our results, in the laboratory.
Shukla, Chandrasekhar; Das, Amita; Patel, Kartik
2016-08-01
We carry out particle-in-cell simulations to study the instabilities associated with a 2-D sheared electron flow configuration against a neutralizing background of ions. Both weak and strong relativistic flow velocities are considered. In the weakly relativistic case, we observe the development of electromagnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with similar characteristics as that predicted by the electron Magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) model. On the contrary, in a strong relativistic case, the compressibility effects of electron fluid dominate and introduce upper hybrid electrostatic oscillations transverse to the flow which are very distinct from EMHD fluid behavior. In the nonlinear regime, both weak and strong relativistic cases lead to turbulence with broad power law spectrum.
Design Study of Fully Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators
Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech
2015-01-01
In this paper, two fully superconducting generators employing MgB2 armature winding, with YBCO and MgB2 field winding respectively, are presented and analyzed. The ac loss in armature winding is estimated, and a simple comparative study is carried out. The results show that both electromagnetic...... designs for fully superconducting generators are promising with respect to the power density. However, the cost of removing ac loss in armature winding is as high as $900 000. It is also noted that with the current price of YBCO tape, the generator employing MgB 2 field winding would have lower cost....
Relativistic Hydrodynamics for Heavy-Ion Collisions
Ollitrault, Jean-Yves
2008-01-01
Relativistic hydrodynamics is essential to our current understanding of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies (current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, forthcoming experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). This is an introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics for graduate students. It includes a detailed…
Bai, Xue-Ning; Sironi, Lorenzo; Spitkovsky, Anatoly
2014-01-01
We formulate a magnetohydrodynamic-particle-in-cell (MHD-PIC) method for describing the interaction between collisionless cosmic ray (CR) particles and a thermal plasma. The thermal plasma is treated as a fluid, obeying equations of ideal MHD, while CRs are treated as relativistic Lagrangian particles subject to the Lorentz force. Backreaction from CRs to the gas is included in the form of momentum and energy feedback. In addition, we include the electromagnetic feedback due to CR-induced Hall effect that becomes important when the electron-ion drift velocity of the background plasma induced by CRs approaches the Alfv\\'en velocity. Our method is applicable on scales much larger than the ion inertial length, bypassing the microscopic scales that must be resolved in conventional PIC methods, while retaining the full kinetic nature of the CRs. We have implemented and tested this method in the Athena MHD code, where the overall scheme is second-order accurate and fully conservative. As a first application, we des...
Nucleon-Nucleon Scattering From Fully-Dynamical Lattice QCD
Konstantinos Orginos; Martin Savage; Paulo Bedaque; Silas Beane
2006-07-01
We present results of the first fully-dynamical lattice QCD determination of nucleon-nucleon scattering lengths in the 1 S0 channel and 3 S1 - 3 D1 coupled channels. The calculations are performed with domain-wall valence quarks on the MILC staggered configurations with lattice spacing of b = 0.125 fm in the isospin-symmetric limit, and in the absence of electromagnetic interactions
Xiao, Yunlong; Liu, Wenjian
2013-07-21
The relativistic molecular Hamiltonian written in the body-fixed frame of reference is the basis for high-precision calculations of spectroscopic parameters involving nuclear vibrations and/or rotations. Such a Hamiltonian that describes electrons fully relativistically and nuclei quasi-relativistically is just developed for semi-rigid nonlinear molecules [Y. Xiao and W. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 134104 (2013)]. Yet, the formulation should somewhat be revised for linear molecules thanks to some unusual features arising from the redundancy of the rotation around the molecular axis. Nonetheless, the resulting isomorphic Hamiltonian is rather similar to that for nonlinear molecules. Consequently, the relativistic formulation of nuclear spin-rotation (NSR) tensor for linear molecules is very much the same as that for nonlinear molecules. So is the relativistic mapping between experimental NSR and NMR.
The Electromagnetic Signals of Compact Binary Mergers
Piran, T; Rosswog, S
2012-01-01
Compact binary mergers are prime sources of gravitational waves (GWs), targeted by current and next generation detectors. The question "what is the observable electromagnetic (EM) signature of a compact binary merger?" is an intriguing one with crucial consequences to the quest for gravitational waves. We present a large set of numerical simulations that focus on the electromagnetic signals that emerge from the dynamically ejected sub-relativistic material. These outflows produce on a time scale of a day macronovae - short-lived optical/UV signals powered by radioactive decay. In addition, the outflow interaction with the surrounding matter inevitably leads to a long-lasting radio emission. We calculate the expected radio signals from these outflows on time scales longer than a year, when the sub-relativistic ejecta dominate the emission. We discuss their detectability in 1.4 GHz and 150 MHz and compare it with an updated estimate of the detectability of short GRBs' orphan afterglows. We find that mergers wit...
Anisotropy of low energy direct photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions
Koide, T.; Kodama, T.
2016-09-01
Using the Wigner function approach for electromagnetic radiation fields, we investigate the behavior of low energy photons radiated by the deceleration processes of two colliding nuclei in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The angular distribution reveals information of the initial geometric configurations, which is reflected in the anisotropic parameter v 2, with an increasing v 2 as energy decreases. This behavior is qualitatively different to the v 2 from the hadrons produced in the collisions.
Relativistic wave equations for interacting massive particles with arbitrary half-intreger spins
Niederle, J
2001-01-01
New formulation of relativistic wave equations (RWE) for massive particles with arbitrary half-integer spins $s$ interacting with external electromagnetic fields are proposed. They are based on wave functions which are irreducible tensors of rank $2n$ ($n=s-\\frac12$) antisymmetric w.r.t. $n$ pairs of indices, whose components are bispinors. The form of RWE is straightforward and free of inconsistencies associated with the other approaches to equations describing interacting higher spin particles.
Microscopic Processes in Relativistic Jets
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Nordlund, A.; Fredricksen, J.; Sol, H.; Niemiec, J.; Lyubarsky, Y.;
2008-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the collisionless relativistic shock particle acceleration is due to plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The 'jitter' radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
The Highest Redshift Relativistic Jets
Cheung, C.C.; Stawarz, L.; Siemiginowska, A.; Harris, D.E; Schwartz, D.A.; Wardle, J.F.C.; Gobeille, D.; Lee, N.P.
2007-12-18
We describe our efforts to understand large-scale (10's-100's kpc) relativistic jet systems through observations of the highest-redshift quasars. Results from a VLA survey search for radio jets in {approx} 30 z > 3.4 quasars are described along with new Chandra observations of 4 selected targets.
Circular polarization in relativistic jets
Macquart, JP
2003-01-01
Circular polarization is observed in some relativistic jet sources at radio wavelengths. It is largely associated with activity in the cores of the radio sources, is highly variable, and is strongest during ejection episodes. VLBI imaging and interstellar scintillation arguments show that the degree
General-relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamics in three dimensions: Formulation and tests
Dionysopoulou, Kyriaki; Alic, Daniela; Palenzuela, Carlos; Rezzolla, Luciano; Giacomazzo, Bruno
2013-08-01
We present a new numerical implementation of the general-relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations within the Whisky code. The numerical method adopted exploits the properties of implicit-explicit Runge-Kutta numerical schemes to treat the stiff terms that appear in the equations for large electrical conductivities. Using tests in one, two, and three dimensions, we show that our implementation is robust and recovers the ideal-MHD limit in regimes of very high conductivity. Moreover, the results illustrate that the code is capable of describing scenarios in a very wide range of conductivities. In addition to tests in flat spacetime, we report simulations of magnetized nonrotating relativistic stars, both in the Cowling approximation and in dynamical spacetimes. Finally, because of its astrophysical relevance and because it provides a severe tested for general-relativistic codes with dynamical electromagnetic fields, we study the collapse of a nonrotating star to a black hole. We show that also in this case our results on the quasinormal mode frequencies of the excited electromagnetic fields in the Schwarzschild background agree with the perturbative studies within 0.7% and 5.6% for the real and the imaginary part of the ℓ=1 mode eigenfrequency, respectively. Finally we provide an estimate of the electromagnetic efficiency of this process.
A Relativistic Coupled-Channel Formalism for the Pion Form Factor
Klink W.H.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The electromagnetic form factor of a confined quark-antiquark pair is calculated within the framework of point-form relativistic quantum mechanics. The dynamics of the exchanged photon is explicitly taken into account by treating the electromagnetic scattering of an electron by a meson as a relativistic two-channel problem for a Bakamjian-Thomas type mass operator. This approach guarantees Poincare invariance. Using a Feshbach reduction the coupled-channel problem can be converted into a one-channel problem for the elastic electron-meson channel. By comparing the one-photon-exchange optical potential at the constituent and hadronic levels, we are able to unambiguously identify the electromagnetic meson form factor. Violations of cluster-separability properties, which are inherent in the Bakamjian-Thomas approach, become negligible for su?ciently large invariant mass of the electron-meson system. In the limit of an in?nitely large invariant mass, an equivalence with form-factor calculations done in front-form relativistic quantum mechanics is established analytically.
Electromagnetic Education in India
Bajpai, Shrish; Asif, Siddiqui Sajida; Akhtar, Syed Adnan
2016-01-01
Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases.…
Fast lattice Boltzmann solver for relativistic hydrodynamics.
Mendoza, M; Boghosian, B M; Herrmann, H J; Succi, S
2010-07-01
A lattice Boltzmann formulation for relativistic fluids is presented and numerically validated through quantitative comparison with recent hydrodynamic simulations of relativistic fluids. In order to illustrate its capability to handle complex geometries, the scheme is also applied to the case of a three-dimensional relativistic shock wave, generated by a supernova explosion, impacting on a massive interstellar cloud. This formulation opens up the possibility of exporting the proven advantages of lattice Boltzmann methods, namely, computational efficiency and easy handling of complex geometries, to the context of (mildly) relativistic fluid dynamics at large, from quark-gluon plasmas up to supernovae with relativistic outflows.
Madokoro, Hideki; Matsuzaki, Masayuki
1997-01-01
Relativistic Mean Field Theory is applied to the description of rotating nuclei. Since the previous formulation of Munich group was based on a special relativistic transformation property of the spinor fields, we reformulate in a fully covariant manner using tetrad formalism. The numerical calculations are performed for 3 zinc isotopes, including the newly discovered superdeformed band in $^{62}$Zn which is the first experimental observation in this mass region.
Madokoro, H.; Matsuzaki, M.
Relativistic Mean Field Theory is applied to the description of rotating nuclei. Since the previous formulation of Munich group was based on a special relativistic transformation property of the spinor fields, we reformulate in a fully covariant manner using tetrad formalism. The numerical calculations are performed for 3 zinc isotopes, including the newly discovered superdeformed band in $^{62}$Zn which is the first experimental observation in this mass region.
Relativistic calculation of the SeH{sub 2} and TeH{sub 2} photoelectron spectra
Pernpointner, Markus [Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: Markus.Pernpointner@pci.uni-heidelberg.de
2006-10-26
Photoelectron (PE) spectra provide detailed insight into the electronic structure of atoms, molecules and solids. Hereby electron correlation and relativistic effects influence the structure of the PE spectrum in a complicated way necessitating a consistent theoretical treatment. By embedding the one-particle propagator technique in a four-component framework the interplay between relativistic and correlation effects can be described correctly. In this article the Dirac-Hartree-Fock algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme (DHF-ADC) together with recent applications is reviewed and fully relativistic PE spectra of SeH{sub 2} and TeH{sub 2} in combination with basis set studies are presented.
Intercode comparison of gyrokinetic global electromagnetic modes
Görler, T.; Tronko, N.; Hornsby, W. A.; Bottino, A.; Kleiber, R.; Norscini, C.; Grandgirard, V.; Jenko, F.; Sonnendrücker, E.
2016-07-01
Aiming to fill a corresponding lack of sophisticated test cases for global electromagnetic gyrokinetic codes, a new hierarchical benchmark is proposed. Starting from established test sets with adiabatic electrons, fully gyrokinetic electrons, and electrostatic fluctuations are taken into account before finally studying the global electromagnetic micro-instabilities. Results from up to five codes involving representatives from different numerical approaches as particle-in-cell methods, Eulerian and Semi-Lagrangian are shown. By means of spectrally resolved growth rates and frequencies and mode structure comparisons, agreement can be confirmed on ion-gyro-radius scales, thus providing confidence in the correct implementation of the underlying equations.
Moussa, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1968-06-01
This work describes the angular analysis of reactions between particles with spin in a fully relativistic fashion. One particle states are introduced, following Wigner's method, as representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group. In order to perform the angular analyses, the reduction of the product of two representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group is studied. Clebsch-Gordan coefficients are computed for the following couplings: l-s coupling, helicity coupling, multipolar coupling, and symmetric coupling for more than two particles. Massless and massive particles are handled simultaneously. On the way we construct spinorial amplitudes and free fields; we recall how to establish convergence theorems for angular expansions from analyticity hypothesis. Finally we substitute these hypotheses to the idea of 'potential radius', which gives at low energy the usual 'centrifugal barrier' factors. The presence of such factors had never been deduced from hypotheses compatible with relativistic invariance. (author) [French] On decrit un formalisme permettant de tenir compte de l'invariance relativiste, dans l'analyse angulaire des amplitudes de reaction entre particules de spin quelconque. Suivant Wigner, les etats a une particule sont introduits a l'aide des representations du groupe de Lorentz inhomogene. Pour effectuer les analyses angulaires, on etudie la reduction du produit de deux representations du groupe de Lorentz inhomogene. Les coefficients de Clebsch-Gordan correspondants sont calcules dans les couplages suivants: couplage l-s couplage d'helicite, couplage multipolaire, couplage symetrique pour plus de deux particules. Les particules de masse nulle et de masse non nulle sont traitees simultanement. Au passage, on introduit les amplitudes spinorielles et on construit les champs libres, on rappelle comment des hypotheses d'analyticite permettent d'etablir des theoremes de convergence pour les
SOLAR NANTENNA ELECTROMAGNETIC COLLECTORS
Steven D. Novack; Dale K. Kotter; Dennis Slafer; Patrick Pinhero
2008-08-01
This research explores a new efficient approach for producing electricity from the abundant energy of the sun. A nanoantenna electromagnetic collector (NEC) has been designed, prototyped, and tested. Proof of concept has been validated. The device targets mid-infrared wavelengths where conventional photovoltaic (PV) solar cells do not respond but is abundant in solar energy. The initial concept of designing NEC antennas was based on scaling of radio frequency antenna theory. This approach has proven unsuccessful by many due to not fully understanding and accounting for the optical behavior of materials in the THz region. Also until recent years the nanofabrication methods were not available to fabricate the optical antenna elements. We have addressed and overcome both technology barriers. Several factors were critical in successful implementation of NEC including: 1) frequency-dependent modeling of antenna elements, 2) selection of materials with proper THz properties and 3) novel manufacturing methods that enable economical large-scale manufacturing. The work represents an important step toward the ultimate realization of a low-cost device that will collect as well as convert this radiation into electricity, which will lead to a wide spectrum, high conversion efficiency, and low cost solution to complement conventional PVs.
ELECTROMAGNET CALORIMETER (ECAL)
R. Rusack
Installation is under way of the last piece of the electromagnetic calorimeter. This is the preshower (ES) that sits in front of the two endcap calorimeters. The construction of the ES was completed in December and went through a detailed set of tests in December and January. The two preshower detectors have a total of 4300 silicon sensors with 137,000 strips. After final assembly and system testing in January, only two of the strips were found to be defective. Once CMS was fully opened a new support structure (‘Gazprom’) was put into place underneath the beam pipe, to support the Surkov platform, on which the preshower installation takes place. In the early hours of 26th February the first two Dees, which form the ‘ES+’ endcap, were transported to P5 , a journey that took two and a half hours. The Dees, still inside environmental protection boxes, were then lowered underground and moved to the ‘+’ end of CMS. Installation start...
New relativistic Hamiltonian: the angular magnetoelectric coupling
Paillard, Charles; Mondal, Ritwik; Berritta, Marco; Dkhil, Brahim; Singh, Surendra; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Bellaiche, Laurent
2016-10-01
Spin-Orbit Coupling (SOC) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the spintronics area, as it plays a major role in allowing for enhancing many well-known phenomena, such as the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, magnetocrystalline anisotropy, the Rashba effect, etc. However, the usual expression of the SOC interaction ħ/4m2c2 [E×p] • σ (1) where p is the momentum operator, E the electric field, σ the vector of Pauli matrices, breaks the gauge invariance required by the electronic Hamiltonian. On the other hand, very recently, a new phenomenological interaction, coupling the angular momentum of light and magnetic moments, has been proposed based on symmetry arguments: ξ/2 [r × (E × B)] M, (2) with M the magnetization, r the position, and ξ the interaction strength constant. This interaction has been demonstrated to contribute and/or give rise, in a straightforward way, to various magnetoelectric phenomena,such as the anomalous Hall effect (AHE), the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR), the planar Hall effect and Rashba-like effects, or the spin-current model in multiferroics. This last model is known to be the origin of the cycloidal spin arrangement in bismuth ferrite for instance. However, the coupling of the angular momentum of light with magnetic moments lacked a fundamental theoretical basis. Starting from the Dirac equation, we derive a relativistic interaction Hamiltonian which linearly couples the angular momentum density of the electromagnetic (EM) field and the electrons spin. We name this coupling the Angular MagnetoElectric (AME) coupling. We show that in the limit of uniform magnetic field, the AME coupling yields an interaction exactly of the form of Eq. (2), thereby giving a firm theoretical basis to earlier works. The AME coupling can be expressed as: ξ [E × A] • σ (3) with A being the vector potential. Interestingly, the AME coupling was shown to be complementary to the traditional SOC, and together they restore the gauge invariance of the
Apparent Paradoxes in Classical Electrodynamics: A Fluid Medium in an Electromagnetic Field
Kholmetskii, A. L.; Yarman, T.
2008-01-01
In this paper we analyse a number of teaching paradoxes of classical electrodynamics, dealing with the relativistic transformation of energy and momentum for a fluid medium in an external electromagnetic field. In particular, we consider a moving parallel plate charged capacitor, where the electric attraction of its plates is balanced by the…
Electromagnetic Waves with Frequencies Near the Local Proton Gryofrequency: ISEF-3 1 AU Observations
Tsurutani, B.
1993-01-01
Low Frequency electromagnetic waves with periods near the local proton gyrofrequency have been detected near 1 AU by the magnetometer onboard ISEE-3. For these 1 AU waves two physical processes are possible: solar wind pickup of nuetral (interstellar?) particles and generation by relativistic electron beams propagating from the Sun.
Electromagnetic Waves with Frequencies Near the Local Proton Gryofrequency: ISEF-3 1 AU Observations
Tsurutani, B.
1993-01-01
Low Frequency electromagnetic waves with periods near the local proton gyrofrequency have been detected near 1 AU by the magnetometer onboard ISEE-3. For these 1 AU waves two physical processes are possible: solar wind pickup of nuetral (interstellar?) particles and generation by relativistic electron beams propagating from the Sun.
Klacka, J
2001-01-01
Relativistically covariant form of equation of motion for real particle (body) under the action of electromagnetic radiation is derived. Equation of motion in the proper frame of the particle uses the radiation pressure cross section 3 $\\times$ 3 matrix. Obtained covariant equation of motion is compared with another covariant equation of motion which was presented more than one year ago.
Applied Electromagnetism and Materials
Moliton, André
2007-01-01
Applied Electromagnetism and Materials picks up where the author's Basic Electromagnetism and Materials left off by presenting practical and relevant technological information about electromagnetic material properties and their applications. This book is aimed at senior undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers in materials science and is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. Topics range from the spectroscopy and characterization of dielectrics and semiconductors, to non-linear effects and electromagnetic cavities, to ion-beam applications in materials science.
Theory of electromagnetic fields
Wolski, Andrzej
2011-01-01
We discuss the theory of electromagnetic fields, with an emphasis on aspects relevant to radiofrequency systems in particle accelerators. We begin by reviewing Maxwell's equations and their physical significance. We show that in free space, there are solutions to Maxwell's equations representing the propagation of electromagnetic fields as waves. We introduce electromagnetic potentials, and show how they can be used to simplify the calculation of the fields in the presence of sources. We derive Poynting's theorem, which leads to expressions for the energy density and energy flux in an electromagnetic field. We discuss the properties of electromagnetic waves in cavities, waveguides and transmission lines.
Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System
Kopeikin, Sergei; Efroimsky, Michael; Kaplan, George
2011-09-01
objects like vectors and tensors, for example, the velocity, acceleration, force, electromagnetic field, and so on. Chapter 3 is devoted to general relativity. It explains the main ideas of the tensor calculus on curved manifolds, the theory of the affine connection and parallel transport, and the mathematical and physical foundations of Einstein's approach to gravity. Within this chapter, we have also included topics which are not well covered in standard books on general relativity: namely, the variational analysis on manifolds and the multipolar expansion of gravitational radiation. Chapter 4 introduces a detailed theory of relativistic reference frames and time scales in an N-body system comprised of massive, extended bodies - like our own solar system. Here, we go beyond general relativity and base our analysis on the scalar-tensor theory of gravity. This allows us to extend the domain of applicability of the IAU resolutions on relativistic reference frames, which in their original form were applicable only in the framework of general relativity. We explain the principles of construction of reference frames, and explore their relationship with the solutions of the gravitational field equations. We also discuss the post-Newtonian multipolemoments of the gravitational field from the viewpoint of global and local coordinates. Chapter 5 discusses the principles of derivation of transformations between reference frames in relativistic celestial mechanics. The standard parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism by K. Nordtevdt and C. Will operates with a single coordinate frame covering the entire N-body system, but it is insufficient for discussion of more subtle relativistic effects showing up in orbital and rotational motion of extended bodies. Consideration of such effects require, besides the global frame, the introduction of a set of local frames needed to properly treat each body and its internal structure and dynamics. The entire set of global and local frames
A relativistic calculation of the deuteron threshold electrodisintegration at backward angles
Arriaga, A
2007-01-01
The threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron at backward angles is studied with a relativistic Hamiltonian, including a relativistic one-pion-exchange potential (OPEP) with off-shell terms as predicted by pseudovector coupling of pions to nucleons. The bound and scattering states are obtained in the center-of-mass frame, and then boosted from it to the Breit frame, where the evaluation of the relevant matrix elements of the electromagnetic current operator is carried out. The latter includes, in addition to one-body, also two-body terms due to pion exchange, as obtained, consistently with the OPEP, in pseudovector pion-nucleon coupling theory. The full Lorentz structure of these currents is retained. In order to estimate the magnitude of the relativistic effects we perform, for comparison, the calculation with a non-relativistic phase-equivalent Hamiltonian and the standard non-relativistic expressions for the one-body and two-body pion-exchange currents. Our results for the electrodisintegration cross...
Relativistic Effects Break Periodicity in Group 6 Diatomic Molecules.
Wang, Yi-Lei; Hu, Han-Shi; Li, Wan-Lu; Wei, Fan; Li, Jun
2016-02-03
The finding of the periodic law is a milestone in chemical science. The periodicity of light elements in the Periodic Table is fully accounted for by quantum mechanics. Here we report that relativistic effects change the bond multiplicity of the group 6 diatomic molecules M2 (M = Cr, Mo, W, Sg) from hextuple bonds for Cr2, Mo2, W2 to quadruple bonds for Sg2, thus breaking the periodicity in the nonrelativistic domain. The same trend is also found for other superheavy-element diatomics Rf2, Db2, Bh2, and Hs2.
The grasp2K relativistic atomic structure package
Jönsson, P.; He, X.; Froese Fischer, C.; Grant, I. P.
2007-10-01
Xeon, 3.06 GHz Operating system: Suse LINUX RAM: 500 MB or more Classification: 2.1 Nature of problem: Prediction of atomic spectra—atomic energy levels, oscillator strengths, and radiative decay rates—using a 'fully relativistic' approach. Solution method: Atomic orbitals are assumed to be four-component spinor eigenstates of the angular momentum operator, j=l+s, and the parity operator Π=βπ. Configuration state functions (CSFs) are linear combinations of Slater determinants of atomic orbitals, and are simultaneous eigenfunctions of the atomic electronic angular momentum operator, J, and the atomic parity operator, P. Approximate atomic state functions (ASFs) are linear combinations of CSFs. A variational functional may be constructed by combining expressions for the energies of one or more ASFs. Average energy level (EAL) functionals are weighted sums of energies of all possible ASFs that may be constructed from a set of CSFs; the number of ASFs is then the same as the number of CSFs. Extended optimal level (EOL) functionals are weighted sums of energies of some subset of ASFs. Radial functions may be determined by numerically solving the multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) equations that define an extremum of the variational functional by the self-consistent-field (SCF) method. Lists of CSFs are generated from a set of reference CSFs and rules for deriving other CSFs from these. Expansion coefficients are obtained using sparse-matrix methods for solving the relativistic configuration interaction (CI) problem. Transition properties for pairs of ASFs are computed from matrix elements of multipole operators of the electromagnetic field. Biorthogonal transformation methods are employed so that all matrix elements between CSFs can be evaluated using Racah algebra. Restrictions: The maximum number of radial orbitals is limited to 120 by the packing algorithm used for 32-bit integers. The maximum size of a multiconfiguration (MC) calculation, as measured
Large amplitude electromagnetic solitons in intense laser plasma interaction
Li Bai-Wen; Ishiguro S; Skoric M M
2006-01-01
This paper shows that the standing, backward- and forward-accelerated large amplitude relativistic electromagnetic solitons induced by intense laser pulse in long underdense collisionless homogeneous plasmas can be observed by particle simulations. In addition to the inhomogeneity of the plasma density, the acceleration of the solitons also depends upon not only the laser amplitude but also the plasma length. The electromagnetic frequency of the solitons is between about half and one of the unperturbed electron plasma frequency. The electrostatic field inside the soliton has a one-cycle structure in space, while the transverse electric and magnetic fields have half-cycle and one-cycle structure respectively.Analytical estimates for the existence of the solitons and their electromagnetic frequencies qualitatively coincide with our simulation results.
Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds
Füellekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E. M. D.;
2011-01-01
Non-luminous relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds have been detected by the radio signals of low frequency similar to 40-400 kHz which they radiate. The electron beams occur similar to 2-9 ms after positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges at heights between similar to 22-72 km above...... thunderclouds. Intense positive lightning discharges can also cause sprites which occur either above or prior to the electron beam. One electron beam was detected without any luminous sprite which suggests that electron beams may also occur independently of sprites. Numerical simulations show that beams...... of electrons partially discharge the lightning electric field above thunderclouds and thereby gain a mean energy of similar to 7MeV to transport a total charge of similar to-10mC upwards. The impulsive current similar to 3 x 10(-3) Am-2 associated with relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds...
Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds
M. Füllekrug
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Non-luminous relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds are detected by radio remote sensing with low frequency radio signals from 40–400 kHz. The electron beams occur 2–9 ms after positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges at heights between 22–72 km above thunderclouds. The positive lightning discharges also cause sprites which occur either above or before the electron beam. One electron beam was detected without any luminous sprite occurrence which suggests that electron beams may also occur independently. Numerical simulations show that the beamed electrons partially discharge the lightning electric field above thunderclouds and thereby gain a mean energy of 7 MeV to transport a total charge of 10 mC upwards. The impulsive current associated with relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds is directed downwards and needs to be considered as a novel element of the global atmospheric electric circuit.
Volatility smile as relativistic effect
Kakushadze, Zura
2017-06-01
We give an explicit formula for the probability distribution based on a relativistic extension of Brownian motion. The distribution (1) is properly normalized and (2) obeys the tower law (semigroup property), so we can construct martingales and self-financing hedging strategies and price claims (options). This model is a 1-constant-parameter extension of the Black-Scholes-Merton model. The new parameter is the analog of the speed of light in Special Relativity. However, in the financial context there is no ;speed limit; and the new parameter has the meaning of a characteristic diffusion speed at which relativistic effects become important and lead to a much softer asymptotic behavior, i.e., fat tails, giving rise to volatility smiles. We argue that a nonlocal stochastic description of such (Lévy) processes is inadequate and discuss a local description from physics. The presentation is intended to be pedagogical.
Double Relativistic Electron Accelerating Mirror
Saltanat Sadykova
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, the possibility of generation of thin dense relativistic electron layers is shown using the analytical and numerical modeling of laser pulse interaction with ultra-thin layers. It was shown that the maximum electron energy can be gained by optimal tuning between the target width, intensity and laser pulse duration. The optimal parameters were obtained from a self-consistent system of Maxwell equations and the equation of motion of electron layer. For thin relativistic electron layers, the gaining of maximum electron energies requires a second additional overdense plasma layer, thus cutting the laser radiation off the plasma screen at the instant of gaining the maximum energy (DREAM-schema.
Relativistic stars in bigravity theory
Aoki, Katsuki; Tanabe, Makoto
2016-01-01
Assuming static and spherically symmetric spacetimes in the ghost-free bigravity theory, we find a relativistic star solution, which is very close to that in general relativity. The coupling constants are classified into two classes: Class [I] and Class [II]. Although the Vainshtein screening mechanism is found in the weak gravitational field for both classes, we find that there is no regular solution beyond the critical value of the compactness in Class [I]. This implies that the maximum mass of a neutron star in Class [I] becomes much smaller than that in GR. On the other hand, for the solution in Class [II], the Vainshtein screening mechanism works well even in a relativistic star and the result in GR is recovered.
Relativistic Hydrodynamics on Graphic Cards
Gerhard, Jochen; Bleicher, Marcus
2012-01-01
We show how to accelerate relativistic hydrodynamics simulations using graphic cards (graphic processing units, GPUs). These improvements are of highest relevance e.g. to the field of high-energetic nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC where (ideal and dissipative) relativistic hydrodynamics is used to calculate the evolution of hot and dense QCD matter. The results reported here are based on the Sharp And Smooth Transport Algorithm (SHASTA), which is employed in many hydrodynamical models and hybrid simulation packages, e.g. the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics model (UrQMD). We have redesigned the SHASTA using the OpenCL computing framework to work on accelerators like graphic processing units (GPUs) as well as on multi-core processors. With the redesign of the algorithm the hydrodynamic calculations have been accelerated by a factor 160 allowing for event-by-event calculations and better statistics in hybrid calculations.
A relativistic symmetry in nuclei
Ginocchio, J N [MS B283, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (Mexico)
2007-11-15
We review some of the empirical and theoretical evidence supporting pseudospin symmetry in nuclei as a relativistic symmetry. We review the case that the eigenfunctions of realistic relativistic nuclear mean fields approximately conserve pseudospin symmetry in nuclei. We discuss the implications of pseudospin symmetry for magnetic dipole transitions and Gamow-Teller transitions between states in pseudospin doublets. We explore a more fundamental rationale for pseudospin symmetry in terms of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the basic theory of the strong interactions. We show that pseudospin symmetry in nuclei implies spin symmetry for an anti-nucleon in a nuclear environment. We also discuss the future and what role pseudospin symmetry may be expected to play in an effective field theory of nucleons.
Fluctuations in Relativistic Causal Hydrodynamics
Kumar, Avdhesh; Mishra, Ananta P
2013-01-01
The formalism to calculate the hydrodynamics fluctuation using the quasi-stationary fluctuation theory of Onsager to the relativistic Navier-Stokes hydrodynamics is already known. In this work we calculate hydrodynamic fluctuations in relativistic causal theory of Muller, Israel and Stewart and other related causal hydrodynamic theories. We show that expressions for the Onsager coefficients and the correlation functions have form similar to the ones obtained by using Navier-Stokes equation. However, temporal evolution of the correlation functions obtained using MIS and the other causal theories can be significantly different than the correlation functions obtained using the Navier-Stokes equation. Finally, as an illustrative example, we explicitly plot the correlation functions obtained using the causal-hydrodynamics theories and compare them with correlation functions obtained by earlier authors using the expanding boost-invariant (Bjorken) flows.
Thermodynamic and relativistic uncertainty relations
Artamonov, A. A.; Plotnikov, E. M.
2017-01-01
Thermodynamic uncertainty relation (UR) was verified experimentally. The experiments have shown the validity of the quantum analogue of the zeroth law of stochastic thermodynamics in the form of the saturated Schrödinger UR. We have also proposed a new type of UR for the relativistic mechanics. These relations allow us to consider macroscopic phenomena within the limits of the ratio of the uncertainty relations for different physical quantities.
Pythagoras Theorem and Relativistic Kinematics
Mulaj, Zenun; Dhoqina, Polikron
2010-01-01
In two inertial frames that move in a particular direction, may be registered a light signal that propagates in an angle with this direction. Applying Pythagoras theorem and principles of STR in both systems, we can derive all relativistic kinematics relations like the relativity of simultaneity of events, of the time interval, of the length of objects, of the velocity of the material point, Lorentz transformations, Doppler effect and stellar aberration.
Effect of electromagnetic waves on human reproduction.
Wdowiak, Artur; Mazurek, Paweł A; Wdowiak, Anita; Bojar, Iwona
2017-03-31
Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitting from the natural environment, as well as from the use of industrial and everyday appliances, constantly influence the human body. The effect of this type of energy on living tissues may exert various effects on their functioning, although the mechanisms conditioning this phenomenon have not been fully explained. It may be expected that the interactions between electromagnetic radiation and the living organism would depend on the amount and parameters of the transmitted energy and type of tissue exposed. Electromagnetic waves exert an influence on human reproduction by affecting the male and female reproductive systems, the developing embryo, and subsequently, the foetus. Knowledge concerning this problem is still being expanded; however, all the conditionings of human reproduction still remain unknown. The study presents the current state of knowledge concerning the problem, based on the latest scientific reports.
Electromagnetic fields on a quantum scale. I.
Grimes, Dale M; Grimes, Craig A
2002-10-01
This is the first in a series of two articles, the second of which provides an exact electro-magnetic field description of photon emission, absorption, and radiation pattern. Photon energy exchanges are analyzed and shown to be the triggered, regenerative response of a non-local eigenstate electron. This first article presents a model-based, hidden variable analysis of quantum theory that provides the statistical nature of wave functions. The analysis uses the equations of classical electro-magnetism and conservation of energy while modeling an eigenstate electron as a nonlocal entity. Essential to the analysis are physical properties that were discovered and analyzed only after the historical interpretation of quantum mechanics was established: electron non-locality and the standing electro-magnetic energy that accompanies and encompasses an active, electrically small volume. The standing energy produces a driving radiation reaction force that, under certain circumstances, is many orders of magnitude larger than currently accepted values. These properties provide a sufficient basis for the Schrödinger equation as a descriptor of non-relativistic eigenstate electrons in or near equilibrium. The uncertainty principle follows, as does the exclusion principle. The analysis leads to atomic stability and causality in the sense that the status of physical phenomena at any instant specifies the status an instant later.
Pinto, Sérgio Alexandre; Gross, Franz
2009-01-01
We present the first calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of $^3$He and $^3$H within the framework of the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST). This first exploratory study concentrates on the sensitivity of the form factors to the strength of the scalar meson-nucleon off-shell coupling, known from previous studies to have a strong influence on the three-body binding energy. Results presented here were obtained using the complete impulse approximation (CIA), which includes contributions of relativistic origin that appear as two-body corrections in a non-relativistic framework, such as "Z-graphs", but omits other two and three-body currents. We compare our results to non-relativistic calculations augmented by relativistic corrections of ${\\cal O}(v/c)^2$.
Pinto, Sérgio Alexandre; Stadler, Alfred; Gross, Franz
2009-05-01
We present the first calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of ^{3}He and ^{3}H within the framework of the Covariant Spectator Theory (CST). This first exploratory study concentrates on the sensitivity of the form factors to the strength of the scalar meson-nucleon off-shell coupling, known from previous studies to have a strong influence on the three-body binding energy. Results presented here were obtained using the complete impulse approximation (CIA), which includes contributions of relativistic origin that appear as two-body corrections in a non-relativistic framework, such as "Z-graphs," but omits other two and three-body currents. Finally, we compare our results to non-relativistic calculations augmented by relativistic corrections of O(v/c)^{2}.
Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters
Benacquista Matthew J.
2006-02-01
Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing 10^4 - 10^7 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.
Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters
Benacquista Matthew
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The galactic population of globular clusters are old, dense star systems, with a typical cluster containing $10^4 - 10^6$ stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss the theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution which lead to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Globular cluster evolution will focus on the properties that boost the production of hard binary systems and on the tidal interactions of the galaxy with the cluster, which tend to alter the structure of the globular cluster with time. The interaction of the components of hard binary systems alters the evolution of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct $N$-body integrations and Fokker--Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.
Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters
Matthew J. Benacquista
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.
Structure of the neutral pion and its electromagnetic transition form factor
Raya, K; Bashir, A; Cobos-Martinez, J J; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, L X; Roberts, C D; Tandy, P C
2015-01-01
The $\\gamma^\\ast \\gamma \\to \\pi^0$ transition form factor, $G(Q^2)$, is computed on the entire domain of spacelike momenta using a continuum approach to the two valence-body bound-state problem in relativistic quantum field theory: the result agrees with data obtained by the CELLO, CLEO and Belle Collaborations. The analysis unifies this prediction with that of the pion's valence-quark parton distribution amplitude (PDA) and elastic electromagnetic form factor, and demonstrates, too, that a fully self-consistent treatment can readily connect a pion PDA that is a broad, concave function at the hadronic scale with the perturbative QCD prediction for the transition form factor in the hard photon limit. The normalisation of that limit is set by the scale of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, which is a crucial feature of the Standard Model. Understanding of the latter will thus remain incomplete until definitive transition form factor data is available on $Q^2>10\\,$GeV$^2$.
Haas, Fernando
2016-11-01
A didactic and systematic derivation of Noether point symmetries and conserved currents is put forward in special relativistic field theories, without a priori assumptions about the transformation laws. Given the Lagrangian density, the invariance condition develops as a set of partial differential equations determining the symmetry transformation. The solution is provided in the case of real scalar, complex scalar, free electromagnetic, and charged electromagnetic fields. Besides the usual conservation laws, a less popular symmetry is analyzed: the symmetry associated with the linear superposition of solutions, whenever applicable. The role of gauge invariance is emphasized. The case of the charged scalar particle under external electromagnetic fields is considered, and the accompanying Noether point symmetries determined. Noether point symmetries for a dynamical system in extended gravity cosmology are also deduced.
Systematic Derivation of Noether Point Symmetries in Special Relativistic Field Theories
Haas, Fernando
2016-01-01
A didactic and systematic derivation of Noether point symmetries and conserved currents is put forward in special relativistic field theories, without a priori assumptions about the transformation laws. Given the Lagrangian density, the invariance condition develops as a set of partial differential equations determining the symmetry transformation. The solution is provided in the case of real scalar, complex scalar, free electromagnetic, and charged electromagnetic fields. Besides the usual conservation laws, a less popular symmetry is analyzed: the symmetry associated with the linear superposition of solutions, whenever applicable. The role of gauge invariance is emphasized. The case of the charged scalar particle under external electromagnetic fields is considered, and the accompanying Noether point symmetries determined.
Quasiclassical propagator of a relativistic particle via the path-dependent gauge potential
Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.; Keitel, Christoph H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)
2016-07-01
The proper time formalism for a particle propagator in an external electromagnetic field is combined with the path-dependent formulation of gauge theory to simplify the quasiclassical propagator of a relativistic particle. The latter is achieved due to a specific choice of gauge corresponding to the use of the classical path in the path-dependent formulation of gauge theory, which leads to cancellation of the interaction part of the classical action in the Feynman path integral. A simple expression for the quasiclassical propagator is obtained in all cases of the external field when the classical equations of motion in this field are integrable. As an example, simple expressions for the propagators are derived for a spinless charged particle interacting with the following fields: an arbitrary constant and uniform electromagnetic field, an arbitrary plane wave, and finally an arbitrary plane wave combined with an arbitrary constant and uniform electromagnetic field. In all these cases the quasiclassical propagator coincides with the exact result.
Relativistic effects in Lyman-alpha forest
Iršič, Vid; Viel, Matteo
2015-01-01
We present the calculation of the Lyman-alpha (Lyman-$\\alpha$) transmitted flux fluctuations with full relativistic corrections to the first order. Even though several studies exist on relativistic effects in galaxy clustering, this is the first study to extend the formalism to a different tracer of underlying matter at unique redshift range ($z = 2 - 5$). Furthermore, we show a comprehensive application of our calculations to the Quasar- Lyman-$\\alpha$ cross-correlation function. Our results indicate that the signal of relativistic effects can be as large as 30% at Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale, which is much larger than anticipated and mainly due to the large differences in density bias factors of our tracers. We construct an observable, the anti-symmetric part of the cross- correlation function, that is dominated by the relativistic signal and offers a new way to measure the relativistic terms at relatively small scales. The analysis shows that relativistic effects are important when considerin...
Transverse relativistic effects in paraxial wave interference
Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco
2013-01-01
We consider relativistic deformations of interfering paraxial waves moving in the transverse direction. Owing to superluminal transverse phase velocities, noticeable deformations of the interference patterns arise when the waves move with respect to each other with non-relativistic velocities. Similar distortions also appear on a mutual tilt of the interfering waves, which causes a phase delay analogous to the relativistic time delay. We illustrate these observations by the interference between a vortex wave beam and a plane wave, which exhibits a pronounced deformation of the radial fringes into a fork-like pattern (relativistic Hall effect). Furthermore, we describe an additional relativistic motion of the interference fringes (a counter-rotation in the vortex case), which become noticeable at the same non-relativistic velocities.
Entropy current for non-relativistic fluid
Banerjee, Nabamita; Jain, Akash; Roychowdhury, Dibakar
2014-01-01
We study transport properties of a parity-odd, non-relativistic charged fluid in presence of background electric and magnetic fields. To obtain stress tensor and charged current for the non-relativistic system we start with the most generic relativistic fluid, living in one higher dimension and reduce the constituent equations along the light-cone direction. We also reduce the equation satisfied by the entropy current of the relativistic theory and obtain a consistent entropy current for the non-relativistic system (we call it "canonical form" of the entropy current). Demanding that the non-relativistic fluid satisfies the second law of thermodynamics we impose constraints on various first order transport coefficients. For parity even fluid, this is straight forward; it tells us positive definiteness of different transport coefficients like viscosity, thermal conductivity, electric conductivity etc. However for parity-odd fluid, canonical form of the entropy current fails to confirm the second law of thermody...
Electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves
Huang, Songling; Li, Weibin; Wang, Qing
2016-01-01
This book introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves, together with its applications. It includes the dispersion characteristics and matching theory of guided waves; the mechanism of production and theoretical model of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided waves; the effect mechanism between guided waves and defects; the simulation method for the entire process of electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave propagation; electromagnetic ultrasonic thickness measurement; pipeline axial guided wave defect detection; and electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave detection of gas pipeline cracks. This theory and findings on applications draw on the author’s intensive research over the past eight years. The book can be used for nondestructive testing technology and as an engineering reference work. The specific implementation of the electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave system presented here will also be of value for other nondestructive test developers.
Basic Electromagnetism and Materials
Moliton, André
2007-01-01
Basic Electromagnetism and Materials is the product of many years of teaching basic and applied electromagnetism. This textbook can be used to teach electromagnetism to a wide range of undergraduate science majors in physics, electrical engineering or materials science. However, by making lesser demands on mathematical knowledge than competing texts, and by emphasizing electromagnetic properties of materials and their applications, this textbook is uniquely suited to students of materials science. Many competing texts focus on the study of propagation waves either in the microwave or optical domain, whereas Basic Electromagnetism and Materials covers the entire electromagnetic domain and the physical response of materials to these waves. Professor André Moliton is Director of the Unité de Microélectronique, Optoélectronique et Polymères (Université de Limoges, France), which brings together three groups studying the optoelectronics of molecular and polymer layers, micro-optoelectronic systems for teleco...
New charged shear-free relativistic models with heat flux
Nyonyi, Y; Govinder, K S
2014-01-01
We study shear-free spherically symmetric relativistic gravitating fluids with heat flow and electric charge. The solution to the Einstein-Maxwell system is governed by the generalised pressure isotropy condition which contains a contribution from the electric field. This condition is a highly nonlinear partial differential equation. We analyse this master equation using Lie's group theoretic approach. The Lie symmetry generators that leave the equation invariant are found. The first generator is independent of the electromagnetic field. The second generator depends critically on the form of the charge, which is determined explicitly in general. We provide exact solutions to the gravitational potentials using the symmetries admitted by the equation. Our new exact solutions contain earlier results without charge. We show that other charged solutions, related to the Lie symmetries, may be generated using the algorithm of Deng. This leads to new classes of charged Deng models which are generalisations of conform...
Whistler wave generation by non-gyrotropic, relativistic, electron beams
Skender, Marina
2014-01-01
Particle-in-cell code, EPOCH, is used for studying features of the wave component evident to propagate backwards from the front of the non-gyrotropic, relativistic beam of electrons injected in the Maxwellian, magnetised background plasma with decreasing density profile. According to recent findings presented in Tsiklauri (2011), Schmitz & Tsiklauri (2013) and Pechhacker & Tsiklauri (2012), in a 1.5-dimensional magnetised plasma system, the non-gyrotropic beam generates freely escaping electromagnetic radiation with properties similar to the Type-III solar radio bursts. In this study the backwards propagating wave component evident in the perpendicular components of the elecromagnetic field in such a system is presented for the first time. Background magnetic field strength in the system is varied in order to prove that the backwards propagating wave's frequency, prescribed by the whistler wave dispersion relation, is proportional to the specified magnetic field. Moreover, the identified whistlers are...
Fluctuations in the relativistic plasma and primordial magnetic fields
Lemoine, D. (Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France) DAEC, Observatoire de Paris, Universite Paris VII, CNRS (UA173), F-92195 Meudon Cedex (France))
1995-03-15
The stochastic fluctuations of the electromagnetic field in a relativistic electron-positron plasma are studied. The correlation functions of the fluctuating four-current, electric and magnetic fields are computed to leading order using the Schwinger-Keldysh closed time path formulation of thermal field theory. As an application, we consider the scenario proposed by Tajima [ital et] [ital al]. for generating a primordial magnetic field from thermal fluctuations in the prerecombination plasma. We compute the level of magnetic fluctuations sustained by the pair plasma at or before the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis and conclude that the early Universe was pervaded by a strong low-frequency, albeit small-scale, random magnetic field. The astrophysical implications are briefly discussed.
Relativistic runaway breakdown in low-frequency radio
Fullekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E.M.D.
2011-01-01
is characterized by consecutive broadband pulses in the low-frequency radio range from similar to 10 to 300 kHz at a distance of similar to 800 km. Experimental evidence for the existence of consecutive broadband pulses is provided by low-frequency radio observations of sprite-producing lightning discharges...... at a distance of similar to 550 km. The measured broadband pulses occur similar to 4-9 ms after the sprite-producing lightning discharge, they exhibit electromagnetic radiation which mainly spans the frequency range from similar to 50 to 350 kHz, and they exhibit complex waveforms without the typical...... ionospheric reflection of the first hop sky wave. Two consecutive pulses occur similar to 4.5 ms and similar to 3 ms after the causative lightning discharge and coincide with the sprite luminosity. It is concluded that relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere can emit broadband...
Path integral quantization of the relativistic Hopfield model
Belgiorno, F; Piazza, F Dalla; Doronzo, M
2016-01-01
The path integral quantization method is applied to a relativistically covariant version of the Hopfield model, which represents a very interesting mesoscopic framework for the description of the interaction between quantum light and dielectric quantum matter, with particular reference to the context of analogue gravity. In order to take into account the constraints occurring in the model, we adopt the Faddeev-Jackiw approach to constrained quantization in the path integral formalism. In particular we demonstrate that the propagator obtained with the Faddeev-Jackiw approach is equivalent to the one which, in the framework of Dirac canonical quantization for constrained systems, can be directly computed as the vacuum expectation value of the time ordered product of the fields. Our analysis also provides an explicit example of quantization of the electromagnetic field in a covariant gauge and coupled with the polarization field, which is a novel contribution to the literature on the Faddeev-Jackiw procedure.
Relativistic Precessing Jets and Cosmological $\\gamma$ Ray Bursts
Blackman, E G; Field, G B; Blackman, Eric G.; Yi, Insu; Field, George B.
1996-01-01
We discuss the possibility that gamma-ray bursts may result from cosmological relativistic blob emitting neutron star jets that precess past the line of sight. Beaming reduces the energy requirements, so that the jet emission can last longer than the observed burst duration. One precession mode maintains a short duration time scale, while a second keeps the beam from returning to the line of sight, consistent with the paucity of repeaters. The long life of these objects reduces the number required for production as compared to short lived jets. Blobs can account for the time structure of the bursts. Here we focus largely on kinematic and time scale considerations of beaming, precession, and blobs--issues which are reasonably independent of the acceleration and jet collimation mechanisms. We do suggest that large amplitude electro-magnetic waves could be a source of blob acceleration.
New charged shear-free relativistic models with heat flux
Nyonyi, Y.; Maharaj, S. D.; Govinder, K. S.
2013-11-01
We study shear-free spherically symmetric relativistic gravitating fluids with heat flow and electric charge. The solution to the Einstein-Maxwell system is governed by the generalised pressure isotropy condition which contains a contribution from the electric field. This condition is a highly nonlinear partial differential equation. We analyse this master equation using Lie's group theoretic approach. The Lie symmetry generators that leave the equation invariant are found. The first generator is independent of the electromagnetic field. The second generator depends critically on the form of the charge, which is determined explicitly in general. We provide exact solutions to the gravitational potentials using the symmetries admitted by the equation. Our new exact solutions contain earlier results without charge. We show that other charged solutions, related to the Lie symmetries, may be generated using the algorithm of Deng. This leads to new classes of charged Deng models which are generalisations of conformally flat metrics.
Static electromagnetic frequency changers
Rozhanskii, L L
1963-01-01
Static Electromagnetic Frequency Changers is about the theory, design, construction, and applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers, devices that used for multiplication or division of alternating current frequency. It is originally published in the Russian language. This book is organized into five chapters. The first three chapters introduce the readers to the principles of operation, the construction, and the potential applications of static electromagnetic frequency changers and to the principles of their design. The two concluding chapters use some hitherto unpublished work
Non-Relativistic Spacetimes with Cosmological Constant
Aldrovandi, R.; Barbosa, A. L.; Crispino, L.C.B.; Pereira, J. G.
1998-01-01
Recent data on supernovae favor high values of the cosmological constant. Spacetimes with a cosmological constant have non-relativistic kinematics quite different from Galilean kinematics. De Sitter spacetimes, vacuum solutions of Einstein's equations with a cosmological constant, reduce in the non-relativistic limit to Newton-Hooke spacetimes, which are non-metric homogeneous spacetimes with non-vanishing curvature. The whole non-relativistic kinematics would then be modified, with possible ...
Relativistic non-equilibrium thermodynamics revisited
García-Colin, L S
2006-01-01
Relativistic irreversible thermodynamics is reformulated following the conventional approach proposed by Meixner in the non-relativistic case. Clear separation between mechanical and non-mechanical energy fluxes is made. The resulting equations for the entropy production and the local internal energy have the same structure as the non-relativistic ones. Assuming linear constitutive laws, it is shown that consistency is obtained both with the laws of thermodynamics and causality.
Analogy betwen dislocation creep and relativistic cosmology
J.A. Montemayor-Aldrete; J.D. Muñoz-Andrade; Mendoza-Allende, A.; Montemayor-Varela, A.
2005-01-01
A formal, physical analogy between plastic deformation, mainly dislocation creep, and Relativistic Cosmology is presented. The physical analogy between eight expressions for dislocation creep and Relativistic Cosmology have been obtained. By comparing the mathematical expressions and by using a physical analysis, two new equations have been obtained for dislocation creep. Also, four new expressions have been obtained for Relativistic Cosmology. From these four new equations, one may determine...
A relativistic correction to semiclassical charmonium
Weiss, J.
1995-09-01
It is shown that the relativistic linear potentials, introduced by the author within the particle à la Wheeler-Feynman direct-interaction (AAD) theory, applied to the semiclassically quantized charmonium, yield energy spectrum comparable to that of some known models. Using the expansion of the relativistic linear AAD potentials in powers ofc -1, the charmonium spectrum, given as a rule by Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization of circular orbits, is extended up to the second order of relativistic corrections.
Model for Electromagnetic Information Leakage
Mao Jian; Li Yongmei; Zhang Jiemin; Liu Jinming
2013-01-01
Electromagnetic leakage will happen in working information equipments; it could lead to information leakage. In order to discover the nature of information in electromagnetic leakage, this paper combined electromagnetic theory with information theory as an innovative research method. It outlines a systematic model of electromagnetic information leakage, which theoretically describes the process of information leakage, intercept and reproduction based on electromagnetic radiation, and ana...
Generalized One-Dimensional Point Interaction in Relativistic and Non-relativistic Quantum Mechanics
Shigehara, T; Mishima, T; Cheon, T; Cheon, Taksu
1999-01-01
We first give the solution for the local approximation of a four parameter family of generalized one-dimensional point interactions within the framework of non-relativistic model with three neighboring $\\delta$ functions. We also discuss the problem within relativistic (Dirac) framework and give the solution for a three parameter family. It gives a physical interpretation for so-called high energy substantially differ between non-relativistic and relativistic cases.
Quadratic relativistic invariant and metric form in quantum mechanics
Pissondes, Jean-Claude [DAEC, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, Meudon (France)
1999-04-16
The Klein-Gordon equation is recovered in the framework of the theory of scale-relativity, first in the absence, then in the presence of an electromagnetic field. In this framework, spacetime at quantum scales is characterized by non-differentiability and continuity, which involves the introduction of explicit resolution-dependent fractal coordinates. Such a description leads to the notion of scale-covariance and its corresponding tool, a scale-covariant; derivative operator {theta}/ds. Due to it, the Klein-Gordon equation is written as an equation of free motion and interpreted as a geodesic equation in fractal spacetime. However, we obtain a new form for the corresponding relativistic invariant, which differs from that of special and general relativity. Characterizing quantum mechanics in the present approach, it is not simply quadratic in terms of velocities, but contains an extra term of divergence, which is intrinsically present in its expression. Moreover, in spite of the scale-covariance statements of the present theory, we find an extra term of current in addition to the Lorentz force, within the equations of motion with electromagnetic field written in this framework. Finally, we introduce another tool - a 'symmetric product' - from the requirement of recovering the usual form of the Leibniz rule written with the operator {theta}/ds. This tool allows us to write most equations in this framework in their usual classical form; in particular the simple rules of differentiation, the equations of motion with field and also our new relativistic invariant. (author)
Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...