New derivation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaiswal, Amaresh; Bhalerao, Rajeev S.; Pal, Subrata
2012-01-01
Relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics has been quite successful in explaining the spectra and azimuthal anisotropy of particles produced in heavy-ion collisions at the RHIC and recently at the LHC. The first-order dissipative fluid dynamics or the relativistic Navier-Stokes (NS) theory involves parabolic differential equations and suffers from a causality and instability. The second-order or Israel-Stewart (IS) theory with its hyperbolic equations restores causality but may not guarantee stability. The correct formulation of relativistic viscous fluid dynamics is far from settled and is under intense investigation
Hyperbolic theory of relativistic conformal dissipative fluids
Lehner, Luis; Reula, Oscar A.; Rubio, Marcelo E.
2018-01-01
We develop a complete description of the class of conformal relativistic dissipative fluids of divergence form, following the formalism described in [R. Geroch and L. Lindblom, Phys. Rev. D 41, 1855 (1990), 10.1103/PhysRevD.41.1855, S. Pennisi, Some considerations on a non linear approach to extended thermodynamics and in Proceedings of Symposium of Kinetic Theory and Extended Thermodynamics, Bologna, 1987.]. This type of theory is fully described in terms of evolution variables whose dynamics are governed by total divergence-type conservation laws. Specifically, we give a characterization of the whole family of conformal fluids in terms of a single master scalar function defined up to second-order corrections in dissipative effects, which we explicitly find in general form. This allows us to identify the equilibrium states of the theory and derive constitutive relations and a Fourier-like law for the corresponding first-order theory heat flux. Finally, we show that among this class of theories—and near equilibrium configurations—there exist symmetric hyperbolic ones, implying that for them one can define well-posed initial value problems.
From Lattice Boltzmann to hydrodynamics in dissipative relativistic fluids
Gabbana, Alessandro; Mendoza, Miller; Succi, Sauro; Tripiccione, Raffaele
2017-11-01
Relativistic fluid dynamics is currently applied to several fields of modern physics, covering many physical scales, from astrophysics, to atomic scales (e.g. in the study of effective 2D systems such as graphene) and further down to subnuclear scales (e.g. quark-gluon plasmas). This talk focuses on recent progress in the largely debated connection between kinetic transport coefficients and macroscopic hydrodynamic parameters in dissipative relativistic fluid dynamics. We use a new relativistic Lattice Boltzmann method (RLBM), able to handle from ultra-relativistic to almost non-relativistic flows, and obtain strong evidence that the Chapman-Enskog expansion provides the correct pathway from kinetic theory to hydrodynamics. This analysis confirms recently obtained theoretical results, which can be used to obtain accurate calibrations for RLBM methods applied to realistic physics systems in the relativistic regime. Using this calibration methodology, RLBM methods are able to deliver improved physical accuracy in the simulation of the physical systems described above. European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 642069.
Causal dissipation and shock profiles in the relativistic fluid dynamics of pure radiation.
Freistühler, Heinrich; Temple, Blake
2014-06-08
CURRENT THEORIES OF DISSIPATION IN THE RELATIVISTIC REGIME SUFFER FROM ONE OF TWO DEFICITS: either their dissipation is not causal or no profiles for strong shock waves exist. This paper proposes a relativistic Navier-Stokes-Fourier-type viscosity and heat conduction tensor such that the resulting second-order system of partial differential equations for the fluid dynamics of pure radiation is symmetric hyperbolic. This system has causal dissipation as well as the property that all shock waves of arbitrary strength have smooth profiles. Entropy production is positive both on gradients near those of solutions to the dissipation-free equations and on gradients of shock profiles. This shows that the new dissipation stress tensor complies to leading order with the principles of thermodynamics. Whether higher order modifications of the ansatz are required to obtain full compatibility with the second law far from the zero-dissipation equilibrium is left to further investigations. The system has exactly three a priori free parameters χ , η , ζ , corresponding physically to heat conductivity, shear viscosity and bulk viscosity. If the bulk viscosity is zero (as is stated in the literature) and the total stress-energy tensor is trace free, the entire viscosity and heat conduction tensor is determined to within a constant factor.
Dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imshennik, V.S.; Morozov, Yu.I.
1989-01-01
Using the comoving reference frame in the general non-inertial case, the relativistic hydrodynamics equations are derived with an account for dissipative effects in the matter. From the entropy production equation, the exact from for the dissipative tensor components is obtained. As a result, the closed system of equations of dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained in the comoving reference frame as a relativistic generalization of the known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equations of relativistic hydrodynamics with account for dissipative effects in the matter are derived using the assocoated reference system in general non-inertial case. True form of the dissipative tensor components is obtained from entropy production equation. Closed system of equations for dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained as a result in the assocoated reference system (ARS) - relativistic generalization of well-known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equation system, obtained in this paper for ARS, may be effectively used in numerical models of explosive processes with 10 51 erg energy releases which are characteristic for flashes of supernovae, if white dwarf type compact target suggested as presupernova
Kinetic approach to relativistic dissipation
Gabbana, A.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Tripiccione, R.
2017-08-01
Despite a long record of intense effort, the basic mechanisms by which dissipation emerges from the microscopic dynamics of a relativistic fluid still elude complete understanding. In particular, several details must still be finalized in the pathway from kinetic theory to hydrodynamics mainly in the derivation of the values of the transport coefficients. In this paper, we approach the problem by matching data from lattice-kinetic simulations with analytical predictions. Our numerical results provide neat evidence in favor of the Chapman-Enskog [The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1970)] procedure as suggested by recent theoretical analyses along with qualitative hints at the basic reasons why the Chapman-Enskog expansion might be better suited than Grad's method [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 2, 331 (1949), 10.1002/cpa.3160020403] to capture the emergence of dissipative effects in relativistic fluids.
Relativistic thermodynamics of fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souriau, J.-M.
1977-05-01
The relativistic covariant definition of a statistical equilibrium, applied to a perfect gas, involves a 'temperature four-vector', whose direction is the mean velocity of the fluid, and whose length is the reciprocal temperature. The hypothesis of this 'temperature four-vector' being a relevant variable for the description of the dissipative motions of a simple fluid is discussed. The kinematics is defined by using a vector field and measuring the number of molecules. Such a dissipative fluid is subject to motions involving null entropy generation; the 'temperature four-vector' is then a Killing vector; the equations of motion can be completely integrated. Perfect fluids can be studied by this way and the classical results of Lichnerowicz are obtained. In weakly dissipative motions two viscosity coefficient appear together with the heat conductibility coefficient. Two other coefficients perharps measurable on real fluids. Phase transitions and shock waves are described with using the model [fr
Relativistic electrodynamics of dissipative elastic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kranys, M.
1980-01-01
A phenomenological general relativistic electrodynamics is proposed for a dissipative elastic solid which is polarizable and magnetizable and whose governing equations form a hyperbolic system. Non-stationary transport equations are proposed for dissipative fluxes (and constitutive equations of electrodynamics) containing new cross-effect terms, as required for compatibility with an entropy principle expressed by a new balance equation (including a new Gibbs equation). The dynamic equations are deduced from the unified Minkowski-Abraham-Eckart energy-momentum tensor. The theory, formed by a set of 29 (reducible to 23) partial differential equations (in special relativity) governing the material behaviour of the system characterized by generalizing the constitutive equations of quasineutral media, together with Maxwell's equations, may be referred to as the electrodynamics of dissipative elastic media (or fluid). The proposed transport laws for polarization and magnetization generalize the well-known Debye law for relaxation and show the influence of shear and bulk viscosity on polarization and magentization. Besides the form of the entropy function, the free energy function in the non-stationary regime is also formulated. (auth)
Relativistic charged fluids: hydrodynamic and kinetic approaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Debbasch, F.; Bonnaud, G.
1991-10-01
This report gives a rigorous and consistent hydrodynamic and kinetic description of a charged fluid and the basis equations, in a relativistic context. This study should lead to a reliable model, as much analytical as numerical, of relativistic plasmas which will appear in the interaction of a strong laser field with a plasma. For simplicity, we limited our study to a perfect fluid or, in other words, we disregarded the energy dissipation processes inside the fluid [fr
Causal dissipation for the relativistic dynamics of ideal gases.
Freistühler, Heinrich; Temple, Blake
2017-05-01
We derive a general class of relativistic dissipation tensors by requiring that, combined with the relativistic Euler equations, they form a second-order system of partial differential equations which is symmetric hyperbolic in a second-order sense when written in the natural Godunov variables that make the Euler equations symmetric hyperbolic in the first-order sense. We show that this class contains a unique element representing a causal formulation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics which (i) is equivalent to the classical descriptions by Eckart and Landau to first order in the coefficients of viscosity and heat conduction and (ii) has its signal speeds bounded sharply by the speed of light. Based on these properties, we propose this system as a natural candidate for the relativistic counterpart of the classical Navier-Stokes equations.
Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2011-01-01
A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.
Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2011-08-01
A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.
Relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics and the nuclear equation of state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olson, T.S.; Hiscock, W.A.
1989-01-01
The theory of dissipative, relativistic fluids due to Israel and Stewart is used to constrain the form of the nuclear equation of state. In the Israel-Stewart theory, there are conditions on the equation of state and other thermodynamic properties (the ''second-order'' coefficients) of a fluid which, if satisfied, guarantee that equilibria are stable and that fluid perturbations propagate causally and obey hyperbolic equations. The second-order coefficients in the Israel-Stewart theory, which are relaxation times for the dissipative degrees of freedom and coupling constants between different forms of dissipation, are derived for a free, degenerate Fermi gas. It is shown rigorously that the free, degenerate Fermi gas is stable (and hence causal) at all temperatures in this theory. These values for the second-order coefficients are then used in the stability conditions to constrain various proposed expressions for the nuclear ground-state energy. The stability conditions are found to provide significantly more stringent constraints on the proposed equations of state than the usual simple restriction that the adiabatic sound speed be less than the speed of light
Dissipative fluid mechanics of nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morgenstern, B.
1987-11-01
With the aim to describe nucleus-nucleus collisions at low energies in the present thesis for the first time dissipative fluid dynamics for large-amplitude nuclear motion have been formulated. Thereby the collective dynamics are described in a scaling approximation in which the wave function of the system is distorted by a vortex-free velocity field. For infintely extended nuclear matter this scaling of the wave functions leads to a deformation of the Fermi sphere. Two-body collisions destroy the collective deformation of the Fermi sphere and yield so the dissipative contribution of the motion. Equations of motion for a finite set of collective variables and a field equation for the collective velocity potential in the limit of infinitely many degrees of freedom were developed. In the elastic limit oscillations around the equilibrium position are described. For small collective amplitudes and vortex-free velocity fields the integrodifferential equation for the velocity potential in the elastic limit could be transformed to the divergence of the field equation of fluid dynamics. In the dissipative limit an equation results which is similar to the Navier-Stokes equation and transforms to the divergence of the Navier-Stokes equation for vortex-free fields. It was shown that generally the dynamics of the many-body system is described by non-Markovian equations. (orig./HSI) [de
Attractors of dissipative structure in three dissipative fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondoh, Yoshiomi
1993-10-01
A general theory with use of auto-correlations for distributions is presented to derive that realization of coherent structures in general dissipative dynamic systems is equivalent to that of self-organized states with the minimum dissipation rate for instantaneously contained energy. Attractors of dissipative structure are shown to be given by eigenfunctions for dissipative dynamic operators of the dynamic system and to constitute the self-organized and self-similar decay phase. Three typical examples applied to incompressible viscous fluids, to incompressible viscous and resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluids and to compressible resistive MHD plasmas are presented to lead to attractors in the three dissipative fluids and to describe a common physical picture of self-organization and bifurcation of the dissipative structure. (author)
Kinetic analysis of thermally relativistic flow with dissipation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yano, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Kojiro
2011-01-01
Nonequilibrium flow of thermally relativistic matter with dissipation is considered in the framework of the relativistic kinetic theory. As an object of the analysis, the supersonic rarefied flow of thermally relativistic matter around the triangle prism is analyzed using the Anderson-Witting model. Obtained numerical results indicate that the flow field changes in accordance with the flow velocity and temperature of the uniform flow owing to both effects derived from the Lorentz contraction and thermally relativistic effects, even when the Mach number of the uniform flow is fixed. The profiles of the heat flux along the stagnation streamline can be approximated on the basis of the relativistic Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) law except for a strong nonequilibrium regime such as the middle of the shock wave and the vicinity of the wall, whereas the profile of the heat flux behind the triangle prism cannot be approximated on the basis of the relativistic NSF law owing to rarefied effects via the expansion behind the triangle prism. Additionally, the heat flux via the gradient of the static pressure is non-negligible owing to thermally relativistic effects. The profile of the dynamic pressure is different from that approximated on the basis of the NSF law, which is obtained by the Eckart decomposition. Finally, variations of convections of the mass and momentum owing to the effects derived from the Lorentz contraction and thermally relativistic effects are numerically confirmed.
Relativistic fluids in spherically symmetric space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dipankar, R.
1977-12-01
Some of McVittie and Wiltshire's (1977) solutions of Walker's (1935) isotropy conditions for relativistic perfect fluid spheres are generalized. Solutions are spherically symmetric and conformally flat
Relativistic thermodynamics of Fluids. l
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Havas, P.; Swenson, R.J.
1979-01-01
In 1953, Stueckelberg and Wanders derived the basic laws of relativistic linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics for chemically reacting fluids from the relativistic local conservation laws for energy-momentum and the local laws of production of substances and of nonnegative entropy production by the requirement that the corresponding currents (assumed to depend linearly on the derivatives of the state variables) should not be independent. Generalizing their method, we determine the most general allowed form of the energy-momentum tensor T/sup alphabeta/ and of the corresponding rate of entropy production under the same restriction on the currents. The problem of expressing this rate in terms of thermodynamic forces and fluxes is discussed in detail; it is shown that the number of independent forces is not uniquely determined by the theory, and seven possibilities are explored. A number of possible new cross effects are found, all of which persist in the Newtonian (low-velocity) limit. The treatment of chemical reactions is incorporated into the formalism in a consistent manner, resulting in a derivation of the law for rate of production, and in relating this law to transport processes differently than suggested previously. The Newtonian limit is discussed in detail to establish the physical interpretation of the various terms of T/sup alphabeta/. In this limit, the interpretation hinges on that of the velocity field characterizing the fluid. If it is identified with the average matter velocity following from a consideration of the number densities, the usual local conservation laws of Newtonian nonequilibrium thermodynamics are obtained, including that of mass. However, a slightly different identification allows conversion of mass into energy even in this limit, and thus a macroscopic treatment of nuclear or elementary particle reactions. The relation of our results to previous work is discussed in some detail
Complex Fluids in Energy Dissipating Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco J. Galindo-Rosales
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The development of engineered systems for energy dissipation (or absorption during impacts or vibrations is an increasing need in our society, mainly for human protection applications, but also for ensuring the right performance of different sort of devices, facilities or installations. In the last decade, new energy dissipating composites based on the use of certain complex fluids have flourished, due to their non-linear relationship between stress and strain rate depending on the flow/field configuration. This manuscript intends to review the different approaches reported in the literature, analyses the fundamental physics behind them and assess their pros and cons from the perspective of their practical applications.
Dissipative charged fluid in a magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbasi, Navid; Davody, Ali, E-mail: davody.phy@gmail.com
2016-05-10
We study the collective excitations in a dissipative charged fluid at zero chemical potential when an external magnetic field is present. While in the absence of magnetic field, four collective excitations appear in the fluid, we find five hydrodynamic modes here. This implies that the magnetic field splits the degeneracy between the transverse shear modes. Using linear response theory, we then compute the retarded response functions. In particular, it turns out that the correlation between charge and the energy fluctuations will no longer vanish, even at zero chemical potential. By use of the response functions, we also derive the relevant Kubo formulas for the transport coefficients.
New interior solution describing relativistic fluid sphere
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Anewexact solution of embedding class I is presented for a relativistic anisotropicmassive fluid sphere. The new exact solution satisfies Karmarkar condition, is well-behaved in all respects, and therefore is suitable for the modelling of superdense stars. Consequently, using this solution, we have studied in detail two ...
Instabilities in a Relativistic Viscous Fluid
Corona-Galindo, M. G.; Klapp, J.; Vazquez, A.
1990-11-01
RESUMEN. Las ecuaciones hidrodinamicas de un fluido imperfecto relativista son resueltas, y los modos hidrodinamicos son analizados con el prop6sito de estabiecer correlaciones con las estructuras cosmol6gicas. ABSTRACT The hydrodynamical equations of a relativistic imperfect fluid are solved, and the hydrodynamical modes are analysed with the aim to establish correlations with cosmological structures. Ke, words: COSMOLOGY - HYDRODYNAMICS - RELATIVITY
Relativistic fluid theories - Self organization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahajan, S.M.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Yoshida, Z.
2003-01-01
Developments in two distinct but related subjects are reviewed: 1) Formulation and investigation of closed fluid theories which transcend the limitations of standard magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), in particular, theories which are valid in the long mean free path limit and in which pressure anisotropy, heat flow, and arbitrarily strong sheared flows are treated consistently, and 2) Exploitation of the two-fluid theories to derive new plasma configurations in which the flow-field is a co-determinant of the overall dynamics; some of these states belong to the category of self-organized relaxed states. Physical processes which may provide a route to self-organization and complexity are also explored. (author)
Relativistic fluid dynamics with spin
Florkowski, Wojciech; Friman, Bengt; Jaiswal, Amaresh; Speranza, Enrico
2018-04-01
Using the conservation laws for charge, energy, momentum, and angular momentum, we derive hydrodynamic equations for the charge density, local temperature, and fluid velocity, as well as for the polarization tensor, starting from local equilibrium distribution functions for particles and antiparticles with spin 1/2. The resulting set of differential equations extends the standard picture of perfect-fluid hydrodynamics with a conserved entropy current in a minimal way. This framework can be used in space-time analyses of the evolution of spin and polarization in various physical systems including high-energy nuclear collisions. We demonstrate that a stationary vortex, which exhibits vorticity-spin alignment, corresponds to a special solution of the spin-hydrodynamical equations.
grim: A Flexible, Conservative Scheme for Relativistic Fluid Theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandra, Mani; Gammie, Charles F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1110 West Green Street, Urbana, IL, 61801 (United States); Foucart, Francois, E-mail: manic@illinois.edu, E-mail: gammie@illinois.edu, E-mail: fvfoucart@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2017-03-01
Hot, diffuse, relativistic plasmas such as sub-Eddington black-hole accretion flows are expected to be collisionless, yet are commonly modeled as a fluid using ideal general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD). Dissipative effects such as heat conduction and viscosity can be important in a collisionless plasma and will potentially alter the dynamics and radiative properties of the flow from that in ideal fluid models; we refer to models that include these processes as Extended GRMHD. Here we describe a new conservative code, grim, that enables all of the above and additional physics to be efficiently incorporated. grim combines time evolution and primitive variable inversion needed for conservative schemes into a single step using an algorithm that only requires the residuals of the governing equations as inputs. This algorithm enables the code to be physics agnostic as well as flexibility regarding time-stepping schemes. grim runs on CPUs, as well as on GPUs, using the same code. We formulate a performance model and use it to show that our implementation runs optimally on both architectures. grim correctly captures classical GRMHD test problems as well as a new suite of linear and nonlinear test problems with anisotropic conduction and viscosity in special and general relativity. As tests and example applications, we resolve the shock substructure due to the presence of dissipation, and report on relativistic versions of the magneto-thermal instability and heat flux driven buoyancy instability, which arise due to anisotropic heat conduction, and of the firehose instability, which occurs due to anisotropic pressure (i.e., viscosity). Finally, we show an example integration of an accretion flow around a Kerr black hole, using Extended GRMHD.
Higher-dimensional relativistic-fluid spheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patel, L. K.; Ahmedabad, Gujarat Univ.
1997-01-01
They consider the hydrostatic equilibrium of relativistic-fluid spheres for a D-dimensional space-time. Three physically viable interior solutions of the Einstein field equations corresponding to perfect-fluid spheres in a D-dimensional space-time are obtained. When D = 4 they reduce to the Tolman IV solution, the Mehra solution and the Finch-Skea solution. The solutions are smoothly matched with the D-dimensional Schwarzschild exterior solution at the boundary r = a of the fluid sphere. Some physical features and other related details of the solutions are briefly discussed. A brief description of two other new solutions for higher-dimensional perfect-fluid spheres is also given
Kubo formulas for relativistic fluids in strong magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Xuguang; Sedrakian, Armen; Rischke, Dirk H.
2011-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamics of strongly magnetized relativistic fluids is derived in the ideal and dissipative cases, taking into account the breaking of spatial symmetries by a quantizing magnetic field. A complete set of transport coefficients, consistent with the Curie and Onsager principles, is derived for thermal conduction, as well as shear and bulk viscosities. It is shown that in the most general case the dissipative function contains five shear viscosities, two bulk viscosities, and three thermal conductivity coefficients. We use Zubarev's non-equilibrium statistical operator method to relate these transport coefficients to correlation functions of the equilibrium theory. The desired relations emerge at linear order in the expansion of the non-equilibrium statistical operator with respect to the gradients of relevant statistical parameters (temperature, chemical potential, and velocity.) The transport coefficients are cast in a form that can be conveniently computed using equilibrium (imaginary-time) infrared Green's functions defined with respect to the equilibrium statistical operator. - Highlights: → Strong magnetic fields can make charged fluids behave anisotropically. → Magnetohydrodynamics for these fluids contains 5 shear, 2 bulk viscosities, and 3 heat conductivities. → We derive Kubo formulas for these transport coefficients.
Acoustic geometry for general relativistic barotropic irrotational fluid flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Visser, Matt; Molina-ParIs, Carmen
2010-01-01
'Acoustic spacetimes', in which techniques of differential geometry are used to investigate sound propagation in moving fluids, have attracted considerable attention over the last few decades. Most of the models currently considered in the literature are based on non-relativistic barotropic irrotational fluids, defined in a flat Newtonian background. The extension, first to special relativistic barotropic fluid flow and then to general relativistic barotropic fluid flow in an arbitrary background, is less straightforward than it might at first appear. In this paper, we provide a pedagogical and simple derivation of the general relativistic 'acoustic spacetime' in an arbitrary (d+1)-dimensional curved-space background.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vyil'chins'kij, S.Yi.
1993-01-01
The equations describing the propagation of the first, second and fourth sound in the relativistic theory of superfluidity are derived with account for dissipation. The expressions for the velocity of the first, second and fourth sound are obtained. (author). 4 refs
Energy dissipation in a finite volume of magnetic fluid
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bashtovoi, V.; Motsar, A.; Reks, A., E-mail: alexfx20@yandex.ru
2017-06-01
This study is devoted to investigation of energy dissipation processes which happen in a magnetic fluid drop with compound magnet during its motion in cylindrical non magnetic container. The possibility of energy dissipation control by means of electromagnetic field is examined. It's found that a change of magnetic field of compound magnet can lead to both increase and decrease of oscillation decay time and relative damping factor can be varied in a range of ±35%.
Nonequilibrium chiral fluid dynamics including dissipation and noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nahrgang, Marlene; Herold, Christoph; Bleicher, Marcus; Leupold, Stefan
2011-01-01
We present a consistent theoretical approach for the study of nonequilibrium effects in chiral fluid dynamics within the framework of the linear σ model with constituent quarks. Treating the quarks as an equilibrated heat bath, we use the influence functional formalism to obtain a Langevin equation for the σ field. This allows us to calculate the explicit form of the damping coefficient and the noise correlators. For a self-consistent derivation of both the dynamics of the σ field and the quark fluid, we have to employ the 2PI (two-particle irreducible) effective action formalism. The energy dissipation from the field to the fluid is treated in the exact formalism of the 2PI effective action where a conserved energy-momentum tensor can be constructed. We derive its form and comment on approximations generating additional terms in the energy-momentum balance of the entire system.
Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes
Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A.
2013-02-01
Fluid mechanics can be formulated on dynamical surfaces of arbitrary codimension embedded in a background space-time. This has been the main object of study of the blackfold approach in which the emphasis has primarily been on stationary fluid configurations. Motivated by this approach we show under certain conditions that a given stationary fluid configuration living on a dynamical surface of vanishing thickness and satisfying locally the first law of thermodynamics will behave like an elastic brane when the surface is subject to small deformations. These results, which are independent of the number of space-time dimensions and of the fluid arising from a gravitational dual, reveal the (electro)elastic character of (charged) black branes when considering extrinsic perturbations.
Relativistic Fluid Dynamics Far From Local Equilibrium
Romatschke, Paul
2018-01-01
Fluid dynamics is traditionally thought to apply only to systems near local equilibrium. In this case, the effective theory of fluid dynamics can be constructed as a gradient series. Recent applications of resurgence suggest that this gradient series diverges, but can be Borel resummed, giving rise to a hydrodynamic attractor solution which is well defined even for large gradients. Arbitrary initial data quickly approaches this attractor via nonhydrodynamic mode decay. This suggests the existence of a new theory of far-from-equilibrium fluid dynamics. In this Letter, the framework of fluid dynamics far from local equilibrium for a conformal system is introduced, and the hydrodynamic attractor solutions for resummed Baier-Romatschke-Son-Starinets-Stephanov theory, kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation, and strongly coupled N =4 super Yang-Mills theory are identified for a system undergoing Bjorken flow.
Relativistic nuclear fluid dynamics and VUU kinetic theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molitoris, J.J.; Hahn, D.; Alonso, C.; Collazo, I.; D'Alessandris, P.; McAbee, T.; Wilson, J.; Zingman, J.
1987-01-01
Relativistic kinetic theory may be used to understand hot dense hadronic matter. We address the questions of collective flow and pion production in a 3 D relativistic fluid dynamic model and in the VUU microscopic theory. The GSI/LBL collective flow and pion data point to a stiff equation of state. The effect of the nuclear equation of state on the thermodynamic parameters is discussed. The properties of dense hot hadronic matter are studied in Au + Au collisions from 0.1 to 10 GeV/nucleon. 22 refs., 5 figs
Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Armas, J.; Obers, N.A.
2013-01-01
under certain conditions that a given stationary fluid configuration living on a dynamical surface of vanishing thickness and satisfying locally the first law of thermodynamics will behave like an elastic brane when the surface is subject to small deformations. These results, which are independent...
Selective decay by Casimir dissipation in inviscid fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gay-Balmaz, François; Holm, Darryl D
2013-01-01
The problem of parameterizing the interactions of larger scales and smaller scales in fluid flows is addressed by considering a property of two-dimensional (2D) incompressible turbulence. The property we consider is selective decay, in which a Casimir of the ideal formulation (enstrophy in 2D flows, helicity in three-dimensional flows) decays in time, while the energy stays essentially constant. This paper introduces a mechanism that produces selective decay by enforcing Casimir dissipation in fluid dynamics. This mechanism turns out to be related in certain cases to the numerical method of anticipated vorticity discussed in Sadourny and Basdevant (1981 C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 292 1061–4, 1985 J. Atm. Sci. 42 1353–63). Several examples are given and a general theory of selective decay is developed that uses the Lie–Poisson structure of the ideal theory. A scale-selection operator allows the resulting modifications of the fluid motion equations to be interpreted in several examples as parametrizing the nonlinear, dynamical interactions between disparate scales. The type of modified fluid equation systems derived here may be useful in modelling turbulent geophysical flows where it is computationally prohibitive to rely on the slower, indirect effects of a realistic viscosity, such as in large-scale, coherent, oceanic flows interacting with much smaller eddies. (paper)
Cascades and Dissipative Anomalies in Compressible Fluid Turbulence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gregory L. Eyink
2018-02-01
Full Text Available We investigate dissipative anomalies in a turbulent fluid governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equation. We follow an exact approach pioneered by Onsager, which we explain as a nonperturbative application of the principle of renormalization-group invariance. In the limit of high Reynolds and Péclet numbers, the flow realizations are found to be described as distributional or “coarse-grained” solutions of the compressible Euler equations, with standard conservation laws broken by turbulent anomalies. The anomalous dissipation of kinetic energy is shown to be due not only to local cascade but also to a distinct mechanism called pressure-work defect. Irreversible heating in stationary, planar shocks with an ideal-gas equation of state exemplifies the second mechanism. Entropy conservation anomalies are also found to occur via two mechanisms: an anomalous input of negative entropy (negentropy by pressure work and a cascade of negentropy to small scales. We derive “4/5th-law”-type expressions for the anomalies, which allow us to characterize the singularities (structure-function scaling exponents required to sustain the cascades. We compare our approach with alternative theories and empirical evidence. It is argued that the “Big Power Law in the Sky” observed in electron density scintillations in the interstellar medium is a manifestation of a forward negentropy cascade or an inverse cascade of usual thermodynamic entropy.
Cascades and Dissipative Anomalies in Compressible Fluid Turbulence
Eyink, Gregory L.; Drivas, Theodore D.
2018-02-01
We investigate dissipative anomalies in a turbulent fluid governed by the compressible Navier-Stokes equation. We follow an exact approach pioneered by Onsager, which we explain as a nonperturbative application of the principle of renormalization-group invariance. In the limit of high Reynolds and Péclet numbers, the flow realizations are found to be described as distributional or "coarse-grained" solutions of the compressible Euler equations, with standard conservation laws broken by turbulent anomalies. The anomalous dissipation of kinetic energy is shown to be due not only to local cascade but also to a distinct mechanism called pressure-work defect. Irreversible heating in stationary, planar shocks with an ideal-gas equation of state exemplifies the second mechanism. Entropy conservation anomalies are also found to occur via two mechanisms: an anomalous input of negative entropy (negentropy) by pressure work and a cascade of negentropy to small scales. We derive "4 /5 th-law"-type expressions for the anomalies, which allow us to characterize the singularities (structure-function scaling exponents) required to sustain the cascades. We compare our approach with alternative theories and empirical evidence. It is argued that the "Big Power Law in the Sky" observed in electron density scintillations in the interstellar medium is a manifestation of a forward negentropy cascade or an inverse cascade of usual thermodynamic entropy.
A Landau fluid model for dissipative trapped electron modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hedrick, C.L.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Sidikman, K.L.
1995-09-01
A Landau fluid model for dissipative trapped electron modes is developed which focuses on an improved description of the ion dynamics. The model is simple enough to allow nonlinear calculations with many harmonics for the times necessary to reach saturation. The model is motivated by a discussion that starts with the gyro-kinetic equation and emphasizes the importance of simultaneously including particular features of magnetic drift resonance, shear, and Landau effects. To ensure that these features are simultaneously incorporated in a Landau fluid model with only two evolution equations, a new approach to determining the closure coefficients is employed. The effect of this technique is to reduce the matching of fluid and kinetic responses to a single variable, rather than two, and to allow focusing on essential features of the fluctuations in question, rather than features that are only important for other types of fluctuations. Radially resolved nonlinear calculations of this model, advanced in time to reach saturation, are presented to partially illustrate its intended use. These calculations have a large number of poloidal and toroidal harmonics to represent the nonlinear dynamics in a converged steady state which includes cascading of energy to both short and long wavelengths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olson, T.S.; Hiscock, W.A.
1990-01-01
Stability and causality are studied for linear perturbations about equilibrium in Carter's ''regular'' theory of relativistic heat-conducting fluids. The ''regular'' theory, when linearized around an equilibrium state having vanishing expansion and shear, is shown to be equivalent to the inviscid limit of the linearized Israel-Stewart theory of relativistic dissipative fluids for a particular choice of the second-order coefficients β 1 and γ 2 . A set of stability conditions is determined for linear perturbations of a general inviscid Israel-Stewart fluid using a monotonically decreasing energy functional. It is shown that, as in the viscous case, stability implies that the characteristic velocities are subluminal and that perturbations obey hyperbolic equations. The converse theorem is also true. We then apply this analysis to a nonrelativistic Boltzmann gas and to a strongly degenerate free Fermi gas in the ''regular'' theory. Carter's ''regular'' theory is shown to be incapable of correctly describing the nonrelativistic Boltzmann gas and the degenerate Fermi gas (at all temperatures)
Relativistic fluid model of the resistive hose instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siambis, J.G.
1992-01-01
A systematic analysis of the hose instability using the relativistic fluid formulation is reported. In its basic nature, the hose instability is a macroscopic, low-frequency instability, hence a fluid model should, in principle, give an accurate account of the hose instability. It has been found that for zeroth-order beam displacements, giving rise to rigid beam displacements, the fluid wave equation and resulting dispersion relation are identical to the spread-mass model and the energy-group model results. When first-order fluid displacements are included as well, giving rise to compressible, nonfrozen displacements in the axial direction and beam cross-section distortion in the radial direction, then there is obtained a wave equation similar, but not identical to the multicomponent model. The dispersion relation is solved for numerically. The hose instability growth rate is found to be similar to the multicomponent model result, over part of the beam frame, real hose frequency range
New family of simple solutions of relativistic perfect fluid hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Csoergo, T.; Nagy, M.I.; Csanad, M.
2008-01-01
A new class of accelerating, exact and explicit solutions of relativistic hydrodynamics is found-more than 50 years after the previous similar result, the Landau-Khalatnikov solution. Surprisingly, the new solutions have a simple form, that generalizes the renowned, but accelerationless, Hwa-Bjorken solution. These new solutions take into account the work done by the fluid elements on each other, and work not only in one temporal and one spatial dimensions, but also in arbitrary number of spatial dimensions. They are applied here for an advanced estimation of initial energy density and life-time of the reaction in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. New formulas are also conjectured, that yield further important increase of the initial energy density estimate and the measured life-time of the reaction if the value of the speed of sound is in the realistic range
Linear waves in two-fluid relativistic gasdynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavrikov, M.B.; Solov'ev, L.S.
1988-01-01
This paper is devoted to the development of a theory of waves propagating in a two-component gaseous medium. In all cases considered the authors use only the method of two-fluid relativistic electromagnetic gasdynamics in the framework of the special relativity theory. They pay special attention to the problem of the interaction in a mixture of both neutral and charged gases when they move relative to one another. This interaction is for charged gases responsible for the appearance of ohmic resistance to an electrical current
Extrema principles of entrophy production and energy dissipation in fluid mechanics
Horne, W. Clifton; Karamcheti, Krishnamurty
1988-01-01
A survey is presented of several extrema principles of energy dissipation as applied to problems in fluid mechanics. An exact equation is derived for the dissipation function of a homogeneous, isotropic, Newtonian fluid, with terms associated with irreversible compression or expansion, wave radiation, and the square of the vorticity. By using entropy extrema principles, simple flows such as the incompressible channel flow and the cylindrical vortex are identified as minimal dissipative distributions. The principal notions of stability of parallel shear flows appears to be associated with a maximum dissipation condition. These different conditions are consistent with Prigogine's classification of thermodynamic states into categories of equilibrium, linear nonequilibrium, and nonlinear nonequilibrium thermodynamics; vortices and acoustic waves appear as examples of dissipative structures. The measurements of a typical periodic shear flow, the rectangular wall jet, show that direct measurements of the dissipative terms are possible.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erkus, Baris; Johnson, Erik A
2011-01-01
This paper investigates the dissipativity and performance characteristics of the semiactive control of the base isolated benchmark structure with magnetorheological (MR) fluid dampers. Previously, the authors introduced the concepts of dissipativity and dissipativity indices in the semiactive control of structures with smart dampers and studied the dissipativity characteristics of simple structures with idealized dampers. To investigate the effects of semiactive controller dissipativity characteristics on the overall performance of the base isolated benchmark building, a clipped optimal control strategy with a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller and a 20 ton MR fluid damper model is used. A cumulative index is proposed for quantifying the overall dissipativity of a control system with multiple control devices. Two control designs with different dissipativity and performance characteristics are considered as the primary controller in clipped optimal control. Numerical simulations reveal that the dissipativity indices can be classified into two groups that exhibit distinct patterns. It is shown that the dissipativity indices identify primary controllers that are more suitable for application with MR dampers and provide useful information in the semiactive design process that complements other performance indices. The computational efficiency of the proposed dissipativity indices is verified by comparing computation times
Transport properties of the fluid produced at Relativistic Heavy-Ion ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
relativistic fluid dynamics, the kinematic viscosity (ν) is defined as ν = ... because the momentum transport mechanisms are different in the two cases (see, ..... of the widths of giant resonances within the hydrodynamic model (ii) the process.
Relativistic effects on large amplitude nonlinear Langmuir waves in a two-fluid plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nejoh, Yasunori
1994-07-01
Large amplitude relativistic nonlinear Langmuir waves are analyzed by the pseudo-potential method. The existence conditions for nonlinear Langmuir waves are confirmed by considering relativistic high-speed electrons in a two-fluid plasma. The significant feature of this investigation is that the propagation of nonlinear Langmuir waves depends on the ratio of the electron streaming velocity to the velocity of light, the normalized potential and the ion mass to electron mass ratio. The constant energy is determined by the specific range of the relativistic effect. In the non-relativistic limit, large amplitude relativistic Langmuir waves do not exist. The present investigation predicts new findings of large amplitude nonlinear Langmuir waves in space plasma phenomena in which relativistic electrons are important. (author)
Remarks on the relativistic magnetohydrodynamics of an anisotropic fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ignat, M.
1980-01-01
Considering a pressure tensor of a general form, a relativistic rarefied, anisotropic, infinite electrically conducting and nondissipative plasma is studied. For this purpose, the method of the orthonormal frame of reference is used. The choice of the frame of reference is made adequately to the problem. Some thermodynamical properties of such a relativistic, anisotropic plasma are also given. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim
2007-01-01
We present general relativistic correction terms appearing in Newton's gravity to the second-order perturbations of cosmological fluids. In our previous work we have shown that to the second-order perturbations, the density and velocity perturbation equations of general relativistic zero-pressure, irrotational, single-component fluid in a spatially flat background coincide exactly with the ones known in Newton's theory without using the gravitational potential. We also have shown the effect of gravitational waves to the second order, and pure general relativistic correction terms appearing in the third-order perturbations. Here, we present results of second-order perturbations relaxing all the assumptions made in our previous works. We derive the general relativistic correction terms arising due to (i) pressure, (ii) multicomponent, (iii) background spatial curvature, and (iv) rotation. In the case of multicomponent zero-pressure, irrotational fluids under the flat background, we effectively do not have relativistic correction terms, thus the relativistic equations expressed in terms of density and velocity perturbations again coincide with the Newtonian ones. In the other three cases we generally have pure general relativistic correction terms. In the case of pressure, the relativistic corrections appear even in the level of background and linear perturbation equations. In the presence of background spatial curvature, or rotation, pure relativistic correction terms directly appear in the Newtonian equations of motion of density and velocity perturbations to the second order; to the linear order, without using the gravitational potential (or metric perturbations), we have relativistic/Newtonian correspondences for density and velocity perturbations of a single-component fluid including the rotation even in the presence of background spatial curvature. In the small-scale limit (far inside the horizon), to the second-order, relativistic equations of density and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa, V.A.F. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)
2006-07-15
Care needs to be taken when considering the viscous dissipation in the energy conservation formulation of the natural convection problem in fluid-saturated porous media. The unique energy formulation compatible with the First Law of Thermodynamics informs us that if the viscous dissipation term is taken into account, also the work of pressure forces term needs to be taken into account. In integral terms, the work of pressure forces must equal the energy dissipated by viscous effects, and the net energy generation in the overall domain must be zero. If only the (positive) viscous dissipation term is considered in the energy conservation equation, the domain behaves as a heat multiplier, with an heat output greater than the heat input. Only the energy formulation consistent with the First Law of Thermodynamics leads to the correct flow and temperature fields, as well as of the heat transfer parameters characterizing the involved porous device. Attention is given to the natural convection problem in a square enclosure filled with a fluid-saturated porous medium, using the Darcy Law to describe the fluid flow, but the main ideas and conclusions apply equally for any general natural or mixed convection heat transfer problem. It is also analyzed the validity of the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation when applied to natural convection problems in fluid-saturated porous media. (author)
New signatures on dissipation from fission induced by relativistic heavy-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jurado, B.; Schmitt, C.; Schmidt, K.H.; Enqvist, T.; Kelic, A.; Rejmund, F.; Benlliure, J.; Junghans, A.R.
2004-03-01
Fissile nuclei with small shape distortion relative to the ground-state deformation and with low angular momentum were produced in peripheral heavy-ion collisions. Under the conditions of small shape distortions and low angular momentum, the theoretical description of the fission process can be considerably simplified, and the relevant information on dissipation can be better extracted than in conventional experiments based on fusion-fission reactions. In addition, this experimental approach induces very high excitation energies, a condition necessary to observe transient effects. The experimental data were taken at GSI using a set-up especially conceived for fission studies in inverse kinematics. This set-up allowed determining three observables whose sensitivity to dissipation was investigated for the first time: the total fission cross sections of 238 U at 1 A GeV as a function of the target mass, and, for the reaction of 238 U at 1 A GeV on a (CH 2 ) n target, the partial fission cross sections and the partial charge distributions of the fission fragments. The comparison of the new experimental data with a reaction code adapted to the conditions of the reactions investigated leads to clear conclusions on the strength of dissipation at small deformation where the existing results are rather contradictory. (orig.)
New signatures on dissipation from fission induced by relativistic heavy-ion collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jurado, B.; Schmitt, C.; Schmidt, K.H.; Enqvist, T.; Kelic, A.; Rejmund, F.; Benlliure, J. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Junghans, A.R. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany)
2004-03-01
Fissile nuclei with small shape distortion relative to the ground-state deformation and with low angular momentum were produced in peripheral heavy-ion collisions. Under the conditions of small shape distortions and low angular momentum, the theoretical description of the fission process can be considerably simplified, and the relevant information on dissipation can be better extracted than in conventional experiments based on fusion-fission reactions. In addition, this experimental approach induces very high excitation energies, a condition necessary to observe transient effects. The experimental data were taken at GSI using a set-up especially conceived for fission studies in inverse kinematics. This set-up allowed determining three observables whose sensitivity to dissipation was investigated for the first time: the total fission cross sections of {sup 238}U at 1 A GeV as a function of the target mass, and, for the reaction of {sup 238}U at 1 A GeV on a (CH{sub 2}){sub n} target, the partial fission cross sections and the partial charge distributions of the fission fragments. The comparison of the new experimental data with a reaction code adapted to the conditions of the reactions investigated leads to clear conclusions on the strength of dissipation at small deformation where the existing results are rather contradictory. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thirukkanesh, S. [Eastern University, Department of Mathematics, Chenkalady (Sri Lanka); Ragel, F.C. [Eastern University, Department of Physics, Chenkalady (Sri Lanka); Sharma, Ranjan; Das, Shyam [P.D. Women' s College, Department of Physics, Jalpaiguri (India)
2018-01-15
We present an algorithm to generalize a plethora of well-known solutions to Einstein field equations describing spherically symmetric relativistic fluid spheres by relaxing the pressure isotropy condition on the system. By suitably fixing the model parameters in our formulation, we generate closed-form solutions which may be treated as an anisotropic generalization of a large class of solutions describing isotropic fluid spheres. From the resultant solutions, a particular solution is taken up to show its physical acceptability. Making use of the current estimate of mass and radius of a known pulsar, the effects of anisotropic stress on the gross physical behaviour of a relativistic compact star is also highlighted. (orig.)
DC conductivities from non-relativistic scaling geometries with momentum dissipation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cremonini, S. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University,16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18018 (United States); Liu, Hai-Shan [Institute for Advanced Physics & Mathematics, Zhejiang University of Technology,Hangzhou 310023 (China); George P. & Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Lü, H. [Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); Pope, C.N. [George P. & Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Center for Advanced Quantum Studies, Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge University,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 OWA (United Kingdom)
2017-04-04
We consider a gravitational theory with two Maxwell fields, a dilatonic scalar and spatially dependent axions. Black brane solutions to this theory are Lifshitz-like and violate hyperscaling. Working with electrically charged solutions, we calculate analytically the holographic DC conductivities when both gauge fields are allowed to fluctuate. We discuss some of the subtleties associated with relating the horizon to the boundary data, focusing on the role of Lifshitz asymptotics and the presence of multiple gauge fields. The axionic scalars lead to momentum dissipation in the dual holographic theory. Finally, we examine the behavior of the DC conductivities as a function of temperature, and comment on the cases in which one can obtain a linear resistivity.
Precollisional velocity correlations in a hard-disk fluid with dissipative collisions.
Soto, R; Piasecki, J; Mareschal, M
2001-09-01
Velocity correlations are studied in granular fluids, modeled by the inelastic hard sphere gas. Making a density expansion of the Bogoliubov-Born-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon hierarchy for the evolution of the reduced distributions, we predict the presence of precollisional velocity correlations. They are created by the propagation through correlated sequences of collisions (ring events) of the velocity correlations generated after dissipative collisions. The correlations have their origin in the dissipative character of collisions, being always present in granular fluids. The correlations, that manifest microscopically as an alignment of the velocities of a colliding pair produce modifications of collisional averages, in particular, the virial pressure. The pressure shows a reduction with respect to the elastic case as a consequence of the velocity alignment. Good qualitative agreement is obtained for the comparison of the numerical evaluations of the obtained analytical expressions and molecular dynamics results that showed evidence of precollisional velocity correlations [R. Soto and M. Mareschal, Phys. Rev. E 63, 041303 (2001)].
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jung, Gerhard, E-mail: jungge@uni-mainz.de; Schmid, Friederike, E-mail: friederike.schmid@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Staudingerweg 9, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)
2016-05-28
Exact values for bulk and shear viscosity are important to characterize a fluid, and they are a necessary input for a continuum description. Here we present two novel methods to compute bulk viscosities by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of steady-state systems with periodic boundary conditions — one based on frequent particle displacements and one based on the application of external bulk forces with an inhomogeneous force profile. In equilibrium simulations, viscosities can be determined from the stress tensor fluctuations via Green-Kubo relations; however, the correct incorporation of random and dissipative forces is not obvious. We discuss different expressions proposed in the literature and test them at the example of a dissipative particle dynamics fluid.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich
2010-01-01
A wave equation, that governs finite amplitude acoustic disturbances in a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid, and includes nonlinear terms up to second order, is proposed. The equation preserves the Hamiltonian structure of the fundamental fluid dynamical equations in the non dissipative limit. An exact...... thermoviscous shock solution is derived. This solution is, in an overall sense, equivalent to the Taylor shock solution of the Burgers equation. However, in contrast to the Burgers equation, the model equation considered here is capable to describe waves propagating in opposite directions. Studies of head...
On the sound attenuation in fluid due to the thermal diffusion and viscous dissipation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Hanping, E-mail: hphu@ustc.edu.cn; Wang, Yandong; Wang, Dongdong
2015-09-11
We review the sound attenuation in fluid due to the thermal diffusion and viscous dissipation and derive the formula of the sound attenuation coefficient in fluid by solving a fully thermally–mechanically coupled equation set. Problem occurring in Stokes–Kirchhoff relation, the well-known and widely used classical formula for sound attenuation coefficient, is therefore found and pointed out. The reason for its generation is analyzed and verified. An improved formula to replace Stokes–Kirchhoff relation is suggested and the typical case for the error in calculating sound pressure level (SPL) of attenuated sound wave in fluid between the two formulas is also given. - Highlights: • Problem with Stokes–Kirchhoff relation. • Generation reason of defect in Stokes–Kirchhoff relation. • An improved formula for sound attenuation coefficient in fluid. • Typical cases of the calculation error by Stokes–Kirchhoff relation.
Seismic energy dissipation study of linear fluid viscous dampers in steel structure design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Ras
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Energy dissipation systems in civil engineering structures are sought when it comes to removing unwanted energy such as earthquake and wind. Among these systems, there is combination of structural steel frames with passive energy dissipation provided by Fluid Viscous Dampers (FVD. This device is increasingly used to provide better seismic protection for existing as well as new buildings and bridges. A 3D numerical investigation is done considering the seismic response of a twelve-storey steel building moment frame with diagonal FVD that have linear force versus velocity behaviour. Nonlinear time history, which is being calculated by Fast nonlinear analysis (FNA, of Boumerdes earthquake (Algeria, May 2003 is considered for the analysis and carried out using the SAP2000 software and comparisons between unbraced, braced and damped structure are shown in a tabulated and graphical format. The results of the various systems are studied to compare the structural response with and without this device of the energy dissipation thus obtained. The conclusions showed the formidable potential of the FVD to improve the dissipative capacities of the structure without increasing its rigidity. It is contributing significantly to reduce the quantity of steel necessary for its general stability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Moubin; Meakin, Paul; Huang Hai
2007-01-01
Multiphase fluid motion in unsaturated fractures and fracture networks involves complicated fluid dynamics, which is difficult to model using grid-based continuum methods. In this paper, the application of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), a relatively new mesoscale method to simulate fluid motion in unsaturated fractures is described. Unlike the conventional DPD method that employs a purely repulsive conservative (non-dissipative) particle-particle interaction to simulate the behavior of gases, we used conservative particle-particle interactions that combine short-range repulsive and long-range attractive interactions. This new conservative particle-particle interaction allows the behavior of multiphase systems consisting of gases, liquids and solids to be simulated. Our simulation results demonstrate that, for a fracture with flat parallel walls, the DPD method with the new interaction potential function is able to reproduce the hydrodynamic behavior of fully saturated flow, and various unsaturated flow modes including thin film flow, wetting and non-wetting flow. During simulations of flow through a fracture junction, the fracture junction can be fully or partially saturated depending on the wetting property of the fluid, the injection rate and the geometry of the fracture junction. Flow mode switching from a fully saturated flow to a thin film flow can also be observed in the fracture junction
Financial Brownian Particle in the Layered Order-Book Fluid and Fluctuation-Dissipation Relations
Yura, Yoshihiro; Takayasu, Hideki; Sornette, Didier; Takayasu, Misako
2014-03-01
We introduce a novel description of the dynamics of the order book of financial markets as that of an effective colloidal Brownian particle embedded in fluid particles. The analysis of comprehensive market data enables us to identify all motions of the fluid particles. Correlations between the motions of the Brownian particle and its surrounding fluid particles reflect specific layering interactions; in the inner layer the correlation is strong and with short memory, while in the outer layer it is weaker and with long memory. By interpreting and estimating the contribution from the outer layer as a drag resistance, we demonstrate the validity of the fluctuation-dissipation relation in this nonmaterial Brownian motion process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunlong Shi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We solve the so-called dissipative nonlinear Schrödinger equation by means of multiple scales analysis and perturbation method to describe envelope solitary Rossby waves with dissipation effect in stratified fluids. By analyzing the evolution of amplitude of envelope solitary Rossby waves, it is found that the shear of basic flow, Brunt-Vaisala frequency, and β effect are important factors to form the envelope solitary Rossby waves. By employing trial function method, the asymptotic solution of dissipative nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived. Based on the solution, the effect of dissipation on the evolution of envelope solitary Rossby wave is also discussed. The results show that the dissipation causes a slow decrease of amplitude of envelope solitary Rossby waves and a slow increase of width, while it has no effect on the propagation velocity. That is quite different from the KdV-type solitary waves. It is notable that dissipation has certain influence on the carrier frequency.
The Hamiltonian structure of general relativistic perfect fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao, D.; Houston Univ., TX; Marsden, J.; Walton, R.
1985-01-01
We show that the evolution equations for a perfect fluid coupled to general relativity in a general lapse and shift, are Hamiltonian relative to a certain Poisson structure. For the fluid variables, a Lie-Poisson structure associated to the dual of a semi-direct product Lie algebra is used, while the bracket for the gravitational variables has the usual canonical symplectic structure. The evolution is governed by a Hamiltonian which is equivalent to that obtained from a canonical analysis. The relationship of our Hamiltonian structure with other approaches in the literature, such as Clebsch potentials, Lagrangian to Eulerian transformations, and its use in clarifying linearization stability, are discussed. (orig.)
On the viscous dissipation modeling of thermal fluid flow in a porous medium
Salama, Amgad
2011-02-24
The problem of viscous dissipation and thermal dispersion in saturated porous medium is numerically investigated for the case of non-Darcy flow regime. The fluid is induced to flow upward by natural convection as a result of a semi-infinite vertical wall that is immersed in the porous medium and is kept at constant higher temperature. The boundary layer approximations were used to simplify the set of the governing, nonlinear partial differential equations, which were then non-dimensionalized and solved using the finite elements method. The results for the details of the governing parameters are presented and investigated. It is found that the irreversible process of transforming the kinetic energy of the moving fluid to heat energy via the viscosity of the moving fluid (i.e.; viscous dissipation) resulted in insignificant generation of heat for the range of parameters considered in this study. On the other hand, thermal dispersion has shown to disperse heat energy normal to the wall more effectively compared with the normal diffusion mechanism. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Lorentz-like covariant equations of non-relativistic fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montigny, M de; Khanna, F C; Santana, A E
2003-01-01
We use a geometrical formalism of Galilean invariance to build various hydrodynamics models. It consists in embedding the Newtonian spacetime into a non-Euclidean 4 + 1 space and provides thereby a procedure that unifies models otherwise apparently unrelated. After expressing the Navier-Stokes equation within this framework, we show that slight modifications of its Lagrangian allow us to recover the Chaplygin equation of state as well as models of superfluids for liquid helium (with both its irrotational and rotational components). Other fluid equations are also expressed in a covariant form
The onset of fluid-dynamical behavior in relativistic kinetic theory
Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.
2017-11-01
In this proceedings we discuss recent findings regarding the large order behavior of the Chapman-Enskog expansion in relativistic kinetic theory. It is shown that this series in powers of the Knudsen number has zero radius of convergence in the case of a Bjorken expanding fluid described by the Boltzmann equation in the relaxation time approximation. This divergence stems from the presence of non-hydrodynamic modes, which give non-perturbative contributions to the Knudsen series.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amano, Takanobu, E-mail: amano@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan)
2016-11-01
A new multidimensional simulation code for relativistic two-fluid electrodynamics (RTFED) is described. The basic equations consist of the full set of Maxwell’s equations coupled with relativistic hydrodynamic equations for separate two charged fluids, representing the dynamics of either an electron–positron or an electron–proton plasma. It can be recognized as an extension of conventional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD). Finite resistivity may be introduced as a friction between the two species, which reduces to resistive RMHD in the long wavelength limit without suffering from a singularity at infinite conductivity. A numerical scheme based on HLL (Harten–Lax–Van Leer) Riemann solver is proposed that exactly preserves the two divergence constraints for Maxwell’s equations simultaneously. Several benchmark problems demonstrate that it is capable of describing RMHD shocks/discontinuities at long wavelength limit, as well as dispersive characteristics due to the two-fluid effect appearing at small scales. This shows that the RTFED model is a promising tool for high energy astrophysics application.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boualit, A.; Boualit, S. [Unite de recherche appliquee en energies renouvelables, Ghardaia (Algeria); Zeraibi, N. [Universite de Boumerdes, Faculte des hydrocarbures dept. Transport et equipement, Boumerdes (Algeria); Amoura, M. [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumedienne, Faculte de Physique, Dept. Energetique, Alger (Algeria)
2011-01-15
The thermal development of the hydrodynamically developing laminar flow of a viscoplastic fluid (fluid of Bingham) between two plane plates maintained at a constant temperature has been studied numerically. This analysis has shown the effect caused by inertia and the rheological behaviour of the fluid on the velocity, pressure and temperature fields. The effects of Bingham and Peclet numbers on the Nusselt values with the inclusion of viscous dissipation are also discussed. (authors)
Dhariwal, Rohit; Bragg, Andrew D.
2018-03-01
In this paper, we consider how the statistical moments of the separation between two fluid particles grow with time when their separation lies in the dissipation range of turbulence. In this range, the fluid velocity field varies smoothly and the relative velocity of two fluid particles depends linearly upon their separation. While this may suggest that the rate at which fluid particles separate is exponential in time, this is not guaranteed because the strain rate governing their separation is a strongly fluctuating quantity in turbulence. Indeed, Afik and Steinberg [Nat. Commun. 8, 468 (2017), 10.1038/s41467-017-00389-8] argue that there is no convincing evidence that the moments of the separation between fluid particles grow exponentially with time in the dissipation range of turbulence. Motivated by this, we use direct numerical simulations (DNS) to compute the moments of particle separation over very long periods of time in a statistically stationary, isotropic turbulent flow to see if we ever observe evidence for exponential separation. Our results show that if the initial separation between the particles is infinitesimal, the moments of the particle separation first grow as power laws in time, but we then observe convincing evidence that at sufficiently long times the moments do grow exponentially. However, this exponential growth is only observed after extremely long times ≳200 τη , where τη is the Kolmogorov time scale. This is due to fluctuations in the strain rate about its mean value measured along the particle trajectories, the effect of which on the moments of the particle separation persists for very long times. We also consider the backward-in-time (BIT) moments of the article separation, and observe that they too grow exponentially in the long-time regime. However, a dramatic consequence of the exponential separation is that at long times the difference between the rate of the particle separation forward in time (FIT) and BIT grows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandão, P V; Alves, L S de B; Barletta, A
2014-01-01
The present paper investigates the transition from convective to absolute instability induced by viscous dissipation. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first time such a study is reported in the literature. Its framework is provided by the Poiseuille-Darcy-Benard convection of a Newtonian fluid. We found the same behaviour observed in the absence of viscous dissipation whenever the Gebhart number is smaller than Ge < 0.95, which is the stabilising effect of the cross flow. When 0.95 < Ge < 4.31, weak cross flows still stabilise the onset of absolute instability but stronger cross flows destabilise it. For a stronger viscous dissipation, i.e. Ge > 4.31, the cross flow always destabilises this onset. The latter two conditions create a scenario where viscous dissipation is capable of inducing a transition to absolute instability in the absence of wall heating, i.e. with a zero Rayleigh number
The ideal relativistic rotating gas as a perfect fluid with spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becattini, F.; Tinti, L.
2010-01-01
We show that the ideal relativistic spinning gas at complete thermodynamical equilibrium is a fluid with a non-vanishing spin density tensor σ μν . After having obtained the expression of the local spin-dependent phase-space density f(x, p) στ in the Boltzmann approximation, we derive the spin density tensor and show that it is proportional to the acceleration tensor Ω μν constructed with the Frenet-Serret tetrad. We recover the proper generalization of the fundamental thermodynamical relation, involving an additional term -(1/2)Ω μν σ μν . We also show that the spin density tensor has a non-vanishing projection onto the four-velocity field, i.e. t μ = σ μν u ν ≠ 0, in contrast to the common assumption t μ = 0, known as Frenkel condition, in the thus-far proposed theories of relativistic fluids with spin. We briefly address the viewpoint of the accelerated observer and inertial spin effects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Douglas P. Taylor
1995-01-01
Full Text Available Today's economic climate demands that conversion of military technology for commerical applications be a part of an aerospace and defense company's strategic planning. Toward this goal, a successful defense conversion has occurred recently with the application of high capacity fluid damping devices from the defense community for use as seismic energy dissipation elements in commercial buildings, bridges, and related structures. These products have been used by the military for many years for attenuation of weapons grade shock, typically applied to shipboard equipment or land based strategic weapons. Commercial energy dissipation devices historically have involved heavy yielding sections or hysteretic joints.
Mahanthesh, B.; Gireesha, B. J.
2018-03-01
The impact of Marangoni convection on dusty Casson fluid boundary layer flow with Joule heating and viscous dissipation aspects is addressed. The surface tension is assumed to vary linearly with temperature. Physical aspects of magnetohydrodynamics and thermal radiation are also accounted. The governing problem is modelled under boundary layer approximations for fluid phase and dust particle phase and then Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method based numeric solutions are established. The momentum and heat transport mechanisms are focused on the result of distinct governing parameters. The Nusselt number is also calculated. It is established that the rate of heat transfer can be enhanced by suspending dust particles in the base fluid. The temperature field of fluid phase and temperature of dust phase are quite reverse for thermal dust parameter. The radiative heat, viscous dissipation and Joule heating aspects are constructive for thermal fields of fluid and dust phases. The velocity of dusty Casson fluid dominates the velocity of dusty fluid while this trend is opposite in the case of temperature. Moreover qualitative behaviour of fluid phase and dust phase temperature/velocity are similar.
Scale-lengths and instabilities in magnetized classical and relativistic plasma fluid models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diver, D A; Laing, E W
2015-01-01
The validity of the traditional plasma continuum is predicated on a hierarchy of scale-lengths, with the Debye length being considered to be effectively unresolvable in the continuum limit. In this article, we revisit the strong magnetic field case in which the Larmor radius is comparable or smaller than the Debye length in the classical plasma, and also for a relativistic plasma. Fresh insight into the validity of the continuum assumption in each case is offered, including a fluid limit on the Alfvén speed that may impose restrictions on the validity of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in some solar and fusion contexts. Additional implications concerning the role of the firehose instability are also explored. (paper)
Conformal symmetry and non-relativistic second-order fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chao Jingyi; Schäfer, Thomas
2012-01-01
We study the constraints imposed by conformal symmetry on the equations of fluid dynamics at second order in the gradients of the hydrodynamic variables. At zeroth order, conformal symmetry implies a constraint on the equation of state, E 0 =2/3 P, where E 0 is the energy density and P is the pressure. At first order, conformal symmetry implies that the bulk viscosity must vanish. We show that at second order, conformal invariance requires that two-derivative terms in the stress tensor must be traceless, and that it determines the relaxation of dissipative stresses to the Navier–Stokes form. We verify these results by solving the Boltzmann equation at second order in the gradient expansion. We find that only a subset of the terms allowed by conformal symmetry appear. - Highlights: ► We derive conformal constraints for the stress tensor of a scale invariant fluid. ► We determine the relaxation time in kinetic theory. ► We compute the rate of entropy production in second-order fluid dynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monnai, Akihiko; Hirano, Tetsufumi
2010-01-01
We derive the second order hydrodynamic equations for the relativistic system of multi-components with multiple conserved currents by generalizing the Israel-Stewart theory and Grad's moment method. We find that, in addition to the conventional moment equations, extra moment equations associated with conserved currents should be introduced to consistently match the number of equations with that of unknowns and to satisfy the Onsager reciprocal relations. Consistent expansion of the entropy current leads to constitutive equations which involve the terms not appearing in the original Israel-Stewart theory even in the single component limit. We also find several terms which exhibit thermal diffusion such as Soret and Dufour effects. We finally compare our results with those of other existing formalisms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Bai
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the incompressible fractional MHD Maxwell fluid due to a power function accelerating plate with the first order slip, and the numerical analysis on the flow and heat transfer of fractional Maxwell fluid has been done. Moreover the deformation motion of fluid micelle is simply analyzed. Nonlinear velocity equation are formulated with multi-term time fractional derivatives in the boundary layer governing equations, and convective heat transfer boundary condition and viscous dissipation are both taken into consideration. A newly finite difference scheme with L1-algorithm of governing equations are constructed, whose convergence is confirmed by the comparison with analytical solution. Numerical solutions for velocity and temperature show the effects of pertinent parameters on flow and heat transfer of fractional Maxwell fluid. It reveals that the fractional derivative weakens the effects of motion and heat conduction. The larger the Nusselt number is, the greater the heat transfer capacity of fluid becomes, and the temperature gradient at the wall becomes more significantly. The lower Reynolds number enhances the viscosity of the fluid because it is the ratio of the viscous force and the inertia force, which resists the flow and heat transfer.
Bai, Yu; Jiang, Yuehua; Liu, Fawang; Zhang, Yan
2017-12-01
This paper investigates the incompressible fractional MHD Maxwell fluid due to a power function accelerating plate with the first order slip, and the numerical analysis on the flow and heat transfer of fractional Maxwell fluid has been done. Moreover the deformation motion of fluid micelle is simply analyzed. Nonlinear velocity equation are formulated with multi-term time fractional derivatives in the boundary layer governing equations, and convective heat transfer boundary condition and viscous dissipation are both taken into consideration. A newly finite difference scheme with L1-algorithm of governing equations are constructed, whose convergence is confirmed by the comparison with analytical solution. Numerical solutions for velocity and temperature show the effects of pertinent parameters on flow and heat transfer of fractional Maxwell fluid. It reveals that the fractional derivative weakens the effects of motion and heat conduction. The larger the Nusselt number is, the greater the heat transfer capacity of fluid becomes, and the temperature gradient at the wall becomes more significantly. The lower Reynolds number enhances the viscosity of the fluid because it is the ratio of the viscous force and the inertia force, which resists the flow and heat transfer.
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Norfifah Bachok
Full Text Available The steady boundary layer flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid over a moving vertical flat plate in an external moving fluid with viscous dissipation is theoretically investigated. Using appropriate similarity variables, the governing system of partial differential equations is transformed into a system of ordinary (similarity differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a Maple software. Results for the skin friction or shear stress coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity and temperature profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. It is found that the set of the similarity equations has unique solutions, dual solutions or no solutions, depending on the values of the mixed convection parameter, the velocity ratio parameter and the Eckert number. The Eckert number significantly affects the surface shear stress as well as the heat transfer rate at the surface.
Effect of phase transition on QGP fluid in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonaka, Chiho; Miyamura, Osamu; Muroya, Shin
2001-01-01
A full (3+1)-dimensional calculation using the Lagrangian hydrodynamics is proposed for relativistic nuclear collisions. The calculation enables us to evaluate anisotropic flow of hot and dense matter which appears in non-central and/or asymmetrical relativistic nuclear collisions. The relativistic hydrodynamical model is related to the equation of the state and the useful for the verification of quark-gluon plasma state. By virtue of the Lagrangian hydrodynamics we can easily trace the trajectory which corresponds to the adiabatic paths in the T-μ plane. We evaluate the directly of the influence of the phase transition to physical phenomena in the ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Using our relativistic hydrodynamical model, we discuss the effect of the phase transition on the collective flow. (author)
Relativistic conformal magneto-hydrodynamics from holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchbinder, Evgeny I.; Buchel, Alex
2009-01-01
We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to study first-order relativistic viscous magneto-hydrodynamics of (2+1)-dimensional conformal magnetic fluids. It is shown that the first order magneto-hydrodynamics constructed following Landau and Lifshitz from the positivity of the entropy production is inconsistent. We propose additional contributions to the entropy motivated dissipative current and, correspondingly, new dissipative transport coefficients. We use the strongly coupled M2-brane plasma in external magnetic field to show that the new magneto-hydrodynamics leads to self-consistent results in the shear and sound wave channels.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, Y.B.; Russkikh, V.N.; Pokrovsky, Y.E. Kurchatov; Ivanov, Y.B.; Russkikh, V.N.; Polrovsky, Y.E.; Henning, P.A.; Henning, P.A.
1995-01-01
A three-dimensional realization of the relativistic mean-field 2-fluid model is described. The first results of analyzing the inclusive data on the yield of nuclear fragments and pions, as well as the Plastic-Ball rapidity distributions of nuclear fragments are presented. For comparison, the calculations within the conventional relativistic hydrodynamical model with the same mean fields are also performed. It is found that all the analysed observables, except the pion spectra, appeared to be fairly insensitive to the nuclear EOS. The sensitivity to the nuclear stopping power is slightly higher. The original sensitivity of the rapidity distributions to the stopping power is smeared out by the Plastic-Ball filter and selection criterion. Nevertheless, one can conclude that the stopping power induced by the Cugnon cross-sections is not quite sufficient for a more adequate reproduction of the experimental data. (authors)
Gupta, Anoop Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay; Chhabra, Rajendra Prasad
2017-08-01
In this work, the buoyancy-induced convection from an isothermal spheroid is studied in a Bingham plastic fluid. Extensive results on the morphology of approximate yield surfaces, temperature profiles, and the local and average Nusselt numbers are reported to elucidate the effects of the pertinent dimensionless parameters: Rayleigh number, 102 ≤ Ra ≤ 106; Prandtl number, 20 ≤ Pr ≤ 100; Bingham number, 0 ≤ Bn ≤ 103, and aspect ratio, 0.2 ≤ e ≤ 5. Due to the fluid yield stress, fluid-like (yielded) and solid-like (unyielded) regions coexist in the flow domain depending upon the prevailing stress levels vis-a-vis the value of the fluid yield stress. The yielded parts progressively grow in size with the rising Rayleigh number while this tendency is countered by the increasing Bingham and Prandtl numbers. Due to these two competing effects, a limiting value of the Bingham number ( Bn max) is observed beyond which heat transfer occurs solely by conduction due to the solid-like behaviour of the fluid everywhere in the domain. Such limiting values bear a positive dependence on the Rayleigh number ( Ra) and aspect ratio ( e). In addition to this, oblate shapes ( e 1) impede it. Finally, simple predictive expressions for the maximum Bingham number and the average Nusselt number are developed which can be used to predict a priori the overall heat transfer coefficient in a new application. Also, a criterion is developed in terms of the composite parameter Bn• Gr-1/2 which predicts the onset of convection in such fluids. Similarly, another criterion is developed which delineates the conditions for the onset of settling due to buoyancy effects. The paper is concluded by presenting limited results to delineate the effects of viscous dissipation and the temperature-dependent viscosity on the Nusselt number. Both these effects are seen to be rather small in Bingham plastic fluids.
Shear Thickening Fluid (STF) – Enhanced Textiles for Impact Energy Dissipation
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The rheological behavior of some liquids can lead to the creation of materials with very unique properties. Shear thickening fluids (STFs), also known as dilatants,...
Dissipative Boltzmann-Robertson-Walker cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiscock, W.A.; Salmonson, J.
1991-01-01
The equations governing a flat Robertson-Walker cosmological model containing a dissipative Boltzmann gas are integrated numerically. The bulk viscous stress is modeled using the Eckart and Israel-Stewart theories of dissipative relativistic fluids; the resulting cosmologies are compared and contrasted. The Eckart models are shown to always differ in a significant quantitative way from the Israel-Stewart models. It thus appears inappropriate to use the pathological (nonhyperbolic) Eckart theory for cosmological applications. For large bulk viscosities, both cosmological models approach asymptotic nonequilibrium states; in the Eckart model the total pressure is negative, while in the Israel-Stewart model the total pressure is asymptotically zero. The Eckart model also expands more rapidly than the Israel-Stewart models. These results suggest that ''bulk-viscous'' inflation may be an artifact of using a pathological fluid theory such as the Eckart theory
Komathiraj, K.; Sharma, Ranjan
2018-05-01
In this paper, we present a formalism to generate a family of interior solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations for a spherically symmetric relativistic charged fluid sphere matched to the exterior Reissner-Nordström space-time. By reducing the Einstein-Maxwell system to a recurrence relation with variable rational coefficients, we show that it is possible to obtain closed-form solutions for a specific range of model parameters. A large class of solutions obtained previously are shown to be contained in our general class of solutions. We also analyse the physical viability of our new class of solutions.
Formation of Hydro-acoustic Waves in Dissipative Coupled Weakly Compressible Fluids
Abdolali, A.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Bellotti, G.
2014-12-01
Recent advances in deep sea measurement technology provide an increasing opportunity to detect and interpret hydro-acoustic waves as a component in improved Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS). For the idealized case of a homogeneous water column above a moving but otherwise rigid bottom (in terms of assessing acoustic wave interaction), the description of the infinite family of acoustic modes is characterized by local water depth at source area; i.e. the period of the first acoustic mode is given by four times the required time for sound to travel from the seabed to the surface. Spreading off from earthquake zone, the dominant spectrum is filtered and enriched by seamounts and barriers. This study focuses on the characteristics of hydro-acoustic waves generated by sudden sea bottom motion in a weakly compressible fluid coupled with an underlying sedimentary layer, where the added complexity of the sediment layer rheology leads to both the lowering of dominant spectral peaks and wave attenuation across the full spectrum. To overcome the computational difficulties of three-dimensional models, we derive a depth integrated equation valid for varying water depth and sediment thickness. Damping behavior of the two layered system is initially taken into account by introducing the viscosity of fluid-like sedimentary layer. We show that low frequency pressure waves which are precursor components of tsunamis contain information of seafloor motion.
Abdi, Mohamad; Hajihasani, Mojtaba; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Tavakkoli, Jahan
2012-12-01
Ultrasound waves have been widely used in diagnostic and therapeutic medical applications. Accurate and effective simulation of ultrasound beam propagation and its interaction with tissue has been proved to be important. The nonlinear nature of the ultrasound beam propagation, especially in the therapeutic regime, plays an important role in the mechanisms of interaction with tissue. There are three main approaches in current computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to model and simulate nonlinear ultrasound beams: macroscopic, mesoscopic and microscopic approaches. In this work, a mesoscopic CFD method based on the Lattice-Boltzmann model (LBM) was investigated. In the developed method, the Boltzmann equation is evolved to simulate the flow of a Newtonian fluid with the collision model instead of solving the Navier-Stokes, continuity and state equations which are used in conventional CFD methods. The LBM has some prominent advantages over conventional CFD methods, including: (1) its parallel computational nature; (2) taking microscopic boundaries into account; and (3) capability of simulating in porous and inhomogeneous media. In our proposed method, the propagating medium is discretized with a square grid in 2 dimensions with 9 velocity vectors for each node. Using the developed model, the nonlinear distortion and shock front development of a finiteamplitude diffractive ultrasonic beam in a dissipative fluid medium was computed and validated against the published data. The results confirm that the LBM is an accurate and effective approach to model and simulate nonlinearity in finite-amplitude ultrasound beams with Mach numbers of up to 0.01 which, among others, falls within the range of therapeutic ultrasound regime such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beams. A comparison between the HIFU nonlinear beam simulations using the proposed model and pseudospectral methods in a 2D geometry is presented.
Momentum and charge transport in non-relativistic holographic fluids from Hořava gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davison, Richard A. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Grozdanov, Sašo [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, Leiden 2333 CA (Netherlands); Janiszewski, Stefan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Kaminski, Matthias [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)
2016-11-28
We study the linearized transport of transverse momentum and charge in a conjectured field theory dual to a black brane solution of Hořava gravity with Lifshitz exponent z=1. As expected from general hydrodynamic reasoning, we find that both of these quantities are diffusive over distance and time scales larger than the inverse temperature. We compute the diffusion constants and conductivities of transverse momentum and charge, as well the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, and find that they differ from their relativistic counterparts. To derive these results, we propose how the holographic dictionary should be modified to deal with the multiple horizons and differing propagation speeds of bulk excitations in Hořava gravity. When possible, as a check on our methods and results, we use the covariant Einstein-Aether formulation of Hořava gravity, along with field redefinitions, to re-derive our results from a relativistic bulk theory.
Gangadhar, K.; Kumar, Sathies; Lakshmi Narayana, K.; Subhakar, M. J.; Rushi Kumar, B.
2017-11-01
In this paper, MHD flow and heat transfer of electrically conducting micro polar fluid over a permeable stretching surface with slip flow in the existence of viscous dissipation and temperature dependent slip flow are investigated. With the help of similarity transformations, the fundamental equations have been altered into a system of ordinary differential equations. It is difficult to solve these equations methodically. That’s why we used bvp4c MATLAB solver. We found the Numerical values for the wall couple stress, skin-friction coefficient, and the local Nusselt number in addition to the micro rotation, velocity, and temperature reports for diverse values of the principal parameters like thermal slip parameter, material parameter, magnetic parameter, heat generation/absorption parameter, velocity slip parameter and Eckert number It is observed that the values of suction/injection parameters rise corresponding to the lessening in the values of velocity, angular velocity, and temperature. Moreover, the change in the values of the Eckert number is opposite to the change in the values of the local Nusselt number.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Denicol, G.S. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3A2T8 (Canada); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Niemi, H. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland)
2013-05-02
We derive the non-equilibrium single-particle momentum distribution function of a hadron resonance gas. We then study the effects that this newly derived expression can have in the freeze-out description of fluid-dynamical models of heavy ion collisions and compare it with the method traditionally employed, the 14-moment approximation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. M. Ajayi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of a non-Newtonian fluid flow past an upper surface of an object that is neither a perfect horizontal/vertical nor inclined/cone in which dissipation of energy is associated with temperature-dependent plastic dynamic viscosity is considered. An attempt has been made to focus on the case of two-dimensional Casson fluid flow over a horizontal melting surface embedded in a thermally stratified medium. Since the viscosity of the non-Newtonian fluid tends to take energy from the motion (kinetic energy and transform it into internal energy, the viscous dissipation term is accommodated in the energy equation. Due to the existence of internal space-dependent heat source; plastic dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity of the non-Newtonian fluid are assumed to vary linearly with temperature. Based on the boundary layer assumptions, suitable similarity variables are applied to nondimensionalized, parameterized and reduce the governing partial differential equations into a coupled ordinary differential equations. These equations along with the boundary conditions are solved numerically using the shooting method together with the Runge-Kutta technique. The effects of pertinent parameters are established. A significant increases in Rex1/2Cfx is guaranteed with St when magnitude of β is large. Rex1/2Cfx decreases with Ec and m.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Srinivas
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The present work investigates the effects of thermal-diffusion and diffusion-thermo on MHD flow of viscous fluid between expanding or contracting rotating porous disks with viscous dissipation. The partial differential equations governing the flow problem under consideration have been transformed by a similarity transformation into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. An analytical approach, namely the homotopy analysis method is employed in order to obtain the solutions of the ordinary differential equations. The effects of various emerging parameters on flow variables have been discussed numerically and explained graphically. Comparison of the HAM solutions with the numerical solutions is performed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dehkordi, Asghar Molaei; Mohammadi, Ali Asghar
2009-01-01
A numerical investigation was conducted on the transient behavior of a hydrodynamically, fully developed, laminar flow of power-law fluids in the thermally developing entrance region of circular ducts taking into account the effect of viscous dissipation but neglecting the effect of axial conduction. In this regard, the unsteady state thermal energy equation was solved by using a finite difference method, whereas the steady state thermal energy equation without wall heat flux was solved analytically as the initial condition of the former. The effects of the power-law index and wall heat flux on the local Nusselt number and thermal entrance length were investigated. Moreover, the local Nusselt number of steady state conditions was correlated in terms of the power-law index and wall heat flux and compared with literature data, which were obtained by an analytic solution for Newtonian fluids. Furthermore, a relationship was proposed for the thermal entrance length
Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hernandez, Juan; Kovtun, Pavel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada)
2017-05-02
We present the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics coupled to dynamical electromagnetic fields, including the effects of polarization, electric fields, and the derivative expansion. We enumerate the transport coefficients at leading order in derivatives, including electrical conductivities, viscosities, and thermodynamic coefficients. We find the constraints on transport coefficients due to the positivity of entropy production, and derive the corresponding Kubo formulas. For the neutral state in a magnetic field, small fluctuations include Alfvén waves, magnetosonic waves, and the dissipative modes. For the state with a non-zero dynamical charge density in a magnetic field, plasma oscillations gap out all propagating modes, except for Alfvén-like waves with a quadratic dispersion relation. We relate the transport coefficients in the “conventional” magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using Maxwell’s equations in matter) to those in the “dual” version of magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using the conserved magnetic flux).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, L.
1996-01-01
Adhering to the lore that vorticity is a critical ingredient of fluid turbulence, a triad of coupled helicity (vorticity) states of the incompressible Navier-Stokes fluid are followed. Effects of the remaining states of the fluid on the triad are then modeled as a simple driving term. Numerical solution of the equations yield attractors that seem strange and chaotic. This suggests that the unpredictability of nonlinear fluid dynamics (i.e., turbulence) may be traced back to the most primordial structure of the Navier-Stokes equation; namely, the driven triadic interaction. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
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Mohammad M. Rahman
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to analyze numerically the steady boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristics of Casson fluid with variable temperature and viscous dissipation past a permeable shrinking sheet with second order slip velocity. Using appropriate similarity transformations, the basic nonlinear partial differential equations have been transformed into ordinary differential equations. These equations have been solved numerically for different values of the governing parameters namely: shrinking parametersuction parameterCasson parameterfirst order slip parametersecond order slip parameter Prandtl number and the Eckert number using the bvp4c function from MATLAB. A stability analysis has also been performed. Numerical results have been obtained for the reduced skin-friction, heat transfer and the velocity and temperature profiles. The results indicate that dual solutions exist for the shrinking surface for certain values of the parameter space. The stability analysis indicates that the lower solution branch is unstable, while the upper solution branch is stable and physically realizable. In addition, it is shown that for a viscous fluida very good agreement exists between the present numerical results and those reported in the open literature. The present results are original and new for the boundary-layer flow and heat transfer past a shrinking sheet in a Casson fluid. Therefore, this study has importance for researchers working in the area of non-Newtonian fluids, in order for them to become familiar with the flow behavior and properties of such fluids.
Dissipation of Wave Energy by Cohesive Sediments
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Kaihatu, James M; Sheremet, Alexandru
2004-01-01
Wave energy dissipation by bottom muds is studied. A dissipation mechanism which contains explicit expressions of wavenumber modification due to a viscous bottom fluid is incorporated into a nonlinear wave shoaling model...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khilap Singh
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical model is developed to examine the effects of thermal radiation on unsteady mixed convection flow of a viscous dissipating incompressible micropolar fluid adjacent to a heated vertical stretching surface in the presence of the buoyancy force and heat generation/absorption. The Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. The model contains nonlinear coupled partial differential equations which have been converted into ordinary differential equation by using the similarity transformations. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are solved by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth fifth-order method with shooting technique. Numerical solutions are then obtained and investigated in detail for different interesting parameters such as the local skin-friction coefficient, wall couple stress, and Nusselt number as well as other parametric values such as the velocity, angular velocity, and temperature.
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Aftab Ahmed
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the combined effects of the thermal radiation, viscous dissipation, suction/injection and internal heat generation/absorption on the boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian power law fluid over a semi infinite permeable flat plate moving in parallel or reversely to a free stream. The resulting system of partial differential equations (PDEs is first transformed into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs which are then solved numerically by using the shooting technique. It is found that the dual solutions exist when the flat plate and the free stream move in the opposite directions. Dimensionless boundary layer velocity and temperature distributions are plotted and discussed for various values of the emerging physical parameters. Finally, the tables of the relevant boundary derivatives are presented for some values of the governing physical parameters.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Amano, Takanobu; Garain, Sudip; Kim, Jinho
2016-01-01
In various astrophysics settings it is common to have a two-fluid relativistic plasma that interacts with the electromagnetic field. While it is common to ignore the displacement current in the ideal, classical magnetohydrodynamic limit, when the flows become relativistic this approximation is less than absolutely well-justified. In such a situation, it is more natural to consider a positively charged fluid made up of positrons or protons interacting with a negatively charged fluid made up of electrons. The two fluids interact collectively with the full set of Maxwell's equations. As a result, a solution strategy for that coupled system of equations is sought and found here. Our strategy extends to higher orders, providing increasing accuracy. The primary variables in the Maxwell solver are taken to be the facially-collocated components of the electric and magnetic fields. Consistent with such a collocation, three important innovations are reported here. The first two pertain to the Maxwell solver. In our first innovation, the magnetic field within each zone is reconstructed in a divergence-free fashion while the electric field within each zone is reconstructed in a form that is consistent with Gauss' law. In our second innovation, a multidimensionally upwinded strategy is presented which ensures that the magnetic field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of Faraday's law and the electric field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of the generalized Ampere's law. This multidimensional upwinding is achieved via a multidimensional Riemann solver. The multidimensional Riemann solver automatically provides edge-centered electric field components for the Stokes law-based update of the magnetic field. It also provides edge-centered magnetic field components for the Stokes law-based update of the electric field. The update strategy ensures that the electric field is always consistent with Gauss' law and the magnetic field is
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balsara, Dinshaw S., E-mail: dbalsara@nd.edu [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame (United States); Amano, Takanobu, E-mail: amano@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Garain, Sudip, E-mail: sgarain@nd.edu [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame (United States); Kim, Jinho, E-mail: jkim46@nd.edu [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame (United States)
2016-08-01
In various astrophysics settings it is common to have a two-fluid relativistic plasma that interacts with the electromagnetic field. While it is common to ignore the displacement current in the ideal, classical magnetohydrodynamic limit, when the flows become relativistic this approximation is less than absolutely well-justified. In such a situation, it is more natural to consider a positively charged fluid made up of positrons or protons interacting with a negatively charged fluid made up of electrons. The two fluids interact collectively with the full set of Maxwell's equations. As a result, a solution strategy for that coupled system of equations is sought and found here. Our strategy extends to higher orders, providing increasing accuracy. The primary variables in the Maxwell solver are taken to be the facially-collocated components of the electric and magnetic fields. Consistent with such a collocation, three important innovations are reported here. The first two pertain to the Maxwell solver. In our first innovation, the magnetic field within each zone is reconstructed in a divergence-free fashion while the electric field within each zone is reconstructed in a form that is consistent with Gauss' law. In our second innovation, a multidimensionally upwinded strategy is presented which ensures that the magnetic field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of Faraday's law and the electric field can be updated via a discrete interpretation of the generalized Ampere's law. This multidimensional upwinding is achieved via a multidimensional Riemann solver. The multidimensional Riemann solver automatically provides edge-centered electric field components for the Stokes law-based update of the magnetic field. It also provides edge-centered magnetic field components for the Stokes law-based update of the electric field. The update strategy ensures that the electric field is always consistent with Gauss' law and the magnetic field is
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.
1985-11-01
The author critiques the model of tokamak edge turbulence by P.W. Terry and P.H. Diamond (Phys. Fluids 28, 1419, 1985). The critique includes a discussion of the physical basis, consistency and quantitative accuracy of the Terry-Diamond model. 19 refs
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Dominique Brun-Battistini
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Richard C. Tolman analyzed the relation between a temperature gradient and a gravitational field in an equilibrium situation. In 2012, Tolman’s law was generalized to a non-equilibrium situation for a simple dilute relativistic fluid. The result in that scenario, obtained by introducing the gravitational force through the molecular acceleration, couples the heat flux with the metric coefficients and the gradients of the state variables. In the present paper it is shown, by explicitly describing the single particle orbits as geodesics in Boltzmann’s equation, that a gravitational field drives a heat flux in this type of system. The calculation is devoted solely to the gravitational field contribution to this heat flux in which a Newtonian limit to the Schwarzschild metric is assumed. The corresponding transport coefficient, which is obtained within a relaxation approximation, corresponds to the dilute fluid in a weak gravitational field. The effect is negligible in the non-relativistic regime, as evidenced by the direct evaluation of the corresponding limit.
Waves and discontinuities in relativistic and anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cissoko, Mahdy
1975-01-01
This work is devoted to the relativistic study of a non-dissipative anisotropic fluid diagram of infinite conductivity. Such a fluid diagram is constructed in part one. Starting from a macroscopic viewpoint a hydrothermodynamic study of the fluid diagram considered is carried out and the fundamental differential system of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics is deduced. Part two concerns the study of characteristic varieties and propagation of waves for a polytropic anisotropic fluid diagram. Three types of characteristic varieties are revealed: entropy waves (or material waves), magnetosonic waves and Alfven waves. The propagation rates of Alfven and magnetosonic waves are situated with respect to each other. The study of wave cones showed up on the one hand certain special features of wave propagation in anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics and on the other hand the hyperbolic nature of differential operators associated with the various waves [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anand, Vishal
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Exponential formulation of s-PTT model used. • Heat transfer and entropy generation characteristics studied. • Effects of three slip laws examined. • Exponential formulation more accurate than linear formulation. - Abstract: This study concerns the heat transfer and entropy generation characteristics of viscoelastic fluid flow modeled by the exponential formulation of simplified Phan-Thien–Tanner (s-PTT) model. This is the first such study in literature of thermal behavior of viscoelastic fluids modeled by the exponential formulation of s-PTT model. The flow between two parallel plates is laminar, hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed, viscous dissipative and subject to uniform heat flux on the walls. The slip velocity boundary condition is imposed on the fluid–solid interface and the slip is captured by three slip laws, namely, Navier's non-linear slip law, Hatzikiriakos slip law, and asymptotic slip law. The governing equations have been solved analytically. Closed form solutions for the velocity distribution have been derived while the temperature distribution is presented in terms of an infinite but convergent series. The results pertaining to the three slip laws have been presented in detail. Finally, a comparison has been made between the results for exponential formulation and those for the linear formulation of the s-PTT model. The comparison shows that results for linear formulation deviate significantly from those for exponential formulation and thus the accuracy of the exponential formulation justifies the extra mathematical complexity which it entails.
Gnaneswara Reddy, Machireddy
2017-12-01
The problem of micropolar fluid flow over a nonlinear stretching convective vertical surface in the presence of Lorentz force and viscous dissipation is investigated. Due to the nature of heat transfer in the flow past vertical surface, Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model effect is properly accommodated in the energy equation. The governing partial differential equations for the flow and heat transfer are converted into a set of ordinary differential equations by employing the acceptable similarity transformations. Runge-Kutta and Newton's methods are utilized to resolve the altered governing nonlinear equations. Obtained numerical results are compared with the available literature and found to be an excellent agreement. The impacts of dimensionless governing flow pertinent parameters on velocity, micropolar velocity and temperature profiles are presented graphically for two cases (linear and nonlinear) and analyzed in detail. Further, the variations of skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are reported with the aid of plots for the sundry flow parameters. The temperature and the related boundary enhances enhances with the boosting values of M. It is found that fluid temperature declines for larger thermal relaxation parameter. Also, it is revealed that the Nusselt number declines for the hike values of Bi.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasse, R.W.; Ghosh, G.
1982-01-01
The long-mean-free-path nuclear fluid dynamics is extended to include damping. First the damping stress is derived from the solution of the Boltzmann equation for a breathing spherical container filled with a Fermi gas. Then the corresponding damping force is incorporated into Euler equations of motion and energies and widths of low lying collective resonances are computed as eigenfrequencies of a vibrating nucleus under surface tension and Coulomb potential as well as the high lying isoscalar giant resonances as eigenfrequencies of an elastic nucleus. Maximum damping is obtained if the particle frequency approximately resonates with the wall frequency. Theoretical results are compared with experimental data and future improvements are indicated
Radiation dominated relativistic current sheets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaroschek, C.H.
2008-01-01
Relativistic Current Sheets (RCS) feature plasma instabilities considered as potential key to magnetic energy dissipation and non-thermal particle generation in Poynting flux dominated plasma flows. We show in a series of kinetic plasma simulations that the physical nature of non-linear RCS evolution changes in the presence of incoherent radiation losses: In the ultra-relativistic regime (i.e. magnetization parameter sigma = 104 defined as the ratio of magnetic to plasma rest frame energy density) the combination of non-linear RCS dynamics and synchrotron emission introduces a temperature anisotropy triggering the growth of the Relativistic Tearing Mode (RTM). As direct consequence the RTM prevails over the Relativistic Drift Kink (RDK) Mode as competitive RCS instability. This is in contrast to the previously studied situation of weakly relativistic RCS (sigma ∼ 1) where the RDK is dominant and most of the plasma is thermalized. The simulations witness the typical life cycle of ultra-relativistic RCS evolving from a violent radiation induced collapse towards a radiation quiescent state in rather classical Sweet-Parker topology. Such a transition towards Sweet-Parker configuration in the late non-linear evolution has immediate consequences for the efficiency of magnetic energy dissipation and non-thermal particle generation. Ceasing dissipation rates directly affect our present understanding of non-linear RCS evolution in conventional striped wind scenarios. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. A. El-Wakil
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The reductive perturbation method has been employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV equation for small- but finite-amplitude electrostatic ion-acoustic waves in weakly relativistic plasma consisting of warm ions and isothermal electrons. An algebraic method with computerized symbolic computation is applied in obtaining a series of exact solutions of the KdV equation. Numerical studies have been made using plasma parameters which reveal different solutions, that is, bell-shaped solitary pulses, rational pulses, and solutions with singularity at finite points, which called “blowup” solutions in addition to the propagation of an explosive pulses. The weakly relativistic effect is found to significantly change the basic properties (namely, the amplitude and the width of the ion-acoustic waves. The result of the present investigation may be applicable to some plasma environments, such as ionosphere region.
Beyond ideal magnetohydrodynamics: resistive, reactive and relativistic plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, N; Dionysopoulou, K; Hawke, I; Comer, G L
2017-01-01
We develop a new framework for the modelling of charged fluid dynamics in general relativity. The model, which builds on a recently developed variational multi-fluid framework for dissipative fluids, accounts for relevant effects like the inertia of both charge currents and heat and, for mature systems, the decoupling of superfluid components. We discuss how the model compares to standard relativistic magnetohydronamics and consider the connection between the fluid dynamics, the microphysics and the underlying equation of state. As illustrations of the formalism, we consider three distinct two-fluid models describing (i) an Ohm’s law for resistive charged flows, (ii) a relativistic heat equation, and (iii) an equation representing the momentum of a decoupled superfluid component. As a more complex example, we also formulate a three-fluid model which demonstrates the thermo-electric effect. The new framework allows us to model neutron stars (and related systems) at a hierarchy of increasingly complex levels, and should enable us to make progress on a range of exciting problems in astrophysics and cosmology. (paper)
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Vischer, D. L; Hager, Willi H; Hager, W. H
1995-01-01
.... the book comprises chapters in farious fields such as hydraulic jump, stilling basins, ski jumps and plunge pools but introduces also a general account on various methods of dissipation, as well...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.C. Raju
2015-03-01
Full Text Available A theoretical analysis is performed to study induced magnetic field effects on free convection flow past a vertical plate. The x¯-axis is taken vertically upwards along the plate, y¯-axis normal to the plate into the fluid region. It is assumed that the plate is electrically non-conducting and the applied magnetic field is of uniform strength (H0 and perpendicular to the plate. The magnetic Reynolds number of the flow is not taken to be small enough so that the induced magnetic field is taken into account. The coupled nonlinear partial differential equations are solved by Perturbation technique and the effects of various physical parameters on velocity, temperature, and induced magnetic fields are studied through graphs and tables. Variations in Skin friction and rate of heat transfer are also studied. It is observed that an increase in magnetic parameter decreases the velocity for both water and air. It is also seen that there is a fall in induced magnetic field as magnetic Prandtl number, and magnetic field parameter increase.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, F.
1986-01-01
Relativistic equations for two and three body scattering are discussed. Particular attention is paid to relativistic three body kinetics because of recent form factor measurements of the Helium 3 - Hydrogen 3 system recently completed at Saclay and Bates and the accompanying speculation that relativistic effects are important for understanding the three nucleon system. 16 refs., 4 figs
Relativistic non-Hamiltonian mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2010-01-01
Relativistic particle subjected to a general four-force is considered as a nonholonomic system. The nonholonomic constraint in four-dimensional space-time represents the relativistic invariance by the equation for four-velocity u μ u μ + c 2 = 0, where c is the speed of light in vacuum. In the general case, four-forces are non-potential, and the relativistic particle is a non-Hamiltonian system in four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space-time. We consider non-Hamiltonian and dissipative systems in relativistic mechanics. Covariant forms of the principle of stationary action and the Hamilton's principle for relativistic mechanics of non-Hamiltonian systems are discussed. The equivalence of these principles is considered for relativistic particles subjected to potential and non-potential forces. We note that the equations of motion which follow from the Hamilton's principle are not equivalent to the equations which follow from the variational principle of stationary action. The Hamilton's principle and the principle of stationary action are not compatible in the case of systems with nonholonomic constraint and the potential forces. The principle of stationary action for relativistic particle subjected to non-potential forces can be used if the Helmholtz conditions are satisfied. The Hamilton's principle and the principle of stationary action are equivalent only for a special class of relativistic non-Hamiltonian systems.
An introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Font, Jose A [Departamento de AstronomIa y AstrofIsica, Universidad de Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)
2007-11-15
We review formulations of the equations of (inviscid) general relativistic hydrodynamics and (ideal) magnetohydrodynamics, along with methods for their numerical solution. Both systems can be cast as first-order, hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, following the explicit choice of an Eulerian observer and suitable fluid and magnetic field variables. During the last fifteen years, the so-called (upwind) high-resolution shock-capturing schemes based on Riemann solvers have been successfully extended from classical to relativistic fluid dynamics, both special and general. Nowadays, general relativistic hydrodynamical simulations in relativistic astrophysics are routinely performed, particularly within the test-fluid approximation but also for dynamical spacetimes. While such advances also hold true in the case of the MHD equations, the astrophysical applications investigated so far are still limited, yet the field is bound to witness major developments in the near future. The article also presents a brief overview of numerical techniques, providing state-of-the-art examples of their applicability to general relativistic fluids and magneto-fluids in characteristic scenarios of relativistic astrophysics.
Demianski, Marek
2013-01-01
Relativistic Astrophysics brings together important astronomical discoveries and the significant achievements, as well as the difficulties in the field of relativistic astrophysics. This book is divided into 10 chapters that tackle some aspects of the field, including the gravitational field, stellar equilibrium, black holes, and cosmology. The opening chapters introduce the theories to delineate gravitational field and the elements of relativistic thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. The succeeding chapters deal with the gravitational fields in matter; stellar equilibrium and general relativity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet Camurdan
1998-01-01
are coupled by appropriate trace operators. This overall model differs from those previously studied in the literature in that the elastic chamber floor is here more realistically modeled by a hyperbolic Kirchoff equation, rather than by a parabolic Euler-Bernoulli equation with Kelvin-Voight structural damping, as in past literature. Thus, the hyperbolic/parabolic coupled system of past literature is replaced here by a hyperbolic/hyperbolic coupled model. The main result of this paper is a uniform stabilization of the coupled PDE system by a (physically appealing boundary dissipation.
Relativistic theories of materials
Bressan, Aldo
1978-01-01
The theory of relativity was created in 1905 to solve a problem concerning electromagnetic fields. That solution was reached by means of profound changes in fundamental concepts and ideas that considerably affected the whole of physics. Moreover, when Einstein took gravitation into account, he was forced to develop radical changes also in our space-time concepts (1916). Relativistic works on heat, thermodynamics, and elasticity appeared as early as 1911. However, general theories having a thermodynamic basis, including heat conduction and constitutive equations, did not appear in general relativity until about 1955 for fluids and appeared only after 1960 for elastic or more general finitely deformed materials. These theories dealt with materials with memory, and in this connection some relativistic versions of the principle of material indifference were considered. Even more recently, relativistic theories incorporating finite deformations for polarizable and magnetizable materials and those in which couple s...
arXiv (3+1)-dimensional anisotropic fluid dynamics with a lattice QCD equation of state
McNelis, M.; Heinz, U.
2018-06-01
Anisotropic hydrodynamics improves upon standard dissipative fluid dynamics by treating certain large dissipative corrections non-perturbatively. Relativistic heavy-ion collisions feature two such large dissipative effects: (i) Strongly anisotropic expansion generates a large shear stress component which manifests itself in very different longitudinal and transverse pressures, especially at early times. (ii) Critical fluctuations near the quark-hadron phase transition lead to a large bulk viscous pressure on the conversion surface between hydrodynamics and a microscopic hadronic cascade description of the final collision stage. We present a new dissipative hydrodynamic formulation for non-conformal fluids where both of these effects are treated nonperturbatively. The evolution equations are derived from the Boltzmann equation in the 14-moment approximation, using an expansion around an anisotropic leading-order distribution function with two momentum-space deformation parameters, accounting for the longitudin...
On the stability of dissipative MHD equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teichmann, J.
1979-04-01
The global stability of stationary equilibria of dissipative MHD is studied uisng the direct Liapunov method. Sufficient and necessary conditions for stability of the linearized Euler-Lagrangian system with the full dissipative operators are given. The case of the two-fluid isentropic flow is discussed. (orig.)
On the convexity of relativistic hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibáñez, José M; Martí, José M; Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Miralles, Juan A
2013-01-01
The relativistic hydrodynamic system of equations for a perfect fluid obeying a causal equation of state is hyperbolic (Anile 1989 Relativistic Fluids and Magneto-Fluids (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). In this report, we derive the conditions for this system to be convex in terms of the fundamental derivative of the equation of state (Menikoff and Plohr1989 Rev. Mod. Phys. 61 75). The classical limit is recovered. Communicated by L Rezzolla (note)
Behaviour of charged collapsing fluids after hydrostatic equilibrium in R^n gravity
Kausar, Hafiza Rizwana
2017-06-01
The purpose of this paper is to study the transport equation and its coupling with the Maxwell equation in the framework of R^n gravity. Using Müller-Israel-Stewart theory for the conduction of dissipative fluids, we analyze the temperature, heat flux, viscosity and thermal conductivity in the scenario of relaxation time. All these thermodynamical variables appear in the form of a single factor whose influence is discussed on the evolution of relativistic model for the heat conducting collapsing star.
Luciano, Rezzolla
2013-01-01
Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solut...
Price, R H
1993-01-01
Work reported in the workshop on relativistic astrophysics spanned a wide varicy of topics. Two speciﬁc areas seemed of particular interest. Much attention was focussed on gravitational wave sources, especially on the waveforms they produce, and progress was reported in theoretical and observational aspects of accretion disks.
Sahoo, Raghunath
2016-01-01
This lecture note covers Relativistic Kinematics, which is very useful for the beginners in the field of high-energy physics. A very practical approach has been taken, which answers "why and how" of the kinematics useful for students working in the related areas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Font, J. A.
2015-01-01
The relativistic astrophysics is the field of astrophysics employing the theory of relativity Einstein as physical-mathematical model is to study the universe. This discipline analyzes astronomical contexts in which the laws of classical mechanics of Newton's law of gravitation are not valid. (Author)
A relativistic radiation transfer benchmark
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munier, A.
1988-01-01
We use the integral form of the radiation transfer equation in an one dimensional slab to determine the time-dependent propagation of the radiation energy, flux and pressure in a collisionless homogeneous medium. First order v/c relativistic terms are included and the solution is given in the fluid frame and the laboratory frame
Kudinov, V. A.; Eremin, A. V.; Kudinov, I. V.
2017-11-01
The differential equation of heat transfer with allowance for energy dissipation and spatial and temporal nonlocality has been derived by the relaxation of heat flux and temperature gradient in the Fourier law formula for the heat flux at the use of the heat balance equation. An investigation of the numerical solution of the heat-transfer problem at a laminar fluid flow in a plane duct has shown the impossibility of an instantaneous acceptance of the boundary condition of the first kind — the process of its settling at small values of relaxation coefficients takes a finite time interval the duration of which is determined by the thermophysical and relaxation properties of the fluid. At large values of relaxation coefficients, the use of the boundary condition of the first kind is possible only at Fo → ∞. The friction heat consideration leads to the alteration of temperature profiles, which is due to the rise of the intervals of elevated temperatures in the zone of the maximal velocity gradients. With increasing relaxation coefficients, the smoothing of temperature profiles occurs, and at their certain high values, the fluid cooling occurs at a gradientless temperature variation along the transverse spatial variable and, consequently, the temperature proves to be dependent only on time and on longitudinal coordinate.
Influence of viscous dissipation and radiation on MHD Couette flow ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The overall analysis of the study of these parameters in various degrees show an increase in the velocity profile of the fluid, while radiation parameter decreases the temperature profile; viscous dissipation and Reynolds number increase the temperature profile of the fluid. Key word: Couette flow, viscous dissipation, ...
Ganesh Kumar, K.; Rudraswamy, N. G.; Gireesha, B. J.; Krishnamurthy, M. R.
2017-09-01
Present exploration discusses the combined effect of viscous dissipation and Joule heating on three dimensional flow and heat transfer of a Jeffrey nanofluid in the presence of nonlinear thermal radiation. Here the flow is generated over bidirectional stretching sheet in the presence of applied magnetic field by accounting thermophoresis and Brownian motion of nanoparticles. Suitable similarity transformations are employed to reduce the governing partial differential equations into coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. These nonlinear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. Graphically results are presented and discussed for various parameters. Validation of the current method is proved by comparing our results with the existing results under limiting situations. It can be concluded that combined effect of Joule and viscous heating increases the temperature profile and thermal boundary layer thickness.
Relativistic Boltzmann theory for a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erkelens, H. van.
1984-01-01
This thesis gives a self-contained treatment of the relativistic Boltzmann theory for a plasma. Here plasma means any mixture containing electrically charged particles. The relativistic Boltzmann equation is linearized for the case of a plasma. The Chapman-Enskog method is elaborated further for transport phenomena. Linear laws for viscous phenomena are derived. Then the collision term in the Boltzmann theory is dealt with. Using the transport equation, a kinetic theory of wave phenomena is developed and the dissipation of hydromagnetic waves in a relativistic plasma is investigated. In the final chapter, it is demonstrated how the relativistic Boltzmann theory can be applied in cosmology. In doing so, expressions are derived for the electric conductivity of the cosmological plasma in the lepton era, the plasma era and the annihilation era. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, M.A.; Azuma, O.; Callin, R.S.
1989-03-01
Experimental work is underway by a SLAC-LLNL-LBL collaboration to investigate the feasibility of using relativistic klystrons as a power source for future high gradient accelerators. Two different relativistic klystron configurations have been built and tested to date: a high grain multicavity klystron at 11.4 GHz and a low gain two cavity subharmonic buncher driven at 5.7 GHz. In both configurations power is extracted at 11.4 GHz. In order to understand the basic physics issues involved in extracting RF from a high power beam, we have used both a single resonant cavity and a multi-cell traveling wave structure for energy extraction. We have learned how to overcome our previously reported problem of high power RF pulse shortening, and have achieved peak RF power levels of 170 MW with the RF pulse of the same duration as the beam current pulse. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs
Hakim, Rémi
1994-01-01
Il existe à l'heure actuelle un certain nombre de théories relativistes de la gravitation compatibles avec l'expérience et l'observation. Toutefois, la relativité générale d'Einstein fut historiquement la première à fournir des résultats théoriques corrects en accord précis avec les faits.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marks, R.
1985-09-01
Theoretical analysis is presented of a relativisic klystron; i.e. a high-relativistic bunched electron beam which is sent through a succession of tuned cavities and has its energy replenished by periodic induction accelerator units. Parameters are given for a full-size device and for an experimental device using the FEL at the ETA; namely the ELF Facility. 6 refs., 2 figs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buoninfante, L.; Lambiase, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E.R. Caianiello' ' Universita di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); INFN-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy)
2017-05-15
The gravitino problem is revisited in the framework of cosmological models in which the primordial cosmic matter is described by a relativistic imperfect fluid. Dissipative effects (or bulk viscosity effects) arise owing to the different cooling rates of the fluid components. We show that the effects of the bulk viscosity allow one to avoid the late abundance of gravitinos. In particular, for particular values of the parameters characterizing the cosmological model, the gravitino abundance turns out to be weakly depending on the reheating temperature. (orig.)
RANKINE-HUGONIOT RELATIONS IN RELATIVISTIC COMBUSTION WAVES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Yang; Law, Chung K.
2012-01-01
As a foundational element describing relativistic reacting waves of relevance to astrophysical phenomena, the Rankine-Hugoniot relations classifying the various propagation modes of detonation and deflagration are analyzed in the relativistic regime, with the results properly degenerating to the non-relativistic and highly relativistic limits. The existence of negative-pressure downstream flows is noted for relativistic shocks, which could be of interest in the understanding of the nature of dark energy. Entropy analysis for relativistic shock waves is also performed for relativistic fluids with different equations of state (EoS), denoting the existence of rarefaction shocks in fluids with adiabatic index Γ < 1 in their EoS. The analysis further shows that weak detonations and strong deflagrations, which are rare phenomena in terrestrial environments, are expected to exist more commonly in astrophysical systems because of the various endothermic reactions present therein. Additional topics of relevance to astrophysical phenomena are also discussed.
Scalar dissipation rate and dissipative anomaly in isotropic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donzis, D.A.; Sreenivasan, K.R.; Yeung, P.K.
2006-12-01
We examine available data from experiment and recent numerical simulations to explore the supposition that the scalar dissipation rate in turbulence becomes independent of the fluid viscosity when the viscosity is small and of scalar diffusivity when the diffusivity is small. The data are interpreted in the context of semi-empirical spectral theory of Obukhov and Corrsin when the Schmidt number, Sc, is below unity, and of Batchelor's theory when Sc is above unity. Practical limits in terms of the Taylor-microscale Reynolds number, R λ , as well as Sc, are deduced for scalar dissipation to become sensibly independent of molecular properties. In particular, we show that such an asymptotic state is reached if R λ Sc 1/2 >> 1 for Sc λ 1. (author)
Dissipative hidden sector dark matter
Foot, R.; Vagnozzi, S.
2015-01-01
A simple way of explaining dark matter without modifying known Standard Model physics is to require the existence of a hidden (dark) sector, which interacts with the visible one predominantly via gravity. We consider a hidden sector containing two stable particles charged under an unbroken U (1 )' gauge symmetry, hence featuring dissipative interactions. The massless gauge field associated with this symmetry, the dark photon, can interact via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. In fact, such an interaction of strength ε ˜10-9 appears to be necessary in order to explain galactic structure. We calculate the effect of this new physics on big bang nucleosynthesis and its contribution to the relativistic energy density at hydrogen recombination. We then examine the process of dark recombination, during which neutral dark states are formed, which is important for large-scale structure formation. Galactic structure is considered next, focusing on spiral and irregular galaxies. For these galaxies we modeled the dark matter halo (at the current epoch) as a dissipative plasma of dark matter particles, where the energy lost due to dissipation is compensated by the energy produced from ordinary supernovae (the core-collapse energy is transferred to the hidden sector via kinetic mixing induced processes in the supernova core). We find that such a dynamical halo model can reproduce several observed features of disk galaxies, including the cored density profile and the Tully-Fisher relation. We also discuss how elliptical and dwarf spheroidal galaxies could fit into this picture. Finally, these analyses are combined to set bounds on the parameter space of our model, which can serve as a guideline for future experimental searches.
Relativistic mean field model for entrainment in general relativistic superfluid neutron stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comer, G.L.; Joynt, R.
2003-01-01
General relativistic superfluid neutron stars have a significantly more intricate dynamics than their ordinary fluid counterparts. Superfluidity allows different superfluid (and superconducting) species of particles to have independent fluid flows, a consequence of which is that the fluid equations of motion contain as many fluid element velocities as superfluid species. Whenever the particles of one superfluid interact with those of another, the momentum of each superfluid will be a linear combination of both superfluid velocities. This leads to the so-called entrainment effect whereby the motion of one superfluid will induce a momentum in the other superfluid. We have constructed a fully relativistic model for entrainment between superfluid neutrons and superconducting protons using a relativistic σ-ω mean field model for the nucleons and their interactions. In this context there are two notions of 'relativistic': relativistic motion of the individual nucleons with respect to a local region of the star (i.e. a fluid element containing, say, an Avogadro's number of particles), and the motion of fluid elements with respect to the rest of the star. While it is the case that the fluid elements will typically maintain average speeds at a fraction of that of light, the supranuclear densities in the core of a neutron star can make the nucleons themselves have quite high average speeds within each fluid element. The formalism is applied to the problem of slowly rotating superfluid neutron star configurations, a distinguishing characteristic being that the neutrons can rotate at a rate different from that of the protons
Zhang, Bing; Li, Kunyang
2018-02-01
The “Breakthrough Starshot” aims at sending near-speed-of-light cameras to nearby stellar systems in the future. Due to the relativistic effects, a transrelativistic camera naturally serves as a spectrograph, a lens, and a wide-field camera. We demonstrate this through a simulation of the optical-band image of the nearby galaxy M51 in the rest frame of the transrelativistic camera. We suggest that observing celestial objects using a transrelativistic camera may allow one to study the astronomical objects in a special way, and to perform unique tests on the principles of special relativity. We outline several examples that suggest transrelativistic cameras may make important contributions to astrophysics and suggest that the Breakthrough Starshot cameras may be launched in any direction to serve as a unique astronomical observatory.
Dissipation effects in mechanics and thermodynamics
Güémez, J.; Fiolhais, M.
2016-07-01
With the discussion of three examples, we aim at clarifying the concept of energy transfer associated with dissipation in mechanics and in thermodynamics. The dissipation effects due to dissipative forces, such as the friction force between solids or the drag force in motions in fluids, lead to an internal energy increase of the system and/or to heat transfer to the surroundings. This heat flow is consistent with the second law, which states that the entropy of the universe should increase when those forces are present because of the irreversibility always associated with their actions. As far as mechanics is concerned, the effects of the dissipative forces are included in Newton’s equations as impulses and pseudo-works.
Lyutyy, T. V.; Reva, V. V.
2018-05-01
Ferrofluid heating by an external alternating field is studied based on the rigid dipole model, where the magnetization of each particle in a fluid is supposed to be firmly fixed in the crystal lattice. Equations of motion, employing Newton's second law for rotational motion, the condition of rigid body rotation, and the assumption that the friction torque is proportional to angular velocity are used. This oversimplification permits us to expand the model easily: to take into account the thermal noise and interparticle interaction that allows us to estimate from unified positions the role of thermal activation and dipole interaction in the heating process. Our studies are conducted in three stages. The exact expressions for the average power loss of a single particle are obtained within the dynamical approximation. Then, in the stochastic case, the power loss of a single particle is estimated analytically using the Fokker-Planck equation and numerically using the effective Langevin equation. Finally, the power loss for the particle ensemble is obtained using the molecular dynamics method. Here, the local dipole fields are calculated approximately based on the Barnes-Hut algorithm. The revealed trends in the behavior of both a single particle and the particle ensemble suggest the way of choosing the conditions for obtaining the maximum heating efficiency. The competitiveness character of the interparticle interaction and thermal noise is investigated in detail. Two situations, when the thermal noise rectifies the power loss reduction caused by the interaction, are described. The first of them is related to the complete destruction of dense clusters at high noise intensity. The second one originates from the rare switching of the particles in clusters due to thermal activation, when the noise intensity is relatively weak. In this way, the constructive role of noise appears in the system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. M. Salem
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical model is developed to study the effects of temperature-dependent viscosity on heat and mass transfer flow of magnetohydrodynamic(MHD micropolar fluids with medium molecular weight along a permeable stretching surface embedded in a non-Darcian porous medium in the presence of viscous dissipation and chemical reaction. The governing boundary equations for momentum, angular momentum (microrotation, and energy and mass transfer are transformed to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity solutions which are then solved numerically by shooting technique. A comparison between the analytical and the numerical solutions has been included. The effects of the various physical parameters entering into the problem on velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration profiles are presented graphically. Finally, the effects of pertinent parameters on local skin-friction coefficient, local Nusselt number and local Sherwood number are also presented graphically. One important observation is that for some kinds of mixtures (e.g., H2, air with light and medium molecular weight, the magnetic field and temperature-dependent viscosity effects play a significant role and should be taken into consideration as well.
Sudden viscous dissipation in compressing plasma turbulence
Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel
2015-11-01
Compression of a turbulent plasma or fluid can cause amplification of the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the turnover and viscous dissipation times of the turbulent eddies. The consideration of compressing turbulent flows in inviscid fluids has been motivated by the suggestion that amplification of turbulent kinetic energy occurred on experiments at the Weizmann Institute of Science Z-Pinch. We demonstrate a sudden viscous dissipation mechanism whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, which further increases the temperature, feeding back to further enhance the dissipation. Application of this mechanism in compression experiments may be advantageous, if the plasma can be kept comparatively cold during much of the compression, reducing radiation and conduction losses, until the plasma suddenly becomes hot. This work was supported by DOE through contract 67350-9960 (Prime # DOE DE-NA0001836) and by the DTRA.
Relativistic centrifugal instability
Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos N.; Komissarov, Serguei S.
2018-03-01
Near the central engine, many astrophysical jets are expected to rotate about their axis. Further out they are expected to go through the processes of reconfinement and recollimation. In both these cases, the flow streams along a concave surface and hence, it is subject to the centrifugal force. It is well known that such flows may experience the centrifugal instability (CFI), to which there are many laboratory examples. The recent computer simulations of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei undergoing the process of reconfinement show that in such jets CFI may dominate over the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with velocity shear (Gourgouliatos & Komissarov). In this letter, we generalize the Rayleigh criterion for CFI in rotating fluids to relativistic flows using a heuristic analysis. We also present the results of computer simulations which support our analytic criterion for the case of an interface separating two uniformly rotating cylindrical flows. We discuss the difference between CFI and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in flows with curved streamlines.
Polarization and Structure of Relativistic Parsec-Scale AGN Jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyutikov, M
2004-01-01
mildly relativistic jets, when a counter jet can be seen, the polarization of the counter jet is preferentially orthogonal to the axis, unless the jet is strongly dominated by the toroidal magnetic field in its rest frame. (6) For resolved jets, the polarization pattern is not symmetric with respect to jet axis. Under certain conditions, this can be used to deduce the direction of the spin of the central object (black hole or disk), whether it is aligned or anti-aligned with the jet axis. (7) In resolved ''cylindrical shell'' type jets, the central parts of the jet are polarized along the axis, while the outer parts are polarized orthogonal to it, in accordance with observations. We conclude that large-scale magnetic fields can explain the salient polarization properties of parsec-scale AGN jets. Since the typical degrees of polarization are (le) 15%, the emitting parts of the jets must have comparable rest-frame toroidal and poloidal fields. In this case, most relativistic jets are strongly dominated by the toroidal magnetic field component in the observer's frame, B φ /B z ∼ Λ. We also discuss the possibility that relativistic AGN jets may be electromagnetically (Poynting flux) dominated. In this case, dissipation of the toroidal magnetic field (and not fluid shocks) may be responsible for particle acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunihiro, Teiji; Minami, Yuki; Tsumura, Kyosuke
2009-01-01
The dynamical density fluctuations around the QCD critical point (CP) are analyzed using relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics, and we show that the sound mode around the QCD CP is strongly attenuated whereas the thermal fluctuation stands out there. We speculate that if possible suppression or disappearance of a Mach cone, which seems to be created by the partonic jets at RHIC, is observed as the incident energy of the heavy-ion collisions is decreased, it can be a signal of the existence of the QCD CP. We have presented the Israel-Stewart type fluid dynamic equations that are derived rigorously on the basis of the (dynamical) renormalization group method in the second part of the talk, which we omit here because of a lack of space.
Kunihiro, Teiji; Minami, Yuki; Tsumura, Kyosuke
2009-11-01
The dynamical density fluctuations around the QCD critical point (CP) are analyzed using relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics, and we show that the sound mode around the QCD CP is strongly attenuated whereas the thermal fluctuation stands out there. We speculate that if possible suppression or disappearance of a Mach cone, which seems to be created by the partonic jets at RHIC, is observed as the incident energy of the heavy-ion collisions is decreased, it can be a signal of the existence of the QCD CP. We have presented the Israel-Stewart type fluid dynamic equations that are derived rigorously on the basis of the (dynamical) renormalization group method in the second part of the talk, which we omit here because of a lack of space.
The relativistic virial theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucha, W.; Schoeberl, F.F.
1989-11-01
The relativistic generalization of the quantum-mechanical virial theorem is derived and used to clarify the connection between the nonrelativistic and (semi-)relativistic treatment of bound states. 12 refs. (Authors)
Malik, Praveen K; Dewan, Taru; Patidar, Arun Kr; Sain, Ekta
2017-01-01
To evaluate the effect of three different combinations of tip designs and infusion systems in torsional phacoemulsification (INFINITI and CENTURION) in patients with cataract. According to the manufacturer, two unique improvements in the Centurion are: active fluid dynamic management system and use of an intrepid balanced tip. The study specifically aimed to evaluate the beneficial effects, if any, of change in tip design and infusion system individually and in combination on both per-operative parameters as well as endothelial health over 6 months. One hundred and twenty six consenting patients of grade 4.0-6.9 senile cataract were randomized into three groups for phacoemulsification: Group A ( n = 42): Gravity fed infusion system and 45 0 Kelman miniflared ABS phaco tip; Group B ( n = 42): intraocular pressure (IOP) based infusion system and 45 0 Kelman miniflared ABS phaco tip; Group C ( n = 42): IOP based infusion system and 45 0 Intrepid balanced phaco tip. The cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), estimated fluid usage (EFU) and total aspiration time (TAT) were compared peroperatively. The endothelial parameters were followed up postoperatively for six months. The three arms were matched for age ( p = 0.525), gender ( p = 0.96) and grade of cataract ( p = 0.177). Group C was associated with significant reductions in CDE ( p = 0.001), EFU ( p < 0.0005) as well as TAT ( p = 0.001) in comparison to the other groups. All three groups had comparable baseline endothelial cell density ( p = 0.876) and central corneal thickness ( p = 0.561). On post-operative evaluation, although all groups were comparable till 3 months, by 6 months, the percentage losses in endothelial cell density were significantly lower in group C as compared to the other groups. Use of an IOP based phacoemulsification system in association with use of the Intrepid balanced tip reduces the CDE, EFU and TAT in comparison to a gravity fed system with a mini flared
Extension of relativistic dissipative hydrodynamics to third order
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El, Andrej; Xu Zhe; Greiner, Carsten
2010-01-01
Following the procedure introduced by Israel and Stewart, we expand the entropy current up to the third order in the shear stress tensor π αβ and derive a novel third-order evolution equation for π αβ . This equation is solved for the one-dimensional Bjorken boost-invariant expansion. The scaling solutions for various values of the shear viscosity to the entropy density ratio η/s are shown to be in very good agreement with those obtained from kinetic transport calculations. For the pressure isotropy starting with 1 at τ 0 =0.4 fm/c, the third-order corrections to Israel-Stewart theory are approximately 10% for η/s=0.2 and more than a factor of 2 for η/s=3. We also estimate all higher-order corrections to Israel-Stewart theory and demonstrate their importance in describing highly viscous matters.
Behaviour of charged collapsing fluids after hydrostatic equilibrium in R{sup n} gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kausar, Hafiza Rizwana [University of Central Punjab, Faculty of Management Studies, Centre for Applicable Mathematics and Statistics, UCP Business School, Lahore (Pakistan)
2017-06-15
The purpose of this paper is to study the transport equation and its coupling with the Maxwell equation in the framework of R{sup n} gravity. Using Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory for the conduction of dissipative fluids, we analyze the temperature, heat flux, viscosity and thermal conductivity in the scenario of relaxation time. All these thermodynamical variables appear in the form of a single factor whose influence is discussed on the evolution of relativistic model for the heat conducting collapsing star. (orig.)
Relativistic shocks and particle acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heavens, A.F.
1988-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the fluid dynamics of relativistic shock waves, and use the results to calculate the spectral index of particles accelerated by the Fermi process in such shocks. We have calculated the distributions of Fermi-accelerated particles at shocks propagating into cold proton-electron plasma and also cold electron-positron plasma. We have considered two different power spectra for the scattering waves, and find, in contrast to the non-relativistic case, that the spectral index of the accelerated particles depends on the wave power spectrum. On the assumption of thermal equilibrium both upstream and downstream, we present some useful fits for the compression ratio of shocks propagating at arbitrary speeds into gas of any temperature. (author)
Effect of viscous dissipation and radiation in an annular cone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, N. J. Salman; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Khan, T. M. Yunus; Azeem
2016-01-01
The viscous dissipation is an effect due to which heat is generated inside the medium. The presence of radiation further complicates the heat transfer behavior inside porous medium. The present paper discusses the combined effect of viscous dissipation and radiation inside a porous medium confined in an annular cone with inner radius r_i. The viscous dissipation and radiation terms are included in the energy equation thereby solving the coupled momentum and energy equations with the help of finite element method. The results are presented in terms of isothermal and streamline indicating the thermal and fluid flow behavior of porous medium. It is found that the combination of viscous dissipation and radiation parameter and the cone angle has significant effect on the heat transfer and fluid flow behavior inside the porous medium. The fluid velocity is found to increase with the increase in Raleigh number
Effect of viscous dissipation and radiation in an annular cone
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmed, N. J. Salman; Kamangar, Sarfaraz [Centre for Energy Sciences, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 Malaysia (Malaysia); Khan, T. M. Yunus, E-mail: yunus.tatagar@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Sciences, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 Malaysia (Malaysia); Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, BVB College of Engineering & Technology, Hubli (India); Azeem [Dept. of Computer System & Technology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)
2016-06-21
The viscous dissipation is an effect due to which heat is generated inside the medium. The presence of radiation further complicates the heat transfer behavior inside porous medium. The present paper discusses the combined effect of viscous dissipation and radiation inside a porous medium confined in an annular cone with inner radius r{sub i}. The viscous dissipation and radiation terms are included in the energy equation thereby solving the coupled momentum and energy equations with the help of finite element method. The results are presented in terms of isothermal and streamline indicating the thermal and fluid flow behavior of porous medium. It is found that the combination of viscous dissipation and radiation parameter and the cone angle has significant effect on the heat transfer and fluid flow behavior inside the porous medium. The fluid velocity is found to increase with the increase in Raleigh number.
Graphene heat dissipating structure
Washburn, Cody M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Wheeler, David R.; Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Railkar, Tarak A.
2017-08-01
Various technologies presented herein relate to forming one or more heat dissipating structures (e.g., heat spreaders and/or heat sinks) on a substrate, wherein the substrate forms part of an electronic component. The heat dissipating structures are formed from graphene, with advantage being taken of the high thermal conductivity of graphene. The graphene (e.g., in flake form) is attached to a diazonium molecule, and further, the diazonium molecule is utilized to attach the graphene to material forming the substrate. A surface of the substrate is treated to comprise oxide-containing regions and also oxide-free regions having underlying silicon exposed. The diazonium molecule attaches to the oxide-free regions, wherein the diazonium molecule bonds (e.g., covalently) to the exposed silicon. Attachment of the diazonium plus graphene molecule is optionally repeated to enable formation of a heat dissipating structure of a required height.
Weiss, Ulrich
2008-01-01
Major advances in the quantum theory of macroscopic systems, in combination with stunning experimental achievements, have brightened the field and brought it to the attention of the general community in natural sciences. Today, working knowledge of dissipative quantum mechanics is an essential tool for many physicists. This book - originally published in 1990 and republished in 1999 as an enlarged second edition - delves much deeper than ever before into the fundamental concepts, methods, and applications of quantum dissipative systems, including the most recent developments. In this third edi
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernousenko, V.M.; Kuklin, V.M.; Panachenko, I.P.; Vorob'yov, V.M.
1990-01-01
This paper reports on a wide spectrum of oscillations that is excited due to the evolution instabilities, being in a weak above-threshold state, in the inequilibrium media with decaying spectrum. In this case the pumping, whose part is played by an intensive wave or occupation inversion in the active medium, synchronized the phases of excited modes and, thus, forms the space dissipative structure of the field. In dissipative nonlinear media with nondecaying spectrum the space structures, formed due to the development of instability, experience small-scale hexagonal modulation
Is a dissipative regime during inflation in agreement with observations?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cerioni, Alessandro; Finelli, Fabio; Gruppuso, Alessandro
2008-01-01
We study the spectral index of curvature perturbations for inflationary models where the driving scalar field is coupled to a relativistic fluid through a friction term Γ. In the regime in which Γ can be at most as large as H, the Hubble parameter during inflation, we find that only Γ s unacceptably red. These results are obtained starting from vacuum initial conditions and are generic with respect to the inflationary potential and known dependence of the friction term on the scalar field and the energy density of the relativistic fluid. We compare our findings with previous investigations.
Relativistic Linear Restoring Force
Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.
2012-01-01
We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…
Collective variables and dissipation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balian, R.
1984-09-01
This is an introduction to some basic concepts of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. We emphasize in particular the relevant entropy relative to a given set of collective variables, the meaning of the projection method in the Liouville space, its use to establish the generalized transport equations for these variables, and the interpretation of dissipation in the framework of information theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstaedt, P.
1983-01-01
on the basis of the well-known quantum logic and quantum probability a formal language of relativistic quantum physics is developed. This language incorporates quantum logical as well as relativistic restrictions. It is shown that relativity imposes serious restrictions on the validity regions of propositions in space-time. By an additional postulate this relativistic quantum logic can be made consistent. The results of this paper are derived exclusively within the formal quantum language; they are, however, in accordance with well-known facts of relativistic quantum physics in Hilbert space. (author)
General Relativistic Radiant Shock Waves in the Post-Quasistatic Approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
H, Jorge A Rueda [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101, Venezuela Escuela de Fisica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Nunez, L A [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida 5101, Venezuela Centro Nacional de Calculo Cientifico, Universidad de Los Andes, CeCalCULA, Corporacion Parque Tecnologico de Merida, Merida 5101, Venezuela (Venezuela)
2007-05-15
An evolution of radiant shock wave front is considered in the framework of a recently presented method to study self-gravitating relativistic spheres, whose rationale becomes intelligible and finds full justification within the context of a suitable definition of the post-quasistatic approximation. The spherical matter configuration is divided into two regions by the shock and each side of the interface having a different equation of state and anisotropic phase. In order to simulate dissipation effects due to the transfer of photons and/or neutrinos within the matter configuration, we introduce the flux factor, the variable Eddington factor and a closure relation between them. As we expected the strong of the shock increases the speed of the fluid to relativistic ones and for some critical values is larger than light speed. In addition, we find that energy conditions are very sensible to the anisotropy, specially the strong energy condition. As a special feature of the model, we find that the contribution of the matter and radiation to the radial pressure are the same order of magnitude as in the mant as in the core, moreover, in the core radiation pressure is larger than matter pressure.
General Relativistic Radiant Shock Waves in the Post-Quasistatic Approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
H, Jorge A Rueda; Nunez, L A
2007-01-01
An evolution of radiant shock wave front is considered in the framework of a recently presented method to study self-gravitating relativistic spheres, whose rationale becomes intelligible and finds full justification within the context of a suitable definition of the post-quasistatic approximation. The spherical matter configuration is divided into two regions by the shock and each side of the interface having a different equation of state and anisotropic phase. In order to simulate dissipation effects due to the transfer of photons and/or neutrinos within the matter configuration, we introduce the flux factor, the variable Eddington factor and a closure relation between them. As we expected the strong of the shock increases the speed of the fluid to relativistic ones and for some critical values is larger than light speed. In addition, we find that energy conditions are very sensible to the anisotropy, specially the strong energy condition. As a special feature of the model, we find that the contribution of the matter and radiation to the radial pressure are the same order of magnitude as in the mant as in the core, moreover, in the core radiation pressure is larger than matter pressure
Architected squirt-flow materials for energy dissipation
Cohen, Tal; Kurzeja, Patrick; Bertoldi, Katia
2017-12-01
In the present study we explore material architectures that lead to enhanced dissipation properties by taking advantage of squirt-flow - a local flow mechanism triggered by heterogeneities at the pore level. While squirt-flow is a known dominant source of dissipation and seismic attenuation in fluid saturated geological materials, we study its untapped potential to be incorporated in highly deformable elastic materials with embedded fluid-filled cavities for future engineering applications. An analytical investigation, that isolates the squirt-flow mechanism from other potential dissipation mechanisms and considers an idealized setting, predicts high theoretical levels of dissipation achievable by squirt-flow and establishes a set of guidelines for optimal dissipation design. Particular architectures are then investigated via numerical simulations showing that a careful design of the internal voids can lead to an increase of dissipation levels by an order of magnitude, compared with equivalent homogeneous void distributions. Therefore, we suggest squirt-flow as a promising mechanism to be incorporated in future architected materials to effectively and reversibly dissipate energy.
Relativistic modeling capabilities in PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for HED plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamlin, Nathaniel D., E-mail: nh322@cornell.edu [438 Rhodes Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States); Seyler, Charles E., E-mail: ces7@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 14853 (United States)
2014-12-15
We discuss the incorporation of relativistic modeling capabilities into the PERSEUS extended MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas, and present the latest hybrid X-pinch simulation results. The use of fully relativistic equations enables the model to remain self-consistent in simulations of such relativistic phenomena as X-pinches and laser-plasma interactions. By suitable formulation of the relativistic generalized Ohm’s law as an evolution equation, we have reduced the recovery of primitive variables, a major technical challenge in relativistic codes, to a straightforward algebraic computation. Our code recovers expected results in the non-relativistic limit, and reveals new physics in the modeling of electron beam acceleration following an X-pinch. Through the use of a relaxation scheme, relativistic PERSEUS is able to handle nine orders of magnitude in density variation, making it the first fluid code, to our knowledge, that can simulate relativistic HED plasmas.
Relativistic quantum mechanics; Mecanique quantique relativiste
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ollitrault, J.Y. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)
1998-12-01
These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.) 2 refs.
Towards relativistic quantum geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ridao, Luis Santiago [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2015-12-17
We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner–Nordström black-hole is studied.
Norbury, John W.
1992-01-01
Nuclear fission reactions induced by the electromagnetic field of relativistic nuclei are studied for energies relevant to present and future relativistic heavy ion accelerators. Cross sections are calculated for U-238 and Pu-239 fission induced by C-12, Si-28, Au-197, and U-238 projectiles. It is found that some of the cross sections can exceed 10 b.
Relativistic Shock Acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duffy, P.; Downes, T.P.; Gallant, Y.A.; Kirk, J.G.
1999-01-01
In this paper we briefly review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising some astrophysically interesting cases. We then present an overview of the theory of particle acceleration at such shocks describing the methods used to calculate the spectral indices of energetic particles. Recent results on acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks are discussed. (author)
Viscosity measurement techniques in Dissipative Particle Dynamics
Boromand, Arman; Jamali, Safa; Maia, Joao M.
2015-11-01
In this study two main groups of viscosity measurement techniques are used to measure the viscosity of a simple fluid using Dissipative Particle Dynamics, DPD. In the first method, a microscopic definition of the pressure tensor is used in equilibrium and out of equilibrium to measure the zero-shear viscosity and shear viscosity, respectively. In the second method, a periodic Poiseuille flow and start-up transient shear flow is used and the shear viscosity is obtained from the velocity profiles by a numerical fitting procedure. Using the standard Lees-Edward boundary condition for DPD will result in incorrect velocity profiles at high values of the dissipative parameter. Although this issue was partially addressed in Chatterjee (2007), in this work we present further modifications (Lagrangian approach) to the original LE boundary condition (Eulerian approach) that will fix the deviation from the desired shear rate at high values of the dissipative parameter and decrease the noise to signal ratios in stress measurement while increases the accessible low shear rate window. Also, the thermostat effect of the dissipative and random forces is coupled to the dynamic response of the system and affects the transport properties like the viscosity and diffusion coefficient. We investigated thoroughly the dependency of viscosity measured by both Eulerian and Lagrangian methodologies, as well as numerical fitting procedures and found that all the methods are in quantitative agreement.
Relativistic simulation of the Vlasov equation for plasma expansion into vacuum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H Abbasi
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, relativistic Vlasov simulation of plasma for expansion of collisionless plasma for into vacuum is presented. The model is based on 1+1 dimensional phase space and electrostatic approximation. For this purpose, the electron dynamics is studied by the relativistic Vlasov equation. Regardless of the ions temperature, fluid equations are used for their dynamics. The initial electrons distribution function is the relativistic Maxwellian. The results show that due to the electrons relativistic temperature, the process of the plasma expansion takes place faster, the resulting electric field is stronger and the ions are accelerated to higher velocities, in comparison to the non-relativistic case.
Theoretical Consolidation of Acoustic Dissipation
Casiano, M. J.; Zoladz, T. F.
2012-01-01
In many engineering problems, the effects of dissipation can be extremely important. Dissipation can be represented by several parameters depending on the context and the models that are used. Some examples of dissipation-related parameters are damping ratio, viscosity, resistance, absorption coefficients, pressure drop, or damping rate. This Technical Memorandum (TM) describes the theoretical consolidation of the classic absorption coefficients with several other dissipation parameters including linearized resistance. The primary goal of this TM is to theoretically consolidate the linearized resistance with the absorption coefficient. As a secondary goal, other dissipation relationships are presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Funaki, T.; Hayashi, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering
1996-12-31
It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. In order to analyze the compound vibration therein, a method was proposed, which estimates vibration levels without using the finite element method. However, the problem of mode decay ratio has not been solved. Therefore, this paper first describes a method to introduce an equivalent linear decay matrix. The paper then mentions difference in the decay effects due to fluid viscosity in a shallow and deep water regions. Furthermore, vibration levels in the deep water region were estimated in a model experiment to verify the estimation result. Under a hypothesis that two-node vibration in a rotating ellipse has displacement distributions in the deep and shallow water regions equivalent, and when a case of vibration in a layer flow condition is calculated, dissipation energy in the shallow region is larger than that in the deep region by about 26%. About 5% of the total dissipation energy is consumed at bottom of the sea. According to a frequency response calculation, estimated values for the response levels still differ from experimental values, although the trend that the vibration levels change can be reproduced. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Funaki, T; Hayashi, S [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of engineering
1997-12-31
It is known in estimating vibration characteristics of a ship that fluid range affects largely a structure. In order to analyze the compound vibration therein, a method was proposed, which estimates vibration levels without using the finite element method. However, the problem of mode decay ratio has not been solved. Therefore, this paper first describes a method to introduce an equivalent linear decay matrix. The paper then mentions difference in the decay effects due to fluid viscosity in a shallow and deep water regions. Furthermore, vibration levels in the deep water region were estimated in a model experiment to verify the estimation result. Under a hypothesis that two-node vibration in a rotating ellipse has displacement distributions in the deep and shallow water regions equivalent, and when a case of vibration in a layer flow condition is calculated, dissipation energy in the shallow region is larger than that in the deep region by about 26%. About 5% of the total dissipation energy is consumed at bottom of the sea. According to a frequency response calculation, estimated values for the response levels still differ from experimental values, although the trend that the vibration levels change can be reproduced. 6 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.
Patterns and Interfaces in Dissipative Dynamics
Pismen, L.M
2006-01-01
Spontaneous pattern formation in nonlinear dissipative systems far from equilibrium is a paradigmatic case of emergent behaviour associated with complex systems. It is encountered in a great variety of settings, both in nature and technology, and has numerous applications ranging from nonlinear optics through solid and fluid mechanics, physical chemistry and chemical engineering to biology. Nature creates its variety of forms through spontaneous pattern formation and self-assembly, and this strategy is likely to be imitated by future biomorphic technologies. This book is a first-hand account by one of the leading players in this field, which gives in-depth descriptions of analytical methods elucidating the complex evolution of nonlinear dissipative systems, and brings the reader to the forefront of current research. The introductory chapter on the theory of dynamical systems is written with a view to applications of its powerful methods to spatial and spatio-temporal patterns. It is followed by two chapters t...
Statistical and dynamical properties of a dissipative kicked rotator
Oliveira, Diego F. M.; Leonel, Edson D.
2014-11-01
Some dynamical and statistical properties for a conservative as well as the dissipative problem of relativistic particles in a waveguide are considered. For the first time, two different types of dissipation namely: (i) due to viscosity and; (ii) due to inelastic collision (upon the kick) are considered individually and acting together. For the first case, and contrary to what is expected for the original Zaslavsky’s relativistic model, we show there is a critical parameter where a transition from local to global chaos occurs. On the other hand, after considering the introduction of dissipation also on the kick, the structure of the phase space changes in the sense that chaotic and periodic attractors appear. We study also the chaotic sea by using scaling arguments and we proposed an analytical argument to reinforce the validity of the scaling exponents obtained numerically. In principle such an approach can be extended to any two-dimensional map. Finally, based on the Lyapunov exponent, we show that the parameter space exhibits infinite families of self-similar shrimp-shape structures, corresponding to periodic attractors, embedded in a large region corresponding to chaotic attractors.
Calculation of relativistic model stars using Regge calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Porter, J.
1987-01-01
A new approach to the Regge calculus, developed in a previous paper, is used in conjunction with the velocity potential version of relativistic fluid dynamics due to Schutz [1970, Phys. Rev., D, 2, 2762] to calculate relativistic model stars. The results are compared with those obtained when the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations are solved by other numerical methods. The agreement is found to be excellent. (author)
Vereshchagin, Gregory V.; Aksenov, Alexey G.
2017-02-01
Preface; Acknowledgements; Acronyms and definitions; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Foundations: 1. Basic concepts; 2. Kinetic equation; 3. Averaging; 4. Conservation laws and equilibrium; 5. Relativistic BBGKY hierarchy; 6. Basic parameters in gases and plasmas; Part II. Numerical Methods: 7. The basics of computational physics; 8. Direct integration of Boltzmann equations; 9. Multidimensional hydrodynamics; Part III. Applications: 10. Wave dispersion in relativistic plasma; 11. Thermalization in relativistic plasma; 12. Kinetics of particles in strong fields; 13. Compton scattering in astrophysics and cosmology; 14. Self-gravitating systems; 15. Neutrinos, gravitational collapse and supernovae; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.
Rayleigh-Brillouin spectrum in special relativistic hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Perciante, A. L.; Garcia-Colin, L. S.; Sandoval-Villalbazo, A.
2009-01-01
In this paper we calculate the Rayleigh-Brillouin spectrum for a relativistic simple fluid according to three different versions available for a relativistic approach to nonequilibrium thermodynamics. An outcome of these calculations is that Eckart's version predicts that such spectrum does not exist. This provides an argument to question its validity. The remaining two results, which differ one from another, do provide a finite form for such spectrum. This raises the rather intriguing question as to which of the two theories is a better candidate to be taken as a possible version of relativistic nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The answer will clearly require deeper examination of this problem.
Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic bubble walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonardo Leitao
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In cosmological first-order phase transitions, gravitational waves are generated by the collisions of bubble walls and by the bulk motions caused in the fluid. A sizeable signal may result from fast-moving walls. In this work we study the hydrodynamics associated to the fastest propagation modes, namely, ultra-relativistic detonations and runaway solutions. We compute the energy injected by the phase transition into the fluid and the energy which accumulates in the bubble walls. We provide analytic approximations and fits as functions of the net force acting on the wall, which can be readily evaluated for specific models. We also study the back-reaction of hydrodynamics on the wall motion, and we discuss the extrapolation of the friction force away from the ultra-relativistic limit. We use these results to estimate the gravitational wave signal from detonations and runaway walls.
Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic bubble walls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leitao, Leonardo, E-mail: lleitao@mdp.edu.ar; Mégevand, Ariel, E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar
2016-04-15
In cosmological first-order phase transitions, gravitational waves are generated by the collisions of bubble walls and by the bulk motions caused in the fluid. A sizeable signal may result from fast-moving walls. In this work we study the hydrodynamics associated to the fastest propagation modes, namely, ultra-relativistic detonations and runaway solutions. We compute the energy injected by the phase transition into the fluid and the energy which accumulates in the bubble walls. We provide analytic approximations and fits as functions of the net force acting on the wall, which can be readily evaluated for specific models. We also study the back-reaction of hydrodynamics on the wall motion, and we discuss the extrapolation of the friction force away from the ultra-relativistic limit. We use these results to estimate the gravitational wave signal from detonations and runaway walls.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto
2008-01-01
A few classes of algorithms to implement division in hardware have been used over the years: division by digit-recurrence, by reciprocal approximation by iterative methods and by polynomial approximation. Due to the differences in the algorithms, a comparison among their implementation in terms o...... of performance and precision is sometimes hard to make. In this work, we use power dissipation and energy consumption as metrics to compare among those different classes of algorithms. There are no previous works in the literature presenting such a comparison....
Production of high energy neutrinos in relativistic supernova shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weaver, T.A.
1979-01-01
The possibility of producing high-energy neutrinos (> approx. 10 GeV) in relativistic supernova shock waves is considered. It is shown that, even if the dissipation in such shocks is due to hard hadron--hadron collisions, the resulting flux of neutrinos is too small to be observed by currently envisioned detectors. The associated burst of hard γ-rays, however, may be detectable. 3 tables
Nucleation of relativistic first-order phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Csernai, L.P.; Kapusta, J.I.
1992-01-01
The authors apply the general formalism of Langer to compute the nucleation rate for systems of relativistic particles with zero or small baryon number density and which undergo first-order phase transitions. In particular, the pre-exponential factor is computed and it is proportional to the viscosity. The initial growth rate of a critical size bubble or droplet is limited by the ability of dissipative processes to transport latent heat away from the surface. 30 refs., 4 figs
Plasma relativistic microwave electronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzelev, M.V.; Loza, O.T.; Rukhadze, A.A.; Strelkov, P.S.; Shkvarunets, A.G.
2001-01-01
One formulated the principles of plasma relativistic microwave electronics based on the induced Cherenkov radiation of electromagnetic waves at interaction of a relativistic electron beam with plasma. One developed the theory of plasma relativistic generators and accelerators of microwave radiation, designed and studied the prototypes of such devices. One studied theoretically the mechanisms of radiation, calculated the efficiencies and the frequency spectra of plasma relativistic microwave generators and accelerators. The theory findings are proved by the experiment: intensity of the designed sources of microwave radiation is equal to 500 μW, the frequency of microwave radiation is increased by 7 times (from 4 up to 28 GHz), the width of radiation frequency band may vary from several up to 100%. The designed sources of microwave radiation are no else compared in the electronics [ru
Explicit dissipative structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roessler, O.E.
1987-01-01
Dissipative structures consisting of a few macrovariables arise out of a sea of reversible microvariables. Unexpected residual effects of the massive underlying reversibility, on the macrolevel, cannot therefore be excluded. In the age of molecular-dynamics simulations, explicit dissipative structures like excitable systems (explicit observers) can be generated in a computer from first reversible principles. A class of classical, 1-D Hamiltonian systems of chaotic type is considered which has the asset that the trajectorial behavior in phase space can be understood geometrically. If, as nuatural, the number of particle types is much smaller than that of particles, the Gibbs symmetry must be taken into account. The permutation invariance drastically changes the behavior in phase space (quasi-periodization). The explicity observer becomes effectively reversible on a short time scale. In consequence, his ability to measure microscopic motions is suspended in a characteristic fashion. Unlike quantum mechanics whose holistic nature cannot be transcended, the present holistic (internal-interface) effects - mimicking the former to some extent - can be understood fully in principle
2002-01-01
The moon's gravity imparts tremendous energy to the Earth, raising tides throughout the global oceans. What happens to all this energy? This question has been pondered by scientists for over 200 years, and has consequences ranging from the history of the moon to the mixing of the oceans. Richard Ray at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. and Gary Egbert of the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Ore. studied six years of altimeter data from the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite to address this question. According to their report in the June 15 issue of Nature, about 1 terawatt, or 25 to 30 percent of the total tidal energy dissipation, occurs in the deep ocean. The remainder occurs in shallow seas, such as on the Patagonian Shelf. 'By measuring sea level with the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimeter, our knowledge of the tides in the global ocean has been remarkably improved,' said Richard Ray, a geophysicist at Goddard. The accuracies are now so high that this data can be used to map empirically the tidal energy dissipation. (Red areas, above) The deep-water tidal dissipation occurs generally near rugged bottom topography (seamounts and mid-ocean ridges). 'The observed pattern of deep-ocean dissipation is consistent with topographic scattering of tidal energy into internal motions within the water column, resulting in localized turbulence and mixing', said Gary Egbert an associate professor at OSU. One important implication of this finding concerns the possible energy sources needed to maintain the ocean's large-scale 'conveyor-belt' circulation and to mix upper ocean heat into the abyssal depths. It is thought that 2 terawatts are required for this process. The winds supply about 1 terawatt, and there has been speculation that the tides, by pumping energy into vertical water motions, supply the remainder. However, all current general circulation models of the oceans ignore the tides. 'It is possible that properly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antippa, Adel F [Departement de Physique, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec G9A 5H7 (Canada)
2009-05-15
We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful method that can be applied to a wide range of special relativistic problems of linear acceleration.
Exact Relativistic `Antigravity' Propulsion
Felber, Franklin S.
2006-01-01
The Schwarzschild solution is used to find the exact relativistic motion of a payload in the gravitational field of a mass moving with constant velocity. At radial approach or recession speeds faster than 3-1/2 times the speed of light, even a small mass gravitationally repels a payload. At relativistic speeds, a suitable mass can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest nearly to the speed of light with negligible stresses on the payload.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strange, P.
2010-01-01
Quantum revivals are now a well-known phenomena within nonrelativistic quantum theory. In this Letter we display the effects of relativity on revivals and quantum carpets. It is generally believed that revivals do not occur within a relativistic regime. Here we show that while this is generally true, it is possible, in principle, to set up wave packets with specific mathematical properties that do exhibit exact revivals within a fully relativistic theory.
Reversible dissipative processes, conformal motions and Landau damping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrera, L.; Di Prisco, A.; Ibáñez, J.
2012-01-01
The existence of a dissipative flux vector is known to be compatible with reversible processes, provided a timelike conformal Killing vector (CKV) χ α =(V α )/T (where V α and T denote the four-velocity and temperature respectively) is admitted by the spacetime. Here we show that if a constitutive transport equation, either within the context of standard irreversible thermodynamics or the causal Israel–Stewart theory, is adopted, then such a compatibility also requires vanishing dissipative fluxes. Therefore, in this later case the vanishing of entropy production generated by the existence of such CKV is not actually associated to an imperfect fluid, but to a non-dissipative one. We discuss also about Landau damping. -- Highlights: ► We review the problem of compatibility of dissipation with reversibility. ► We show that the additional assumption of a transport equation renders such a compatibility trivial. ► We discuss about Landau damping.
Alfven wave absorption in dissipative plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavrikov, M B; Taiurskii, A A
2017-01-01
We consider nonlinear absorption of Alfven waves due to dissipative effects in plasma and relaxation of temperatures of electrons and ions. This study is based on an exact solution of the equations of two-fluid electromagnetic hydrodynamics (EMHD) of plasma. It is shown that in order to study the decay of Alfven waves, it suffices to examine the behavior of their amplitudes whose evolution is described by a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) obtained in this paper. On finite time intervals, the system of equations on the amplitudes is studied numerically, while asymptotic integration (the Hartman-Grobman theorem) is used to examine its large-time behavior. (paper)
Conservation laws shape dissipation
Rao, Riccardo; Esposito, Massimiliano
2018-02-01
Starting from the most general formulation of stochastic thermodynamics—i.e. a thermodynamically consistent nonautonomous stochastic dynamics describing systems in contact with several reservoirs—we define a procedure to identify the conservative and the minimal set of nonconservative contributions in the entropy production. The former is expressed as the difference between changes caused by time-dependent drivings and a generalized potential difference. The latter is a sum over the minimal set of flux-force contributions controlling the dissipative flows across the system. When the system is initially prepared at equilibrium (e.g. by turning off drivings and forces), a finite-time detailed fluctuation theorem holds for the different contributions. Our approach relies on identifying the complete set of conserved quantities and can be viewed as the extension of the theory of generalized Gibbs ensembles to nonequilibrium situations.
Relativistic quantum vorticity of the quadratic form of the Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asenjo, Felipe A; Mahajan, Swadesh M
2015-01-01
We explore the fluid version of the quadratic form of the Dirac equation, sometimes called the Feynman–Gell-Mann equation. The dynamics of the quantum spinor field is represented by equations of motion for the fluid density, the velocity field, and the spin field. In analogy with classical relativistic and non-relativistic quantum theories, the fully relativistic fluid formulation of this equation allows a vortex dynamics. The vortical form is described by a total tensor field that is the weighted combination of the inertial, electromagnetic and quantum forces. The dynamics contrives the quadratic form of the Dirac equation as a total vorticity free system. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aboufirassi, M; Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lefebvres, F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Metivier, V.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Wieloch, A.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.
1998-01-01
The binary character of the heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies in the exit channel has been observed under 30 MeV/n in medium and heavy systems. Measurements in light systems at energies approaching ∼ 100 MeV/nucleon as well as in very heavy systems have allowed to extend considerably the investigations of this binary process. Thus, the study of the Pb + Au system showed that the complete charge events indicated two distinct sources: the quasi-projectile and the quasi-target. The characteristics of these two sources are rather well reproduced by a trajectory computation which takes into account the Coulomb and nuclear forces and the friction appearing from the projectile-target interaction. The Wilczynski diagram is used to probe the correlation between the kinetic energy quenching and the deflecting angle. In case of the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon the diagram indicate dissipative binary collisions typical for low energies. This binary aspect was also detected in the systems Xe + Ag at 44 MeV/nucleon, 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti. Thus, it was possible to reconstruct the quasi-projectile and to study its mass and excitation energy evolution as a function of the impact parameter. The dissipative binary collisions represent for the systems and energies under considerations the main contribution to the cross section. This does not implies that there are not other processes; particularly, the more or less complete fusion is also observed but with a low cross section which decreases with the increase of bombardment energy. More exclusive measurements with the INDRA detector on quasi-symmetric systems as Ar + KCl and Xe + Sn seem to confirm the importance of the binary collisions. The two source reconstruction of the Xe + Sn data at 50 MeV/nucleon reproduces the same behaviour as that observed in the system Pb + Au at 29 MeV/nucleon
Heterogeneous dissipative composite structures
Ryabov, Victor; Yartsev, Boris; Parshina, Ludmila
2018-05-01
The paper suggests mathematical models of decaying vibrations in layered anisotropic plates and orthotropic rods based on Hamilton variation principle, first-order shear deformation laminated plate theory (FSDT), as well as on the viscous-elastic correspondence principle of the linear viscoelasticity theory. In the description of the physical relationships between the materials of the layers forming stiff polymeric composites, the effect of vibration frequency and ambient temperature is assumed as negligible, whereas for the viscous-elastic polymer layer, temperature-frequency relationship of elastic dissipation and stiffness properties is considered by means of the experimentally determined generalized curves. Mitigation of Hamilton functional makes it possible to describe decaying vibration of anisotropic structures by an algebraic problem of complex eigenvalues. The system of algebraic equation is generated through Ritz method using Legendre polynomials as coordinate functions. First, real solutions are found. To find complex natural frequencies of the system, the obtained real natural frequencies are taken as input values, and then, by means of the 3rd order iteration method, complex natural frequencies are calculated. The paper provides convergence estimates for the numerical procedures. Reliability of the obtained results is confirmed by a good correlation between analytical and experimental values of natural frequencies and loss factors in the lower vibration tones for the two series of unsupported orthotropic rods formed by stiff GRP and CRP layers and a viscoelastic polymer layer. Analysis of the numerical test data has shown the dissipation & stiffness properties of heterogeneous composite plates and rods to considerably depend on relative thickness of the viscoelastic polymer layer, orientation of stiff composite layers, vibration frequency and ambient temperature.
Particle acceleration in relativistic magnetic flux-merging events
Lyutikov, Maxim; Sironi, Lorenzo; Komissarov, Serguei S.; Porth, Oliver
2017-12-01
Using analytical and numerical methods (fluid and particle-in-cell simulations) we study a number of model problems involving merger of magnetic flux tubes in relativistic magnetically dominated plasma. Mergers of current-carrying flux tubes (exemplified by the two-dimensional `ABC' structures) and zero-total-current magnetic flux tubes are considered. In all cases regimes of spontaneous and driven evolution are investigated. We identify two stages of particle acceleration during flux mergers: (i) fast explosive prompt X-point collapse and (ii) ensuing island merger. The fastest acceleration occurs during the initial catastrophic X-point collapse, with the reconnection electric field of the order of the magnetic field. During the X-point collapse, particles are accelerated by charge-starved electric fields, which can reach (and even exceed) values of the local magnetic field. The explosive stage of reconnection produces non-thermal power-law tails with slopes that depend on the average magnetization . For plasma magnetization 2$ the spectrum power-law index is 2$ ; in this case the maximal energy depends linearly on the size of the reconnecting islands. For higher magnetization, 2$ , the spectra are hard, , yet the maximal energy \\text{max}$ can still exceed the average magnetic energy per particle, , by orders of magnitude (if is not too close to unity). The X-point collapse stage is followed by magnetic island merger that dissipates a large fraction of the initial magnetic energy in a regime of forced magnetic reconnection, further accelerating the particles, but proceeds at a slower reconnection rate.
de Beer, Sissi; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mugele, Friedrich
2010-01-01
We determine conservative and dissipative tip–sample interaction forces from the amplitude and phase response of acoustically driven atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers using a non-polar model fluid (octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, which displays strong molecular layering) and atomically flat
Relativistic and non-relativistic studies of nuclear matter
Banerjee, MK; Tjon, JA
2002-01-01
We point out that the differences between the results of the non-relativistic lowest order Brueckner theory (LOBT) and the relativistic Dirac-Brueckner analysis predominantly arise from two sources. Besides effects from a nucleon mass modification M* in nuclear medium we have in a relativistic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsas, George E. A.
2003-01-01
We investigate and solve in the context of general relativity the apparent paradox which appears when bodies floating in a background fluid are set in relativistic motion. Suppose some macroscopic body, say, a submarine designed to lie just in equilibrium when it rests (totally) immersed in a certain background fluid. The puzzle arises when different observers are asked to describe what is expected to happen when the submarine is given some high velocity parallel to the direction of the fluid surface. On the one hand, according to observers at rest with the fluid, the submarine would contract and, thus, sink as a consequence of the density increase. On the other hand, mariners at rest with the submarine using an analogous reasoning for the fluid elements would reach the opposite conclusion. The general relativistic extension of the Archimedes law for moving bodies shows that the submarine sinks. As an extra bonus, this problem suggests a new gedankenexperiment for the generalized second law of thermodynamics
Relativistic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ollitrault, J.Y.
1998-12-01
These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.)
Relativistic solitons and pulsars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karpman, V I [Inst. of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio-Wave Propagation, Moscow; Norman, C A; ter Haar, D; Tsytovich, V N
1975-05-01
A production mechanism for stable electron bunches or sheets of localized electric fields is investigated which may account for pulsar radio emission. Possible soliton phenomena in a one-dimensional relativistic plasma are analyzed, and it is suggested that the motion of a relativistic soliton, or ''relaton'', along a curved magnetic-field line may produce radio emission with the correct polarization properties. A general MHD solution is obtained for relatons, the radiation produced by a relativistic particle colliding with a soliton is evaluated, and the emission by a soliton moving along a curved field line is estimated. It is noted that due to a number of severe physical restrictions, curvature radiation is not a very likely solution to the problem of pulsar radio emission. (IAA)
Relativistic quantum mechanics
Horwitz, Lawrence P
2015-01-01
This book describes a relativistic quantum theory developed by the author starting from the E.C.G. Stueckelberg approach proposed in the early 40s. In this framework a universal invariant evolution parameter (corresponding to the time originally postulated by Newton) is introduced to describe dynamical evolution. This theory is able to provide solutions for some of the fundamental problems encountered in early attempts to construct a relativistic quantum theory. A relativistically covariant construction is given for which particle spins and angular momenta can be combined through the usual rotation group Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. Solutions are defined for both the classical and quantum two body bound state and scattering problems. The recently developed quantum Lax-Phillips theory of semigroup evolution of resonant states is described. The experiment of Lindner and coworkers on interference in time is discussed showing how the property of coherence in time provides a simple understanding of the results. Th...
Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Wenjian
2017-01-01
This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.
Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Wenjian (ed.) [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Center for Computational Science and Engineering
2017-03-01
This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.
Pion production in relativistic collisions of nuclear drops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alonso, C.T.; Wilson, J.R.; McAbee, T.L.; Zingman, J.A.
1988-09-01
In a continuation of the long-standing effort of the nuclear physics community to model atomic nuclei as droplets of a specialized nuclear fluid, we have developed a hydrodynamic model for simulating the collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic speeds. Our model couples ideal relativistic hydrodynamics with a new Monte Carlo treatment of dynamic pion production and tracking. The collective flow for low-energy (200 MeV/N) collisions predicted by this model compares favorably with results from earlier hydrodynamic calculations which used quite different numerical techniques. Our pion predictions at these lower energies appear to differ, however, from the experimental data on pion multiplicities. In this case of ultra-relativistic (200 GeV/N) collisions, our hydrodynamic model has produced baryonic matter distributions which are in reasonable agreement with recent experimental data. These results may shed some light on the sensitivity of relativistic collision data to the nuclear equation of state. 20 refs., 12 figs
Biquaternions and relativistic kinematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogush, A.A.; Kurochkin, Yu.A.; Fedorov, F.I.
1979-01-01
The problems concerning the use of quaternion interpretation of the Lorentz group vector parametrization are considered for solving relativistic kinematics problems. A vector theory convenient for describing the characteristic features of the Lobachevsky space is suggested. The kinematics of elementary particle scattering is investigated on the basis of this theory. A synthesis of vector parametrization and of quaternion calculation has been shown to lead to natural formulation of the theory of vectors in the three-dimensional Lobachevsky space, realized on mass hyperboloids of relativistic particles
Relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barz, H.W.; Kaempfer, B.; Schulz, H.
1984-12-01
An elementary introduction is given into the scenario of relativistic heavy ion collisions. It deals with relativistic kinematics and estimates of energy densities, extrapolations of the present knowledge of hadron-hadron and hadron-nuleus to nucleus-nucleus collisions, the properties of the quark-gluon plasma and the formation of the plasma and possible experimental signatures. Comments are made on a cosmic ray experiment which could be interpreted as a first indication of the quark-gluon phase of the matter. (author)
Notari, Alessio
2016-12-22
We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term $\\frac{\\phi}{f_\\gamma} F \\tilde{F}$, such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density $\\rho_R$, which which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta $k$ smaller than the cutoff $f_\\gamma$, including numerically the backreaction. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if $f_\\gamma$ is smaller than the field excursion $\\phi_0$ by about a factor of at least ${\\cal O} (20)$, there is a friction effect which turns on before that the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of...
Dissipative structures in magnetorotational turbulence
Ross, Johnathan; Latter, Henrik N.
2018-03-01
Via the process of accretion, magnetorotational turbulence removes energy from a disk's orbital motion and transforms it into heat. Turbulent heating is far from uniform and is usually concentrated in small regions of intense dissipation, characterised by abrupt magnetic reconnection and higher temperatures. These regions are of interest because they might generate non-thermal emission, in the form of flares and energetic particles, or thermally process solids in protoplanetary disks. Moreover, the nature of the dissipation bears on the fundamental dynamics of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) itself: local simulations indicate that the large-scale properties of the turbulence (e.g. saturation levels, the stress-pressure relationship) depend on the short dissipative scales. In this paper we undertake a numerical study of how the MRI dissipates and the small-scale dissipative structures it employs to do so. We use the Godunov code RAMSES and unstratified compressible shearing boxes. Our simulations reveal that dissipation is concentrated in ribbons of strong magnetic reconnection that are significantly elongated in azimuth, up to a scale height. Dissipative structures are hence meso-scale objects, and potentially provide a route by which large scales and small scales interact. We go on to show how these ribbons evolve over time — forming, merging, breaking apart, and disappearing. Finally, we reveal important couplings between the large-scale density waves generated by the MRI and the small-scale structures, which may illuminate the stress-pressure relationship in MRI turbulence.
Relativistic particle in a box
Alberto, P.; Fiolhais, Carlos; Gil, Victor
1996-01-01
The problem of a relativistic spin 1/2 particle confined to a one-dimensional box is solved in a way that resembles closely the solution of the well known quantum-mechanical textbook problem of a non-relativistic particle in a box. The energy levels and probability density are computed and compared with the non-relativistic case
Gill, Ramandeep; Granot, Jonathan; Lyubarsky, Yuri
2018-03-01
We study the linear and non-linear development of the Kruskal-Schwarzchild instability in a relativisitically expanding striped wind. This instability is the generalization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the presence of a magnetic field. It has been suggested to produce a self-sustained acceleration mechanism in strongly magnetized outflows found in active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, and micro-quasars. The instability leads to magnetic reconnection, but in contrast with steady-state Sweet-Parker reconnection, the dissipation rate is not limited by the current layer's small aspect ratio. We performed two-dimensional (2D) relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations featuring two cold and highly magnetized (1 ≤ σ ≤ 103) plasma layers with an anti-parallel magnetic field separated by a thin layer of relativistically hot plasma with a local effective gravity induced by the outflow's acceleration. Our simulations show how the heavier relativistically hot plasma in the reconnecting layer drips out and allows oppositely oriented magnetic field lines to reconnect. The instability's growth rate in the linear regime matches the predictions of linear stability analysis. We find turbulence rather than an ordered bulk flow near the reconnection region, with turbulent velocities up to ˜0.1c, largely independent of model parameters. However, the magnetic energy dissipation rate is found to be much slower, corresponding to an effective ordered bulk velocity inflow into the reconnection region vin = βinc of 10-3 ≲ βin ≲ 5 × 10-3. This occurs due to the slow evacuation of hot plasma from the current layer, largely because of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability experienced by the dripping plasma. 3D RMHD simulations are needed to further investigate the non-linear regime.
Ion-acoustic envelope modes in a degenerate relativistic electron-ion plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McKerr, M.; Kourakis, I. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, BT7 1NN Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Haas, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves 9500, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)
2016-05-15
A self-consistent relativistic two-fluid model is proposed for one-dimensional electron-ion plasma dynamics. A multiple scales perturbation technique is employed, leading to an evolution equation for the wave envelope, in the form of a nonlinear Schrödinger type equation (NLSE). The inclusion of relativistic effects is shown to introduce density-dependent factors, not present in the non-relativistic case—in the conditions for modulational instability. The role of relativistic effects on the linear dispersion laws and on envelope soliton solutions of the NLSE is discussed.
Energy Dissipation Rate in an Agitated Crucible Containing Molten Metal
Li, Tao; Shimasaki, Shin-ichi; Narita, Shunsuke; Taniguchi, Shoji
2017-10-01
The energy dissipation rate (EDR) is an important parameter for characterizing the behavior of inclusion coagulation in agitated molten metal. To clarify the inclusion coagulation mechanism, we review previous water model studies by particularly focusing on the relation between the impeller torque and the EDR of the fluid, which indicates the ratio of energy dissipated in the viscous medium to the energy inputted by the rotating impeller. In the present study, simulations coupled with experiments were performed to determine the relation between the torque and the effective EDR for water and liquid Al in crucibles with and without baffles.
Relativistic impulse dynamics.
Swanson, Stanley M
2011-08-01
Classical electrodynamics has some annoying rough edges. The self-energy of charges is infinite without a cutoff. The calculation of relativistic trajectories is difficult because of retardation and an average radiation reaction term. By reconceptuallizing electrodynamics in terms of exchanges of impulses rather than describing it by forces and potentials, we eliminate these problems. A fully relativistic theory using photonlike null impulses is developed. Numerical calculations for a two-body, one-impulse-in-transit model are discussed. A simple relationship between center-of-mass scattering angle and angular momentum was found. It reproduces the Rutherford cross section at low velocities and agrees with the leading term of relativistic distinguishable-particle quantum cross sections (Møller, Mott) when the distance of closest approach is larger than the Compton wavelength of the particle. Magnetism emerges as a consequence of viewing retarded and advanced interactions from the vantage point of an instantaneous radius vector. Radiation reaction becomes the local conservation of energy-momentum between the radiating particle and the emitted impulse. A net action is defined that could be used in developing quantum dynamics without potentials. A reinterpretation of Newton's laws extends them to relativistic motion.
Non-relativistic supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.
1984-01-01
The most general one- and two-body hamiltonian invariant under galilean supersymmetry is constructed in superspace. The corresponding Feynman rules are given for the superfield Green functions. As demonstrated by a simple example, it is straightforward to construct models in which the supersymmetry is spontaneously broken by the non-relativistic vacuum. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contopoulos, G.
1983-01-01
In this paper, three main areas of relativistic stellar dynamics are reviewed: (a) The dynamics of clusters, or nuclei of galaxies, of very high density; (b) The dynamics of systems containing a massive black hole; and (c) The dynamics of particles (and photons) in an expanding Universe. The emphasis is on the use of orbit perturbations. (Auth.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bialynicki-Birula Iwo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Original definition of the Wigner function can be extended in a natural manner to relativistic domain in the framework of quantum field theory. Three such generalizations are described. They cover the cases of the Dirac particles, the photon, and the full electromagnetic field.
Antippa, Adel F.
2009-01-01
We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…
Relativistic few body calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, F.
1988-01-01
A modern treatment of the nuclear few-body problem must take into account both the quark structure of baryons and mesons, which should be important at short range, and the relativistic exchange of mesons, which describes the long range, peripheral interactions. A way to model both of these aspects is described. The long range, peripheral interactions are calculated using the spectator model, a general approach in which the spectators to nucleon interactions are put on their mass-shell. Recent numerical results for a relativistic OBE model of the NN interaction, obtained by solving a relativistic equation with one-particle on mass-shell, will be presented and discussed. Two meson exchange models, one with only four mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω) but with a 25% admixture of γ 5 coupling for the pion, and a second with six mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω,δ,/eta/) but pure γ 5 γ/sup μ/ pion coupling, are shown to give very good quantitative fits to the NN scattering phase shifts below 400 MeV, and also a good description of the /rvec p/ 40 Ca elastic scattering observables. Applications of this model to electromagnetic interactions of the two body system, with emphasis on the determination of relativistic current operators consistent with the dynamics and the exact treatment of current conservation in the presence of phenomenological form factors, will be described. 18 refs., 8 figs
Relativistic Polarizable Embedding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hedegård, Erik Donovan; Bast, Radovan; Kongsted, Jacob
2017-01-01
Most chemistry, including chemistry where relativistic effects are important, occurs in an environment, and in many cases, this environment has a significant effect on the chemistry. In nonrelativistic quantum chemistry, a lot of progress has been achieved with respect to including environments s...
Relativistic length agony continued
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Redžić D.V.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028
Relativistic Coulomb excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winther, A.; Alder, K.
1979-01-01
Coulomb excitation of both target and projectile in relativistic heavy ion collisions is evaluated including the lowest order correction for the deviation from a straight line trajectory. Explicit results for differential and total cross sections are given in the form of tables and figures. (Auth.)
Fundamental Relativistic Rotator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staruszkiewicz, A.
2008-01-01
Professor Jan Weyssenhoff was Myron Mathisson's sponsor and collaborator. He introduced a class of objects known in Cracow as '' kreciolki Weyssenhoffa '', '' Weyssenhoff's rotating little beasts ''. The Author describes a particularly simple object from this class. The relativistic rotator described in the paper is such that its both Casimir invariants are parameters rather than constants of motion. (author)
Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoine, J-P
2004-01-01
The aim of relativistic quantum mechanics is to describe the finer details of the structure of atoms and molecules, where relativistic effects become nonnegligible. It is a sort of intermediate realm, between the familiar nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and fully relativistic quantum field theory, and thus it lacks the simplicity and elegance of both. Yet it is a necessary tool, mostly for quantum chemists. Pilkuhn's book offers to this audience an up-to-date survey of these methods, which is quite welcome since most previous textbooks are at least ten years old. The point of view of the author is to start immediately in the relativistic domain, following the lead of Maxwell's equations rather than classical mechanics, and thus to treat the nonrelativistic version as an approximation. Thus Chapter 1 takes off from Maxwell's equations (in the noncovariant Coulomb gauge) and gradually derives the basic aspects of Quantum Mechanics in a rather pedestrian way (states and observables, Hilbert space, operators, quantum measurement, scattering,. Chapter 2 starts with the Lorentz transformations, then continues with the Pauli spin equation and the Dirac equation and some of their applications (notably the hydrogen atom). Chapter 3 is entitled 'Quantum fields and particles', but falls short of treating quantum field theory properly: only creation/annihilation operators are considered, for a particle in a box. The emphasis is on two-electron states (the Pauli principle, the Foldy--Wouthuysen elimination of small components of Dirac spinors, Breit projection operators. Chapter 4 is devoted to scattering theory and the description of relativistic bound states. Chapter 5, finally, covers hyperfine interactions and radiative corrections. As we said above, relativistic quantum mechanics is by nature limited in scope and rather inelegant and Pilkuhn's book is no exception. The notation is often heavy (mostly noncovariant) and the mathematical level rather low. The central topic
Micro- and macro-scale self-organization in a dissipative plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skoric, M.M.; Sato, T.; Maluckov, A.; Jovanovic, M.S.
1998-10-01
We study a nonlinear three-wave interaction in an open dissipative model of stimulated Raman backscattering in a plasma. A hybrid kinetic-fluid scheme is proposed to include anomalous kinetic dissipation due to electron trapping and plasma wave breaking. We simulate a finite plasma with open boundaries and vary a transport parameter to examine a route to spatio-temporal complexity. An interplay between self-organization at micro (kinetic) and macro (wave/fluid) scales is revealed through quasi-periodic and intermittent evolution of dynamical variables, dissipative structures and related entropy rates. An evidence that entropy rate extrema correspond to structural transitions is found. (author)
Dissipative systems and Bateman's Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedrosa, I.A.; Baseia, B.
1983-01-01
It is shown, by using canonical transformations, that one can construct Bateman's Hamiltonian from a Hamiltonian for a conservative system and obtain a clear physical interpretation which explains the ambiguities emerging from its application to describe dissipative systems. (Author) [pt
Dissipative Effect and Tunneling Time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samyadeb Bhattacharya
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The quantum Langevin equation has been studied for dissipative system using the approach of Ford et al. Here, we have considered the inverted harmonic oscillator potential and calculated the effect of dissipation on tunneling time, group delay, and the self-interference term. A critical value of the friction coefficient has been determined for which the self-interference term vanishes. This approach sheds new light on understanding the ion transport at nanoscale.
Lagrangian formulation of the general relativistic Poynting-Robertson effect
De Falco, Vittorio; Battista, Emmanuele; Falanga, Maurizio
2018-04-01
We propose the Lagrangian formulation for describing the motion of a test particle in a general relativistic, stationary, and axially symmetric spacetime. The test particle is also affected by a radiation field, modeled as a coherent flux of photons traveling along the null geodesics of the background spacetime, including the general relativistic Poynting-Robertson effect. The innovative part of this work is to prove the existence of the potential linked to the dissipative action caused by the Poynting-Robertson effect in general relativity through the help of an integrating factor, depending on the energy of the system. Generally, such kinds of inverse problems involving dissipative effects might not admit a Lagrangian formulation; especially, in general relativity, there are no examples of such attempts in the literature so far. We reduce this general relativistic Lagrangian formulation to the classic case in the weak-field limit. This approach facilitates further studies in improving the treatment of the radiation field, and it contains, for example, some implications for a deeper comprehension of the gravitational waves.
Relativistic Processes and the Internal Structure of Neutron Stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez-Castillo, D. E.; Kubis, S.
2011-01-01
Models for the internal composition of Dense Compact Stars are reviewed as well as macroscopic properties derived by observations of relativistic processes. Modeling of pure neutron matter Neutron Stars is presented and crust properties are studied by means of a two fluid model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Notari, Alessio [Departament de Física Fondamental i Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona, 08028 Spain (Spain); Tywoniuk, Konrad, E-mail: notari@ffn.ub.es, E-mail: konrad.tywoniuk@cern.ch [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)
2016-12-01
We analyze in detail the background cosmological evolution of a scalar field coupled to a massless abelian gauge field through an axial term φ/ f {sub γ} F ∼ F , such as in the case of an axion. Gauge fields in this case are known to experience tachyonic growth and therefore can backreact on the background as an effective dissipation into radiation energy density ρ{sub R}, which can lead to inflation without the need of a flat potential. We analyze the system, for momenta k smaller than the cutoff f {sub γ}, including the backreaction numerically. We consider the evolution from a given static initial condition and explicitly show that, if f {sub γ} is smaller than the field excursion φ{sub 0} by about a factor of at least O (20), there is a friction effect which turns on before the field can fall down and which can then lead to a very long stage of inflation with a generic potential. In addition we find superimposed oscillations, which would get imprinted on any kind of perturbations, scalars and tensors. Such oscillations have a period of 4–5 efolds and an amplitude which is typically less than a few percent and decreases linearly with f {sub γ}. We also stress that the curvature perturbation on uniform density slices should be sensitive to slow-roll parameters related to ρ{sub R} rather than φ-dot {sup 2}/2 and we discuss the existence of friction terms acting on the perturbations, although we postpone a calculation of the power spectrum and of non-gaussianity to future work and we simply define and compute suitable slow roll parameters. Finally we stress that this scenario may be realized in the axion case, if the coupling 1/ f {sub γ} to U(1) (photons) is much larger than the coupling 1/ f {sub G} to non-abelian gauge fields (gluons), since the latter sets the range of the potential and therefore the maximal allowed φ{sub 0∼} f {sub G}.
The relativistic gravity train
Seel, Max
2018-05-01
The gravity train that takes 42.2 min from any point A to any other point B that is connected by a straight-line tunnel through Earth has captured the imagination more than most other applications in calculus or introductory physics courses. Brachystochron and, most recently, nonlinear density solutions have been discussed. Here relativistic corrections are presented. It is discussed how the corrections affect the time to fall through Earth, the Sun, a white dwarf, a neutron star, and—the ultimate limit—the difference in time measured by a moving, a stationary and the fiducial observer at infinity if the density of the sphere approaches the density of a black hole. The relativistic gravity train can serve as a problem with approximate and exact analytic solutions and as numerical exercise in any introductory course on relativity.
Relativistic gravitational instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schutz, B.F.
1987-01-01
The purpose of these lectures is to review and explain what is known about the stability of relativistic stars and black holes, with particular emphases on two instabilities which are due entirely to relativistic effects. The first of these is the post-Newtonian pulsational instability discovered independently by Chandrasekhar (1964) and Fowler (1964). This effectively ruled out the then-popular supermassive star model for quasars, and it sets a limit to the central density of white dwarfs. The second instability was also discovered by Chandrasekhar (1970): the gravitational wave induced instability. This sets an upper bound on the rotation rate of neutron stars, which is near that of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214, and which is beginning to constrain the equation of state of neutron matter. 111 references, 5 figures
Relativistic studies in actinides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinberger, P.; Gonis, A.
1987-01-01
In this review the theoretical background is given for a relativistic description for actinide systems. A short introduction is given of the density functional theory which forms the basis for a fully relativistic single-particle theory. A section on the Dirac Hamiltonian is followed by a brief summary on group theoretical concepts. Single site scattering is presented such that formal extensions to the case of the presence of an internal (external) magnetic field and/or anisotropic scattering are evident. Multiple scattering is discussed such that it can readily be applied also to the problem of dislocations. In connection with the problem of selfconsistency particular attention is drawn to the use of complex energies. Finally the various theoretical aspects discussed are illustrated through the results of numerical calculations. 101 refs.; 37 figs.; 5 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hines, D.F.; Frankel, N.E.
1979-01-01
The charged Bose has been previously studied as a many body problem of great intrinsic interest which can also serve as a model of some real physical systems, for example, superconductors, white dwarf stars and neutron stars. In this article the excitation spectrum of a relativistic spin-zero charged Bose gas is obtained in a dielectric response formulation. Relativity introduces a dip in the spectrum and consequences of this dip for the thermodynamic functions are discussed
Relativistic heavy ion reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brink, D M
1989-08-01
The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.
Bratek, Łukasz
2015-01-01
Two particularly simple ideal clocks exhibiting intrinsic circular motion with the speed of light and opposite spin alignment are described. The clocks are singled out by singularities of an inverse Legendre transformation for relativistic rotators of which mass and spin are fixed parameters. Such clocks work always the same way, no matter how they move. When subject to high accelerations or falling in strong gravitational fields of black holes, the clocks could be used to test the clock hypo...
Relativistic heavy ion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brink, D.M.
1989-08-01
The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs
Hamlin, Nathaniel D; Newman, William I
2013-04-01
We explore, via analytical and numerical methods, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability in relativistic magnetized plasmas, with applications to astrophysical jets. We solve the single-fluid relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations in conservative form using a scheme which is fourth order in space and time. To recover the primitive RMHD variables, we use a highly accurate, rapidly convergent algorithm which improves upon such schemes as the Newton-Raphson method. Although the exact RMHD equations are marginally stable, numerical discretization renders them unstable. We include numerical viscosity to restore numerical stability. In relativistic flows, diffusion can lead to a mathematical anomaly associated with frame transformations. However, in our KH studies, we remain in the rest frame of the system, and therefore do not encounter this anomaly. We use a two-dimensional slab geometry with periodic boundary conditions in both directions. The initial unperturbed velocity peaks along the central axis and vanishes asymptotically at the transverse boundaries. Remaining unperturbed quantities are uniform, with a flow-aligned unperturbed magnetic field. The early evolution in the nonlinear regime corresponds to the formation of counter-rotating vortices, connected by filaments, which persist in the absence of a magnetic field. A magnetic field inhibits the vortices through a series of stages, namely, field amplification, vortex disruption, turbulent breakdown, and an approach to a flow-aligned equilibrium configuration. Similar stages have been discussed in MHD literature. We examine how and to what extent these stages manifest in RMHD for a set of representative field strengths. To characterize field strength, we define a relativistic extension of the Alfvénic Mach number M(A). We observe close complementarity between flow and magnetic field behavior. Weaker fields exhibit more vortex rotation, magnetic reconnection, jet broadening, and intermediate turbulence
Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos
Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.
2017-09-01
Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.
Point form relativistic quantum mechanics and relativistic SU(6)
Klink, W. H.
1993-01-01
The point form is used as a framework for formulating a relativistic quantum mechanics, with the mass operator carrying the interactions of underlying constituents. A symplectic Lie algebra of mass operators is introduced from which a relativistic harmonic oscillator mass operator is formed. Mass splittings within the degenerate harmonic oscillator levels arise from relativistically invariant spin-spin, spin-orbit, and tensor mass operators. Internal flavor (and color) symmetries are introduced which make it possible to formulate a relativistic SU(6) model of baryons (and mesons). Careful attention is paid to the permutation symmetry properties of the hadronic wave functions, which are written as polynomials in Bargmann spaces.
Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution
Foot, R.
2018-02-01
Dissipative dark matter, where dark matter particle properties closely resemble familiar baryonic matter, is considered. Mirror dark matter, which arises from an isomorphic hidden sector, is a specific and theoretically constrained scenario. Other possibilities include models with more generic hidden sectors that contain massless dark photons [unbroken U (1 ) gauge interactions]. Such dark matter not only features dissipative cooling processes but also is assumed to have nontrivial heating sourced by ordinary supernovae (facilitated by the kinetic mixing interaction). The dynamics of dissipative dark matter halos around rotationally supported galaxies, influenced by heating as well as cooling processes, can be modeled by fluid equations. For a sufficiently isolated galaxy with a stable star formation rate, the dissipative dark matter halos are expected to evolve to a steady state configuration which is in hydrostatic equilibrium and where heating and cooling rates locally balance. Here, we take into account the major cooling and heating processes, and numerically solve for the steady state solution under the assumptions of spherical symmetry, negligible dark magnetic fields, and that supernova sourced energy is transported to the halo via dark radiation. For the parameters considered, and assumptions made, we were unable to find a physically realistic solution for the constrained case of mirror dark matter halos. Halo cooling generally exceeds heating at realistic halo mass densities. This problem can be rectified in more generic dissipative dark matter models, and we discuss a specific example in some detail.
SCALING LAW OF RELATIVISTIC SWEET-PARKER-TYPE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Kudoh, Takahiro; Masada, Youhei; Matsumoto, Jin
2011-01-01
Relativistic Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection is investigated by relativistic resistive magnetohydrodynamic (RRMHD) simulations. As an initial setting, we assume anti-parallel magnetic fields and a spatially uniform resistivity. A perturbation imposed on the magnetic fields triggers magnetic reconnection around a current sheet, and the plasma inflows into the reconnection region. The inflows are then heated due to ohmic dissipation in the diffusion region and finally become relativistically hot outflows. The outflows are not accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds (i.e., Lorentz factor ≅ 1), even when the magnetic energy dominates the thermal and rest mass energies in the inflow region. Most of the magnetic energy in the inflow region is converted into the thermal energy of the outflow during the reconnection process. The energy conversion from magnetic to thermal energy in the diffusion region results in an increase in the plasma inertia. This prevents the outflows from being accelerated to ultrarelativistic speeds. We find that the reconnection rate R obeys the scaling relation R≅S -0.5 , where S is the Lundquist number. This feature is the same as that of non-relativistic reconnection. Our results are consistent with the theoretical predictions of Lyubarsky for Sweet-Parker-type magnetic reconnection.
Dissipative structures and related methods
Langhorst, Benjamin R; Chu, Henry S
2013-11-05
Dissipative structures include at least one panel and a cell structure disposed adjacent to the at least one panel having interconnected cells. A deformable material, which may comprise at least one hydrogel, is disposed within at least one interconnected cell proximate to the at least one panel. Dissipative structures may also include a cell structure having interconnected cells formed by wall elements. The wall elements may include a mesh formed by overlapping fibers having apertures formed therebetween. The apertures may form passageways between the interconnected cells. Methods of dissipating a force include disposing at least one hydrogel in a cell structure proximate to at least one panel, applying a force to the at least one panel, and forcing at least a portion of the at least one hydrogel through apertures formed in the cell structure.
The cosmic-ray shock structure problem for relativistic shocks
Webb, G. M.
1985-01-01
The time asymptotic behaviour of a relativistic (parallel) shock wave significantly modified by the diffusive acceleration of cosmic-rays is investigated by means of relativistic hydrodynamical equations for both the cosmic-rays and thermal gas. The form of the shock structure equation and the dispersion relation for both long and short wavelength waves in the system are obtained. The dependence of the shock acceleration efficiency on the upstream fluid spped, long wavelength Mach number and the ratio N = P sub co/cP sub co+P sub go)(Psub co and P sub go are the upstream cosmic-ray and thermal gas pressures respectively) are studied.
Relativistic hydrodynamics, heavy ion reactions and antiproton annihilation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strottman, D.
1985-01-01
The application of relativistic hydrodynamics to relativistic heavy ions and antiproton annihilation is summarized. Conditions for validity of hydrodynamics are presented. Theoretical results for inclusive particle spectra, pion production and flow analysis are given for medium energy heavy ions. The two-fluid model is introduced and results presented for reactions from 800 MeV per nucleon to 15 GeV on 15 GeV per nucleon. Temperatures and densities attained in antiproton annihilation are given. Finally, signals which might indicate the presence of a quark-gluon plasma are briefly surveyed
The Poisson equation at second order in relativistic cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hidalgo, J.C.; Christopherson, Adam J.; Malik, Karim A.
2013-01-01
We calculate the relativistic constraint equation which relates the curvature perturbation to the matter density contrast at second order in cosmological perturbation theory. This relativistic ''second order Poisson equation'' is presented in a gauge where the hydrodynamical inhomogeneities coincide with their Newtonian counterparts exactly for a perfect fluid with constant equation of state. We use this constraint to introduce primordial non-Gaussianity in the density contrast in the framework of General Relativity. We then derive expressions that can be used as the initial conditions of N-body codes for structure formation which probe the observable signature of primordial non-Gaussianity in the statistics of the evolved matter density field
Microscopic nuclear dissipation. Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yannouleas, C.; Dworzecka, M.; Griffin, J.J.
1983-01-01
We have formulated a microscopic, nonperturbative, time reversible model which exhibits a dissipative decay of collective motion for times short compared to the system's Poincare time. The model assumes an RPA approximate description of the initial collective state within a restricted subspace, then traces its time evolution when an additional subspace is coupled to the restricted subspace by certain simplified matrix elements. It invokes no statistical assumptions. The damping of the collective motion occurs via real transitions from the collective state to other more complicated nuclear states of the same energy. It corresponds therefore to the so called 'one-body' long mean free path limit of nuclear dissipation when the collective state describes a surface vibration. When the simplest RPA approximation is used, this process associates the dissipation with the escape width for direct particle emission to the continuum. When the more detailed second RPA is used, it associates the dissipation with the spreading width for transitions to the 2p-2h components of the nuclear compound states as well. The energy loss rate for sharp n-phonon initial states is proportional to the total collective energy, unlike the dissipation of a classical damped oscillator, where it is proportional to the kinetic energy only. However, for coherent, multi-phonon wave packets, which explicitly describe the time-dependent oscillations of the mean field, dissipation proportional only to the kinetic energy is obtained. Canonical coordinates for the collective degree of freedom are explicitly introduced and a nonlinear frictional hamiltonian to describe such systems is specified by the requirement that it yield the same time dependence for the collective motion as the microscopic model. Thus, for the first time a descriptive nonlinear hamiltonian is derived explicitly from the underlying microscopic model of a nuclear system. (orig.)
Zero temperature dissipation and holography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, Pinaki; Sathiapalan, B. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences,CIT Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600 113 (India)
2016-04-14
We use holographic techniques to study the zero-temperature limit of dissipation for a Brownian particle moving in a strongly coupled CFT at finite temperature in various space-time dimensions. The dissipative term in the boundary theory for ω→0, T→0 with ω/T held small and fixed, does not match the same at T=0, ω→0. Thus the T→0 limit is not smooth for ω
Dissipative heavy-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feldmeier, H.T.
1985-01-01
This report is a compilation of lecture notes of a series of lectures held at Argonne National Laboratory in October and November 1984. The lectures are a discussion of dissipative phenomena as observed in collisions of atomic nuclei. The model is based on a system which has initially zero temperature and the initial energy is kinetic and binding energy. Collisions excite the nuclei, and outgoing fragments or the compound system deexcite before they are detected. Brownian motion is used to introduce the concept of dissipation. The master equation and the Fokker-Planck equation are derived. 73 refs., 59 figs
ENERGY DISSIPATION PROCESSES IN SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Y.; Wei, F. S.; Feng, X. S.; Sun, T. R.; Zuo, P. B. [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory for Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Xu, X. J. [Space Science Institute, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macao (China); Zhang, J., E-mail: yw@spaceweather.ac.cn [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MSN 3F3, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States)
2015-12-15
Turbulence is a chaotic flow regime filled by irregular flows. The dissipation of turbulence is a fundamental problem in the realm of physics. Theoretically, dissipation ultimately cannot be achieved without collisions, and so how turbulent kinetic energy is dissipated in the nearly collisionless solar wind is a challenging problem. Wave particle interactions and magnetic reconnection (MR) are two possible dissipation mechanisms, but which mechanism dominates is still a controversial topic. Here we analyze the dissipation region scaling around a solar wind MR region. We find that the MR region shows unique multifractal scaling in the dissipation range, while the ambient solar wind turbulence reveals a monofractal dissipation process for most of the time. These results provide the first observational evidences for intermittent multifractal dissipation region scaling around a MR site, and they also have significant implications for the fundamental energy dissipation process.
Dissipation of post-disruption runaway electron plateaus by shattered pellet injection in DIII-D
Shiraki, D.; Commaux, N.; Baylor, L. R.; Cooper, C. M.; Eidietis, N. W.; Hollmann, E. M.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Combs, S. K.; Meitner, S. J.
2018-05-01
We report on the first demonstration of dissipation of fully avalanched post-disruption runaway electron (RE) beams by shattered pellet injection in the DIII-D tokamak. Variation of the injected species shows that dissipation depends strongly on the species mixture, while comparisons with massive gas injection do not show a significant difference between dissipation by pellets or by gas, suggesting that the shattered pellet is rapidly ablated by the relativistic electrons before significant radial penetration into the runaway beam can occur. Pure or dominantly neon injection increases the RE current dissipation through pitch-angle scattering due to collisions with impurity ions. Deuterium injection is observed to have the opposite effect from neon, reducing the high-Z impurity content and thus decreasing the dissipation, and causing the background thermal plasma to completely recombine. When injecting mixtures of the two species, deuterium levels as low as ∼10% of the total injected atoms are observed to adversely affect the resulting dissipation, suggesting that complete elimination of deuterium from the injection may be important for optimizing RE mitigation schemes.
Anelastic tidal dissipation in multi-layer planets
Remus, F.; Mathis, S.; Zahn, J.-P.; Lainey, V.
2012-09-01
Earth-like planets have anelastic mantles, whereas giant planets may have anelastic cores. As for the fluid parts of a body, the tidal dissipation of such solid regions, gravitationally perturbed by a companion body, highly depends on its internal friction, and thus on its internal structure. Therefore, modelling this kind of interaction presents a high interest to provide constraints on planets interiors, whose properties are still quite uncertain. Here, we examine the equilibrium tide in the solid part of a planet, taking into account the presence of a fluid envelope. We derive the different Love numbers that describe its deformation and discuss the dependence of the quality factor Q on the chosen anelastic model and the size of the core. Taking plausible values for the anelastic parameters, and discussing the frequency-dependence of the solid dissipation, we show how this mechanism may compete with the dissipation in fluid layers, when applied to Jupiter- and Saturn-like planets. We also discuss the case of the icy giants Uranus and Neptune. Finally, we present the way to implement the results in the equations that describe the dynamical evolution of planetary systems.
Relativistic Outflows from ADAFs
Becker, Peter; Subramanian, Prasad; Kazanas, Demosthenes
2001-04-01
Advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) have a positive Bernoulli parameter, and are therefore gravitationally bound. The Newtonian ADAF model has been generalized recently to obtain the ADIOS model that includes outflows of energy and angular momentum, thereby allowing accretion to proceed self-consistently. However, the utilization of a Newtonian gravitational potential limits the ability of this model to describe the inner region of the disk, where any relativistic outflows are likely to originate. In this paper we modify the ADIOS scenario to incorporate a seudo - Newtonian potential, which approximates the effects of general relativity. The analysis yields a unique, self - similar solution for the structure of the coupled disk/wind system. Interesting features of the new solution include the relativistic character of the outflow in the vicinity of the radius of marginal stability, which represents the inner edge of the quasi-Keplerian disk in our model. Our self - similar model may therefore help to explain the origin of relativistic jets in active galaxies. At large distances the radial dependence of the accretion rate approachs the unique form dot M ∝ r^1/2, with an associated density variation given by ρ ∝ r-1. This density variation agrees with that implied by the dependence of the X-ray hard time lags on the Fourier frequency for a number of accreting galactic black hole candidates. While intriguing, the results of our self-similar model need to be confirmed in the future by incorporating a detailed physical description of the energization mechanism that drives the outflow, which is likely to be powered by the shear of the underlying accretion disk.
Dissipative effects in Multilevel Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solomon, A I [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Schirmer, S G [Department of Applied Maths and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2007-11-15
Dissipation is sometimes regarded as an inevitable and regrettable presence in the real evolution of a quantum system. However, the effects may not always be malign, although often non-intuitive and may even be beneficial. In this note we we display some of these effects for N-level systems, where N = 2,3,4. We start with an elementary introduction to dissipative effects on the Bloch Sphere, and its interior, the Bloch Ball, for a two-level system. We describe explicitly the hamiltonian evolution as well as the purely dissipative dynamics, in the latter case giving the t {yields} {infinity} limits of the motion. This discussion enables us to provide an intuitive feeling for the measures of control-reachable states. For the three-level case we discuss the impossibility of isolating a two-level (qubit) subsystem; this is a Bohm-Aharonov type consequence of dissipation. We finally exemplify the four-level case by giving constraints on the decay of two-qubit entanglement.
Relativistic twins or sextuplets?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheldon, Eric
2003-01-01
A recent study of the relativistic twin 'paradox' by Soni in this journal affirmed that 'A simple solution of the twin paradox also shows anomalous behaviour of rigidly connected distant clocks' but entailed a pedagogic hurdle which the present treatment aims to surmount. Two scenarios are presented: the first 'flight-plan' is akin to that depicted by Soni, with constant-velocity segments, while the second portrays an alternative mission undertaken with sustained acceleration and deceleration, illustrated quantitatively for a two-way spacecraft flight from Earth to Polaris (465.9 light years distant) and back
Relativistic twins or sextuplets?
Sheldon, E S
2003-01-01
A recent study of the relativistic twin 'paradox' by Soni in this journal affirmed that 'A simple solution of the twin paradox also shows anomalous behaviour of rigidly connected distant clocks' but entailed a pedagogic hurdle which the present treatment aims to surmount. Two scenarios are presented: the first 'flight-plan' is akin to that depicted by Soni, with constant-velocity segments, while the second portrays an alternative mission undertaken with sustained acceleration and deceleration, illustrated quantitatively for a two-way spacecraft flight from Earth to Polaris (465.9 light years distant) and back.
Relativistic quantum cryptography
Kaniewski, Jedrzej
Special relativity states that information cannot travel faster than the speed of light, which means that communication between agents occupying distinct locations incurs some minimal delay. Alternatively, we can see it as temporary communication constraints between distinct agents and such constraints turn out to be useful for cryptographic purposes. In relativistic cryptography we consider protocols in which interactions occur at distinct locations at well-defined times and we investigate why such a setting allows to implement primitives which would not be possible otherwise. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).
Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1992-01-01
Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs
Localization of relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omnes, R.
1997-01-01
In order to discuss localization experiments and also to extend the consistent history interpretation of quantum mechanics to relativistic properties, the techniques introduced in a previous paper [J. Math. Phys. 38, 697 (1997)] are applied to the localization of a photon in a given region of space. An essential requirement is to exclude arbitrarily large wavelengths. The method is valid for a particle with any mass and spin. Though there is no proper position operator for a photon, one never needs one in practice. Causality is valid up to exponentially small corrections. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Corinaldesi, Ernesto
1963-01-01
Geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of physics, this text provides readers with a background in relativistic wave mechanics and prepares them for the study of field theory. The treatment originated as a series of lectures from a course on advanced quantum mechanics that has been further amplified by student contributions.An introductory section related to particles and wave functions precedes the three-part treatment. An examination of particles of spin zero follows, addressing wave equation, Lagrangian formalism, physical quantities as mean values, translation and rotat
Relativistic quarkonium dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sazdjian, H.
1985-06-01
We present, in the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics of two interacting particles, a general model for quarkonium systems satisfying the following four requirements: confinement, spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry, soft explicit chiral symmetry breaking, short distance interactions of the vector type. The model is characterized by two arbitrary scalar functions entering in the large and short distance interaction potentials, respectively. Using relationships with corresponding quantities of the Bethe-Salpeter equation, we also present the normalization condition of the wave functions, as well as the expressions of the meson decay coupling constants. The quark masses appear in this model as free parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araujo, Wilson Roberto Barbosa de
1995-01-01
In this dissertation, we present a model for the nucleon, which is composed by three relativistic quarks interacting through a contract force. The nucleon wave-function was obtained from the Faddeev equation in the null-plane. The covariance of the model under kinematical null-plane boots is discussed. The electric proton form-factor, calculated from the Faddeev wave-function, was in agreement with the data for low-momentum transfers and described qualitatively the asymptotic region for momentum transfers around 2 GeV. (author)
Relativistic nuclear collisions: theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gyulassy, M.
1980-07-01
Some of the recent theoretical developments in relativistic (0.5 to 2.0-GeV/nucleon) nuclear collisions are reviewed. The statistical model, hydrodynamic model, classical equation of motion calculations, billiard ball dynamics, and intranuclear cascade models are discussed in detail. Inclusive proton and pion spectra are analyzed for a variety of reactions. Particular attention is focused on how the complex interplay of the basic reaction mechanism hinders attempts to deduce the nuclear matter equation of state from data. 102 references, 19 figures
[Relativistic heavy ion research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
The present document describes our second-year application for a continuation grant on relativistic heavy-ion research at Nevis Laboratories, Columbia University, over the two-year period starting from November 15, 1990. The progress during the current budget year is presented. This year, construction of RHIC officially began. As a result, the entire Nevis nuclear physics group has made a coherent effort to create new proposal for an Open Axially Symmetric Ion Spectrometer (OASIS) proposal. Future perspectives and our plans for this proposal are described
Evaluating results from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider with perturbative QCD and hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fries, R.J.; Nonaka, C.
2011-07-01
We review the basic concepts of perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and relativistic hydrodynamics, and their applications to hadron production in high energy nuclear collisions. We discuss results from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in light of these theoretical approaches. Perturbative QCD and hydrodynamics together explain a large amount of experimental data gathered during the first decade of RHIC running, although some questions remain open. We focus primarily on practical aspects of the calculations, covering basic topics like perturbation theory, initial state nuclear effects, jet quenching models, ideal hydrodynamics, dissipative corrections, freeze-out and initial conditions. We conclude by comparing key results from RHIC to calculations.
Relativistic theory of current drive by radio frequency waves in a magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khan, T.P.
1992-01-01
A relativistic kinetic theory of rf current drive in a magnetized plasma is developed. Analytical expressions are obtained for the rf generated currents, the dissipated power, and the current drive efficiency in the presence of a magnetic field. The relativistic transport coefficients in both parallel and perpendicular directions of the magnetic field are exhibited to have important contributions to the efficiency of rf-generated current drive. The consideration of perpendicular particle and heat fluxes make it more attractive for fusion problems. The effect of collisions in the presence of a magnetic field on the transport of the rf-generated current drive is discussed
Generating perfect fluid spheres in general relativity
Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke
2005-06-01
Ever since Karl Schwarzschild’s 1916 discovery of the spacetime geometry describing the interior of a particular idealized general relativistic star—a static spherically symmetric blob of fluid with position-independent density—the general relativity community has continued to devote considerable time and energy to understanding the general-relativistic static perfect fluid sphere. Over the last 90 years a tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these specific examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, in this article we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres.
Generating perfect fluid spheres in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke
2005-01-01
Ever since Karl Schwarzschild's 1916 discovery of the spacetime geometry describing the interior of a particular idealized general relativistic star--a static spherically symmetric blob of fluid with position-independent density--the general relativity community has continued to devote considerable time and energy to understanding the general-relativistic static perfect fluid sphere. Over the last 90 years a tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these specific examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, in this article we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres
Relativistic approach to nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Van Giai; Bouyssy, A.
1987-03-01
Some recent works related with relativistic models of nuclear structure are briefly reviewed. The Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock are recalled and illustrated by some examples. The problem of isoscalar current and magnetic moments of odd nuclei is discussed. The application of the relativistic model to the nuclear response function is examined
Relativistic dynamics without conservation laws
Rothenstein, Bernhard; Popescu, Stefan
2006-01-01
We show that relativistic dynamics can be approached without using conservation laws (conservation of momentum, of energy and of the centre of mass). Our approach avoids collisions that are not easy to teach without mnemonic aids. The derivations are based on the principle of relativity and on its direct consequence, the addition law of relativistic velocities.
Contraint's theory and relativistic dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Longhi, G.; Lusanna, L.
1987-01-01
The purpose of this Workshop was to examine the current situation of relativistic dynamics. In particular, Dirac-Bergmann's theory of constraints, which lies at the heart of gauge theories, general relativity, relativistic mechanics and string theories, was chosen as the unifying theoretical framework best suited to investigate such a field. The papers discussed were on general relativity; relativistic mechanics; particle physics and mathematical physics. Also discussed were the problems of classical and quantum level, namely the identification of the classical observables of constrained systems, the equivalence of the nonequivalence of the various ways to quantize such systems; the problem of the anomalies; the best geometrical approach to the theory of constraints; the possibility of unifying all the treatments of relativistic mechanics. This book compiles the papers presented at proceedings of relativistic dynamics and constraints theory
Relativistic heavy ion physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.
1992-01-01
In 1992 a proposal by the Iowa State University experimental nuclear physics group entitled ''Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics'' was funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, for a three-year period beginning November 15, 1991. This is a progress report for the first six months of that period but, in order to give a wider perspective, we report here on progress made since the beginning of calendar year 1991. In the first section, entitled ''Purpose and Trends,'' we give some background on the recent trends in our research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled, ''Physics Research Programs,'' is divided into three parts. First, we discuss our participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator. Second, we outline progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation (ED). A highlight of this endeavor is experiments carried out with the 197 Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1991. Third, we discuss progress in completion of our nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks and contributed talks starting in 1991 is given
Dissipative generalized Chaplygin gas as phantom dark energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cruz, Norman; Lepe, Samuel; Pena, Francisco
2007-01-01
The generalized Chaplygin gas, characterized by the equation of state p=-A/ρ α , has been considered as a model for dark energy due to its dark-energy-like evolution at late times. When dissipative processes are taken into account, within the framework of the standard Eckart theory of relativistic irreversible thermodynamics, cosmological analytical solutions are found. Using the truncated causal version of the Israel-Stewart formalism, a suitable model was constructed which crosses the w=-1 barrier. The future-singularities encountered in both approaches are of a new type, and not included in the classification presented by Nojiri and Odintsov [S. Nojiri, S.D. Odintsov, Phys. Rev. D 72 (2005) 023003
Dissipative generalized Chaplygin gas as phantom dark energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cruz, Norman [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencia, Universidad de Santiago, Casilla 307, Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: ncruz@lauca.usach.cl; Lepe, Samuel [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Basicas y Matematicas, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Valparaiso (Chile)]. E-mail: slepe@ucv.cl; Pena, Francisco [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Universidad de la Frontera, Avda. Francisco Salazar 01145, Casilla 54-D, Temuco (Chile)]. E-mail: fcampos@ufro.cl
2007-03-15
The generalized Chaplygin gas, characterized by the equation of state p=-A/{rho}{sup {alpha}}, has been considered as a model for dark energy due to its dark-energy-like evolution at late times. When dissipative processes are taken into account, within the framework of the standard Eckart theory of relativistic irreversible thermodynamics, cosmological analytical solutions are found. Using the truncated causal version of the Israel-Stewart formalism, a suitable model was constructed which crosses the w=-1 barrier. The future-singularities encountered in both approaches are of a new type, and not included in the classification presented by Nojiri and Odintsov [S. Nojiri, S.D. Odintsov, Phys. Rev. D 72 (2005) 023003].
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics with angular momentum conservation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Müller, Kathrin, E-mail: k.mueller@fz-juelich.de; Fedosov, Dmitry A., E-mail: d.fedosov@fz-juelich.de; Gompper, Gerhard, E-mail: g.gompper@fz-juelich.de
2015-01-15
Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) combines two popular mesoscopic techniques, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) methods, and can be considered as an improved dissipative particle dynamics approach. Despite several advantages of the SDPD method over the conventional DPD model, the original formulation of SDPD by Español and Revenga (2003) [9], lacks angular momentum conservation, leading to unphysical results for problems where the conservation of angular momentum is essential. To overcome this limitation, we extend the SDPD method by introducing a particle spin variable such that local and global angular momentum conservation is restored. The new SDPD formulation (SDPD+a) is directly derived from the Navier–Stokes equation for fluids with spin, while thermal fluctuations are incorporated similarly to the DPD method. We test the new SDPD method and demonstrate that it properly reproduces fluid transport coefficients. Also, SDPD with angular momentum conservation is validated using two problems: (i) the Taylor–Couette flow with two immiscible fluids and (ii) a tank-treading vesicle in shear flow with a viscosity contrast between inner and outer fluids. For both problems, the new SDPD method leads to simulation predictions in agreement with the corresponding analytical theories, while the original SDPD method fails to capture properly physical characteristics of the systems due to violation of angular momentum conservation. In conclusion, the extended SDPD method with angular momentum conservation provides a new approach to tackle fluid problems such as multiphase flows and vesicle/cell suspensions, where the conservation of angular momentum is essential.
Non-adiabatic radiative collapse of a relativistic star under different ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ditions. The collapse of a star filled with a homogeneous perfect fluid is compared with that of a star filled with ... We have examined the collapse of a relativistic star with matter density and fluid pressure decreasing ..... are invoked to extract information about the change in the equation of state of the interior matter of a ...
Speeds of Propagation in Classical and Relativistic Extended Thermodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Müller Ingo
1999-01-01
Full Text Available The Navier-Stokes-Fourier theory of viscous, heat-conducting fluids provides parabolic equations and thus predicts infinite pulse speeds. Naturally this feature has disqualified the theory for relativistic thermodynamics which must insist on finite speeds and, moreover, on speeds smaller than $c$. The attempts at a remedy have proved heuristically important for a new systematic type of thermodynamics: Extended thermodynamics. That new theory has symmetric hyperbolic field equations and thus it provides finite pulse speeds. Extended thermodynamics is a whole hierarchy of theories with an increasing number of fields when gradients and rates of thermodynamic processes become steeper and faster. The first stage in this hierarchy is the 14-field theory which may already be a useful tool for the relativist in many applications. The 14 fields -- and further fields -- are conveniently chosen from the moments of the kinetic theory of gases. The hierarchy is complete only when the number of fields tends to infinity. In that case the pulse speed of non-relativistic extended thermodynamics tends to infinity while the pulse speed of relativistic extended thermodynamics tends to $c$, the speed of light. In extended thermodynamics symmetric hyperbolicity -- and finite speeds -- are implied by the concavity of the entropy density. This is still true in relativistic thermodynamics for a privileged entropy density which is the entropy density of the rest frame for non-degenerate gases.
Realization of a Tunable Dissipation Scale in a Turbulent Cascade using a Quantum Gas
Navon, Nir; Eigen, Christoph; Zhang, Jinyi; Lopes, Raphael; Smith, Robert; Hadzibabic, Zoran
2017-04-01
Many turbulent flows form so-called cascades, where excitations injected at large length scales, are transported to gradually smaller scales until they reach a dissipation scale. We initiate a turbulent cascade in a dilute Bose fluid by pumping energy at the container scale of an optical box trap using an oscillating magnetic force. In contrast to classical fluids where the dissipation scale is set by the viscosity of the fluid, the turbulent cascade of our quantum gas finishes when the particles kinetic energy exceeds the laser-trap depth. This mechanism thus allows us to effectively tune the dissipation scale where particles (and energy) are lost, and measure the particle flux in the cascade at the dissipation scale. We observe a unit power-law decay of the particle-dissipation rate with trap depth, which confirms the surprising prediction that in a wave-turbulent direct energy cascade, the particle flux vanishes in the ideal limit where the dissipation length scale tends to zero.
The incompressible non-relativistic Navier-Stokes equation from gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Minwalla, Shiraz; Wadia, Spenta R.
2009-01-01
We note that the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics reduce to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a particular scaling limit. In this limit boundary metric fluctuations of the underlying relativistic system turn into a forcing function identical to the action of a background electromagnetic field on the effectively charged fluid. We demonstrate that special conformal symmetries of the parent relativistic theory descend to 'accelerated boost' symmetries of the Navier-Stokes equations, uncovering a conformal symmetry structure of these equations. Applying our scaling limit to holographically induced fluid dynamics, we find gravity dual descriptions of an arbitrary solution of the forced non-relativistic incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. In the holographic context we also find a simple forced steady state shear solution to the Navier-Stokes equations, and demonstrate that this solution turns unstable at high enough Reynolds numbers, indicating a possible eventual transition to turbulence.
Dissipation and nuclear collective motion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hofmann, Helmut; Jensen, A.S.; Ngo, Christian; Siemens, P.J.; California Univ., Berkeley
1979-01-01
This contribution is intended to give a brief summary of a forthcoming paper which shall review extensively the linear response theory for dissipation and statistical fluctuations as well as its application to heavy-ion collisions. It shall contain new results on the following subjects: numerical computations of response functions and transport coefficients; dissipation in a self-consistent treatment of harmonic vibrations; introduction of collective variables within a quantum theory. The method used consists of an extended version of the Bohm and Pines treatment of the electron gas. It allows to deduce a quantum Hamiltonian for the collective and intrinsic motion including coupling terms; discussion and solution of a quantal Master equation for non-linear collective motion. Additionally, a somewhat elaborate discussion of the problems of irreversibility is given, especially in connection to a treatment within the moving basis
Nuclear Dissipation from Fission Time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gontchar, I.; Morjean, M.; Basnary, S.
2000-01-01
Fission times, pre-scission neutron multiplicities and GDR pre-scission γ-ray multiplicities measured for uranium or thorium nuclei formed with temperatures T ∼ 1.8 MeV have been compared with calculations performed with CDSM2, a two-dimensional dynamical model combined with a statistical one. Among the three experimental approaches considered, fission times give access to the most precise pieces of information on nuclear dissipation at high excitation energy. For the temperature range under consideration, an agreement between the model and data is achieved if one-body dissipation is used with a strength factor k red ∼ 0.45 ± 0.10 applied to the wall term for the mononuclear configuration. (authors)
Collisionless dissipation of Langmuir turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erofeev, V.I.
2002-01-01
An analysis of two experimental observations of Langmuir wave collapse is performed. The corresponding experimental data are shown to give evidence against the collapse. The physical reason for preventing the collapses is found to be the nonresonant electron diffusion in momentums. In this process, plasma thermal electrons are efficiently heated at the expense of wave energy, and intense collisionless wave dissipation takes place. The basic reason of underestimation of this phenomenon in traditional theory is shown to be the substitution of real plasma by a plasma probabilistic ensemble. A theory of nonresonant electron diffusion in a single collisionless plasma is developed. It is shown that corresponding collisionless wave dissipation may arrest spectral energy transfer towards small wave numbers
Anisotropy dissipation in quantum cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calzetta, E.; Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina)
1991-01-01
We study the issue of decoherence and dissipation in the wave function of the Universe for a Bianchi type-I universe with classical and quantum matter. We obtain a coarse-grained description by tracing over the matter degrees of freedom. Provided that for small universes the wave function of the universe is concentrated on a neighborhood of the isotropic configuration, then the coarse-grained density matrix of the universe will show an even more marked peak around isotropy for large universes. In this sense we can say that, while decoherence makes the reduced density matrix of the universe diagonal, dissipation causes the universe to be isotropic with a high probability for large radii
Reversible dissipative processes, conformal motions and Landau damping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herrera, L., E-mail: laherrera@cantv.net.ve [Departamento de Física Teórica e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao (Spain); Di Prisco, A., E-mail: adiprisc@fisica.ciens.ucv.ve [Departamento de Física Teórica e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao (Spain); Ibáñez, J., E-mail: j.ibanez@ehu.es [Departamento de Física Teórica e Historia de la Ciencia, Universidad del País Vasco, Bilbao (Spain)
2012-02-06
The existence of a dissipative flux vector is known to be compatible with reversible processes, provided a timelike conformal Killing vector (CKV) χ{sup α}=(V{sup α})/T (where V{sup α} and T denote the four-velocity and temperature respectively) is admitted by the spacetime. Here we show that if a constitutive transport equation, either within the context of standard irreversible thermodynamics or the causal Israel–Stewart theory, is adopted, then such a compatibility also requires vanishing dissipative fluxes. Therefore, in this later case the vanishing of entropy production generated by the existence of such CKV is not actually associated to an imperfect fluid, but to a non-dissipative one. We discuss also about Landau damping. -- Highlights: ► We review the problem of compatibility of dissipation with reversibility. ► We show that the additional assumption of a transport equation renders such a compatibility trivial. ► We discuss about Landau damping.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nemenov, L.
2001-01-01
The Coulomb interaction which occurs in the final state between two particles with opposite charges allows for creation of the bound state of these particles. In the case when particles are generated with large momentum in lab frame, the Lorentz factors of the bound state will also be much larger than one. The relativistic velocity of the atoms provides the opportunity to observe bound states of (π + μ - ), (π + π - ) and (π + K - ) with a lifetime as short as 10 -16 s, and to measure their parameters. The ultrarelativistic positronium atoms (A 2e ) allow us to observe the e.ect of superpenetration in matter, to study the effects caused by the formation time of A 2e from virtual e + e - pairs and to investigate the process of transformation of two virtual particles into the bound state
Photoionization at relativistic energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ionescu, D.C.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Soerensen, A.H.; Belkacem, A.
2000-11-01
At MeV energies and beyond the inner-shell vacancy production cross section associated with the photoelectric and Compton effect decrease with increasing photon energy. However, when the photon energy exceeds twice the rest energy of the electron, ionization of a bound electron may be catalyzed by the creation of an electron-positron pair. Distinctly different from all other known mechanisms for inner-shell vacancy production by photons, we show that the cross section for this ''vacuum-assisted photoionization'' increases with increasing photon energy and then saturates. As a main result, we predict that vacuum-assisted photoionization will dominate the other known photoionization mechanisms in the highly relativistic energy regime. (orig.)
Relativistic heavy ion physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.
1993-01-01
This is a progress report for the period May 1992 through April 1993. The first section, entitled ''Purpose and Trends, gives background on the recent trends in the research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled ''Physics Research Progress'', is divided into four parts: participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator; joining E864 at the AGS accelerator and the role in that experiment; progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation highlight of this endeavor is an experiment carried out with the 197 Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1992; progress in completion of the nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks, and contributed talks is given
Relativistic plasma dispersion functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, P.A.
1986-01-01
The known properties of plasma dispersion functions (PDF's) for waves in weakly relativistic, magnetized, thermal plasmas are reviewed and a large number of new results are presented. The PDF's required for the description of waves with small wave number perpendicular to the magnetic field (Dnestrovskii and Shkarofsky functions) are considered in detail; these functions also arise in certain quantum electrodynamical calculations involving strongly magnetized plasmas. Series, asymptotic series, recursion relations, integral forms, derivatives, differential equations, and approximations for these functions are discussed as are their analytic properties and connections with standard transcendental functions. In addition a more general class of PDF's relevant to waves of arbitrary perpendicular wave number is introduced and a range of properties of these functions are derived
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kipping, David, E-mail: dkipping@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W. 120th St., New York, NY 10027 (United States)
2017-06-01
One proposed method for spacecraft to reach nearby stars is by accelerating sails using either solar radiation pressure or directed energy. This idea constitutes the thesis behind the Breakthrough Starshot project, which aims to accelerate a gram-mass spacecraft up to one-fifth the speed of light toward Proxima Centauri. For such a case, the combination of the sail’s low mass and relativistic velocity renders previous treatments incorrect at the 10% level, including that of Einstein himself in his seminal 1905 paper introducing special relativity. To address this, we present formulae for a sail’s acceleration, first in response to a single photon and then extended to an ensemble. We show how the sail’s motion in response to an ensemble of incident photons is equivalent to that of a single photon of energy equal to that of the ensemble. We use this principle of ensemble equivalence for both perfect and imperfect mirrors, enabling a simple analytic prediction of the sail’s velocity curve. Using our results and adopting putative parameters for Starshot , we estimate that previous relativistic treatments underestimate the spacecraft’s terminal velocity by ∼10% for the same incident energy. Additionally, we use a simple model to predict the sail’s temperature and diffraction beam losses during the laser firing period; this allows us to estimate that, for firing times of a few minutes and operating temperatures below 300°C (573 K), Starshot will require a sail that absorbs less than one in 260,000 photons.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kipping, David
2017-01-01
One proposed method for spacecraft to reach nearby stars is by accelerating sails using either solar radiation pressure or directed energy. This idea constitutes the thesis behind the Breakthrough Starshot project, which aims to accelerate a gram-mass spacecraft up to one-fifth the speed of light toward Proxima Centauri. For such a case, the combination of the sail’s low mass and relativistic velocity renders previous treatments incorrect at the 10% level, including that of Einstein himself in his seminal 1905 paper introducing special relativity. To address this, we present formulae for a sail’s acceleration, first in response to a single photon and then extended to an ensemble. We show how the sail’s motion in response to an ensemble of incident photons is equivalent to that of a single photon of energy equal to that of the ensemble. We use this principle of ensemble equivalence for both perfect and imperfect mirrors, enabling a simple analytic prediction of the sail’s velocity curve. Using our results and adopting putative parameters for Starshot , we estimate that previous relativistic treatments underestimate the spacecraft’s terminal velocity by ∼10% for the same incident energy. Additionally, we use a simple model to predict the sail’s temperature and diffraction beam losses during the laser firing period; this allows us to estimate that, for firing times of a few minutes and operating temperatures below 300°C (573 K), Starshot will require a sail that absorbs less than one in 260,000 photons.
Rotating relativistic neutron stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, F.; Glendenning, N.K.
1991-07-21
Models of rotating neutron stars are constructed in the framework of Einstein's theory of general relativity. For this purpose a refined version of Hartle's method is applied. The properties of these objects, e.g. gravitational mass, equatorial and polar radius, eccentricity, red- and blueshift, quadrupole moment, are investigated for Kepler frequencies of 4000 s{sup {minus}1} {le} {Omega}{sub K} {le} 9000 s{sup {minus}1}. Therefore a self-consistency problem inherent in the determination of {Omega}{sub K} must be solved. The investigation is based on neutron star matter equations of state derived from the relativistic Martin-Schwinger hierarch of coupled Green's functions. By means of introducing the Hartree, Hartree-Fock, and ladder ({Lambda}) approximations, models of the equation of state derived. A special feature of the latter approximation scheme is the inclusion of dynamical two-particle correlations. These have been calculated from the relativistic T-matrix applying both the HEA and Bonn meson-exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon force. The nuclear forces of the former two treatments are those of the standard scalar-vector-isovector model of quantum hadron dynamics, with parameters adjusted to the nuclear matter data. An important aspect of this work consists in testing the compatibility of different competing models of the nuclear equation of state with data on pulsar periods. By this the fundamental problem of nuclear physics concerning the behavior of the equation of state at supernuclear densities can be treated.
A new cross-effect in local relativistic thermodynamics of irreversible processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gariel, J.
1981-01-01
It is shown that the supplementary term qsup(α)usub(α) which appears in the caloric conducting fluid Eckart's theory (where qsup(α) is the derivative by the curvilinear absciss of the calorific conduction density and usub(α) the local unitary speed) states a thermodynamics construction problem. We can solve this one by admitting the existence of a new relativistic 'thermokinetic' cross-effect, which leads to the relativistic Fourier's hypothesis of Pham Mau Quan [fr
Some problems in relativistic thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veitsman, E. V.
2007-01-01
The relativistic equations of state for ideal and real gases, as well as for various interface regions, have been derived. These dependences help to eliminate some controversies in the relativistic thermodynamics based on the special theory of relativity. It is shown, in particular, that the temperature of system whose velocity tends to the velocity of light in vacuum varies in accordance with the Ott law T = T 0 /√1 - v 2 /c 2 . Relativistic dependences for heat and mass transfer, for Ohm's law, and for a viscous flow of a liquid have also been derived
Neutrino radiation-hydrodynamics. General relativistic versus multidimensional supernova simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liebendoerfer, Matthias; Fischer, Tobias; Hempel, Matthias
2010-01-01
Recently, simulations of the collapse of massive stars showed that selected models of the QCD phase transitions to deconfined quarks during the early postbounce phase can trigger the supernova explosion that has been searched for over many years in spherically symmetric supernova models. Using sophisticated general relativistic Boltzmann neutrino transport, it was found that a characteristic neutrino signature is emitted that permits to falsify or identify this scenario in the next Galactic supernova event. On the other hand, more refined observations of past supernovae and progressing theoretical research in different supernova groups demonstrated that the effects of multidimensional fluid instabilities cannot be neglected in global models of the explosions of massive stars. We point to different efforts where neutrino transport and general relativistic effects are combined with multidimensional fluid instabilities in supernovae. With those, it will be possible to explore the gravitational wave emission as a potential second characteristic observable of the presence of quark matter in new-born neutron stars. (author)
Static and dynamic properties of smoothed dissipative particle dynamics
Alizadehrad, Davod; Fedosov, Dmitry A.
2018-03-01
In this paper, static and dynamic properties of the smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) method are investigated. We study the effect of method parameters on SDPD fluid properties, such as structure, speed of sound, and transport coefficients, and show that a proper choice of parameters leads to a well-behaved and accurate fluid model. In particular, the speed of sound, the radial distribution function (RDF), shear-thinning of viscosity, the mean-squared displacement (〈R2 〉 ∝ t), and the Schmidt number (Sc ∼ O (103) - O (104)) can be controlled, such that the model exhibits a fluid-like behavior for a wide range of temperatures in simulations. Furthermore, in addition to the consideration of fluid density variations for fluid compressibility, a more challenging test of incompressibility is performed by considering the Poisson ratio and divergence of velocity field in an elongational flow. Finally, as an example of complex-fluid flow, we present the applicability and validity of the SDPD method with an appropriate choice of parameters for the simulation of cellular blood flow in irregular geometries. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the SDPD method is able to approximate well a nearly incompressible fluid behavior, which includes hydrodynamic interactions and consistent thermal fluctuations, thereby providing, a powerful approach for simulations of complex mesoscopic systems.
Conductivity of a relativistic plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braams, B.J.; Karney, C.F.F.
1989-03-01
The collision operator for a relativistic plasma is reformulated in terms of an expansion in spherical harmonics. This formulation is used to calculate the electrical conductivity. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Relativistic description of atomic nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krutov, V.A.
1985-01-01
Papers on the relativistic description of nuclei are reviewed. The Brown and Rho ''small'' bag'' model is accepted for hardrons. Meson exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon interaction have been considered. Then the transition from a system of two interacting nucleons has been performed to the relativistic nucleus description as a multinucleon system on the basis of OBEP (one-boson exchange potential). The proboem of OPEP (one-pion-exchange potential) inclusion to a relativistic scheme is discussed. Simplicity of calculations and attractiveness of the Walecka model for specific computations and calculations was noted. The relativistic model of nucleons interacting through ''effective'' scalar and vector boson fields was used in the Walacka model for describing neutronaand nuclear mater matters
Conductivity of a relativistic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braams, B.J.; Karney, C.F.F.
1989-03-01
The collision operator for a relativistic plasma is reformulated in terms of an expansion in spherical harmonics. This formulation is used to calculate the electrical conductivity. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab
Electrostatic shock structures in dissipative multi-ion dusty plasmas
Elkamash, I. S.; Kourakis, I.
2018-06-01
A comprehensive analytical model is introduced for shock excitations in dusty bi-ion plasma mixtures, taking into account collisionality and kinematic (fluid) viscosity. A multicomponent plasma configuration is considered, consisting of positive ions, negative ions, electrons, and a massive charged component in the background (dust). The ionic dynamical scale is focused upon; thus, electrons are assumed to be thermalized, while the dust is stationary. A dissipative hybrid Korteweg-de Vries/Burgers equation is derived. An analytical solution is obtained, in the form of a shock structure (a step-shaped function for the electrostatic potential, or an electric field pulse) whose maximum amplitude in the far downstream region decays in time. The effect of relevant plasma configuration parameters, in addition to dissipation, is investigated. Our work extends earlier studies of ion-acoustic type shock waves in pure (two-component) bi-ion plasma mixtures.
Relativistic heavy-ion physics
Herrera Corral, G
2010-01-01
The study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is an important part of the LHC research programme at CERN. This emerging field of research focuses on the study of matter under extreme conditions of temperature, density, and pressure. Here we present an introduction to the general aspects of relativistic heavy-ion physics. Afterwards we give an overview of the accelerator facility at CERN and then a quick look at the ALICE project as a dedicated experiment for heavy-ion collisions.
Relativistic hydrodynamic evolutions with black hole excision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duez, Matthew D.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Yo, H.-J.
2004-01-01
We present a numerical code designed to study astrophysical phenomena involving dynamical spacetimes containing black holes in the presence of relativistic hydrodynamic matter. We present evolutions of the collapse of a fluid star from the onset of collapse to the settling of the resulting black hole to a final stationary state. In order to evolve stably after the black hole forms, we excise a region inside the hole before a singularity is encountered. This excision region is introduced after the appearance of an apparent horizon, but while a significant amount of matter remains outside the hole. We test our code by evolving accurately a vacuum Schwarzschild black hole, a relativistic Bondi accretion flow onto a black hole, Oppenheimer-Snyder dust collapse, and the collapse of nonrotating and rotating stars. These systems are tracked reliably for hundreds of M following excision, where M is the mass of the black hole. We perform these tests both in axisymmetry and in full 3+1 dimensions. We then apply our code to study the effect of the stellar spin parameter J/M 2 on the final outcome of gravitational collapse of rapidly rotating n=1 polytropes. We find that a black hole forms only if J/M 2 2 >1, the collapsing star forms a torus which fragments into nonaxisymmetric clumps, capable of generating appreciable 'splash' gravitational radiation
Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsujikawa, Shinji; Tamaki, Takashi; Tavakol, Reza
2009-01-01
We study the field profile of a scalar field φ that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential Φ c at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V(φ) = M 4+n φ −n by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential Φ c is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for Φ c ∼< O(0.1)
Chameleon scalar fields in relativistic gravitational backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsujikawa, Shinji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Tamaki, Takashi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Okubo 3-4-1, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Tavakol, Reza, E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: tamaki@gravity.phys.waseda.ac.jp, E-mail: r.tavakol@qmul.ac.uk [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2009-05-15
We study the field profile of a scalar field {phi} that couples to a matter fluid (dubbed a chameleon field) in the relativistic gravitational background of a spherically symmetric spacetime. Employing a linear expansion in terms of the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} at the surface of a compact object with a constant density, we derive the thin-shell field profile both inside and outside the object, as well as the resulting effective coupling with matter, analytically. We also carry out numerical simulations for the class of inverse power-law potentials V({phi}) = M{sup 4+n}{phi}{sup -n} by employing the information provided by our analytical solutions to set the boundary conditions around the centre of the object and show that thin-shell solutions in fact exist if the gravitational potential {Phi}{sub c} is smaller than 0.3, which marginally covers the case of neutron stars. Thus the chameleon mechanism is present in the relativistic gravitational backgrounds, capable of reducing the effective coupling. Since thin-shell solutions are sensitive to the choice of boundary conditions, our analytic field profile is very helpful to provide appropriate boundary conditions for {Phi}{sub c}{approx}
General-relativistic pulsar magnetospheric emission
Pétri, J.
2018-06-01
Most current pulsar emission models assume photon production and emission within the magnetosphere. Low-frequency radiation is preferentially produced in the vicinity of the polar caps, whereas the high-energy tail is shifted to regions closer but still inside the light cylinder. We conducted a systematic study of the merit of several popular radiation sites like the polar cap, the outer gap, and the slot gap. We computed sky maps emanating from each emission site according to a prescribed distribution function for the emitting particles made of an electron/positron mixture. Calculations are performed using a three-dimensional integration of the plasma emissivity in the vacuum electromagnetic field of a rotating and centred general-relativistic dipole. We compare Newtonian electromagnetic fields to their general-relativistic counterpart. In the latter case, light bending is also taken into account. As a typical example, light curves and sky maps are plotted for several power-law indices of the particle distribution function. The detailed pulse profiles strongly depend on the underlying assumption about the fluid motion subject to strong electromagnetic fields. This electromagnetic topology enforces the photon propagation direction directly, or indirectly, from aberration effects. We also discuss the implication of a net stellar electric charge on to sky maps. Taking into account, the electric field strongly affects the light curves originating close to the light cylinder, where the electric field strength becomes comparable to the magnetic field strength.
Instability of extremal relativistic charged spheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anninos, Peter; Rothman, Tony
2002-01-01
With the question 'Can relativistic charged spheres form extremal black holes?' in mind, we investigate the properties of such spheres from a classical point of view. The investigation is carried out numerically by integrating the Oppenheimer-Volkov equation for relativistic charged fluid spheres and finding interior Reissner-Nordstroem solutions for these objects. We consider both constant density and adiabatic equations of state, as well as several possible charge distributions, and examine stability by both a normal mode and an energy analysis. In all cases, the stability limit for these spheres lies between the extremal (Q=M) limit and the black hole limit (R=R + ). That is, we find that charged spheres undergo gravitational collapse before they reach Q=M, suggesting that extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black holes produced by collapse are ruled out. A general proof of this statement would support a strong form of the cosmic censorship hypothesis, excluding not only stable naked singularities, but stable extremal black holes. The numerical results also indicate that although the interior mass-energy m(R) obeys the usual m/R + as Q→M. In the Appendix we also argue that Hawking radiation will not lead to an extremal Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. All our results are consistent with the third law of black hole dynamics, as currently understood
Designing Biomimetic, Dissipative Material Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balazs, Anna C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Whitesides, George M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Brinker, C. Jeffrey [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering. Dept. of Chemistry. Dept. of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology. Center for Micro-Engineered Materials; Aranson, Igor S. [UChicago, LLC., Argonne, IL (United States); Chaikin, Paul [New York Univ. (NYU), NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dogic, Zvonimir [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Glotzer, Sharon [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering. Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering. Dept. of Macromolecular Science and Engineering Physics; Hammer, Daniel [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Science; Irvine, Darrell [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering and Biological Engineering; Little, Steven R. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Parikh, Atul N. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering. Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Stupp, Samuel [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering. Dept. of Chemistry. Dept. of Medicine. Dept. of Biomedical Engineering; Szostak, Jack [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
2016-01-21
Throughout human history, new materials have been the foundation of transformative technologies: from bronze, paper, and ceramics to steel, silicon, and polymers, each material has enabled far-reaching advances. Today, another new class of materials is emerging—one with both the potential to provide radically new functions and to challenge our notion of what constitutes a “material”. These materials would harvest, transduce, or dissipate energy to perform autonomous, dynamic functions that mimic the behaviors of living organisms. Herein, we discuss the challenges and benefits of creating “dissipative” materials that can potentially blur the boundaries between living and non-living matter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filipovic, N; Haber, S; Kojic, M; Tsuda, A
2008-01-01
Traditional DPD methods address dissipative and random forces exerted along the line connecting neighbouring particles. Espanol (1998 Phys. Rev. E 57 2930-48) suggested adding dissipative and random force components in a direction perpendicular to this line. This paper focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of such an addition as compared with the traditional DPD method. Our benchmark system comprises fluid initially at rest occupying the space between two concentric cylinders rotating with various angular velocities. The effect of the lateral force components on the time evolution of the simulated velocity profile was also compared with that of the known analytical solution. The results show that (i) the solution accuracy at steady state has improved and the error has been reduced by at least 30% (in one case by 75%), (ii) the DPD time to reach steady state has been halved, (iii) the CPU time has increased by only 30%, and (iv) no significant differences exist in density and temperature distributions
CONSIDERATIONS ON FLUID DYNAMICS INSIDE A HYDRAULIC SEISMIC ENERGY ABSORBER
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ȘCHEAUA Fănel
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This study presents a method for obtaining a simplified model of a seismic energy dissipation device whose operating principle is based on viscous fluid as a solution for structural isolation against seismic actions. The device operation is based on the resistance force developed by the working fluid when the piston tends to move due to occurrence of a seismic motion. A 3D model achieved is introduced in CFD analysis for emphasize dynamic fluid flow inside the device dissipation cylinder.
Magnetized relativistic electron-ion plasma expansion
Benkhelifa, El-Amine; Djebli, Mourad
2016-03-01
The dynamics of relativistic laser-produced plasma expansion across a transverse magnetic field is investigated. Based on a one dimensional two-fluid model that includes pressure, enthalpy, and rest mass energy, the expansion is studied in the limit of λD (Debye length) ≤RL (Larmor radius) for magnetized electrons and ions. Numerical investigation conducted for a quasi-neutral plasma showed that the σ parameter describing the initial plasma magnetization, and the plasma β parameter, which is the ratio of kinetic to magnetic pressure are the key parameters governing the expansion dynamics. For σ ≪ 1, ion's front shows oscillations associated to the break-down of quasi-neutrality. This is due to the strong constraining effect and confinement of the magnetic field, which acts as a retarding medium slowing the plasma expansion.
Relativistic theory of surficial Love numbers
Landry, Philippe; Poisson, Eric
2014-06-01
A relativistic theory of surficial Love numbers, which characterize the surface deformation of a body subjected to tidal forces, was initiated by Damour and Nagar. We revisit this effort in order to extend it, clarify some of its aspects, and simplify its computational implementation. First, we refine the definition of surficial Love numbers proposed by Damour and Nagar and formulate it directly in terms of the deformed curvature of the body's surface, a meaningful geometrical quantity. Second, we develop a unified theory of surficial Love numbers that applies equally well to material bodies and black holes. Third, we derive a compactness-dependent relation between the surficial and (electric-type) gravitational Love numbers of a perfect-fluid body and show that it reduces to the familiar Newtonian relation when the compactness is small. And fourth, we simplify the tasks associated with the practical computation of the surficial and gravitational Love numbers for a material body.
Relativistic theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1986-01-01
In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is unambiguously constructed on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday--Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-moment and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravity. By virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTG leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The universe is not closed but just ''flat.'' This suggests that in the universe a ''missing mass'' should exist in a form of matter
Relativistic theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvilli, M.A.
1985-01-01
In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is constructed in a unique way on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this, a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday-Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG, the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-momentum and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravitation. In virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTg leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The Universe is not closed but just ''flat''. This suggests that in the Universe a ''hidden mass'' should exist in some form of matter
Relativistic gravitation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1984-01-01
On the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle a relativistic gravitation theory (RGT) is unambiguously constructed with the help of a notion of a gravitational field as a physical field in Faraday-Maxwell spirit, which posesses energy momentum and spins 2 and 0. The source of gravitation field is a total conserved energy-momentum tensor for matter and for gravitation field in Minkowski space. In the RGT conservation laws for the energy momentum and angular momentum of matter and gravitational field hold rigorously. The theory explains the whole set of gravitation experiments. Here, due to the geometrization principle the Riemannian space is of a field origin since this space arises effectively as a result of the gravitation field origin since this space arises effectively as a result of the gravitation field action on the matter. The RGT astonishing prediction is that the Universe is not closed but ''flat''. It means that in the Universe there should exist a ''missing'' mass in some form of matter
Natural approach to quantum dissipation
Taj, David; Öttinger, Hans Christian
2015-12-01
The dissipative dynamics of a quantum system weakly coupled to one or several reservoirs is usually described in terms of a Lindblad generator. The popularity of this approach is certainly due to the linear character of the latter. However, while such linearity finds justification from an underlying Hamiltonian evolution in some scaling limit, it does not rely on solid physical motivations at small but finite values of the coupling constants, where the generator is typically used for applications. The Markovian quantum master equations we propose are instead supported by very natural thermodynamic arguments. They themselves arise from Markovian master equations for the system and the environment which preserve factorized states and mean energy and generate entropy at a non-negative rate. The dissipative structure is driven by an entropic map, called modular, which introduces nonlinearity. The generated modular dynamical semigroup (MDS) guarantees for the positivity of the time evolved state the correct steady state properties, the positivity of the entropy production, and a positive Onsager matrix with symmetry relations arising from Green-Kubo formulas. We show that the celebrated Davies Lindblad generator, obtained through the Born and the secular approximations, generates a MDS. In doing so we also provide a nonlinear MDS which is supported by a weak coupling argument and is free from the limitations of the Davies generator.
Relativistic positioning systems: perspectives and prospects
Coll Bartolomé
2013-11-01
Relativistic positioning systems are interesting technical objects for applications around the Earth and in the Solar system. But above all else, they are basic scientific objects allowing developing relativity from its own concepts. Some past and future features of relativistic positioning sys- tems, with special attention to the developments that they suggest for an epistemic relativity (relativistic experimental approach to physics), are analyzed. This includes relativistic stereometry, which, together with relativistic positioning systems, allows to introduce the general relativistic notion of (finite) laboratory (space-time region able to perform experiments of finite size).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salesi, G.
1995-07-01
Starting from the Pauli current the decomposition of the non-relativistic local velocity has been obtained in two parts (in the ordinary tensorial language): one parallel and the other orthogonal to the impulse. The former is recognized to be the classical part, that is, the center-of-mass (CM) velocity, and the latter the quantum one, that is, the velocity of the motion in the CM frame (namely, the internal spin motion or Zitterbewegung). Inserting this complete, composite expression of the velocity into the kinetic energy term of the classical non-relativistic (i.e. Newtonian) Lagrangian, the author straightforwardly get the appearance of the so called quantum potential associates as it is known, to the Madelung fluid. In such a way, the quantum mechanical behaviour of particles appears to be strictly correlated to the existence of spin and Zitterbewegung
Dynamics of charged viscous dissipative cylindrical collapse with full causal approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shah, S.M.; Abbas, G. [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Department of Mathematics, Bahawalpur (Pakistan)
2017-11-15
The aim of this paper is to investigate the dynamical aspects of a charged viscous cylindrical source by using the Misner approach. To this end, we have considered the more general charged dissipative fluid enclosed by the cylindrical symmetric spacetime. The dissipative nature of the source is due to the presence of dissipative variables in the stress-energy tensor. The dynamical equations resulting from such charged cylindrical dissipative source have been coupled with the causal transport equations for heat flux, shear and bulk viscosity, in the context of the Israel-Steward theory. In this case, we have the considered Israel-Steward transportation equations without excluding the thermodynamics viscous/heat coupling coefficients. The results are compared with the previous works in which such coefficients were excluded and viscosity variables do not satisfy the casual transportation equations. (orig.)
Relativistic helicity and link in Minkowski space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Z.; Kawazura, Y.; Yokoyama, T.
2014-01-01
A relativistic helicity has been formulated in the four-dimensional Minkowski space-time. Whereas the relativistic distortion of space-time violates the conservation of the conventional helicity, the newly defined relativistic helicity conserves in a barotropic fluid or plasma, dictating a fundamental topological constraint. The relation between the helicity and the vortex-line topology has been delineated by analyzing the linking number of vortex filaments which are singular differential forms representing the pure states of Banach algebra. While the dimension of space-time is four, vortex filaments link, because vorticities are primarily 2-forms and the corresponding 2-chains link in four dimension; the relativistic helicity measures the linking number of vortex filaments that are proper-time cross-sections of the vorticity 2-chains. A thermodynamic force yields an additional term in the vorticity, by which the vortex filaments on a reference-time plane are no longer pure states. However, the vortex filaments on a proper-time plane remain to be pure states, if the thermodynamic force is exact (barotropic), thus, the linking number of vortex filaments conserves
Relativistic gravitational potential and its relation to mass-energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voracek, P.
1979-01-01
From the general theory of relativity a relation is deduced between the mass of a particle and the gravitational field at the position of the particle. For this purpose the fall of a particle of negligible mass in the gravitational field of a massive body is used. After establishing the relativistic potential and its relationship to the rest mass of the particle, we show, assuming conservation of mass-energy, that the difference between two potential-levels depends upon the value of the radial metric coefficient at the position of an observer. Further, it is proved that the relativistic potential is compatible with the general concept of the potential also from the standpoint of kinematics. In the third section it is shown that, although the mass-energy of a body is a function of the distance from it, this does not influence the relativistic potential of the body itself. From this conclusion it follows that the mass-energy of a particle in a gravitational field is anisotropic; isotropic is the mass only. Further, the possibility of an incidental feed-back between two masses is ruled out, and the law of the composition of the relativistic gravitational potentials is deduced. Finally, it is shown, by means of a simple model, that local inhomogeneities in the ideal fluid filling the Universe have negligible influence on the total potential in large regions. (orig.)
Time evolution of distribution functions in dissipative environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Li-Yun; Chen Fei; Wang Zi-Sheng; Fan Hong-Yi
2011-01-01
By introducing the thermal entangled state representation, we investigate the time evolution of distribution functions in the dissipative channels by bridging the relation between the initial distribution function and the any time distribution function. We find that most of them are expressed as such integrations over the Laguerre—Gaussian function. Furthermore, as applications, we derive the time evolution of photon-counting distribution by bridging the relation between the initial distribution function and the any time photon-counting distribution, and the time evolution of R-function characteristic of nonclassicality depth. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Relativistic theory of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1985-01-01
This work presents an unambiguous construction of the relativistic theory of gravity (RTG) in the framework of relativity and the geometrization principle. The gauge principle has been formulated, and the Lagrangian density of the gravitational field has thus been constructed. This theory explains the totality of the available experimental data on the solar system and predicts the existence of gravitational waves of the Faraday-Maxwell type. According to the RTG, the Universe is infinite and ''flat'', hence it follows that its matter density should be equal to its critical density. Therefore, an appreciable ''hidden mass'' exceeding the presently observed mass of the matter almost 40-fold should exist in the Universe in some form of the matter or other. In accordance with the RTG, a massive body having a finite density ceases to contract under gravitational forces within a finite interval of proper time. From the viewpoint of an external reference frame, the brightness of the body decreases exponentially (it is getting darker), but nothing extraordinary happens in this case because its density always remains finite and, for example, for a body with the mass of about 10 8 M 0 it is equal to 2 g/cm 3 . That is why it follows from the RTG that there could be no object whatsoever (black holes) in which gravitational collapse of matter develops to an infinite density. As has been shown, the presence of a cosmological term necessarily requires the introduction of a term with an explicit dependence on the Minkowski metrics. For the long-range gravitational forces the cosmological constant vanishes
Radiatively driven relativistic spherical winds under relativistic radiative transfer
Fukue, J.
2018-05-01
We numerically investigate radiatively driven relativistic spherical winds from the central luminous object with mass M and luminosity L* under Newtonian gravity, special relativity, and relativistic radiative transfer. We solve both the relativistic radiative transfer equation and the relativistic hydrodynamical equations for spherically symmetric flows under the double-iteration processes, to obtain the intensity and velocity fields simultaneously. We found that the momentum-driven winds with scattering are quickly accelerated near the central object to reach the terminal speed. The results of numerical solutions are roughly fitted by a relation of \\dot{m}=0.7(Γ _*-1)\\tau _* β _* β _out^{-2.6}, where \\dot{m} is the mass-loss rate normalized by the critical one, Γ* the central luminosity normalized by the critical one, τ* the typical optical depth, β* the initial flow speed at the central core of radius R*, and βout the terminal speed normalized by the speed of light. This relation is close to the non-relativistic analytical solution, \\dot{m} = 2(Γ _*-1)\\tau _* β _* β _out^{-2}, which can be re-expressed as β _out^2/2 = (Γ _*-1)GM/c^2 R_*. That is, the present solution with small optical depth is similar to that of the radiatively driven free outflow. Furthermore, we found that the normalized luminosity (Eddington parameter) must be larger than unity for the relativistic spherical wind to blow off with intermediate or small optical depth, i.e. Γ _* ≳ \\sqrt{(1+β _out)^3/(1-β _out)}. We briefly investigate and discuss an isothermal wind.
Scattering in relativistic particle mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Bievre, S.
1986-01-01
The problem of direct interaction in relativistic particle mechanics has been extensively studied and a variety of models has been proposed avoiding the conclusions of the so-called no-interaction theorems. In this thesis the authors studied scattering in the relativistic two-body problem. He uses the results to analyze gauge invariance in Hamiltonian constraint models and the uniqueness of the symplectic structure in manifestly covariant relativistic particle mechanics. A general geometric framework that underlies approaches to relativistic particle mechanics is presented and the kinematic properties of the scattering transformation, i.e., those properties that arise solely from the invariance of the theory under the Poincare group are studied. The second part of the analysis of the relativistic two-body scattering problem is devoted to the dynamical properties of the scattering process. Using general geometric arguments, gauge invariance of the scattering transformation in the Todorov-Komar Hamiltonian constraint model is proved. Finally, quantization of the models is discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loveland, W.D.
1991-08-01
The work described herein is part of a project involving the study of low energy (< 10 MeV/A), intermediate energy (10--100 MeV/A) and relativistic (> 250 MeV/A) heavy ion reactions. In the low energy regime, we published a monograph on the properties of the heaviest elements and used that publication as a basis for making a set of best'' semi-empirical predictions of heavy element decay properties. The intermediate energy research effort focussed upon the completion of studies already begun and the initiation of a number of new experiments. In our study of a interaction of 21 MeV/nucleon {sup 129}Xe with {sup 197}Au, we compared the characteristics of the observed deep inelastic phenomena with various models of dissipative reactions and found significant discrepancies between observations and predictions. These discrepancies seemed to be caused by an improper treatment of pre-equilibrium in the early stages of the collision. In our study of the relativistic interaction of 400 MeV/nucleon {sup 12}C with {sup 197}Au, we reported the first direct physical measurement of the properties of the spallation residues from a nucleus-nucleus collision. We found the residue energies to be much lower than those predicted by the intranuclear cascade model, indicating some substantial modifications of that model are needed. But, we also found, indications of significant, non-zero values of the residue transverse momentum, a finding that calls into question the interpretation of a number of radiochemical recoil studies of the kinematics of high energy reactions. A program of performing numerical simulations of intermediate and high energy nuclear collisions using the QMD model was initiated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lang, Christian; Borghini, Nicolas
2014-01-01
A significant fraction of the changes in momentum distributions induced by dissipative phenomena in the description of the fluid fireball created in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions actually take place when the fluid turns into individual particles. We study these corrections in the limit of a low freeze-out temperature of the flowing medium, and we show that they mostly affect particles with a higher velocity than the fluid. For these, we derive relations between different flow harmonics, from which the functional form of the dissipative corrections could ultimately be reconstructed from experimental data. (orig.)
Variational principles for dissipative waves
Dodin, I. Y.; Ruiz, D. E.
2016-10-01
Variational methods are a powerful tool in plasma theory. However, their applications are typically restricted to conservative systems or require doubling of variables, which often contradicts the purpose of the variational approach altogether. We show that these restrictions can be relaxed for some classes of dynamical systems that are of practical interest in plasma physics, particularly including dissipative plasma waves. Applications will be discussed to calculating dispersion relations and modulational dynamics of individual plasma waves and wave ensembles. The work was supported by the NNSA SSAA Program through DOE Research Grant No. DE-NA0002948, by the U.S. DOE through Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466, and by the U.S. DOD NDSEG Fellowship through Contract No. 32-CFR-168a.
Yi, Longqing; Shen, Baifei; Pukhov, Alexander; Fülöp, Tünde
2017-10-01
Magnetic reconnection (MR) in the relativistic regime is generally thought to be responsible for powering rapid bursts of non-thermal radiation in astrophysical events. It is therefore of significant importance to study how the field energy is transferred to the plasma to power the observed emission. However, due to the difficulty in making direct measurements in astrophysical systems or achieving relativistic MR in laboratory environments, the particle acceleration is usually studied using fully kinetic PIC simulations. Here we present a numerical study of a readily available (TW-mJ-class) laser interacting with a micro-scale plasma slab. The simulations show when the electron beams excited on both sides of the slab approach the end of the plasma structure, ultrafast relativistic MR occurs. As the field topology changes, the explosive release of magnetic energy results in emission of relativistic electron jets with cut-off energy 12 MeV. The proposed novel scenario can be straightforwardly implemented in experiments, and might significantly improve the understanding of fundamental questions such as field dissipation and particle acceleration in relativistic MR. This work is supported by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation and the European Research Council (ERC-2014-CoG Grant 64712).
Transport phenomena in dissipative heavy-ion collisions: the one-body dissipation approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feldmeier, H.
1987-01-01
The paper reviews dissipative collisions between two atomic nuclei, with the help of the classical description of Brownian movement and the Langevin equation. The 'one-body dissipation model' for dissipative heavy-ion collisions is discussed, and its predictions are compared with measured data. Special attention is paid to the non-equilibrium relation between friction and diffusion. (U.K.)
Salama, Amgad
2013-02-01
Some sort of controversy is associated with the problem of viscous dissipation in saturated porous media for which we try to present a comparison study between the influences of the different terms contributing to this phenomenon. We consider viscous dissipation by studying the case of semi-infinite flat plate embedded in saturated porous medium and is kept at constant, higher temperature compared with the surrounding fluid. The fluid is induced to move upwards by natural convection during which viscous dissipation is considered. The boundary layer assumptions are considered to simplify the treatment and to highlight the influencing parameters. The behavior of temperature, and velocity fields in the neighborhood of the vertical flat plate were used to highlight the effects of these parameters. Three terms were considered to contribute to viscous dissipation, namely Darcy\\'s term, the Forchheimer term and Al-Hadharami\\'s term. Although there are no unanimous agreements between researchers to include the Forchhemier term in the dissipation function, some researchers argued it might have an indirect effect and hence for this sake and for completion purposes, we include it in this comparison study. Dimensional considerations reveal that Darcy\\'s term is influenced by Gebhart number, the Forchheimer term is controlled by the non-Darcy parameter and Al-Hadharami\\'s term is influenced by Darcy\\'s number. The governing, non-dimensional set of equations together with the imposed boundary conditions is numerically investigated by finite element method. The results for the details of the governing parameters are presented and investigated. It is found that the irreversible process of transforming the kinetic energy of the moving fluid to heat energy via the viscosity of the moving fluid (i.e., viscous dissipation) is very much influenced by the relative magnitude of these dimensionless parameters. © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Effect of viscous dissipation on mixed convection flow in a vertical ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The reference temperature of the external fluid is considered to be equal and different. The perturbation method which is valid for small values of perturbation parameter is used to find the combined effects of buoyancy forces and viscous dissipation. The limitation imposed on the perturbation parameter is relaxed by solving ...
Sultana, S.; Schlickeiser, R.
2018-05-01
Fully nonlinear features of heavy ion-acoustic solitary waves (HIASWs) have been investigated in an astrophysical degenerate relativistic quantum plasma (ADRQP) containing relativistically degenerate electrons and non-relativistically degenerate light ion species, and non-degenerate heavy ion species. The pseudo-energy balance equation is derived from the fluid dynamical equations by adopting the well-known Sagdeev-potential approach, and the properties of arbitrary amplitude HIASWs are examined. The small amplitude limit for the propagation of HIASWs is also recovered. The basic features (width, amplitude, polarity, critical Mach number, speed, etc.) of HIASWs are found to be significantly modified by the relativistic effect of the electron species, and also by the variation of the number density of electron, light ion, and heavy ion species. The basic properties of HIASWs, that may propagated in some realistic astrophysical plasma systems (e.g., in white dwarfs), are briefly discussed.
A Reconnection Switch to Trigger gamma-Ray Burst Jet Dissipation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKinney, Jonathan
2012-01-01
Prompt gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission requires some mechanism to dissipate an ultrarelativistic jet. Internal shocks or some form of electromagnetic dissipation are candidate mechanisms. Any mechanism needs to answer basic questions, such as what is the origin of variability, what radius does dissipation occur at, and how does efficient prompt emission occur. These mechanisms also need to be consistent with how ultrarelativistic jets form and stay baryon pure despite turbulence and electromagnetic reconnection near the compact object and despite stellar entrainment within the collapsar model. We use the latest magnetohydrodynamical models of ultrarelativistic jets to explore some of these questions in the context of electromagnetic dissipation due to the slow collisional and fast collisionless reconnection mechanisms, as often associated with Sweet-Parker and Petschek reconnection, respectively. For a highly magnetized ultrarelativistic jet and typical collapsar parameters, we find that significant electromagnetic dissipation may be avoided until it proceeds catastrophically near the jet photosphere at large radii (r ∼ 10 13 -10 14 cm), by which the jet obtains a high Lorentz factor (γ ∼ 100-1000), has a luminosity of L j ∼ 10 50 -10 51 erg s -1 , has observer variability timescales of order 1s (ranging from 0.001-10s), achieves γθ j ∼ 10-20 (for opening half-angle θ j ) and so is able to produce jet breaks, and has comparable energy available for both prompt and afterglow emission. A range of model parameters are investigated and simplified scaling laws are derived. This reconnection switch mechanism allows for highly efficient conversion of electromagnetic energy into prompt emission and associates the observed prompt GRB pulse temporal structure with dissipation timescales of some number of reconnecting current sheets embedded in the jet. We hope this work helps motivate the development of self-consistent radiative compressible relativistic
A Reconnection Switch to Trigger gamma-Ray Burst Jet Dissipation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McKinney, Jonathan C.; Uzdensky, Dmitri A.
2012-03-14
Prompt gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission requires some mechanism to dissipate an ultrarelativistic jet. Internal shocks or some form of electromagnetic dissipation are candidate mechanisms. Any mechanism needs to answer basic questions, such as what is the origin of variability, what radius does dissipation occur at, and how does efficient prompt emission occur. These mechanisms also need to be consistent with how ultrarelativistic jets form and stay baryon pure despite turbulence and electromagnetic reconnection near the compact object and despite stellar entrainment within the collapsar model. We use the latest magnetohydrodynamical models of ultrarelativistic jets to explore some of these questions in the context of electromagnetic dissipation due to the slow collisional and fast collisionless reconnection mechanisms, as often associated with Sweet-Parker and Petschek reconnection, respectively. For a highly magnetized ultrarelativistic jet and typical collapsar parameters, we find that significant electromagnetic dissipation may be avoided until it proceeds catastrophically near the jet photosphere at large radii (r {approx} 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14}cm), by which the jet obtains a high Lorentz factor ({gamma} {approx} 100-1000), has a luminosity of L{sub j} {approx} 10{sup 50}-10{sup 51} erg s{sup -1}, has observer variability timescales of order 1s (ranging from 0.001-10s), achieves {gamma}{theta}{sub j} {approx} 10-20 (for opening half-angle {theta}{sub j}) and so is able to produce jet breaks, and has comparable energy available for both prompt and afterglow emission. A range of model parameters are investigated and simplified scaling laws are derived. This reconnection switch mechanism allows for highly efficient conversion of electromagnetic energy into prompt emission and associates the observed prompt GRB pulse temporal structure with dissipation timescales of some number of reconnecting current sheets embedded in the jet. We hope this work helps motivate the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nottale, Laurent
2003-01-01
The principle of relativity, when it is applied to scale transformations, leads to the suggestion of a generalization of fundamental dilations laws. These new special scale-relativistic resolution transformations involve log-Lorentz factors and lead to the occurrence of a minimal and of a maximal length-scale in nature, which are invariant under dilations. The minimal length-scale, that replaces the zero from the viewpoint of its physical properties, is identified with the Planck length l P , and the maximal scale, that replaces infinity, is identified with the cosmic scale L=Λ -1/2 , where Λ is the cosmological constant.The new interpretation of the Planck scale has several implications for the structure and history of the early Universe: we consider the questions of the origin, of the status of physical laws at very early times, of the horizon/causality problem and of fluctuations at recombination epoch.The new interpretation of the cosmic scale has consequences for our knowledge of the present universe, concerning in particular Mach's principle, the large number coincidence, the problem of the vacuum energy density, the nature and the value of the cosmological constant. The value (theoretically predicted ten years ago) of the scaled cosmological constant Ω Λ =0.75+/-0.15 is now supported by several different experiments (Hubble diagram of Supernovae, Boomerang measurements, gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies).The scale-relativity framework also allows one to suggest a solution to the missing mass problem, and to make theoretical predictions of fundamental energy scales, thanks to the interpretation of new structures in scale space: fractal/classical transitions as Compton lengths, mass-coupling relations and critical value 4π 2 of inverse couplings. Among them, we find a structure at 3.27+/-0.26x10 20 eV, which agrees closely with the observed highest energy cosmic rays at 3.2+/-0.9x10 20 eV, and another at 5.3x10 -3 eV, which corresponds to the
SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMICS WITH GRAVITATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hwang, Jai-chan [Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Hyerim [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-20
Special relativistic hydrodynamics with weak gravity has hitherto been unknown in the literature. Whether such an asymmetric combination is possible has been unclear. Here, the hydrodynamic equations with Poisson-type gravity, considering fully relativistic velocity and pressure under the weak gravity and the action-at-a-distance limit, are consistently derived from Einstein’s theory of general relativity. An analysis is made in the maximal slicing, where the Poisson’s equation becomes much simpler than our previous study in the zero-shear gauge. Also presented is the hydrodynamic equations in the first post-Newtonian approximation, now under the general hypersurface condition. Our formulation includes the anisotropic stress.
Methods in relativistic nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danos, M.; Gillet, V.; Cauvin, M.
1984-01-01
This book is intended to provide the methods and tools for performing actual calculations for finite many-body systems of bound relativistic constituent particles. The aim is to cover thoroughly the methodological aspects of the relativistic many-body problem for bound states while avoiding the presentation of specific models. The many examples contained in the later part of the work are meant to give concrete illustrations of how to actually apply the methods which are given in the first part. The basic framework of the approach is the lagrangian field theory solved in the time-independent Schroedinger picture. (Auth.)
Frontiers in relativistic celestial mechanics
2014-01-01
Relativistic celestial mechanics – investigating the motion celestial bodies under the influence of general relativity – is a major tool of modern experimental gravitational physics. With a wide range of prominent authors from the field, this two-volume series consists of reviews on a multitude of advanced topics in the area of relativistic celestial mechanics – starting from more classical topics such as the regime of asymptotically-flat spacetime, light propagation and celestial ephemerides, but also including its role in cosmology and alternative theories of gravity as well as modern experiments in this area.
Dissipative Solitons that Cannot be Trapped
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pardo, Rosa; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.
2006-01-01
We show that dissipative solitons in systems with high-order nonlinear dissipation cannot survive in the presence of trapping potentials of the rigid wall or asymptotically increasing type. Solitons in such systems can survive in the presence of a weak potential but only with energies out of the interval of existence of linear quantum mechanical stationary states
Quantum dissipation of a simple conservative system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibeh, G. J.; Mshelia, E. D.
2014-01-01
A model of quantum dissipative system is presented. Here dissipation of energy is demonstrated as based on the coupling of a free translational motion of a centre of mass to a harmonic oscillator. The two-dimensional arrangement of two coupled particles of different masses is considered.
Dissipative electromagnetism from a nonequilibrium thermodynamics perspective
Jelic, A.; Hütter, M.; Öttinger, H.C.
2006-01-01
Dissipative effects in electromagnetism on macroscopic scales are examined by coarse-graining the microscopic Maxwell equations with respect to time. We illustrate a procedure to derive the dissipative effects on the macroscopic scale by using a Green-Kubo type expression in terms of the microscopic
Dissipation in nucleus-nucleus collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santanu Pal
1984-01-01
This paper deals with the mechanism of one- and two-body dissipations in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The average energy transferred to nuclear excitations is calculated using a time-dependent density matrix approach with lowest-order approximations. Considering the nuclei as Fermi gases, and using a gaussian-type NN interaction as the basic perturbation, simplified expressions are obtained for energy dissipations. These expressions are quite instructive to follow a number of interesting aspects of one- and two-body dissipations. It is theoretically observed that the memory time for the two-body dissipation is significantly smaller than that of one-body dissipation. A threshold-type dependence of the transferred energy on the relative velocity between the two nuclei is also observed. This threshold velocity is found to be related with the intrinsic nucleon kinetic energy for two-body dissipation and with the nuclear size for the one-body case. This observation further suggests that the total dissipated energy is shared between the two nuclei approximately in the ratio of their masses. The physical origin of these observations is also explained. Numerical calculations further illustrate some characteristic features of one- and two-body dissipations. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard Anantua
2018-03-01
Full Text Available This work summarizes a program intended to unify three burgeoning branches of the high-energy astrophysics of relativistic jets: general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD simulations of ever-increasing dynamical range, the microphysical theory of particle acceleration under relativistic conditions, and multiwavelength observations resolving ever-decreasing spatiotemporal scales. The process, which involves converting simulation output into time series of images and polarization maps that can be directly compared to observations, is performed by (1 self-consistently prescribing models for emission, absorption, and particle acceleration and (2 performing time-dependent polarized radiative transfer. M87 serves as an exemplary prototype for this investigation due to its prominent and well-studied jet and the imminent prospect of learning much more from Event Horizon Telescope (EHT observations this year. Synthetic observations can be directly compared with real observations for observational signatures such as jet instabilities, collimation, relativistic beaming, and polarization. The simplest models described adopt the standard equipartition hypothesis; other models calculate emission by relating it to current density or shear. These models are intended for application to the radio jet instead of the higher frequency emission, the disk and the wind, which will be subjects of future investigations.
Apparent unambiguousness of relativistic time dilation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1992-01-01
It is indicated on the definite analogy between the dependence of visible sizes of relativistic objects and period of the wave, emitted by the moving source from the observation conditions ('retradition factor'). It is noted that the definition of time for moving extended objects, led to relativistic dilation, corresponds to the definition of the relativistic (radar) length led to the 'elongation formula'. 10 refs
Relativistic generalization of strong plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chian, A.C.-L.
1982-01-01
Two fundamental electrostatic modes of an unmagnetized plasma, namely, ion acoustic mode and Langumir mode are studied. Previous theories are generalized to include the effect of relativistic mass variations. The existence of relativistic ion acoustic solitons is demonstrated. In addition, it is shown that simple, relativistic Langumir solitons do not exist in a infinite plasma. (L.C.) [pt
Quantum gates via relativistic remote control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martín-Martínez, Eduardo, E-mail: emartinm@uwaterloo.ca [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Dept. Applied Math., University of Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Sutherland, Chris [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)
2014-12-12
We harness relativistic effects to gain quantum control on a stationary qubit in an optical cavity by controlling the non-inertial motion of a different probe atom. Furthermore, we show that by considering relativistic trajectories of the probe, we enhance the efficiency of the quantum control. We explore the possible use of these relativistic techniques to build 1-qubit quantum gates.
Analytical study of dissipative solitary waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dini, Fatemeh [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emamzadeh, Mehdi Molaie [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasani, Sina [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bobin, Jean Louis [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Amrollahi, Reza [Department of Physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sodagar, Majid [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoshnegar, Milad [School of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-363, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2008-02-15
In this paper, the analytical solution to a new class of nonlinear solitons is presented with cubic nonlinearity, subject to a dissipation term arising as a result of a first-order derivative with respect to time, in the weakly nonlinear regime. Exact solutions are found using the combination of the perturbation and Green's function methods up to the third order. We present an example and discuss the asymptotic behavior of the Green's function. The dissipative solitary equation is also studied in the phase space in the non-dissipative and dissipative forms. Bounded and unbounded solutions of this equation are characterized, yielding an energy conversation law for non-dissipative waves. Applications of the model include weakly nonlinear solutions of terahertz Josephson plasma waves in layered superconductors and ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability.
Post-Newtonian reference ellipsoid for relativistic geodesy
Kopeikin, Sergei; Han, Wenbiao; Mazurova, Elena
2016-02-01
We apply general relativity to construct the post-Newtonian background manifold that serves as a reference spacetime in relativistic geodesy for conducting a relativistic calculation of the geoid's undulation and the deflection of the plumb line from the vertical. We chose an axisymmetric ellipsoidal body made up of a perfect homogeneous fluid uniformly rotating around a fixed axis, as a source generating the reference geometry of the background manifold through Einstein's equations. We then reformulate and extend hydrodynamic calculations of rotating fluids done by a number of previous researchers for astrophysical applications to the realm of relativistic geodesy to set up algebraic equations defining the shape of the post-Newtonian reference ellipsoid. To complete this task, we explicitly perform all integrals characterizing gravitational field potentials inside the fluid body and represent them in terms of the elementary functions depending on the eccentricity of the ellipsoid. We fully explore the coordinate (gauge) freedom of the equations describing the post-Newtonian ellipsoid and demonstrate that the fractional deviation of the post-Newtonian level surface from the Maclaurin ellipsoid can be made much smaller than the previously anticipated estimate based on the astrophysical application of the coordinate gauge advocated by Bardeen and Chandrasekhar. We also derive the gauge-invariant relations of the post-Newtonian mass and the constant angular velocity of the rotating fluid with the parameters characterizing the shape of the post-Newtonian ellipsoid including its eccentricity, a semiminor axis, and a semimajor axis. We formulate the post-Newtonian theorems of Pizzetti and Clairaut that are used in geodesy to connect the geometric parameters of the reference ellipsoid to the physically measurable force of gravity at the pole and equator of the ellipsoid. Finally, we expand the post-Newtonian geodetic equations describing the post-Newtonian ellipsoid to
Transition in the equilibrium distribution function of relativistic particles.
Mendoza, M; Araújo, N A M; Succi, S; Herrmann, H J
2012-01-01
We analyze a transition from single peaked to bimodal velocity distribution in a relativistic fluid under increasing temperature, in contrast with a non-relativistic gas, where only a monotonic broadening of the bell-shaped distribution is observed. Such transition results from the interplay between the raise in thermal energy and the constraint of maximum velocity imposed by the speed of light. We study the Bose-Einstein, the Fermi-Dirac, and the Maxwell-Jüttner distributions, and show that they all exhibit the same qualitative behavior. We characterize the nature of the transition in the framework of critical phenomena and show that it is either continuous or discontinuous, depending on the group velocity. We analyze the transition in one, two, and three dimensions, with special emphasis on twodimensions, for which a possible experiment in graphene, based on the measurement of the Johnson-Nyquist noise, is proposed.
Accelerated and decelerated expansion in a causal dissipative cosmology
Cruz, Miguel; Cruz, Norman; Lepe, Samuel
2017-12-01
In this work we explore a new cosmological solution for an universe filled with one dissipative fluid, described by a barotropic equation of state (EoS) p =ω ρ , in the framework of the full Israel-Stewart theory. The form of the bulk viscosity has been assumed of the form ξ =ξ0ρ1 /2. The relaxation time is taken to be a function of the EoS, the bulk viscosity and the speed of bulk viscous perturbations, cb. The solution presents an initial singularity, where the curvature scalar diverges as the scale factor goes to zero. Depending on the values for ω , ξ0, cb accelerated and decelerated cosmic expansion can be obtained. In the case of accelerated expansion, the viscosity drives the effective EoS to be of quintessence type, for the single fluid with positive pressure. Nevertheless, we show that only the solution with decelerated expansion satisfies the thermodynamics conditions d S /d t >0 (growth of the entropy) and d2S /d t2<0 (convexity condition). We show that an exact stiff matter EoS is not allowed in the framework of the full causal thermodynamic approach; and in the case of a EoS very close to the stiff matter regime, we found that dissipative effects becomes negligible so the entropy remains constant. Finally, we show numerically that the solution is stable under small perturbations.
Relativistic Chiral Kinetic Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephanov, Mikhail
2016-01-01
This very brief review of the recent progress in chiral kinetic theory is based on the results of Refs. [J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, Y. Yin, Lorentz Invariance in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (18) (2014) 182302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.182302); J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2) (2015) 021601. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.021601); M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (12) (2016) 122302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.122302)].
Relativistic Chiral Kinetic Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stephanov, Mikhail
2016-12-15
This very brief review of the recent progress in chiral kinetic theory is based on the results of Refs. [J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, Y. Yin, Lorentz Invariance in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (18) (2014) 182302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.182302); J.-Y. Chen, D. T. Son, M. A. Stephanov, Collisions in Chiral Kinetic Theory, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 (2) (2015) 021601. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.021601); M. A. Stephanov, H.-U. Yee, The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 (12) (2016) 122302. doi: (10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.122302)].
Instability in relativistic nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tezuka, Hirokazu.
1979-11-01
The stability of the Fermi gas state in the nuclear matter which satisfies the saturation property is considered relativistically. It is shown that the Fermi gas state is stable at very low density and at high density, but it is unstable for density fluctuation in the intermediate density region including the normal density. (author)
Cyberinfrastructure for Computational Relativistic Astrophysics
Ott, Christian
2012-01-01
Poster presented at the NSF Office of Cyberinfrastructure CyberBridges CAREER PI workshop. This poster discusses the computational challenges involved in the modeling of complex relativistic astrophysical systems. The Einstein Toolkit is introduced. It is an open-source community infrastructure for numerical relativity and computational astrophysics.
Future relativistic heavy ion experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pugh, H.G.
1980-12-01
Equations of state for nuclear matter and ongoing experimental studies are discussed. Relativistic heavy ion physics is the only opportunity to study in the laboratory the properties of extended multiquark systems under conditions such that quarks might run together into new arrangements previously unobserved. Several lines of further study are mentioned
Relativistic models of nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gillet, V.; Kim, E.J.; Cauvin, M.; Kohmura, T.; Ohnaka, S.
1991-01-01
The introduction of the relativistic field formalism for the description of nuclear structure has improved our understanding of fundamental nuclear mechanisms such as saturation or many body forces. We discuss some of these progresses, both in the semi-classical mean field approximation and in a quantized meson field approach. (author)
Fundamental length and relativistic length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1988-01-01
It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem
Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology: A Primer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramowicz, Marek A
2007-01-01
'Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology: A Primer' by Peter Hoyng, was published last year by Springer. The book is based on lectures given by the author at University of Utrecht to advanced undergraduates. This is a short and scholarly book. In about 300 pages, the author has covered the most interesting and important applications of Albert Einstein's general relativity in present-day astrophysics and cosmology: black holes, neutron stars, gravitational waves, and the cosmic microwave background. The book stresses theory, but also discusses several experimental and observational topics, such as the Gravity Probe B mission, interferometer detectors of gravitational waves and the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background. The coverage is not uniform. Some topics are discussed in depth, others are only briefly mentioned. The book obviously reflects the author's own research interests and his preferences for specific mathematical methods, and the choice of the original artwork that illustrates the book (and appears on its cover) is a very personal one. I consider this personal touch an advantage, even if I do not always agree with the author's choices. For example, I employ Killing vectors as a very useful mathematical tool not only in my research on black holes, but also in my classes. I find that my students prefer it when discussions of particle, photon and fluid motion in the Schwarzschild and Kerr spacetimes are based explicitly and directly on the Killing vectors rather than on coordinate calculations. The latter approach is, of course, the traditional one, and is used in Peter Hoyng's book. Reading the book is a stimulating experience, because the reader can almost feel the author's presence. The author's opinions, his mathematical taste, his research pleasures, and his pedagogical passion are apparent everywhere. Lecturers contemplating a new course on relativistic astrophysics could adopt Hoyng's book as the text. Their students will be in the author
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shukla, Chandrasekhar, E-mail: chandrasekhar.shukla@gmail.com; Das, Amita, E-mail: amita@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Patel, Kartik [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)
2016-08-15
We carry out particle-in-cell simulations to study the instabilities associated with a 2-D sheared electron flow configuration against a neutralizing background of ions. Both weak and strong relativistic flow velocities are considered. In the weakly relativistic case, we observe the development of electromagnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with similar characteristics as that predicted by the electron Magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) model. On the contrary, in a strong relativistic case, the compressibility effects of electron fluid dominate and introduce upper hybrid electrostatic oscillations transverse to the flow which are very distinct from EMHD fluid behavior. In the nonlinear regime, both weak and strong relativistic cases lead to turbulence with broad power law spectrum.
Fast magnetic energy dissipation in relativistic plasma induced by high order laser modes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gu, Yanjun; Yu, Q.; Klimo, Ondřej; Esirkepov, T.Z.; Bulanov, S.V.; Weber, Stefan A.; Korn, Georg
2016-01-01
Roč. 4, Jun (2016), 1-5, č. článku e19. ISSN 2095-4719 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : high order laser mode * laser–plasma interaction * magnetic annihilation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics
Lagrangian descriptors in dissipative systems.
Junginger, Andrej; Hernandez, Rigoberto
2016-11-09
The reaction dynamics of time-dependent systems can be resolved through a recrossing-free dividing surface associated with the transition state trajectory-that is, the unique trajectory which is bound to the barrier region for all time in response to a given time-dependent potential. A general procedure based on the minimization of Lagrangian descriptors has recently been developed by Craven and Hernandez [Phys. Rev. Lett., 2015, 115, 148301] to construct this particular trajectory without requiring perturbative expansions relative to the naive transition state point at the top of the barrier. The extension of the method to account for dissipation in the equations of motion requires additional considerations established in this paper because the calculation of the Lagrangian descriptor involves the integration of trajectories in forward and backward time. The two contributions are in general very different because the friction term can act as a source (in backward time) or sink (in forward time) of energy, leading to the possibility that information about the phase space structure may be lost due to the dominance of only one of the terms. To compensate for this effect, we introduce a weighting scheme within the Lagrangian descriptor and demonstrate that for thermal Langevin dynamics it preserves the essential phase space structures, while they are lost in the nonweighted case.
Saintillan, David
2018-01-01
An active fluid denotes a viscous suspension of particles, cells, or macromolecules able to convert chemical energy into mechanical work by generating stresses on the microscale. By virtue of this internal energy conversion, these systems display unusual macroscopic rheological signatures, including a curious transition to an apparent superfluid-like state where internal activity exactly compensates viscous dissipation. These behaviors are unlike those of classical complex fluids and result from the coupling of particle configurations with both externally applied flows and internally generated fluid disturbances. Focusing on the well-studied example of a suspension of microswimmers, this review summarizes recent experiments, models, and simulations in this area and highlights the critical role played by the rheological response of these active materials in a multitude of phenomena, from the enhanced transport of passive suspended objects to the emergence of spontaneous flows and collective motion.
White, Jeffrey A.; Baurle, Robert A.; Fisher, Travis C.; Quinlan, Jesse R.; Black, William S.
2012-01-01
The 2nd-order upwind inviscid flux scheme implemented in the multi-block, structured grid, cell centered, finite volume, high-speed reacting flow code VULCAN has been modified to reduce numerical dissipation. This modification was motivated by the desire to improve the codes ability to perform large eddy simulations. The reduction in dissipation was accomplished through a hybridization of non-dissipative and dissipative discontinuity-capturing advection schemes that reduces numerical dissipation while maintaining the ability to capture shocks. A methodology for constructing hybrid-advection schemes that blends nondissipative fluxes consisting of linear combinations of divergence and product rule forms discretized using 4th-order symmetric operators, with dissipative, 3rd or 4th-order reconstruction based upwind flux schemes was developed and implemented. A series of benchmark problems with increasing spatial and fluid dynamical complexity were utilized to examine the ability of the candidate schemes to resolve and propagate structures typical of turbulent flow, their discontinuity capturing capability and their robustness. A realistic geometry typical of a high-speed propulsion system flowpath was computed using the most promising of the examined schemes and was compared with available experimental data to demonstrate simulation fidelity.
Relativistic Descriptions of Few-Body Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karmanov, V. A.
2011-01-01
A brief review of relativistic effects in few-body systems, of theoretical approaches, recent developments and applications is given. Manifestations of relativistic effects in the binding energies, in the electromagnetic form factors and in three-body observables are demonstrated. The three-body forces of relativistic origin are also discussed. We conclude that relativistic effects in nuclei can be important in spite of small binding energy. At high momenta they clearly manifest themselves and are necessary to describe the deuteron e.m. form factors. At the same time, there is still a discrepancy in three-body observables which might be a result of less clarity in understanding the corresponding relativistic effects, the relativistic NN kernel and the three-body forces. Relativistic few-body physics remains to be a field of very intensive and fruitful researches. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrari, A; Trussoni, E; Zaninetti, L [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica)
1980-11-01
In this paper some unsolved problems of the linear MHD Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are re-examined, starting from the analysis of relativistic (and non-relativistic) flows in the approximation of a plane vortex sheet, for the contact layer between the fluids in relative motion. Results are discussed for a range of physical parameters in specific connection with application to models of jets in extragalactic radio sources. Other physical aspects of the instability will be considered in forthcoming papers.
Nonlinear interaction of a parallel-flow relativistic electron beam with a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jungwirth, K.; Koerbel, S.; Simon, P.; Vrba, P.
1975-01-01
Nonlinear evolution of single-mode high-frequency instabilities (ω approximately ksub(parallel)vsub(b)) excited by a parallel-flow high-current relativistic electron beam in a magnetized plasma is investigated. Fairly general dimensionless equations are derived. They describe both the temporal and the spatial evolution of amplitude and phase of the fundamental wave. Numerically, the special case of excitation of the linearly most unstable mode is solved in detail assuming that the wave energy dissipation is negligible. Then the strength of interaction and the relativistic properties of the beam are fully respected by a single parameter lambda. The value of lambda ensuring the optimum efficiency of the wave excitation as well as the efficiency of the self-acceleration of some beam electrons at higher values of lambda>1 are determined in the case of a fully compensated relativistic beam. Finally, the effect of the return current dissipation is also included (phenomenologically) into the theoretical model, its role for the beam-plasma interaction being checked numerically. (J.U.)
Recent development of relativistic molecular theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahito, Nakajima; Kimihiko, Hirao
2005-01-01
Today it is common knowledge that relativistic effects are important in the heavy-element chemistry. The continuing development of the relativistic molecular theory is opening up rows of the periodic table that are impossible to treat with the non-relativistic approach. The most straightforward way to treat relativistic effects on heavy-element systems is to use the four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock approach and its electron-correlation methods based on the Dirac-Coulomb(-Breit) Hamiltonian. The Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) or Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) equation with the four-component spinors composed of the large- and small-components demands severe computational efforts to solve, and its applications to molecules including heavy elements have been limited to small- to medium-size systems. Recently, we have developed a very efficient algorithm for the four-component DHF and DKS approaches. As an alternative approach, several quasi-relativistic approximations have also been proposed instead of explicitly solving the four-component relativistic equation. We have developed the relativistic elimination of small components (RESC) and higher-order Douglas-Kroll (DK) Hamiltonians within the framework of the two-component quasi-relativistic approach. The developing four-component relativistic and approximate quasi-relativistic methods have been implemented into a program suite named REL4D. In this article, we will introduce the efficient relativistic molecular theories to treat heavy-atomic molecular systems accurately via the four-component relativistic and the two-component quasi-relativistic approaches. We will also show several chemical applications including heavy-element systems with our relativistic molecular approaches. (author)
Numerical magneto-hydrodynamics for relativistic nuclear collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inghirami, Gabriele [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, John von Neumann Institute for Computing, Juelich (Germany); Del Zanna, Luca [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Firenze (Italy); INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Beraudo, Andrea [INFN - Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Moghaddam, Mohsen Haddadi [INFN - Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Hakim Sabzevari University, Department of Physics, P. O. Box 397, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Becattini, Francesco [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Firenze (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Firenze, Firenze (Italy); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Forschungszentrum Juelich, John von Neumann Institute for Computing, Juelich (Germany)
2016-12-15
We present an improved version of the ECHO-QGP numerical code, which self-consistently includes for the first time the effects of electromagnetic fields within the framework of relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics (RMHD). We discuss results of its application in relativistic heavy-ion collisions in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity of the plasma. After reviewing the relevant covariant 3 + 1 formalisms, we illustrate the implementation of the evolution equations in the code and show the results of several tests aimed at assessing the accuracy and robustness of the implementation. After providing some estimates of the magnetic fields arising in non-central high-energy nuclear collisions, we perform full RMHD simulations of the evolution of the quark-gluon plasma in the presence of electromagnetic fields and discuss the results. In our ideal RMHD setup we find that the magnetic field developing in non-central collisions does not significantly modify the elliptic flow of the final hadrons. However, since there are uncertainties in the description of the pre-equilibrium phase and also in the properties of the medium, a more extensive survey of the possible initial conditions as well as the inclusion of dissipative effects are indeed necessary to validate this preliminary result. (orig.)
Relativistic jets without large-scale magnetic fields
Parfrey, K.; Giannios, D.; Beloborodov, A.
2014-07-01
The canonical model of relativistic jets from black holes requires a large-scale ordered magnetic field to provide a significant magnetic flux through the ergosphere--in the Blandford-Znajek process, the jet power scales with the square of the magnetic flux. In many jet systems the presence of the required flux in the environment of the central engine is questionable. I will describe an alternative scenario, in which jets are produced by the continuous sequential accretion of small magnetic loops. The magnetic energy stored in these coronal flux systems is amplified by the differential rotation of the accretion disc and by the rotating spacetime of the black hole, leading to runaway field line inflation, magnetic reconnection in thin current layers, and the ejection of discrete bubbles of Poynting-flux-dominated plasma. For illustration I will show the results of general-relativistic force-free electrodynamic simulations of rotating black hole coronae, performed using a new resistivity model. The dissipation of magnetic energy by coronal reconnection events, as demonstrated in these simulations, is a potential source of the observed high-energy emission from accreting compact objects.
An overview of relativistic hydrodynamics as applied to heavy ion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strottman, D.D.
1989-01-01
The application of relativistic hydrodynamics as applied to heavy ions is reviewed. Constraints on the nuclear equation of state, as well as the form of the hydrodynamic equations imposed by causality are discussed. Successes (flow, side-splash, scaling) and shortcomings of one-fluid hydrodynamics are reviewed. Models for pion production within hydrodynamics and reasons for disagreement with experiment are assessed. Finally, the motivations for and the implementations of multi-fluid models are presented. 74 refs., 11 figs
Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System
Kopeikin, Sergei; Efroimsky, Michael; Kaplan, George
2011-09-01
given by a Newtonian theory of gravity. This prediction has been confirmed with a relative precision about 0.01%. Measurements of light bending by major planets of the solar system allow us to test the dynamical characteristics of spacetime and draw conclusions about the ultimate speed of gravity as well as to explore the so-called gravitomagnetic phenomena. Chapter 8 deals with the theoretical principles and methods of the high-precision gravimetry and geodesy, based on the framework of general relativity. A gravitational field and the properties of geocentric and topocentric reference frames are described by the metric tensor obtained from the Einstein equations with the help of post-Newtonian iterations. Bymatching the asymptotic, post-Newtonian expansions of the metric tensor in geocentric and topocentric coordinates, we derive the relationship between the reference frames, and relativistic corrections to the Earth's force of gravity and its gradient. Two definitions of a relativistic geoid are discussed, and we prove that these geoids coincide under the condition of a constant rigid-body rotation of the Earth.We consider, as a model of the Earth's matter, the notion of the relativistic level surface of a self-gravitating perfect fluid. We discover that, under conditions of constant rigid rotation of the fluid and hydrostatic behavior of tides, the post-Newtonian equation of the level surface is the same as that of the relativistic geoid. In the conclusion of this chapter, a relativistic generaisation of the Clairaut's equation is obtained. Chapter 9 is a practical guide to the relativistic resolutions of the IAU, with enough background information to place these resolutions into the context of the late twentieth century positional astronomy. These resolutions involve the definitions of reference systems, time scales, and Earth rotationmodels; and some of the resolutions are quite detailed. Although the recommended Earth rotation models have not been developed ab
New macroscopic theory of anamalous diffusion induced by the dissipative trapped-ion instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wimmel, H.K.
1975-03-01
For an axisymmetric toroidal plasma of the TOKAMAK type a new set of dissipative trapped-fluid equations is established. In addition to E vector x B vector drifts and collisions of the trapped particles, these equations take full account of the effect of Esub(//) (of the trapped ion modes) on free and trapped particles, and of the effect of grad delta 0 (delta 0 = equilibrium fraction of trapped particles). From the new equations the linear-mode properties of the dissipative trapped-ion instability and the anomalous diffusion flux of the trapped particles are derived. (orig.) [de
Dissipative structures and biological rhythms
Goldbeter, Albert
2017-10-01
Sustained oscillations abound in biological systems. They occur at all levels of biological organization over a wide range of periods, from a fraction of a second to years, and with a variety of underlying mechanisms. They control major physiological functions, and their dysfunction is associated with a variety of physiological disorders. The goal of this review is (i) to give an overview of the main rhythms observed at the cellular and supracellular levels, (ii) to briefly describe how the study of biological rhythms unfolded in the course of time, in parallel with studies on chemical oscillations, (iii) to present the major roles of biological rhythms in the control of physiological functions, and (iv) the pathologies associated with the alteration, disappearance, or spurious occurrence of biological rhythms. Two tables present the main examples of cellular and supracellular rhythms ordered according to their period, and their role in physiology and pathophysiology. Among the rhythms discussed are neural and cardiac rhythms, metabolic oscillations such as those occurring in glycolysis in yeast, intracellular Ca++ oscillations, cyclic AMP oscillations in Dictyostelium amoebae, the segmentation clock that controls somitogenesis, pulsatile hormone secretion, circadian rhythms which occur in all eukaryotes and some bacteria with a period close to 24 h, the oscillatory dynamics of the enzymatic network driving the cell cycle, and oscillations in transcription factors such as NF-ΚB and tumor suppressors such as p53. Ilya Prigogine's concept of dissipative structures applies to temporal oscillations and allows us to unify within a common framework the various rhythms observed at different levels of biological organization, regardless of their period and underlying mechanism.
Relativistic quantum mechanics an introduction to relativistic quantum fields
Maiani, Luciano
2016-01-01
Written by two of the world's leading experts on particle physics and the standard model - including an award-winning former Director General of CERN - this textbook provides a completely up-to-date account of relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. It describes the formal and phenomenological aspects of the standard model of particle physics, and is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students studying both theoretical and experimental physics.
TESS: A RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMICS CODE ON A MOVING VORONOI MESH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duffell, Paul C.; MacFadyen, Andrew I.
2011-01-01
We have generalized a method for the numerical solution of hyperbolic systems of equations using a dynamic Voronoi tessellation of the computational domain. The Voronoi tessellation is used to generate moving computational meshes for the solution of multidimensional systems of conservation laws in finite-volume form. The mesh-generating points are free to move with arbitrary velocity, with the choice of zero velocity resulting in an Eulerian formulation. Moving the points at the local fluid velocity makes the formulation effectively Lagrangian. We have written the TESS code to solve the equations of compressible hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics for both relativistic and non-relativistic fluids on a dynamic Voronoi mesh. When run in Lagrangian mode, TESS is significantly less diffusive than fixed mesh codes and thus preserves contact discontinuities to high precision while also accurately capturing strong shock waves. TESS is written for Cartesian, spherical, and cylindrical coordinates and is modular so that auxiliary physics solvers are readily integrated into the TESS framework and so that this can be readily adapted to solve general systems of equations. We present results from a series of test problems to demonstrate the performance of TESS and to highlight some of the advantages of the dynamic tessellation method for solving challenging problems in astrophysical fluid dynamics.
Slowly rotating general relativistic superfluid neutron stars with relativistic entrainment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comer, G.L.
2004-01-01
Neutron stars that are cold enough should have two or more superfluids or supercondutors in their inner crusts and cores. The implication of superfluidity or superconductivity for equilibrium and dynamical neutron star states is that each individual particle species that forms a condensate must have its own, independent number density current and equation of motion that determines that current. An important consequence of the quasiparticle nature of each condensate is the so-called entrainment effect; i.e., the momentum of a condensate is a linear combination of its own current and those of the other condensates. We present here the first fully relativistic modeling of slowly rotating superfluid neutron stars with entrainment that is accurate to the second-order in the rotation rates. The stars consist of superfluid neutrons, superconducting protons, and a highly degenerate, relativistic gas of electrons. We use a relativistic σ-ω mean field model for the equation of state of the matter and the entrainment. We determine the effect of a relative rotation between the neutrons and protons on a star's total mass, shape, and Kepler, mass-shedding limit
Low moduli elastomers with low viscous dissipation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard
2012-01-01
A controlled reaction schema for addition curing silicones leads to both significantly lower elastic modulus and lower viscous dissipation than for the chemically identical network prepared by the traditional reaction schema....
Phenomenological approaches of dissipative heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ngo, C.
1983-09-01
These lectures describe the properties of dissipative heavy ion collisions observed in low bombarding energy heavy ion reactions. These dissipative collisions are of two different types: fusion and deep inelastic reactions. Their main experimental properties are described on selected examples. It is shown how it is possible to give a simple interpretation to the data. A large number of phenomenological models have been developped to understand dissipative heavy ion collisions. The most important are those describing the collision by classical mechanics and friction forces, the diffusion models, and transport theories which merge both preceding approaches. A special emphasis has been done on two phenomena observed in dissipative heavy ion collisions: charge equilibratium for which we can show the existence of quantum fluctuations, and fast fission which appears as an intermediate mechanism between deep inelastic reactions and compound nucleus formation [fr
Observed eddy dissipation in the Agulhas Current
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Braby, L
2016-08-01
Full Text Available (negative) velocity anomalies propagate downstream in the Agulhas Current at 44 km/d (23 km/d). Many models are unable to represent these eddy dissipation processes, affecting our understanding of the Agulhas Current....
Minimum dissipative relaxed states in toroidal plasmas
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
organised equi- librium in RFP and tokamak by a deterministic approach to incompressible dissipative magnetohydrodynamics. In an earlier work Kondoh [8] formulated an energy principle including the edge plasma effects for a slightly resistive MHD ...
Energy dissipation in multifrequency atomic force microscopy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valentina Pukhova
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The instantaneous displacement, velocity and acceleration of a cantilever tip impacting onto a graphite surface are reconstructed. The total dissipated energy and the dissipated energy per cycle of each excited flexural mode during the tip interaction is retrieved. The tip dynamics evolution is studied by wavelet analysis techniques that have general relevance for multi-mode atomic force microscopy, in a regime where few cantilever oscillation cycles characterize the tip–sample interaction.
Hamiltonian description and quantization of dissipative systems
Enz, Charles P.
1994-09-01
Dissipative systems are described by a Hamiltonian, combined with a “dynamical matrix” which generalizes the simplectic form of the equations of motion. Criteria for dissipation are given and the examples of a particle with friction and of the Lotka-Volterra model are presented. Quantization is first introduced by translating generalized Poisson brackets into commutators and anticommutators. Then a generalized Schrödinger equation expressed by a dynamical matrix is constructed and discussed.
Drift bifurcation detection for dissipative solitons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liehr, A W; Boedeker, H U; Roettger, M C; Frank, T D; Friedrich, R; Purwins, H-G
2003-01-01
We report on the experimental detection of a drift bifurcation for dissipative solitons, which we observe in the form of current filaments in a planar semiconductor-gas-discharge system. By introducing a new stochastic data analysis technique we find that due to a change of system parameters the dissipative solitons undergo a transition from purely noise-driven objects with Brownian motion to particles with a dynamically stabilized finite velocity
Relativistic Coulomb excitation of giant resonances in the hydrodynamic model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasconcellos Gomes, Ana Cristina de.
1990-05-01
We investigate the Coulomb excitation of giant dipole resonances in relativistic heavy ion collisions using a macroscopic hydrodynamical model for the harmonic vibrations of the nuclear fluid. The motion is treated as a combination of the Goldhaber-Teller displacement mode and the Steinwedel-Jensen acoustic mode, and the restoring forces are calculated using the droplet model. This model is used as input to study the characteristics of multiple excitation of giant dipole resonances in nuclei. Possible signatures for the existence of such states are also discussed quantitatively. (author). 52 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs
Evolution system study of a generalized scheme of relativistic magnetohydrodynamic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahjoub, Bechir.
1977-01-01
A generalized scheme of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics is studied with a thermodynamical differential relation proposed by Fokker; this scheme takes account of interaction between the fluid and the magnetic field. Taking account of an integrability condition of this relation, the evolution system corresponding to this scheme is identical to the one corresponding to the usual scheme; it has the same characteristics; it is non-strictly hyperbolic with the same hypothesis of compressibility and it has, with respect to the Cauchy problem, an unique solution in a Gevrey class of index α=3/2 [fr
Relativistic quantum mechanics of bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghose, P.; Home, D.; Sinha Roy, M.N.
1993-01-01
We show that it is possible to use the Klein-Gordon, Proca and Maxwell formulations to construct multi-component relativistic configuration space wavefunctions of spin-0 and spin-1 bosons in an external field. These wavefunctions satisfy the first-order Kemmer-Duffin equation. The crucial ingredient is the use of the future-causal normal n μ (n μ n μ =1, n 0 >0) to the space-like hypersurfaces foliating space-time, inherent in the concept of a relativistic wavefunction, to construct a conserved future-causal probability current four-vector from the second-rank energy-momentum tensor, following Holland's prescription. The existence of a Hermitian position operator, localized solutions, compatibility with the second quantized theories and the question of interpretation are discussed. (orig.)
Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Füellekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E. M. D.
2011-01-01
Non-luminous relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds have been detected by the radio signals of low frequency similar to 40-400 kHz which they radiate. The electron beams occur similar to 2-9 ms after positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges at heights between similar to 22-72 km above...... thunderclouds. Intense positive lightning discharges can also cause sprites which occur either above or prior to the electron beam. One electron beam was detected without any luminous sprite which suggests that electron beams may also occur independently of sprites. Numerical simulations show that beams...... of electrons partially discharge the lightning electric field above thunderclouds and thereby gain a mean energy of similar to 7MeV to transport a total charge of similar to-10mC upwards. The impulsive current similar to 3 x 10(-3) Am-2 associated with relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds...
The relativistic electron wave equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dirac, P.A.M.
1977-08-01
The paper was presented at the European Conference on Particle Physics held in Budapest between the 4th and 9th July of 1977. A short review is given on the birth of the relativistic electron wave equation. After Schroedinger has shown the equivalence of his wave mechanics and the matrix mechanics of Heisenberg, a general transformation theory was developed by the author. This theory required a relativistic wave equation linear in delta/delta t. As the Klein--Gordon equation available at this time did not satisfy this condition the development of a new equation became necessary. The equation which was found gave the value of the electron spin and magnetic moment automatically. (D.P.)
Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles
Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich
2010-01-01
This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results.
Volatility smile as relativistic effect
Kakushadze, Zura
2017-06-01
We give an explicit formula for the probability distribution based on a relativistic extension of Brownian motion. The distribution (1) is properly normalized and (2) obeys the tower law (semigroup property), so we can construct martingales and self-financing hedging strategies and price claims (options). This model is a 1-constant-parameter extension of the Black-Scholes-Merton model. The new parameter is the analog of the speed of light in Special Relativity. However, in the financial context there is no ;speed limit; and the new parameter has the meaning of a characteristic diffusion speed at which relativistic effects become important and lead to a much softer asymptotic behavior, i.e., fat tails, giving rise to volatility smiles. We argue that a nonlocal stochastic description of such (Lévy) processes is inadequate and discuss a local description from physics. The presentation is intended to be pedagogical.
Double Relativistic Electron Accelerating Mirror
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saltanat Sadykova
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, the possibility of generation of thin dense relativistic electron layers is shown using the analytical and numerical modeling of laser pulse interaction with ultra-thin layers. It was shown that the maximum electron energy can be gained by optimal tuning between the target width, intensity and laser pulse duration. The optimal parameters were obtained from a self-consistent system of Maxwell equations and the equation of motion of electron layer. For thin relativistic electron layers, the gaining of maximum electron energies requires a second additional overdense plasma layer, thus cutting the laser radiation off the plasma screen at the instant of gaining the maximum energy (DREAM-schema.
Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Ryazanov, Mikhail Ivanovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich
2010-01-01
This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results. (orig.)
BOOK REVIEW: Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium
Mars, M.
2009-08-01
Compact fluid bodies in equilibrium under its own gravitational field are abundant in the Universe and a proper treatment of them can only be carried out using the full theory of General Relativity. The problem is of enormous complexity as it involves two very different regimes, namely the interior and the exterior of the fluid, coupled through the surface of the body. This problem is very challenging both from a purely theoretical point of view, as well as regarding the obtaining of realistic models and the description of their physical properties. It is therefore an excellent piece of news that the book 'Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium' by R Meinel, M Ansorg, A Kleinwächter, G Neugebauer and D Petroff has been recently published. This book approaches the topic in depth and its contents will be of interest to a wide range of scientists working on gravitation, including theoreticians in general relativity, mathematical physicists, astrophysicists and numerical relativists. This is an advanced book that intends to present some of the present-day results on this topic. The most basic results are presented rather succinctly, and without going into the details, of their derivations. Although primarily not intended to serve as a textbook, the presentation is nevertheless self-contained and can therefore be of interest both for experts on the field as well as for anybody wishing to learn more about rotating self-gravitating compact bodies in equilibrium. It should be remarked, however, that this book makes a rather strong selection of topics and concentrates fundamentally on presenting the main results obtained by the authors during their research in this field. The book starts with a chapter where the fundamental aspects of rotating fluids in equilibrium, including its thermodynamic properties, are summarized. Of particular interest are the so-called mass-shedding limit, which is the limit where the body is rotating so fast that it is on the verge of starting
Asymptotics of relativistic spin networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrett, John W; Steele, Christopher M
2003-01-01
The stationary phase technique is used to calculate asymptotic formulae for SO(4) relativistic spin networks. For the tetrahedral spin network this gives the square of the Ponzano-Regge asymptotic formula for the SU(2) 6j-symbol. For the 4-simplex (10j-symbol) the asymptotic formula is compared with numerical calculations of the spin network evaluation. Finally, we discuss the asymptotics of the SO(3, 1) 10j-symbol
Analytic approaches to relativistic hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatta, Yoshitaka
2016-12-15
I summarize our recent work towards finding and utilizing analytic solutions of relativistic hydrodynamic. In the first part I discuss various exact solutions of the second-order conformal hydrodynamics. In the second part I compute flow harmonics v{sub n} analytically using the anisotropically deformed Gubser flow and discuss its dependence on n, p{sub T}, viscosity, the chemical potential and the charge.
Pythagoras Theorem and Relativistic Kinematics
Mulaj, Zenun; Dhoqina, Polikron
2010-01-01
In two inertial frames that move in a particular direction, may be registered a light signal that propagates in an angle with this direction. Applying Pythagoras theorem and principles of STR in both systems, we can derive all relativistic kinematics relations like the relativity of simultaneity of events, of the time interval, of the length of objects, of the velocity of the material point, Lorentz transformations, Doppler effect and stellar aberration.
Characteristic manifolds in relativistic hypoelasticity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giambo, S [Messina Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Matematica
1978-10-02
The relativistic hypoelasticity is considered and the characteristic manifolds are determined by using the Cauchy-Kovalevski theorem for the Cauchy problem with analytic initial conditions. Taking into account that the characteristic manifold represents the image of the front-wave in the space-time, it is possible to determine the velocities of propagation. Three wave-species are obtained: material waves, longitudinal waves and transverse waves.
A relativistic quarkonium potential model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klima, B.; Maor, U.
1984-04-01
We review a recently developed relativistic quark-antiquark bound state equation using the expansion in intermediate states. Using a QCD motivated potential we succeeded very well to fit both the heavy systems (banti b, canti c) and the light systems (santi s, uanti u and danti d). Here we emphasize our results on heavy-light sustems and on the possible (tanti t) family. (orig.)
Coordinates in relativistic Hamiltonian mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolov, S.N.
1984-01-01
The physical (covariant and measurable) coordinates of free particles and covariant coordinates of the center of inertia are found for three main forms of relativistic dynamics. In the point form of dynamics, the covariant coordinates of two directly interacting particles are found, and the equations of motion are brought to the explicitly covariant form. These equations are generalized to the case of interaction with an external electromagnetic field
Relativistic mechanics with reduced fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolov, S.N.
1996-01-01
A new relativistic classical mechanics of interacting particles using a concept of a reduced field (RF) os proposed. RF is a mediator of interactions, the state of which is described by a finite number of two-argument functions. Ten of these functions correspond to the generators of the Poincare group. Equations of motion contain the retardation of interactions required by the causality principle and have form of a finite system of ordinary hereditary differential equations [ru
Theory of a relativistic peniotron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhurakhovskii, V.A.
1986-01-01
A normalized mathematical model for describing the motion of electrons in a relativistic peniotron with smoothly varying magnetostatic field, which provides a state of exact gyroresonance along the entire length of the device, is constructed. The results of computer calculations of the energetics of this device are presented and an example of an effective choice of its parameterse corresponding to high electronic efficiency of a one-velocity flow are presented
Relativistic beaming and quasar statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orr, M.J.L.; Browne, I.W.A.
1982-01-01
The statistical predictions of a unified scheme for the radio emission from quasars are explored. This scheme attributes the observed differences between flat- and steep-spectrum quasars to projection and the effects of relativistic beaming of the emission from the nuclear components. We use a simple quasar model consisting of a compact relativistically beamed core with spectral index zero and unbeamed lobes, spectral index - 1, to predict the proportion of flat-spectrum sources in flux-limited samples selected at different frequencies. In our model this fraction depends on the core Lorentz factor, γ and we find that a value of approximately 5 gives satisfactory agreement with observation. In a similar way the model is used to construct the expected number/flux density counts for flat-spectrum quasars from the observed steep-spectrum counts. Again, good agreement with the observations is obtained if the average core Lorentz factor is about 5. Independent estimates of γ from observations of superluminal motion in quasars are of the same order of magnitude. We conclude that the statistical properties of quasars are entirely consistent with the predictions of simple relativistic-beam models. (author)
Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew J. Benacquista
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.
Explosive X-point collapse in relativistic magnetically dominated plasma
Lyutikov, Maxim; Sironi, Lorenzo; Komissarov, Serguei S.; Porth, Oliver
2017-12-01
The extreme properties of the gamma-ray flares in the Crab nebula present a clear challenge to our ideas on the nature of particle acceleration in relativistic astrophysical plasma. It seems highly unlikely that standard mechanisms of stochastic type are at work here and hence the attention of theorists has switched to linear acceleration in magnetic reconnection events. In this series of papers, we attempt to develop a theory of explosive magnetic reconnection in highly magnetized relativistic plasma which can explain the extreme parameters of the Crab flares. In the first paper, we focus on the properties of the X-point collapse. Using analytical and numerical methods (fluid and particle-in-cell simulations) we extend Syrovatsky's classical model of such collapse to the relativistic regime. We find that the collapse can lead to the reconnection rate approaching the speed of light on macroscopic scales. During the collapse, the plasma particles are accelerated by charge-starved electric fields, which can reach (and even exceed) values of the local magnetic field. The explosive stage of reconnection produces non-thermal power-law tails with slopes that depend on the average magnetization . For sufficiently high magnetizations and vanishing guide field, the non-thermal particle spectrum consists of two components: a low-energy population with soft spectrum that dominates the number census; and a high-energy population with hard spectrum that possesses all the properties needed to explain the Crab flares.
Probing dissipation mechanisms in BL Lac jets through X-ray polarimetry
Tavecchio, F.; Landoni, M.; Sironi, L.; Coppi, P.
2018-06-01
The dissipation of energy flux in blazar jets plays a key role in the acceleration of relativistic particles. Two possibilities are commonly considered for the dissipation processes, magnetic reconnection - possibly triggered by instabilities in magnetically-dominated jets - , or shocks - for weakly magnetized flows. We consider the polarimetric features expected for the two scenarios analyzing the results of state-of-the-art simulations. For the magnetic reconnection scenario we conclude, using results from global relativistic MHD simulations, that the emission likely occurs in turbulent regions with unstructured magnetic fields, although the simulations do not allow us to draw firm conclusions. On the other hand, with local particle-in-cell simulations we show that, for shocks with a magnetic field geometry suitable for particle acceleration, the self-generated magnetic field at the shock front is predominantly orthogonal to the shock normal and becomes quasi-parallel downstream. Based on this result we develop a simplified model to calculate the frequency-dependent degree of polarization, assuming that high-energy particles are injected at the shock and cool downstream. We apply our results to HBLs, blazars with the maximum of their synchrotron output at UV-soft X-ray energies. While in the optical band the predicted degree of polarization is low, in the X-ray emission it can ideally reach 50%, especially during active/flaring states. The comparison between measurements in the optical and in the X-ray band made during active states (feasible with the planned IXPE satellite) are expected to provide valuable constraints on the dissipation and acceleration processes.
Nonlinear dynamics of the relativistic standard map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nomura, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.H.; Horton, W.
1991-04-01
Heating and acceleration of charged particles by RF fields have been extensively investigated by the standard map. The question arises as to how the relativistic effects change the nonlinear dynamical behavior described by the classical standard map. The relativistic standard map is a two parameter (K, Β = ω/kc) family of dynamical systems reducing to the standard map when Β → 0. For Β ≠ 0 the relativistic mass increase suppresses the onset of stochasticity. It shown that the speed of light limits the rate of advance of the phase in the relativistic standard map and introduces KAM surfaces persisting in the high momentum region. An intricate structure of mixing in the higher order periodic orbits and chaotic orbits is analyzed using the symmetry properties of the relativistic standard map. The interchange of the stability of the periodic orbits in the relativistic standard map is also observed and is explained by the local linear stability of the orbits. 12 refs., 16 figs
[The design of heat dissipation of the field low temperature box for storage and transportation].
Wei, Jiancang; Suin, Jianjun; Wu, Jian
2013-02-01
Because of the compact structure of the field low temperature box for storage and transportation, which is due to the same small space where the compressor, the condenser, the control circuit, the battery and the power supply device are all placed in, the design for heat dissipation and ventilation is of critical importance for the stability and reliability of the box. Several design schemes of the heat dissipation design of the box were simulated using the FLOEFD hot fluid analysis software in this study. Different distributions of the temperature field in every design scheme were constructed intimately in the present study. It is well concluded that according to the result of the simulation analysis, the optimal heat dissipation design is decent for the field low temperature box for storage and transportation, and the box can operate smoothly for a long time using the results of the design.
Experimental characterization of extreme events of inertial dissipation in a turbulent swirling flow
Saw, E. -W.; Kuzzay, D.; Faranda, D.; Guittonneau, A.; Daviaud, F.; Wiertel-Gasquet, C.; Padilla, V.; Dubrulle, B.
2016-01-01
The three-dimensional incompressible Navier–Stokes equations, which describe the motion of many fluids, are the cornerstones of many physical and engineering sciences. However, it is still unclear whether they are mathematically well posed, that is, whether their solutions remain regular over time or develop singularities. Even though it was shown that singularities, if exist, could only be rare events, they may induce additional energy dissipation by inertial means. Here, using measurements at the dissipative scale of an axisymmetric turbulent flow, we report estimates of such inertial energy dissipation and identify local events of extreme values. We characterize the topology of these extreme events and identify several main types. Most of them appear as fronts separating regions of distinct velocities, whereas events corresponding to focusing spirals, jets and cusps are also found. Our results highlight the non-triviality of turbulent flows at sub-Kolmogorov scales as possible footprints of singularities of the Navier–Stokes equation. PMID:27578459
Solution of the relativistic 2-D Fokker-Planck equation for LH current drive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hizanidis, K.; Hewett, D.W.; Bers, A.
1984-03-01
We solve numerically the steady-state two-dimensional relativistic Fokker-Planck equation with strong rf diffusion using spectra relevant to recent experiments in ALCATOR-C. The results (current generated, power dissipated, and the distribution of energetic electrons) are sensitive to the location of the spectrum in momentum space. Relativistic effects play an important role, especially for wide spectra. The dependence on the ionic charge number Z/sub i/ is also investigated. Particular attention is paid to the perpendicular temperature inside the resonant region and beyond, as well as to the angular energetic particle-temperature distribution, T/sub μ/, a function of the pitch angle parameter μ. The dependence of the perpendicular temperature on the location of the spectrum is also investigated analytically with a model based on the method of moments and the results compared with those found numerically
Relativistic bound state wave functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Micu, L.
2005-01-01
A particular method of writing the bound state wave functions in relativistic form is applied to the solutions of the Dirac equation with confining potentials in order to obtain a relativistic description of a quark antiquark bound system representing a given meson. Concerning the role of the effective constituent in the present approach we first observe that without this additional constituent we couldn't expand the bound state wave function in terms of products of free states. Indeed, we notice that if the wave function depends on the relative coordinates only, all the expansion coefficients would be infinite. Secondly we remark that the effective constituent enabled us to give a Lorentz covariant meaning to the potential energy of the bound system which is now seen as the 4th component of a 4-momentum. On the other side, by relating the effective constituent to the quantum fluctuations of the background field which generate the binding, we provided a justification for the existence of some spatial degrees of freedom accompanying the interaction potential. These ones, which are quite unusual in quantum mechanics, in our model are the natural consequence of the the independence of the quarks and can be seen as the effect of the imperfect cancellation of the vector momenta during the quantum fluctuations. Related with all these we remark that the adequate representation for the relativistic description of a bound system is the momentum representation, because of the transparent and easy way of writing the conservation laws and the transformation properties of the wave functions. The only condition to be fulfilled is to find a suitable way to take into account the potential energy of the bound system. A particular feature of the present approach is that the confining forces are due to a kind of glue where both quarks are embedded. This recalls other bound state models where the wave function is factorized in terms of constituent wave functions and the confinement is
Relativistic neoclassical transport coefficients with momentum correction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marushchenko, I.; Azarenkov, N.A.
2016-01-01
The parallel momentum correction technique is generalized for relativistic approach. It is required for proper calculation of the parallel neoclassical flows and, in particular, for the bootstrap current at fusion temperatures. It is shown that the obtained system of linear algebraic equations for parallel fluxes can be solved directly without calculation of the distribution function if the relativistic mono-energetic transport coefficients are already known. The first relativistic correction terms for Braginskii matrix coefficients are calculated.
Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zenitani, Seiji
2015-01-01
Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ≈50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms
Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zenitani, Seiji, E-mail: seiji.zenitani@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
2015-04-15
Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ≈50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.
Energy dissipation mapping of cancer cells.
Dutta, Diganta; Palmer, Xavier-Lewis; Kim, Jinhyun; Qian, Shizhi; Stacey, Michael
2018-02-01
The purpose of this study is to map the energy dissipation of Jurkat cells using a single 60 nanosecond pulse electric field (NsPEF), primarily through atomic force microscopy (AFM). The phase shift is generated by the sample elements that do not have a heterogeneous surface. Monitoring and manipulating the phase shift is a powerful way for determining the dissipated energy and plotting the topography. The dissipated energy is a relative value, so the silica wafer and cover slip are given a set reference while the transmission of energy between the tip of the cantilever and cell surfaces is measured. The most important finding is that the magnitude and the number of variations in the dissipated energy change with the strength of NsPEF applied. Utilizing a single low field strength NsPEF (15kV/cm), minor changes in dissipated energy were found. The application of a single high field strength NsPEF (60kV/cm) to Jurkat cells resulted in a higher dissipated energy change versus that of in the low field strength condition. Thus, the dissipated energy from the Jurkat cells changes with the strength of NsPEF. By analyzing the forces via investigation in the tapping mode of the AFM, the stabilization of the cytoskeleton and membrane of the cell are related to the strength of NsPEF applied. Furthermore, the strength of NsPEF indicates a meaningful relationship to the survival of the Jurkat cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Simulating the dynamics of relativistic stars via a light-cone approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siebel, Florian; Mueller, Ewald; Font, Jose A.; Papadopoulos, Philippos
2002-01-01
We present new numerical algorithms for the coupled Einstein-perfect-fluid system in axisymmetry. Our framework uses a foliation based on a family of light cones, emanating from a regular center, and terminating at future null infinity. This coordinate system is well adapted to the study of the dynamical spacetimes associated with isolated relativistic compact objects such as neutron stars. In particular, the approach allows the unambiguous extraction of gravitational waves at future null infinity and avoids spurious outer boundary reflections. The code can accurately maintain long-term stability of polytropic equilibrium models of relativistic stars. We demonstrate global energy conservation in a strongly perturbed neutron star spacetime, for which the total energy radiated away by gravitational waves corresponds to a significant fraction of the Bondi mass. As a first application we present results in the study of pulsations of axisymmetric relativistic stars, extracting the frequencies of the different fluid modes in fully relativistic evolutions of the Einstein-perfect-fluid system and making a first comparison between the gravitational news function and the predicted wave using the approximations of the quadrupole formula
Relativistic ion acceleration by ultraintense laser interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakajima, K.; Koga, J.K.; Nakagawa, K.
2001-01-01
There has been a great interest in relativistic particle generation by ultraintense laser interactions with matter. We propose the use of relativistically self-focused laser pulses for the acceleration of ions. Two dimensional PIC simulations are performed, which show the formation of a large positive electrostatic field near the front of a relativistically self-focused laser pulse. Several factors contribute to the acceleration including self-focusing distance, pulse depletion, and plasma density. Ultraintense laser-plasma interactions are capable of generating enormous electrostatic fields of ∼3 TV/m for acceleration of protons with relativistic energies exceeding 1 GeV
RELATIVISTIC CYCLOTRON INSTABILITY IN ANISOTROPIC PLASMAS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
López, Rodrigo A.; Moya, Pablo S.; Muñoz, Víctor; Valdivia, J. Alejandro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Navarro, Roberto E.; Araneda, Jaime A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F., E-mail: rlopez186@gmail.com [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2016-11-20
A sufficiently large temperature anisotropy can sometimes drive various types of electromagnetic plasma micro-instabilities, which can play an important role in the dynamics of relativistic pair plasmas in space, astrophysics, and laboratory environments. Here, we provide a detailed description of the cyclotron instability of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves in relativistic pair plasmas on the basis of a relativistic anisotropic distribution function. Using plasma kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we study the influence of the relativistic temperature and the temperature anisotropy on the collective and noncollective modes of these plasmas. Growth rates and dispersion curves from the linear theory show a good agreement with simulations results.
Decay of Kadomtsev-Petviashvili lumps in dissipative media
Clarke, S.; Gorshkov, K.; Grimshaw, R.; Stepanyants, Y.
2018-03-01
The decay of Kadomtsev-Petviashvili lumps is considered for a few typical dissipations-Rayleigh dissipation, Reynolds dissipation, Landau damping, Chezy bottom friction, viscous dissipation in the laminar boundary layer, and radiative losses caused by large-scale dispersion. It is shown that the straight-line motion of lumps is unstable under the influence of dissipation. The lump trajectories are calculated for two most typical models of dissipation-the Rayleigh and Reynolds dissipations. A comparison of analytical results obtained within the framework of asymptotic theory with the direct numerical calculations of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation is presented. Good agreement between the theoretical and numerical results is obtained.
Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution. II.
Foot, R.
2018-05-01
Within the mirror dark matter model and dissipative dark matter models in general, halos around galaxies with active star formation (including spirals and gas-rich dwarfs) are dynamical: they expand and contract in response to heating and cooling processes. Ordinary type II supernovae (SNe) can provide the dominant heat source, which is possible if kinetic mixing interaction exists with strength ɛ ˜10-9- 10-10 . Dissipative dark matter halos can be modeled as a fluid governed by Euler's equations. Around sufficiently isolated and unperturbed galaxies the halo can relax to a steady state configuration, where heating and cooling rates locally balance and hydrostatic equilibrium prevails. These steady state conditions can be solved to derive the physical properties, including the halo density and temperature profiles, for model galaxies. Here, we consider idealized spherically symmetric galaxies within the mirror dark particle model, as in our earlier paper [Phys. Rev. D 97, 043012 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevD.97.043012], but we assume that the local halo heating in the SN vicinity dominates over radiative sources. With this assumption, physically interesting steady state solutions arise which we compute for a representative range of model galaxies. The end result is a rather simple description of the dark matter halo around idealized spherically symmetric systems, characterized in principle by only one parameter, with physical properties that closely resemble the empirical properties of disk galaxies.
Transient chaotic transport in dissipative drift motion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oyarzabal, R.S. [Pós-Graduação em Ciências/Física, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Szezech, J.D. [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Batista, A.M., E-mail: antoniomarcosbatista@gmail.com [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Souza, S.L.T. de [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de São João del Rei, 36420-000, Ouro Branco, MG (Brazil); Caldas, I.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05315-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Viana, R.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sanjuán, M.A.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Tulipán s/n, 28933 Móstoles, Madrid (Spain)
2016-04-22
Highlights: • We consider a situation for which a chaotic transient is present in the dynamics of the two-wave model with damping. • The damping in plasma models can be a way for study a realistic behavior of confinement due the collisional effect. • The escape time as a function of the damping obey a power-law scaling. • We have made a qualitative transport analysis with a simple model that can be useful for more complete models. • We have shown that the pattern of the basin of attraction depends on the damping parameter. - Abstract: We investigate chaotic particle transport in magnetised plasmas with two electrostatic drift waves. Considering dissipation in the drift motion, we verify that the removed KAM surfaces originate periodic attractors with their corresponding basins of attraction. We show that the properties of the basins depend on the dissipation and the space-averaged escape time decays exponentially when the dissipation increases. We find positive finite time Lyapunov exponents in dissipative drift motion, consequently the trajectories exhibit transient chaotic transport. These features indicate how the transient plasma transport depends on the dissipation.
Acoustic Streaming and Its Suppression in Inhomogeneous Fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karlsen, Jonas Tobias; Qiu, Wei; Augustsson, Per
2018-01-01
We present a theoretical and experimental study of boundary-driven acoustic streaming in an inhomogeneous fluid with variations in density and compressibility. In a homogeneous fluid this streaming results from dissipation in the boundary layers (Rayleigh streaming). We show...... that in an inhomogeneous fluid, an additional nondissipative force density acts on the fluid to stabilize particular inhomogeneity configurations, which markedly alters and even suppresses the streaming flows. Our theoretical and numerical analysis of the phenomenon is supported by ultrasound experiments performed...
Dissipation of Turbulence in the Solar Wind as Measured by Cluster
Goldstein, Melvyn
2012-01-01
Turbulence in fluids and plasmas is a scale-dependent process that generates fluctuations towards ever-smaller scales until dissipation occurs. Recent Cluster observations in the solar wind demonstrate the existence of a cascade of magnetic energy from the scale of the proton Larmor radius, where kinetic properties of ions invalidate fluid approximations, down to the electron Larmor radius, where electrons become demagnetized. The cascade is quasi-two-dimensional and has been interpreted as consisting of highly oblique kinetic Alfvenic fluctuations that dissipate near at the electron gyroradius scale via proton and electron Landau damping. Here we investigate for the first time the spatial properties of the turbulence at these scales. We report the presence of thin current sheets and discontinuities with spatial sizes greater than or approximately equal to the proton Larmor radius. These isolated structures may be manifestations of intermittency, and such would localize sites of turbulent dissipation. Studying the relationship between turbulent dissipation, reconnection and intermittency is crucial for understanding the dynamics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gritsenko, I.A.; Klokol, K.A.; Sokolov, S.S.; Sheshin, G.A.
2016-01-01
An experimental study is made of the drag coefficient, which is the characteristics of energy dissipation during oscillations of the tuning forks, immersed in liquid helium. The experiments were performed in the temperature range from 0.1 to 3.5 K covering both the range of a hydrodynamic flow, and the ballistic regime of transfer of thermal excitations of superfluid helium below 0.6 K. It is found that there is the frequency dependence of the drag coefficient in the hydrodynamic limit, when the main dissipation mechanism is the viscous friction of the fluid against the walls of the oscillating body at temperatures above 0.7 K. In this case, the drag coefficient is proportional to the square root of the frequency of oscillation, and its temperature dependence in He II is determined by the respective dependence of the normal component density of the normal component and the viscosity of the fluid. At lower temperatures, the dependence of drag coefficient on the frequency is not available, and the magnitude of the dissipative losses is determined only by the temperature dependence of the density of the normal component. At the same time in the entire range of temperatures value of dissipative losses depends on the geometry of the oscillating body.
Fully-developed heat transfer in annuli with viscous dissipation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coelho, P.M. [Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal). Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, DEMEGI, Faculdade de Engenharia; Pinho, F.T. [Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal). Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, Faculdade de Engenharia
2006-09-15
For Newtonian concentric annular flows analytical solutions are obtained under imposed asymmetric constant wall heat fluxes as well as under imposed asymmetric constant wall temperatures, taking into account viscous dissipation and for fluid dynamic and thermally fully-developed conditions. Results for the special case of the heat flux ratio for identical wall temperatures and the critical Brinkman numbers marking changes of sign in wall heat fluxes are also derived. Equations are presented for the Nusselt numbers at the inner and outer walls, bulk temperature and normalised temperature distribution as a function of all relevant non-dimensional numbers. Given the complexity of the derived equations, simpler exact expressions are presented for the Nusselt numbers for ease of use, with their coefficients given in tables as a function of the radius ratio. (author)
Neoclassical dissipation and resistive wall modes in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaing, K.C.
2004-01-01
It is shown that the critical toroidal plasma flow speed that is required to stabilize the resistive wall mode in tokamaks is reduced by a factor of the order of B/B θ or of 1.265ε 3sol4 B/B θ depending on the plasma parameters when the perturbed neoclassical viscosity driven current is taken into account. Here, B is the magnetic field strength, B θ is the poloidal magnetic field strength, and ε is the inverse aspect ratio. This effect is illustrated using an existing model for the resistive wall modes by including the neoclassical dissipation in the derivation of the dispersion relation. The derivation is based on fluid equations with the plasma viscosity, calculated using kinetic equation, as the closure. The reduction of the critical toroidal speed is a consequence of the parallel (to the magnetic field B) momentum equation when neoclassical viscosity becomes important. The results are compared with experimental observations in tokamaks
Measuring Shear Viscosity Using Transverse Momentum Correlations in Relativistic Nuclear Collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavin, Sean; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed
2006-01-01
Elliptic flow measurements at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider suggest that quark-gluon fluid flows with very little viscosity compared to weak-coupling expectations, challenging theorists to explain why this fluid is so nearly ''perfect.'' It is therefore vital to find quantitative experimental information on the viscosity of the fluid. We propose that measurements of transverse momentum fluctuations can be used to determine the shear viscosity. We use current data to estimate the viscosity-to-entropy ratio in the range from 0.08 to 0.3 and discuss how future measurements can reduce this uncertainty
Relativistic many-body theory of atomic transitions: the relativistic equation-of-motion approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, K.N.
1981-01-01
An equation-of-motion approach is used to develop the relativistic many-body theory of atomic transitions. The relativistic equations of motion for transition matrices are formulated using techniques of quantum field theory. To reduce the equation of motion to a tractable form which is appropriate for numerical calculations, a graphical method is employed to resolve the complication arising from the antisymmetrization and angular momentum coupling. The relativistic equation-of-motion method allows an ab initio treatment of correlation and relativistic effects in both closed- and open-shell many-body systems. A special case of the present formulation reduces to the relativistic random-phase approximation
Dynamics of quasi-stable dissipative systems
Chueshov, Igor
2015-01-01
This book is devoted to background material and recently developed mathematical methods in the study of infinite-dimensional dissipative systems. The theory of such systems is motivated by the long-term goal to establish rigorous mathematical models for turbulent and chaotic phenomena. The aim here is to offer general methods and abstract results pertaining to fundamental dynamical systems properties related to dissipative long-time behavior. The book systematically presents, develops and uses the quasi-stability method while substantially extending it by including for consideration new classes of models and PDE systems arising in Continuum Mechanics. The book can be used as a textbook in dissipative dynamics at the graduate level. Igor Chueshov is a Professor of Mathematics at Karazin Kharkov National University in Kharkov, Ukraine.
Topological protection of multiparticle dissipative transport
Loehr, Johannes; Loenne, Michael; Ernst, Adrian; de Las Heras, Daniel; Fischer, Thomas M.
2016-06-01
Topological protection allows robust transport of localized phenomena such as quantum information, solitons and dislocations. The transport can be either dissipative or non-dissipative. Here, we experimentally demonstrate and theoretically explain the topologically protected dissipative motion of colloidal particles above a periodic hexagonal magnetic pattern. By driving the system with periodic modulation loops of an external and spatially homogeneous magnetic field, we achieve total control over the motion of diamagnetic and paramagnetic colloids. We can transport simultaneously and independently each type of colloid along any of the six crystallographic directions of the pattern via adiabatic or deterministic ratchet motion. Both types of motion are topologically protected. As an application, we implement an automatic topologically protected quality control of a chemical reaction between functionalized colloids. Our results are relevant to other systems with the same symmetry.
Effect of dissipation on dynamical fusion thresholds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sierk, A.J.
1986-01-01
The existence of dynamical thresholds to fusion in heavy nuclei (A greater than or equal to 200) due to the nature of the potential-energy surface is shown. These thresholds exist even in the absence of dissipative forces, due to the coupling between the various collective deformation degrees of freedom. Using a macroscopic model of nuclear shape dynamics, It is shown how three different suggested dissipation mechanisms increase by varying amounts the excitation energy over the one-dimensional barrier required to cause compound-nucleus formation. The recently introduced surface-plus-window dissipation may give a reasonable representation of experimental data on fusion thresholds, in addition to properly describing fission-fragment kinetic energies and isoscalar giant multipole widths. Scaling of threshold results to asymmetric systems is discussed. 48 refs., 10 figs
Optimizing the microstructure of dissipative materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreassen, Erik; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
the material’s loss factor, however, only for large wave lengths (small wave numbers) and constant material parameters (Andreasen et al., 2012). An alternative way to determine the material’s loss factor is to consider the material’s band diagram (Sigalas and Economou, 1992), from which the loss factor can......The aim of this work is to present a method to design material microstructures with high dissipation using topology optimization. In order to compute the macroscopic energy dissipation in periodic structures, we focus both on capturing the physical dissipation mechanism and to find the effective...... from experimental results in (Schaedler, 2011), where a highly energy absorbing material, constructed from structural elements with a small cross sectional area but large area moment of inertia, is presented. Furthermore, the applicability of multiscale finite element methods (Efendiev, 2009...
Induced waveform transitions of dissipative solitons
Kochetov, Bogdan A.; Tuz, Vladimir R.
2018-01-01
The effect of an externally applied force upon the dynamics of dissipative solitons is analyzed in the framework of the one-dimensional cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg-Landau equation supplemented by a potential term with an explicit coordinate dependence. The potential accounts for the external force manipulations and consists of three symmetrically arranged potential wells whose depth varies along the longitudinal coordinate. It is found out that under an influence of such potential a transition between different soliton waveforms coexisting under the same physical conditions can be achieved. A low-dimensional phase-space analysis is applied in order to demonstrate that by only changing the potential profile, transitions between different soliton waveforms can be performed in a controllable way. In particular, it is shown that by means of a selected potential, stationary dissipative soliton can be transformed into another stationary soliton as well as into periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic spatiotemporal dissipative structures.
Dissipative Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model.
Smirne, Andrea; Bassi, Angelo
2015-08-05
Collapse models explain the absence of quantum superpositions at the macroscopic scale, while giving practically the same predictions as quantum mechanics for microscopic systems. The Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model is the most refined and studied among collapse models. A well-known problem of this model, and of similar ones, is the steady and unlimited increase of the energy induced by the collapse noise. Here we present the dissipative version of the CSL model, which guarantees a finite energy during the entire system's evolution, thus making a crucial step toward a realistic energy-conserving collapse model. This is achieved by introducing a non-linear stochastic modification of the Schrödinger equation, which represents the action of a dissipative finite-temperature collapse noise. The possibility to introduce dissipation within collapse models in a consistent way will have relevant impact on the experimental investigations of the CSL model, and therefore also on the testability of the quantum superposition principle.
Microscopic theory of one-body dissipation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koonin, S.E.; Randrup, J.; Hatch, R.; Kolomietz, V.
1977-01-01
A microscopic theory is developed for nuclear collective motion in the limit of a long nuclear mean-free path. Linear response techniques are applied to an independent particle model and expressions for the collective kinetic energy and rate of energy dissipation are obtained. For leptodermous systems, these quantities are characterized by mass and dissipation kernels coupling the velocities at different points on the nuclear surface. In a classical treatment, the kernels are given in terms of nucleon trajectories within the nuclear shape. In a quantal treatment, the dissipation kernel is related to the nuclear Green function. The spatial and thermal properties of the kernels are investigated. Corrections for the diffuseness of the potential and shell effects are also discussed. (Auth.)
Thermodynamics of polarized relativistic matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kovtun, Pavel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,PO Box 1700 STN CSC, Victoria BC, V8W 2Y2 (Canada)
2016-07-05
We give the free energy of equilibrium relativistic matter subject to external gravitational and electromagnetic fields, to one-derivative order in the gradients of the external fields. The free energy allows for a straightforward derivation of bound currents and bound momenta in equilibrium. At leading order, the energy-momentum tensor admits a simple expression in terms of the polarization tensor. Beyond the leading order, electric and magnetic polarization vectors are intrinsically ambiguous. The physical effects of polarization, such as the correlation between the magneto-vortically induced surface charge and the electro-vortically induced surface current, are not ambiguous.
Observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanford, Glenn DelFosse
1998-01-01
An observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms is reported in this dissertation. Experiment 862 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory observed antihydrogen atoms produced by the interaction of a circulating beam of high momentum (3 0 production is outlined within. The cross section corresponds to the process where a high momentum antiproton causes e + e - pair creation near a nucleus with the e + being captured by the antiproton. Antihydrogen is the first atom made exclusively of antimatter to be detected. The observation experiment's results are the first step towards an antihydrogen spectroscopy experiment which would measure the n = 2 Lamb shift and fine structure
Similarity flows in relativistic hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaizot, J.P.; Ollitrault, J.Y.
1986-01-01
In ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, one expects in particular to observe a deconfinement transition leading to a formation of quark gluon plasma. In the framework of the hydrodynamic model, experimental signatures of such a plasma may be looked for as observable consequences of a first order transition on the evolution of the system. In most of the possible scenario, the phase transition is accompanied with discontinuities in the hydrodynamic flow, such as shock waves. The method presented in this paper has been developed to treat without too much numerical effort such discontinuous flow. It relies heavily on the use of similarity solutions of the hydrodynamic equations
Relativistic heavy ion facilities: worldwide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeder, L.S.
1986-05-01
A review of relativistic heavy ion facilities which exist, are in a construction phase, or are on the drawing boards as proposals is presented. These facilities span the energy range from fixed target machines in the 1 to 2 GeV/nucleon regime, up to heavy ion colliders of 100 GeV/nucleon on 100 GeV/nucleon. In addition to specifying the general features of such machines, an outline of the central physics themes to be carried out at these facilities is given, along with a sampling of the detectors which will be used to extract the physics. 22 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs
Unlimited Relativistic Shock Surfing Acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ucer, D.; Shapiro, V. D.
2001-01-01
Nonrelativistic shock surfing acceleration at quasiperpendicular shocks is usually considered to be a preacceleration mechanism for slow pickup ions to initiate diffusive shock acceleration. In shock surfing, the particle accelerates along the shock front under the action of the convective electric field of the plasma flow. However, the particle also gains kinetic energy normal to the shock and eventually escapes downstream. We consider the case when ions are accelerated to relativistic velocities. In this case, the ions are likely to be trapped for infinitely long times, because the energy of bounce oscillations tends to decrease during acceleration. This suggests the possibility of unlimited acceleration by shock surfing
The magnetosphere in relativistic physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zapffe, C.A.
1982-01-01
The present paper takes off from the author's earlier epistemological analysis and criticism of the Special Theory of Relativity, identifies the problem as lying in Einstein's choice of the inertial frame of Newtonian mechanics rather than the electromagnetic frame of the locally embedding Maxwellian field when discussing electrodynamics, then proposes this Maxwellian field of the magnetosphere as the specific rest frame proper to all experimentation of optical or electromagnetic sort conducted within its bounds. The result is shown to remove all paradoxes from relativistic physics. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loveland, W.D.
1991-08-01
The work described herein is part of a project involving the study of low energy ( 250 MeV/A) heavy ion reactions. In the low energy regime, we published a monograph on the properties of the heaviest elements and used that publication as a basis for making a set of ''best'' semi-empirical predictions of heavy element decay properties. The intermediate energy research effort focussed upon the completion of studies already begun and the initiation of a number of new experiments. In our study of a interaction of 21 MeV/nucleon 129 Xe with 197 Au, we compared the characteristics of the observed deep inelastic phenomena with various models of dissipative reactions and found significant discrepancies between observations and predictions. These discrepancies seemed to be caused by an improper treatment of pre-equilibrium in the early stages of the collision. In our study of the relativistic interaction of 400 MeV/nucleon 12 C with 197 Au, we reported the first direct physical measurement of the properties of the spallation residues from a nucleus-nucleus collision. We found the residue energies to be much lower than those predicted by the intranuclear cascade model, indicating some substantial modifications of that model are needed. But, we also found, indications of significant, non-zero values of the residue transverse momentum, a finding that calls into question the interpretation of a number of radiochemical recoil studies of the kinematics of high energy reactions. A program of performing numerical simulations of intermediate and high energy nuclear collisions using the QMD model was initiated
A relativistic extended Fermi-Thomas-like equation for a self-gravitating system of fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merloni, A.; Ruffini, R.; Torroni, V.
1998-01-01
The authors extend previous results of a Fermi-Thomas model, describing self-gravitating fermions in their ground state, to a relativistic gravitational theory in Minkowski space. In such a theory the source term of the gravitational potential depends both on the pressure and the density of the fluid. It is shown that, in correspondence of this relativistic treatment, still a Fermi-Thomas-like equation can be derived for the self-gravitating system, though the non-linearities are much more complex. No Fermi-Thomas-like equation can be obtained in the General Relativistic treatment. The canonical results for neutron stars and white dwarfs are recovered and also some erroneous statements in the scientific literature are corrected
Analysis of phononic bandgap structures with dissipation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreassen, Erik; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
2013-01-01
and longer wavelengths, we show that the two formulations produce nearly identical results in terms of propagation constant and wave decay. We use the k(ω)-formulation to compute loss factors with dissipative bandgap materials for steady-state wave propagation and create simplified diagrams that unify...... the spatial loss factor from dissipative and bandgap effects. Additionally, we demonstrate the applicability of the k(ω)-formulation for the computation of the band diagram for viscoelastic composites and compare the computed loss factors for low frequency wave propagation to existing results based on quasi...
Quantum dissipation from power-law memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2012-01-01
A new quantum dissipation model based on memory mechanism is suggested. Dynamics of open and closed quantum systems with power-law memory is considered. The processes with power-law memory are described by using integration and differentiation of non-integer orders, by methods of fractional calculus. An example of quantum oscillator with linear friction and power-law memory is considered. - Highlights: ► A new quantum dissipation model based on memory mechanism is suggested. ► The generalization of Lindblad equation is considered. ► An exact solution of generalized Lindblad equation for quantum oscillator with linear friction and power-law memory is derived.
DISSIPATION PATTERN OF BIFENTHRIN IN TOMATO
Ravi Kumar Katroju; Sreenivasa Rao Cherukuri; Shashi Bushan Vemuri; Narasimha Reddy K
2014-01-01
Field experiment carried out during kharif, 2012 to evaluate the dissipation pattern of most commonly used insecticide bifenthrin 10 EC @ 100 g a.i. ha-1 with two sprays of insecticide first given after fruit initiation and the second spray 10 days later and collecting the fruits at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 days after last spray, and analysed for residues using the validated QuEChERS method. The initial deposits of bifenthrin were 0.85 mg kg-1 which dissipated to 0.39, 0.15 mg kg-1 by 1st an...
Mechanical energy dissipation in natural ceramic composites.
Mayer, George
2017-12-01
Ceramics and glasses, in their monolithic forms, typically exhibit low fracture toughness values, but rigid natural marine ceramic and glass composites have shown remarkable resistance to mechanical failure. This has been observed in load-extension behavior by recognizing that the total area under the curve, notably the part beyond the yield point, often conveys substantial capacity to carry mechanical load. The mechanisms underlying the latter observations are proposed as defining factors for toughness that provide resistance to failure, or capability to dissipate energy, rather than fracture toughness. Such behavior is exhibited in the spicules of glass sponges and in mollusk shells. There are a number of similarities in the manner in which energy dissipation takes place in both sponges and mollusks. It was observed that crack diversion, a new form of crack bridging, creation of new surface area, and other important energy-dissipating mechanisms occur and aid in "toughening". Crack tolerance, key to energy dissipation in these natural composite materials, is assisted by promoting energy distribution over large volumes of loaded specimens by minor components of organic constituents that also serve important roles as adhesives. Viscoelastic deformation was a notable characteristic of the organic component. Some of these energy-dissipating modes and characteristics were found to be quite different from the toughening mechanisms that are utilized for more conventional structural composites. Complementary to those mechanisms found in rigid natural ceramic/organic composites, layered architectures and very thin organic layers played major roles in energy dissipation in these structures. It has been demonstrated in rigid natural marine composites that not only architecture, but also the mechanical behavior of the individual constituents, the nature of the interfaces, and interfacial bonding play important roles in energy dissipation. Additionally, the controlling
Morphing of the Dissipative Reaction Mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeder, W.U.; Toke, J.; Gawlikowicz, W.; Houck, M.A.; Lu, J.; Pienkowski, L.
2003-01-01
Important trends in the evolution of heavy-ion reaction mechanisms with bombarding energy and impact parameter are reviewed. Essential features of dissipative reactions appear preserved at E/A = 50-62 MeV, such as dissipative orbiting and multi-nucleon exchange. The relaxation of the A/Z asymmetry with impact parameter is slow. Non-equilibrium emission of light particles and clusters is an important process accompanying the evolution of the mechanism. Evidence is presented for a new mechanism of statistical cluster emission from hot, metastable primary reaction products, driven by surface entropy. These results suggest a plausible reinterpretation of multi-fragmentation. (authors)
Dissipation in the superfluid helium film
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turkington, R.R.; Harris-Lowe, R.F.
1977-01-01
We have measured the rate of energy dissipation in superfluid helium film flow in an attempt to test a recent theory due to Harris-Lowe, which predicts that for superfluid stream velocities v/sub s/ that just exceed the critical velocity v/sub c0/, the rate of dissipation is given by an equation of the form Q=C(v/sub s/-v/sub c0/)/sup 3/2/. Our experiments at 1.33 K show that the exponent, predicted to be 3/2, is 1.491 +- 0.021
Dissipation and decoherence in quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menskii, Mikhail B
2003-01-01
The theory of dissipative quantum systems and its relation to the quantum theory of continuous measurements are reviewed. Constructing a correct theory of a dissipative quantum system requires that the system's interaction with its environment (reservoir) be taken into account. Since information about the system is 'recorded' in the state of the reservoir, the quantum theory of continuous measurements can be used to account for the influence of the reservoir. If based on the use of restricted path integrals, this theory does not require an explicit reservoir model and is therefore much simpler technically. (reviews of topical problems)
Dissipative phenomena in condensed matter some applications
Dattagupta, Sushanta
2004-01-01
From the field of nonequilibrium statistical physics, this graduate- and research-level volume treats the modeling and characterization of dissipative phenomena. A variety of examples from diverse disciplines like condensed matter physics, materials science, metallurgy, chemical physics etc. are discussed. Dattagupta employs the broad framework of stochastic processes and master equation techniques to obtain models for a wide range of experimentally relevant phenomena such as classical and quantum Brownian motion, spin dynamics, kinetics of phase ordering, relaxation in glasses, dissipative tunneling. It provides a pedagogical exposition of current research material and will be useful to experimentalists, computational physicists and theorists.
Morphing of the Dissipative Reaction Mechanism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schroeder, W.U.; Toke, J.; Gawlikowicz, W.; Houck, M.A.; Lu, J.; Pienkowski, L. [Rochester Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Rochester, NY (United States)
2003-07-01
Important trends in the evolution of heavy-ion reaction mechanisms with bombarding energy and impact parameter are reviewed. Essential features of dissipative reactions appear preserved at E/A = 50-62 MeV, such as dissipative orbiting and multi-nucleon exchange. The relaxation of the A/Z asymmetry with impact parameter is slow. Non-equilibrium emission of light particles and clusters is an important process accompanying the evolution of the mechanism. Evidence is presented for a new mechanism of statistical cluster emission from hot, metastable primary reaction products, driven by surface entropy. These results suggest a plausible reinterpretation of multi-fragmentation. (authors)
Effects of dissipation and fluctuation in preheating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vartuli, Rodrigo; Ramos, Rudnei de O.
2006-01-01
In this paper, we study the effects of dissipation and fluctuation in preheating after inflation. The effective equation of motion for a scalar field χ interacting with lighter fields is derived using the field theoretical method of closed time path due to Schwinger, winch is suitable to study nonequilibrium and time dependent process. In this derivation the emergent equation is intrinsically dissipative and stochastic in nature. The resulting dynamics is then studied both analytically and numerically. The results obtained are then discussed for then relevance for the reheating epoch right after an inflationary phase(preheating) for the case of the evolution of the scalar field χ and its decay into fermion. (author)
Periodic solutions of dissipative systems revisited
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Górniewicz Lech
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We reprove in an extremely simple way the classical theorem that time periodic dissipative systems imply the existence of harmonic periodic solutions, in the case of uniqueness. We will also show that, in the lack of uniqueness, the existence of harmonics is implied by uniform dissipativity. The localization of starting points and multiplicity of periodic solutions will be established, under suitable additional assumptions, as well. The arguments are based on the application of various asymptotic fixed point theorems of the Lefschetz and Nielsen type.
Periodic solutions of dissipative systems revisited
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lech Górniewicz
2006-05-01
Full Text Available We reprove in an extremely simple way the classical theorem that time periodic dissipative systems imply the existence of harmonic periodic solutions, in the case of uniqueness. We will also show that, in the lack of uniqueness, the existence of harmonics is implied by uniform dissipativity. The localization of starting points and multiplicity of periodic solutions will be established, under suitable additional assumptions, as well. The arguments are based on the application of various asymptotic fixed point theorems of the Lefschetz and Nielsen type.
Appendix to Power Dissipation in Division
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto
This document is an appendix to the paper: Wei Liu and Alberto Nannarelli, ”Power Dissipation in Division”, Proc. of 42nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, October 2008. The purpose of the document is to provide the necessary information for the implementation of the archite......This document is an appendix to the paper: Wei Liu and Alberto Nannarelli, ”Power Dissipation in Division”, Proc. of 42nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, October 2008. The purpose of the document is to provide the necessary information for the implementation...
A dissipative particle dynamics method for arbitrarily complex geometries
Li, Zhen; Bian, Xin; Tang, Yu-Hang; Karniadakis, George Em
2018-02-01
Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is an effective Lagrangian method for modeling complex fluids in the mesoscale regime but so far it has been limited to relatively simple geometries. Here, we formulate a local detection method for DPD involving arbitrarily shaped geometric three-dimensional domains. By introducing an indicator variable of boundary volume fraction (BVF) for each fluid particle, the boundary of arbitrary-shape objects is detected on-the-fly for the moving fluid particles using only the local particle configuration. Therefore, this approach eliminates the need of an analytical description of the boundary and geometry of objects in DPD simulations and makes it possible to load the geometry of a system directly from experimental images or computer-aided designs/drawings. More specifically, the BVF of a fluid particle is defined by the weighted summation over its neighboring particles within a cutoff distance. Wall penetration is inferred from the value of the BVF and prevented by a predictor-corrector algorithm. The no-slip boundary condition is achieved by employing effective dissipative coefficients for liquid-solid interactions. Quantitative evaluations of the new method are performed for the plane Poiseuille flow, the plane Couette flow and the Wannier flow in a cylindrical domain and compared with their corresponding analytical solutions and (high-order) spectral element solution of the Navier-Stokes equations. We verify that the proposed method yields correct no-slip boundary conditions for velocity and generates negligible fluctuations of density and temperature in the vicinity of the wall surface. Moreover, we construct a very complex 3D geometry - the "Brown Pacman" microfluidic device - to explicitly demonstrate how to construct a DPD system with complex geometry directly from loading a graphical image. Subsequently, we simulate the flow of a surfactant solution through this complex microfluidic device using the new method. Its
Relativistic Quantum Transport in Graphene Systems
2015-07-09
dimensional Dirac material systems. 2 List of Publications 1. X. Ni, L. Huang, Y.-C. Lai, and L. M. Pecora, “Effect of chaos on relativistic quantum...development of relativistic quantum devices based on graphene or alternative two-dimensional Dirac material systems. In the project period, we studied
Relativistic calculations of coalescing binary neutron stars
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We have designed and tested a new relativistic Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, which treats gravity in the conformally flat approximation to general relativity. We have tested the resulting code extensively, finding that it performs well for calculations of equilibrium single-star models, collapsing relativistic dust clouds, and ...
Relativistic corrections to molecular dynamic dipole polarizabilities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirpekar, Sheela; Oddershede, Jens; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard
1995-01-01
obtained from the use of the Darwin and mass-velocity operators to first order are included at both levels of approximation. We find that correlation and relativistic contributions are not even approximately additive for the two molecules. The importance of the relativistic corrections is smallest...
A Primer to Relativistic MOND Theory
Bekenstein, J.D..; Sanders, R.H.
2005-01-01
Abstract: We first review the nonrelativistic lagrangian theory as a framework for the MOND equation. Obstructions to a relativistic version of it are discussed leading up to TeVeS, a relativistic tensor-vector-scalar field theory which displays both MOND and Newtonian limits. The whys for its
Relativistic astrophysics and theory of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zel'dovich, Ya.B.
1982-01-01
A brief historical review of the development of astrophysical science in the State Astrophysical Institute named after Shternberg (SAISh) has been given in a popular form. The main directions of the SAISh astrophysical investigations have been presented: relativistic theory of gravity, relativistic astrophysics of interplanetary medium and cosmology
Einstein Never Approved of Relativistic Mass
Hecht, Eugene
2009-01-01
During much of the 20th century it was widely believed that one of the significant insights of special relativity was "relativistic mass." Today there are two schools on that issue: the traditional view that embraces speed-dependent "relativistic mass," and the more modern position that rejects it, maintaining that there is only one mass and it's…
Rapid Quantification of Energy Absorption and Dissipation Metrics for PPE Padding Materials
2010-01-22
dampers , i.e., Hooke’s Law springs and viscous ...absorbing/dissipating materials. Input forces caused by blast pressures, determined from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis and simulation...simple lumped-‐ parameter elements – spring, k (energy storage) – damper , b (energy dissipa/on Rapid
Random phase approximation in relativistic approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Zhongyu; Yang Ding; Tian Yuan; Cao Ligang
2009-01-01
Some special issues of the random phase approximation(RPA) in the relativistic approach are reviewed. A full consistency and proper treatment of coupling to the continuum are responsible for the successful application of the RPA in the description of dynamical properties of finite nuclei. The fully consistent relativistic RPA(RRPA) requires that the relativistic mean filed (RMF) wave function of the nucleus and the RRPA correlations are calculated in a same effective Lagrangian and the consistent treatment of the Dirac sea of negative energy states. The proper treatment of the single particle continuum with scattering asymptotic conditions in the RMF and RRPA is discussed. The full continuum spectrum can be described by the single particle Green's function and the relativistic continuum RPA is established. A separable form of the paring force is introduced in the relativistic quasi-particle RPA. (authors)
Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations
Zenitani, S.
2015-12-01
In order to study energetic plasma phenomena by using particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations, we need to deal with relativistic velocity distributions in these simulations. However, numerical algorithms to deal with relativistic distributions are not well known. In this contribution, we overview basic algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in PIC and Monte-Carlo simulations. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are newly proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are 50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.
Relativistic theory of spontaneous emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barut, A.O.; Salamin, Y.I.
1987-06-01
We derive a formula for the relativistic decay rates in atoms in a formulation of Quantum Electrodynamics based upon the electron's self energy. Relativistic Coulomb wavefunctions are used, the full spin calculation is carried out and the dipole approximation is not employed. The formula has the correct nonrelativistic limit and is used here for calculating the decay rates in Hydrogen and Muonium for the transitions 2P → 1S 1/2 and 2S 1/2 → 1S 1/2 . The results for Hydrogen are: Γ(2P → 1S 1/2 )=6.2649x10 8 s -1 and Γ(2S 1/2 → 1S 1/2 )=2.4946x10 -6 s -1 . Our result for the 2P → 1S 1/2 transition rate is in perfect agreement with the best nonrelativistic calculations as well as with the results obtained from the best known radiative decay lifetime measurements. As for the Hydrogen 2S 1/2 → 1S 1/2 decay rate, the result obtained here is also in good agreement with the best known magnetic dipole calculations. For Muonium we get: Γ(2P → 1S 1/2 )=6.2382x10 8 s -1 and Γ(2S 1/2 → 1S 1/2 )=2.3997x10 -6 s -1 . (author). 23 refs, 4 tabs
Physical processes in relativistic plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svensson, R.
1984-01-01
The continuum emission in many active galactic nuclei (AGNs) extend to 100 keV and beyond (e.g. Rothschild et al. 1983). In thermal models of the continuum emission this implies temperatures above 10 9 K or kT of order mc 2 . In such a plasma the electrons are at least mildly relativistic and furthermore the particles and the photons are energetic enough to produce electron-positron pairs. The physics of such hot plasmas has only recently been studied in any detail and here we review the results of those studies. Significant electron-positron pair production may also occur in non-thermal models of the continuum emission if the optical depth to photon-photon pair production is greater than unity. We review the few results obtained regarding this interesting but not very well studied possibility. First, however, we briefly discuss the processes taking place in relativistic plasmas and the standard models for the continuum emission from AGNs. We then summarize the effects pair production have on these models and the observational implications of the presence of electron-positron pairs. (orig./WL)
24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment.
Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo
2016-09-30
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.
Plate Tectonics as a Far-From-Equilibrium Self-Organized Dissipative System
Anderson, D. L.
2001-12-01
A fluid above the critical Rayleigh number is far from equilibrium and spontaneously organizes itself into patterns involving the collective motion of large numbers of molecules which are resisted by the viscosity of the fluid. No external template is involved in forming the pattern. In 1928 Pearson showed that Bénard's experiments were driven by variations in surface tension at the top of the fluid and the surface motions drove convection in the fluid. In this case, the surface organized itself AND the underlying fluid. Both internal buoyancy driven flow and flow driven by surface forces can be far-from-equilibrium self-organized open systems that receive energy and matter from the environment. In the Earth, the cold thermal boundary layer at the surface drives plate tectonics and introduces temperature, shear and pressure gradients into the mantle that drive mantle convection. The mantle provides energy and material but may not provide the template. Plate tectonics is therefore a candidate for a far-from-equilibrium dissipative self-organizing system. Alternatively, one could view mantle convection as the self-organized system and the plates as simply the surface manifestation. Lithospheric architecture also imposes lateral temperature gradients onto the mantle which can drive and organize flow. Far-from-equilibrium self-organization requires; an open system, interacting parts, nonlinearities or feedbacks, an outside steady source of energy or matter, multiple possible states and a source of dissipation. In uniform fluids viscosity is the source of dissipation. Sources of dissipation in the plate system include bending, breaking, folding, shearing, tearing, collision and basal drag. These can change rapidly, in contrast to plate driving forces, and introduce the sort of fluctuations that can reorganize far-from-equilibrium systems. Global plate reorganizations can alternatively be thought of as convective overturns of the mantle, or thermal weakening of plates
Poisson brackets for fluids and plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morrison, P.J.
1982-01-01
Noncanonical yet Hamiltonian descriptions are presented of many of the non-dissipative field equations that govern fluids and plasmas. The dynamical variables are the usually encountered physical variables. These descriptions have the advantage that gauge conditions are absent, but at the expense of introducing peculiar Poisson brackets. Clebsch-like potential descriptions that reverse this situations are also introduced
Viscous dissipation and Joule heating effects in MHD 3D flow with heat and mass fluxes
Muhammad, Taseer; Hayat, Tasawar; Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2018-03-01
The present research explores the three-dimensional stretched flow of viscous fluid in the presence of prescribed heat (PHF) and concentration (PCF) fluxes. Mathematical formulation is developed in the presence of chemical reaction, viscous dissipation and Joule heating effects. Fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of an applied magnetic field. Appropriate transformations yield the nonlinear ordinary differential systems. The resulting nonlinear system has been solved. Graphs are plotted to examine the impacts of physical parameters on the temperature and concentration distributions. Skin friction coefficients and local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are computed and analyzed.
Magnetization of High Density Hadronic Fluid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Henrik; Providencia, Constanca; da Providencia, João
2012-01-01
In the present paper the magnetization of a high density relativistic fluid of elementary particles is studied. At very high densities, such as may be found in the interior of a neutron star, when the external magnetic field is gradually increased, the energy of the normal phase of the fluid...... in the particle fluid. For nuclear densities above 2 to 3 rho(0), where rho(0) is the equilibrium nuclear density, the resulting magnetic field turns out to be rather huge, of the order of 10(17) Gauss....
Friction and dissipative phenomena in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostin, M.D.
1975-01-01
Frictional and dissipative terms of the Schroedinger equation are studied. A proof is given showing that the frictional term of the Schroedinger--Langevin equation causes the quantum system to lose energy. General expressions are derived for the frictional term of the Schroedinger equation. (U.S.)
Entanglement from dissipation and holographic interpretation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cantcheff, M.B. [IFLP-CONICET CC 67, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gadelha, Alexandre L. [Universidade Federal da Bahia, Instituto de Fisica, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Marchioro, Dafni F.Z.; Nedel, Daniel Luiz [Universidade Federal da Integracao Latino-Americana, Instituto Latino-Americano de Ciencias da Vida e da Natureza, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)
2018-02-15
In this work we study a dissipative field theory where the dissipation process is manifestly related to dynamical entanglement and put it in the holographic context. Such endeavour is realized by further development of a canonical approach to study quantum dissipation, which consists of doubling the degrees of freedom of the original system by defining an auxiliary one. A time dependent entanglement entropy for the vacuum state is calculated and a geometrical interpretation of the auxiliary system and the entropy is given in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. We show that the dissipative dynamics is controlled by the entanglement entropy and there are two distinct stages: in the early times the holographic interpretation requires some deviation from classical General Relativity; in the later times the quantum system is described as a wormhole, a solution of the Einstein's equations near to a maximally extended black hole with two asymptotically AdS boundaries. We focus our holographic analysis in this regime, and suggest a mechanism similar to teleportation protocol to exchange (quantum) information between the two CFTs on the boundaries (see Maldacena et al. in Fortschr Phys 65(5):1700034, arXiv:1704.05333 [hep-th], 2017). (orig.)
Entanglement from dissipation and holographic interpretation
Cantcheff, M. Botta; Gadelha, Alexandre L.; Marchioro, Dáfni F. Z.; Nedel, Daniel Luiz
2018-02-01
In this work we study a dissipative field theory where the dissipation process is manifestly related to dynamical entanglement and put it in the holographic context. Such endeavour is realized by further development of a canonical approach to study quantum dissipation, which consists of doubling the degrees of freedom of the original system by defining an auxiliary one. A time dependent entanglement entropy for the vacumm state is calculated and a geometrical interpretation of the auxiliary system and the entropy is given in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. We show that the dissipative dynamics is controlled by the entanglement entropy and there are two distinct stages: in the early times the holographic interpretation requires some deviation from classical General Relativity; in the later times the quantum system is described as a wormhole, a solution of the Einstein's equations near to a maximally extended black hole with two asymptotically AdS boundaries. We focus our holographic analysis in this regime, and suggest a mechanism similar to teleportation protocol to exchange (quantum) information between the two CFTs on the boundaries (see Maldacena et al. in Fortschr Phys 65(5):1700034, arXiv:1704.05333 [hep-th], 2017).
On multi-dissipative dynamic systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro
1999-01-01
We consider deterministic dynamic systems with state space representations which are dissipative in the sense of Willems (1972) with respect to several supply rates. This property is of interest in robustness analysis and in multi-objective control. We give conditions under which the convex cone...
Quantum phase transition with dissipative frustration
Maile, D.; Andergassen, S.; Belzig, W.; Rastelli, G.
2018-04-01
We study the quantum phase transition of the one-dimensional phase model in the presence of dissipative frustration, provided by an interaction of the system with the environment through two noncommuting operators. Such a model can be realized in Josephson junction chains with shunt resistances and resistances between the chain and the ground. Using a self-consistent harmonic approximation, we determine the phase diagram at zero temperature which exhibits a quantum phase transition between an ordered phase, corresponding to the superconducting state, and a disordered phase, corresponding to the insulating state with localized superconducting charge. Interestingly, we find that the critical line separating the two phases has a nonmonotonic behavior as a function of the dissipative coupling strength. This result is a consequence of the frustration between (i) one dissipative coupling that quenches the quantum phase fluctuations favoring the ordered phase and (ii) one that quenches the quantum momentum (charge) fluctuations leading to a vanishing phase coherence. Moreover, within the self-consistent harmonic approximation, we analyze the dissipation induced crossover between a first and second order phase transition, showing that quantum frustration increases the range in which the phase transition is second order. The nonmonotonic behavior is reflected also in the purity of the system that quantifies the degree of correlation between the system and the environment, and in the logarithmic negativity as an entanglement measure that encodes the internal quantum correlations in the chain.
Dissipative preparation of entanglement in optical cavities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kastoryano, Michael James; Reiter, Florentin; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg
2011-01-01
We propose a novel scheme for the preparation of a maximally entangled state of two atoms in an optical cavity. Starting from an arbitrary initial state, a singlet state is prepared as the unique fixed point of a dissipative quantum dynamical process. In our scheme, cavity decay is no longer...
Characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fantke, Peter; Juraske, R.; Jolliet, O.
2013-01-01
Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure. Neverth......Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure....... Nevertheless, dissipation is a key mechanism in models assessing pesticide distribution in the cropenvironment and the magnitude of residues in harvest. We provide a consistent framework for characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops for use in modeling approaches applied in health risk and impact...... degradation is dominating. We are currently testing the regression to predict degradation half-lives in crops. By providing mean degradation half-lives at 20°C for more than 300 pesticides, we reduce uncertainty and improve assumptions in current practice of health risk and impact assessments....
Magnetization dissipation in ferromagnets from scattering theory
Brataas, A.; Tserkovnyak, Y.; Bauer, G.E.W.
2011-01-01
The magnetization dynamics of ferromagnets is often formulated in terms of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. The reactive part of this equation describes the response of the magnetization in terms of effective fields, whereas the dissipative part is parametrized by the Gilbert damping
Energy and dissipated work in snow avalanches
Bartelt, P.; Buser, O.
2004-12-01
Using the results of large scale avalanche experiments at the Swiss Vallée de la Sionne test site, the energy balance of several snow avalanches is determined. Avalanches convert approximately one-seventh of their potential energy into kinetic energy. The total potential energy depends strongly on the entrained snowcover, indicating that entrainment processes cannot be ignored when predicting terminal velocities and runout distances. We find energy dissipation rates on the order of 1 GW. Fluidization of the fracture slab can be identified in the experiments as an increase in dissipation rate, thereby explaining the initial and rapid acceleration of avalanches after release. Interestingly, the dissipation rates appear to be constant along the track, although large fluctuations in internal velocity exist. Thus, we can demonstrate within the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics that -- in space -- granular snow avalanches are irreversible, dissipative systems that minimize entropy production because they appear to reach a steady-state non-equilibrium. A thermodynamic analysis reveals that fluctuations in velocity depend on the roughness of the flow surface and viscosity of the granular system. We speculate that this property explains the transition from flowing avalanches to powder avalanches.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vacaru, Olivia [National College of Iasi (Romania); Vacaru, Sergiu I. [Quantum Gravity Research, Topanga, CA (United States); University ' ' Al.I. Cuza' ' Iasi, Project IDEI, Iasi (Romania); Werner-Heisenberg-Institute, Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Leibniz University of Hannover, Institute for Theoretical Physics (Germany); Ruchin, Vyacheslav
2017-03-15
Using double 2 + 2 and 3 + 1 nonholonomic fibrations on Lorentz manifolds, we extend the concept of W-entropy for gravitational fields in general relativity (GR). Such F- and W-functionals were introduced in the Ricci flow theory of three dimensional (3-d) Riemannian metrics by Perelman (the entropy formula for the Ricci flow and its geometric applications. arXiv:math.DG/0211159). Non-relativistic 3-d Ricci flows are characterized by associated statistical thermodynamical values determined by W-entropy. Generalizations for geometric flows of 4-d pseudo-Riemannian metrics are considered for models with local thermodynamical equilibrium and separation of dissipative and non-dissipative processes in relativistic hydrodynamics. The approach is elaborated in the framework of classical field theories (relativistic continuum and hydrodynamic models) without an underlying kinetic description, which will be elaborated in other work. The 3 + 1 splitting allows us to provide a general relativistic definition of gravitational entropy in the Lyapunov-Perelman sense. It increases monotonically as structure forms in the Universe. We can formulate a thermodynamic description of exact solutions in GR depending, in general, on all spacetime coordinates. A corresponding 2 + 2 splitting with nonholonomic deformation of linear connection and frame structures is necessary for generating in very general form various classes of exact solutions of the Einstein and general relativistic geometric flow equations. Finally, we speculate on physical macrostates and microstate interpretations of the W-entropy in GR, geometric flow theories and possible connections to string theory (a second unsolved problem also contained in Perelman's work) in Polyakov's approach. (orig.)
A glimpse of fluid turbulence from the molecular scale
Komatsu, Teruhisa S.; Matsumoto, Shigenori; Shimada, Takashi; Ito, Nobuyasu
2014-01-01
. The energy spectrum of the fluid components is observed to scale reasonably well according to Kolmogorov scaling determined from the energy dissipation rate and the viscosity of the fluid, even though the Kolmogorov length is of the order of the molecular
Lunar Fluid Core and Solid-Body Tides
Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.
2005-01-01
Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2-5] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening has been improving [3,5] and now seems significant. This strengthens the case for a fluid lunar core.
Dissipative particle dynamics of diffusion-NMR requires high Schmidt-numbers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azhar, Mueed; Greiner, Andreas [Laboratory for Simulation, Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Korvink, Jan G., E-mail: jan.korvink@kit.edu, E-mail: david.kauzlaric@imtek.uni-freiburg.de [Laboratory for Simulation, Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Department of Microstructure Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kauzlarić, David, E-mail: jan.korvink@kit.edu, E-mail: david.kauzlaric@imtek.uni-freiburg.de [Laboratory for Simulation, Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), University of Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Freiburg, Albertstr. 19, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)
2016-06-28
We present an efficient mesoscale model to simulate the diffusion measurement with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). On the level of mesoscopic thermal motion of fluid particles, we couple the Bloch equations with dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). Thereby we establish a physically consistent scaling relation between the diffusion constant measured for DPD-particles and the diffusion constant of a real fluid. The latter is based on a splitting into a centre-of-mass contribution represented by DPD, and an internal contribution which is not resolved in the DPD-level of description. As a consequence, simulating the centre-of-mass contribution with DPD requires high Schmidt numbers. After a verification for fundamental pulse sequences, we apply the NMR-DPD method to NMR diffusion measurements of anisotropic fluids, and of fluids restricted by walls of microfluidic channels. For the latter, the free diffusion and the localisation regime are considered.
Noncommutative geometry and fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Praloy; Ghosh, Subir
2016-01-01
In the present paper we have developed a Non-Commutative (NC) generalization of perfect fluid model from first principles, in a Hamiltonian framework. The noncommutativity is introduced at the Lagrangian (particle) coordinate space brackets and the induced NC fluid bracket algebra for the Eulerian (fluid) field variables is derived. Together with a Hamiltonian this NC algebra generates the generalized fluid dynamics that satisfies exact local conservation laws for mass and energy, thereby maintaining mass and energy conservation. However, nontrivial NC correction terms appear in the charge and energy fluxes. Other non-relativistic spacetime symmetries of the NC fluid are also discussed in detail. This constitutes the study of kinematics and dynamics of NC fluid. In the second part we construct an extension of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model based on the NC fluid dynamics presented here. We outline the way in which NC effects generate cosmological perturbations bringing about anisotropy and inhomogeneity in the model. We also derive a NC extended Friedmann equation. (orig.)
Noncommutative geometry and fluid dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, Praloy; Ghosh, Subir [Indian Statistical Institute, Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Kolkata (India)
2016-11-15
In the present paper we have developed a Non-Commutative (NC) generalization of perfect fluid model from first principles, in a Hamiltonian framework. The noncommutativity is introduced at the Lagrangian (particle) coordinate space brackets and the induced NC fluid bracket algebra for the Eulerian (fluid) field variables is derived. Together with a Hamiltonian this NC algebra generates the generalized fluid dynamics that satisfies exact local conservation laws for mass and energy, thereby maintaining mass and energy conservation. However, nontrivial NC correction terms appear in the charge and energy fluxes. Other non-relativistic spacetime symmetries of the NC fluid are also discussed in detail. This constitutes the study of kinematics and dynamics of NC fluid. In the second part we construct an extension of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model based on the NC fluid dynamics presented here. We outline the way in which NC effects generate cosmological perturbations bringing about anisotropy and inhomogeneity in the model. We also derive a NC extended Friedmann equation. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takahashi, Hiroyuki R. [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Ohsuga, Ken [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
2013-08-01
We develop a numerical scheme for solving fully special relativistic, resistive radiation magnetohydrodynamics. Our code guarantees conservation of total mass, momentum, and energy. The radiation energy density and the radiation flux are consistently updated using the M-1 closure method, which can resolve an anisotropic radiation field, in contrast to the Eddington approximation, as well as the flux-limited diffusion approximation. For the resistive part, we adopt a simple form of Ohm's law. The advection terms are explicitly solved with an approximate Riemann solver, mainly the Harten-Lax-van Leer scheme; the HLLC and HLLD schemes are also solved for some tests. The source terms, which describe the gas-radiation interaction and the magnetic energy dissipation, are implicitly integrated, relaxing the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition even in an optically thick regime or a large magnetic Reynolds number regime. Although we need to invert 4 Multiplication-Sign 4 matrices (for the gas-radiation interaction) and 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 matrices (for the magnetic energy dissipation) at each grid point for implicit integration, they are obtained analytically without preventing massive parallel computing. We show that our code gives reasonable outcomes in numerical tests for ideal magnetohydrodynamics, propagating radiation, and radiation hydrodynamics. We also applied our resistive code to the relativistic Petschek-type magnetic reconnection, revealing the reduction of the reconnection rate via radiation drag.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Ohsuga, Ken
2013-01-01
We develop a numerical scheme for solving fully special relativistic, resistive radiation magnetohydrodynamics. Our code guarantees conservation of total mass, momentum, and energy. The radiation energy density and the radiation flux are consistently updated using the M-1 closure method, which can resolve an anisotropic radiation field, in contrast to the Eddington approximation, as well as the flux-limited diffusion approximation. For the resistive part, we adopt a simple form of Ohm's law. The advection terms are explicitly solved with an approximate Riemann solver, mainly the Harten-Lax-van Leer scheme; the HLLC and HLLD schemes are also solved for some tests. The source terms, which describe the gas-radiation interaction and the magnetic energy dissipation, are implicitly integrated, relaxing the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition even in an optically thick regime or a large magnetic Reynolds number regime. Although we need to invert 4 × 4 matrices (for the gas-radiation interaction) and 3 × 3 matrices (for the magnetic energy dissipation) at each grid point for implicit integration, they are obtained analytically without preventing massive parallel computing. We show that our code gives reasonable outcomes in numerical tests for ideal magnetohydrodynamics, propagating radiation, and radiation hydrodynamics. We also applied our resistive code to the relativistic Petschek-type magnetic reconnection, revealing the reduction of the reconnection rate via radiation drag
Thermodynamic laws and equipartition theorem in relativistic Brownian motion.
Koide, T; Kodama, T
2011-06-01
We extend the stochastic energetics to a relativistic system. The thermodynamic laws and equipartition theorem are discussed for a relativistic Brownian particle and the first and the second law of thermodynamics in this formalism are derived. The relation between the relativistic equipartition relation and the rate of heat transfer is discussed in the relativistic case together with the nature of the noise term.
Relativistic effects in resonance absorption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.F.; Lee, Y.C.
1976-01-01
The role of the relativistic-electron-mass variation in the generation of plasma waves by the linear mode conversion of intense electromagnetic waves is investigated. The increase in the electron mass in high intensity regions of the mode-converted wave reduces the local plasma frequency and thereby strongly modifies the plasma-driver resonance. A spatial discontinuity in the structure of the mode-converted wave results and causes the wave to break. Under rather modest restrictions, the wave breaking resulting from these effects occurs before the wave amplitude is limited either by thermal convection or by breaking caused by previously investigated nonrelativistic effects. Consequently, the amplitude of the mode-converted plasma wave should saturate at a much lower level than previously predicted. For simplicity, the analysis is limited to the initial stages of mode conversion where the ion dynamics can be neglected. The validity of this approximation is discussed
Parton distribution in relativistic hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopeliovich, B.Z.; Lapidus, L.I.; Zamolodchikov, Al.B.
1979-01-01
The distribution in the slow-parton number in the relativistic hadron is considered as a function of its rapidity (y). Neglecting corrections due to the tarton chain recombination the equation is derived and its explicit solution is found. It describes this distribution depending on the initial distribution at y approximately 1. Comparison with the reggeon diagrams results in relations between the parton model and the regaeon field theory parameters. The interpretation of the cutting rules in the framework of the parton model is presented. The numerical estimation of the parton model parameters is performed. It is shown that the slow-parton density corresponding to accessible energies seems to be close to the saturated density. Therefore, the enhanced graphs contributions turn out to be of considerable importance
Relativistic three-particle theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hochauser, S.
1979-01-01
In keeping with recent developments in experimental nuclear physics, a formalism is developed to treat interactions between three relativistic nuclear particles. The concept of unitarity and a simple form of analyticity are used to construct coupled, integral, Faddeev-type equations and, with the help of analytic separable potentials, these are cast in simple, one-dimensional form. Energy-dependent potentials are introduced so as to take into account the sign-change of some phase shifts in the nucleon-nucleon interaction and parameters for these potentials are obtained. With regard to the success of such local potentials as the Yukawa potential, a recently developed method for expanding these in separable form is discussed. Finally, a new method for the numerical integration of the Faddeev equations along the real axis is introduced, thus avoiding the traditional need for contour rotations into the complex plane. (author)
Relativistic klystron research for linear colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Morton, P.L.; Palmer, R.B.; Paterson, J.M.; Ruth, R.D.; Schwarz, H.D.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wilson, P.B.
1989-01-01
Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron-positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. The authors have attained 200 MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. In this paper the authors report on the design of our relativistic klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future
Relativistic klystron research for linear colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.; Eppley, K.R.; Fant, K.S.; Fowkes, W.R.; Herrmannesfeldt, W.B.; Higo, T.; Hoag, H.A.; Koontz, R.F.; Lavine, T.L.; Lee, T.G.; Loew, G.A.; Miller, R.H.; Morton, P.L.; Palmer, R.B.; Paterson, J.M.; Ruth, R.D.; Schwarz, H.D.; Takeuchi, Y.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, J.W.; Wilson, P.B.; Hopkins, D.B.; Sessler, A.M.; Ryne, R.D.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.
1989-01-01
Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron-positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. The authors have attained 200MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. They report here on the design of our relativistic klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab
Relativistic Theory of Few Body Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franz Gross
2002-11-01
Very significant advances have been made in the relativistic theory of few body systems since I visited Peter Sauer and his group in Hannover in 1983. This talk provides an opportunity to review the progress in this field since then. Different methods for the relativistic calculation of few nucleon systems are briefly described. As an example, seven relativistic calculations of the deuteron elastic structure functions, A, B, and T{sub 20}, are compared. The covariant SPECTATOR {copyright} theory, among the more successful and complete of these methods, is described in more detail.
Penetration of relativistic heavy ions through matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheidenberger, C.; Geissel, H.
1997-07-01
New heavy-ion accelerators covering the relativistic and ultra-relativistic energy regime allow to study atomic collisions with bare and few-electron projectiles. High-resolution magnetic spectrometers are used for precise stopping-power and energy-loss straggling measurements. Refined theories beyond the Born approximation have been developed and are confirmed by experiments. This paper summarizes the large progress in the understanding of relativistic heavy-ion penetration through matter, which has been achieved in the last few years. (orig.)
Relativistic klystron research for linear colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, M.A.; Callin, R.S.; Deruyter, H.
1988-09-01
Relativistic klystrons are being developed as a power source for high gradient accelerator applications which include large linear electron-positron colliders, compact accelerators, and FEL sources. We have attained 200 MW peak power at 11.4 GHz from a relativistic klystron, and 140 MV/m longitudinal gradient in a short 11.4 GHz accelerator section. We report here on the design of our relativistic klystrons, the results of our experiments so far, and some of our plans for the near future. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab