Plasma waves in hot relativistic beam-plasma systems: Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magneville, A.
1990-01-01
Dispersion relations of plasma waves in a beam-plasma system are computed in the general case where the plasma and beam temperatures, and the velocity of the beam, may be relativistic. The two asymptotic temperature cases, and different contributions of plasma or beam particles to wave dispersion are considered. (author)
The dispersion relation of charge and current compensated relativistic electron beam-plasma system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vrba, P.; Schroetter, J.; Jarosova, P.; Koerbel, S.
1978-01-01
The unstable regions of relativistic electron beam-plasma system were determined by analysing the general dispersion relation numerically. The external parameters were varied to ensure more effective instability excitations. The full charge- and current compensation presumptions lead to the new synchronism predictions. The slow space charge wave and slow cyclotron wave of the return current are synchronous with the plasma ion wave. (author)
Recent progresses in relativistic beam-plasma instability theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Bret
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Beam-plasma instabilities are a key physical process in many astrophysical phenomena. Within the fireball model of Gamma ray bursts, they first mediate a relativistic collisionless shock before they produce upstream the turbulence needed for the Fermi acceleration process. While non-relativistic systems are usually governed by flow-aligned unstable modes, relativistic ones are likely to be dominated by normally or even obliquely propagating waves. After reviewing the basis of the theory, results related to the relativistic kinetic regime of the poorly-known oblique unstable modes will be presented. Relevant systems besides the well-known electron beam-plasma interaction are presented, and it is shown how the concept of modes hierarchy yields a criterion to assess the proton to electron mass ratio in Particle in cell simulations.
On the kinetic collisional theory of beam-plasma system (relativistic dielectric tensor). Vol. 2.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khalil, Sh M; Sayed, Y A; Zaki, N G [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)
1996-03-01
Calculation of the dielectric tensor is useful for calculating and oscillations the stability of an inhomogeneous plasma. If the dielectric tensor is known, the problem of oscillations is reduced the derivation of the Maxwellian equations. In this case, there is no need to derive the equations of the motion of charged particles every time. The properties of the plasma, especially those connected to its instability, may be equally well specified through permittivity as through conductivity. The features of plasma instabilities and the plasma dielectric tensor are essentially affected by the presence of collision. Coloumb collisions (C.C.) are very important in the process of no linear saturation of some plasma instabilities (e.g., ion cyclotron instability, electron-ion two stream instability). For C.C., two basic properties are considered; (i) the cross section decreases rapidly as the particle velocity increases, (ii) the dominate contribution arises from a commutative effect of small-angle scattering or small-momentum transfer processes. If allowance is made for C.C. to derive the kinetic wave equations in a homogeneous plasma, it will remove the divergance in the matrix elements describing nonlinear interactions. In this paper, the collisional kinetic wave equation in cylindrical hot plasma is studied. The dielectric and polarizing tensor elements which describes the kinetic relativistic electron beam (REB) interaction with magnetized plasma into consideration the effect of pair C.C. is derived. Most research carried out in this direction has neglected the effect of C.C. In the absence of collisions, a `plauste` is formed on the distribution function, and the adsorption of the energy by the plasma stops. 1 fig.
Nonlinear analysis of a relativistic beam-plasma cyclotron instability
Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.
1986-01-01
A self-consistent set of nonlinear and relativistic wave-particle equations are derived for a magnetized beam-plasma system interacting with electromagnetic cyclotron waves. In particular, the high-frequency cyclotron mode interacting with a streaming and gyrating electron beam within a background plasma is considered in some detail. This interaction mode may possibly find application as a high-power source of coherent short-wavelength radiation for laboratory devices. The background plasma, although passive, plays a central role in this mechanism by modifying the dielectric properties in which the magnetized electron beam propagates. For a particular choice of the transverse beam velocity (i.e., the speed of light divided by the relativistic mass factor), the interaction frequency equals the nonrelativistic electron cyclotron frequency times the relativistic mass factor. For this choice of transverse beam velocity the detrimental effects of a longitudinal beam velocity spread is virtually removed. Power conversion efficiencies in excess of 18 percent are both analytically calculated and obtained through numerical simulations of the wave-particle equations. The quality of the electron beam, degree of energy and pitch angle spread, and its effect on the beam-plasma cyclotron instability is studied.
Coherent emission from relativistic beam-plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Latham, P.E.
1986-01-01
A theoretical model for the production of high-power, high-frequency electromagnetic radiation from unmagnetized, relativistic beam-plasma interactions is studied. Emphasis is placed on the injected-beam system, for which the dominant portion of the radiation is emitted near the point where the beam enters the plasma. In such systems, frequencies much larger than the plasma frequency and power levels many orders of magnitude above that predicted by single-particle radiation have been observed experimentally. A two-step process is proposed to explain these observations: electrostatic bunching of the beam followed by coherent radiation by the bunches. The first step, beam bunching, produces large-amplitude electrostatic waves. A Green's function analysis is employed to understand the convective growth of those waves near the plasma boundary; their saturation amplitude is found by applying conservation of energy to the beam-plasma system. An azimuthally symmetric model is used to compute the saturated spectrum analytically, and a relatively simple expression is found. The second step, the interaction of the electron beam with the electrostatic spectrum, leads to the production of high-power, high-frequency electromagnetic radiation. From a detailed analysis of the phase-space evolution of the trapped beam, an analytic expression for the electromagnetic spectrum is found as a function of angle and frequency
Relativistic electron beam - plasma interaction with intense self-fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidson, R.C.
1984-01-01
The major interest in the equilibrium, stability and radiation properties of relativistic electron beams and in beam-plasma interactions originates from several diverse research areas. It is well known that a many-body collection of charged particles in which there is not overall charge neutrality and/or current neutrality can be characterized by intense self-electric fields and/or self-magnetic fields. Moreover, the intense equilibrium self-fields associated with the lack of charge neutrality and/or current neutrality can have a large effect on particle trajectories and on detailed equilibrium and stability behavior. The main emphasis in Sections 9.1.2-9.1.5 of this chapter is placed on investigations of the important influence of self-fields on the equilibrium and stability properties of magnetically confined electron beam-plasma systems. Atomic processes and discrete particle interactions (binary collisions) are omitted from the analysis, and collective processes are assumed to dominate on the time and length scales of interest. Moreover, both macroscopic (Section 9.1.2) and kinetic (Sections 9.1.3-9.1.5) theoretical models are developed and used to investigate equilibrium and stability properties in straight cylindrical geometry. Several of the classical waves and instabilities characteristic of nonneutral plasmas and beam-plasma systems are analyzed in Sections 9.1.2-9.1.5, including stable surface oscillation on a nonneutral electron beam, the ion resonance instability, the diocotron instability, two-stream instabilities between beam electrons and plasma electrons and between beam electrons and plasma ions, the filamentation instability, the modified two-stream instability, etc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zahran, M.A.; El-Shewy, E.K.
2008-01-01
The nonlinear properties of solitary wave structures are reported in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma comprising of cold relativistic electron fluid, Maxwellian hot electrons, relativistic electron beam, and stationary ions. The Korteweg--de Vries (KdV) equation has been derived using a reductive perturbation theory. As the wave amplitude increases, the width and velocity of the soliton deviate from the prediction of the KdV equation i.e. the breakdown of the KdV approximation. On the other hand, to overcome this weakness we extend our analysis to obtain the KdV equation with fifth-order dispersion term. The solution of the resulting equation has been obtained
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bobylev, Yu. V. [L.N. Tolstoy Tula State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation); Kuzelev, M. V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Rukhadze, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov Institute of General Physics (Russian Federation)
2008-02-15
A general mathematical model is proposed that is based on the Vlasov kinetic equation with a self-consistent field and describes the nonlinear dynamics of the electromagnetic instabilities of a relativistic electron beam in a spatially bounded plasma. Two limiting cases are analyzed, namely, high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) instabilities of a relativistic electron beam, of which the LF instability is a qualitatively new phenomenon in comparison with the known Cherenkov resonance effects. For instabilities in the regime of the collective Cherenkov effect, the equations containing cubic nonlinearities and describing the nonlinear saturation of the instabilities of a relativistic beam in a plasma are derived by using the methods of expansion in small perturbations of the trajectories and momenta of the beam electrons. Analytic expressions for the amplitudes of the interacting beam and plasma waves are obtained. The analytical results are shown to agree well with the exact solutions obtained numerically from the basic general mathematical model of the instabilities in question. The general mathematical model is also used to discuss the effects associated with variation in the constant component of the electron current in a beam-plasma system.
Observation of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, N.; Tanaka, M.; Shinohara, S.; Kawai, Y.
1995-01-01
When an electron beam is injected into a plasma, unstable waves are excited spontaneously near the electron plasma frequency f pe by the electron beam plasma instability. The experiment on subharmonics in an electron beam plasma system was performed with a glow discharge tube. The bifurcation of unstable waves with the electron plasma frequency f pe and 1/2 f pe was observed using a double-plasma device. Furthermore, the period doubling route to chaos around the ion plasma frequency in an electron beam plasma system was reported. However, the physical mechanism of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system has not been clarified so far. We have studied nonlinear behaviors of the electron beam plasma instability. It was found that there are some cases: the fundamental unstable waves and subharmonics of 2 period are excited by the electron beam plasma instability, the fundamental unstable waves and subharmonics of 3 period are excited. In this paper, we measured the energy distribution functions of electrons and the dispersion relation of test waves in order to examine the physical mechanism of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system
Wave Propagation in an Ion Beam-Plasma System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, T. D.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1979-01-01
The spatial evolution of a velocity- or density-modulated ion beam is calculated for stable and unstable ion beam plasma systems, using the linearized Vlasov-Poisson equations. The propagation properties are found to be strongly dependent on the form of modulation. In the case of velocity...
Properties of waves in an ion-beam plasma system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zank, G.P.; McKenzie, J.F.
1988-01-01
A multi-fluid approach is used to describe electrostatic interactions in an ion-beam plasma system. The structure of the wave equation governing the system exhibits the anisotropic and dispersive nature of the waves, whose properties are analysed in terms of the dispersion relation. The main purpose is to classify the different waves that can arise in an ion-beam plasma system in a systematic fashion. The classification is facilitated by introducing a three-parameter CMA diagram that illustrates the topological changes in not only the wavenumber, or refractive-index, surface but also the ray-velocity surface. Furthermore, an analytic expression governing wave amplification in an ion beam plasma is incorporated within the framework of a generalized CMA diagram. Such a description provides a simple interpretation for the onset of wave amplification in terms of a topological change in the refractive-index surface. It is hoped that by collating the wave properties in a unified form, many of the complicated wave features observed in an experiment may be interpreted more easily. (author)
Transformation instability of oscillations in inhomogeneous beam-plasma system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitsenko, A.B.
1985-01-01
Wave transformation is studied in a plasma system which was weak-inhomogeneous along beam velocity, in absence of external magnetic field. For the case of small density beam formulae are obtained which have set a coupling between the charge density beam wave amplitudes and the Langmuir wave on both sides of transformation point. It is shown that in collisionless plasma the wave production is a cause of the absorption of the charge density beam waves. Transformation mechanism of the absolute instability in the weak-inhomogeneous beam-plasma system is revealed
Nonlinear behaviors of a bounded electron beam-plasma system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iizuka, Satoru; Saeki, Koichi; Sato, Noriyoshi; Hatta, Yoshisuke
1985-01-01
Nonlinear developments of a bounded electron beam-plasma system including stationary electrons are investigated experimentally. A stable double layer is formed as a result of ion trapping in a growing negative potential dip induced by the Pierce instability above the current regime of the Buneman instability. In the in-between regime of the Buneman and Pierce instabilities, energetic ions are observed. This effective ion heating is caused by ion detrapping due to double-layer disruption, being consistent with computer simulation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Kh.I.; Das, G.C.
1993-01-01
Soliton propagations are studied in a relativistic multicomponent ion-beam plasma through the derivation of Korteweg-deVries (K-dV) and modified K-dV (mK-dV) equations. A generalization of the mK-dV equation involving higher order nonlinearities gives a transitive link between the K-dV and mK-dV equations for isothermal plasma, and the validity of this generalized equation throughout the whole range of negative ion concentrations is investigated through the derivation of Sagdeev potential. Parallel discussion of various K-dV solitons enlightening the experimental implications is also made. (author). 22 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thode, L.E.
1978-09-01
A 36-month program to study the linear relativistic electron beam-plasma interaction is proposed. This program is part of a joint proposal between the Physics International Company (PI) and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) that combines the advanced electron beam generator technology at PI with the highly developed computer simulation technology at LASL. The proposed LASL program includes direct support for 1- and 3-m beam-plasma interaction experiments planned at PI and development of theory relevant for design of a 10-m proof-of-principle electron beam-driven linear solenoidal reactor
Amplification through chaotic synchronization in spatially extended beam-plasma systems
Moskalenko, Olga I.; Frolov, Nikita S.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Hramov, Alexander E.
2017-12-01
In this paper, we have studied the relationship between chaotic synchronization and microwave signal amplification in coupled beam-plasma systems. We have considered a 1D particle-in-cell numerical model of unidirectionally coupled beam-plasma oscillatory media being in the regime of electron pattern formation. We have shown the significant gain of microwave oscillation power in coupled beam-plasma media being in the different regimes of generation. The discovered effect has a close connection with the chaotic synchronization phenomenon, so we have observed that amplification appears after the onset of the complete time scale synchronization regime in the analyzed coupled spatially extended systems. We have also provided the numerical study of physical processes in the chain of beam-plasma systems leading to the chaotic synchronization and the amplification of microwave oscillations power, respectively.
Excitation of electrostatic ion cyclotron wave in electron beam plasma system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukumura, Takashi; Takamoto, Teruo
1984-01-01
The electrostatic ion cyclotron waves excited in an electron beam plasma system was investigated. The excitation condition of the waves was calculated by using Harris type dispersion relation under some assumption, and its comparison with the experimental result was made. Beam plasma discharge is a kind of RF discharge, and it is caused by the waves generated by the interaction of electron beam with plasma. It was shown that electrostatic ion cyclotron waves seemed to be the most probable as excited waves. But the excitation mechanism of these waves has not been concretely investigated. In this study, the excitation condition of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves was calculated as described above. The experimental apparatus and the results of potential, electric field and ion saturation current in beam plasma, electron drift motion in azimuthal direction and the waves excited in beam plasma are reported. The frequency of oscillation observed in beam plasma corresponds to the harmonics or subharmonics of ion cyclotron frequency. The calculation of Harris type dispersion relation, the numerical calculation and the comparison of the experimental result with the calculated result are described. (Kako, I.)
Two-stream instability for a light ion beam-plasma system with external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okada, T.; Tazawa, H.
1992-12-01
For inertial confinement fusion, a focused light ion beam (LIB) is required to propagate stably through a chamber to a target. We have pointed out that the applied external magnetic field is important for LIB propagation. To investigate the influence of the external magnetic field on the LIB propagation, we analysed the electrostatic dispersion relation of magnetized light ion beam-plasma system. The particle in-cell (PIC) simulation results are presented for a light ion beam-plasma system with external magnetic field. (author)
The electron cyclotron instabiity of a beam-plasma system immersed in a magnetic beach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Varandas, C.A.F.; Cabral, J.A.C.
1982-01-01
The linear development of the electron cyclotron instability of a beam-plasma system in a magnetic beach is studied. Beaches of positive as well as negative B-field gradients are considered. The experimental results concerning the excited instability spectra are interpreted in terms of local dispersion analysis. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Shorbagy, K.H.
2000-07-01
The influence effect of a strong HF electrical field on the excitation of surface waves by an electron beam under the development of instability of low-density electron beam passing through plane relativistic plasma is investigated. Starting from the two fluid plasma model we separate the problem into two parts. The 'temporal' (dynamical) part enables us to find the frequencies and growth rates of unstable waves. This part within the redefinition of natural (eigen) frequencies coincide with the system describing HF suppression of the Buneman instability in a uniform unbounded plasma. Natural frequencies of oscillations and spatial distribution of the amplitude of the self-consistent electrical field are obtained by solving a boundary value problem ('spatial' part) considering a specific spatial distribution of plasma density. Plasma electrons are considered to have a relativistic velocity. It is shown that a HF electric field has no essential influence on dispersion characteristics of unstable surface waves excited in a relativistic plasma waveguide by a low-density electron beam. The region of instability only slightly narrowing and the growth rate decreases by a small parameter and this result has been reduced compared to nonrelativistic plasma. Also, it is found that the plasma electrons have not affected the solution of the space part of the problem. (author)
Dispersion relation of test waves in an electron beam plasma system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, N.; Tanaka, M.; Shinohara, S.; Kawai, Y.
1994-01-01
Test waves are propagated in an electron beam plasma system and the dispersion relation is measured. At the center of the experimental region a beam mode is excited. Near the chamber wall an electron plasma wave is excited and propagates from the chamber wall to the center of the experimental region. It is also found that observed unstable waves are standing wave which is formed by superposing the beam modes propagating in the opposite directions each other. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs
Parametric instabilities in an electron beam plasma system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakach, R.; Cuperman, S.; Gell, Y.; Levush, B.
1981-01-01
The excitation of low frequency parametric instabilities by a finite wave length pump in a system consisting of a warm electron plasma traversed by a warm electron beam is investigated in a fluid dissipationless model. The dispersion relation for the three-dimensional problem in a magnetized plasma with arbitrary directions for the waves is derived, and the one-dimensional case is analyzed numerically. For the one-dimensional back-scattering decay process, it is found that when the plasma-electron Debye length (lambda sub(D)sup(p)) is larger than the beam-electron Debye length (lambda sub(D)sup(b)), two low frequency electrostatic instability branches with different growth rates may simultaneously exist. When lambda sub(D)sup(p) approximately lambda sub(D)sup(b), the large growth rate instability found in the analysis depends strongly on the amplitude of the pump field. In the case (lambda sub(D)sup(p) < lambda sub(D)sup(b)) only one low frequency instability branch is generally excited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Opanasenko, A.V.; Romanyuk, L.I.
1992-01-01
A beam-plasma interaction at the entrance of the symmetrically open plasma system with an electron beam injected through it is investigated. An ignition of the plasma-beam discharge on waves of upper hybrid dispersion branch of a magnetoactive plasma is found in the plasma penetrating into the vacuum contrary to the beam. It is shown that the beam-plasma discharge is localized in the inhomogeneous penetrating plasma in the zone where only these waves exist. Regularities of the beam-plasma discharge ignition and manifestation are described. It is determined that the electron beam crossing the discharge zone leads to the strong energy relaxation of the beam. It is shown possible to control the beam-plasma discharge ignition by changing the potential of the electron beam collector. (author)
Rotating light ion beam-plasma system in inertial confinement fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murakami, H.; Okada, T.
1997-01-01
The stabilizing mechanism of filamentation instability in light ion beam propagation is studied numerically by using a particle-in-cell code. Rotating light ion beam scheme has been proposed for the light ion beam propagation. The filamentation instability is stabilized by the external magnetic field which is induced by the rotating light ion beams. From a dispersion relation, linear growth rates of filamentation instabilities are obtained in a light ion beam-plasma system with an external magnetic field. The theory and simulation comparisons illustrate the results. (author)
Nonlinear control of turbulence and velocity space diffusion in beam plasma systems. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walsh, J.E.
1975-01-01
Results of low energy electron beam-plasma heating experiments are discussed. A figure of merit which can be used to compare different beam heating experiments is presented. Some general observations about the possibility of useful beam plasma heating are mentioned. (U.S.)
Electromagnetic radiation and nonlinear energy flow in an electron beam-plasma system
Whelan, D. A.; Stenzel, R. L.
1985-01-01
It is shown that the unstable electron-plasma waves of a beam-plasma system can generate electromagnetic radiation in a uniform plasma. The generation mechanism is a scattering of the unstable electron plasma waves off ion-acoustic waves, producing electromagnetic waves whose frequency is near the local plasma frequency. The wave vector and frequency matching conditions of the three-wave mode coupling are experimentally verified. The electromagnetic radiation is observed to be polarized with the electric field parallel to the beam direction, and its source region is shown to be localized to the unstable plasma wave region. The frequency spectrum shows negligible intensity near the second harmonic of the plasma frequency. These results suggest that the observed electromagnetic radiation of type III solar bursts may be generated near the local plasma frequency and observed downstream where the wave frequency is near the harmonic of the plasma frequency.
Dependence of electron beam instability growth rates on the beam-plasma system parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strangeway, R.J.
1982-01-01
Electron beam instabilites are studied by using a simple model for an electron beam streaming through a cold plasma, the beam being of finite width perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. Through considerations of finite geometry and the coldness of the beam and background plasma, an instability similar to the two stream instability is assumed to be the means for wave growth in the system. Having found the maximum growth rate for one set of beam-plasma system parameters, this maximum growth rate is traced as these parameters are varied. The parameters that describe the system are the beam velocity (v/sub b/), electron gyrofrequency to ambient electron plasma frequency ratio (Ω/sub e//ω/sub p/e), the beam to background number density ratio (n/sub b//n/sub a/), and the beam width (a). When Ω/sub e//ω/sub p/e>1, a mode with Ω/sub e/<ω<ω/sub u/hr is found to be unstable, where Ω is the wave frequency and ω/sub u/hr is the upper hybrid resonance frequency. For low values of n/sub b//n/sub a/ and Ω/sub e/<ω/sub p/e, this mode is still present with ω/sub p/e<ω<ω/sub u/hr. If the beam density is large, n/sub b//n/sub a/approx. =1, the instability occures for frequencies just above the electron gyrofrequency. This mode may well be that observed in laboratory plasma before the system undergoes the beam-plasma discharge. There is another instability present, which occurs for ωapprox. =ω/sub p/e. The growth rates for this mode, which are generally larger than those found for the ωapprox. =ωuhr mode, are only weakly dependent on Ω/sub d//ω/sub p/e. That this mode is not always observed in the laboratory implies that some factors not considered in the present theory suppress this mode, specifically, finite beam length
Parametric instabilities in an electron beam-plasma system: magnetic field effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gell, Y.; Levush, B.; Nakach, R.
1981-09-01
The effects of a magnetic field on the excitation of low-frequency parametric instabilities in a beam-plasma system are considered. The dispersion relation of the three-dimensional beamless configuration, is analytically evaluated for an electrostatic pump wave having a finite wave-vector parallel to the magnetic field. The results of this analysis serve as a guide to the numerical study of the stability of the involved system including the beam. As for the one-dimensional case, one finds that two low-frequency electrostatic instability branches having different growth rates may exist simultaneously. The effects of the magnetic field on these instabilities could be summarized as follows: the small growth rate instability is negligibly small when the electron gyrofrequency is about equal to the pump wave frequency. This instability is magnetic field independent for high enough values of the field. When the plasma electron Debye length is greater than the beam electron Debye length, a large growth rate instability is excited and appears to be weakly dependent on the magnetic field, while the two instability branches are quite sensitive to change of the magnetic field, when the two Debye lengths are equal. Other characteristics of this system are also discussed
Beam-plasma instability in charged plasma in the absence of ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dubinov, Alexander E. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” Kashirskoe Highway, 31, Moscow 115409, Russia and Sarov State Institute of Physics and Technology (SarFTI) of National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” Dukhova Str., 6, Sarov, Nizhni Novgorod Region 607186 (Russian Federation); Petrik, Alexey G. [Saratov State Technical University, Politechnicheskaja 77, Saratov 410028 (Russian Federation); Kurkin, Semen A.; Frolov, Nikita S.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Hramov, Alexander E., E-mail: hramovae@gmail.com [Saratov State Technical University, Politechnicheskaja 77, Saratov 410028 (Russian Federation); Saratov State University, Astrakhanskaja 83, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)
2016-04-15
We report on the possibility of the beam-plasma instability development in the system with electron beam interacting with the single-component hot electron plasma without ions. As considered system, we analyse the interaction of the low-current relativistic electron beam (REB) with squeezed state in the high-current REB formed in the relativistic magnetically insulated two-section vircator drift space. The numerical analysis is provided by means of 3D electromagnetic simulation in CST Particle Studio. We have conducted an extensive study of characteristic regimes of REB dynamics determined by the beam-plasma instability development in the absence of ions. As a result, the dependencies of instability increment and wavelength on the REB current value have been obtained. The considered process brings the new mechanism of controlled microwave amplification and generation to the device with a virtual cathode. This mechanism is similar to the action of the beam-plasma amplifiers and oscillators.
Beam-plasma instability in ion beam systems used in neutral beam generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hooper, E.B. Jr.
1977-02-01
The beam-plasma instability is analyzed for the ion beams used for neutral beam generation. Both positive and negative ion beams are considered. Stability is predicted when the beam velocity is less than the electron thermal velocity; the only exception occurs when the electron density accompanying a negative ion beam is less than the ion density by nearly the ratio of electron to ion masses. For cases in which the beam velocity is greater than the electron thermal velocity, instability is predicted near the electron plasma frequency
Relativistic positioning systems: perspectives and prospects
Coll Bartolomé
2013-11-01
Relativistic positioning systems are interesting technical objects for applications around the Earth and in the Solar system. But above all else, they are basic scientific objects allowing developing relativity from its own concepts. Some past and future features of relativistic positioning sys- tems, with special attention to the developments that they suggest for an epistemic relativity (relativistic experimental approach to physics), are analyzed. This includes relativistic stereometry, which, together with relativistic positioning systems, allows to introduce the general relativistic notion of (finite) laboratory (space-time region able to perform experiments of finite size).
Radio emission from a helical electron beam-plasma system in a twisted magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krishan, V.
1982-01-01
The excitation of electromagnetic radiation near the harmonics of electron plasma frequency from a helical electron beam travelling parallel to a helical magnetic field through a stationary inhomogeneous plasma is studied. The motivation behind this study is to explain the observed characteristics of the type III solar radio bursts and thus to predict the nature of the plasma system responsible for the generation of these radio bursts. (author)
Electromagnetic radiation from beam-plasma instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stenzel, R.L.; Whelan, D.A.
1982-01-01
This chapter investigates the mechanism by which unstable electrostatic waves of an electron-beam plasma system are converted into observed electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic radiation arises from both natural beam-plasma systems (e.g., type III solar bursts and kilometric radiation), and from man-made electron beams injected from rockets and spacecraft. A pulsed magnetized discharge plasma is produced with a 1 m diam. oxide-coated cathode and the discussed experiment is performed in the quiescent afterglow. The primary beam-plasma instability involves the excitation of electrostatic plasma waves. Electromagnetic radiation from the beam-plasma system is observed with microwave antennas outside the plasma (all probes removed) or with coax-fed dipoles which can be inserted radially and axially into the plasma. The physical process of mode coupling by which electromagnetic radiation is generated in an electrostatic beam-plasma instability is identified. The results are relevant to beam injection experiments from rockets or satellites into space plasmas. The limited penetration of the beam current into the plasma due to instabilities is demonstrated
Relativistic Descriptions of Few-Body Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karmanov, V. A.
2011-01-01
A brief review of relativistic effects in few-body systems, of theoretical approaches, recent developments and applications is given. Manifestations of relativistic effects in the binding energies, in the electromagnetic form factors and in three-body observables are demonstrated. The three-body forces of relativistic origin are also discussed. We conclude that relativistic effects in nuclei can be important in spite of small binding energy. At high momenta they clearly manifest themselves and are necessary to describe the deuteron e.m. form factors. At the same time, there is still a discrepancy in three-body observables which might be a result of less clarity in understanding the corresponding relativistic effects, the relativistic NN kernel and the three-body forces. Relativistic few-body physics remains to be a field of very intensive and fruitful researches. (author)
Relativistic Quantum Transport in Graphene Systems
2015-07-09
dimensional Dirac material systems. 2 List of Publications 1. X. Ni, L. Huang, Y.-C. Lai, and L. M. Pecora, “Effect of chaos on relativistic quantum...development of relativistic quantum devices based on graphene or alternative two-dimensional Dirac material systems. In the project period, we studied
Relativistic positioning systems: Numerical simulations
Puchades Colmenero, Neus
The position of users located on the Earth's surface or near it may be found with the classic positioning systems (CPS). Certain information broadcast by satellites of global navigation systems, as GPS and GALILEO, may be used for positioning. The CPS are based on the Newtonian formalism, although relativistic post-Newtonian corrections are done when they are necessary. This thesis contributes to the development of a different positioning approach, which is fully relativistic from the beginning. In the relativistic positioning systems (RPS), the space-time position of any user (ship, spacecraft, and so on) can be calculated with the help of four satellites, which broadcast their proper times by means of codified electromagnetic signals. In this thesis, we have simulated satellite 4-tuples of the GPS and GALILEO constellations. If a user receives the signals from four satellites simultaneously, the emission proper times read -after decoding- are the user "emission coordinates". In order to find the user "positioning coordinates", in an appropriate almost inertial reference system, there are two possibilities: (a) the explicit relation between positioning and emission coordinates (broadcast by the satellites) is analytically found or (b) numerical codes are designed to calculate the positioning coordinates from the emission ones. Method (a) is only viable in simple ideal cases, whereas (b) allows us to consider realistic situations. In this thesis, we have designed numerical codes with the essential aim of studying two appropriate RPS, which may be generalized. Sometimes, there are two real users placed in different positions, which receive the same proper times from the same satellites; then, we say that there is bifurcation, and additional data are needed to choose the real user position. In this thesis, bifurcation is studied in detail. We have analyzed in depth two RPS models; in both, it is considered that the satellites move in the Schwarzschild's space
Relativistic Theory of Few Body Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Franz Gross
2002-11-01
Very significant advances have been made in the relativistic theory of few body systems since I visited Peter Sauer and his group in Hannover in 1983. This talk provides an opportunity to review the progress in this field since then. Different methods for the relativistic calculation of few nucleon systems are briefly described. As an example, seven relativistic calculations of the deuteron elastic structure functions, A, B, and T{sub 20}, are compared. The covariant SPECTATOR {copyright} theory, among the more successful and complete of these methods, is described in more detail.
Anomalous x-ray radiation of beam plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimitrov, S.K.; Zavyalov, M.A.; Mikhin, S.G.; Tarasenkov, V.A.; Telkovskij, V.G.; Khrabrov, V.A.
1985-01-01
The properties of non-equilibrium stationary plasma under the conditions of the planned plasma-chemical reactors based on beam-plasma discharge were investigated. The x-ray spectrum of the beam-plasma was measured and anomalous spectral properties were analyzed. Starting with some critical pressure the anomalous radiation was added to the classical bremsstrahlung spectrum. The occurrence of anomalous radiation can be used to diagnose the condition of beam transportation in such systems. (D.Gy.)
Thermodynamic equilibrium in relativistic rotating systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suen, W.M.; Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO; Young, K.
1988-01-01
The thermodynamic equilibrium configurations of relativistic rotating stars are studied using the maximum entropy principle. It is shown that the heuristic arguments for the equilibrium conditions can be developed into a maximum entropy principle in which the variations are carried out in a fixed background spacetime. This maximum principle with the fixed background assumption is technically simpler than, but has to be justified by, a maximum entropy principle without the assumption. Such a maximum entropy principle is formulated in this paper, showing that the general relativistic system can be treated on the same footing as other long-range force systems. (author)
Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics as a Hamiltonian system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holm, D.D.; Kupershmidt, A.
1985-01-01
The equations of ideal relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in the laboratory frame form a noncanonical Hamiltonian system with the same Poisson bracket as for the nonrelativistic system, but with dynamical variables and Hamiltonian obtained via a regular deformation of their nonrelativistic counterparts [fr
Chaos and maps in relativistic rynamical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. P. Horwitz
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The basic work of Zaslavskii et al showed that the classical non-relativistic electromagnetically kicked oscillator can be cast into the form of an iterative map on the phase space; the resulting evolution contains a stochastic flow to unbounded energy. Subsequent studies have formulated the problem in terms of a relativistic charged particle in interaction with the electromagnetic field. We review the structure of the covariant Lorentz force used to study this problem. We show that the Lorentz force equation can be derived as well from the manifestly covariant mechanics of Stueckelberg in the presence of a standard Maxwell field, establishing a connection between these equations and mass shell constraints. We argue that these relativistic generalizations of the problem are intrinsically inaccurate due to an inconsistency in the structure of the relativistic Lorentz force, and show that a reformulation of the relativistic problem, permitting variations (classically in both the particle mass and the effective “mass” of the interacting electromagnetic field, provides a consistent system of classical equations for describing such processes.
Rubin , Jacques ,
2014-01-01
Version de travail de thèse d'habilitation à diriger des recherches; Preprint; Current positioning systems are not primary, relativistic systems. Nevertheless, genuine, relativistic and primary positioning systems have been proposed recently by Bahder, Coll et al. and Rovelli to remedy such prior defects. These new designs all have in common an equivariant conformal geometry featuring, as the most basic ingredient, the spacetime geometry. We show how this conformal aspect can be the four-dime...
Local supersymmetry in non-relativistic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urrutia, L.F.; Zanelli, J.
1989-10-01
Classical and quantum non-relativistic interacting systems invariant under local supersymmetry are constructed by the method of taking square roots of the bosonic constraints which generate timelike reparametrization, leaving the action unchanged. In particular, the square root of the Schroedinger constraint is shown to be the non-relativistic limit of the Dirac constraint. Contact is made with the standard models of Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics through the reformulation of the locally invariant systems in terms of their true degrees of freedom. Contrary to the field theory case, it is shown that the locally invariant systems are completely equivalent to the corresponding globally invariant ones, the latter being the Heisenberg picture description of the former, with respect to some fermionic time. (author). 14 refs
Beam--plasma instabilities and the beam--plasma discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kellogg, P.J.; Boswell, R.W.
1986-01-01
Using a new electron gun, a number of measurements bearing on the generation of beam--plasma discharge (BPD) in WOMBAT (waves on magnetized beams and turbulence) [R. W. Boswell and P. J. Kellogg, Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 565 (1983)] have been made. A beam--plasma discharge is an rf discharge in which the rf fields are provided by instabilities [W. D. Getty and L. D. Smullin, J. Appl. Phys. 34, 3421 (1963)]. The new gun has a narrower divergence angle than the old, and comparison of the BPD thresholds for the two guns verifies that the BPD ignition current is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the plasma. The high-frequency instabilities, precursors to the BPD, are identified with the two Trivelpiece--Gould modes [A. W. Trivelpiece and R. W. Gould, J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1784 (1959)]. Which frequency appears depends on the neutral pressure. The measured frequencies are not consistent with the simple interpretation of the lower frequency as a Cerenkov resonance with the low-Trivelpiece--Gould mode; it must be a cyclotron resonance. As is generally true in such beam--plasma interaction experiments, strong low-frequency waves appear at currents far below those necessary for BPD ignition. These low-frequency waves are shown to control the onset of the high-frequency precursors to the BPD. A mechanism for this control is suggested, which involves the conversion of a convective instability to an absolute one by trapping of the unstable waves in the density perturbations of the low-frequency waves. This process greatly reduces the current necessary for BPD ignition
Consideration of beam plasma ion-source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sano, Fumimichi; Kusano, Norimasa; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori
1976-01-01
Theoretical and experimental analyses and their comparison were made on the plasma generation and on the beam extraction for the beam plasma ion-source. The operational principle and the structure of the ion-source are explained in the first part. Considerations are given on the electron beam-plasma interaction and the resulting generation of high frequency or microwaves which in turn increases the plasma density. The flow of energy in this system is also explained in the second part. The relation between plasma density and the imaginary part of frequency is given by taking the magnetic flux density, the electron beam energy, and the electron beam current as parameters. The relations between the potential difference between collector and drift tube and the plasma density or the ion-current are also given. Considerations are also given to the change of the plasma density due to the change of the magnetic flux density at drift tube, the change of the electron beam energy, and the change of the electron beam current. The third part deals with the extraction characteristics of the ion beam. The structure of the multiple-aperture electrode and the relation between plasma density and the extracted ion current are explained. (Aoki, K.)
Elwakil, S. A.; El-hanbaly, A. M.; Elgarayh, A.; El-Shewy, E. K.; Kassem, A. I.
2014-11-01
The properties of nonlinear electron-acoustic rogue waves have been investigated in an unmagnetized collisionless four-component plasma system consisting of a cold electron fluid, non-thermal hot electrons obeying a non-thermal distribution, an electron beam and stationary ions. It is found that the basic set of fluid equations is reduced to a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The dependence of rogue wave profiles on the electron beam and energetic population parameter are discussed. The results of the present investigation may be applicable in auroral zone plasma.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Filatov, R. A.; Hramov, A. E.
2011-01-01
Physical processes occurring in an intense electron beam with a virtual cathode in an interaction space filled with neutral gas are studied in a two-dimensional model. A mathematical model is proposed for investigating complicated self-consistent processes of neutral gas ionization by the beam electrons and the dynamics of an electron beam and heavy positive ions in the common space charge field with allowance for the two-dimensional motion of charged particles. Three characteristic dynamic regimes of the system are revealed: complete suppression of oscillations of the virtual cathode as a result of neutralizing its space charge by positive ions; the pulsed generation regime, in which the ions dynamics repeatedly suppresses and restores the virtual cathode oscillations; and the continuous generation regime with an anomalously high level of noisy oscillations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Opanasenko, A V; Romanyuk, L I [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukrainian SSR). Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij
1989-10-01
The relaxation of the electron beam with the electron density of 1-2 keV injected through the symmetrically open plasma system with the independent hot cathode Penning discharge is experimentally investigated. It is shown that the velocity distribution function of the electron beam changes after passing each wave generation zone induced by the beam. The contribution of different wave zones to the beam relaxation depends on the prehistory of the beam-plasma interaction and may be regulated by the selection of the plasma system parameters. By this way the complete relaxation of the electron beam can be achieved after the beam crossing the whole system.
Electromagnetic radiation from beam-plasma instabilities
Pritchett, P. L.; Dawson, J. M.
1983-01-01
A computer simulation is developed for the generation of electromagnetic radiation in an electron beam-plasma interaction. The plasma is treated as a two-dimensional finite system, and effects of a continuous nonrelativistic beam input are accounted for. Three momentum and three field components are included in the simulation, and an external magnetic field is excluded. EM radiation generation is possible through interaction among Langmuir oscillations, ion-acoustic waves, and the electromagnetic wave, producing radiation perpendicular to the beam. The radiation is located near the plasma frequency, and polarized with the E component parallel to the beam. The scattering of Langmuir waves caused by ion-acoustic fluctuations generates the radiation. Comparison with laboratory data for the three-wave interactions shows good agreement in terms of the radiation levels produced, which are small relative to the plasma thermal energy.
Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System
Kopeikin, Sergei; Efroimsky, Michael; Kaplan, George
2011-09-01
The general theory of relativity was developed by Einstein a century ago. Since then, it has become the standard theory of gravity, especially important to the fields of fundamental astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and experimental gravitational physics. Today, the application of general relativity is also essential for many practical purposes involving astrometry, navigation, geodesy, and time synchronization. Numerous experiments have successfully tested general relativity to a remarkable level of precision. Exploring relativistic gravity in the solar system now involves a variety of high-accuracy techniques, for example, very long baseline radio interferometry, pulsar timing, spacecraft Doppler tracking, planetary radio ranging, lunar laser ranging, the global positioning system (GPS), torsion balances and atomic clocks. Over the last few decades, various groups within the International Astronomical Union have been active in exploring the application of the general theory of relativity to the modeling and interpretation of high-accuracy astronomical observations in the solar system and beyond. A Working Group on Relativity in Celestial Mechanics and Astrometry was formed in 1994 to define and implement a relativistic theory of reference frames and time scales. This task was successfully completed with the adoption of a series of resolutions on astronomical reference systems, time scales, and Earth rotation models by the 24th General Assembly of the IAU, held in Manchester, UK, in 2000. However, these resolutions only form a framework for the practical application of relativity theory, and there have been continuing questions on the details of the proper application of relativity theory to many common astronomical problems. To ensure that these questions are properly addressed, the 26th General Assembly of the IAU, held in Prague in August 2006, established the IAU Commission 52, "Relativity in Fundamental Astronomy". The general scientific goals of the new
Symmetric low-voltage powering system for relativistic electronic devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agafonov, A.V.; Lebedev, A.N.; Krastelev, E.G.
2005-01-01
A special driver for double-sided powering of relativistic magnetrons and several methods of localized electron flow forming in the interaction region of relativistic magnetrons are proposed and discussed. Two experimental installations are presented and discussed. One of them is designed for laboratory research and demonstration experiments at a rather low voltage. The other one is a prototype of a full-scale installation for an experimental research at relativistic levels of voltages on the microwave generation in the new integrated system consisting of a relativistic magnetron and symmetrical induction driver
Relativistic collective diffusion in one-dimensional systems
Lin, Gui-Wu; Lam, Yu-Yiu; Zheng, Dong-Qin; Zhong, Wei-Rong
2018-05-01
The relativistic collective diffusion in one-dimensional molecular system is investigated through nonequilibrium molecular dynamics with Monte Carlo methods. We have proposed the relationship among the speed, the temperature, the density distribution and the collective diffusion coefficient of particles in a relativistic moving system. It is found that the relativistic speed of the system has no effect on the temperature, but the collective diffusion coefficient decreases to zero as the velocity of the system approaches to the speed of light. The collective diffusion coefficient is modified as D‧ = D(1 ‑w2 c2 )3 2 for satisfying the relativistic circumstances. The present results may contribute to the understanding of the behavior of the particles transport diffusion in a high speed system, as well as enlighten the study of biological metabolism at relativistic high speed situation.
Two-dimensional approach to relativistic positioning systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coll, Bartolome; Ferrando, Joan Josep; Morales, Juan Antonio
2006-01-01
A relativistic positioning system is a physical realization of a coordinate system consisting in four clocks in arbitrary motion broadcasting their proper times. The basic elements of the relativistic positioning systems are presented in the two-dimensional case. This simplified approach allows to explain and to analyze the properties and interest of these new systems. The positioning system defined by geodesic emitters in flat metric is developed in detail. The information that the data generated by a relativistic positioning system give on the space-time metric interval is analyzed, and the interest of these results in gravimetry is pointed out
Relativistic Jahn-Teller effect in tetrahedral systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Opalka, Daniel; Domcke, Wolfgang; Segado, Mireia; Poluyanov, Leonid V.
2010-01-01
It is shown that orbitally degenerate states in highly symmetric systems are split by Jahn-Teller forces which are of relativistic origin (that is, they arise from the spin-orbit coupling operator). For the example of tetrahedral systems, the relativistic Jahn-Teller Hamiltonians of orbitally degenerate electronic states with spin 1/2 are derived. While both electrostatic and relativistic forces contribute to the Jahn-Teller activity of vibrational modes of E and T 2 symmetry in 2 T 2 states of tetrahedral systems, the electrostatic and relativistic Jahn-Teller couplings are complementary for 2 E states: The E mode is Jahn-Teller active through electrostatic forces, while the T 2 mode is Jahn-Teller active through the relativistic forces. The relativistic Jahn-Teller parameters have been computed with ab initio relativistic electronic-structure methods. It is shown for the example of the tetrahedral cluster cations of the group V elements that the relativistic Jahn-Teller couplings can be of the same order of magnitude as the familiar electrostatic Jahn-Teller couplings for the heavier elements.
Relativistic quantum theory of composite systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sogami, I.
1978-01-01
A relativistic quantum theory free from the difficulties of tachyons and ghosts is formulated to describe the scattering processes between composite systems of spinless quarks. To evade the complication brewed by introducing gluon fields or strings, valence quarks are effectively assumed to be in the relative motion of harmonic oscillation correlating with the motion of the composite system as a whole. A quark-antiquark system is represented by a bilocal field describing a sequence of mesons and every meson is identified with the composite system in a definite eigenstate of relative motion. The quantization is performed in the interaction picture, so that the microcausal condition is satisfied by local fields which result from the decomposition of bilocal fields. Imposing a weakened macrocausal condition on the whole motion of the extended system, a causal bilocal propagator is defined and a consistent time ordering among bilocal fields is defined. The invariant S-matrix is obtained and the graphical method for the calculation of its elements is developed in parallel with the conventional local field theory. For the (bilocal field) 3 interaction any malignant divergence does not appear excepting those in the renormalizable local field theory. The theory provides one promising and comprehensive phenomenology of hadrons which is suitable especially to describe the hard structure of hadrons. (author)
Importance of Resolving the Spectral Support of Beam-plasma Instabilities in Simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shalaby, Mohamad; Broderick, Avery E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Chang, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 E. Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Pfrommer, Christoph [Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Lamberts, Astrid [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Puchwein, Ewald, E-mail: mshalaby@live.ca [Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)
2017-10-20
Many astrophysical plasmas are prone to beam-plasma instabilities. For relativistic and dilute beams, the spectral support of the beam-plasma instabilities is narrow, i.e., the linearly unstable modes that grow with rates comparable to the maximum growth rate occupy a narrow range of wavenumbers. This places stringent requirements on the box-sizes when simulating the evolution of the instabilities. We identify the implied lower limits on the box size imposed by the longitudinal beam plasma instability, i.e., typically the most stringent condition required to correctly capture the linear evolution of the instabilities in multidimensional simulations. We find that sizes many orders of magnitude larger than the resonant wavelength are typically required. Using one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we show that the failure to sufficiently resolve the spectral support of the longitudinal instability yields slower growth and lower levels of saturation, potentially leading to erroneous physical conclusion.
Importance of Resolving the Spectral Support of Beam-plasma Instabilities in Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shalaby, Mohamad; Broderick, Avery E.; Chang, Philip; Pfrommer, Christoph; Lamberts, Astrid; Puchwein, Ewald
2017-01-01
Many astrophysical plasmas are prone to beam-plasma instabilities. For relativistic and dilute beams, the spectral support of the beam-plasma instabilities is narrow, i.e., the linearly unstable modes that grow with rates comparable to the maximum growth rate occupy a narrow range of wavenumbers. This places stringent requirements on the box-sizes when simulating the evolution of the instabilities. We identify the implied lower limits on the box size imposed by the longitudinal beam plasma instability, i.e., typically the most stringent condition required to correctly capture the linear evolution of the instabilities in multidimensional simulations. We find that sizes many orders of magnitude larger than the resonant wavelength are typically required. Using one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we show that the failure to sufficiently resolve the spectral support of the longitudinal instability yields slower growth and lower levels of saturation, potentially leading to erroneous physical conclusion.
On the Velocity of Moving Relativistic Unstable Quantum Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Urbanowski
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We study properties of moving relativistic quantum unstable systems. We show that in contrast to the properties of classical particles and quantum stable objects the velocity of freely moving relativistic quantum unstable systems cannot be constant in time. We show that this new quantum effect results from the fundamental principles of the quantum theory and physics: it is a consequence of the principle of conservation of energy and of the fact that the mass of the quantum unstable system is not defined. This effect can affect the form of the decay law of moving relativistic quantum unstable systems.
Relativistic duality, and relativistic and radiative corrections for heavy-quark systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durand, B.; Durand, L.
1982-01-01
We give a JWKB proof of a relativistic duality relation which relates an appropriate energy average of the physical cross section for e + e - →qq-bar bound states→hadrons to the same energy average of the perturbative cross section for e + e - →qq-bar. We show that the duality relation can be used effectively to estimate relativistic and radiative corrections for bound-quark systems to order α/sub s//sup ts2/. We also present a formula which relates the square of the ''large'' 3 S 1 Salpeter-Bethe-Schwinger wave function for zero space-time separation of the quarks to the square of the nonrelativistic Schroedinger wave function at the origin for an effective potential which reproduces the relativistic spectrum. This formula allows one to use the nonrelativistic wave functions obtained in potential models fitted to the psi and UPSILON spectra to calculate relativistic leptonic widths for qq-bar states via a relativistic version of the van Royen--Weisskopf formula
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clifford, T.S.; Barton, D.S.; Oerter, B.R.
1997-01-01
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system has been used in the commissioning of the AGS to RHIC transfer line and in the first RHIC sextant test. Much of the controls infrastructure for networks and links has been installed throughout the collider. All of the controls hardware modules needed to be built for early RHIC operations have been designed and tested. Many of these VME modules are already being used in normal AGS operations. Over 150 VME based front end computers and device controllers will be installed by the Summer of 1998 in order to be ready for Fall of 1998. A few features are being added to the front end computer core software. The bulk of the Accelerator Device Objects (ADOs) which are instantiated in the FECs, have been written and tested in the early commissioning. A configuration database has been designed. Generic control and display of ADO parameters via a spreadsheet like program on the console level computers was provided early on in the control system development. User interface tools that were developed for the AGS control system have been used in RHIC applications. Some of the basic operations programs, like alarm display and save/restore, that are used in the AGS operations have been or will be expanded to support RHIC operations. A model for application programs which involves a console level manager servicing ADOs have been verified with a few RHIC applications. More applications need to be written for the Fall of 1998 commissioning effort. A sequencer for automatic control of the fill is being written with the expectation that it will be useful in early commissioning
Relativistic effects in a rotating coordinate system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chugreev, Y.V.
1989-01-01
The general approach to calculating various physical effects in a rotating, noninertial reference frame based on the tetrad formalism for observables is discussed. It is shown that the method based on the search for the ''true'' coordinate transformation from an inertial to the rotating frame is ill-founded. Most special relativistic effects in a rotating frame have been calculated without any nonrelativistic restrictions. It is shown how simple physical experiments can be used to determine whether a circle is at rest in the equatorial plane of a Kerr--Newman gravitational source in the relativistic theory of gravity or is rotating about an axis through its center
Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System
Kopeikin, Sergei; Kaplan, George
2011-01-01
This authoritative book presents the theoretical development of gravitational physics as it applies to the dynamics of celestial bodies and the analysis of precise astronomical observations. In so doing, it fills the need for a textbook that teaches modern dynamical astronomy with a strong emphasis on the relativistic aspects of the subject produced by the curved geometry of four-dimensional spacetime. The first three chapters review the fundamental principles of celestial mechanics and of special and general relativity. This background material forms the basis for understanding relativistic r
Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
hanced values needed to interpret the data at higher energies point towards the importance of strong-coupling effects. ... when all secondary particles have been created. For short times in the initial phase ... It is decisive for a proper representation of the available data for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at and beyond SPS.
Quadratic algebra approach to relativistic quantum Smorodinsky-Winternitz systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marquette, Ian
2011-01-01
There exists a relation between the Klein-Gordon and the Dirac equations with scalar and vector potentials of equal magnitude and the Schroedinger equation. We obtain the relativistic energy spectrum for the four relativistic quantum Smorodinsky-Winternitz systems from their quasi-Hamiltonian and the quadratic algebras studied by Daskaloyannis in the nonrelativistic context. We also apply the quadratic algebra approach directly to the initial Dirac equation for these four systems and show that the quadratic algebras obtained are the same than those obtained from the quasi-Hamiltonians. We point out how results obtained in context of quantum superintegrable systems and their polynomial algebras can be applied to the quantum relativistic case.
Relativistic many-body bound systems. Monograph report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danos, M.; Gillet, V.
1975-04-01
The principles and the mathematical details of a fully relativistic nuclear theory are given. Since the concept of nuclear forces is a strictly non-relativistic construct, it must be abandoned, and the forces must be replaced explicitly by their physical origin, i.e., by the interaction between nucleons and mesons. Thus, in this monograph the description of a nucleus has been formulated as a problem of relativistic quantum field theory which is solved by nuclear physics methods; to wit: the physics is described by specifying a Lagrangian which is a functional of the constituent fields (= of the parton fields); the solutions for the physical systems then are obtained in a time-independent treatment as expansions in the parton fields: both particles and nuclei are composite systems, made up of parton configurations, which define a representation of the Hamiltonian (associated with the specified Lagrangian)
Experimental studies on beam-plasma interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiwamoto, Y.
1977-01-01
Beam-handling technology has reached now at such a level as to enable highly controlled experiments of beam-plasma interaction. Varieties of hypotheses and suppositions about the beam propagation and interaction in space plasma can be proved and often be corrected by examining the specific processes in laboratory plasma. The experiments performed in this way by the author are briefed: ion beam instability in unmagnetized plasma; ion beam instability perpendicular to magnetic field; and electron beam instability. (Mori, K.)
Beam-plasma discharge in a Kyoto beam-plasma-ion source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, J.; Takagi, T.
1983-01-01
A beam-plasma type ion source employing an original operating principle has been developed by the present authors. The ion source consists of an ion extraction region with an electron gun, a thin long drift tube as the plasma production chamber, and a primary electron beam collector. An electron beam is effectively utilized for the dual purpose of high density plasma production as a result of beam-plasma discharge, and high current ion beam extraction with ion space-charge compensation. A high density plasma of the order of 10 11 --10 13 cm -3 was produced by virtue of the beam-plasma discharge which was caused by the interaction between a space-charge wave on the electron beam and a high frequency plasma wave. The plasma density then produced was 10 2 --10 3 times the density produced only by collisional ionization by the electron beam. In order to obtain a stable beam-plasma discharge, a secondary electron beam emitted from the electron collector should be utilized. The mechanism of the beam-plasma discharge was analyzed by use of a linear theory in the case of the small thermal energy of the electron beam, and by use of a quasilinear theory in the case of the large thermal energy. High current ion beams of more than 0.1 A were extracted even at a low extraction voltage of 1--5 kV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, F.
1986-01-01
Relativistic equations for two and three body scattering are discussed. Particular attention is paid to relativistic three body kinetics because of recent form factor measurements of the Helium 3 - Hydrogen 3 system recently completed at Saclay and Bates and the accompanying speculation that relativistic effects are important for understanding the three nucleon system. 16 refs., 4 figs
Relativistic quantum Darwinism in Dirac fermion and graphene systems
Ni, Xuan; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Pecora, Louis
2012-02-01
We solve the Dirac equation in two spatial dimensions in the setting of resonant tunneling, where the system consists of two symmetric cavities connected by a finite potential barrier. The shape of the cavities can be chosen to yield both regular and chaotic dynamics in the classical limit. We find that certain pointer states about classical periodic orbits can exist, which are signatures of relativistic quantum Darwinism (RQD). These localized states suppress quantum tunneling, and the effect becomes less severe as the underlying classical dynamics in the cavity is chaotic, leading to regularization of quantum tunneling. Qualitatively similar phenomena have been observed in graphene. A physical theory is developed to explain relativistic quantum Darwinism and its effects based on the spectrum of complex eigenenergies of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian describing the open cavity system.
Nuclear chromodynamics: applications of QCD to relativistic multiquark systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.; Ji, C.R.
1984-07-01
We review the applications of quantum chromodynamics to nuclear multiquark systems. In particular, predictions are given for the deuteron reduced form factor in the high momentum transfer region, hidden color components in nuclear wavefunctions, and the short distance effective force between nucleons. A new antisymmetrization technique is presented which allows a basis for relativistic multiquark wavefunctions and solutions to their evolution to short distances. Areas in which conventional nuclear theory conflicts with QCD are also briefly reviewed. 48 references
Nanosecond radar system based on repetitive pulsed relativistic BWO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunkin, B.V.; Gaponov-Grekhov, A.V.; Eltchaninov, A.S.; Zagulov, F.Ya.; Korovin, S.D.; Mesyats, G.A.; Osipov, M.L.; Otlivantchik, E.A.; Petelin, M.I.; Prokhorov, A.M.
1993-01-01
The paper presents the results of studies of a nanosecond radar system based on repetitive pulsed relativistic BWO. A pulsed power repetitive accelerator producing electron beams of electron energy 500-700 keV and current 5 kA in pulses of duraction 10 ns with a repetition rate of 100 pps is described. The results of experiments with a high-voltage gas-filled spark gap and a cold-cathode vacuum diode under the conditions of high repetition rates are given. Also presented are the results of studies of a relativistic BWO operating with a wavelength of 3 cm. It is shown that for a high-current beam electron energy of 500-700 keV, the BWO efficiency can reach 35%, the microwave power being 10 9 W. A superconducting solenoid creating a magnetic field of 30 kOe was used for the formation and transportation of the high-current electron beam. In conclusion, the outcome of tests of a nanosecond radar station based on a pulsed power repetitive accelerator and a relativistic BWO is reported
Radiation from systems with relativistic electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ternov, I.M.; Khalilov, V.R.; Bagrov, V.G.; Nikitin, M.M.
1980-01-01
Different methods of generation of electromagnetic radiation in the course of electron motion in external electromagnetic fields are considered. Singularities of ''free electron lasers'' (FEL), synchrotronous, ondulator and Compton radiation sources are discussed. The effect of induced radiation of electrons moving in a magnetic field is studied on the basis of the quantum theory methods. The results obtained are compared with the results of the classical theory. The theoretical and experimental results of the main singularities of the ondulator radiation (OR) are presented. It is shown that when the recoil effects are negligible and nonequidistancy of the energy spectrum of an electron in a magnetic field is of an error character, the results for the dose rate calculated by the quantum and classical theory methods completely coincide in the range of great filling numbers. Both in the quantum and classical theories the effects of the induced radiation of electrons moving in external electromagnetic fields (nonstationary in a general case) of a rather general type depend on two main mechanisms, which are nonequidistancy of the energy spectrum and the recoil effect (the quantum theory); appearance of phase and longitudinal electron bunching under the effect of an alternating radiation field (the classical theory). On the basis of the investigations the conclusion is made that OR can be successfully used for measuring the charged particle beam parameters (dispersion of angular spread and the absolute energy), as well as for measuring the amplitude of the magnetic field intensity in a space-periodic system
Astronomical relativistic reference systems with multipolar expansion: the global one
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie Yi
2014-01-01
With the rapid development of techniques for astronomical observations, the precision of measurements has been significantly increasing. Theories describing astronomical relativistic reference systems, which are the foundation for processing and interpreting these data now and in the future, may require extensions to satisfy the needs of these trends. Besides building a framework compatible with alternative theories of gravity and the pursuit of higher order post-Newtonian approximation, it will also be necessary to make the first order post-Newtonian multipole moments of celestial bodies be explicitly expressed in the astronomical relativistic reference systems. This will bring some convenience into modeling the observations and experiments and make it easier to distinguish different contributions in measurements. As a first step, the global solar system reference system is expressed as a multipolar expansion and the post-Newtonian mass and spin moments are shown explicitly in the metric which describes the coordinates of the system. The full expression of the global metric is given. (research papers)
Evolution system study of a generalized scheme of relativistic magnetohydrodynamic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahjoub, Bechir.
1977-01-01
A generalized scheme of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics is studied with a thermodynamical differential relation proposed by Fokker; this scheme takes account of interaction between the fluid and the magnetic field. Taking account of an integrability condition of this relation, the evolution system corresponding to this scheme is identical to the one corresponding to the usual scheme; it has the same characteristics; it is non-strictly hyperbolic with the same hypothesis of compressibility and it has, with respect to the Cauchy problem, an unique solution in a Gevrey class of index α=3/2 [fr
Notes on nonlocal projective measurements in relativistic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Shih-Yuin
2014-01-01
In quantum mechanical bipartite systems, naive extensions of von Neumann’s projective measurement to nonlocal variables can produce superluminal signals and thus violate causality. We analyze the projective quantum nondemolition state-verification in a two-spin system and see how the projection introduces nonlocality without entanglement. For the ideal measurements of “R-nonlocal” variables, we argue that causality violation can be resolved by introducing further restrictions on the post-measurement states, which makes the measurement “Q-nonlocal”. After we generalize these ideas to quantum mechanical harmonic oscillators, we look into the projective measurements of the particle number of a single mode or a wave-packet of a relativistic quantum field in Minkowski space. It turns out that the causality-violating terms in the expectation values of the local operators, generated either by the ideal measurement of the “R-nonlocal” variable or the quantum nondemolition verification of a Fock state, are all suppressed by the IR and UV cutoffs of the theory. Thus relativistic quantum field theories with such projective measurements are effectively causal
Internal-time observable of classical relativistic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-Ya'acov, Uri
2006-01-01
The relativistic framework with its symmetries offers a natural definition for the internal time of classical (non-quantum) physical systems as a Lorentz-invariant observable. The internal-time observable, measuring the system's aging or internal evolution, is identified with the proper time of the system derived from its centre-of-mass (CM) coordinate. For its definition as an observable it is required that the system be symmetric not only under Lorentz-Poincare transformations but also under uniform scaling, with the associated existence of a dilatation function D, and yet that D be a varying-not conserved-quantity. Two alternative definitions are discussed, and it is found that in order to maintain simultaneity of the CM time with the events that define it, it is necessary to split the dilatation function into a CM part and an internal part
Proper time axis of a closed relativistic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernikov, N.A.; Fadeev, N.G.; Shavokhina, N.S.
1997-01-01
The definition of a proper time axis of a closed relativistic system of colliding particles is given. The solution of the proper time axis problem is presented. If the light velocity c equals the imaginary unit i, then in the case of a plane motion of the system the problem about the proper time axis turns out to be equivalent to the known in engineering mechanics problem about the reduction of any system of forces, applied to a rigid body, to the dynamic screw. In the general case, when c=i, the problem about the proper time axis turns out to be equivalent to the problem about the reduction to the dynamic screw of a system of forces, applied to a rigid body in a four-dimensional Euclidean space
Relativistic formulations with Blankenbecler-Sugar reduction technique for the three-particle system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morioka, S.; Afnan, I.R.
1980-05-01
A critical comparison for two-types of three-dimensional covariant equations for the three-particle system obtained by the Blankenbecler-Sugar reduction technique with the Whitghtman-Garding momenta and the usual Jacobi variables is presented. The relations between the relativistic and non-relativistic equations in the low energy limit are discussed
Relativistic quantum kinetic analysis of a pion--nucleon system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alonso, J.D.
1985-01-01
A relativistic plasma of nucleons interacting through pions via the usual isospin-invariant Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the framework of the covariant Wigner function technique. The method is manifestly covariant and the temperature effects are considered. The relativistic quantum BBGKY hierarchy for the pion--nucleon system is derived. By generalizing the Bogolioubov analysis of the classical BBGKY hierarchy a non-perturbative renormalizable method is elaborated which allows the solution of the kinetic problem in form of power series of two cluster parameters which measure the importance of correlations. In the lowest order of the cluster expansion (Hartree approximation of zero-order approximation) the quasi-nucleon Fock space is introduced, the fermion Wigner function in the thermodynamic equilibrium is obtained and the vacuum effects are renormalized. In this approximation the plasma behaves as a perfect Fermi gas of nucleons and antinucleons, but there exists an abnormal configuration with a uniform pion condensate which is unstable. In the next approximation (quadratic in the small parameters) the quasi-pion dispersion relation is obtained and the vacuum polarization tensor is renormalized. The quasi-pion rest-mass spectra (''plasma frequency'') and the effective-coupling behaviour as functions of the thermodynamic state are given. By estimating the size of the cluster parameters the self-consistency of the approximation scheme is proved. The quasi-pion Fock space is introduced and the quasi-pion equilibrium Wigner function is obtained. From these results the problem of the higher-order corrections to the Hartree thermodynamics is outlined
Intense relativistic electron beam injector system for tokamak current drive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailey, V.L.; Creedon, J.M.; Ecker, B.M.; Helava, H.I.
1983-01-01
We report experimental and theoretical studies of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) injection system designed for tokamak current drive experiments. The injection system uses a standard high-voltage pulsed REB generator and a magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) to drive an REB-accelerating diode in plasma. A series of preliminary experiments has been carried out to test the system by injecting REBs into a test chamber with preformed plasma and applied magnetic field. REBs were accelerated from two types of diodes: a conventional vacuum diode with foil anode, and a plasma diode, i.e., an REB cathode immersed in the plasma. REB current was in the range of 50 to 100 kA and REB particle energy ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 MeV. MITL power density exceeded 10 GW/cm 2 . Performance of the injection system and REB transport properties is documented for plasma densities from 5 x 10 12 to 2 x 10 14 cm -3 . Injection system data are compared with numerical calculations of the performance of the coupled system consisting of the generator, MITL, and diode
Self-consistent chaos in the beam-plasma instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tennyson, J.L.; Meiss, J.D.
1993-01-01
The effect of self-consistency on Hamiltonian systems with a large number of degrees-of-freedom is investigated for the beam-plasma instability using the single-wave model of O'Neil, Winfrey, and Malmberg.The single-wave model is reviewed and then rederived within the Hamiltonian context, which leads naturally to canonical action- angle variables. Simulations are performed with a large (10 4 ) number of beam particles interacting with the single wave. It is observed that the system relaxes into a time asymptotic periodic state where only a few collective degrees are active; namely, a clump of trapped particles oscillating in a modulated wave, within a uniform chaotic sea with oscillating phase space boundaries. Thus self-consistency is seen to effectively reduce the number of degrees- of-freedom. A simple low degree-of-freedom model is derived that treats the clump as a single macroparticle, interacting with the wave and chaotic sea. The uniform chaotic sea is modeled by a fluid waterbag, where the waterbag boundaries correspond approximately to invariant tori. This low degree-of-freedom model is seen to compare well with the simulation
Wigner expansions for partition functions of nonrelativistic and relativistic oscillator systems
Zylka, Christian; Vojta, Guenter
1993-01-01
The equilibrium quantum statistics of various anharmonic oscillator systems including relativistic systems is considered within the Wigner phase space formalism. For this purpose the Wigner series expansion for the partition function is generalized to include relativistic corrections. The new series for partition functions and all thermodynamic potentials yield quantum corrections in terms of powers of h(sup 2) and relativistic corrections given by Kelvin functions (modified Hankel functions) K(sub nu)(mc(sup 2)/kT). As applications, the symmetric Toda oscillator, isotonic and singular anharmonic oscillators, and hindered rotators, i.e. oscillators with cosine potential, are addressed.
Relativistic ''potential model'' for N-particle systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noyes, H.P.
1986-08-01
Neither quantum field theory nor S-Matrix theory have a well defined procedure for going over to an approximation that can be reliably used in non-relativistic models for nuclear physics. We meet the problem here by constructing a finite particle number relativistic scattering theory for (scalar) particles and mesons using integral equations of the Faddeev-Yakubovsky type. Restricted to N particles and one meson, we can go from the relativistic theory to a ''potential theory'' in the integral equation formulation by using boundary states which do not contain the meson asymptotically. The meson-particle input amplitudes contain a pole at the particle mass, and the particle-particle input amplitudes are null. This gives unique definition (numerically calculable) to the particle-particle off-shell amplitude, and hence to the covariant ''scattering potential'' (but not to the noninvariant concept of ''potential energy''). As we have commented before, if we take these scattering amplitudes as iput for relativistic Faddeev equations, the results are identical to those obtained from the same model starting from three particles and one meson. In this paper we explore how far we can extend this relativistic ''potential model'' to higher numbers of particles and mesons. 10 refs
Electromagnetic interactions in relativistic systems of many bodies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, A.H.
1987-09-01
In a previous report (Cook, 1986, 1987) on a formulation of a quasi-relativistic quantum mechanical equation of motion for many particles, little was said of the electromagnetic interactions that keep a set of particles in a bound state. That omission is to some extent repaired in this report. (author). 3 refs
Relativistic band gaps in one-dimensional disordered systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clerk, G.J.; McKellar, B.H.J.
1992-01-01
Conditions for the existence of band gaps in a one-dimensional disordered array of δ-function potentials possessing short range order are developed in a relativistic framework. Both Lorentz vector and scalar type potentials are treated. The relationship between the energy gaps and the transmission properties of the array are also discussed. 20 refs., 2 figs
Motion of the relativistic charged particle in an axisymmetric toroidal system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiyoda, K; Sugimoto, H [Electrotechnical Labs., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan)
1980-01-01
The relativistic theory of motion of one particle by Morozov and Solov'ev is summarized for convenience of the present study. Then, a drift equation is given and four constants of motion, E/sub 0/, J perpendicular, J and J parallel, are obtained. These constants of motion are used in analyzing the particle motion in an axisymmetric toroidal system. The displacement of the particle from the magnetic surface, ..delta..r, and the period of the banana motion, tau, are obtained. The relativistic expressions of the displacement, ..delta..r, and the period, tau, are obtained by multiplying the corresponding nonrelativistic expressions by (1 - v parallel/sup 2//c/sup 2/) - 1/2, where the relativistic expression of ..delta..r includes the relativistic mass in terms of Larmor radius r/sub L/.
Weak turbulence theory for beam-plasma interaction
Yoon, Peter H.
2018-01-01
The kinetic theory of weak plasma turbulence, of which Ronald C. Davidson was an important early pioneer [R. C. Davidson, Methods in Nonlinear Plasma Theory, (Academic Press, New York, 1972)], is a venerable and valid theory that may be applicable to a large number of problems in both laboratory and space plasmas. This paper applies the weak turbulence theory to the problem of gentle beam-plasma interaction and Langmuir turbulence. It is shown that the beam-plasma interaction undergoes various stages of physical processes starting from linear instability, to quasilinear saturation, to mode coupling that takes place after the quasilinear stage, followed by a state of quasi-static "turbulent equilibrium." The long term quasi-equilibrium stage is eventually perturbed by binary collisional effects in order to bring the plasma to a thermodynamic equilibrium with increased entropy.
Laboratory beam-plasma interactions: linear and nonlinear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christiansen, P.J.; Jain, V.K.; Bond, J.W.
1982-01-01
The present investigation is concerned with the configuration of a cool plasma (often magnetized axially) penetrated by an injected electron beam. The attempt is made to demonstrate that despite unavoidable scaling limitations, laboratory experiments can illuminate, in a controlled fashion, details of beam plasma interaction processes in a way which will never be possible in the space plasma physics. In view of the increasing interest in high frequency instabilities in the auroral zone, the possibilities for interesting cross fertilizations of the two fields appear to be extensive. The linear theory is considered along with low frequency couplings and indirect effects. Attention is given to the evidence for the existence of exponentially growing instabilities in beam plasma interactions. The consequences of such instabilities are also explored and some processes of nonlinear processes are discussed, taking into account quasi-linear effects, trapping effects, nonlinear effects, trapping effects, nonlinear wave-wave interactions, and self-modulation and cavitation. 80 references
Beam-plasma interaction in a synchrotron-cooler ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itahashi, T.
1989-01-01
We propose a plasma target installed in the synchrotron-cooler ring in order to study the beam-plasma interaction. Various types of beam diagnostic devices and precise techniques developed for stochastic cooling and rf-stacking in the storage ring would be a powerful tool to approach the problems concerning the plasma behavior induced by the beam, such as plasma lens effect, anomalous stopping power and plasma instability. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skachkov, N.; Solovtsov, I.
1979-01-01
Based on the hamiltonian formulation of quantum field theory proposed by Kadyshevsky the three-dimensional relativistic approach is developed for describing the form factors of composite systems. The main features of the diagram technique appearing in the covariant hamiltonian formulation of field theory are discussed. The three-dimensional relativistic equation for the vertex function is derived and its connection with that for the quasipotential wave function is found. The expressions are obtained for the form factor of the system through equal-time two-particle wave functions both in momentum and relativistic configurational representations. An explicit expression for the form factor is found for the case of two-particle interaction through the Coulomb potential
Relativistic instant-form approach to the structure of two-body composite systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krutov, A.F.; Troitsky, V.E.
2002-01-01
An approach to the electroweak properties of two-particle composite systems is developed. The approach is based on the use of the instant form of relativistic Hamiltonian dynamics. The main feature of this approach is the method of construction of the matrix element of the electroweak current operator. The electroweak current matrix element satisfies the relativistic covariance conditions and in the case of the electromagnetic current also the conservation law automatically. The properties of the system as well as the approximations are formulated in terms of form factors. The approach makes it possible to formulate relativistic impulse approximation in such a way that the Lorentz covariance of the current is ensured. In the electromagnetic case the current conservation law is also ensured. Our approach gives good results for the pion electromagnetic form factor in the whole range of momentum transfers available for experiments at present time, as well as for the lepton decay constant of pions
Application of Homotopy Analysis Method to Solve Relativistic Toda Lattice System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Qi
2010-01-01
In this letter, the homotopy analysis method is successfully applied to solve the Relativistic Toda lattice system. Comparisons are made between the results of the proposed method and exact solutions. Analysis results show that homotopy analysis method is a powerful and easy-to-use analytic tool to solve systems of differential-difference equations. (general)
Relativistic (3+1) dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of compact interacting binary systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathews, G.J.; Evans, C.R.; Wilson, J.R.
1986-09-01
We discuss the development of a relativistic hydrodynamic code for describing the evolution of astrophysical systems in three spatial dimensions. The application of this code to several test problems is presented. Preliminary results from the simulation of the dynamics of accreting binary white dwarf and neutron star systems are discussed. 14 refs., 4 figs
Study of beam-plasma interactions in the presence of a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Etievant, C.
1963-12-01
The instabilities developing in a 'beam-plasma' system and in a 'double-beam' system in the presence of a magnetic field are discussed theoretically starting from the conductivity tensor expression for a multi-beam system. Oblique propagation is taken into account and this leads to the introduction of certain instability mechanisms which would not appear in the case of a propagation which is purely parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field. Two experiments are described: a) Study of the collision of two counterstreaming electron beams: An instability has been observed experimentally which leads to the generation of a stationary cyclotron wave having a frequency of ω ce /2. A description is given of the measurement of the interaction frequency, of the wavelength and of the build-up time of the wave. b) Study of a 'beam-plasma' system: A description is given of the measurement of the spectra of excited waves and of the perturbation of the beam velocity distribution at the plasma-exit. This perturbation is very pronounced when 'plasma-plasma' interaction appears in the system. A study into cyclotron oscillations produced in the plasma by excitation due to the passage of the beam is also described in this report. (author) [fr
Characterisation Of The Beam Plasma In High Current, Low Energy Ion Beams For Implanters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiala, J.; Armour, D. G.; Berg, J. A. van der; Holmes, A. J. T.; Goldberg, R. D.; Collart, E. H. J.
2006-01-01
The effective transport of high current, positive ion beams at low energies in ion implanters requires the a high level of space charge compensation. The self-induced or forced introduction of electrons is known to result in the creation of a so-called beam plasma through which the beam propagates. Despite the ability of beams at energies above about 3-5 keV to create their own neutralising plasmas and the development of highly effective, plasma based neutralising systems for low energy beams, very little is known about the nature of beam plasmas and how their characteristics and capabilities depend on beam current, beam energy and beamline pressure. These issues have been addressed in a detailed scanning Langmuir probe study of the plasmas created in beams passing through the post-analysis section of a commercial, high current ion implanter. Combined with Faraday cup measurements of the rate of loss of beam current in the same region due to charge exchange and scattering collisions, the probe data have provided a valuable insight into the nature of the slow ion and electron production and loss processes. Two distinct electron energy distribution functions are observed with electron temperatures ≥ 25 V and around 1 eV. The fast electrons observed must be produced in their energetic state. By studying the properties of the beam plasma as a function of the beam and beamline parameters, information on the ways in which the plasma and the beam interact to reduce beam blow-up and retain a stable plasma has been obtained
In-medium relativistic kinetic theory and nucleon-meson systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morawetz, K.; Kremp, D.
1995-01-01
Within the σ-ω model of coupled nucleonmeson systems, a generalized relativistic Lennard-Balescu-equation is presented resulting from a relativistic random phase approximation (RRPA). This provides a systematic derivation of relativistic transport equations in the frame of nonequilibrium Green's function technique including medium effects as well as fluctuation effects. It contains all possible processes due to one-meson exchange and special attention is kept to the off-shell character of the particles. As a new feature of many-particle effects, processes are possible, which can be interpreted as particle creation and annihilation due to in-medium one-meson exchange. In-medium cross sections are obtained from the generalized derivation of collision integrals, which possess complete crossing symmetries. (orig.)
A relativistic extended Fermi-Thomas-like equation for a self-gravitating system of fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merloni, A.; Ruffini, R.; Torroni, V.
1998-01-01
The authors extend previous results of a Fermi-Thomas model, describing self-gravitating fermions in their ground state, to a relativistic gravitational theory in Minkowski space. In such a theory the source term of the gravitational potential depends both on the pressure and the density of the fluid. It is shown that, in correspondence of this relativistic treatment, still a Fermi-Thomas-like equation can be derived for the self-gravitating system, though the non-linearities are much more complex. No Fermi-Thomas-like equation can be obtained in the General Relativistic treatment. The canonical results for neutron stars and white dwarfs are recovered and also some erroneous statements in the scientific literature are corrected
Relativistic two-body forces in many-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Namyslowski, J.M.
1979-01-01
For the fully off-shell extension in the relativistic dynamics, based on a covariant light-front field theory, we define the relative momenta and their proper angular variables such that -1 < cos theta/sub α/ < 1. In terms of these variables and the timelike total momenta we write explicitly the Weinberg interaction, corresponding to the exchange of a spinless particle of mass μ. The total momentum dependence and the cluster decomposition property of the Weinberg interaction are presented in detail, together with its energy dependence and other nonlocal features. In the nonrelativistic limit we recover the Yukawa interaction, while for the finite masses the Weinberg interaction is a product of the Yukawa interaction and a form factor. The Weinberg two-body force goes to zero at large energies and is truly nonlocal, in spite of the fact that the underlying field theory has a local Lagrangian
The magnet system of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greene, A.; Anerella, M.; Cozzolino, J.
1995-01-01
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a colliding ring accelerator to be completed in 1999. Through collisions of heavy ions it is hoped to observe the creation of matter at extremely high temperatures and densities, similar to what may have occurred in the original ''Big Bang.'' The collider rings will consist of 1740 superconducting magnet elements. Some of elements are being manufactured by industrial partners (Northrop Grumman and Everson Electric). Others are being constructed or assembled at BNL. A description is given of the magnet designs, the plan for manufacturing and test results. In the manufacturing of the magnets, emphasis has been placed on uniformity of their performance and on quality. Results so far indicate that this emphasis has been very successful
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Hongxiang; Xu Xixiang; Sun Yepeng; Ding Haiyong
2006-01-01
Starting from a discrete isospectral problem, integrable positive and negative relativistic Toda type lattice hierarchies are derived. The two lattice hierarchies are proven to have discrete zero-curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, and the positive and negative lattice hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. The integrable positive and negative coupling systems of the resulting hierarchies are constructed through enlarging Lax pairs. In addition, with the help of gauge transformations of spectral problems, a Darboux transformation is established for the relativistic Toda type lattice. As an application, an exact solution is explicitly presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thirukkanesh, S. [Eastern University, Department of Mathematics, Chenkalady (Sri Lanka); Ragel, F.C. [Eastern University, Department of Physics, Chenkalady (Sri Lanka); Sharma, Ranjan; Das, Shyam [P.D. Women' s College, Department of Physics, Jalpaiguri (India)
2018-01-15
We present an algorithm to generalize a plethora of well-known solutions to Einstein field equations describing spherically symmetric relativistic fluid spheres by relaxing the pressure isotropy condition on the system. By suitably fixing the model parameters in our formulation, we generate closed-form solutions which may be treated as an anisotropic generalization of a large class of solutions describing isotropic fluid spheres. From the resultant solutions, a particular solution is taken up to show its physical acceptability. Making use of the current estimate of mass and radius of a known pulsar, the effects of anisotropic stress on the gross physical behaviour of a relativistic compact star is also highlighted. (orig.)
New experimental results on beam-plasma interaction in solenoids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arzhannikov, A.V.; Burdakov, A.V.; Kapitonov, V.A.
1988-01-01
New results are presented on studying the beam-plasma interaction and plasma heating dynamics at the INAR device. The specific features of the generation of ''hot'' (E greater than or ∼ 1 keV) plasma electrons containing the main part of the plasma energy are studied. In the case of a beam with a small initial angular spread, the ''hot'' electrons are shown to be mainly generated near the point where the beam is injected into the plasma. Also reported are the results of the experiments in which the magnetic field in the beam-plasma interaction region was increased up to 70 kOe. In this case, at the plasma length of 75 cm, the total beam energy losses exceed 40%. The growth of the plasma energy content at higher magnetic field is observed. The first stage of the GOL-3 experiment is described which is aimed at the study of the plasma heating is solonoid by a 100 kJ microsecond electron beam. This new experimental device is now ready for operation (author)
Angular dependence of EEDF in ion-beam plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dudin, S.V.
1995-01-01
In a previous paper the results of measurements of electron energy distribution function (EEDF) in ion-beam plasma created by low energy broad ion beam had been presented regardless of the angular dependence of the electron distribution. The present work is specifically aimed towards elucidating the spatial structure of the EEDF in the ion-beam plasma. To solve this problem combination of the techniques of cylindrical probe, large plate probe (5 x 5 mm) and two-grid enegoanalyzer was used. Directional operation of the probes makes possible measurement of angular dependence of electron distribution function which is anisotropic in high energy region. To optimize the construction of the probe-analyzer, experiments with grids were performed, which had different size, mesh, and transparency, under different potentials, and with different distances between grids. Numerical simulation of the analyzer was performed too. It is derived that optimal design for measurements in isotropic plasma is the most plate, thin two-grid probe with maximum angular covering. Investigation of angular dependence of EEDF has shown that the distribution of trapped electrons is completely isotropic, whereas in the energy range of var-epsilon > e var-phi pl (var-phi pl - plasma potential) a strong anisotropy of the EEDF is observed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hafeez-Ur-Rehman; Mahmood, S.; Shah, Asif; Haque, Q.
2011-01-01
Two dimensional (2D) solitons are studied in a plasma system comprising of relativistically streaming ions, kappa distributed electrons, and positrons. Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation is derived through the reductive perturbation technique. Analytical solution of the KP equation has been studied numerically and graphically. It is noticed that kappa parameters of electrons and positrons as well as the ions relativistic streaming factor have an emphatic influence on the structural as well as propagation characteristics of two dimensional solitons in the considered plasma system. Our results may be helpful in the understanding of soliton propagation in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, specifically the interaction of pulsar relativistic wind with supernova ejecta and the transfer of energy to plasma by intense electric field of laser beams producing highly energetic superthermal and relativistic particles [L. Arons, Astrophys. Space Sci. Lib. 357, 373 (2009); P. Blasi and E. Amato, Astrophys. Space Sci. Proc. 2011, 623; and A. Shah and R. Saeed, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 53, 095006 (2011)].
Perturbation to Unified Symmetry and Adiabatic Invariants for Relativistic Hamilton Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Mingjiang; Fang Jianhui; Lu Kai; Pang Ting; Lin Peng
2009-01-01
Based on the concept of adiabatic invariant, the perturbation to unified symmetry and adiabatic invariants for relativistic Hamilton systems are studied. The definition of the perturbation to unified symmetry for the system is presented, and the criterion of the perturbation to unified symmetry is given. Meanwhile, the Noether adiabatic invariants, the generalized Hojman adiabatic invariants, and the Mei adiabatic invariants for the perturbed system are obtained. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernstein, W.; Holzworth, R.H.; Kellogg, P.J.; Monson, S.J.; Whalen, B.A.
1982-01-01
This chapter summarizes the experimental results which relate to collective beam-plasma interactions from a recent electron beam injection rocket flight launched into an active aurora. NASA rocket 27:010 AE carried a modest accelerator which injected programmed electron beams of <100 ma at 2 and 4 kV into the ionosphere plasma over the altitude range 120-240 km. Topics considered include a description of the payloads, accelerator operation, diagnostics (aft section, aft payload geometric configuration, wave diagnostics, TAD instrumentation), experimental results (161 eV-20 KeV electrons, thermal ions, TAD data, wave measurements), and laboratory results (energetic particles, photometric observations). A major objective of this experiment was the possible identification of the ignition of the Beam-Plasma Discharge (BPD) which has been intensively studied in laboratory configurations. The results indicate that BPD ignition occurred for Im current pulses at 2 and 4 kV and during the 3 kHz modulation period. It is concluded that many of the observed characteristics are similar to the BPD characteristics observed in the laboratory
On classical solutions of the relativistic Vlasov-Klein-Gordon system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Kunzinger
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a collisionless ensemble of classical particles coupled with a Klein-Gordon field. For the resulting nonlinear system of partial differential equations, the relativistic Vlasov-Klein-Gordon system, we prove local-in-time existence of classical solutions and a continuation criterion which says that a solution can blow up only if the particle momenta become large. We also show that classical solutions are global in time in the one-dimensional case.
On the influence of drag effect on acoustic modes in two-condensate relativistic superfluid systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vil'chinskij, S.I.
1999-01-01
Equations of velocities of acoustic excitations in a relativistic two-condensate superfluid system are derived with due account of reciprocal drag of superfluid motion (drag effect). The influence of the drag effect on acoustic modes in the system is considered. It is shown that the effect does not influence the nature of acoustic excitation oscillations but produces changes in the velocities of the second, third and fourth sounds
Dynamical symmetries of two-dimensional systems in relativistic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Fulin; Song Ci; Chen Jingling
2009-01-01
The two-dimensional Dirac Hamiltonian with equal scalar and vector potentials has been proved commuting with the deformed orbital angular momentum L. When the potential takes the Coulomb form, the system has an SO(3) symmetry, and similarly the harmonic oscillator potential possesses an SU(2) symmetry. The generators of the symmetric groups are derived for these two systems separately. The corresponding energy spectra are yielded naturally from the Casimir operators. Their non-relativistic limits are also discussed
Laboratory beam-plasma interactions linear and nonlinear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christiansen, P.J.; Bond, J.W.; Jain, V.K.
1982-01-01
This chapter attempts to demonstrate that despite unavoidable scaling limitations, laboratory experiments can uncover details of beam plasma interaction processes which could never be revealed through space plasma physics. Topics covered include linear theory, low frequency couplings, indirect effects, nonlinear effects, quasi-linear effects, trapping effects, nonlinear wave-wave interactions, and self modulation and cavitation. Unstable electrostatic waves arising from an exchange of energy with the ''free energy'' beam features are considered as kinetic and as hydrodynamic, or fluid, instabilities. The consequences of such instabilities (e.g. when the waves have grown to a finite level) are examined and some studies are reviewed which have attempted to understand how the free energy originally available in the beam is redistributed to produce a final state of equilibrium turbulence
Quiescent plasma machine for beam-plasma interaction and wave studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, J.L.
1994-01-01
A quiescent double plasma machine for beam-plasma interaction wave studies is described. A detailed description of several plasma diagnostics used for plasma and wave excitation detection is given. A beam-plasma wave dispersion relation is used to compare theoretical values with the experimentally measured Langmuir wave frequencies and wavelengths. (author). 14 refs, 10 figs
Heuristic models of two-fermion relativistic systems with field-type interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duviryak, A
2002-01-01
We use the chain of simple heuristic expedients for obtaining perturbative and exactly solvable relativistic spectra for a family of two-fermionic bound systems with Coulomb-like interaction. In the case of electromagnetic interaction the spectrum coincides up to the second order in a coupling constant with that following from the quantum electrodynamics. Discrepancy occurs only for S-states which is the well-known difficulty in the bound-state problem. The confinement interaction is considered too
Beam-plasma interaction in a cold-cathodes penning discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bliman, S.L.
1966-06-01
The H.F. emissions from a cold-cathode reflex discharge are studied. An experimental law for the frequency variation shows that fαV 1/2 discharged if B 0 and p are constant. If B 0 is made to increase, the frequencies change such that f ce - f emitted / f ce decreases. With each emitted frequency there is associated a stationary wave system making it possible to measure the phase velocity Vφ of the waves. This phase velocity is always close to that of the fast electrons accelerated by a potential V discharge. A non-quasistatic formalism for the propagation of waves in a beam-plasma system is then established. The Maxwell equations are solved taking into account boundary conditions. Comparison of these experiments with the theory shows a satisfactory agreement. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubois, Daniel M.
2000-01-01
This paper is a continuation of our preceding paper dealing with computational derivation of the Klein-Gordon quantum relativist equation and the Schroedinger quantum equation with forward and backward space-time shifts. The first part introduces forward and backward derivatives for discrete and continuous systems. Generalized complex discrete and continuous derivatives are deduced. The second part deduces the Klein-Gordon equation from the space-time complex continuous derivatives. These derivatives take into account forward-backward space-time shifts related to an internal phase velocity u. The internal group velocity v is related to the speed of light u.v=c 2 and to the external group and phase velocities u.v=v g .v p . Without time shift, the Schroedinger equation is deduced, with a supplementary term, which could represent a reference potential. The third part deduces the Quantum Relativist Klein-Gordon equation for a particle in an electromagnetic field
Effect of beam density and of higher harmonics on beam-plasma interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lacina, J.; Krlin, L.; Koerbel, S.
1974-10-01
The interaction in a cold electron beam-plasma system is investigated numerically in a density ratio region of nsub(B)/nsub(P) = 2 x 10 -3 to 2 x 10 -2 . The one-dimensional model of a collisionless plasma is used. The time development of the wave with maximal growing rate and its spatial harmonics is studied. The plasma effect is simulated by direct computation of plasma particle trajectories (this being different from the usual plasma simulation by means of a dielectric). The calculations show the following effects of the finite parameter (nsub(B)/nsub(P))sup(1/3): the ratio of the plasma energy to the electric field energy is increased, the damping character of the field and macroscopic amplitudes reveals, and the influence of the second harmonic is not negligible for nsub(B)/nsub(P) >= 10 -2 . (author)
Standard Relativistic Reference Systems and the IAU Framework
Soffel, Michael H.
2009-05-01
The classical post-Newtonian (PN) framework is formulated in one single reference system. In a series of papers Damour, Soffel and Xu laid the foundations for a new improved PN framework dealing with the celestial mechanical problem of N gravitationally interacting rotating bodies of arbitrary shape and the problem of astronomical reference systems. In the DSX-framework a total of N+1 reference systems with corresponding coordinates is introduced in the N-body problem: a global one covering the entire model manifold where the translational equations of motion are formulated and one local system attached to each of the N bodies that is co-moving with the body under consideration. In each of these systems the metric tensor is assumed to be of a special form determined by two potentials: a scalar and a vector potential. Theorems are given for the transformations between local and global coordinates and metric potentials. In each of the local systems outside the local body the metric potentials are expressed in terms of Blanchet-Damour mass- and spin-multipole moments. The talk first introduces the original DSX formalism and then concentrates on IAU resolutions related with it. Finally, the formalism is extended to include also effects from the cosmic expansion. The influence of the Hubble expansion on the dynamics of the solar system is explicitly discussed in some detail.
Relativistic gravitation from massless systems of scalar and vector fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fonseca Teixeira, A.F. da.
1979-01-01
Under the laws of Einstein's gravitational theory, a massless system consisting of the diffuse sources of two fields is discussed. One fields is scalar, of long range, the other is a vector field of short range. A proportionality between the sources is assumed. Both fields are minimally coupled to gravitation, and contribute positive definitely to the time component of the energy momentum tensor. A class of static, spherically symmetric solutions of the equations is obtained, in the weak field limit. The solutions are regular everywhere, stable, and can represent large or small physical systems. The gravitational field presents a Schwarzschild-type asymptotic behavior. The dependence of the energy on the various parameters characterizing the system is discussed in some detail. (Author) [pt
Non-Noether Conserved Quantity for Relativistic Nonholonomic System with Variable Mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qiao Yongfen; Li Renjie; Ma Yongsheng
2005-01-01
Using form invariance under special infinitesimal transformations in which time is not variable, the non-Noether conserved quantity of the relativistic nonholonomic system with variable mass is studied. The differential equations of motion of the system are established. The definition and criterion of the form invariance of the system under infinitesimal transformations are studied. The necessary and sufficient condition under which the form invariance is a Lie symmetry is given. The condition under which the form invariance can be led to a non-Noether conserved quantity and the form of the conserved quantity are obtained. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the result.
Propagation of a TE surface mode in a relativistic electron beam–quantum plasma system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel Aziz, M.
2012-01-01
The dispersion properties of a transverse electric (TE) surface waves propagating along the interface between a magneto-quantum plasma–relativistic beam system and vacuum are studied by using the quantum hydrodynamic model. The general dispersion relations are derived and analyzed in some special cases of interest. Moreover, the effects of density gradients for the beam and plasma on the dispersion properties of surface waves are investigated. The kind of dispersion relations depends strongly on the ambient magnetic field B o via the gyro-frequency ω c , the quantum parameters, and the width of the plasma layer as well as the relativistic factor for the electron beam. It is found that the quantum effects play a crucial role to facilitate the propagation of TE surface waves. -- Highlights: ► Propagation of TE surface waves on bounded magneto-quantum plasma by relativistic beam is studied. ► The quantum plasma consists of transitional layer adjacent to uniform layer. ► Influence of quantum effects on the propagation of TE surface waves are taken into account. ► Effects of homogeneity and inhomogeneity for beam on TE surface waves are considered. ► It is found that quantum effects facilitate the propagation of TE surface modes.
Relativistic Green function for atomic and molecular systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gruzdev, P.F.; Sherstyuk, A.I.
1981-12-01
The problem on Green function construction of Dirac equation is solved for a wide class of single electron potentials in the atom and molecule theory. The solution is obtained in the form of a spectrum analysis according to the total system of eigenfuctions of the generalized Dirac problem for eigenvalues. The problem possesses a purely discrete spectrum.
Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. For classical, relativistic and nano systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenspan, D.
2006-01-01
An up-to-date survey on numerical solutions with theory, intuition and applications. Ordinary differential equations (ODE) play a significant role in mathematics, physics and engineering sciences, and thus are part of relevant college and university courses. Many problems, however, both traditional and modern, do not possess exact solutions, and must be treated numerically. Usually this is done with software packages, but for this to be efficient requires a sound understanding of the mathematics involved. This work meets the need for an affordable textbook that helps in understanding numerical solutions of ODE. Carefully structured by an experienced textbook author, it provides a survey of ODE for various applications, both classical and modern, including such special applications as relativistic and nano systems. The examples are carefully explained and compiled into an algorithm, each of which is presented generically, independent of a specific programming language, while each chapter is rounded off with exercises. The text meets the demands of MA200 courses and of the newly created Numerical Solution of Differential Equations courses, making it ideal for both students and lecturers in physics, mathematics, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, as well as for physicists, mathematicians, engineers, and electrical engineers. From the Contents - Euler's Method - Runge-Kutta Methods - The Method of Taylor Expansions - Large Second Order Systems with Application to Nano Systems - Completely Conservative, Covariant Numerical Methodology - Instability - Numerical Solution of Tridiagonal Linear Algebraic Systems and Related Nonlinear Systems - Approximate Solution of Boundary Value Problems - Special Relativistic Motion - Special Topics - Appendix: Basic Matrix Operations - Bibliography. (orig.) (orig.)
Return-current formation in the electron beam - plasma system
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Karlický, Marian; Bárta, Miroslav
2009-01-01
Roč. 16, č. 4 (2009), s. 525-532 ISSN 1023-5809 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300030701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : solar flares * plasma instabilities * numerical simulations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.152, year: 2009
Impurity radiation from a beam-plasma neutron source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molvik, A.W.
1995-01-01
Impurity radiation, in a worst case evaluation for a beam-plasma neutron source (BPNS), does not limit performance. Impurities originate from four sources: (a) sputtering from walls by charge exchange or alpha particle bombardment, (b) sputtering from limiters, (c) plasma desorption of gas from walls and (d) injection with neutral beams. Sources (c) and (d) are negligible; adsorbed gas on the walls of the confinement chamber and the neutral beam sources is removed by the steady state discharge. Source (b) is negligible for impinging ion energies below the sputtering threshold (T i ≤ 0.025 keV on tungsten) and for power densities to the limiter within the capabilities of water cooling (30-40 MW/m 2 ); both conditions can be satisfied in the BPNS. Source (a) radiates 0.025 MW/m 2 to the neutron irradiation samples, compared with 5 to 10 MW/m 2 of neutrons; and radiates a total of 0.08 MW from the plasma column, compared with 60 MW of injected power. The particle bombardment that yields source (a) deposits an average of 2.7 MW/m 2 on the samples, within the capabilities of helium gas cooling (10 MW/m 2 ). An additional worst case for source (d) is evaluated for present day 2 to 5 s pulsed neutral beams with 0.1% impurity density and is benchmarked against 2XIIB. The total radiation would increase a factor of 1.5 to ≤ 0.12 MW, supporting the conclusion that impurities will not have a significant impact on a BPN. (author). 61 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs
Duality of two-point functions for confined non-relativistic quark-antiquark systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fishbane, P.M.; Gasiorowicz, S.G.; Kaus, P.
1985-01-01
An analog to the scattering matrix describes the spectrum and high-energy behavior of confined systems. We show that for non-relativistic systems this S-matrix is identical to a two-point function which transparently describes the bound states for all angular momenta. Confined systems can thus be described in a dual fashion. This result makes it possible to study the modification of linear trajectories (originating in a long-range confining potential) due to short range forces which are unknown except for the way in which they modify the asymptotic behavior of the two point function. A type of effective range expansion is one way to calculate the energy shifts. 9 refs
Pion correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions at Heavy Ion Spectrometer Systems (HISS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christie, W.B. Jr.
1990-05-01
This thesis contains the setup, analysis and results of experiment E684H ''Multi-Pion Correlations in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions''. The goals of the original proposal were: (1) To initiate the use of the HISS facility in the study of central Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions (RHIC). (2) To perform a second generation experiment for the detailed study of the pion source in RHIC. The first generation experiments, implied by the second goal above, refer to pion correlation studies which the Riverside group had performed at the LBL streamer chamber. The major advantage offered by moving the pion correlation studies to HISS is that, being an electronic detector system, as opposed to the Streamer Chamber which is a visual detector, one can greatly increase the statistics for a study of this sort. An additional advantage is that once one has written the necessary detector and physics analysis code to do a particular type of study, the study may be extended to investigate the systematics, with much less effort and in a relatively short time. This paper discusses the Physics motivation for this experiment, the experimental setup and detectors used, the pion correlation analysis, the results, and the conclusions possible future directions for pion studies at HISS. If one is not interested in all the details of the experiment, I believe that by reading the sections on intensity interferometry, the section the fitting of the correlation function and the systematic corrections applied, and the results section, one will get a fairly complete synopsis of the experiment
On the dynamics of relativistic multi-layer spherical shell systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaspar, Merse E; Racz, Istvan, E-mail: merse@rmki.kfki.hu, E-mail: iracz@rmki.kfki.hu [RMKI, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary)
2011-04-21
The relativistic time evolution of multi-layer spherically symmetric shell systems-consisting of infinitely thin shells separated by vacuum regions-is examined. Whenever two shells collide the evolution is continued with the assumption that the collision is totally transparent. The time evolution of various multi-layer shell systems-comprising large number of shells thereby mimicking the behavior of a thick shell making it possible to study the formation of acoustic singularities-is analyzed numerically and compared in certain cases to the corresponding Newtonian time evolution. The analytic setup is chosen such that the developed code is capable of following the evolution even inside the black hole region. This, in particular, allowed us to investigate the mass inflation phenomenon in the chosen framework.
Demianski, Marek
2013-01-01
Relativistic Astrophysics brings together important astronomical discoveries and the significant achievements, as well as the difficulties in the field of relativistic astrophysics. This book is divided into 10 chapters that tackle some aspects of the field, including the gravitational field, stellar equilibrium, black holes, and cosmology. The opening chapters introduce the theories to delineate gravitational field and the elements of relativistic thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. The succeeding chapters deal with the gravitational fields in matter; stellar equilibrium and general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Shiliang; Zhang Danwei; Wang, Z. D.
2009-01-01
We study theoretically the localization of relativistic particles in disordered one-dimensional chains. It is found that the relativistic particles tend to delocalization in comparison with the nonrelativistic particles with the same disorder strength. More intriguingly, we reveal that the massless Dirac particles are entirely delocalized for any energy due to the inherent chiral symmetry, leading to a well-known result that particles are always localized in one-dimensional systems for arbitrary weak disorders to break down. Furthermore, we propose a feasible scheme to detect the delocalization feature of the Dirac particles with cold atoms in a light-induced gauge field.
Beam-plasma coupling physics in support of active experiments
Yakymenko, K.; Delzanno, G. L.; Roytershteyn, V.
2017-12-01
The recent development of compact relativistic accelerators might open up a new era of active experiments in space, driven by important scientific and national security applications. Examples include using electron beams to trace magnetic field lines and establish causality between physical processes occurring in the magnetosphere and those in the ionosphere. Another example is the use of electron beams to trigger waves in the near-Earth environment. Waves could induce pitch-angle scattering and precipitation of energetic electrons, acting as an effective radiation belt remediation scheme. In this work, we revisit the coupling between an electron beam and a magnetized plasma in the framework of linear cold-plasma theory. We show that coupling can occur through two different regimes. In the first, a non-relativistic beam radiates through whistler waves. This is well known, and was in fact the focus of many rockets and space-shuttle campaigns aimed at demonstrating whistler emissions in the eighties. In the second regime, the beam radiates through extraordinary (R-X) modes. Nonlinear simulations with a highly-accurate Vlasov code support the theoretical results qualitatively and demonstrate that the radiated power through R-X modes can be much larger than in the whistler regime. Test-particle simulations in the wave electromagnetic field will also be presented to assess the efficiency of these waves in inducing pitch-angle scattering via wave-particle interactions. Finally, the implications of these results for a rocket active experiment in the ionosphere and for a radiation belt remediation scheme will be discussed.
RF Beam control system for the Brookhaven relativistic heavy ion collider, RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brennan, J.M.; Campbell, A.; Delong, J.; Hayes, T.; Onillon, E.; Rose, J.; Vetter, K.
1998-01-01
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC, is two counter-rotating rings with six interaction points. The RF Beam Control system for each ring will control two 28 MHz cavities for acceleration, and five 197 MHz cavities for preserving the 5 ns bunch length during 10 hour beam stores. Digital technology is used extensively in: Direct Digital Synthesis of rf signals and Digital Signal Processing for, the realization of state-variable feedback loops, real-time calculation of rf frequency, and bunch-by-bunch phase measurement of the 120 bunches. DSP technology enables programming the parameters of the feedback loops in order to obtain closed-loop dynamics that are independent of synchrotron frequency
A Universal Scaling for the Energetics of Relativistic Jets From Black Hole Systems
Nemmen, R. S.; Georganopoulos, M.; Guiriec, S.; Meyer, E. T.; Gehrels, N.; Sambruna, R. M.
2013-01-01
Black holes generate collimated, relativistic jets which have been observed in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), microquasars, and at the center of some galaxies (active galactic nuclei; AGN). How jet physics scales from stellar black holes in GRBs to the supermassive ones in AGNs is still unknown. Here we show that jets produced by AGNs and GRBs exhibit the same correlation between the kinetic power carried by accelerated particles and the gamma-ray luminosity, with AGNs and GRBs lying at the low and high-luminosity ends, respectively, of the correlation. This result implies that the efficiency of energy dissipation in jets produced in black hole systems is similar over 10 orders of magnitude in jet power, establishing a physical analogy between AGN and GRBs.
RF beam control system for the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brennan, J.M.; Campbell, A.; DeLong, J.; Hayes, T.; Onillon, E.; Rose, J.; Vetter, K.
1998-01-01
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC, is two counter-rotating rings with six interaction points. The RF Beam Control system for each ring will control two 28 MHz cavities for acceleration, and five 197 MHz cavities for preserving the 5 ns bunch length during 10 hour beam stores. Digital technology is used extensively in: Direct Digital Synthesis of rf signals and Digital Signal Processing for, the realization of state-variable feedback loops, real-time calculation of rf frequency, and bunch-by-bunch phase measurement of the 120 bunches. DSP technology enables programming the parameters of the feedback loops in order to obtain closed-loop dynamics that are independent of synchrotron frequency
Three-body forces, relativistic effects, isobars, and pions in nuclear systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiringa, R.B.
1983-01-01
Conventional microscopic calculations in nuclear physics start from a nonrelativistic Hamiltonian. The many-body Schroedinger equation is then solved to obtain the ground state energy, wave function, and expectation values of other quantities of interest. Such a procedure gives a qualitative description of nuclear saturation properties, but it is now well established that the simple H is quantitatively inadequate. For example, the light nuclei are underbound with too large a charge radius, while nuclear matter is overbound at far too high a density. This note reviews recent studies that go beyond the simple H. These include 1) the introduction of three-nucleon potentials, 2) estimates of relativistic effects, 3) the introduction of isobar degrees of freedom in the two-body potential, and 4) probing the influence of pion degrees of freedom on nuclear systems
System for detecting neutrons in the harsh radiation environment of a relativistic electron beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruse, L.W.
1978-06-01
Newly developed detectors and procedures allow measurement of neutron yield and energy in the harsh radiation environment of a relativistic electron beam source. A new photomultiplier tube design and special gating methods provide the basis for novel time-of-flight and total-yield detectors. The technique of activation analysis is expanded to provide a neutron energy spectrometer. There is a demonstrated potential in the use of the integrated system as a valuable diagnostic tool to study particle-beam fusion, intense ion-beam interactions, and pulsed neutron sources for simulating weapons effects. A physical lower limit of 10 8 neutrons into 4π is established for accurate and meaningful measurements in the REB environment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu Xixiang [College of Science, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266510 (China)], E-mail: xixiang_xu@yahoo.com.cn
2009-10-02
Integrable couplings of relativistic Toda lattice systems in polynomial form and rational form, and their hierarchies, are derived from a four-by-four discrete matrix eigenvalue problem. The bi-Hamiltonian structure for every integrable coupling in the two hierarchies obtained is established by means of the discrete variational identity. Ultimately, Liouvolle integrability of the obtained integrable couplings is demonstrated.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Baranets, N.; Ruzhin, Yu.; Dokukin, V.; Ciobanu, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Kiraga, A.; Vojta, Jaroslav; Šmilauer, Jan; Kudela, K.
2017-01-01
Roč. 59, č. 12 (2017), s. 2951-2968 ISSN 0273-1177 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : energy waves * instability * system * beam- plasma interaction * space charge beam waves * pump wave * weak-coupling prediction Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.401, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117717302181
Vereshchagin, Gregory V.; Aksenov, Alexey G.
2017-02-01
Preface; Acknowledgements; Acronyms and definitions; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Foundations: 1. Basic concepts; 2. Kinetic equation; 3. Averaging; 4. Conservation laws and equilibrium; 5. Relativistic BBGKY hierarchy; 6. Basic parameters in gases and plasmas; Part II. Numerical Methods: 7. The basics of computational physics; 8. Direct integration of Boltzmann equations; 9. Multidimensional hydrodynamics; Part III. Applications: 10. Wave dispersion in relativistic plasma; 11. Thermalization in relativistic plasma; 12. Kinetics of particles in strong fields; 13. Compton scattering in astrophysics and cosmology; 14. Self-gravitating systems; 15. Neutrinos, gravitational collapse and supernovae; Appendices; Bibliography; Index.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trubnikov, S.V.
1984-01-01
The relativistic rotation of nucleon spin in addition to deuteron spin leads to the appearance of the new term in the deuteron charge form factor (DCFF). This term is absent in the traditional approaches and essentially influences the asymptotic behaviour of DCFF. General formulae are obtained for the DCFF asymptotics in the relativistic and nonrelativistic impulse approximation
Zhang, Bing; Li, Kunyang
2018-02-01
The “Breakthrough Starshot” aims at sending near-speed-of-light cameras to nearby stellar systems in the future. Due to the relativistic effects, a transrelativistic camera naturally serves as a spectrograph, a lens, and a wide-field camera. We demonstrate this through a simulation of the optical-band image of the nearby galaxy M51 in the rest frame of the transrelativistic camera. We suggest that observing celestial objects using a transrelativistic camera may allow one to study the astronomical objects in a special way, and to perform unique tests on the principles of special relativity. We outline several examples that suggest transrelativistic cameras may make important contributions to astrophysics and suggest that the Breakthrough Starshot cameras may be launched in any direction to serve as a unique astronomical observatory.
Beam-Plasma Interaction Experiments on the Princeton Advanced Test Stand
Stepanov, A.; Gilson, E. P.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Davidson, R. C.
2011-10-01
The Princeton Advanced Test Stand (PATS) is a compact experimental facility for studying the fundamental physics of intense beam-plasma interactions relevant to the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment - II (NDCX-II). The PATS facility consists of a 100 keV ion beam source mounted on a six-foot-long vacuum chamber with numerous ports for diagnostic access. A 100 keV Ar+ beam is launched into a volumetric plasma, which is produced by a ferroelectric plasma source (FEPS). Beam diagnostics upstream and downstream of the FEPS allow for detailed studies of the effects that the plasma has on the beam. This setup is designed for studying the dependence of charge and current neutralization and beam emittance growth on the beam and plasma parameters. This work reports initial measurements of beam quality produced by the extraction electrodes that were recently installed on the PATS device. The transverse beam phase space is measured with double-slit emittance scanners, and the experimental results are compared to WARP simulations of the extraction system. This research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.
Relativistic three-particle dynamical equations: II. Application to the trinucleon system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.
1993-11-01
The contribution of relativistic dynamics on the neutron-deuteron scattering length and triton binding energy is calculated employing five sets tri nucleon potential models and four types of three-dimensional relativistic three-body equations suggested in the preceding paper. The relativistic correction to binding energy may vary a lot and even change sign depending on the relativistic formulation employed. The deviations of these observables from those obtained in nonrelativistic models follow the general universal trend of deviations introduced by off- and on-shell variations of two- and three-nucleon potentials in a nonrelativistic model calculation. Consequently, it will be difficult to separate unambiguously the effect of off-and on-shell variations of two and three-nucleon potentials on low-energy three-nucleon observables from the effect of relativistic dynamics. (author)
Dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imshennik, V.S.; Morozov, Yu.I.
1989-01-01
Using the comoving reference frame in the general non-inertial case, the relativistic hydrodynamics equations are derived with an account for dissipative effects in the matter. From the entropy production equation, the exact from for the dissipative tensor components is obtained. As a result, the closed system of equations of dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained in the comoving reference frame as a relativistic generalization of the known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equations of relativistic hydrodynamics with account for dissipative effects in the matter are derived using the assocoated reference system in general non-inertial case. True form of the dissipative tensor components is obtained from entropy production equation. Closed system of equations for dissipative relativistic hydrodynamics is obtained as a result in the assocoated reference system (ARS) - relativistic generalization of well-known Navier-Stokes equations for Lagrange coordinates. Equation system, obtained in this paper for ARS, may be effectively used in numerical models of explosive processes with 10 51 erg energy releases which are characteristic for flashes of supernovae, if white dwarf type compact target suggested as presupernova
Energy deposition of heavy ions in the regime of strong beam-plasma correlations.
Gericke, D O; Schlanges, M
2003-03-01
The energy loss of highly charged ions in dense plasmas is investigated. The applied model includes strong beam-plasma correlation via a quantum T-matrix treatment of the cross sections. Dynamic screening effects are modeled by using a Debye-like potential with a velocity dependent screening length that guarantees the known low and high beam velocity limits. It is shown that this phenomenological model is in good agreement with simulation data up to very high beam-plasma coupling. An analysis of the stopping process shows considerably longer ranges and a less localized energy deposition if strong coupling is treated properly.
Pion correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions at Heavy Ion Spectrometer Systems (HISS)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christie, W.B. Jr.
1990-05-01
This thesis contains the setup, analysis and results of experiment E684H Multi-Pion Correlations in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions''. The goals of the original proposal were: (1) To initiate the use of the HISS facility in the study of central Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions (RHIC). (2) To perform a second generation experiment for the detailed study of the pion source in RHIC. The first generation experiments, implied by the second goal above, refer to pion correlation studies which the Riverside group had performed at the LBL streamer chamber. The major advantage offered by moving the pion correlation studies to HISS is that, being an electronic detector system, as opposed to the Streamer Chamber which is a visual detector, one can greatly increase the statistics for a study of this sort. An additional advantage is that once one has written the necessary detector and physics analysis code to do a particular type of study, the study may be extended to investigate the systematics, with much less effort and in a relatively short time. This paper discusses the Physics motivation for this experiment, the experimental setup and detectors used, the pion correlation analysis, the results, and the conclusions possible future directions for pion studies at HISS. If one is not interested in all the details of the experiment, I believe that by reading the sections on intensity interferometry, the section the fitting of the correlation function and the systematic corrections applied, and the results section, one will get a fairly complete synopsis of the experiment.
Sun, Wen-Yang; Wang, Dong; Fang, Bao-Long; Ye, Liu
2018-03-01
In this letter, the dynamics characteristics of quantum entanglement (negativity) and distinguishability (trace distance), and the flow of information for an open quantum system under relativistic motion are investigated. Explicitly, we propose a scenario that a particle A held by Alice suffers from an amplitude damping (AD) noise in a flat space-time and another particle B by Bob entangled with A travels with a fixed acceleration under a non-inertial frame. The results show that quantum distinguishability and entanglement are very vulnerable and fragile under the collective influence of AD noise and Unruh effect. Both of them will decrease with the growing intensity of the Unruh effect and the AD thermal bath. It means that the abilities of quantum distinguishability and entanglement to suppress the collective decoherence (AD noise and Unruh effect) are very weak. Furthermore, it turns out that the reduced quantum distinguishability of Alice’s system and Bob in the physically accessible region is distributed to another quantum distinguishability for Alice’s environment and Bob in the physically inaccessible region. That is, the information regarding the scenario is that the lost quantum distinguishability, as a fixed information, flows from the systems to the collective decoherence environment.
Electron temperature measurement in Maxwellian non-isothermal beam plasma of an ion thruster
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Zun; Tang, Haibin; Kong, Mengdi; Zhang, Zhe; Ren, Junxue
2015-01-01
Published electron temperature profiles of the beam plasma from ion thrusters reveal many divergences both in magnitude and radial variation. In order to know exactly the radial distributions of electron temperature and understand the beam plasma characteristics, we applied five different experimental approaches to measure the spatial profiles of electron temperature and compared the agreement and disagreement of the electron temperature profiles obtained from these techniques. Experimental results show that the triple Langmuir probe and adiabatic poly-tropic law methods could provide more accurate space-resolved electron temperature of the beam plasma than other techniques. Radial electron temperature profiles indicate that the electrons in the beam plasma are non-isothermal, which is supported by a radial decrease (∼2 eV) of electron temperature as the plume plasma expands outward. Therefore, the adiabatic “poly-tropic law” is more appropriate than the isothermal “barometric law” to be used in electron temperature calculations. Moreover, the calculation results show that the electron temperature profiles derived from the “poly-tropic law” are in better agreement with the experimental data when the specific heat ratio (γ) lies in the range of 1.2-1.4 instead of 5/3
On the basis of molecular orbitals for relativistic bound systems of many bodies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, A.H.
1987-09-01
The quasi-relativistic Hamiltonian for bound states of many bodies proposed in previous articles (Cook, 1986, 1987a) is shown to provide a basis for the molecular orbital scheme of constructing wavefunctions and calculating eigenenergies. (author). 5 refs
Relativistic description of nuclear systems in the Hartree-Fock approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouyssy, A.; Mathiot, J.F.; Nguyen Van Giai; Marcos, S.
1986-03-01
The structure of infinite nuclear matter and finite nuclei is studied in the framework of the relativistic Hartree-Fock approximation. A particular attention is paid to the contribution of isovector mesons. (π,p). A satisfactory description of binding energies and densities can be obtained for light as well as heavy nuclei. The spin-orbit splittings are well reproduced. Connections with non-relativistic formulations are also discussed
Newtonian self-gravitating system in a relativistic huge void universe model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishikawa, Ryusuke; Nakao, Ken-ichi [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Yoo, Chul-Moon, E-mail: ryusuke@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp, E-mail: knakao@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp, E-mail: yoo@gravity.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Division of Particle and Astrophysical Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)
2016-12-01
We consider a test of the Copernican Principle through observations of the large-scale structures, and for this purpose we study the self-gravitating system in a relativistic huge void universe model which does not invoke the Copernican Principle. If we focus on the the weakly self-gravitating and slowly evolving system whose spatial extent is much smaller than the scale of the cosmological horizon in the homogeneous and isotropic background universe model, the cosmological Newtonian approximation is available. Also in the huge void universe model, the same kind of approximation as the cosmological Newtonian approximation is available for the analysis of the perturbations contained in a region whose spatial size is much smaller than the scale of the huge void: the effects of the huge void are taken into account in a perturbative manner by using the Fermi-normal coordinates. By using this approximation, we derive the equations of motion for the weakly self-gravitating perturbations whose elements have relative velocities much smaller than the speed of light, and show the derived equations can be significantly different from those in the homogeneous and isotropic universe model, due to the anisotropic volume expansion in the huge void. We linearize the derived equations of motion and solve them. The solutions show that the behaviors of linear density perturbations are very different from those in the homogeneous and isotropic universe model.
Komorovsky, Stanislav; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth; Malkina, Olga L; Malkin, Vladimir G
2013-12-27
A four-component relativistic method for the calculation of NMR shielding constants of paramagnetic doublet systems has been developed and implemented in the ReSpect program package. The method uses a Kramer unrestricted noncollinear formulation of density functional theory (DFT), providing the best DFT framework for property calculations of open-shell species. The evaluation of paramagnetic nuclear magnetic resonance (pNMR) tensors reduces to the calculation of electronic g tensors, hyperfine coupling tensors, and NMR shielding tensors. For all properties, modern four-component formulations were adopted. The use of both restricted kinetically and magnetically balanced basis sets along with gauge-including atomic orbitals ensures rapid basis-set convergence. These approaches are exact in the framework of the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian, thus providing useful reference data for more approximate methods. Benchmark calculations on Ru(III) complexes demonstrate good performance of the method in reproducing experimental data and also its applicability to chemically relevant medium-sized systems. Decomposition of the temperature-dependent part of the pNMR tensor into the traditional contact and pseudocontact terms is proposed.
Relativistic non-Hamiltonian mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2010-01-01
Relativistic particle subjected to a general four-force is considered as a nonholonomic system. The nonholonomic constraint in four-dimensional space-time represents the relativistic invariance by the equation for four-velocity u μ u μ + c 2 = 0, where c is the speed of light in vacuum. In the general case, four-forces are non-potential, and the relativistic particle is a non-Hamiltonian system in four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space-time. We consider non-Hamiltonian and dissipative systems in relativistic mechanics. Covariant forms of the principle of stationary action and the Hamilton's principle for relativistic mechanics of non-Hamiltonian systems are discussed. The equivalence of these principles is considered for relativistic particles subjected to potential and non-potential forces. We note that the equations of motion which follow from the Hamilton's principle are not equivalent to the equations which follow from the variational principle of stationary action. The Hamilton's principle and the principle of stationary action are not compatible in the case of systems with nonholonomic constraint and the potential forces. The principle of stationary action for relativistic particle subjected to non-potential forces can be used if the Helmholtz conditions are satisfied. The Hamilton's principle and the principle of stationary action are equivalent only for a special class of relativistic non-Hamiltonian systems.
Relativistic nonlinear electrodynamics the QED vacuum and matter in super-strong radiation fields
Avetissian, Hamlet K
2016-01-01
This revised edition of the author’s classic 2006 text offers a comprehensively updated review of the field of relativistic nonlinear electrodynamics. It explores the interaction of strong and super-strong electromagnetic/laser radiation with the electromagnetic quantum vacuum and diverse types of matter – including free charged particles and antiparticles, acceleration beams, plasma and plasmous media. The appearance of laser sources of relativistic and ultra-relativistic intensities over the last decade has stimulated investigation of a large class of processes under such super-strong radiation fields. Revisions for this second edition reflect these developments and the book includes new chapters on Bremsstrahlung and nonlinear absorption of superintense radiation in plasmas, the nonlinear interaction of relativistic atoms with intense laser radiation, nonlinear interaction of strong laser radiation with Graphene, and relativistic nonlinear phenomena in solid-plasma targets under supershort laser pul...
Guthrey, Pierson Tyler
The relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system (RVM) models the behavior of collisionless plasma, where electrons and ions interact via the electromagnetic fields they generate. In the RVM system, electrons could accelerate to significant fractions of the speed of light. An idea that is actively being pursued by several research groups around the globe is to accelerate electrons to relativistic speeds by hitting a plasma with an intense laser beam. As the laser beam passes through the plasma it creates plasma wakes, much like a ship passing through water, which can trap electrons and push them to relativistic speeds. Such setups are known as laser wakefield accelerators, and have the potential to yield particle accelerators that are significantly smaller than those currently in use. Ultimately, the goal of such research is to harness the resulting electron beams to generate electromagnetic waves that can be used in medical imaging applications. High-order accurate numerical discretizations of kinetic Vlasov plasma models are very effective at yielding low-noise plasma simulations, but are computationally expensive to solve because of the high dimensionality. In addition to the general difficulties inherent to numerically simulating Vlasov models, the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system has unique challenges not present in the non-relativistic case. One such issue is that operator splitting of the phase gradient leads to potential instabilities, thus we require an alternative to operator splitting of the phase. The goal of the current work is to develop a new class of high-order accurate numerical methods for solving kinetic Vlasov models of plasma. The main discretization in configuration space is handled via a high-order finite element method called the discontinuous Galerkin method (DG). One difficulty is that standard explicit time-stepping methods for DG suffer from time-step restrictions that are significantly worse than what a simple Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL
Relativistic bound-state problem of a one-dimensional system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, T.; Niwa, T.; Ohtsubo, H.; Tamura, K.
1991-01-01
A Poincare-covariant description of the two-body bound-state problem in one-dimensional space is studied by using the relativistic Schrodinger equation. We derive the many-body Hamiltonian, electromagnetic current and generators of the Poincare group in the framework of one-boson exchange. Our theory satisfies Poincare algebra within the one-boson-exchange approximation. We numerically study the relativistic effects on the bound-state wavefunction and the elastic electromagnetic form factor. The Lorentz boost of the bound-state wavefunction and the two-body exchange current are shown to play an important role in guaranteeing the Lorentz invariance of the form factor. (author)
Luciano, Rezzolla
2013-01-01
Relativistic hydrodynamics is a very successful theoretical framework to describe the dynamics of matter from scales as small as those of colliding elementary particles, up to the largest scales in the universe. This book provides an up-to-date, lively, and approachable introduction to the mathematical formalism, numerical techniques, and applications of relativistic hydrodynamics. The topic is typically covered either by very formal or by very phenomenological books, but is instead presented here in a form that will be appreciated both by students and researchers in the field. The topics covered in the book are the results of work carried out over the last 40 years, which can be found in rather technical research articles with dissimilar notations and styles. The book is not just a collection of scattered information, but a well-organized description of relativistic hydrodynamics, from the basic principles of statistical kinetic theory, down to the technical aspects of numerical methods devised for the solut...
Rocket borne electron accelerator results pertaining to the beam plasma discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kellogg, P.J.; Monson, S.J.
1981-01-01
The beam plasma discharge (BPD) is a state in which plasma instabilities accelerate electrons sufficiently to ionize a neutral background. A description is given of a number of ionospheric experiments which fall into two classes based on gun perveance. In the first class, an electron gun of high perveance has been operated at comparatively low potentials in the range from 2 to 8 kV and beam currents up to approximately 100 mA. The second group, the Electron Echo experiments, have used beam voltages in the range from 10 to 40 kV, and perveance guns with beam currents on the order of 100 mA and 1 A. Evidence is presented that the beam plasma discharge is excited by gun pulses of the lower voltage and higher perveance type
Plasma properties of a modified beam-plasma type ion source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishikawa, Junzo; Sano, Fumimichi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ektessabi, A.M.; Takagi, Toshinori
1978-01-01
The properties of the plasma produced by beam-plasma discharge were experimentally investigated. The ion source used for this work consists of three parts, that is, the ion-extracting region with an electron gun, the drift space and the collector region. Primary and secondary electron beams are injected in to the drift tube. The interaction between plasma and these electron beams causes production of high density plasma by virtue of the beam-plasma discharge. The gas inlet is located in the middle of the drift tube, so that the gas conductance is high. The energy of the primary and secondary electron beams is transferred to that microwaves through beam-plasma interaction. The microwaves heat the plasma electrons by the cyclotron resonance or other mechanism. The amount of the energetic plasma electrons is much larger than that of the beam electrons, so that neutral gas is ionized. The density of the produced plasma is 10 2 or 10 3 times as large as the plasma produced by impact ionization. With a probe located in the middle of the drift tube, the plasma density and the electron temperature can be measured, and the power and spectra of the microwaves can be detected. The microwave oscillation, the primary electron beam characteristics, and the gas pressure characteristics were studied. Larger current of the high energy primary of secondary electron beam is required for the effective discharge. The ion source has to be operated at the minimum gas pressure. The length of beam-plasma interaction and the magnetic field intensity in the drift tube are also important parameters. (Kato, T.)
Electron accelerator with a laser ignition for investigation of beam plasma by optical methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kabanov, S.N.; Korolev, A.A.; Kul'beda, V.E.; Razumovskij, A.I.; Trukhin, V.A.
1990-01-01
Facility to conduct investigations into dense gas beam plasma is described. Facility comprises: electron accelerator (200-300 keV, 5kA, 20ns), OGM-40 ignition ruby laser LZhI-501 diagnostic laser (with 0.55-0.66 μm tunable wave length), Michelson interferometer and diagnostic equipment for optical measurements. Laser ignition of spark gap is introduced to strong synchronization (±10ns) of radiation pulse of diagnostic laser with beam current pulse
Modified quadrupole mass analyzer RGA-100 for beam plasma research in forevacuum pressure range
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zolotukhin, D. B.; Tyunkov, A. V. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Yushkov, Yu. G., E-mail: yuyushkov@gmail.com [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Oks, E. M. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 40 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, 2/3, Akademichesky Ave., Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
The industrial quadrupole RGA-100 residual gas analyzer was modified for the research of electron beam-generated plasma at forevacuum pressure range. The standard ionizer of the RGA-100 was replaced by three electrode extracting unit. We made the optimization of operation parameters in order to provide the maximum values of measured currents of any ion species. The modified analyzer was successfully tested with beam plasma of argon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbons.
Price, R H
1993-01-01
Work reported in the workshop on relativistic astrophysics spanned a wide varicy of topics. Two speciﬁc areas seemed of particular interest. Much attention was focussed on gravitational wave sources, especially on the waveforms they produce, and progress was reported in theoretical and observational aspects of accretion disks.
Sahoo, Raghunath
2016-01-01
This lecture note covers Relativistic Kinematics, which is very useful for the beginners in the field of high-energy physics. A very practical approach has been taken, which answers "why and how" of the kinematics useful for students working in the related areas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Font, J. A.
2015-01-01
The relativistic astrophysics is the field of astrophysics employing the theory of relativity Einstein as physical-mathematical model is to study the universe. This discipline analyzes astronomical contexts in which the laws of classical mechanics of Newton's law of gravitation are not valid. (Author)
Contraint's theory and relativistic dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Longhi, G.; Lusanna, L.
1987-01-01
The purpose of this Workshop was to examine the current situation of relativistic dynamics. In particular, Dirac-Bergmann's theory of constraints, which lies at the heart of gauge theories, general relativity, relativistic mechanics and string theories, was chosen as the unifying theoretical framework best suited to investigate such a field. The papers discussed were on general relativity; relativistic mechanics; particle physics and mathematical physics. Also discussed were the problems of classical and quantum level, namely the identification of the classical observables of constrained systems, the equivalence of the nonequivalence of the various ways to quantize such systems; the problem of the anomalies; the best geometrical approach to the theory of constraints; the possibility of unifying all the treatments of relativistic mechanics. This book compiles the papers presented at proceedings of relativistic dynamics and constraints theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishin, E.V.; Ruzhin, Yu.Ya.
1980-01-01
The model of beam-plasma discharge in the rocket environment during electron beam injection in the ionosphere is constructed. The discharge plasma density dependence on the neutral gas concentration and the beam parameters is found
Relativistic electron beam interaction with a thin target
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gazaix, M.
1981-03-01
This study is concerned with the increasing possibilities of electron energy deposition in thin targets. The thesis theoretical part studies the relativistic electron beam-plasma instability; the Buneman-Pierce instability in limited medium is also studied. In the experimental part, several questions are tentatively answered: - what is the spatial and temporal evolution of the anode material, in temperature and in density. - What sort of interaction is the beam-target interaction; more particularly questions about focusing and energy deposition are studied [fr
Komathiraj, K.; Sharma, Ranjan
2018-05-01
In this paper, we present a formalism to generate a family of interior solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations for a spherically symmetric relativistic charged fluid sphere matched to the exterior Reissner-Nordström space-time. By reducing the Einstein-Maxwell system to a recurrence relation with variable rational coefficients, we show that it is possible to obtain closed-form solutions for a specific range of model parameters. A large class of solutions obtained previously are shown to be contained in our general class of solutions. We also analyse the physical viability of our new class of solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contopoulos, G.
1983-01-01
In this paper, three main areas of relativistic stellar dynamics are reviewed: (a) The dynamics of clusters, or nuclei of galaxies, of very high density; (b) The dynamics of systems containing a massive black hole; and (c) The dynamics of particles (and photons) in an expanding Universe. The emphasis is on the use of orbit perturbations. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allen, M.A.; Azuma, O.; Callin, R.S.
1989-03-01
Experimental work is underway by a SLAC-LLNL-LBL collaboration to investigate the feasibility of using relativistic klystrons as a power source for future high gradient accelerators. Two different relativistic klystron configurations have been built and tested to date: a high grain multicavity klystron at 11.4 GHz and a low gain two cavity subharmonic buncher driven at 5.7 GHz. In both configurations power is extracted at 11.4 GHz. In order to understand the basic physics issues involved in extracting RF from a high power beam, we have used both a single resonant cavity and a multi-cell traveling wave structure for energy extraction. We have learned how to overcome our previously reported problem of high power RF pulse shortening, and have achieved peak RF power levels of 170 MW with the RF pulse of the same duration as the beam current pulse. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs
Hakim, Rémi
1994-01-01
Il existe à l'heure actuelle un certain nombre de théories relativistes de la gravitation compatibles avec l'expérience et l'observation. Toutefois, la relativité générale d'Einstein fut historiquement la première à fournir des résultats théoriques corrects en accord précis avec les faits.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marks, R.
1985-09-01
Theoretical analysis is presented of a relativisic klystron; i.e. a high-relativistic bunched electron beam which is sent through a succession of tuned cavities and has its energy replenished by periodic induction accelerator units. Parameters are given for a full-size device and for an experimental device using the FEL at the ETA; namely the ELF Facility. 6 refs., 2 figs
Thermodynamic laws and equipartition theorem in relativistic Brownian motion.
Koide, T; Kodama, T
2011-06-01
We extend the stochastic energetics to a relativistic system. The thermodynamic laws and equipartition theorem are discussed for a relativistic Brownian particle and the first and the second law of thermodynamics in this formalism are derived. The relation between the relativistic equipartition relation and the rate of heat transfer is discussed in the relativistic case together with the nature of the noise term.
Change in General Relativistic precession rates due to Lidov-Kozai oscillations in the Solar System
Sekhar, Aswin; Asher, David J.; Werner, Stephanie C.; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Li, Gongjie
2017-04-01
Introduction: Two well known phenomena associated with low perihelion distance bodies in orbital dynamics are general relativistic (GR) precession and Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations. The accurate prediction of the perihelion shift of Mercury in accord with real observations is one of the significant triumphs of the general theory of relativity developed by Einstein. The Lidov-Kozai mechanism was first proposed and derived by Kozai and independently by Lidov explaining the periodic exchange between eccentricities e and inclinations i thereby increasing or decreasing the perihelion distance q secularly in the orbiting body. Co-existence of GR Precession and LK Oscillations: In this work, we were interested to identify bodies evolving in the near future (i.e. thousands of years in this case) into rapid sungrazing and sun colliding phases and undergoing inclination flips, due to LK oscillations and being GR active at the same time. Of all the bodies we checked from the IAU-Minor Planet Center, and Marsden plus Kracht families from the comet catalogue, 96P/Machholz 1 stands out because it shows all these trends in the near future. LK leads to secular lowering of q which in turn leads to a huge increase in GR precession of argument of pericentre. This in turn gives feedback to the LK mechanism as the e,i and argument of pericentre in Kozai cycles are closely correlated. In this work, we find real examples of solar system bodies which show the continuum nature between GR precession domi-nant and LK mechanism dominant regimes. Results and Discussion: We have shown that there are bodies in the solar system in which both GR precession and LK mechanism can co-exist at the same time and for which these effects can be measured and identified using analytical and numerical techniques. Thus there is a continuum of bodies encompassing, firstly GR precession dominant, secondly GR precession plus LK mechanism co-existing and finally LK mechanism dominant states which are all
Ion-beam plasma and propagation of intense compensated ion beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gabovich, M.D.
1977-01-01
Discussed are the results of investigation of plasma properties recieved by neutralization of intensive ion beam space charge. Considered is the process of ion beam compensation by charges, formed as a result of gas ionization by this beam or by externally introduced ones. Emphasis is placed on collective phenomena in ion-beam plasma, in particular on non-linear effects limiting amplitude of oscillations. It is shown, that not only dinamic decompensation but the Coulomb collisions of ions with electrons as well as other collective oscillations significantly affects the propagation of compensated ion beams. All the processes are to be taken into account at solving the problem of obtaining ''superdense'' compensated beams
Ion-beam plasma and propagation of intense compensated ion beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gabovich, M D [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Fiziki
1977-02-01
Discussed are the results of investigation of plasma properties received by neutralization of intense ion beam space charge. Considered is the process of ion beam compensation by charges, formed as a result of gas ionization by this beam or by externally introduced ones. Emphasis is placed on collective phenomena in ion-beam plasma, in particular on non-linear effects limiting amplitude of oscillations. It is shown that not only dynamic decompensation but the Coulomb collisions of ions with electrons as well as other collective oscillations significantly affects the propagation of compensated ion beams. All the processes are to be taken into account in solving the problem of obtaining ''superdense'' compensated beams.
Characteristics of two types of beam plasma discharge in a laboratory experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boswell, R.W.; Kellogg, P.J.
1983-01-01
Experiments on the Beam Plasma Discharge (BPD) using an electron beam travelling along a magnetic field have been carried out in a large volume laboratory vacuum chamber. Two different types of BPD have been observed, and scaling laws for varying neutral gas pressure, axial magnetic field, interaction length and electron flux, deduced. The second type of BPD occurs when the beam current is increased well above the threshold for the first type. The transition from the first type to the second, like the ignition of the first, is distinguished by abrupt changes of luminosity, discharge diameter, and wave emission signature
Recent development of relativistic molecular theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahito, Nakajima; Kimihiko, Hirao
2005-01-01
Today it is common knowledge that relativistic effects are important in the heavy-element chemistry. The continuing development of the relativistic molecular theory is opening up rows of the periodic table that are impossible to treat with the non-relativistic approach. The most straightforward way to treat relativistic effects on heavy-element systems is to use the four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock approach and its electron-correlation methods based on the Dirac-Coulomb(-Breit) Hamiltonian. The Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) or Dirac-Kohn-Sham (DKS) equation with the four-component spinors composed of the large- and small-components demands severe computational efforts to solve, and its applications to molecules including heavy elements have been limited to small- to medium-size systems. Recently, we have developed a very efficient algorithm for the four-component DHF and DKS approaches. As an alternative approach, several quasi-relativistic approximations have also been proposed instead of explicitly solving the four-component relativistic equation. We have developed the relativistic elimination of small components (RESC) and higher-order Douglas-Kroll (DK) Hamiltonians within the framework of the two-component quasi-relativistic approach. The developing four-component relativistic and approximate quasi-relativistic methods have been implemented into a program suite named REL4D. In this article, we will introduce the efficient relativistic molecular theories to treat heavy-atomic molecular systems accurately via the four-component relativistic and the two-component quasi-relativistic approaches. We will also show several chemical applications including heavy-element systems with our relativistic molecular approaches. (author)
Standard map in magnetized relativistic systems: fixed points and regular acceleration.
de Sousa, M C; Steffens, F M; Pakter, R; Rizzato, F B
2010-08-01
We investigate the concept of a standard map for the interaction of relativistic particles and electrostatic waves of arbitrary amplitudes, under the action of external magnetic fields. The map is adequate for physical settings where waves and particles interact impulsively, and allows for a series of analytical result to be exactly obtained. Unlike the traditional form of the standard map, the present map is nonlinear in the wave amplitude and displays a series of peculiar properties. Among these properties we discuss the relation involving fixed points of the maps and accelerator regimes.
Relativistic few body calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, F.
1988-01-01
A modern treatment of the nuclear few-body problem must take into account both the quark structure of baryons and mesons, which should be important at short range, and the relativistic exchange of mesons, which describes the long range, peripheral interactions. A way to model both of these aspects is described. The long range, peripheral interactions are calculated using the spectator model, a general approach in which the spectators to nucleon interactions are put on their mass-shell. Recent numerical results for a relativistic OBE model of the NN interaction, obtained by solving a relativistic equation with one-particle on mass-shell, will be presented and discussed. Two meson exchange models, one with only four mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω) but with a 25% admixture of γ 5 coupling for the pion, and a second with six mesons (π,σ,/rho/,ω,δ,/eta/) but pure γ 5 γ/sup μ/ pion coupling, are shown to give very good quantitative fits to the NN scattering phase shifts below 400 MeV, and also a good description of the /rvec p/ 40 Ca elastic scattering observables. Applications of this model to electromagnetic interactions of the two body system, with emphasis on the determination of relativistic current operators consistent with the dynamics and the exact treatment of current conservation in the presence of phenomenological form factors, will be described. 18 refs., 8 figs
Some problems in relativistic thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veitsman, E. V.
2007-01-01
The relativistic equations of state for ideal and real gases, as well as for various interface regions, have been derived. These dependences help to eliminate some controversies in the relativistic thermodynamics based on the special theory of relativity. It is shown, in particular, that the temperature of system whose velocity tends to the velocity of light in vacuum varies in accordance with the Ott law T = T 0 /√1 - v 2 /c 2 . Relativistic dependences for heat and mass transfer, for Ohm's law, and for a viscous flow of a liquid have also been derived
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stover, G.; Nyman, M.; Halliwell, J.; Lutz, I.; Dwinell, R.
1987-03-01
A power supply system is currently being designed and constructed to sweep an 8.0 Tesla-meter relativistic heavy ion beam in a raster scanning mode for radiotherapy use. Two colinear dipole magnets with orthogonally oriented magnetic fields are driven by the system to produce a rectangular field (40 x 40 cm max.) with a uniform dose (+-2.5%) to a target volume 6 meters away. The ''fast'' horizontal scanning magnet is driven by a single power supply which in conjunction with a triac bridge network and a current regulated linear actuator will produce a 1200 cm/sec max. sweep rate. The ''slow'' (40 cm/sec) vertical scanning magnet will be controlled by dual current regulated linear actuators in a push-pull configuration. The scanner system can provide off-axis treatment profiles with large aspect ratios and unusual dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.
1997-02-01
In the electron beam-plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam-plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient, that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp 'spike' with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward travelling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. 9 refs
Deng, Yongfeng; Jiang, Jian; Han, Xianwei; Tan, Chang; Wei, Jianguo
2017-04-01
The problem of flow active control by low temperature plasma is considered to be one of the most flourishing fields of aerodynamics due to its practical advantages. Compared with other means, the electron beam plasma is a potential flow control method for large scale flow. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics model coupled with a multi-fluid plasma model is established to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics induced by electron beam plasma. The results demonstrate that the electron beam strongly influences the flow properties, not only in the boundary layers, but also in the main flow. A weak shockwave is induced at the electron beam injection position and develops to the other side of the wind tunnel behind the beam. It brings additional energy into air, and the inducing characteristics are closely related to the beam power and increase nonlinearly with it. The injection angles also influence the flow properties to some extent. Based on this research, we demonstrate that the high energy electron beam air plasma has three attractive advantages in aerodynamic applications, i.e. the high energy density, wide action range and excellent action effect. Due to the rapid development of near space hypersonic vehicles and atmospheric fighters, by optimizing the parameters, the electron beam can be used as an alternative means in aerodynamic steering in these applications.
Relativistic description of atomic nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krutov, V.A.
1985-01-01
Papers on the relativistic description of nuclei are reviewed. The Brown and Rho ''small'' bag'' model is accepted for hardrons. Meson exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon interaction have been considered. Then the transition from a system of two interacting nucleons has been performed to the relativistic nucleus description as a multinucleon system on the basis of OBEP (one-boson exchange potential). The proboem of OPEP (one-pion-exchange potential) inclusion to a relativistic scheme is discussed. Simplicity of calculations and attractiveness of the Walecka model for specific computations and calculations was noted. The relativistic model of nucleons interacting through ''effective'' scalar and vector boson fields was used in the Walacka model for describing neutronaand nuclear mater matters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watermann, J.; Wilhelm, K.; Torkar, K.M.; Riedler, W.
1988-01-01
Several cooperative plasma experiments were carried out on board Spacelab-1, the ninth payload of the Space Transportation System (STS-9). Among them, the electron spectrometer 1ES019A was designed to observe 01.-12.5 keV electron fluxes with high temporal and spatial resolution, while the SEPAC electron beam accelerator emitted electron beams with currents up to 280 mA and maximum energies of 5 keV. Since the question of orbiter charging to high voltages has controversially been discussed in several publications on STS-3 and STS-9 electron beam experiments, an attempt is made to relate information from the return electron flux observed during the SEPAC operations to the vehicle charging interpretation. A close examination reveals that most of our observations can be understood if the occurrence of a beam-plasma discharge is assumed at least for electron beam intensities above 100 mA. This would provide a substantial return current capability. High orbiter charging effects during electron beam accelerator electron emissions are consequently not supported by the observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hines, D.F.; Frankel, N.E.
1979-01-01
The charged Bose has been previously studied as a many body problem of great intrinsic interest which can also serve as a model of some real physical systems, for example, superconductors, white dwarf stars and neutron stars. In this article the excitation spectrum of a relativistic spin-zero charged Bose gas is obtained in a dielectric response formulation. Relativity introduces a dip in the spectrum and consequences of this dip for the thermodynamic functions are discussed
Relativistic magnetohydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hernandez, Juan; Kovtun, Pavel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada)
2017-05-02
We present the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics coupled to dynamical electromagnetic fields, including the effects of polarization, electric fields, and the derivative expansion. We enumerate the transport coefficients at leading order in derivatives, including electrical conductivities, viscosities, and thermodynamic coefficients. We find the constraints on transport coefficients due to the positivity of entropy production, and derive the corresponding Kubo formulas. For the neutral state in a magnetic field, small fluctuations include Alfvén waves, magnetosonic waves, and the dissipative modes. For the state with a non-zero dynamical charge density in a magnetic field, plasma oscillations gap out all propagating modes, except for Alfvén-like waves with a quadratic dispersion relation. We relate the transport coefficients in the “conventional” magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using Maxwell’s equations in matter) to those in the “dual” version of magnetohydrodynamics (formulated using the conserved magnetic flux).
A wavelet-MRA-based adaptive semi-Lagrangian method for the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besse, Nicolas; Latu, Guillaume; Ghizzo, Alain; Sonnendruecker, Eric; Bertrand, Pierre
2008-01-01
In this paper we present a new method for the numerical solution of the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system on a phase-space grid using an adaptive semi-Lagrangian method. The adaptivity is performed through a wavelet multiresolution analysis, which gives a powerful and natural refinement criterion based on the local measurement of the approximation error and regularity of the distribution function. Therefore, the multiscale expansion of the distribution function allows to get a sparse representation of the data and thus save memory space and CPU time. We apply this numerical scheme to reduced Vlasov-Maxwell systems arising in laser-plasma physics. Interaction of relativistically strong laser pulses with overdense plasma slabs is investigated. These Vlasov simulations revealed a rich variety of phenomena associated with the fast particle dynamics induced by electromagnetic waves as electron trapping, particle acceleration, and electron plasma wavebreaking. However, the wavelet based adaptive method that we developed here, does not yield significant improvements compared to Vlasov solvers on a uniform mesh due to the substantial overhead that the method introduces. Nonetheless they might be a first step towards more efficient adaptive solvers based on different ideas for the grid refinement or on a more efficient implementation. Here the Vlasov simulations are performed in a two-dimensional phase-space where the development of thin filaments, strongly amplified by relativistic effects requires an important increase of the total number of points of the phase-space grid as they get finer as time goes on. The adaptive method could be more useful in cases where these thin filaments that need to be resolved are a very small fraction of the hyper-volume, which arises in higher dimensions because of the surface-to-volume scaling and the essentially one-dimensional structure of the filaments. Moreover, the main way to improve the efficiency of the adaptive method is to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monnai, Akihiko; Hirano, Tetsufumi
2010-01-01
We derive the second order hydrodynamic equations for the relativistic system of multi-components with multiple conserved currents by generalizing the Israel-Stewart theory and Grad's moment method. We find that, in addition to the conventional moment equations, extra moment equations associated with conserved currents should be introduced to consistently match the number of equations with that of unknowns and to satisfy the Onsager reciprocal relations. Consistent expansion of the entropy current leads to constitutive equations which involve the terms not appearing in the original Israel-Stewart theory even in the single component limit. We also find several terms which exhibit thermal diffusion such as Soret and Dufour effects. We finally compare our results with those of other existing formalisms.
An introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Font, Jose A [Departamento de AstronomIa y AstrofIsica, Universidad de Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50, 46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)
2007-11-15
We review formulations of the equations of (inviscid) general relativistic hydrodynamics and (ideal) magnetohydrodynamics, along with methods for their numerical solution. Both systems can be cast as first-order, hyperbolic systems of conservation laws, following the explicit choice of an Eulerian observer and suitable fluid and magnetic field variables. During the last fifteen years, the so-called (upwind) high-resolution shock-capturing schemes based on Riemann solvers have been successfully extended from classical to relativistic fluid dynamics, both special and general. Nowadays, general relativistic hydrodynamical simulations in relativistic astrophysics are routinely performed, particularly within the test-fluid approximation but also for dynamical spacetimes. While such advances also hold true in the case of the MHD equations, the astrophysical applications investigated so far are still limited, yet the field is bound to witness major developments in the near future. The article also presents a brief overview of numerical techniques, providing state-of-the-art examples of their applicability to general relativistic fluids and magneto-fluids in characteristic scenarios of relativistic astrophysics.
Relativistic many-body theory of atomic transitions: the relativistic equation-of-motion approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, K.N.
1981-01-01
An equation-of-motion approach is used to develop the relativistic many-body theory of atomic transitions. The relativistic equations of motion for transition matrices are formulated using techniques of quantum field theory. To reduce the equation of motion to a tractable form which is appropriate for numerical calculations, a graphical method is employed to resolve the complication arising from the antisymmetrization and angular momentum coupling. The relativistic equation-of-motion method allows an ab initio treatment of correlation and relativistic effects in both closed- and open-shell many-body systems. A special case of the present formulation reduces to the relativistic random-phase approximation
Relativistic studies in actinides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weinberger, P.; Gonis, A.
1987-01-01
In this review the theoretical background is given for a relativistic description for actinide systems. A short introduction is given of the density functional theory which forms the basis for a fully relativistic single-particle theory. A section on the Dirac Hamiltonian is followed by a brief summary on group theoretical concepts. Single site scattering is presented such that formal extensions to the case of the presence of an internal (external) magnetic field and/or anisotropic scattering are evident. Multiple scattering is discussed such that it can readily be applied also to the problem of dislocations. In connection with the problem of selfconsistency particular attention is drawn to the use of complex energies. Finally the various theoretical aspects discussed are illustrated through the results of numerical calculations. 101 refs.; 37 figs.; 5 tabs
Experimental investigation of a 1 kA/cm² sheet beam plasma cathode electron gun.
Kumar, Niraj; Pal, Udit Narayan; Pal, Dharmendra Kumar; Prajesh, Rahul; Prakash, Ram
2015-01-01
In this paper, a cold cathode based sheet-beam plasma cathode electron gun is reported with achieved sheet-beam current density ∼1 kA/cm(2) from pseudospark based argon plasma for pulse length of ∼200 ns in a single shot experiment. For the qualitative assessment of the sheet-beam, an arrangement of three isolated metallic-sheets is proposed. The actual shape and size of the sheet-electron-beam are obtained through a non-conventional method by proposing a dielectric charging technique and scanning electron microscope based imaging. As distinct from the earlier developed sheet beam sources, the generated sheet-beam has been propagated more than 190 mm distance in a drift space region maintaining sheet structure without assistance of any external magnetic field.
An accelerated beam-plasma neutron/proton source and early application of a fusion plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohnishi, M.; Yoshikawa, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Hoshino, C.; Masuda, K.; Miley, G.; Jurczyk, B.; Stubbers, R.; Gu, Y.
1999-01-01
We measured the number of the neutrons and protons produced by D-D reactions in an accelerated beam-plasma fusion and curried out the numerical simulations. The linear dependence of the neutron yield on a discharge current indicates that the fusion reactions occur between the background gas and the fast particles. i.e. charge exchanged neutrals and accelerated ions. The neutron yield divided by (fusion cross section x ion current x neutral gas pressure) still possesses the dependence of the 1.2 power of discharge voltage. which shows the fusion reactions are affected by the electrostatic potential built-up in the center. The measured proton birth profiles suggest the existence of a double potential well, which is supported by the numerical simulations. (author)
Relativistic neoclassical transport coefficients with momentum correction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marushchenko, I.; Azarenkov, N.A.
2016-01-01
The parallel momentum correction technique is generalized for relativistic approach. It is required for proper calculation of the parallel neoclassical flows and, in particular, for the bootstrap current at fusion temperatures. It is shown that the obtained system of linear algebraic equations for parallel fluxes can be solved directly without calculation of the distribution function if the relativistic mono-energetic transport coefficients are already known. The first relativistic correction terms for Braginskii matrix coefficients are calculated.
Detection system for forward emitted XUV photons from relativistic ion beams at the ESR
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Egelkamp, C.; Hannen, V.; Ortjohann, H.W.; Vollbrecht, J.; Weinheimer, C.; Winzen, D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Uni Muenster (Germany); Kuehl, T. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Uni Mainz (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Jena (Germany); Noertershaeuser, W. [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Uni Mainz (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Sanchez, R.; Winters, D. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Stoehlker, T. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Jena (Germany); Uni Jena (Germany)
2016-07-01
Highly charged heavy ions stored at relativistic velocities provide a unique possibility to test atomic structure calculations. A possibility to investigate electron-electron correlations is the study of the {sup 3}P{sub 0} → {sup 3}P{sub 1} fine structure transition in Be-like Krypton ({sup 84}Kr{sup 32+}) in laser spectroscopy experiments. For this purpose Be-like krypton ions are stored in the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI at a velocity of β = 0.69. Through an anticollinear arrangement of the excitation laser and the ions the wavelength in the rest frame of the ions can be matched. After the excitation to the {sup 3}P{sub 1} level the ions immediately decay to the ground state, emitting λ ∼ 17 nm photons. Due to the Lorentz boost, the photons are emitted mainly in the forward direction and experience a Doppler shift to wavelengths < 10 nm. To collect these photons a moveable cathode plate with a central slit is brought into the beam line. The XUV photons mostly produce low energy secondary electrons on the plate which are electromagnetically guided onto a MCP detector. The design and working principle, as well as simulations and test measurements of the detector are presented.
Nonlinear dynamics of the relativistic standard map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nomura, Y.; Ichikawa, Y.H.; Horton, W.
1991-04-01
Heating and acceleration of charged particles by RF fields have been extensively investigated by the standard map. The question arises as to how the relativistic effects change the nonlinear dynamical behavior described by the classical standard map. The relativistic standard map is a two parameter (K, Β = ω/kc) family of dynamical systems reducing to the standard map when Β → 0. For Β ≠ 0 the relativistic mass increase suppresses the onset of stochasticity. It shown that the speed of light limits the rate of advance of the phase in the relativistic standard map and introduces KAM surfaces persisting in the high momentum region. An intricate structure of mixing in the higher order periodic orbits and chaotic orbits is analyzed using the symmetry properties of the relativistic standard map. The interchange of the stability of the periodic orbits in the relativistic standard map is also observed and is explained by the local linear stability of the orbits. 12 refs., 16 figs
Pulsar signals from relativistic electron beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elsaesser, K.; Kirk, J.
1976-01-01
The possibility of the radio emission from pulsars originating in a beam-plasma system is discussed. We calculate the curvature radiation which arises if this system is placed in a very strong curved magnetic field. Numerical experiments show that the beam instability evolves into a rather stationary wave pattern whose Fourier components are concentrated near the most unstable mode. This result leads us to estimates of the radiation intensity of its autocorrelation function in time, and its bandwidth. The results are compared with measurements of the micro-structure of pulses, and the constraints imposed on radiation mechanisms by longer time-scale properties are shown to be satisfied. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boll, Raphael; Petrera, Matteo; Suris, Yuri B
2015-01-01
We establish the pluri-Lagrangian structure for families of Bäcklund transformations of relativistic Toda-type systems. The key idea is a novel embedding of these discrete-time (one-dimensional) systems into certain two-dimensional (2D) pluri-Lagrangian lattice systems. This embedding allows us to identify the corner equations (which are the main building blocks of the multi-time Euler–Lagrange equations) with local superposition formulae for Bäcklund transformations. These superposition formulae, in turn, are key ingredients necessary to understand and to prove commutativity of the multi-valued Bäcklund transformations. Furthermore, we discover a 2D generalization of the spectrality property known for families of Bäcklund transformations. This result produces a family of local conservations laws for 2D pluri-Lagrangian lattice systems, with densities being derivatives of the discrete 2-form with respect to the Bäcklund (spectral) parameter. Thus, a relation of the pluri-Lagrangian structure with more traditional integrability notions is established. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitra, Sukanya [Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)
2018-01-15
The thermodynamics and covariant kinetic theory are elaborately investigated in a non-extensive environment considering the non-extensive generalization of Bose-Einstein (BE) and Fermi-Dirac (FD) statistics. Starting with Tsallis' entropy formula, the fundamental principles of thermostatistics are established for a grand canonical system having q-generalized BE/FD degrees of freedom. Many particle kinetic theory is set up in terms of the relativistic transport equation with q-generalized Uehling-Uhlenbeck collision term. The conservation laws are realized in terms of appropriate moments of the transport equation. The thermodynamic quantities are obtained in a weak non-extensive environment for a massive pion-nucleon and a massless quark-gluon system with non-zero baryon chemical potential. In order to get an estimate of the impact of non-extensivity on the system dynamics, the q-modified Debye mass and hence the q-modified effective coupling are estimated for a quark-gluon system. (orig.)
Mitra, Sukanya
2018-01-01
The thermodynamics and covariant kinetic theory are elaborately investigated in a non-extensive environment considering the non-extensive generalization of Bose-Einstein (BE) and Fermi-Dirac (FD) statistics. Starting with Tsallis' entropy formula, the fundamental principles of thermostatistics are established for a grand canonical system having q-generalized BE/FD degrees of freedom. Many particle kinetic theory is set up in terms of the relativistic transport equation with q-generalized Uehling-Uhlenbeck collision term. The conservation laws are realized in terms of appropriate moments of the transport equation. The thermodynamic quantities are obtained in a weak non-extensive environment for a massive pion-nucleon and a massless quark-gluon system with non-zero baryon chemical potential. In order to get an estimate of the impact of non-extensivity on the system dynamics, the q-modified Debye mass and hence the q-modified effective coupling are estimated for a quark-gluon system.
Burgay, M; D'Amico, N; Possenti, A; Manchester, R N; Lyne, A G; Joshi, B C; McLaughlin, M A; Kramer, M; Sarkissian, J M; Camilo, F; Kalogera, V; Kim, C; Lorimer, D R
2003-12-04
The merger of close binary systems containing two neutron stars should produce a burst of gravitational waves, as predicted by the theory of general relativity. A reliable estimate of the double-neutron-star merger rate in the Galaxy is crucial in order to predict whether current gravity wave detectors will be successful in detecting such bursts. Present estimates of this rate are rather low, because we know of only a few double-neutron-star binaries with merger times less than the age of the Universe. Here we report the discovery of a 22-ms pulsar, PSR J0737-3039, which is a member of a highly relativistic double-neutron-star binary with an orbital period of 2.4 hours. This system will merge in about 85 Myr, a time much shorter than for any other known neutron-star binary. Together with the relatively low radio luminosity of PSR J0737-3039, this timescale implies an order-of-magnitude increase in the predicted merger rate for double-neutron-star systems in our Galaxy (and in the rest of the Universe).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, S.; Goffeney, N.; Deadrick, F.
1994-10-01
A physics, engineering, and costing study has been conducted to explore the feasibility of a relativistic-klystron two-beam-accelerator system as a power source candidate for a 1 TeV linear collider. We present a point design example which has acceptable transverse and longitudinal beam stability properties. Preliminary ''bottom-up'' cost estimate yields the full power source system at less than 1 billion dollars. The overall efficiency for rf production is estimated to be 36%
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugaev, K.A.; Gorenshtejn, M.I.; Zhdanov, V.I.
1987-01-01
Theoretical basis for general stability criterion of relativistic shocks in baryonic matter is proposed. Different formulations of shock mechanical stability are considered and applied to the analysis of rarefaction shock hadronization transition. 13 refs.; 2 figs
Huot, F; Bertrand, P; Sonnendrücker, E; Coulaud, O
2003-01-01
The Time Splitting Scheme (TSS) has been examined within the context of the one-dimensional (1D) relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell model. In the strongly relativistic regime of the laser-plasma interaction, the TSS cannot be applied to solve the Vlasov equation. We propose a new semi-Lagrangian scheme based on a full 2D advection and study its advantages over the classical Splitting procedure. Details of the underlying integration of the Vlasov equation appear to be important in achieving accurate plasma simulations. Examples are given which are related to the relativistic modulational instability and the self-induced transparency of an ultra-intense electromagnetic pulse in the relativistic regime.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
EI-Shorbagy, Kh.H.
2002-11-01
The stabilization effect of a strong HP electric field on beam-plasma instability in a cylindrical warm plasma waveguide is discussed. A new mathematical technique 'separation method' which has been applied to the two-fluid plasma model to separate the equations, which describe the system, into two parts, temporal and space parts. Plasma electrons are considered to have a thermal velocity. It is shown that a HF electric field has no essential influence on dispersion characteristics of unstable surface waves excited in a warm plasma waveguide by a low-density electron beam. The region of instability only slightly narrowing and the growth rate decreases by a small parameter and this result has been reduced compared to cold plasma. Also, it is found that the plasma electrons have not affected the solution of the space part of the problem. (author)
The relativistic virial theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucha, W.; Schoeberl, F.F.
1989-11-01
The relativistic generalization of the quantum-mechanical virial theorem is derived and used to clarify the connection between the nonrelativistic and (semi-)relativistic treatment of bound states. 12 refs. (Authors)
CONSERATION LAWS OF RELATIVISTIC VARLABLE MASS SYSTEM%相对论性变质量系统的守恒律
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
方建会
2001-01-01
研究相对论性变质量系统的守恒律. 给出相对论性变质量系统的 d'Alembert-Lagrange原理，利用其在无限小变换下的不变性条件，得到相对论性变质量 系统的守恒律存在的条件和形式，并举例说明结果的应用.%The conservation laws of relativistic variable mass system were studied. The d' Alembert-Lagrange principle of relativistic variable mass system are given. By using invariant condition of The d'Alembert-Lagrange principle under the infin itesimal transformations, the conditions and forms which the conserved quantities of the system do exist were obtained. An example is given to illustrate the ap plication of the result..
Shao, Zhiqiang
2018-04-01
The relativistic full Euler system with generalized Chaplygin proper energy density-pressure relation is studied. The Riemann problem is solved constructively. The delta shock wave arises in the Riemann solutions, provided that the initial data satisfy some certain conditions, although the system is strictly hyperbolic and the first and third characteristic fields are genuinely nonlinear, while the second one is linearly degenerate. There are five kinds of Riemann solutions, in which four only consist of a shock wave and a centered rarefaction wave or two shock waves or two centered rarefaction waves, and a contact discontinuity between the constant states (precisely speaking, the solutions consist in general of three waves), and the other involves delta shocks on which both the rest mass density and the proper energy density simultaneously contain the Dirac delta function. It is quite different from the previous ones on which only one state variable contains the Dirac delta function. The formation mechanism, generalized Rankine-Hugoniot relation and entropy condition are clarified for this type of delta shock wave. Under the generalized Rankine-Hugoniot relation and entropy condition, we establish the existence and uniqueness of solutions involving delta shocks for the Riemann problem.
Relativistic quarkonium dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sazdjian, H.
1985-06-01
We present, in the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics of two interacting particles, a general model for quarkonium systems satisfying the following four requirements: confinement, spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry, soft explicit chiral symmetry breaking, short distance interactions of the vector type. The model is characterized by two arbitrary scalar functions entering in the large and short distance interaction potentials, respectively. Using relationships with corresponding quantities of the Bethe-Salpeter equation, we also present the normalization condition of the wave functions, as well as the expressions of the meson decay coupling constants. The quark masses appear in this model as free parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rodrigo Lopez-Martens
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We present the current development of an injector for a high-contrast, ultrashort laser system devoted to relativistic laser-plasma interaction in the few-cycle regime. The front-end is based on CEP-stabilized Ti:Sa CPA followed by XPW filter designed at the mJ level for temporal cleaning and shortening. Accurate characterization highlights the fidelity of the proposed injector. Measured CEP drift is 170 mrad rms.
Wakefield excitation in plasma resonator by a sequence of relativistic electron bunches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Mirny, V.I.; Onishchenko, I.N.; Uskov, V.V.
2008-01-01
Wakefield excitation in a plasma resonator by a sequence of relativistic electron bunches with the purpose to increase excited field amplitude in comparison to waveguide case is experimentally investigated. A sequence of short electron bunches is produced by the linear resonant accelerator. Plasma resonator is formed at the beam-plasma discharge in rectangular metal waveguide filled with gas and closed by metal foil at entrance and movable short-circuited plunger at exit. Measurements of wakefield amplitude are performed showing considerably higher wakefield amplitude for resonator case
Summary of mirror experiments relevant to beam-plasma neutron source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molvik, A.W.
1988-01-01
A promising design for a deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron source is based on the injection of neutral beams into a dense, warm plasma column. Its purpose is to test materials for possible use in fusion reactors. A series of designs have evolved, from a 4-T version to an 8-T version. Intense fluxes of 5--10 MW/m 2 is achieved at the plasma surface, sufficient to complete end-of-life tests in one to two years. In this report, we review data from earlier mirror experiments that are relevant to such neutron sources. Most of these data are from 2XIIB, which was the only facility to ever inject 5 MW of neutral beams into a single mirror call. The major physics issues for a beam-plasma neutron source are magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium and stability, microstability, startup, cold-ion fueling of the midplane to allow two-component reactions, and operation in the Spitzer conduction regime, where the power is removed to the ends by an axial gradient in the electron temperature T/sub e/. We show in this report that the conditions required for a neutron source have now been demonstrated in experiments. 20 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs
Chitin and Cellulose Processing in Low-Temperature Electron Beam Plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tatiana Vasilieva
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Polysaccharide processing by means of low-temperature Electron Beam Plasma (EBP is a promising alternative to the time-consuming and environmentally hazardous chemical hydrolysis in oligosaccharide production. The present paper considers mechanisms of the EBP-stimulated destruction of crab shell chitin, cellulose sulfate, and microcrystalline cellulose, as well as characterization of the produced oligosaccharides. The polysaccharide powders were treated in oxygen EBP for 1–20 min at 40 °C in a mixing reactor placed in the zone of the EBP generation. The chemical structure and molecular mass of the oligosaccharides were analyzed by size exclusion and the reversed phase chromatography, FTIR-spectroscopy, XRD-, and NMR-techniques. The EBP action on original polysaccharides reduces their crystallinity index and polymerization degree. Water-soluble products with lower molecular weight chitooligosaccharides (weight-average molecular mass, Mw = 1000–2000 Da and polydispersity index 2.2 and cellulose oligosaccharides with polymerization degrees 3–10 were obtained. The 1H-NMR analysis revealed 25–40% deacetylation of the EBP-treated chitin and FTIR-spectroscopy detected an increase of carbonyl- and carboxyl-groups in the oligosaccharides produced. Possible reactions of β-1,4-glycosidic bonds’ destruction due to active oxygen species and high-energy electrons are given.
A 14-MeV beam-plasma neutron source for materials testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Futch, A.H.; Coensgen, F.H.; Damm, C.C.; Molvik, A.W.
1989-01-01
The design and performance of 14-MeV beam-plasma neutron sources for accelerated testing of fusion reactor materials are described. Continuous production of 14-MeV neutron fluxes in the range of 5 to 10 MW/m 2 at the plasma surface are produced by D-T reactions in a two-component plasma. In the present designs, 14-MeV neutrons result from collisions of energetic deuterium ions created by transverse injection of 150-keV deuterium atoms on a fully ionized tritium target plasma. The beam energy, which deposited at the center of the tritium column, is transferred to the warm plasma by electron drag, which flows axially to the end regions. Neutral gas at high pressure absorbs the energy in the tritium plasma and transfers the heat to the walls of the vacuum vessel. The plasma parameters of the neutron source, in dimensionless units, have been achieved in the 2XIIB high-β plasma. The larger magnetic field of the present design permits scaling to the higher energy and density of the neutron source design. In the extrapolation, care has been taken to preserve the scaling and plasma attributes that contributed to equilibrium, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability, and microstability in 2XIIB. The performance and scaling characteristics are described for several designs chosen to enhance the thermal isolation of the two-component plasmas. 11 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs
On the description of classical Einstein relativistic two-particle systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aaberge, T.
1978-01-01
The author starts by considering the system of one free particle, and gives a sufficiently general description of this system to include the center of mass of systems of several particles. He then passes to the system of two particles. The coordinates separating the center of mass and the internal system are defined and the dynamics discussed. Finally the author outlines the construction of a more restrictive two-particle theory, and studies some consequences of the definition of a particle in an external field as a two-particle system in the limit where the mass of one of the particles becomes infinite. (Auth.)
Methods in relativistic nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Danos, M.; Gillet, V.; Cauvin, M.
1984-01-01
This book is intended to provide the methods and tools for performing actual calculations for finite many-body systems of bound relativistic constituent particles. The aim is to cover thoroughly the methodological aspects of the relativistic many-body problem for bound states while avoiding the presentation of specific models. The many examples contained in the later part of the work are meant to give concrete illustrations of how to actually apply the methods which are given in the first part. The basic framework of the approach is the lagrangian field theory solved in the time-independent Schroedinger picture. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szuszczewicz, E.P.; Lin, C.S.
1982-01-01
This chapter reports on experiments whose purpose was to simulate spaceborne applications of energetic electron guns while exploring the ''in situ'' diagnostics of time-dependent beam-plasma behavior under pulsed electron gun conditions. Beam-plasma-discharge (BPD), the BPD afterglow that exists after gun-pulse termination, and the plasma decay process are considered. It is concluded that there is a rapid enhancement in plasma density as the gas turns on; that during the pulse-ON time a quasi-steady-state BPD can be maintained with characteristics identical with its dc counterpart; that in the period immediately following gun-pulse termination the plasma loss process is dominated by cross-field radial diffusion; and that the afterglow plasma is within + or -10% of being an isodensity contour
Relativistic Outflows from ADAFs
Becker, Peter; Subramanian, Prasad; Kazanas, Demosthenes
2001-04-01
Advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) have a positive Bernoulli parameter, and are therefore gravitationally bound. The Newtonian ADAF model has been generalized recently to obtain the ADIOS model that includes outflows of energy and angular momentum, thereby allowing accretion to proceed self-consistently. However, the utilization of a Newtonian gravitational potential limits the ability of this model to describe the inner region of the disk, where any relativistic outflows are likely to originate. In this paper we modify the ADIOS scenario to incorporate a seudo - Newtonian potential, which approximates the effects of general relativity. The analysis yields a unique, self - similar solution for the structure of the coupled disk/wind system. Interesting features of the new solution include the relativistic character of the outflow in the vicinity of the radius of marginal stability, which represents the inner edge of the quasi-Keplerian disk in our model. Our self - similar model may therefore help to explain the origin of relativistic jets in active galaxies. At large distances the radial dependence of the accretion rate approachs the unique form dot M ∝ r^1/2, with an associated density variation given by ρ ∝ r-1. This density variation agrees with that implied by the dependence of the X-ray hard time lags on the Fourier frequency for a number of accreting galactic black hole candidates. While intriguing, the results of our self-similar model need to be confirmed in the future by incorporating a detailed physical description of the energization mechanism that drives the outflow, which is likely to be powered by the shear of the underlying accretion disk.
Global well posedness of the relativistic Vlasov-Yukawa system with small data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ha, Seung-Yeal; Lee, Ho
2007-01-01
In this paper, we present an existence theory and uniform L 1 -stability estimate for classical solutions with small data to the Vlasov-Yukawa system. The Vlasov-Yukawa system corresponds to a short-range correction of the Vlasov-Poisson system appearing in plasma physics and astrophysics. For the existence and stability of classical solutions, we crucially use dispersion estimates due to the smallness of data
Spectral characteristics of a relativistic plasma microwave generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzelev, M.V.; Loza, O.T.; Ponomarev, A.V.; Rukhadze, A.A.; Strelkov, P.S.; Ul'yanov, D.K.; Shkvarunets, A.G.
1996-01-01
The radiation spectrum of a broad-band relativistic plasma microwave generator, in which a hollow relativistic electron beam is injected into a plasma waveguide consisting of a hollow plasma within a round metallic waveguide is measured experimentally. The radiation spectrum is measured using a wide-aperture calorimetric spectrometer in the frequency range 3-32 GHz. The influence of the plasma density and the beam-plasma gap on the radiation spectrum is investigated. The amplification of the noise electromagnetic radiation when a relativistic electron beam is injected into the plasma waveguide is calculated on the basis of the nonlinear theory. The theory predicts passage from a one-particle generation regime to a collective regime and narrowing of the radiation spectrum as the plasma density and the gap between the hollow beam and the plasma increases. A comparison of the measurement results with the nonlinear theory accounts for several features of the measured spectrum. However, the predicted change in the generation regimes is not observed experimentally. Qualitative arguments are advanced, which explain the observed phenomena and call for further theoretical and experimental research, are advanced
sl (6,r) as the group of symmetries for non relativistic quantum systems
African Journals Online (AJOL)
It is shown that the 13 one parameter generators of the Lie group SL(6, R) are the maximal group of symmetries for nonrelativistic quantum systems. The group action on the set of states S Ĥ (H complex Hilbert space) preserves transition probabilities as well as the dynamics of the system. By considering a prolongation of ...
Cyberinfrastructure for Computational Relativistic Astrophysics
Ott, Christian
2012-01-01
Poster presented at the NSF Office of Cyberinfrastructure CyberBridges CAREER PI workshop. This poster discusses the computational challenges involved in the modeling of complex relativistic astrophysical systems. The Einstein Toolkit is introduced. It is an open-source community infrastructure for numerical relativity and computational astrophysics.
Future relativistic heavy ion experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pugh, H.G.
1980-12-01
Equations of state for nuclear matter and ongoing experimental studies are discussed. Relativistic heavy ion physics is the only opportunity to study in the laboratory the properties of extended multiquark systems under conditions such that quarks might run together into new arrangements previously unobserved. Several lines of further study are mentioned
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Etievant, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1963-12-15
The instabilities developing in a 'beam-plasma' system and in a 'double-beam' system in the presence of a magnetic field are discussed theoretically starting from the conductivity tensor expression for a multi-beam system. Oblique propagation is taken into account and this leads to the introduction of certain instability mechanisms which would not appear in the case of a propagation which is purely parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field. Two experiments are described: a) Study of the collision of two counterstreaming electron beams: An instability has been observed experimentally which leads to the generation of a stationary cyclotron wave having a frequency of {omega}{sub ce}/2. A description is given of the measurement of the interaction frequency, of the wavelength and of the build-up time of the wave. b) Study of a 'beam-plasma' system: A description is given of the measurement of the spectra of excited waves and of the perturbation of the beam velocity distribution at the plasma-exit. This perturbation is very pronounced when 'plasma-plasma' interaction appears in the system. A study into cyclotron oscillations produced in the plasma by excitation due to the passage of the beam is also described in this report. (author) [French] Les instabilites se developpant dans un systeme 'faisceau-plasma' et dans un systeme 'faisceau-faisceau' en la presence d'un champ magnetique sont discutees theoriquement a partir de l'expression du tenseur de conductivite d'un systeme multi-faisceaux. La propagation oblique est prise en consideration, ce qui introduit certains mecanismes d'instabilite qui n'apparaitraient pas pour une propagation purement parallele ou perpendiculaire au champ magnetique. Deux experiences sont decrites: a) Etude de la collision de deux faisceaux d'electrons: Une instabilite conduisant a la generation d'une onde cyclotronique stationnaire a la frequence {omega}{sub ce}/2 a ete observee experimentalement. Les mesures de la frequence d
A time-of-flight system for precise measurements of a relativistic charged particle beam momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avramenko, S.A.; Belikov, Yu.A.; Golokhvastov, A.I.; Lukstin'sh, Yu.; Man'yakov, P.K.; Rukoyatkin, P.A.; Khorozov, S.A.
1996-01-01
A time-of-flight system with a time resolution (σ) about 100 ps is described. The methods for the calibration, stability verification and the method for the time resolution evaluation in conditions of a nonmonochromatic beam are discussed especially. The system was applied in charge exchange ( 3 H, 3 He) experiments with the GIBS spectrometer for a measurement of 3 H-nuclei momenta at 2 GeV/c per nucleon with a precision about 0.2%. (author). 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab
Magnetized Langmuir wave packets excited by a strong beam-plasma interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pelletier, G.; Sol, H.; Asseo, E.
1988-01-01
The physics of beam-plasma interaction, which has been investigated for a long time mostly in relation with solar bursts, is now more widely invoked in various astrophysical contexts such as pulsars, active galactic nuclei, close binaries, cataclysmic variables, γ bursters, and so on. In these situations the interaction is more likely in the spirit of strong Langmuir turbulence rather than in the spirit of quasilinear theory. Many investigations have been done for two opposite extremes, namely, in very weak and in very strong magnetic fields. Very few properties of the strong Langmuir turbulence are known in the most usual astrophysical situation where the magnetic field plays a significant role but is not strong enough to force the electrons into one-dimensional motion. For this case, we analyze the dynamics of Langmuir wave packets and provide new results about the stability of the solitons against transverse perturbations. It turns out that both the averaged Lagrangian method and the adiabatic perturbation method derived from the inverse scattering transform give exactly the same results (which is not obvious in soliton perturbation theory). In particular, they predict the stability of the solitons as long as the electron gyrofrequency is greater than the plasma frequency (strong magnetic field) and their instability against transverse self-modulation in the opposite case (weak magnetic field); moreover, they allow one to deduce the self-similar collapsing oblate cavitons in the latter case. The laws governing the collapse of the wave packets determine the relaxation of the beam in the surrounding medium and we derive a useful formula giving the power loss of the beam. We outline the astrophysical consequences of this investigation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engelage, J.; Crawford, H.J.; Greiner, L.; Kuo, C.
1996-06-01
The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) at the LBL Bevalac provided a unique facility for measuring projectile fragmentation cross sections important in deconvolving the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) source composition. The general characteristics of the apparatus specific to this application are described and the main features of the event reconstruction and analysis used in the TRANSPORT experiment are discussed
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Burša, Milan; Kenyon, S.; Kouba, J.; Šíma, Zdislav; Vatrt, V.; Vítek, V.; Vojtíšková, M.
2007-01-01
Roč. 81, č. 2 (2007), s. 103-110 ISSN 0949-7714 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/2381 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : geopotential * vertical datum unification * relativistic atomic time scale Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.636, year: 2007
Local density approximations for relativistic exchange energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacDonald, A.H.
1986-01-01
The use of local density approximations to approximate exchange interactions in relativistic electron systems is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the physical content of these exchange energies by discussing results for the uniform relativistic electron gas from a new point of view. Work on applying these local density approximations in atoms and solids is reviewed and it is concluded that good accuracy is usually possible provided self-interaction corrections are applied. The local density approximations necessary for spin-polarized relativistic systems are discussed and some new results are presented
Relativistic Linear Restoring Force
Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.
2012-01-01
We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…
Simulating relativistic beam and plasma systems using an optimal boosted frame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vay, J.-L.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Fawley, W. M.; Martins, S. F.; Cary, J. R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Cowan, B.; Fonseca, R. A.; Furman, M. A.; Lu, W.; Mori, W. B.; Silva, L. O.
2009-01-01
It was shown recently that it may be computationally advantageous to perform computer simulations in a Lorentz boosted frame for a certain class of systems. However, even if the computer model relies on a covariant set of equations, it was pointed out that algorithmic difficulties related to discretization errors may have to be overcome in order to take full advantage of the potential speedup. In this paper, we summarize the findings, the difficulties and their solutions, and review the applications of the technique that have been performed to date.
Speeding Up Simulations of Relativistic Systems using an Optimal Boosted Frame
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vay, J.-L.; Fawley, W.M.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grote, D.P.
2009-01-01
It can be computationally advantageous to perform computer simulations in a Lorentz boosted frame for a certain class of systems. However, even if the computer model relies on a covariant set of equations, it has been pointed out that algorithmic difficulties related to discretization errors may have to be overcome in order to take full advantage of the potential speedup. We summarize the findings, the difficulties and their solutions, and show that the technique enables simulations important to several areas of accelerator physics that are otherwise problematic, including self-consistent modeling in three-dimensions of laser wokefield accelerator stages at energies of 10 GeV and above.
Beyond the relativistic point particle: A reciprocally invariant system and its generalisation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavsic, Matej
2009-01-01
We investigate a reciprocally invariant system proposed by Low and Govaerts et al., whose action contains both the orthogonal and the symplectic forms and is invariant under global O(2,4) intersection Sp(2,4) transformations. We find that the general solution to the classical equations of motion has no linear term in the evolution parameter, τ, but only the oscillatory terms, and therefore cannot represent a particle propagating in spacetime. As a remedy, we consider a generalisation of the action by adopting a procedure similar to that of Bars et al., who introduced the concept of a τ derivative that is covariant under local Sp(2) transformations between the phase space variables x μ (τ) and p μ (τ). This system, in particular, is similar to a rigid particle whose action contains the extrinsic curvature of the world line, which turns out to be helical in spacetime. Another possible generalisation is the introduction of a symplectic potential proposed by Montesinos. We show how the latter approach is related to Kaluza-Klein theories and to the concept of Clifford space, a manifold whose tangent space at any point is Clifford algebra Cl(8), a promising framework for the unification of particles and forces.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstaedt, P.
1983-01-01
on the basis of the well-known quantum logic and quantum probability a formal language of relativistic quantum physics is developed. This language incorporates quantum logical as well as relativistic restrictions. It is shown that relativity imposes serious restrictions on the validity regions of propositions in space-time. By an additional postulate this relativistic quantum logic can be made consistent. The results of this paper are derived exclusively within the formal quantum language; they are, however, in accordance with well-known facts of relativistic quantum physics in Hilbert space. (author)
On quantization of relativistic string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isaev, A.P.
1982-01-01
Quantization of the relativistic string theory based on methods of the constrained Hamiltonian systems quantization is considered. Connections of this approach and Polyakov's quantization are looked. New representation of a loop heat kernel is obtained
Tang, Feng; Luo, Xi; Du, Yongping; Yu, Yue; Wan, Xiangang
Very recently, there has been significant progress in realizing high-energy particles in condensed matter system (CMS) such as the Dirac, Weyl and Majorana fermions. Besides the spin-1/2 particles, the spin-3/2 elementary particle, known as the Rarita-Schwinger (RS) fermion, has not been observed or simulated in the laboratory. The main obstacle of realizing RS fermion in CMS lies in the nontrivial constraints that eliminate the redundant degrees of freedom in its representation of the Poincaré group. In this Letter, we propose a generic method that automatically contains the constraints in the Hamiltonian and prove the RS modes always exist and can be separated from the other non-RS bands. Through symmetry considerations, we show that the two dimensional (2D) massive RS (M-RS) quasiparticle can emerge in several trigonal and hexagonal lattices. Based on ab initio calculations, we predict that the thin film of CaLiX (X=Ge and Si) may host 2D M-RS excitations near the Fermi level. and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing 210093, China.
On some aspects of the relativistic description of the two-nucleon system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuilhof, M.
1981-01-01
It has been shown that the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) with a one-boson exchange (OBE) as the driving force is capable of giving a reasonable description of the two-nucleon system. They find it necessary to use a pseudo-vector (PV) pion-nucleon coupling, instead of the usual pseudo-scalar (PS) coupling, due to the very strong effects induced by the coupling of positive and negative-energy states in the latter case. Within such a field-theoretic model it is possible to study the electro-magnetic effects in a consistent way and the results, which are described in this thesis, do not deviate markedly from those calculated within a nonrelativistic model without corrections. A detailed analysis of the perturbative approach, is given and reveals both for PV and for PS coupling that there are effects which compensate the accepted contributions substantially. In particular, it is important to include the corrections due to special relativity in a consistent way. In addition the convergence of the quasipotential approach to the BSE has also been studied by adding higher order one-loop corrections. In general the author finds that the inclusion of corrections from the two-pion direct-box diagram to the driving force does not yield phase shifts close to the ones obtained from the BSE. The crossed-box effects are also of interest because one expects that there are cancellations with the direct-box diagram. This turns out not to be the case. Although there are essentially no problems in including these contributions in the description of the nucleon-nucleon interaction within the Blankenbeckler and Sugar framework, difficulties arise in the evaluation of the electromagnetic deuteron vertex function. (Auth.)
On the convexity of relativistic hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibáñez, José M; Martí, José M; Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Miralles, Juan A
2013-01-01
The relativistic hydrodynamic system of equations for a perfect fluid obeying a causal equation of state is hyperbolic (Anile 1989 Relativistic Fluids and Magneto-Fluids (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)). In this report, we derive the conditions for this system to be convex in terms of the fundamental derivative of the equation of state (Menikoff and Plohr1989 Rev. Mod. Phys. 61 75). The classical limit is recovered. Communicated by L Rezzolla (note)
Leading order relativistic chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction
Ren, Xiu-Lei; Li, Kai-Wen; Geng, Li-Sheng; Long, Bingwei; Ring, Peter; Meng, Jie
2018-01-01
Motivated by the successes of relativistic theories in studies of atomic/molecular and nuclear systems and the need for a relativistic chiral force in relativistic nuclear structure studies, we explore a new relativistic scheme to construct the nucleon-nucleon interaction in the framework of covariant chiral effective field theory. The chiral interaction is formulated up to leading order with covariant power counting and a Lorentz invariant chiral Lagrangian. We find that the relativistic scheme induces all six spin operators needed to describe the nuclear force. A detailed investigation of the partial wave potentials shows a better description of the {}1S0 and {}3P0 phase shifts than the leading order Weinberg approach, and similar to that of the next-to-leading order Weinberg approach. For the other partial waves with angular momenta J≥slant 1, the relativistic results are almost the same as their leading order non-relativistic counterparts. )
RANKINE-HUGONIOT RELATIONS IN RELATIVISTIC COMBUSTION WAVES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Yang; Law, Chung K.
2012-01-01
As a foundational element describing relativistic reacting waves of relevance to astrophysical phenomena, the Rankine-Hugoniot relations classifying the various propagation modes of detonation and deflagration are analyzed in the relativistic regime, with the results properly degenerating to the non-relativistic and highly relativistic limits. The existence of negative-pressure downstream flows is noted for relativistic shocks, which could be of interest in the understanding of the nature of dark energy. Entropy analysis for relativistic shock waves is also performed for relativistic fluids with different equations of state (EoS), denoting the existence of rarefaction shocks in fluids with adiabatic index Γ < 1 in their EoS. The analysis further shows that weak detonations and strong deflagrations, which are rare phenomena in terrestrial environments, are expected to exist more commonly in astrophysical systems because of the various endothermic reactions present therein. Additional topics of relevance to astrophysical phenomena are also discussed.
A relativistic quarkonium potential model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klima, B.; Maor, U.
1984-04-01
We review a recently developed relativistic quark-antiquark bound state equation using the expansion in intermediate states. Using a QCD motivated potential we succeeded very well to fit both the heavy systems (banti b, canti c) and the light systems (santi s, uanti u and danti d). Here we emphasize our results on heavy-light sustems and on the possible (tanti t) family. (orig.)
Relativistic quantum mechanics; Mecanique quantique relativiste
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ollitrault, J.Y. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Physique Theorique]|[Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris (France)
1998-12-01
These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.) 2 refs.
Towards relativistic quantum geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ridao, Luis Santiago [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2015-12-17
We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner–Nordström black-hole is studied.
Norbury, John W.
1992-01-01
Nuclear fission reactions induced by the electromagnetic field of relativistic nuclei are studied for energies relevant to present and future relativistic heavy ion accelerators. Cross sections are calculated for U-238 and Pu-239 fission induced by C-12, Si-28, Au-197, and U-238 projectiles. It is found that some of the cross sections can exceed 10 b.
Relativistic Shock Acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duffy, P.; Downes, T.P.; Gallant, Y.A.; Kirk, J.G.
1999-01-01
In this paper we briefly review the basic theory of shock waves in relativistic hydrodynamics and magneto-hydrodynamics, emphasising some astrophysically interesting cases. We then present an overview of the theory of particle acceleration at such shocks describing the methods used to calculate the spectral indices of energetic particles. Recent results on acceleration at ultra-relativistic shocks are discussed. (author)
Deflection type energy analyser for energetic electron beams in a beam-plasma system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michel, J.A.; Hogge, J.P.
1988-11-01
An energy analyser for the study of electron beam distribution functions in unmagnetized plasmas is described. This analyser is designed to avoid large electric fields which are created in multi-grid analysers and to measure directly the beam distribution function without differentiation. As an example of an application we present results on the propagation of an energetic beam (E b : 2.0 keV) in a plasma (n o : 1.10 10 cm -3 , T e : 1.4 eV) (author) 7 figs., 10 refs
Generation of an intense stationary wave in modulated beam-plasma systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jungwirth, K.; Krlin, L.
1974-03-01
Basic equations and numerical results describing nonlinear interaction of a weakly modulated electron beam with a single stationary one-dimensional wave excited in a cold plasma without the magnetic field, are presented and discussed. The effect of all possible irreversible processes (e.g., plasma turbulence) accompanying this interaction is simulated by the constant effective collision frequency νsub(eff) of plasma electrons. Starting from the nonlinear Poisson equation, the expression for the amplitude and the phase of the beam-excited wave are derived and solved numerically together with the equations of the beam electron motion. The results are compared with those of a time model. Significant, experimentally detectable differences are established. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagornyj, S.I.; Kasatkin, Yu.A.; Zolenko, V.A.
1992-01-01
A study is made of the effects of Lorentz invariance and nuclear current conservation in calculations of the AΦ-asymmetry of the cross sections for (e,e',p) reactions on few-body systems. The AΦ-value is shown to be very sensitive to different relativistic effects and to nuclear current conservation. In the quasi-elastic region (q 2 /2mν∼1, P mis /m p cm >50 0 the AΦ-asymmetry is determined by both the reaction mechanisms and the intranuclear dynamics. 12 refs.; 3 figs. (author)
Relativistic many-body theory of atomic transitions. The relativistic equation-of-motion approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, K.
1982-01-01
An equation-of-motion approach is used to develop the relativistic many-body theory of atomic transitions. The relativistic equations of motion for transition matrices are formulated with the use of techniques of quantum-field theory. To reduce the equations of motion to a tractable form which is appropriate for numerical calculations, a graphical method to resolve the complication arising from the antisymmetrization and angular-momentum coupling is employed. The relativistic equation-of-motion method allows an ab initio treatment of correlation and relativistic effects in both closed- and open-shell many-body systems. A special case of the present formulation reduces to the relativistic random-phase approximation
Pythagoras Theorem and Relativistic Kinematics
Mulaj, Zenun; Dhoqina, Polikron
2010-01-01
In two inertial frames that move in a particular direction, may be registered a light signal that propagates in an angle with this direction. Applying Pythagoras theorem and principles of STR in both systems, we can derive all relativistic kinematics relations like the relativity of simultaneity of events, of the time interval, of the length of objects, of the velocity of the material point, Lorentz transformations, Doppler effect and stellar aberration.
Relativistic mechanics with reduced fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolov, S.N.
1996-01-01
A new relativistic classical mechanics of interacting particles using a concept of a reduced field (RF) os proposed. RF is a mediator of interactions, the state of which is described by a finite number of two-argument functions. Ten of these functions correspond to the generators of the Poincare group. Equations of motion contain the retardation of interactions required by the causality principle and have form of a finite system of ordinary hereditary differential equations [ru
Raitt, W. J.; Banks, P. M.; Denig, W. F.; Anderson, H. R.
1982-01-01
Interest in the interaction of electron beams with plasma generated by ionization caused by the primary electron beam was stimulated by the need to develop special vacuum tubes to operate in the kMHz frequency region. The experiments of Getty and Smullin (1963) indicated that the interaction of an energetic electron beam with its self-produced plasma resulted in the emission of wave energy over a wide range of frequencies associated with cyclotron and longitudinal plasma instabilities. This enhanced the thermal plasma density in the vicinity of the beam, and the term Beam-Plasma Discharge (BPD) was employed to described this phenomenon. The present investigation is concerned with some of the transient phenomena associated with wave emission during the beam switch-on and switch-off periods. Results are presented on the changes in electron energy spectra on a time scale of tens of milliseconds following beam switch-on. The results are discussed in terms of the beam plasma discharge phenomenon.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raitt, W.J.; Banks, P.M.
1982-01-01
Interest in the interaction of electron beams with plasma generated by ionization caused by the primary electron beam was stimulated by the need to develop special vacuum tubes to operate in the kMHz frequency region. The experiments of Getty and Smullin (1963) indicated that the interaction of an energetic electron beam with its self-produced plasma resulted in the emission of wave energy over a wide range of frequencies associated with cyclotron and longitudinal plasma instabilities. This enhanced the thermal plasma density in the vicinity of the beam, and the term Beam-Plasma Discharge (BPD) was employed to described this phenomenon. The present investigation is concerned with some of the transient phenomena associated with wave emission during the beam switch-on and switch-off periods. Results are presented on the changes in electron energy spectra on a time scale of tens of milliseconds following beam switch-on. The results are discussed in terms of the beam plasma discharge phenomenon. 5 references
Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matthew J. Benacquista
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, S.; Goffeney, N.; Deadrick, F.
1994-11-01
A systems study, including physics, engineering and costing, has been conducted to assess the feasibility of a relativistic-klystron two-beam-accelerator (RK-TBA) system as a RF power source candidate for a 1 TeV linear collider. Several key issues associated with a realizable RK-TBA system have been addressed, and corresponding schemes have been developed and examined quantitatively. A point design example has been constructed to present a concrete conceptual design which has acceptable transverse and longitudinal beam stability properties. The overall efficiency of RF production for such a power source is estimated to be 36%, and the cost of the full system is estimated to be less than 1 billion dollars
Double Relativistic Electron Accelerating Mirror
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saltanat Sadykova
2013-02-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, the possibility of generation of thin dense relativistic electron layers is shown using the analytical and numerical modeling of laser pulse interaction with ultra-thin layers. It was shown that the maximum electron energy can be gained by optimal tuning between the target width, intensity and laser pulse duration. The optimal parameters were obtained from a self-consistent system of Maxwell equations and the equation of motion of electron layer. For thin relativistic electron layers, the gaining of maximum electron energies requires a second additional overdense plasma layer, thus cutting the laser radiation off the plasma screen at the instant of gaining the maximum energy (DREAM-schema.
Bogatu, I. N.; Thompson, J. R.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.
2013-10-01
We produced a C60 nanoparticle plasma jet (NPPJ) with uniquely fast response-to-delivery time (~ 1 - 2 ms) and unprecedentedly high momentum (~ 0 . 6 g .km/s). The C60 NPPJ was obtained by using a solid state TiH2/C60 pulsed power cartridge producing ~180 mg of C60 molecular gas by sublimation and by electromagnetic acceleration of the C60 plasma in a coaxial gun (~35 cm length, 96 kJ energy) with the output of a high-density (>1023 m-3) hyper-velocity (>4 km/s) plasma jet. The ~ 75 mg C60/C plasma jet has the potential to rapidly and deeply deliver enough mass to significantly increase electron density (to ne ~ 2 . 4 ×1021 m-3, i.e. ~ 60 times larger than typical DIII-D pre-disruption value, ne 0 ~ 4 ×1019 m-3), and to modify the 'critical electric field' and the runaway electrons (REs) collisional drag during different phases of REs dynamics. The C60 NPPJ, as a novel injection technique, allows RE beam-plasma interaction diagnostic by quantitative spectroscopy of C ions visible/UV line intensity. The system is scalable to ~ 1 - 2 g C60/C plasma jet output and technology is adaptable to ITER acceptable materials (BN and Be) for disruption mitigation. Work supported by US DOE DE-FG02-08ER85196 grant.
Plasma relativistic microwave electronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzelev, M.V.; Loza, O.T.; Rukhadze, A.A.; Strelkov, P.S.; Shkvarunets, A.G.
2001-01-01
One formulated the principles of plasma relativistic microwave electronics based on the induced Cherenkov radiation of electromagnetic waves at interaction of a relativistic electron beam with plasma. One developed the theory of plasma relativistic generators and accelerators of microwave radiation, designed and studied the prototypes of such devices. One studied theoretically the mechanisms of radiation, calculated the efficiencies and the frequency spectra of plasma relativistic microwave generators and accelerators. The theory findings are proved by the experiment: intensity of the designed sources of microwave radiation is equal to 500 μW, the frequency of microwave radiation is increased by 7 times (from 4 up to 28 GHz), the width of radiation frequency band may vary from several up to 100%. The designed sources of microwave radiation are no else compared in the electronics [ru
Relativistic bound state wave functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Micu, L.
2005-01-01
A particular method of writing the bound state wave functions in relativistic form is applied to the solutions of the Dirac equation with confining potentials in order to obtain a relativistic description of a quark antiquark bound system representing a given meson. Concerning the role of the effective constituent in the present approach we first observe that without this additional constituent we couldn't expand the bound state wave function in terms of products of free states. Indeed, we notice that if the wave function depends on the relative coordinates only, all the expansion coefficients would be infinite. Secondly we remark that the effective constituent enabled us to give a Lorentz covariant meaning to the potential energy of the bound system which is now seen as the 4th component of a 4-momentum. On the other side, by relating the effective constituent to the quantum fluctuations of the background field which generate the binding, we provided a justification for the existence of some spatial degrees of freedom accompanying the interaction potential. These ones, which are quite unusual in quantum mechanics, in our model are the natural consequence of the the independence of the quarks and can be seen as the effect of the imperfect cancellation of the vector momenta during the quantum fluctuations. Related with all these we remark that the adequate representation for the relativistic description of a bound system is the momentum representation, because of the transparent and easy way of writing the conservation laws and the transformation properties of the wave functions. The only condition to be fulfilled is to find a suitable way to take into account the potential energy of the bound system. A particular feature of the present approach is that the confining forces are due to a kind of glue where both quarks are embedded. This recalls other bound state models where the wave function is factorized in terms of constituent wave functions and the confinement is
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antippa, Adel F [Departement de Physique, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, Quebec G9A 5H7 (Canada)
2009-05-15
We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful method that can be applied to a wide range of special relativistic problems of linear acceleration.
Exact Relativistic `Antigravity' Propulsion
Felber, Franklin S.
2006-01-01
The Schwarzschild solution is used to find the exact relativistic motion of a payload in the gravitational field of a mass moving with constant velocity. At radial approach or recession speeds faster than 3-1/2 times the speed of light, even a small mass gravitationally repels a payload. At relativistic speeds, a suitable mass can quickly propel a heavy payload from rest nearly to the speed of light with negligible stresses on the payload.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strange, P.
2010-01-01
Quantum revivals are now a well-known phenomena within nonrelativistic quantum theory. In this Letter we display the effects of relativity on revivals and quantum carpets. It is generally believed that revivals do not occur within a relativistic regime. Here we show that while this is generally true, it is possible, in principle, to set up wave packets with specific mathematical properties that do exhibit exact revivals within a fully relativistic theory.
Grunskaya, L. V.; Isakevich, V. V.; Isakevich, D. V.
2018-05-01
A system is constructed, which, on the basis of extensive experimental material and the use of eigenoscopy, has allowed us to detect anomalies in the spectra of uncorrelated components localized near the rotation frequencies and twice the rotation frequencies of relativistic binary star systems with vanishingly low probability of false alarm, not exceeding 10-17.
Theoretical study of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aucar, I. Agustín, E-mail: agustin.aucar@conicet.gov.ar; Gomez, Sergio S., E-mail: ssgomez@exa.unne.edu.ar [Institute for Modeling and Technological Innovation, IMIT (CONICET-UNNE) and Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Northeastern University of Argentina, Avenida Libertad 5400, W3404AAS Corrientes (Argentina); Giribet, Claudia G.; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C. [Physics Department, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires and IFIBA CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2014-11-21
An original formulation of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor valid for heavy atom containing compounds is presented. In such formulation, the relevant terms of a molecular Hamiltonian for non-relativistic nuclei and relativistic electrons in the laboratory system are considered. Terms linear and bilinear in the nuclear rotation angular momentum and an external uniform magnetic field are considered within first and second order (relativistic) perturbation theory to obtain the rotational g-tensor. Relativistic effects are further analyzed by carrying out the linear response within the elimination of the small component expansion. Quantitative results for model systems HX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), XF (X=Cl, Br, I), and YH{sup +} (Y=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) are obtained both at the RPA and density functional theory levels of approximation. Relativistic effects are shown to be small for this molecular property. The relation between the rotational g-tensor and susceptibility tensor which is valid in the non-relativistic theory does not hold within the relativistic framework, and differences between both molecular parameters are analyzed for the model systems under study. It is found that the non-relativistic relation remains valid within 2% even for the heavy HI, IF, and XeH{sup +} systems. Only for the sixth-row Rn atom a significant deviation of this relation is found.
Theoretical study of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aucar, I. Agustín; Gomez, Sergio S.; Giribet, Claudia G.; Ruiz de Azúa, Martín C.
2014-01-01
An original formulation of the relativistic molecular rotational g-tensor valid for heavy atom containing compounds is presented. In such formulation, the relevant terms of a molecular Hamiltonian for non-relativistic nuclei and relativistic electrons in the laboratory system are considered. Terms linear and bilinear in the nuclear rotation angular momentum and an external uniform magnetic field are considered within first and second order (relativistic) perturbation theory to obtain the rotational g-tensor. Relativistic effects are further analyzed by carrying out the linear response within the elimination of the small component expansion. Quantitative results for model systems HX (X=F, Cl, Br, I), XF (X=Cl, Br, I), and YH + (Y=Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) are obtained both at the RPA and density functional theory levels of approximation. Relativistic effects are shown to be small for this molecular property. The relation between the rotational g-tensor and susceptibility tensor which is valid in the non-relativistic theory does not hold within the relativistic framework, and differences between both molecular parameters are analyzed for the model systems under study. It is found that the non-relativistic relation remains valid within 2% even for the heavy HI, IF, and XeH + systems. Only for the sixth-row Rn atom a significant deviation of this relation is found
Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2011-01-01
A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.
Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.
Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho
2011-08-01
A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.
The relativistic Brownian motion: Interdisciplinary applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aragones-Munoz, A; Sandoval-Villalbazo, A
2010-01-01
Relativistic Brownian motion theory will be applied to the study of analogies between physical and economic systems, emphasizing limiting cases in which Gaussian distributions are no longer valid. The characteristic temperatures of the particles will be associated with the concept of variance, and this will allow us to choose whether the pertinent distribution is classical or relativistic, while working specific situations. The properties of particles can be interpreted as economic variables, in order to study the behavior of markets in terms of Levy financial processes, since markets behave as stochastic systems. As far as we know, the application of the Juettner distribution to the study of economic systems is a new idea.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bliman, S L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1966-06-01
The H.F. emissions from a cold-cathode reflex discharge are studied. An experimental law for the frequency variation shows that f{alpha}V{sup 1/2} discharged if B{sub 0} and p are constant. If B{sub 0} is made to increase, the frequencies change such that f{sub ce} - f emitted / f{sub ce} decreases. With each emitted frequency there is associated a stationary wave system making it possible to measure the phase velocity V{phi} of the waves. This phase velocity is always close to that of the fast electrons accelerated by a potential V discharge. A non-quasistatic formalism for the propagation of waves in a beam-plasma system is then established. The Maxwell equations are solved taking into account boundary conditions. Comparison of these experiments with the theory shows a satisfactory agreement. (author) [French] On etudie les emissions H.F. d'une decharge reflex a cathodes froides. Une loi experimentale de variation des frequences montre que f{alpha}V{sup 1/2} decharge, si B{sub 0} et p sont fixes. Si on fait croitre B{sub 0}, les frequences evoluent de sorte que f{sub ce} - f emise / f{sub ce} diminue. A chaque frequence emise est associe un systeme d'ondes stationnaires qui permet la mesure de la vitesse de phase V{phi} des ondes. Cette vitesse de phase est toujours voisine de celle des electrons rapides acceleres sous la tension V decharge. On etablit ensuite un formalisme non quasistatique de propagation d'ondes dans un systeme faisceau plasma. On resoud les equations de MAXWELL avec conditions aux limites. La comparaison des experiences a la theorie aboutit a un accord satisfaisant. (auteur)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bliman, S.L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1966-06-01
The H.F. emissions from a cold-cathode reflex discharge are studied. An experimental law for the frequency variation shows that f{alpha}V{sup 1/2} discharged if B{sub 0} and p are constant. If B{sub 0} is made to increase, the frequencies change such that f{sub ce} - f emitted / f{sub ce} decreases. With each emitted frequency there is associated a stationary wave system making it possible to measure the phase velocity V{phi} of the waves. This phase velocity is always close to that of the fast electrons accelerated by a potential V discharge. A non-quasistatic formalism for the propagation of waves in a beam-plasma system is then established. The Maxwell equations are solved taking into account boundary conditions. Comparison of these experiments with the theory shows a satisfactory agreement. (author) [French] On etudie les emissions H.F. d'une decharge reflex a cathodes froides. Une loi experimentale de variation des frequences montre que f{alpha}V{sup 1/2} decharge, si B{sub 0} et p sont fixes. Si on fait croitre B{sub 0}, les frequences evoluent de sorte que f{sub ce} - f emise / f{sub ce} diminue. A chaque frequence emise est associe un systeme d'ondes stationnaires qui permet la mesure de la vitesse de phase V{phi} des ondes. Cette vitesse de phase est toujours voisine de celle des electrons rapides acceleres sous la tension V decharge. On etablit ensuite un formalisme non quasistatique de propagation d'ondes dans un systeme faisceau plasma. On resoud les equations de MAXWELL avec conditions aux limites. La comparaison des experiences a la theorie aboutit a un accord satisfaisant. (auteur)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Than, R.; Tuozzolo, Joseph; Sidi-Yekhlef, Ahmed; Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter; Arenius, Dana
2008-01-01
Brookhaven National Laboratory continues its multi-year program to improve the operational efficiency, reliability, and stability of the cryogenic system, which also resulted in an improved beam availability of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This paper summarizes the work and changes made after each phase over the past four years to the present, as well as proposed future improvements. Power usage dropped from an initial 9.4 MW to the present 5.1 MW and is expected to drop below 5 MW after the completion of the remaining proposed improvements. The work proceeded in phases, balancing the Collider's schedule of operation, time required for the modifications and budget constraints. The main changes include process control, compressor oil removal and management, elimination of the use of cold compressors and two liquid-helium storage tanks, insulation of the third liquid-helium storage tank, compressor-bypass flow reduction and the addition of a load turbine (Joule-Thomson)
Relativistic Spacecraft Propelled by Directed Energy
Kulkarni, Neeraj; Lubin, Philip; Zhang, Qicheng
2018-04-01
Achieving relativistic flight to enable extrasolar exploration is one of the dreams of humanity and the long-term goal of our NASA Starlight program. We derive a relativistic solution for the motion of a spacecraft propelled by radiation pressure from a directed energy (DE) system. Depending on the system parameters, low-mass spacecraft can achieve relativistic speeds, thus enabling interstellar exploration. The diffraction of the DE system plays an important role and limits the maximum speed of the spacecraft. We consider “photon recycling” as a possible method to achieving higher speeds. We also discuss recent claims that our previous work on this topic is incorrect and show that these claims arise from an improper treatment of causality.
Relativistic and non-relativistic studies of nuclear matter
Banerjee, MK; Tjon, JA
2002-01-01
We point out that the differences between the results of the non-relativistic lowest order Brueckner theory (LOBT) and the relativistic Dirac-Brueckner analysis predominantly arise from two sources. Besides effects from a nucleon mass modification M* in nuclear medium we have in a relativistic
Relativistic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ollitrault, J.Y.
1998-12-01
These notes form an introduction to relativistic quantum mechanics. The mathematical formalism has been reduced to the minimum in order to enable the reader to calculate elementary physical processes. The second quantification and the field theory are the logical followings of this course. The reader is expected to know analytical mechanics (Lagrangian and Hamiltonian), non-relativistic quantum mechanics and some basis of restricted relativity. The purpose of the first 3 chapters is to define the quantum mechanics framework for already known notions about rotation transformations, wave propagation and restricted theory of relativity. The next 3 chapters are devoted to the application of relativistic quantum mechanics to a particle with 0,1/5 and 1 spin value. The last chapter deals with the processes involving several particles, these processes require field theory framework to be thoroughly described. (A.C.)
Relativistic solitons and pulsars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karpman, V I [Inst. of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio-Wave Propagation, Moscow; Norman, C A; ter Haar, D; Tsytovich, V N
1975-05-01
A production mechanism for stable electron bunches or sheets of localized electric fields is investigated which may account for pulsar radio emission. Possible soliton phenomena in a one-dimensional relativistic plasma are analyzed, and it is suggested that the motion of a relativistic soliton, or ''relaton'', along a curved magnetic-field line may produce radio emission with the correct polarization properties. A general MHD solution is obtained for relatons, the radiation produced by a relativistic particle colliding with a soliton is evaluated, and the emission by a soliton moving along a curved field line is estimated. It is noted that due to a number of severe physical restrictions, curvature radiation is not a very likely solution to the problem of pulsar radio emission. (IAA)
Relativistic quantum mechanics
Horwitz, Lawrence P
2015-01-01
This book describes a relativistic quantum theory developed by the author starting from the E.C.G. Stueckelberg approach proposed in the early 40s. In this framework a universal invariant evolution parameter (corresponding to the time originally postulated by Newton) is introduced to describe dynamical evolution. This theory is able to provide solutions for some of the fundamental problems encountered in early attempts to construct a relativistic quantum theory. A relativistically covariant construction is given for which particle spins and angular momenta can be combined through the usual rotation group Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. Solutions are defined for both the classical and quantum two body bound state and scattering problems. The recently developed quantum Lax-Phillips theory of semigroup evolution of resonant states is described. The experiment of Lindner and coworkers on interference in time is discussed showing how the property of coherence in time provides a simple understanding of the results. Th...
Relativistic theories of materials
Bressan, Aldo
1978-01-01
The theory of relativity was created in 1905 to solve a problem concerning electromagnetic fields. That solution was reached by means of profound changes in fundamental concepts and ideas that considerably affected the whole of physics. Moreover, when Einstein took gravitation into account, he was forced to develop radical changes also in our space-time concepts (1916). Relativistic works on heat, thermodynamics, and elasticity appeared as early as 1911. However, general theories having a thermodynamic basis, including heat conduction and constitutive equations, did not appear in general relativity until about 1955 for fluids and appeared only after 1960 for elastic or more general finitely deformed materials. These theories dealt with materials with memory, and in this connection some relativistic versions of the principle of material indifference were considered. Even more recently, relativistic theories incorporating finite deformations for polarizable and magnetizable materials and those in which couple s...
Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Wenjian
2017-01-01
This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.
Handbook of relativistic quantum chemistry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Wenjian (ed.) [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Center for Computational Science and Engineering
2017-03-01
This handbook focuses on the foundations of relativistic quantum mechanics and addresses a number of fundamental issues never covered before in a book. For instance: How can many-body theory be combined with quantum electrodynamics? How can quantum electrodynamics be interfaced with relativistic quantum chemistry? What is the most appropriate relativistic many-electron Hamiltonian? How can we achieve relativistic explicit correlation? How can we formulate relativistic properties? - just to name a few. Since relativistic quantum chemistry is an integral component of computational chemistry, this handbook also supplements the ''Handbook of Computational Chemistry''. Generally speaking, it aims to establish the 'big picture' of relativistic molecular quantum mechanics as the union of quantum electrodynamics and relativistic quantum chemistry. Accordingly, it provides an accessible introduction for readers new to the field, presents advanced methodologies for experts, and discusses possible future perspectives, helping readers understand when/how to apply/develop the methodologies.
Biquaternions and relativistic kinematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogush, A.A.; Kurochkin, Yu.A.; Fedorov, F.I.
1979-01-01
The problems concerning the use of quaternion interpretation of the Lorentz group vector parametrization are considered for solving relativistic kinematics problems. A vector theory convenient for describing the characteristic features of the Lobachevsky space is suggested. The kinematics of elementary particle scattering is investigated on the basis of this theory. A synthesis of vector parametrization and of quaternion calculation has been shown to lead to natural formulation of the theory of vectors in the three-dimensional Lobachevsky space, realized on mass hyperboloids of relativistic particles
Relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barz, H.W.; Kaempfer, B.; Schulz, H.
1984-12-01
An elementary introduction is given into the scenario of relativistic heavy ion collisions. It deals with relativistic kinematics and estimates of energy densities, extrapolations of the present knowledge of hadron-hadron and hadron-nuleus to nucleus-nucleus collisions, the properties of the quark-gluon plasma and the formation of the plasma and possible experimental signatures. Comments are made on a cosmic ray experiment which could be interpreted as a first indication of the quark-gluon phase of the matter. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beck, Tobias
2015-02-15
Cold ion beams are essential for many precision experiments at storage rings. While spectroscopic experiments gain from the high energy resolution, collision experiments benefit from the increased luminosity. Furthermore, sympathetic cooling of exotic species is conceivable with the aid of cold ion beams. Besides the long established electron cooling, alternative cooling methods are gaining in importance, especially for high energy particles. In the past, experiments to cool ions with lasers were performed. Because of the matching wavelength and output power, frequency doubled Argon-ion lasers at 257 nm were used during these experiments. Due to the strongly limited scanning potential of these systems, it was not possible to cool the full inertia spread of the ion beams. A new laser system was developed in this thesis because of the lack of commercial alternatives. After the characterization of the system, it was tested during a beamtime at the Experimentierspeicherring (ESR) at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI). The completely solid state based system delivers up to 180 mW of output power at 257 nm and is modehop free tunable up to 16 GHz in 10 ms at this wavelength. By using efficient diode lasers, the new system consumes considerably less power than comparable Argon-ion lasers. The fundamental wavelength of 1028 nm is amplified up to 16 W with an Yb-doped fiber amplifier. Subsequently, the target wavelength of 257 nm is realized in two consecutive build-up cavities. Another diode laser, stabilized to a wavelength meter, serves as a frequency reference. This new laser system first came to operation during beamtime in August 2012, when relativistic C{sup 3+} ions with β=0.47 were cooled successfully. For the first time it was possible to access the whole inertia spread of a bunched ion beam without electron precooling. In contrast to prior experiments, only the laser frequency was scanned and not the bunching frequency of the ion beam. The results
Relativistic decay widths of autoionization processes: The relativistic FanoADC-Stieltjes method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fasshauer, Elke, E-mail: Elke.Fasshauer@uit.no [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Tromsø–The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Theoretische Chemie, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kolorenč, Přemysl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Pernpointner, Markus [Theoretische Chemie, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2015-04-14
Electronic decay processes of ionized systems are, for example, the Auger decay or the Interatomic/ Intermolecular Coulombic Decay. In both processes, an energetically low lying vacancy is filled by an electron of an energetically higher lying orbital and a secondary electron is instantaneously emitted to the continuum. Whether or not such a process occurs depends both on the energetic accessibility and the corresponding lifetime compared to the lifetime of competing decay mechanisms. We present a realization of the non-relativistically established FanoADC-Stieltjes method for the description of autoionization decay widths including relativistic effects. This procedure, being based on the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction (ADC), was adapted to the relativistic framework and implemented into the relativistic quantum chemistry program package Dirac. It is, in contrast to other existing relativistic atomic codes, not limited to the description of autoionization lifetimes in spherically symmetric systems, but is instead also applicable to molecules and clusters. We employ this method to the Auger processes following the Kr3d{sup −1}, Xe4d{sup −1}, and Rn5d{sup −1} ionization. Based on the results, we show a pronounced influence of mainly scalar-relativistic effects on the decay widths of autoionization processes.
Relativistic particle in a box
Alberto, P.; Fiolhais, Carlos; Gil, Victor
1996-01-01
The problem of a relativistic spin 1/2 particle confined to a one-dimensional box is solved in a way that resembles closely the solution of the well known quantum-mechanical textbook problem of a non-relativistic particle in a box. The energy levels and probability density are computed and compared with the non-relativistic case
The classical field limit of scattering theory for non-relativistic many-boson systems. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginibre, J.
1979-01-01
We study the classical field limit of non-relativistic many-boson theories in space dimension n >= 3. When h → 0, the correlation functions, which are the averages of products of bounded functions of field operators at different times taken in suitable states, converge to the corresponding functions of the appropriate solutions of the classical field equation, and the quantum fluctuations, are described by the equation obtained by linearizing the field equation around the classical solution. These properties were proved by Hepp for suitably regular potentials and in finite time intervals. Using a general theory of existence of global solutions and a general scattering theory for the clasical equation, we extend these results in two directions: (1) we consider more singular potentials, (2) more imortant, we prove that for dispersive classical solutions, the h → 0 limit is uniform in time in an appropriate representation of the field operators. As a consequence we obtain the convergence of suitable matrix elements of the wave operators and, if asymptotic completeness holds, of the S-matrix. (orig.) [de
Similarity flows in relativistic hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaizot, J.P.; Ollitrault, J.Y.
1986-01-01
In ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions, one expects in particular to observe a deconfinement transition leading to a formation of quark gluon plasma. In the framework of the hydrodynamic model, experimental signatures of such a plasma may be looked for as observable consequences of a first order transition on the evolution of the system. In most of the possible scenario, the phase transition is accompanied with discontinuities in the hydrodynamic flow, such as shock waves. The method presented in this paper has been developed to treat without too much numerical effort such discontinuous flow. It relies heavily on the use of similarity solutions of the hydrodynamic equations
Relativistic theory of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1985-01-01
This work presents an unambiguous construction of the relativistic theory of gravity (RTG) in the framework of relativity and the geometrization principle. The gauge principle has been formulated, and the Lagrangian density of the gravitational field has thus been constructed. This theory explains the totality of the available experimental data on the solar system and predicts the existence of gravitational waves of the Faraday-Maxwell type. According to the RTG, the Universe is infinite and ''flat'', hence it follows that its matter density should be equal to its critical density. Therefore, an appreciable ''hidden mass'' exceeding the presently observed mass of the matter almost 40-fold should exist in the Universe in some form of the matter or other. In accordance with the RTG, a massive body having a finite density ceases to contract under gravitational forces within a finite interval of proper time. From the viewpoint of an external reference frame, the brightness of the body decreases exponentially (it is getting darker), but nothing extraordinary happens in this case because its density always remains finite and, for example, for a body with the mass of about 10 8 M 0 it is equal to 2 g/cm 3 . That is why it follows from the RTG that there could be no object whatsoever (black holes) in which gravitational collapse of matter develops to an infinite density. As has been shown, the presence of a cosmological term necessarily requires the introduction of a term with an explicit dependence on the Minkowski metrics. For the long-range gravitational forces the cosmological constant vanishes
Relativistic impulse dynamics.
Swanson, Stanley M
2011-08-01
Classical electrodynamics has some annoying rough edges. The self-energy of charges is infinite without a cutoff. The calculation of relativistic trajectories is difficult because of retardation and an average radiation reaction term. By reconceptuallizing electrodynamics in terms of exchanges of impulses rather than describing it by forces and potentials, we eliminate these problems. A fully relativistic theory using photonlike null impulses is developed. Numerical calculations for a two-body, one-impulse-in-transit model are discussed. A simple relationship between center-of-mass scattering angle and angular momentum was found. It reproduces the Rutherford cross section at low velocities and agrees with the leading term of relativistic distinguishable-particle quantum cross sections (Møller, Mott) when the distance of closest approach is larger than the Compton wavelength of the particle. Magnetism emerges as a consequence of viewing retarded and advanced interactions from the vantage point of an instantaneous radius vector. Radiation reaction becomes the local conservation of energy-momentum between the radiating particle and the emitted impulse. A net action is defined that could be used in developing quantum dynamics without potentials. A reinterpretation of Newton's laws extends them to relativistic motion.
Non-relativistic supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.
1984-01-01
The most general one- and two-body hamiltonian invariant under galilean supersymmetry is constructed in superspace. The corresponding Feynman rules are given for the superfield Green functions. As demonstrated by a simple example, it is straightforward to construct models in which the supersymmetry is spontaneously broken by the non-relativistic vacuum. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bialynicki-Birula Iwo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Original definition of the Wigner function can be extended in a natural manner to relativistic domain in the framework of quantum field theory. Three such generalizations are described. They cover the cases of the Dirac particles, the photon, and the full electromagnetic field.
Antippa, Adel F.
2009-01-01
We solve the problem of the relativistic rocket by making use of the relation between Lorentzian and Galilean velocities, as well as the laws of superposition of successive collinear Lorentz boosts in the limit of infinitesimal boosts. The solution is conceptually simple, and technically straightforward, and provides an example of a powerful…
Relativistic Polarizable Embedding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hedegård, Erik Donovan; Bast, Radovan; Kongsted, Jacob
2017-01-01
Most chemistry, including chemistry where relativistic effects are important, occurs in an environment, and in many cases, this environment has a significant effect on the chemistry. In nonrelativistic quantum chemistry, a lot of progress has been achieved with respect to including environments s...
Relativistic length agony continued
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Redžić D.V.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028
Relativistic Coulomb excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winther, A.; Alder, K.
1979-01-01
Coulomb excitation of both target and projectile in relativistic heavy ion collisions is evaluated including the lowest order correction for the deviation from a straight line trajectory. Explicit results for differential and total cross sections are given in the form of tables and figures. (Auth.)
Fundamental Relativistic Rotator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staruszkiewicz, A.
2008-01-01
Professor Jan Weyssenhoff was Myron Mathisson's sponsor and collaborator. He introduced a class of objects known in Cracow as '' kreciolki Weyssenhoffa '', '' Weyssenhoff's rotating little beasts ''. The Author describes a particularly simple object from this class. The relativistic rotator described in the paper is such that its both Casimir invariants are parameters rather than constants of motion. (author)
Relativistic Quantum Mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antoine, J-P
2004-01-01
The aim of relativistic quantum mechanics is to describe the finer details of the structure of atoms and molecules, where relativistic effects become nonnegligible. It is a sort of intermediate realm, between the familiar nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and fully relativistic quantum field theory, and thus it lacks the simplicity and elegance of both. Yet it is a necessary tool, mostly for quantum chemists. Pilkuhn's book offers to this audience an up-to-date survey of these methods, which is quite welcome since most previous textbooks are at least ten years old. The point of view of the author is to start immediately in the relativistic domain, following the lead of Maxwell's equations rather than classical mechanics, and thus to treat the nonrelativistic version as an approximation. Thus Chapter 1 takes off from Maxwell's equations (in the noncovariant Coulomb gauge) and gradually derives the basic aspects of Quantum Mechanics in a rather pedestrian way (states and observables, Hilbert space, operators, quantum measurement, scattering,. Chapter 2 starts with the Lorentz transformations, then continues with the Pauli spin equation and the Dirac equation and some of their applications (notably the hydrogen atom). Chapter 3 is entitled 'Quantum fields and particles', but falls short of treating quantum field theory properly: only creation/annihilation operators are considered, for a particle in a box. The emphasis is on two-electron states (the Pauli principle, the Foldy--Wouthuysen elimination of small components of Dirac spinors, Breit projection operators. Chapter 4 is devoted to scattering theory and the description of relativistic bound states. Chapter 5, finally, covers hyperfine interactions and radiative corrections. As we said above, relativistic quantum mechanics is by nature limited in scope and rather inelegant and Pilkuhn's book is no exception. The notation is often heavy (mostly noncovariant) and the mathematical level rather low. The central topic
Relativistic dynamical reduction models and nonlocality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghirardi, G.C.; Grassi, R.
1990-09-01
We discuss some features of continuous dynamical models yielding state vector reduction and we briefly sketch some recent attempts to get a relativistic generalization of them. Within the relativistic context we analyze in detail the local an nonlocal features of the reduction mechanism and we investigate critically the possibility of attributing objective properties to individual systems in the micro and macroscopic cases. At the nonrelativistic level, two physically equivalent versions of continuous reduction mechanisms have been presented. However, only one of them can be taken as a starting point for the above considered relativistic generalization. By resorting to counterfactual arguments we show that the reason for this lies in the fact that the stochasticity involved in the two approaches has different conceptual implications. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs
Viscous photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dion, Maxime; Paquet, Jean-Francois; Young, Clint; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles; Schenke, Bjoern
2011-01-01
Theoretical studies of the production of real thermal photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are performed. The space-time evolution of the colliding system is modelled using music, a 3+1D relativistic hydrodynamic simulation, using both its ideal and viscous versions. The inclusive spectrum and its azimuthal angular anisotropy are studied separately, and the relative contributions of the different photon sources are highlighted. It is shown that the photon v 2 coefficient is especially sensitive to the details of the microscopic dynamics like the equation of state, the ratio of shear viscosity over entropy density, η/s, and to the morphology of the initial state.
particle simulation for electrostatic oscillation of virtual cathode in relativistic electron beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Deming; Wang Min
1990-01-01
The virtual cathode oscillation in relativistic electron beams is studied by a 1-D electrostatic particle simulation code with finite-size-particle model. When injection current is less than the space charge limiting current, electron beam propagates stably and transsmits completely. When injection current exceeds the space charge limit, its propagation is unstable, a part of electrons reflect and the other electrons transsmit. The position and potential of the virtual cathode caused by space charge effects oscillate periodically. When the beam current increases, the virtual cathode position closer to the injection plane and its oscillating region gets narrower, the virtual cathode potential decreases and its amplitude increases, the oscillation frequency increases above the beam plasma frequency
Nonlinear interaction of a parallel-flow relativistic electron beam with a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jungwirth, K.; Koerbel, S.; Simon, P.; Vrba, P.
1975-01-01
Nonlinear evolution of single-mode high-frequency instabilities (ω approximately ksub(parallel)vsub(b)) excited by a parallel-flow high-current relativistic electron beam in a magnetized plasma is investigated. Fairly general dimensionless equations are derived. They describe both the temporal and the spatial evolution of amplitude and phase of the fundamental wave. Numerically, the special case of excitation of the linearly most unstable mode is solved in detail assuming that the wave energy dissipation is negligible. Then the strength of interaction and the relativistic properties of the beam are fully respected by a single parameter lambda. The value of lambda ensuring the optimum efficiency of the wave excitation as well as the efficiency of the self-acceleration of some beam electrons at higher values of lambda>1 are determined in the case of a fully compensated relativistic beam. Finally, the effect of the return current dissipation is also included (phenomenologically) into the theoretical model, its role for the beam-plasma interaction being checked numerically. (J.U.)
Radio Ranging Techniques to test Relativistic Gravitation
Cowsik, R.
1999-01-01
It is suggested that modern techniques of radio ranging when applied to study the motion of the Moon, can improve the accuracy of tests of relativistic gravitation obtained with currently operating laser ranging techniques. Other auxillary information relevant to the Solar system would also emerge from such a study.
Relativistic BCS-BEC Crossover at Quark Level
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhuang P.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The non-relativistic G0G formalism of BCS-BEC crossover at ﬁnite temperature is extended to relativistic fermion systems. The theory recovers the BCS mean ﬁeld approximation at zero temperature and the non-relativistic results in a proper limit. For massive fermions, when the coupling strength increases, there exist two crossovers from the weak coupling BCS superﬂuid to the non-relativistic BEC state and then to the relativistic BEC state. For color superconductivity at moderate baryon density, the matter is in the BCS-BEC crossover region, and the behavior of the pseudogap is quite similar to that found in high temperature superconductors.
The relativistic gravity train
Seel, Max
2018-05-01
The gravity train that takes 42.2 min from any point A to any other point B that is connected by a straight-line tunnel through Earth has captured the imagination more than most other applications in calculus or introductory physics courses. Brachystochron and, most recently, nonlinear density solutions have been discussed. Here relativistic corrections are presented. It is discussed how the corrections affect the time to fall through Earth, the Sun, a white dwarf, a neutron star, and—the ultimate limit—the difference in time measured by a moving, a stationary and the fiducial observer at infinity if the density of the sphere approaches the density of a black hole. The relativistic gravity train can serve as a problem with approximate and exact analytic solutions and as numerical exercise in any introductory course on relativity.
Relativistic gravitational instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schutz, B.F.
1987-01-01
The purpose of these lectures is to review and explain what is known about the stability of relativistic stars and black holes, with particular emphases on two instabilities which are due entirely to relativistic effects. The first of these is the post-Newtonian pulsational instability discovered independently by Chandrasekhar (1964) and Fowler (1964). This effectively ruled out the then-popular supermassive star model for quasars, and it sets a limit to the central density of white dwarfs. The second instability was also discovered by Chandrasekhar (1970): the gravitational wave induced instability. This sets an upper bound on the rotation rate of neutron stars, which is near that of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214, and which is beginning to constrain the equation of state of neutron matter. 111 references, 5 figures
Relativistic heavy ion reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brink, D M
1989-08-01
The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs.
Bratek, Łukasz
2015-01-01
Two particularly simple ideal clocks exhibiting intrinsic circular motion with the speed of light and opposite spin alignment are described. The clocks are singled out by singularities of an inverse Legendre transformation for relativistic rotators of which mass and spin are fixed parameters. Such clocks work always the same way, no matter how they move. When subject to high accelerations or falling in strong gravitational fields of black holes, the clocks could be used to test the clock hypo...
Relativistic heavy ion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brink, D.M.
1989-08-01
The theory of quantum chromodynamics predicts that if nuclear matter is heated to a sufficiently high temperature then quarks might become deconfined and a quark-gluon plasma could be produced. One of the aims of relativistic heavy ion experiments is to search for this new state of matter. These lectures survey some of the new experimental results and give an introduction to the theories used to interpret them. 48 refs., 4 tabs., 11 figs
Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos
Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.
2017-09-01
Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.
Point form relativistic quantum mechanics and relativistic SU(6)
Klink, W. H.
1993-01-01
The point form is used as a framework for formulating a relativistic quantum mechanics, with the mass operator carrying the interactions of underlying constituents. A symplectic Lie algebra of mass operators is introduced from which a relativistic harmonic oscillator mass operator is formed. Mass splittings within the degenerate harmonic oscillator levels arise from relativistically invariant spin-spin, spin-orbit, and tensor mass operators. Internal flavor (and color) symmetries are introduced which make it possible to formulate a relativistic SU(6) model of baryons (and mesons). Careful attention is paid to the permutation symmetry properties of the hadronic wave functions, which are written as polynomials in Bargmann spaces.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alba, D.; Crater, H.W.; Lusanna, L.
2010-01-01
A complete exposition of the rest-frame instant form of dynamics for arbitrary isolated systems (particles, fields, strings, fluids) admitting a Lagrangian description is given. The starting point is the parametrized Minkowski theory describing the system in arbitrary admissible noninertial frames in Minkowski space-time, which allows one to define the energy-momentum tensor of the system and to show the independence of the description from the clock synchronization convention and from the choice of the 3-coordinates. The restriction to the inertial rest frame, centered on the inertial observer having the Fokker-Pryce center-of-inertia world-line, and the study of relativistic collective variables replacing the nonrelativistic center of mass lead to the description of the isolated system as a decoupled globally defined noncovariant canonical external center of mass carrying a pole-dipole structure (the invariant mass M and the rest spin S¯ of the system) and an external realization of the Poincare group. Mc and S¯ are the energy and angular momentum of a unfaithful internal realization of the Poincare group built with the energy-momentum tensor of the system and acting inside the instantaneous Wigner 3-spaces where all the 3-vectors are Wigner covariant. The vanishing of the internal 3-momentum and of the internal Lorentz boosts eliminate the internal 3-center of mass inside the Wigner 3-spaces, so that at the end the isolated system is described only by Wigner-covariant canonical internal relative variables. Then an isolated system of positive-energy charged scalar articles with mutual Coulomb interaction plus a transverse electromagnetic field in the radiation gauge is investigated as a classical background for defining relativistic atomic physics. The electric charges of the particles are Grassmann-valued to regularize the self-energies. The external and internal realizations of the Poincare algebra in the rest-frame instant form of dynamics are found. This
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
THAN, Y.R.; TUOZZOLO, J.; SIDI-YAKHLEF, A.; GANNI, V.; KNUDSEN, P.; ARENIUS, D.
2007-01-01
Brookhaven National Laboratory continues its multi-year program to improve the operational efficiency, reliability, and stability of the cryogenic system which also resulted in improved beam availability of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This paper summarizes the work and changes made after each phase over the past four years to the present, as well as proposed future improvements. Power usage dropped from an initial 9.4 MW to the present 5.1 MW and is expected to drop below 5 MW after the completion of the remaining proposed improvements. The work proceeded in phases by balancing the Collider's schedule of operation, time required for the modifications and budget constraints. The main changes include process control, compressor oil removal and management, elimination of the use of cold compressors and two liquid helium storage tanks, insulation of the third liquid helium storage tank, compressor bypass flow reduction and the addition of a load turbine (Joule-Thompson expander) with associated heat exchangers at the cold end of the plant. Also, liquid helium pumps used for forced circulation of the sub-cooled helium through the magnet loops were eliminated by an accelerator supply flow reconfiguration. Planned future upgrades include the resizing of expanders 5 and 6 to increase their efficiencies
General relativistic chaos and nonlinear dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, J.D.
1982-01-01
How new ideas in dynamical systems theory find application in the description of general relativistic systems is described. The concept of dynamical entropy is explained and the associated invariant evaluated for the Mixmaster cosmological model. The description of cosmological models as measure preserving dynamical systems leads to a number of interconnections with new ideas in non-linear dynamics. This may provide a new avenue of approach to ascertaining the nature of the general solution to Einstein's equations. (author)
General relativistic chaos and nonlinear dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrow, J D [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Dept. of Physics
1982-06-01
How new ideas in dynamical systems theory find application in the description of general relativistic systems is described. The concept of dynamical entropy is explained and the associated invariant evaluated for the Mixmaster cosmological model. The description of cosmological models as measure preserving dynamical systems leads to a number of interconnections with new ideas in non-linear dynamics. This may provide a new avenue of approach to ascertaining the nature of the general solution to Einstein's equations.
Ultra-High Density Electron Beams for Beam Radiation and Beam Plasma Interaction
Anderson, Scott; Frigola, Pedro; Gibson, David J; Hartemann, Fred V; Jacob, Jeremy S; Lim, Jae; Musumeci, Pietro; Rosenzweig, James E; Travish, Gil; Tremaine, Aaron M
2005-01-01
Current and future applications of high brightness electron beams, which include advanced accelerators such as the plasma wake-field accelerator (PWFA) and beam-radiation interactions such as inverse-Compton scattering (ICS), require both transverse and longitudinal beam sizes on the order of tens of microns. Ultra-high density beams may be produced at moderate energy (50 MeV) by compression and subsequent strong focusing of low emittance, photoinjector sources. We describe the implementation of this method used at LLNL's PLEIADES ICS x-ray source in which the photoinjector-generated beam has been compressed to 300 fsec duration using the velocity bunching technique and focused to 20 μm rms size using an extremely high gradient, permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) focusing system.
The next step in a development of negative ion beam plasma neutraliser for ITER NBI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulygin, V.M.; Dlougach, E.D.; Gorbunov, E.P.
2001-01-01
Injectors of deuterium atom beams developing for ITER plasma heating and current drive are based on the negative ion acceleration and further neutralization with a gas target. The maximal efficiency of a gas stripping process is 60%. The replacement of the gas neutralizer by plasma one must increase the neutral yield to 80%. The experimental study overview of the microwave discharge in a multi-cusp magnetic system chosen as a base device for Plasma Neutralizer realization and the design development for ITER Neutral Beam Injectors are presented. The experimental results achieved at a plasma neutralizer model PNX-U is discussed. Plasma confinement, gas flows, ionization degree were investigated. The plasma in the volume 0.5m 3 with density n e ∼ 10 18 m -3 has been achieved at power density 80kW/m 3 in operation with Argon. (author)
Debye-scale solitary structures measured in a beam-plasma laboratory experiment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Lefebvre
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Solitary electrostatic pulses have been observed in numerous places of the magnetosphere such as the vicinity of reconnection current sheets, shocks or auroral current systems, and are often thought to be generated by energetic electron beams. We present results of a series of experiments conducted at the UCLA large plasma device (LAPD where a suprathermal electron beam was injected parallel to a static magnetic field. Micro-probes with tips smaller than a Debye length enabled the detection of solitary pulses with positive electric potential and half-widths 4–25 Debye lengths (λ_{De}, over a set of experiments with various beam energies, plasma densities and magnetic field strengths. The shape, scales and amplitudes of the structures are similar to those observed in space, and consistent with electron holes. The dependance of these properties on the experimental parameters is shown. The velocities of the solitary structures (1–3 background electron thermal velocities are found to be much lower than the beam velocities, suggesting an excitation mechanism driven by parallel currents associated to the electron beam.
Liouville equation of relativistic charged fermion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Renchuan; Zhu Dongpei; Huang Zhuoran; Ko Che-ming
1991-01-01
As a form of density martrix, the Wigner function is the distribution in quantum phase space. It is a 2 X 2 matrix function when one uses it to describe the non-relativistic fermion. While describing the relativistic fermion, it is usually represented by 4 x 4 matrix function. In this paper authors obtain a Wigner function for the relativistic fermion in the form of 2 x 2 matrix, and the Liouville equation satisfied by the Wigner function. this equivalent to the Dirac equation of changed fermion in QED. The equation is also equivalent to the Dirac equation in the Walecka model applied to the intermediate energy nuclear collision while the nucleon is coupled to the vector meson only (or taking mean field approximation for the scalar meson). Authors prove that the 2 x 2 Wigner function completely describes the quantum system just the same as the relativistic fermion wave function. All the information about the observables can be obtained with above Wigner function
Relativistic Tsiolkovsky equation -- a case study in special relativity
Redd, Jeremy; Panin, Alexander
2011-10-01
A possibility of using antimatter in future space propulsion systems is seriously discussed in scientific literature. Annihilation of matter and antimatter is not only the energy source of ultimate density 9x10^16 J/kg (provided that antimatter fuel is available on board or can be collected along the journey) but also potentially allows to reach ultimate exhaust speed -- speed of light c. Using relativistic rocket equation we discuss the feasibility of achieving relativistic velocities with annihilation powered photon engine, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of interstellar travel with relativistic and ultrarelativistic velocities.
Relativistic covariant wave equations and acausality in external fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pijlgroms, R.B.J.
1980-01-01
The author considers linear, finite dimensional, first order relativistic wave equations: (βsup(μ)ideltasub(μ)-β)PSI(x) = 0 with βsup(μ) and β constant matrices. Firstly , the question of the relativistic covariance conditions on these equations is considered. Then the theory of these equations with β non-singular is summarized. Theories with βsup(μ), β square matrices and β singular are also discussed. Non-square systems of covariant relativistic wave equations for arbitrary spin > 1 are then considered. Finally, the interaction with external fields and the acausality problem are discussed. (G.T.H.)
Relativistic current sheets in electron-positron plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zenitani, S.
2008-01-01
The current sheet structure with magnetic field reversal is one of the fundamental structure in space and astrophysical plasmas. It draws recent attention in high-energy astrophysical settings, where relativistic electron-positron plasmas are considered. In this talk we will review the recent progress of the physical processes in the relativistic current sheet. The kinetic stability of a single current sheet, the nonlinear behavior of these instabilities, and recent challenges on the multi current sheet systems are introduced. We will also introduce some problems of magnetic reconnection in these relativistic environments. (author)
Relativistic twins or sextuplets?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sheldon, Eric
2003-01-01
A recent study of the relativistic twin 'paradox' by Soni in this journal affirmed that 'A simple solution of the twin paradox also shows anomalous behaviour of rigidly connected distant clocks' but entailed a pedagogic hurdle which the present treatment aims to surmount. Two scenarios are presented: the first 'flight-plan' is akin to that depicted by Soni, with constant-velocity segments, while the second portrays an alternative mission undertaken with sustained acceleration and deceleration, illustrated quantitatively for a two-way spacecraft flight from Earth to Polaris (465.9 light years distant) and back
Relativistic twins or sextuplets?
Sheldon, E S
2003-01-01
A recent study of the relativistic twin 'paradox' by Soni in this journal affirmed that 'A simple solution of the twin paradox also shows anomalous behaviour of rigidly connected distant clocks' but entailed a pedagogic hurdle which the present treatment aims to surmount. Two scenarios are presented: the first 'flight-plan' is akin to that depicted by Soni, with constant-velocity segments, while the second portrays an alternative mission undertaken with sustained acceleration and deceleration, illustrated quantitatively for a two-way spacecraft flight from Earth to Polaris (465.9 light years distant) and back.
Relativistic quantum cryptography
Kaniewski, Jedrzej
Special relativity states that information cannot travel faster than the speed of light, which means that communication between agents occupying distinct locations incurs some minimal delay. Alternatively, we can see it as temporary communication constraints between distinct agents and such constraints turn out to be useful for cryptographic purposes. In relativistic cryptography we consider protocols in which interactions occur at distinct locations at well-defined times and we investigate why such a setting allows to implement primitives which would not be possible otherwise. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).
Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1992-01-01
Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs
Localization of relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omnes, R.
1997-01-01
In order to discuss localization experiments and also to extend the consistent history interpretation of quantum mechanics to relativistic properties, the techniques introduced in a previous paper [J. Math. Phys. 38, 697 (1997)] are applied to the localization of a photon in a given region of space. An essential requirement is to exclude arbitrarily large wavelengths. The method is valid for a particle with any mass and spin. Though there is no proper position operator for a photon, one never needs one in practice. Causality is valid up to exponentially small corrections. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Corinaldesi, Ernesto
1963-01-01
Geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of physics, this text provides readers with a background in relativistic wave mechanics and prepares them for the study of field theory. The treatment originated as a series of lectures from a course on advanced quantum mechanics that has been further amplified by student contributions.An introductory section related to particles and wave functions precedes the three-part treatment. An examination of particles of spin zero follows, addressing wave equation, Lagrangian formalism, physical quantities as mean values, translation and rotat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araujo, Wilson Roberto Barbosa de
1995-01-01
In this dissertation, we present a model for the nucleon, which is composed by three relativistic quarks interacting through a contract force. The nucleon wave-function was obtained from the Faddeev equation in the null-plane. The covariance of the model under kinematical null-plane boots is discussed. The electric proton form-factor, calculated from the Faddeev wave-function, was in agreement with the data for low-momentum transfers and described qualitatively the asymptotic region for momentum transfers around 2 GeV. (author)
Relativistic nuclear collisions: theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gyulassy, M.
1980-07-01
Some of the recent theoretical developments in relativistic (0.5 to 2.0-GeV/nucleon) nuclear collisions are reviewed. The statistical model, hydrodynamic model, classical equation of motion calculations, billiard ball dynamics, and intranuclear cascade models are discussed in detail. Inclusive proton and pion spectra are analyzed for a variety of reactions. Particular attention is focused on how the complex interplay of the basic reaction mechanism hinders attempts to deduce the nuclear matter equation of state from data. 102 references, 19 figures
[Relativistic heavy ion research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
The present document describes our second-year application for a continuation grant on relativistic heavy-ion research at Nevis Laboratories, Columbia University, over the two-year period starting from November 15, 1990. The progress during the current budget year is presented. This year, construction of RHIC officially began. As a result, the entire Nevis nuclear physics group has made a coherent effort to create new proposal for an Open Axially Symmetric Ion Spectrometer (OASIS) proposal. Future perspectives and our plans for this proposal are described
Exchange effects in Relativistic Schroedinger Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sigg, T.; Sorg, M.
1998-01-01
The Relativistic Schroedinger Theory predicts the occurrence of exchange and overlap effects in many-particle systems. For a 2-particle system, the interaction energy of the two particles consists of two contributions: Coulomb energy and exchange energy, where the first one is revealed to be the same as in standard quantum theory. However the exchange energy is mediated by an exchange potential, contrary to the kinematical origin of the exchange term in the standard theory
Relativistic approach to nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Van Giai; Bouyssy, A.
1987-03-01
Some recent works related with relativistic models of nuclear structure are briefly reviewed. The Dirac-Hartree-Fock and Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock are recalled and illustrated by some examples. The problem of isoscalar current and magnetic moments of odd nuclei is discussed. The application of the relativistic model to the nuclear response function is examined
Relativistic dynamics without conservation laws
Rothenstein, Bernhard; Popescu, Stefan
2006-01-01
We show that relativistic dynamics can be approached without using conservation laws (conservation of momentum, of energy and of the centre of mass). Our approach avoids collisions that are not easy to teach without mnemonic aids. The derivations are based on the principle of relativity and on its direct consequence, the addition law of relativistic velocities.
Relativistic centrifugal instability
Gourgouliatos, Konstantinos N.; Komissarov, Serguei S.
2018-03-01
Near the central engine, many astrophysical jets are expected to rotate about their axis. Further out they are expected to go through the processes of reconfinement and recollimation. In both these cases, the flow streams along a concave surface and hence, it is subject to the centrifugal force. It is well known that such flows may experience the centrifugal instability (CFI), to which there are many laboratory examples. The recent computer simulations of relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei undergoing the process of reconfinement show that in such jets CFI may dominate over the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with velocity shear (Gourgouliatos & Komissarov). In this letter, we generalize the Rayleigh criterion for CFI in rotating fluids to relativistic flows using a heuristic analysis. We also present the results of computer simulations which support our analytic criterion for the case of an interface separating two uniformly rotating cylindrical flows. We discuss the difference between CFI and the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in flows with curved streamlines.
Relativistic heavy ion physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.
1992-01-01
In 1992 a proposal by the Iowa State University experimental nuclear physics group entitled ''Relativistic Heavy Ion Physics'' was funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Research, for a three-year period beginning November 15, 1991. This is a progress report for the first six months of that period but, in order to give a wider perspective, we report here on progress made since the beginning of calendar year 1991. In the first section, entitled ''Purpose and Trends,'' we give some background on the recent trends in our research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled, ''Physics Research Programs,'' is divided into three parts. First, we discuss our participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator. Second, we outline progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation (ED). A highlight of this endeavor is experiments carried out with the 197 Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1991. Third, we discuss progress in completion of our nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks and contributed talks starting in 1991 is given
Neutrino beam plasma instability
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
positron or electron–proton plasma in the context of early universe, stars and supernova ... proper. Of course, in their later work on kinetic theory (KT) [5] of neutrino plasma inter- .... for electron also with additional electric potential term.
1983-05-01
8217 .. I: ’ -, "- .... ’-ee enhanced ionization detected in BPP exceriments. ~1 V-5 B. LOWER HYBRID WAVES AND HYBRID WHISTLERS PRODUCED BY AN ELECTRON...Qil(l-Z i ) + MA2 i [(l+k,,2/k2) -2] (2b) a2 l-(k,, 2/k2 )Ze - (wi/we) 2Zi, (2c) V-6 2 2with MA = (/kVA), VA2 : B2/Z41njmj, 3 Z e Z(nj/n e)[+(w/kv
Causal dissipation for the relativistic dynamics of ideal gases.
Freistühler, Heinrich; Temple, Blake
2017-05-01
We derive a general class of relativistic dissipation tensors by requiring that, combined with the relativistic Euler equations, they form a second-order system of partial differential equations which is symmetric hyperbolic in a second-order sense when written in the natural Godunov variables that make the Euler equations symmetric hyperbolic in the first-order sense. We show that this class contains a unique element representing a causal formulation of relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics which (i) is equivalent to the classical descriptions by Eckart and Landau to first order in the coefficients of viscosity and heat conduction and (ii) has its signal speeds bounded sharply by the speed of light. Based on these properties, we propose this system as a natural candidate for the relativistic counterpart of the classical Navier-Stokes equations.
Relativistic kinetic theory with applications in astrophysics and cosmology
Vereshchagin, Gregory V
2017-01-01
Relativistic kinetic theory has widespread application in astrophysics and cosmology. The interest has grown in recent years as experimentalists are now able to make reliable measurements on physical systems where relativistic effects are no longer negligible. This ambitious monograph is divided into three parts. It presents the basic ideas and concepts of this theory, equations and methods, including derivation of kinetic equations from the relativistic BBGKY hierarchy and discussion of the relation between kinetic and hydrodynamic levels of description. The second part introduces elements of computational physics with special emphasis on numerical integration of Boltzmann equations and related approaches, as well as multi-component hydrodynamics. The third part presents an overview of applications ranging from covariant theory of plasma response, thermalization of relativistic plasma, comptonization in static and moving media to kinetics of self-gravitating systems, cosmological structure formation and neut...
Quantum theoretical physics is statistical and relativistic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harding, C.
1980-01-01
A new theoretical framework for the quantum mechanism is presented. It is based on a strict deterministic behavior of single systems. The conventional QM equation, however, is found to describe statistical results of many classical systems. It will be seen, moreover, that a rigorous synthesis of our theory requires relativistic kinematics. So, QM is not only a classical statistical theory, it is, of necessity, a relativistic theory. The equation of the theory does not just duplicate QM, it indicates an inherent nonlinearity in QM which is subject to experimental verification. It is shown, therefore, that conventional QM is a corollary of classical deterministic principles. It is suggested that this concept of nature conflicts with that prevalent in modern physics. (author)
Fundamental problem in the relativistic approach to atomic structure theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kagawa, Takashi
1987-01-01
It is known that the relativistic atomic structure theory contains a serious fundamental problem, so-called the Brown-Ravenhall (BR) problem or variational collapse. This problem arises from the fact that the energy spectrum of the relativistic Hamiltonian for many-electron systems is not bounded from below because the negative-energy solutions as well as the positive-energy ones are obtained from the relativistic equation. This report outlines two methods to avoid the BR problem in the relativistic calculation, that is, the projection operator method and the general variation method. The former method is described first. The use of a modified Hamiltonian containing a projection operator which projects the positive-energy solutions in the relativistic wave equation has been proposed to remove the BR difficulty. The problem in the use of the projection operator method is that the projection operator for the system cannot be determined uniquely. The final part of this report outlines the general variation method. This method can be applied to any system, such as relativistic ones whose Hamiltonian is not bounded from below. (Nogami, K.)
Electromagnetic interactions in relativistic infinite component wave equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerry, C.C.
1979-01-01
The electromagnetic interactions of a composite system described by relativistic infinite-component wave equations are considered. The noncompact group SO(4,2) is taken as the dynamical group of the systems, and its unitary irreducible representations, which are infinite dimensional, are used to find the energy spectra and to specify the states of the systems. First the interaction mechanism is examined in the nonrelativistic SO(4,2) formulation of the hydrogen atom as a heuristic guide. A way of making a minimal relativistic generalization of the minimal ineractions in the nonrelativistic equation for the hydrogen atom is proposed. In order to calculate the effects of the relativistic minimal interactions, a covariant perturbation theory suitable for infinite-component wave equations, which is an algebraic and relativistic version of the Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory, is developed. The electric and magnetic polarizabilities for the ground state of the hydrogen atom are calculated. The results have the correct nonrelativistic limits. Next, the relativistic cross section of photon absorption by the atom is evaluated. A relativistic expression for the cross section of light scattering corresponding to the seagull diagram is derived. The Born amplitude is combusted and the role of spacelike solutions is discussed. Finally, internal electromagnetic interactions that give rise to the fine structure splittings, the Lamb shifts and the hyperfine splittings are considered. The spin effects are introduced by extending the dynamical group
From Lattice Boltzmann to hydrodynamics in dissipative relativistic fluids
Gabbana, Alessandro; Mendoza, Miller; Succi, Sauro; Tripiccione, Raffaele
2017-11-01
Relativistic fluid dynamics is currently applied to several fields of modern physics, covering many physical scales, from astrophysics, to atomic scales (e.g. in the study of effective 2D systems such as graphene) and further down to subnuclear scales (e.g. quark-gluon plasmas). This talk focuses on recent progress in the largely debated connection between kinetic transport coefficients and macroscopic hydrodynamic parameters in dissipative relativistic fluid dynamics. We use a new relativistic Lattice Boltzmann method (RLBM), able to handle from ultra-relativistic to almost non-relativistic flows, and obtain strong evidence that the Chapman-Enskog expansion provides the correct pathway from kinetic theory to hydrodynamics. This analysis confirms recently obtained theoretical results, which can be used to obtain accurate calibrations for RLBM methods applied to realistic physics systems in the relativistic regime. Using this calibration methodology, RLBM methods are able to deliver improved physical accuracy in the simulation of the physical systems described above. European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie Grant Agreement No. 642069.
Using MUSIC to study relativistic nuclear collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-01-01
A large Multiple Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) has been developed as a part of the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS). This facility is being used for the study of relativistic nuclear collisions at the Bevalac of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Preliminary data from MUSIC indicate that a charge resolution of one unit should be achieved from Z approximately equal to 7 to Z approximately equal to 100. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nemenov, L.
2001-01-01
The Coulomb interaction which occurs in the final state between two particles with opposite charges allows for creation of the bound state of these particles. In the case when particles are generated with large momentum in lab frame, the Lorentz factors of the bound state will also be much larger than one. The relativistic velocity of the atoms provides the opportunity to observe bound states of (π + μ - ), (π + π - ) and (π + K - ) with a lifetime as short as 10 -16 s, and to measure their parameters. The ultrarelativistic positronium atoms (A 2e ) allow us to observe the e.ect of superpenetration in matter, to study the effects caused by the formation time of A 2e from virtual e + e - pairs and to investigate the process of transformation of two virtual particles into the bound state
Photoionization at relativistic energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ionescu, D.C.; Technische Univ. Dresden; Soerensen, A.H.; Belkacem, A.
2000-11-01
At MeV energies and beyond the inner-shell vacancy production cross section associated with the photoelectric and Compton effect decrease with increasing photon energy. However, when the photon energy exceeds twice the rest energy of the electron, ionization of a bound electron may be catalyzed by the creation of an electron-positron pair. Distinctly different from all other known mechanisms for inner-shell vacancy production by photons, we show that the cross section for this ''vacuum-assisted photoionization'' increases with increasing photon energy and then saturates. As a main result, we predict that vacuum-assisted photoionization will dominate the other known photoionization mechanisms in the highly relativistic energy regime. (orig.)
Relativistic thermodynamics of fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Souriau, J.-M.
1977-05-01
The relativistic covariant definition of a statistical equilibrium, applied to a perfect gas, involves a 'temperature four-vector', whose direction is the mean velocity of the fluid, and whose length is the reciprocal temperature. The hypothesis of this 'temperature four-vector' being a relevant variable for the description of the dissipative motions of a simple fluid is discussed. The kinematics is defined by using a vector field and measuring the number of molecules. Such a dissipative fluid is subject to motions involving null entropy generation; the 'temperature four-vector' is then a Killing vector; the equations of motion can be completely integrated. Perfect fluids can be studied by this way and the classical results of Lichnerowicz are obtained. In weakly dissipative motions two viscosity coefficient appear together with the heat conductibility coefficient. Two other coefficients perharps measurable on real fluids. Phase transitions and shock waves are described with using the model [fr
Relativistic heavy ion physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.
1993-01-01
This is a progress report for the period May 1992 through April 1993. The first section, entitled ''Purpose and Trends, gives background on the recent trends in the research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled ''Physics Research Progress'', is divided into four parts: participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator; joining E864 at the AGS accelerator and the role in that experiment; progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation highlight of this endeavor is an experiment carried out with the 197 Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1992; progress in completion of the nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks, and contributed talks is given
Relativistic plasma dispersion functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, P.A.
1986-01-01
The known properties of plasma dispersion functions (PDF's) for waves in weakly relativistic, magnetized, thermal plasmas are reviewed and a large number of new results are presented. The PDF's required for the description of waves with small wave number perpendicular to the magnetic field (Dnestrovskii and Shkarofsky functions) are considered in detail; these functions also arise in certain quantum electrodynamical calculations involving strongly magnetized plasmas. Series, asymptotic series, recursion relations, integral forms, derivatives, differential equations, and approximations for these functions are discussed as are their analytic properties and connections with standard transcendental functions. In addition a more general class of PDF's relevant to waves of arbitrary perpendicular wave number is introduced and a range of properties of these functions are derived
Relativistic quantum chaos-An emergent interdisciplinary field.
Lai, Ying-Cheng; Xu, Hong-Ya; Huang, Liang; Grebogi, Celso
2018-05-01
Quantum chaos is referred to as the study of quantum manifestations or fingerprints of classical chaos. A vast majority of the studies were for nonrelativistic quantum systems described by the Schrödinger equation. Recent years have witnessed a rapid development of Dirac materials such as graphene and topological insulators, which are described by the Dirac equation in relativistic quantum mechanics. A new field has thus emerged: relativistic quantum chaos. This Tutorial aims to introduce this field to the scientific community. Topics covered include scarring, chaotic scattering and transport, chaos regularized resonant tunneling, superpersistent currents, and energy level statistics-all in the relativistic quantum regime. As Dirac materials have the potential to revolutionize solid-state electronic and spintronic devices, a good understanding of the interplay between chaos and relativistic quantum mechanics may lead to novel design principles and methodologies to enhance device performance.
Relativistic quantum chaos—An emergent interdisciplinary field
Lai, Ying-Cheng; Xu, Hong-Ya; Huang, Liang; Grebogi, Celso
2018-05-01
Quantum chaos is referred to as the study of quantum manifestations or fingerprints of classical chaos. A vast majority of the studies were for nonrelativistic quantum systems described by the Schrödinger equation. Recent years have witnessed a rapid development of Dirac materials such as graphene and topological insulators, which are described by the Dirac equation in relativistic quantum mechanics. A new field has thus emerged: relativistic quantum chaos. This Tutorial aims to introduce this field to the scientific community. Topics covered include scarring, chaotic scattering and transport, chaos regularized resonant tunneling, superpersistent currents, and energy level statistics—all in the relativistic quantum regime. As Dirac materials have the potential to revolutionize solid-state electronic and spintronic devices, a good understanding of the interplay between chaos and relativistic quantum mechanics may lead to novel design principles and methodologies to enhance device performance.
Isolating relativistic effects in large-scale structure
Bonvin, Camille
2014-12-01
We present a fully relativistic calculation of the observed galaxy number counts in the linear regime. We show that besides the density fluctuations and redshift-space distortions, various relativistic effects contribute to observations at large scales. These effects all have the same physical origin: they result from the fact that our coordinate system, namely the galaxy redshift and the incoming photons’ direction, is distorted by inhomogeneities in our Universe. We then discuss the impact of the relativistic effects on the angular power spectrum and on the two-point correlation function in configuration space. We show that the latter is very well adapted to isolate the relativistic effects since it naturally makes use of the symmetries of the different contributions. In particular, we discuss how the Doppler effect and the gravitational redshift distortions can be isolated by looking for a dipole in the cross-correlation function between a bright and a faint population of galaxies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kipping, David, E-mail: dkipping@astro.columbia.edu [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W. 120th St., New York, NY 10027 (United States)
2017-06-01
One proposed method for spacecraft to reach nearby stars is by accelerating sails using either solar radiation pressure or directed energy. This idea constitutes the thesis behind the Breakthrough Starshot project, which aims to accelerate a gram-mass spacecraft up to one-fifth the speed of light toward Proxima Centauri. For such a case, the combination of the sail’s low mass and relativistic velocity renders previous treatments incorrect at the 10% level, including that of Einstein himself in his seminal 1905 paper introducing special relativity. To address this, we present formulae for a sail’s acceleration, first in response to a single photon and then extended to an ensemble. We show how the sail’s motion in response to an ensemble of incident photons is equivalent to that of a single photon of energy equal to that of the ensemble. We use this principle of ensemble equivalence for both perfect and imperfect mirrors, enabling a simple analytic prediction of the sail’s velocity curve. Using our results and adopting putative parameters for Starshot , we estimate that previous relativistic treatments underestimate the spacecraft’s terminal velocity by ∼10% for the same incident energy. Additionally, we use a simple model to predict the sail’s temperature and diffraction beam losses during the laser firing period; this allows us to estimate that, for firing times of a few minutes and operating temperatures below 300°C (573 K), Starshot will require a sail that absorbs less than one in 260,000 photons.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kipping, David
2017-01-01
One proposed method for spacecraft to reach nearby stars is by accelerating sails using either solar radiation pressure or directed energy. This idea constitutes the thesis behind the Breakthrough Starshot project, which aims to accelerate a gram-mass spacecraft up to one-fifth the speed of light toward Proxima Centauri. For such a case, the combination of the sail’s low mass and relativistic velocity renders previous treatments incorrect at the 10% level, including that of Einstein himself in his seminal 1905 paper introducing special relativity. To address this, we present formulae for a sail’s acceleration, first in response to a single photon and then extended to an ensemble. We show how the sail’s motion in response to an ensemble of incident photons is equivalent to that of a single photon of energy equal to that of the ensemble. We use this principle of ensemble equivalence for both perfect and imperfect mirrors, enabling a simple analytic prediction of the sail’s velocity curve. Using our results and adopting putative parameters for Starshot , we estimate that previous relativistic treatments underestimate the spacecraft’s terminal velocity by ∼10% for the same incident energy. Additionally, we use a simple model to predict the sail’s temperature and diffraction beam losses during the laser firing period; this allows us to estimate that, for firing times of a few minutes and operating temperatures below 300°C (573 K), Starshot will require a sail that absorbs less than one in 260,000 photons.
Rotating relativistic neutron stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, F.; Glendenning, N.K.
1991-07-21
Models of rotating neutron stars are constructed in the framework of Einstein's theory of general relativity. For this purpose a refined version of Hartle's method is applied. The properties of these objects, e.g. gravitational mass, equatorial and polar radius, eccentricity, red- and blueshift, quadrupole moment, are investigated for Kepler frequencies of 4000 s{sup {minus}1} {le} {Omega}{sub K} {le} 9000 s{sup {minus}1}. Therefore a self-consistency problem inherent in the determination of {Omega}{sub K} must be solved. The investigation is based on neutron star matter equations of state derived from the relativistic Martin-Schwinger hierarch of coupled Green's functions. By means of introducing the Hartree, Hartree-Fock, and ladder ({Lambda}) approximations, models of the equation of state derived. A special feature of the latter approximation scheme is the inclusion of dynamical two-particle correlations. These have been calculated from the relativistic T-matrix applying both the HEA and Bonn meson-exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon force. The nuclear forces of the former two treatments are those of the standard scalar-vector-isovector model of quantum hadron dynamics, with parameters adjusted to the nuclear matter data. An important aspect of this work consists in testing the compatibility of different competing models of the nuclear equation of state with data on pulsar periods. By this the fundamental problem of nuclear physics concerning the behavior of the equation of state at supernuclear densities can be treated.
Limitation of accelerating process in the partly neutralized relativistic electron hollow beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, H.C.
1984-01-01
A fluid-Maxwell theory of the diocotron instability is developed for a relativistic electron hollow beam which is assumed in rigid-rotor and cold laminar flow equilibria. Stability analysis is performed for a sharp boundary electron density profile including the influence of positive ions which can accumulate in a long pulse device, and which form a partially neutralizing background. In the case of the strong magnetic field and tenuous electron beam (plasma frequency ω/sub p/b 1 2 ) has a stabilizing effect on the diocotron instability, R 1 and R 2 are the inner and outer radius of the annular hollow beam, respectively. However, the ions accumulating in the center of the beam (0 1 ) have a destabilizing effect on the diocotron instability. Most importantly the kink mode becomes unstable with a growth rate several tenths of the diocotron frequency ω/sub D/ equivalent ω 2 /sub p/b/2γ 2 ω/sub c/, where γ is the relativistic scaling factor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Yitian; Tian Bo
2003-01-01
A variable-coefficient unstable nonlinear Schroedinger model is hereby investigated, which arises in such applications as the electron-beam plasma waves and Rayleigh-Taylor instability in nonuniform plasmas. With computerized symbolic computation, families of exact analytic dark- and bright-soliton-like solutions are found, of which some previously published solutions turn out to be the special cases. Similarity solutions also come out, which are expressible in terms of the elliptic functions and the second Painleve transcendent. Some observable effects caused by the variable coefficient are predicted, which may be detected in the future with the relevant space or laboratory plasma experiments with nonuniform background existing
Relativistic nuclear physics with the spectator model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, F.
1988-01-01
The spectator model, a general approach to the relativistic treatment of nuclear physics problems in which spectators to nuclear interactions are put on their mass-shell, will be defined nd described. The approach grows out of the relativistic treatment of two and three body systems in which one particle is off-shell, and recent numerical results for the NN interaction will be presented. Two meson-exchange models, one with only 4 mesons (π, σ, /rho/, ω) but with a 25% admixture of γ 5 coupling for the pion, and a second with 6 mesons (π, σ, /rho/, ω, δ, and /eta/) but a pure γ 5 γ/sup mu/ pion coupling, are shown to give very good quantitative fits to NN scattering phase shifts below 400 MeV, and also a good description of the /rho/ 40 Cα elastic scattering observables. 19 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab
Meson spectra using relativistic quark models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eggers, M.C.
1985-01-01
The complexity of QCD has led to the use of simpler, phenomenological models for hadrons, notably potential models. A short overview of the origin, rationale, merits and demerits of such models is given. Nonrelativistic models and scaling laws are discussed using the WKB technique for illustrative purposes. The failure of nonrelativistic models to describe the lighter mesons motivates the introduction of relativistic equations. Relativistic kinematics are incorporated into a Schroedinger formalism using equations derived by A. Barut, while two-body kinematics are brought into a one-body form via a substitution related to the Todorov equation. The potential used involves a semi-analytic solution to a harmonic oscillator modified by a spin-spin interaction term. The results seem to indicate that such a harmonic oscillator is unsuitable to describe diquark systems adequately
Relativistic theory of electron-impact ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosenberg, Leonard
2010-01-01
A relativistic version of an earlier, non-relativistic, formulation of the theory of ionization of an atomic system by electron impact is presented. With a time-independent resolvent operator taken as the basis for the dynamics, a wave equation is derived for a system with open channels consisting of two positive-energy electrons in an external field generated by the residual ion. Virtual intermediate states can be accounted for by the effective Hamiltonian that appears in the wave equation and which in principle may be constructed perturbatively. The asymptotic form of the wavefunction, modified by the effects of the long-range Coulomb interactions of the two electrons in the external field, is derived. These electrons are constrained, by projection operators which appear naturally in the theory, to propagate in positive-energy states only. The long-range Coulomb effects take the form of phase factors similar to those that are found in the non-relativistic version of the theory. With the boundary conditions established, an integral identity for the ionization amplitude is derived, and used to set up a distorted-wave Born expansion for the transition amplitude involving Coulomb-modified propagating waves.
Conductivity of a relativistic plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braams, B.J.; Karney, C.F.F.
1989-03-01
The collision operator for a relativistic plasma is reformulated in terms of an expansion in spherical harmonics. This formulation is used to calculate the electrical conductivity. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.
Conductivity of a relativistic plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braams, B.J.; Karney, C.F.F.
1989-03-01
The collision operator for a relativistic plasma is reformulated in terms of an expansion in spherical harmonics. This formulation is used to calculate the electrical conductivity. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab
Relativistic heavy-ion physics
Herrera Corral, G
2010-01-01
The study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is an important part of the LHC research programme at CERN. This emerging field of research focuses on the study of matter under extreme conditions of temperature, density, and pressure. Here we present an introduction to the general aspects of relativistic heavy-ion physics. Afterwards we give an overview of the accelerator facility at CERN and then a quick look at the ALICE project as a dedicated experiment for heavy-ion collisions.
Thermal relaxation time of a mixture of relativistic electrons and neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrera, M.A.; Hacyan, S.
1987-01-01
The interaction between the components of a relativistic binary mixture is studied by means of a fully covariant formalism. Assuming both components to differ slightly in temperature, an application of the relativistic Boltzmann equation yields general expressions for the energy transfer rate and for the relaxation time of the system. The resulting relation is then applied to a mixture of relativistic electrons and neutrinos to obtain numerical values of its relaxation time. (author)
Radiation dominated relativistic current sheets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaroschek, C.H.
2008-01-01
Relativistic Current Sheets (RCS) feature plasma instabilities considered as potential key to magnetic energy dissipation and non-thermal particle generation in Poynting flux dominated plasma flows. We show in a series of kinetic plasma simulations that the physical nature of non-linear RCS evolution changes in the presence of incoherent radiation losses: In the ultra-relativistic regime (i.e. magnetization parameter sigma = 104 defined as the ratio of magnetic to plasma rest frame energy density) the combination of non-linear RCS dynamics and synchrotron emission introduces a temperature anisotropy triggering the growth of the Relativistic Tearing Mode (RTM). As direct consequence the RTM prevails over the Relativistic Drift Kink (RDK) Mode as competitive RCS instability. This is in contrast to the previously studied situation of weakly relativistic RCS (sigma ∼ 1) where the RDK is dominant and most of the plasma is thermalized. The simulations witness the typical life cycle of ultra-relativistic RCS evolving from a violent radiation induced collapse towards a radiation quiescent state in rather classical Sweet-Parker topology. Such a transition towards Sweet-Parker configuration in the late non-linear evolution has immediate consequences for the efficiency of magnetic energy dissipation and non-thermal particle generation. Ceasing dissipation rates directly affect our present understanding of non-linear RCS evolution in conventional striped wind scenarios. (author)
Canonical formalism for relativistic dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penafiel-Nava, V.M.
1982-01-01
The possibility of a canonical formalism appropriate for a dynamical theory of isolated relativistic multiparticle systems involving scalar interactions is studied. It is shown that a single time-parameter structure satisfying the requirements of Poincare invariance and simultaneity of the constituents (global tranversality) can not be derived from a homogeneous Lagrangian. The dynamics is deduced initially from a non-homogeneous but singular Lagrangian designed to accommodate the global tranversality constraints with the equaltime plane associated to the total momentum of the system. An equivalent standard Lagrangian is used to generalize the parametrization procedure which is referred to an arbitrary geodesic in Minkowski space. The equations of motion and the definition of center of momentum are invariant with respect to the choice of geodesic and the entire formalism becomes separable. In the original 8N-dimensional phase-space, the symmetries of the Lagrangian give rise to a canonical realization of a fifteen-generator Lie algebra which is projected in the 6N dimensional hypersurface of dynamical motions. The time-component of the total momentum is thus reduced to a neutral element and the canonical Hamiltonian survives as the only generator for time-translations so that the no-interaction theorem becomes inapplicable
Merger and reconnection of Weibel separated relativistic electron beam
Shukla, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Atul; Das, Amita; Patel, Bhavesh G.
2018-02-01
The relativistic electron beam (REB) propagation in a plasma is fraught with beam plasma instabilities. The prominent amongst them is the collisionless Weibel destabilization which spatially separates the forward propagating REB and the return shielding currents. This results in the formation of REB current filaments which are typically of the size of electron skin depth during the linear stage of the instability. It has been observed that in the nonlinear stage, the size of filaments increases as they merge with each other. With the help of 2-D particle-in-cell simulations in the plane perpendicular to the REB propagation, it is shown that these mergers occur in two distinct nonlinear phases. In the first phase, the total magnetic energy increases. Subsequently, however, during the second phase, one observes a reduction in magnetic energy. It is shown that the transition from one nonlinear regime to another occurs when the typical current associated with individual filaments hits the Alfvén threshold. In the second nonlinear regime, therefore, the filaments can no longer permit any increase in current. Magnetic reconnection events then dissipate the excess current (and its associated magnetic energy) that would result from a merger process leading to the generation of energetic electron jets in the perpendicular plane. At later times when there are only few filaments left, the individual reconnection events can be clearly identified. It is observed that in between such events, the magnetic energy remains constant and shows a sudden drop as and when two filaments merge. The electron jets released in these reconnection events are thus responsible for the transverse heating which has been mentioned in some previous studies [Honda et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 1302 (2000)].
Modular TPC's for relativistic heavy ion experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Etkin, A.; Eiseman, S.E.; Foley, K.J.
1989-01-01
We have developed a TPC system for use in relativistic heavy ion experiments that permits the efficient reconstruction of high multiplicity events including events with decay vertices. It operates with the beam through the middle of the chamber giving good efficiency, two-track separation and spatial resolution. The three-dimensional points in this system allow the reconstruction of the complex events of interest. The use of specially developed hybrid electronics allows us to build a compact and cost-effective system. 11 figs
Localization and Entanglement in Relativistic Quantum Physics
Yngvason, Jakob
These notes are a slightly expanded version of a lecture presented in February 2012 at the workshop "The Message of Quantum Science—Attempts Towards a Synthesis" held at the ZIF in Bielefeld. The participants were physicists with a wide range of different expertise and interests. The lecture was intended as a survey of a small selection of the insights into the structure of relativistic quantum physics that have accumulated through the efforts of many people over more than 50 years. (Including, among many others, R. Haag, H. Araki, D. Kastler, H.-J. Borchers, A. Wightman, R. Streater, B. Schroer, H. Reeh, S. Schlieder, S. Doplicher, J. Roberts, R. Jost, K. Hepp, J. Fröhlich, J. Glimm, A. Jaffe, J. Bisognano, E. Wichmann, D. Buchholz, K. Fredenhagen, R. Longo, D. Guido, R. Brunetti, J. Mund, S. Summers, R. Werner, H. Narnhofer, R. Verch, G. Lechner, ….) This contribution discusses some facts about relativistic quantum physics, most of which are quite familiar to practitioners of Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT) [Also known as Local Quantum Physics (Haag, Local quantum physics. Springer, Berlin, 1992).] but less well known outside this community. No claim of originality is made; the goal of this contribution is merely to present these facts in a simple and concise manner, focusing on the following issues: Explaining how quantum mechanics (QM) combined with (special) relativity, in particular an upper bound on the propagation velocity of effects, leads naturally to systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom (relativistic quantum fields).
Relativistic theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1986-01-01
In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is unambiguously constructed on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday--Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-moment and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravity. By virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTG leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The universe is not closed but just ''flat.'' This suggests that in the universe a ''missing mass'' should exist in a form of matter
Relativistic theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvilli, M.A.
1985-01-01
In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is constructed in a unique way on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this, a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday-Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG, the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-momentum and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravitation. In virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTg leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The Universe is not closed but just ''flat''. This suggests that in the Universe a ''hidden mass'' should exist in some form of matter
Relativistic gravitation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1984-01-01
On the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle a relativistic gravitation theory (RGT) is unambiguously constructed with the help of a notion of a gravitational field as a physical field in Faraday-Maxwell spirit, which posesses energy momentum and spins 2 and 0. The source of gravitation field is a total conserved energy-momentum tensor for matter and for gravitation field in Minkowski space. In the RGT conservation laws for the energy momentum and angular momentum of matter and gravitational field hold rigorously. The theory explains the whole set of gravitation experiments. Here, due to the geometrization principle the Riemannian space is of a field origin since this space arises effectively as a result of the gravitation field origin since this space arises effectively as a result of the gravitation field action on the matter. The RGT astonishing prediction is that the Universe is not closed but ''flat''. It means that in the Universe there should exist a ''missing'' mass in some form of matter
Relativistic density matrix in the diagonal momentum representation. Bose-gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makhlin, A.N.; Sinyukov, Yu.M.
1984-01-01
The relativistic-invariance treatment of the ideal Bose-system arising from the diagonal momentum representation for the density matrix is developed. The average occupation members and their correlators for statistical systems in arbitrary inertial frames are found on the equal-time hypersurfaces. The relativistic partition function method for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of gases moving as a whole is constructed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sutanto, Sylvia H; Tjiang, Paulus C
2011-01-01
The Gaussian formula and spherical aberrations of static and relativistic curved mirrors are analyzed using the optical path length (OPL) and Fermat's principle. The geometrical figures generated by the rotation of conic sections about their symmetry axes are considered for the shapes of the mirrors. By comparing the results in static and relativistic cases, it is shown that the focal lengths and the spherical aberration relations of the relativistic mirrors obey the Lorentz contraction. Further analysis of the spherical aberrations for both static and relativistic cases have resulted in information about the limits for the paraxial approximation, as well as for the minimum speed of the systems to reduce the spherical aberrations
Relativistic calculations of one-photon bound-free transition amplitudes in hydrogenic atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simo, E.; Kwato Njock, M.G.
2005-04-01
Photoionization transition matrix of hydrogenic systems are investigated theoretically within the framework of the tensorial formalism with relativistic arguments. Calculations are carried out exactly, without approximation. We derive continuum second-order Dirac-Coulomb Sturmian functions. The numerical simulation of our results is performed in the dipole approximation. We test our theory on selected nucleus from the Periodic Table. The results of the fully relativistic calculations are compared with those of the quasi-relativistic calculations. A conclusion is drawn about the level of reliability of the quite simplified quasi-relativistic approach. (author)
Relativistic mechanics, time and inertia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kilmister, C.W.; Tocaci, E.
1985-01-01
This book offers a thought-provoking approach to the fundamentals of relativity, and is structured to provide a clear-cut introduction to the essentials of relativistic mechanics. It seeks to emphasize the sensible content of concepts, to improve on their inherent or often forgotten fuzziness, and to explore prospects for their further exploitation. The work also provides an analysis conducive to a rigorous, normative definition of Time, which is seen as a synthesis of universal motion, instrumental in defining a general measure to transformations, and as a sufficient reason to suppose that the speed of light must be the same in all inertial reference frames - hence showing this cardinal postulate to be a demonstrable truth. Moreover it provides an augmented perception of what inertial vs. non-inertial systems are. In addition, the book offers a natural, time-like interpretation of Space that departs from the usual converse approach; it offers a self-consistent proposal to rationalize the axiomatic grounds of mechanics, based on a single postulate in conjunction with the overall approach developed. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs
Radiatively driven relativistic spherical winds under relativistic radiative transfer
Fukue, J.
2018-05-01
We numerically investigate radiatively driven relativistic spherical winds from the central luminous object with mass M and luminosity L* under Newtonian gravity, special relativity, and relativistic radiative transfer. We solve both the relativistic radiative transfer equation and the relativistic hydrodynamical equations for spherically symmetric flows under the double-iteration processes, to obtain the intensity and velocity fields simultaneously. We found that the momentum-driven winds with scattering are quickly accelerated near the central object to reach the terminal speed. The results of numerical solutions are roughly fitted by a relation of \\dot{m}=0.7(Γ _*-1)\\tau _* β _* β _out^{-2.6}, where \\dot{m} is the mass-loss rate normalized by the critical one, Γ* the central luminosity normalized by the critical one, τ* the typical optical depth, β* the initial flow speed at the central core of radius R*, and βout the terminal speed normalized by the speed of light. This relation is close to the non-relativistic analytical solution, \\dot{m} = 2(Γ _*-1)\\tau _* β _* β _out^{-2}, which can be re-expressed as β _out^2/2 = (Γ _*-1)GM/c^2 R_*. That is, the present solution with small optical depth is similar to that of the radiatively driven free outflow. Furthermore, we found that the normalized luminosity (Eddington parameter) must be larger than unity for the relativistic spherical wind to blow off with intermediate or small optical depth, i.e. Γ _* ≳ \\sqrt{(1+β _out)^3/(1-β _out)}. We briefly investigate and discuss an isothermal wind.
Scattering in relativistic particle mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Bievre, S.
1986-01-01
The problem of direct interaction in relativistic particle mechanics has been extensively studied and a variety of models has been proposed avoiding the conclusions of the so-called no-interaction theorems. In this thesis the authors studied scattering in the relativistic two-body problem. He uses the results to analyze gauge invariance in Hamiltonian constraint models and the uniqueness of the symplectic structure in manifestly covariant relativistic particle mechanics. A general geometric framework that underlies approaches to relativistic particle mechanics is presented and the kinematic properties of the scattering transformation, i.e., those properties that arise solely from the invariance of the theory under the Poincare group are studied. The second part of the analysis of the relativistic two-body scattering problem is devoted to the dynamical properties of the scattering process. Using general geometric arguments, gauge invariance of the scattering transformation in the Todorov-Komar Hamiltonian constraint model is proved. Finally, quantization of the models is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nottale, Laurent
2003-01-01
The principle of relativity, when it is applied to scale transformations, leads to the suggestion of a generalization of fundamental dilations laws. These new special scale-relativistic resolution transformations involve log-Lorentz factors and lead to the occurrence of a minimal and of a maximal length-scale in nature, which are invariant under dilations. The minimal length-scale, that replaces the zero from the viewpoint of its physical properties, is identified with the Planck length l P , and the maximal scale, that replaces infinity, is identified with the cosmic scale L=Λ -1/2 , where Λ is the cosmological constant.The new interpretation of the Planck scale has several implications for the structure and history of the early Universe: we consider the questions of the origin, of the status of physical laws at very early times, of the horizon/causality problem and of fluctuations at recombination epoch.The new interpretation of the cosmic scale has consequences for our knowledge of the present universe, concerning in particular Mach's principle, the large number coincidence, the problem of the vacuum energy density, the nature and the value of the cosmological constant. The value (theoretically predicted ten years ago) of the scaled cosmological constant Ω Λ =0.75+/-0.15 is now supported by several different experiments (Hubble diagram of Supernovae, Boomerang measurements, gravitational lensing by clusters of galaxies).The scale-relativity framework also allows one to suggest a solution to the missing mass problem, and to make theoretical predictions of fundamental energy scales, thanks to the interpretation of new structures in scale space: fractal/classical transitions as Compton lengths, mass-coupling relations and critical value 4π 2 of inverse couplings. Among them, we find a structure at 3.27+/-0.26x10 20 eV, which agrees closely with the observed highest energy cosmic rays at 3.2+/-0.9x10 20 eV, and another at 5.3x10 -3 eV, which corresponds to the
SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMICS WITH GRAVITATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hwang, Jai-chan [Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Hyerim [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-12-20
Special relativistic hydrodynamics with weak gravity has hitherto been unknown in the literature. Whether such an asymmetric combination is possible has been unclear. Here, the hydrodynamic equations with Poisson-type gravity, considering fully relativistic velocity and pressure under the weak gravity and the action-at-a-distance limit, are consistently derived from Einstein’s theory of general relativity. An analysis is made in the maximal slicing, where the Poisson’s equation becomes much simpler than our previous study in the zero-shear gauge. Also presented is the hydrodynamic equations in the first post-Newtonian approximation, now under the general hypersurface condition. Our formulation includes the anisotropic stress.
Frontiers in relativistic celestial mechanics
2014-01-01
Relativistic celestial mechanics – investigating the motion celestial bodies under the influence of general relativity – is a major tool of modern experimental gravitational physics. With a wide range of prominent authors from the field, this two-volume series consists of reviews on a multitude of advanced topics in the area of relativistic celestial mechanics – starting from more classical topics such as the regime of asymptotically-flat spacetime, light propagation and celestial ephemerides, but also including its role in cosmology and alternative theories of gravity as well as modern experiments in this area.
Causal localizations in relativistic quantum mechanics
Castrigiano, Domenico P. L.; Leiseifer, Andreas D.
2015-07-01
Causal localizations describe the position of quantum systems moving not faster than light. They are constructed for the systems with finite spinor dimension. At the center of interest are the massive relativistic systems. For every positive mass, there is the sequence of Dirac tensor-localizations, which provides a complete set of inequivalent irreducible causal localizations. They obey the principle of special relativity and are fully Poincaré covariant. The boosters are determined by the causal position operator and the other Poincaré generators. The localization with minimal spinor dimension is the Dirac localization. Thus, the Dirac equation is derived here as a mere consequence of the principle of causality. Moreover, the higher tensor-localizations, not known so far, follow from Dirac's localization by a simple construction. The probability of localization for positive energy states results to be described by causal positive operator valued (PO-) localizations, which are the traces of the causal localizations on the subspaces of positive energy. These causal Poincaré covariant PO-localizations for every irreducible massive relativistic system were, all the more, not known before. They are shown to be separated. Hence, the positive energy systems can be localized within every open region by a suitable preparation as accurately as desired. Finally, the attempt is made to provide an interpretation of the PO-localization operators within the frame of conventional quantum mechanics attributing an important role to the negative energy states.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitin, L A; Perevodchikov, V I; Shapiro, A L; Zavyalov, M A [All-Russian Electrotechnical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Bliokh, Yu P; Fajnberg, Ya B [Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)
1997-12-31
The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of a generator of stochastic microwave power based on a beam-plasma inertial feedback amplifier is discussed with a view to using stochastic oscillations for plasma heating. The plasma heating efficiency in the region of low-frequency resonance in the geometry of the Tokamak is considered theoretically. It is shown that the temperature of heating is proportional to the power multiplied by the spectra width of the noiselike signal. The creation and heating of plasma by stochastic microwave power in an oversized waveguide without external magnetic field is discussed with a view to plasma-chemistry applications. It is shown that the efficiency of heating are defined by the time of phase instability of the stochastic power. (author). 3 figs., 13 refs.
Non-relativistic conformal symmetries and Newton-Cartan structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duval, C; Horvathy, P A
2009-01-01
This paper provides us with a unifying classification of the conformal infinitesimal symmetries of non-relativistic Newton-Cartan spacetime. The Lie algebras of non-relativistic conformal transformations are introduced via the Galilei structure. They form a family of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras labeled by a rational 'dynamical exponent', z. The Schroedinger-Virasoro algebra of Henkel et al corresponds to z = 2. Viewed as projective Newton-Cartan symmetries, they yield, for timelike geodesics, the usual Schroedinger Lie algebra, for which z = 2. For lightlike geodesics, they yield, in turn, the Conformal Galilean Algebra (CGA) of Lukierski, Stichel and Zakrzewski (alias 'alt' of Henkel), with z = 1. Physical systems realizing these symmetries include, e.g. classical systems of massive and massless non-relativistic particles, and also hydrodynamics, as well as Galilean electromagnetism.
Properties of Doubly Heavy Baryons in the Relativistic Quark Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebert, D.; Faustov, R.N.; Galkin, V.O.; Martynenko, A.P.
2005-01-01
Mass spectra and semileptonic decay rates of baryons consisting of two heavy (b or c) and one light quark are calculated in the framework of the relativistic quark model. The doubly heavy baryons are treated in the quark-diquark approximation. The ground and excited states of both the diquark and quark-diquark bound systems are considered. The quark-diquark potential is constructed. The light quark is treated completely relativistically, while the expansion in the inverse heavy-quark mass is used. The weak transition amplitudes of heavy diquarks bb and bc going, respectively, to bc and cc are explicitly expressed through the overlap integrals of the diquark wave functions in the whole accessible kinematic range. The relativistic baryon wave functions of the quark-diquark bound system are used for the calculation of the decay matrix elements, the Isgur-Wise function, and decay rates in the heavy-quark limit
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard Anantua
2018-03-01
Full Text Available This work summarizes a program intended to unify three burgeoning branches of the high-energy astrophysics of relativistic jets: general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD simulations of ever-increasing dynamical range, the microphysical theory of particle acceleration under relativistic conditions, and multiwavelength observations resolving ever-decreasing spatiotemporal scales. The process, which involves converting simulation output into time series of images and polarization maps that can be directly compared to observations, is performed by (1 self-consistently prescribing models for emission, absorption, and particle acceleration and (2 performing time-dependent polarized radiative transfer. M87 serves as an exemplary prototype for this investigation due to its prominent and well-studied jet and the imminent prospect of learning much more from Event Horizon Telescope (EHT observations this year. Synthetic observations can be directly compared with real observations for observational signatures such as jet instabilities, collimation, relativistic beaming, and polarization. The simplest models described adopt the standard equipartition hypothesis; other models calculate emission by relating it to current density or shear. These models are intended for application to the radio jet instead of the higher frequency emission, the disk and the wind, which will be subjects of future investigations.
Relativistic predictive quantum potential: the N-body case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garuccio, A.; Kyprianidis, A.; Vigier, J.P.
1984-01-01
It is generalized to a system of N scalar particles the casual description with action at a distance already given for two-particle systems in EPR type of experiments. The many body quantum potential is shown to satisfy the predictivity constraints established by Droz-Vincent for relativistic mechanics
Apparent unambiguousness of relativistic time dilation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1992-01-01
It is indicated on the definite analogy between the dependence of visible sizes of relativistic objects and period of the wave, emitted by the moving source from the observation conditions ('retradition factor'). It is noted that the definition of time for moving extended objects, led to relativistic dilation, corresponds to the definition of the relativistic (radar) length led to the 'elongation formula'. 10 refs
Relativistic generalization of strong plasma turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chian, A.C.-L.
1982-01-01
Two fundamental electrostatic modes of an unmagnetized plasma, namely, ion acoustic mode and Langumir mode are studied. Previous theories are generalized to include the effect of relativistic mass variations. The existence of relativistic ion acoustic solitons is demonstrated. In addition, it is shown that simple, relativistic Langumir solitons do not exist in a infinite plasma. (L.C.) [pt
Quantum gates via relativistic remote control
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martín-Martínez, Eduardo, E-mail: emartinm@uwaterloo.ca [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Dept. Applied Math., University of Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Sutherland, Chris [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)
2014-12-12
We harness relativistic effects to gain quantum control on a stationary qubit in an optical cavity by controlling the non-inertial motion of a different probe atom. Furthermore, we show that by considering relativistic trajectories of the probe, we enhance the efficiency of the quantum control. We explore the possible use of these relativistic techniques to build 1-qubit quantum gates.
Optimization of a relativistic quantum mechanical engine.
Peña, Francisco J; Ferré, Michel; Orellana, P A; Rojas, René G; Vargas, P
2016-08-01
We present an optimal analysis for a quantum mechanical engine working between two energy baths within the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics, adopting a first-order correction. This quantum mechanical engine, with the direct energy leakage between the energy baths, consists of two adiabatic and two isoenergetic processes and uses a three-level system of two noninteracting fermions as its working substance. Assuming that the potential wall moves at a finite speed, we derive the expression of power output and, in particular, reproduce the expression for the efficiency at maximum power.
Non-relativistic Limit of a Dirac Polaron in Relativistic Quantum Electrodynamics
Arai, A
2006-01-01
A quantum system of a Dirac particle interacting with the quantum radiation field is considered in the case where no external potentials exist. Then the total momentum of the system is conserved and the total Hamiltonian is unitarily equivalent to the direct integral $\\int_{{\\bf R}^3}^\\oplus\\overline{H({\\bf p})}d{\\bf p}$ of a family of self-adjoint operators $\\overline{H({\\bf p})}$ acting in the Hilbert space $\\oplus^4{\\cal F}_{\\rm rad}$, where ${\\cal F}_{\\rm rad}$ is the Hilbert space of the quantum radiation field. The fibre operator $\\overline{H({\\bf p})}$ is called the Hamiltonian of the Dirac polaron with total momentum ${\\bf p} \\in {\\bf R}^3$. The main result of this paper is concerned with the non-relativistic (scaling) limit of $\\overline{H({\\bf p})}$. It is proven that the non-relativistic limit of $\\overline{H({\\bf p})}$ yields a self-adjoint extension of a Hamiltonian of a polaron with spin $1/2$ in non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics.
Relativistic mechanics of two interacting particles and bilocal theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takabayasi, Takehiko
1975-01-01
New relativistic mechanics of two-particle system is set forth, where the two constituent particles are interacting by an arbitrary (central) action-at-a-distance. The fundamental equations are presented in a form covariant under general transformation of parameters parametrizing the world lines of constituent particles. The theory represents the proper relativistic generalization of the usual Newtonian mechanics in the sense that it tends in the non-relativistic (and weak interaction) limit to the usual mechanics of two particles moving under a corresponding non-relativistic potential. For the analysis of theory it is convenient to choose a certain particular gauge (i.e., parametrization) fixed by two gauge relations. This brings the theory to a canonical formalism accompanied by two weak equations, and in this gauge quantization can be performed. The result verifies that the relativistic quantum mechanics for two particles interacting by an action-at-a-distance is just represented by a bilocal wave equation and a subsidiary condition, with the clarification of its correspondence-theoretical foundation and internal dynamics. As an example the case of Hooke-type force is illustrated, where the internal motions are elliptic oscillations in the center-of-mass frame. Its quantum theory just reproduces the original form of bilocal theory giving bound states lying on a straightly rising trajectory and on its daughter trajectories. (auth.)
Instability in relativistic nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tezuka, Hirokazu.
1979-11-01
The stability of the Fermi gas state in the nuclear matter which satisfies the saturation property is considered relativistically. It is shown that the Fermi gas state is stable at very low density and at high density, but it is unstable for density fluctuation in the intermediate density region including the normal density. (author)
A relativistic radiation transfer benchmark
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munier, A.
1988-01-01
We use the integral form of the radiation transfer equation in an one dimensional slab to determine the time-dependent propagation of the radiation energy, flux and pressure in a collisionless homogeneous medium. First order v/c relativistic terms are included and the solution is given in the fluid frame and the laboratory frame
Relativistic models of nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gillet, V.; Kim, E.J.; Cauvin, M.; Kohmura, T.; Ohnaka, S.
1991-01-01
The introduction of the relativistic field formalism for the description of nuclear structure has improved our understanding of fundamental nuclear mechanisms such as saturation or many body forces. We discuss some of these progresses, both in the semi-classical mean field approximation and in a quantized meson field approach. (author)
Fundamental length and relativistic length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1988-01-01
It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budker, G.I.; Gaponov, V.A.; Gorniker, Eh.I.
1982-01-01
A gyrocon, SHF-generator, is described in which the energy of debunched relativistic electron beam is converted to the energy of electromagnetic oscillations. The gyrocon is intended for supplying the VEPP-4 accelerating resonators. A high-voltage accelerator is used as an electron source. An electron beam is scanned by a rotating magnetic field of the resonator and in different points of the orbit circumscribed by the beam and is injected into the outlet resonator. The resonator represents a ring-form waveguide with slots for the beam passage. A travelling wave, whose field decelerates electrons, is excited in the resonator tuned in to the scanning frequency, converting the beam power to RF-power which is taken off through the energy outlets. The design parameters of the gyrocon are as follows: electron efficiency > 95%, the general efficiency > 80%, amplification factor 23 dB, output power = 5 MW. Results of preliminary tests of the gyrocon are presented
Magnetic Field Structure in Relativistic Jets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jermak Helen
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Relativistic jets are ubiquitous when considering an accreting black hole. Two of the most extreme examples of these systems are blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs, the jets of which are thought to be threaded with a magnetic field of unknown structure. The systems are made up of a black hole accreting matter and producing, as a result, relativistic jets of plasma from the poles of the black hole. Both systems are viewed as point sources from Earth, making it impossible to spatially resolve the jet. In order to explore the structure of the magnetic field within the jet we take polarisation measurements with the RINGO polarimeters on the world’s largest fully autonomous, robotic optical telescope: The Liverpool Telescope. Using the polarisation degree and angle measured by the RINGO polarimeters it is possible to distinguish between global magnetic fields created in the central engine and random tangled magnetic fields produced locally in shocks. We also monitor blazar sources regularly during quiescence with periods of flaring monitored more intensively. Reported here are the early polarisation results for GRBs 060418 and 090102, along with future prospects for the Liverpool Telescope and the RINGO polarimeters.
On the time delay between ultra-relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fleury, Pierre
2016-01-01
The time delay between the receptions of ultra-relativistic particles emitted simultaneously is a useful observable for both fundamental physics and cosmology. The expression of the delay when the particles travel through an arbitrary spacetime has been derived recently by Fanizza et al., using a particular coordinate system and self-consistent assumptions. The present article shows that this formula enjoys a simple physical interpretation: the relative velocity between two ultra-relativistic particles is constant. This result reveals an interesting kinematical property of general relativity, namely that the tidal forces experienced by ultra-relativistic particles in the direction of their motion are much smaller than those experienced orthogonally to their motion.
Electron-deuteron scattering in a relativistic theory of hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phillips, D.
1998-11-01
The author reviews a three-dimensional formalism that provides a systematic way to include relativistic effects including relativistic kinematics, the effects of negative-energy states, and the boosts of the two-body system in calculations of two-body bound-states. He then explains how to construct a conserved current within this relativistic three-dimensional approach. This general theoretical framework is specifically applied to electron-deuteron scattering both in impulse approximation and when the ρπγ meson-exchange current is included. The experimentally-measured quantities A, B, and T 20 are calculated over the kinematic range that is probed in Jefferson Lab experiments. The role of both negative-energy states and meson retardation appears to be small in the region of interest
Relativistic three-particle dynamical equations: I. Theoretical development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikari, S.K.; Tomio, L.; Frederico, T.
1993-11-01
Starting from the two-particle Bethe-Salpeter equation in the ladder approximation and integrating over the time component of momentum, three dimensional scattering integral equations satisfying constrains of relativistic unitarity and covariance are rederived. These equations were first derived by Weinberg and by Blankenbecler and Sugar. These two-particle equations are shown to be related by a transformation of variables. Hence it is shown to perform and relate dynamical calculation using these two equations. Similarly, starting from the Bethe-Salpeter-Faddeev equation for the three-particle system and integrating over the time component of momentum, several three dimensional three-particle scattering equations satisfying constraints of relativistic unitary and covariance are derived. Two of these three-particle equations are related by a transformation of variables as in the two-particle case. The three-particle equations obtained are very practical and suitable for performing relativistic scattering calculations. (author)
The Grover energy transfer algorithm for relativistic speeds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro, E-mail: juagar@yllera.tel.uva.e [Dpto. de TeorIa de la Senal y Comunicaciones e Ingenieria Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI de Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes, Paseo Belen 15, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)
2010-11-12
Grover's algorithm for quantum search can also be applied to classical energy transfer. The procedure takes a system in which the total energy is equally distributed among N subsystems and transfers most of it to one marked subsystem. We show that in a relativistic setting the efficiency of this procedure can be improved. We will consider the transfer of relativistic kinetic energy in a series of elastic collisions. In this case, the number of steps of the energy transfer procedure approaches 1 as the initial velocities of the objects become closer to the speed of light. This is a consequence of introducing nonlinearities in the procedure. However, the maximum attainable transfer will depend on the particular combination of speed and number of objects. In the procedure, we will use N elements, as in the classical non-relativistic case, instead of the log{sub 2}(N) states of the quantum algorithm.
Electronic structure of molecules using relativistic effective core potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hay, P.J.
1981-01-01
Starting with one-component Cowan-Griffin relativistic Hartree-Fock orbitals, which successfully incorporate the mass-velocity and Darwin terms present in more complicated wavefunctions such as Dirac-Hartree-Fock, one can derive relativistic effective core potentials (RECP's) to carry out molecular calculations. These potentials implicitly include the dominant relativistic terms for molecules while allowing one to use the traditional quantum chemical techniques for studying the electronic structure of molecules. The effects of spin-orbit coupling can then be included using orbitals from such calculations using an effective 1-electron, 1-center spin-orbit operator. Applications to molecular systems involving heavy atoms, show good agreement with available spectroscopic data on molecular geometries and excitation energies
Relativistic corrections to the Cooperon mass: BCS versus BEC picture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lipavský, P., E-mail: lipavsky@karlov.mff.cuni.cz
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Tate's measurement of relativistic effects on the Cooper pair mass show the increase while a decrease was expected. • This disagreement raised a question whether it has fundamental significance or is due to the details of the particular physical system being studied. • The most fundamental were speculations about gravitomagnetic forces enhanced by the Higgs mechanism. • These were recently disproved experimentally. • This paper shows that the relativistic mass corrections might be sensitive to the pairing scenario: the predicted mass decrease corresponds to the Bose–Einstein condensation of preformed Cooper pairs, while the pairing in the Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer condensate leads to an increase of experimentally observed magnitude. - Abstract: Relativistic corrections to the Cooperon mass are discussed for preformed Cooper pairs that become superconductive via the Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC) and for Cooperons in the Bardeen–Copper–Schrieffer (BCS) condensate. The distinction explains experimental results of Tate et al. (1989).
Relativistic nuclear reactions and the intranuclear cascade method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duarte, S.J.B.
1983-01-01
The intranuclear cascade (INC) procedure is analised as a method to describe the processes of relativistic heavy ions collisions. The effects caused by nucleon concentration during the collision are discussed. It is shown explicitly that the occurence of nonbinary collisions among particles is not at all negligible, in spite of the fact that the convencional INC only permits nucleon-nucleon binary collisions. The relativistic invariance of the results obtained by the INC method is discussed. This is especially important when the method is applied for much higher energies. Many of conventional procedures in the method will give certainly different predictions depending on what system of reference is used. The origin of such non-invariance nature of INC calculations is discussed and an alternative way of defining the INC procedure which presents a better credibility with respect to the relativistic invariance property is proposed. (Author) [pt
Relativistic corrections for the conventional, classical Nyquist theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theimer, O.; Dirk, E.H.
1983-01-01
New expressions for the Nyquist theorem are derived under the condition in which the random thermal speed of electrons, in a system of charged particles, can approach the speed of light. Both the case in which, the electron have not drift velocity relative to the ions or neutral particles and the case in which drift occours are investigated. In both instances, the new expressions for the Nyquist theorem are found to contain relativistic correction terms; however for electron temperatures T approx. 10 9 K and drift velocity magnitudes w approx. 0.5c, where c is the speed of light, the effects of these correction terms are generally small. The derivation of these relativistic corrections is carried out by means of procedures developed in an earlier work. A relativistic distribution function, which incorporates a constant drift velocity with a random thermal velocity for a given particle species, is developed
Statistical thermodynamics of a two-dimensional relativistic gas.
Montakhab, Afshin; Ghodrat, Malihe; Barati, Mahmood
2009-03-01
In this paper we study a fully relativistic model of a two-dimensional hard-disk gas. This model avoids the general problems associated with relativistic particle collisions and is therefore an ideal system to study relativistic effects in statistical thermodynamics. We study this model using molecular-dynamics simulation, concentrating on the velocity distribution functions. We obtain results for x and y components of velocity in the rest frame (Gamma) as well as the moving frame (Gamma;{'}) . Our results confirm that Jüttner distribution is the correct generalization of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. We obtain the same "temperature" parameter beta for both frames consistent with a recent study of a limited one-dimensional model. We also address the controversial topic of temperature transformation. We show that while local thermal equilibrium holds in the moving frame, relying on statistical methods such as distribution functions or equipartition theorem are ultimately inconclusive in deciding on a correct temperature transformation law (if any).
Present status of the theoretical relativistic plasma SHF electronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzelev, M.V.; Rukhadze, A.A.
2000-01-01
Paper presents a review of theoretical investigations into powerful sources of SHF waves grounded on the forced emission of relativistic electron beams in plasma wave guides and resonator. Emission sources operating under amplification of a certain inlet signal and under generation mode were studied. Two mechanisms of forced emission: resonance Cherenkov radiation of relativistic electron beams in plasma and nonresonance Pierce emission resulting from evolution of high-frequency Pierce instability, were studied. Paper discusses theoretical problems only, all evaluations and calculations are made for the parameters of the exact experiments, the theoretical results are compared with the available experimental data. Factors affecting formation of spectrum of waves excited by relativistic electron beam in plasma systems are discussed [ru
On the time delay between ultra-relativistic particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fleury, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.fleury@uct.ac.za [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)
2016-09-10
The time delay between the receptions of ultra-relativistic particles emitted simultaneously is a useful observable for both fundamental physics and cosmology. The expression of the delay when the particles travel through an arbitrary spacetime has been derived recently by Fanizza et al., using a particular coordinate system and self-consistent assumptions. The present article shows that this formula enjoys a simple physical interpretation: the relative velocity between two ultra-relativistic particles is constant. This result reveals an interesting kinematical property of general relativity, namely that the tidal forces experienced by ultra-relativistic particles in the direction of their motion are much smaller than those experienced orthogonally to their motion.
The Grover energy transfer algorithm for relativistic speeds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro
2010-01-01
Grover's algorithm for quantum search can also be applied to classical energy transfer. The procedure takes a system in which the total energy is equally distributed among N subsystems and transfers most of it to one marked subsystem. We show that in a relativistic setting the efficiency of this procedure can be improved. We will consider the transfer of relativistic kinetic energy in a series of elastic collisions. In this case, the number of steps of the energy transfer procedure approaches 1 as the initial velocities of the objects become closer to the speed of light. This is a consequence of introducing nonlinearities in the procedure. However, the maximum attainable transfer will depend on the particular combination of speed and number of objects. In the procedure, we will use N elements, as in the classical non-relativistic case, instead of the log 2 (N) states of the quantum algorithm.
On the relativistic quantum mechanics of two interacting spinless particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rizov, V.A.; Sazdjian, H.; Todorov, I.T.
1984-05-01
The L 2 -scalar product ∫ PHI*(x)PSI(x) d 3 x is not appropriate for the space of states describing the center-of-mass relative motion of two relativistic particles whose interaction is given by an energy dependent quasipotential. The problem already appears in the relativistic quantum mechanics of a Klein-Gordon charged particle in an external field. We extend the methods developed for that case to study a two-particle system with an energy independent scalar interaction as well as the relativistic Coulomb problem. We write down a Poincare invariant inner product for which the eigenfunctions corresponding to different energy eigenvalues are orthogonal. We also construct a perturbative expansion for bound-state energy eigenvalues corresponding to an arbitrary energy dependent (quasipotential) correction to an unperturbed Hamiltonian with a known spectrum. The description of observables and transition probabilities for eigenvalue problems with a polynomial dependence on the spectral parameter is also discussed
The cosmic-ray shock structure problem for relativistic shocks
Webb, G. M.
1985-01-01
The time asymptotic behaviour of a relativistic (parallel) shock wave significantly modified by the diffusive acceleration of cosmic-rays is investigated by means of relativistic hydrodynamical equations for both the cosmic-rays and thermal gas. The form of the shock structure equation and the dispersion relation for both long and short wavelength waves in the system are obtained. The dependence of the shock acceleration efficiency on the upstream fluid spped, long wavelength Mach number and the ratio N = P sub co/cP sub co+P sub go)(Psub co and P sub go are the upstream cosmic-ray and thermal gas pressures respectively) are studied.
Decoherence and discrete symmetries in deformed relativistic kinematics
Arzano, Michele
2018-01-01
Models of deformed Poincaré symmetries based on group valued momenta have long been studied as effective modifications of relativistic kinematics possibly capturing quantum gravity effects. In this contribution we show how they naturally lead to a generalized quantum time evolution of the type proposed to model fundamental decoherence for quantum systems in the presence of an evaporating black hole. The same structures which determine such generalized evolution also lead to a modification of the action of discrete symmetries and of the CPT operator. These features can in principle be used to put phenomenological constraints on models of deformed relativistic symmetries using precision measurements of neutral kaons.
Analysis of the EPR-experiment by relativistic quantum logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mittelstaedt, P.
1984-01-01
The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-experiment is analysed in the framework of an abstract language for relativistic quantum physics, which can be founded on the most general possibilities of physical observations and without any recourse to the Hilbert-space formulation of relativistic quantum theory. -Within this approach one obtains nonlocal correlations between the two EPR-systems in accordance with recent experiments and with quantum theory. These correlations can, however, not be used in order to produce superluminal signals and thus to violate Einstein-causality and special relativity. (author)
Relativistic Energy Density Functionals: Exotic modes of excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vretenar, D.; Paar, N.; Marketin, T.
2008-01-01
The framework of relativistic energy density functionals has been applied to the description of a variety of nuclear structure phenomena, not only in spherical and deformed nuclei along the valley of β-stability, but also in exotic systems with extreme isospin values and close to the particle drip-lines. Dynamical aspects of exotic nuclear structure have been investigated with the relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation. We present results for the evolution of low-lying dipole (pygmy) strength in neutron-rich nuclei, and charged-current neutrino-nucleus cross sections.
Relativistic and separable classical hamiltonian particle dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sazdjian, H.
1981-01-01
We show within the Hamiltonian formalism the existence of classical relativistic mechanics of N scalar particles interacting at a distance which satisfies the requirements of Poincare invariance, separability, world-line invariance and Einstein causality. The line of approach which is adopted here uses the methods of the theory of systems with constraints applied to manifestly covariant systems of particles. The study is limited to the case of scalar interactions remaining weak in the whole phase space and vanishing at large space-like separation distances of the particles. Poincare invariance requires the inclusion of many-body, up to N-body, potentials. Separability requires the use of individual or two-body variables and the construction of the total interaction from basic two-body interactions. Position variables of the particles are constructed in terms of the canonical variables of the theory according to the world-line invariance condition and the subsidiary conditions of the non-relativistic limit and separability. Positivity constraints on the interaction masses squared of the particles ensure that the velocities of the latter remain always smaller than the velocity of light
Relativistic quantum mechanics an introduction to relativistic quantum fields
Maiani, Luciano
2016-01-01
Written by two of the world's leading experts on particle physics and the standard model - including an award-winning former Director General of CERN - this textbook provides a completely up-to-date account of relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. It describes the formal and phenomenological aspects of the standard model of particle physics, and is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students studying both theoretical and experimental physics.
Relativistic dynamical reduction models: General framework and examples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghirardi, G.C.; Grassi, R.
1990-04-01
The formulation of a relativistic theory of statevector reduction is proposed and analyzed, and its conceptual consequences are elucidated. In particular, a detailed discussion of stochastic invariance and of local and nonlocal aspects at the level of individual systems is presented. (author). 35 refs, 5 figs
Quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves in weak relativistic plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Small amplitude quantum ion-acoustic solitary waves are studied in an unmagnetized two- species relativistic quantum plasma system, comprised of electrons and ions. The one-dimensional quantum hydrodynamic model (QHD) is used to obtain a deformed Korteweg–de Vries (dKdV) equation by reductive ...
Relativistic bound states: a mass formula for vector mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richard, J.L.; Sorba, P.
1975-07-01
In the framework of a relativistic description of two particles bound states, a mass formula for vector mesons considered as quark-antiquark systems bound by harmonic oscillator like forces is proposed. Results in good agreement with experimental values are obtained [fr
Slowly rotating general relativistic superfluid neutron stars with relativistic entrainment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comer, G.L.
2004-01-01
Neutron stars that are cold enough should have two or more superfluids or supercondutors in their inner crusts and cores. The implication of superfluidity or superconductivity for equilibrium and dynamical neutron star states is that each individual particle species that forms a condensate must have its own, independent number density current and equation of motion that determines that current. An important consequence of the quasiparticle nature of each condensate is the so-called entrainment effect; i.e., the momentum of a condensate is a linear combination of its own current and those of the other condensates. We present here the first fully relativistic modeling of slowly rotating superfluid neutron stars with entrainment that is accurate to the second-order in the rotation rates. The stars consist of superfluid neutrons, superconducting protons, and a highly degenerate, relativistic gas of electrons. We use a relativistic σ-ω mean field model for the equation of state of the matter and the entrainment. We determine the effect of a relative rotation between the neutrons and protons on a star's total mass, shape, and Kepler, mass-shedding limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
LaJohn, L. A.
2010-01-01
The nonrelativistic (nr) impulse approximation (NRIA) expression for Compton-scattering doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) for inelastic photon scattering is recovered from the corresponding relativistic expression (RIA) of Ribberfors [Phys. Rev. B 12, 2067 (1975)] in the limit of low momentum transfer (q→0), valid even at relativistic incident photon energies ω 1 >m provided that the average initial momentum of the ejected electron i > is not too high, that is, i > b 1 >m using nr expressions when θ is small. For example, a 1% accuracy can be obtained when ω 1 =1 MeV if θ 1 increases into the MeV range, the maximum θ at which an accurate Compton peak can be obtained from nr expressions approaches closer to zero, because the θ at which the relativistic shift of CP to higher energy is greatest, which starts at 180 deg. when ω 1 min ,ρ rel ) (where p min is the relativistic version of the z component of the momentum of the initial electron and ρ rel is the relativistic charge density) and K(p min ) on p min . This characterization approach was used as a guide for making the nr QED S-matrix expression for the Compton peak kinematically relativistic. Such modified nr expressions can be more readily applied to large systems than the fully relativistic version.
Relativistic few quark dynamics for hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitra, A.N.
1983-07-01
A microscopic confinement approach is presented to a few quarks systems through an effective (harmonic) kernel inserted at the level of q-q-bar and q-q pairs, using the vehicle of the Bethe-Salpeter equation for each such system. The formalism, which is realistic for light quark systems (which require an intrinsically relativistic treatment), has been developed in a simple enough form so as to be applicable in practice to a large class of phenomena amenable to experimental test. The comparison over a wide range of hadronic properties (from mass spectra to current matrix elements), all within a single integrated framework, would seem to strongly support the ansatz of universality of the reduced spring constant (ω-tilde) which plays a role analogous to the bag radius, but at a far more microscopic level
Relativistic quantum mechanics of bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghose, P.; Home, D.; Sinha Roy, M.N.
1993-01-01
We show that it is possible to use the Klein-Gordon, Proca and Maxwell formulations to construct multi-component relativistic configuration space wavefunctions of spin-0 and spin-1 bosons in an external field. These wavefunctions satisfy the first-order Kemmer-Duffin equation. The crucial ingredient is the use of the future-causal normal n μ (n μ n μ =1, n 0 >0) to the space-like hypersurfaces foliating space-time, inherent in the concept of a relativistic wavefunction, to construct a conserved future-causal probability current four-vector from the second-rank energy-momentum tensor, following Holland's prescription. The existence of a Hermitian position operator, localized solutions, compatibility with the second quantized theories and the question of interpretation are discussed. (orig.)
Kinetic approach to relativistic dissipation
Gabbana, A.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Tripiccione, R.
2017-08-01
Despite a long record of intense effort, the basic mechanisms by which dissipation emerges from the microscopic dynamics of a relativistic fluid still elude complete understanding. In particular, several details must still be finalized in the pathway from kinetic theory to hydrodynamics mainly in the derivation of the values of the transport coefficients. In this paper, we approach the problem by matching data from lattice-kinetic simulations with analytical predictions. Our numerical results provide neat evidence in favor of the Chapman-Enskog [The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases, 3rd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., 1970)] procedure as suggested by recent theoretical analyses along with qualitative hints at the basic reasons why the Chapman-Enskog expansion might be better suited than Grad's method [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 2, 331 (1949), 10.1002/cpa.3160020403] to capture the emergence of dissipative effects in relativistic fluids.
Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Füellekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E. M. D.
2011-01-01
Non-luminous relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds have been detected by the radio signals of low frequency similar to 40-400 kHz which they radiate. The electron beams occur similar to 2-9 ms after positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges at heights between similar to 22-72 km above...... thunderclouds. Intense positive lightning discharges can also cause sprites which occur either above or prior to the electron beam. One electron beam was detected without any luminous sprite which suggests that electron beams may also occur independently of sprites. Numerical simulations show that beams...... of electrons partially discharge the lightning electric field above thunderclouds and thereby gain a mean energy of similar to 7MeV to transport a total charge of similar to-10mC upwards. The impulsive current similar to 3 x 10(-3) Am-2 associated with relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds...
The relativistic electron wave equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dirac, P.A.M.
1977-08-01
The paper was presented at the European Conference on Particle Physics held in Budapest between the 4th and 9th July of 1977. A short review is given on the birth of the relativistic electron wave equation. After Schroedinger has shown the equivalence of his wave mechanics and the matrix mechanics of Heisenberg, a general transformation theory was developed by the author. This theory required a relativistic wave equation linear in delta/delta t. As the Klein--Gordon equation available at this time did not satisfy this condition the development of a new equation became necessary. The equation which was found gave the value of the electron spin and magnetic moment automatically. (D.P.)
Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles
Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich
2010-01-01
This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results.
Volatility smile as relativistic effect
Kakushadze, Zura
2017-06-01
We give an explicit formula for the probability distribution based on a relativistic extension of Brownian motion. The distribution (1) is properly normalized and (2) obeys the tower law (semigroup property), so we can construct martingales and self-financing hedging strategies and price claims (options). This model is a 1-constant-parameter extension of the Black-Scholes-Merton model. The new parameter is the analog of the speed of light in Special Relativity. However, in the financial context there is no ;speed limit; and the new parameter has the meaning of a characteristic diffusion speed at which relativistic effects become important and lead to a much softer asymptotic behavior, i.e., fat tails, giving rise to volatility smiles. We argue that a nonlocal stochastic description of such (Lévy) processes is inadequate and discuss a local description from physics. The presentation is intended to be pedagogical.
Relativistic shocks and particle acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heavens, A.F.
1988-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the fluid dynamics of relativistic shock waves, and use the results to calculate the spectral index of particles accelerated by the Fermi process in such shocks. We have calculated the distributions of Fermi-accelerated particles at shocks propagating into cold proton-electron plasma and also cold electron-positron plasma. We have considered two different power spectra for the scattering waves, and find, in contrast to the non-relativistic case, that the spectral index of the accelerated particles depends on the wave power spectrum. On the assumption of thermal equilibrium both upstream and downstream, we present some useful fits for the compression ratio of shocks propagating at arbitrary speeds into gas of any temperature. (author)
Diffraction radiation from relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Potylitsyn, Alexander Petrovich; Ryazanov, Mikhail Ivanovich; Strikhanov, Mikhail Nikolaevich; Tishchenko, Alexey Alexandrovich
2010-01-01
This book deals with diffraction radiation, which implies the boundary problems of electromagnetic radiation theory. Diffraction radiation is generated when a charged particle moves in a vacuum near a target edge. Diffraction radiation of non-relativistic particles is widely used to design intense emitters in the cm wavelength range. Diffraction radiation from relativistic charged particles is important for noninvasive beam diagnostics and design of free electron lasers based on Smith-Purcell radiation which is diffraction radiation from periodic structures. Different analytical models of diffraction radiation and results of recent experimental studies are presented in this book. The book may also serve as guide to classical electrodynamics applications in beam physics and electrodynamics. It can be of great use for young researchers to develop skills and for experienced scientists to obtain new results. (orig.)
Relativistic hydrodynamic evolutions with black hole excision
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duez, Matthew D.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Yo, H.-J.
2004-01-01
We present a numerical code designed to study astrophysical phenomena involving dynamical spacetimes containing black holes in the presence of relativistic hydrodynamic matter. We present evolutions of the collapse of a fluid star from the onset of collapse to the settling of the resulting black hole to a final stationary state. In order to evolve stably after the black hole forms, we excise a region inside the hole before a singularity is encountered. This excision region is introduced after the appearance of an apparent horizon, but while a significant amount of matter remains outside the hole. We test our code by evolving accurately a vacuum Schwarzschild black hole, a relativistic Bondi accretion flow onto a black hole, Oppenheimer-Snyder dust collapse, and the collapse of nonrotating and rotating stars. These systems are tracked reliably for hundreds of M following excision, where M is the mass of the black hole. We perform these tests both in axisymmetry and in full 3+1 dimensions. We then apply our code to study the effect of the stellar spin parameter J/M 2 on the final outcome of gravitational collapse of rapidly rotating n=1 polytropes. We find that a black hole forms only if J/M 2 2 >1, the collapsing star forms a torus which fragments into nonaxisymmetric clumps, capable of generating appreciable 'splash' gravitational radiation
Relativistic numerical cosmology with silent universes
Bolejko, Krzysztof
2018-01-01
Relativistic numerical cosmology is most often based either on the exact solutions of the Einstein equations, or perturbation theory, or weak-field limit, or the BSSN formalism. The silent universe provides an alternative approach to investigate relativistic evolution of cosmological systems. The silent universe is based on the solution of the Einstein equations in 1 + 3 comoving coordinates with additional constraints imposed. These constraints include: the gravitational field is sourced by dust and cosmological constant only, both rotation and magnetic part of the Weyl tensor vanish, and the shear is diagnosable. This paper describes the code simsilun (free software distributed under the terms of the reposi General Public License), which implements the equations of the silent universe. The paper also discusses applications of the silent universe and it uses the Millennium simulation to set up the initial conditions for the code simsilun. The simulation obtained this way consists of 16 777 216 worldlines, which are evolved from z = 80 to z = 0. Initially, the mean evolution (averaged over the whole domain) follows the evolution of the background ΛCDM model. However, once the evolution of cosmic structures becomes nonlinear, the spatial curvature evolves from ΩK =0 to ΩK ≈ 0.1 at the present day. The emergence of the spatial curvature is associated with ΩM and Ω_Λ being smaller by approximately 0.05 compared to the ΛCDM.
Asymptotics of relativistic spin networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrett, John W; Steele, Christopher M
2003-01-01
The stationary phase technique is used to calculate asymptotic formulae for SO(4) relativistic spin networks. For the tetrahedral spin network this gives the square of the Ponzano-Regge asymptotic formula for the SU(2) 6j-symbol. For the 4-simplex (10j-symbol) the asymptotic formula is compared with numerical calculations of the spin network evaluation. Finally, we discuss the asymptotics of the SO(3, 1) 10j-symbol
Analytic approaches to relativistic hydrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hatta, Yoshitaka
2016-12-15
I summarize our recent work towards finding and utilizing analytic solutions of relativistic hydrodynamic. In the first part I discuss various exact solutions of the second-order conformal hydrodynamics. In the second part I compute flow harmonics v{sub n} analytically using the anisotropically deformed Gubser flow and discuss its dependence on n, p{sub T}, viscosity, the chemical potential and the charge.
Characteristic manifolds in relativistic hypoelasticity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giambo, S [Messina Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Matematica
1978-10-02
The relativistic hypoelasticity is considered and the characteristic manifolds are determined by using the Cauchy-Kovalevski theorem for the Cauchy problem with analytic initial conditions. Taking into account that the characteristic manifold represents the image of the front-wave in the space-time, it is possible to determine the velocities of propagation. Three wave-species are obtained: material waves, longitudinal waves and transverse waves.
Coordinates in relativistic Hamiltonian mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sokolov, S.N.
1984-01-01
The physical (covariant and measurable) coordinates of free particles and covariant coordinates of the center of inertia are found for three main forms of relativistic dynamics. In the point form of dynamics, the covariant coordinates of two directly interacting particles are found, and the equations of motion are brought to the explicitly covariant form. These equations are generalized to the case of interaction with an external electromagnetic field
Theory of a relativistic peniotron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhurakhovskii, V.A.
1986-01-01
A normalized mathematical model for describing the motion of electrons in a relativistic peniotron with smoothly varying magnetostatic field, which provides a state of exact gyroresonance along the entire length of the device, is constructed. The results of computer calculations of the energetics of this device are presented and an example of an effective choice of its parameterse corresponding to high electronic efficiency of a one-velocity flow are presented
Relativistic beaming and quasar statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orr, M.J.L.; Browne, I.W.A.
1982-01-01
The statistical predictions of a unified scheme for the radio emission from quasars are explored. This scheme attributes the observed differences between flat- and steep-spectrum quasars to projection and the effects of relativistic beaming of the emission from the nuclear components. We use a simple quasar model consisting of a compact relativistically beamed core with spectral index zero and unbeamed lobes, spectral index - 1, to predict the proportion of flat-spectrum sources in flux-limited samples selected at different frequencies. In our model this fraction depends on the core Lorentz factor, γ and we find that a value of approximately 5 gives satisfactory agreement with observation. In a similar way the model is used to construct the expected number/flux density counts for flat-spectrum quasars from the observed steep-spectrum counts. Again, good agreement with the observations is obtained if the average core Lorentz factor is about 5. Independent estimates of γ from observations of superluminal motion in quasars are of the same order of magnitude. We conclude that the statistical properties of quasars are entirely consistent with the predictions of simple relativistic-beam models. (author)
Relativistic nuclear collisions: TASS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pugh, H.G.; Schroeder, L.S.; Sandoval, A.
1985-01-01
The Two-Arm Spectrometer System (TASS) consists of two fully rotatable magnets with accompanying wire chambers and scintillation hodoscopes for particle identification. It was first operated in July 1980 and the first phase of instrumentation and experiments was completed in mid-1983. The present activities on TASS primarily concern pion and lepton spectrometry
Particle Acceleration, Magnetic Field Generation and Emission from Relativistic Jets
Nishikawa, K.-I.; Hardee, P.; Hededal, C.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Fishman, G. Jerry; Hartmann, D. H.
2006-01-01
Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), supernova remnants, and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments. Recent PIC simulations using injected relativistic electron-ion (electro-positron) jets show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet, rather than by the scattering of particles back and forth across the shock as in Fermi acceleration. Shock acceleration' is a ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different spectral properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants. We will review recent PIC simulations of relativistic jets and try to make a connection with observations.
Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zenitani, Seiji
2015-01-01
Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ≈50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms
Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zenitani, Seiji, E-mail: seiji.zenitani@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
2015-04-15
Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ≈50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.
Relativistic fluids in spherically symmetric space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dipankar, R.
1977-12-01
Some of McVittie and Wiltshire's (1977) solutions of Walker's (1935) isotropy conditions for relativistic perfect fluid spheres are generalized. Solutions are spherically symmetric and conformally flat
Relativistic ion acceleration by ultraintense laser interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakajima, K.; Koga, J.K.; Nakagawa, K.
2001-01-01
There has been a great interest in relativistic particle generation by ultraintense laser interactions with matter. We propose the use of relativistically self-focused laser pulses for the acceleration of ions. Two dimensional PIC simulations are performed, which show the formation of a large positive electrostatic field near the front of a relativistically self-focused laser pulse. Several factors contribute to the acceleration including self-focusing distance, pulse depletion, and plasma density. Ultraintense laser-plasma interactions are capable of generating enormous electrostatic fields of ∼3 TV/m for acceleration of protons with relativistic energies exceeding 1 GeV
RELATIVISTIC CYCLOTRON INSTABILITY IN ANISOTROPIC PLASMAS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
López, Rodrigo A.; Moya, Pablo S.; Muñoz, Víctor; Valdivia, J. Alejandro [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Navarro, Roberto E.; Araneda, Jaime A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Viñas, Adolfo F., E-mail: rlopez186@gmail.com [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2016-11-20
A sufficiently large temperature anisotropy can sometimes drive various types of electromagnetic plasma micro-instabilities, which can play an important role in the dynamics of relativistic pair plasmas in space, astrophysics, and laboratory environments. Here, we provide a detailed description of the cyclotron instability of parallel propagating electromagnetic waves in relativistic pair plasmas on the basis of a relativistic anisotropic distribution function. Using plasma kinetic theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we study the influence of the relativistic temperature and the temperature anisotropy on the collective and noncollective modes of these plasmas. Growth rates and dispersion curves from the linear theory show a good agreement with simulations results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Getmanov, B.S.
1988-01-01
The results of classification of two-dimensional relativistic field models (1) spinor; (2) essentially-nonlinear scalar) possessing higher conservation laws using the system of symbolic computer calculations are presented shortly
Non equilibrium relativistic cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novello, M.; Salim, J.M.
1982-01-01
A certain systematization through the discussion of results already known on cosmology and the presentation of new ones is given. In section 2 a brief review of the necessary mathematical background is also given. The theory of perturbation of Friedmann-like Universes is presented in section 3. The reduction of Einstein's equations for homogeneous Universes to an autonomous planar system of differential equations is done in section 4. Finally in section 5 the alternative gravitational non-minimal coupling and its consequences to cosmology are discussed. (Author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serva, M.
1986-01-01
In this paper we give probabilistic solutions to the equations describing non-relativistic quantum electrodynamical systems. These solutions involve, besides the usual diffusion processes, also birth and death processes corresponding to the 'photons number' variables. We state some inequalities and in particular we establish bounds to the ground state energy of systems composed by a non relativistic particle interacting with a field. The result is general and it is applied as an example to the polaron problem. (orig.)
Relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, T.D.
1982-01-01
At present, most physicists feel that they have finally arrived at a closed system of physical laws, with QCD for the strong interaction and a unifying gauge theory for the weak and electromagnetic forces, plus of course Einstein's theory of general relativity. However, there are a few things that are not completely satisfactory. Of the participating fundamental particles, only the leptons and the photon have been observed directly. The intermediate bosons and the graviton, we hope, can be detected in the near future. All the rest, the quarks and the gluon, we believe can never come out in the open and that therefore direct observation will always be impossible. In view of this the authors strong belief in this grand scheme must not be due entirely to direct experimental evidence, but rather be based on the esthetic simplicity of the theoretical foundation and the compelling conclusion of our mathematical deduction. Two puzzles emerge: missing symmetry and color confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramowicz, M.A; Jaroszynski, M.; Sikora, M.
1978-01-01
An analytic theory of the hydrodynamical structure of accreting disks (without self-gravitation but with pressure) orbiting around and axially symmetric, stationary, compact body (e.g. black hole) is presented. The inner edge of the marginally stable accreting disk (i.e. disk with constant angular momentum density) has a sharp cusp located on the equatorial plane between rsub(ms) and rsub(mb). The existence of the cusp is also typical for any angular momentum distribution. The physical importance of the cusp follows from the close analogy with the case of a close binary system (L 1 Lagrange point on the Roche lobe). The existence of the cusp is thus a crucial phenomenon in such problems as boundary condition for the viscous stresses, accretion rate etc. (orig.) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abramowicz, M A; Jaroszynski, M; Sikora, M [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw
1978-02-01
An analytic theory of the hydrodynamical structure of accreting disks (without self-gravitation but with pressure) orbiting around an axially symmetric, stationary, compact body (e.g. black hole) is presented. The inner edge of the marginally stable accreting disk (i.e. disk with constant angular momentum density) has a sharp cusp located on the equatorial plane between r/sub ms/ and r/sub mb/. The existence of the cusp is also typical for any angular momentum distribution. The physical importance of the cusp follows from the close analogy with the case of a close binary system (L/sub 1/ Lagrange point on the Roche lobe). The existence of the cusp is thus a crucial phenomenon in such problems as boundary condition for the viscous stresses, accretion rate, etc.
Relativistic Few-Body Hadronic Physics Calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Polyzou, Wayne [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)
2016-06-20
The goal of this research proposal was to use ``few-body'' methods to understand the structure and reactions of systems of interacting hadrons (neutrons, protons, mesons, quarks) over a broad range of energy scales. Realistic mathematical models of few-hadron systems have the advantage that they are sufficiently simple that they can be solved with mathematically controlled errors. These systems are also simple enough that it is possible to perform complete accurate experimental measurements on these systems. Comparison between theory and experiment puts strong constraints on the structure of the models. Even though these systems are ``simple'', both the experiments and computations push the limits of technology. The important property of ``few-body'' systems is that the ``cluster property'' implies that the interactions that appear in few-body systems are identical to the interactions that appear in complicated many-body systems. Of particular interest are models that correctly describe physics at distance scales that are sensitive to the internal structure of the individual nucleons. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle implies that in order to be sensitive to physics on distance scales that are a fraction of the proton or neutron radius, a relativistic treatment of quantum mechanics is necessary. The research supported by this grant involved 30 years of effort devoted to studying all aspects of interacting two and three-body systems. Realistic interactions were used to compute bound states of two- and three-nucleon, and two- and three-quark systems. Scattering observables for these systems were computed for a broad range of energies - from zero energy scattering to few GeV scattering, where experimental evidence of sub-nucleon degrees of freedom is beginning to appear. Benchmark calculations were produced, which when compared with calculations of other groups provided an essential check on these complicated calculations. In
Relativistic electron kinetic effects on laser diagnostics in burning plasmas
Mirnov, V. V.; Den Hartog, D. J.
2018-02-01
Toroidal interferometry/polarimetry (TIP), poloidal polarimetry (PoPola), and Thomson scattering systems (TS) are major optical diagnostics being designed and developed for ITER. Each of them relies upon a sophisticated quantitative understanding of the electron response to laser light propagating through a burning plasma. Review of the theoretical results for two different applications is presented: interferometry/polarimetry (I/P) and polarization of Thomson scattered light, unified by the importance of relativistic (quadratic in vTe/c) electron kinetic effects. For I/P applications, rigorous analytical results are obtained perturbatively by expansion in powers of the small parameter τ = Te/me c2, where Te is electron temperature and me is electron rest mass. Experimental validation of the analytical models has been made by analyzing data of more than 1200 pulses collected from high-Te JET discharges. Based on this validation the relativistic analytical expressions are included in the error analysis and design projects of the ITER TIP and PoPola systems. The polarization properties of incoherent Thomson scattered light are being examined as a method of Te measurement relevant to ITER operational regimes. The theory is based on Stokes vector transformation and Mueller matrices formalism. The general approach is subdivided into frequency-integrated and frequency-resolved cases. For each of them, the exact analytical relativistic solutions are presented in the form of Mueller matrix elements averaged over the relativistic Maxwellian distribution function. New results related to the detailed verification of the frequency-resolved solutions are reported. The precise analytic expressions provide output much more rapidly than relativistic kinetic numerical codes allowing for direct real-time feedback control of ITER device operation.
Calculating Relativistic Transition Matrix Elements for Hydrogenic Atoms Using Monte Carlo Methods
Alexander, Steven; Coldwell, R. L.
2015-03-01
The nonrelativistic transition matrix elements for hydrogen atoms can be computed exactly and these expressions are given in a number of classic textbooks. The relativistic counterparts of these equations can also be computed exactly but these expressions have been described in only a few places in the literature. In part, this is because the relativistic equations lack the elegant simplicity of the nonrelativistic equations. In this poster I will describe how variational Monte Carlo methods can be used to calculate the energy and properties of relativistic hydrogen atoms and how the wavefunctions for these systems can be used to calculate transition matrix elements.
Relativistic quantum vorticity of the quadratic form of the Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asenjo, Felipe A; Mahajan, Swadesh M
2015-01-01
We explore the fluid version of the quadratic form of the Dirac equation, sometimes called the Feynman–Gell-Mann equation. The dynamics of the quantum spinor field is represented by equations of motion for the fluid density, the velocity field, and the spin field. In analogy with classical relativistic and non-relativistic quantum theories, the fully relativistic fluid formulation of this equation allows a vortex dynamics. The vortical form is described by a total tensor field that is the weighted combination of the inertial, electromagnetic and quantum forces. The dynamics contrives the quadratic form of the Dirac equation as a total vorticity free system. (paper)
Thermodynamics of polarized relativistic matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kovtun, Pavel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria,PO Box 1700 STN CSC, Victoria BC, V8W 2Y2 (Canada)
2016-07-05
We give the free energy of equilibrium relativistic matter subject to external gravitational and electromagnetic fields, to one-derivative order in the gradients of the external fields. The free energy allows for a straightforward derivation of bound currents and bound momenta in equilibrium. At leading order, the energy-momentum tensor admits a simple expression in terms of the polarization tensor. Beyond the leading order, electric and magnetic polarization vectors are intrinsically ambiguous. The physical effects of polarization, such as the correlation between the magneto-vortically induced surface charge and the electro-vortically induced surface current, are not ambiguous.
Observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanford, Glenn DelFosse
1998-01-01
An observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms is reported in this dissertation. Experiment 862 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory observed antihydrogen atoms produced by the interaction of a circulating beam of high momentum (3 0 production is outlined within. The cross section corresponds to the process where a high momentum antiproton causes e + e - pair creation near a nucleus with the e + being captured by the antiproton. Antihydrogen is the first atom made exclusively of antimatter to be detected. The observation experiment's results are the first step towards an antihydrogen spectroscopy experiment which would measure the n = 2 Lamb shift and fine structure
Relativistic heavy ion facilities: worldwide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeder, L.S.
1986-05-01
A review of relativistic heavy ion facilities which exist, are in a construction phase, or are on the drawing boards as proposals is presented. These facilities span the energy range from fixed target machines in the 1 to 2 GeV/nucleon regime, up to heavy ion colliders of 100 GeV/nucleon on 100 GeV/nucleon. In addition to specifying the general features of such machines, an outline of the central physics themes to be carried out at these facilities is given, along with a sampling of the detectors which will be used to extract the physics. 22 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs
Unlimited Relativistic Shock Surfing Acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ucer, D.; Shapiro, V. D.
2001-01-01
Nonrelativistic shock surfing acceleration at quasiperpendicular shocks is usually considered to be a preacceleration mechanism for slow pickup ions to initiate diffusive shock acceleration. In shock surfing, the particle accelerates along the shock front under the action of the convective electric field of the plasma flow. However, the particle also gains kinetic energy normal to the shock and eventually escapes downstream. We consider the case when ions are accelerated to relativistic velocities. In this case, the ions are likely to be trapped for infinitely long times, because the energy of bounce oscillations tends to decrease during acceleration. This suggests the possibility of unlimited acceleration by shock surfing
The magnetosphere in relativistic physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zapffe, C.A.
1982-01-01
The present paper takes off from the author's earlier epistemological analysis and criticism of the Special Theory of Relativity, identifies the problem as lying in Einstein's choice of the inertial frame of Newtonian mechanics rather than the electromagnetic frame of the locally embedding Maxwellian field when discussing electrodynamics, then proposes this Maxwellian field of the magnetosphere as the specific rest frame proper to all experimentation of optical or electromagnetic sort conducted within its bounds. The result is shown to remove all paradoxes from relativistic physics. (author)
Coulomb-Driven Relativistic Electron Beam Compression
Lu, Chao; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Lingrong; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao; Zhang, Jie
2018-01-01
Coulomb interaction between charged particles is a well-known phenomenon in many areas of research. In general, the Coulomb repulsion force broadens the pulse width of an electron bunch and limits the temporal resolution of many scientific facilities such as ultrafast electron diffraction and x-ray free-electron lasers. Here we demonstrate a scheme that actually makes use of the Coulomb force to compress a relativistic electron beam. Furthermore, we show that the Coulomb-driven bunch compression process does not introduce additional timing jitter, which is in sharp contrast to the conventional radio-frequency buncher technique. Our work not only leads to enhanced temporal resolution in electron-beam-based ultrafast instruments that may provide new opportunities in probing material systems far from equilibrium, but also opens a promising direction for advanced beam manipulation through self-field interactions.
Coulomb-Driven Relativistic Electron Beam Compression.
Lu, Chao; Jiang, Tao; Liu, Shengguang; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Lingrong; Zhu, Pengfei; Xiang, Dao; Zhang, Jie
2018-01-26
Coulomb interaction between charged particles is a well-known phenomenon in many areas of research. In general, the Coulomb repulsion force broadens the pulse width of an electron bunch and limits the temporal resolution of many scientific facilities such as ultrafast electron diffraction and x-ray free-electron lasers. Here we demonstrate a scheme that actually makes use of the Coulomb force to compress a relativistic electron beam. Furthermore, we show that the Coulomb-driven bunch compression process does not introduce additional timing jitter, which is in sharp contrast to the conventional radio-frequency buncher technique. Our work not only leads to enhanced temporal resolution in electron-beam-based ultrafast instruments that may provide new opportunities in probing material systems far from equilibrium, but also opens a promising direction for advanced beam manipulation through self-field interactions.
Rarefaction wave in relativistic steady magnetohydrodynamic flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sapountzis, Konstantinos, E-mail: ksapountzis@phys.uoa.gr; Vlahakis, Nektarios, E-mail: vlahakis@phys.uoa.gr [Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece)
2014-07-15
We construct and analyze a model of the relativistic steady-state magnetohydrodynamic rarefaction that is induced when a planar symmetric flow (with one ignorable Cartesian coordinate) propagates under a steep drop of the external pressure profile. Using the method of self-similarity, we derive a system of ordinary differential equations that describe the flow dynamics. In the specific limit of an initially homogeneous flow, we also provide analytical results and accurate scaling laws. We consider that limit as a generalization of the previous Newtonian and hydrodynamic solutions already present in the literature. The model includes magnetic field and bulk flow speed having all components, whose role is explored with a parametric study.
Modular TPCs for relativistic heavy-ion experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Etkin, A.; Eiseman, S.E.; Foley, K.J.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Platner, E.D.; Saulys, A.C.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Chan, C.S.; Kramer, M.A.; Hallman, T.J.; Madansky, L.; Bonner, B.E.; Buchanan, J.A.; Chiou, C.N.; Clement, J.M.; Corcoran, M.D.; Krishna, N.; Kruk, J.W.; Miettinen, H.E.; Mutchler, G.S.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Nessi, M.; Phillips, G.C.; Roberts, J.B.
1989-01-01
A description is given of a TPC system that operates in a relativistic heavy-ion beam and yields good track reconstruction efficiency in very-high-multiplicity events. The mechanical construction of the chamber is discussed. A set of custom hybrid circuits are used to build a very compact, cost-effective electronics system mounted directly on the chamber. Results from running in test beams and from preliminary experimental runs are given. (orig.)
Scaling for deuteron structure functions in a relativistic light-front model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polyzou, W.N.; Gloeckle, W.
1996-01-01
Scaling limits of the structure functions [B.D. Keister, Phys. Rev. C 37, 1765 (1988)], W 1 and W 2 , are studied in a relativistic model of the two-nucleon system. The relativistic model is defined by a unitary representation, U(Λ,a), of the Poincaracute e group which acts on the Hilbert space of two spinless nucleons. The representation is in Dirac close-quote s [P.A.M. Dirac, Rev. Mod. Phys. 21, 392 (1949)] light-front formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics and is designed to give the experimental deuteron mass and n-p scattering length. A model hadronic current operator that is conserved and covariant with respect to this representation is used to define the structure tensor. This work is the first step in a relativistic extension of the results of Hueber, Gloeckle, and Boemelburg. The nonrelativistic limit of the model is shown to be consistent with the nonrelativistic model of Hueber, Gloeckle, and Boemelburg. [D. Hueber et al. Phys. Rev. C 42, 2342 (1990)]. The relativistic and nonrelativistic scaling limits, for both Bjorken and y scaling are compared. The interpretation of y scaling in the relativistic model is studied critically. The standard interpretation of y scaling requires a soft wave function which is not realized in this model. The scaling limits in both the relativistic and nonrelativistic case are related to probability distributions associated with the target deuteron. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Relativistic calculations of coalescing binary neutron stars
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We have designed and tested a new relativistic Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, which treats gravity in the conformally flat approximation to general relativity. We have tested the resulting code extensively, finding that it performs well for calculations of equilibrium single-star models, collapsing relativistic dust clouds, and ...
Relativistic corrections to molecular dynamic dipole polarizabilities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirpekar, Sheela; Oddershede, Jens; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard
1995-01-01
obtained from the use of the Darwin and mass-velocity operators to first order are included at both levels of approximation. We find that correlation and relativistic contributions are not even approximately additive for the two molecules. The importance of the relativistic corrections is smallest...
A Primer to Relativistic MOND Theory
Bekenstein, J.D..; Sanders, R.H.
2005-01-01
Abstract: We first review the nonrelativistic lagrangian theory as a framework for the MOND equation. Obstructions to a relativistic version of it are discussed leading up to TeVeS, a relativistic tensor-vector-scalar field theory which displays both MOND and Newtonian limits. The whys for its
Relativistic astrophysics and theory of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zel'dovich, Ya.B.
1982-01-01
A brief historical review of the development of astrophysical science in the State Astrophysical Institute named after Shternberg (SAISh) has been given in a popular form. The main directions of the SAISh astrophysical investigations have been presented: relativistic theory of gravity, relativistic astrophysics of interplanetary medium and cosmology
Einstein Never Approved of Relativistic Mass
Hecht, Eugene
2009-01-01
During much of the 20th century it was widely believed that one of the significant insights of special relativity was "relativistic mass." Today there are two schools on that issue: the traditional view that embraces speed-dependent "relativistic mass," and the more modern position that rejects it, maintaining that there is only one mass and it's…
Dark matter: a problem in relativistic metrology?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lusanna, Luca
2017-01-01
Besides the tidal degrees of freedom of Einstein general relativity (GR) (namely the two polarizations of gravitational waves after linearization of the theory) there are the inertial gauge ones connected with the freedom in the choice of the 4-coordinates of the space-time, i.e. in the choice of the notions of time and 3-space (the 3+1 splitting of space-time) and in their use to define a non-inertial frame (the inertial ones being forbidden by the equivalence principle) by means of a set of conventions for the relativistic metrology of the space-time (like the GPS ones near the Earth). The canonical York basis of canonical ADM gravity allows us to identify the Hamiltonian inertial gauge variables in globally hyperbolic asymptotically Minkowskian space-times without super-translations and to define the family of non-harmonic Schwinger time gauges. In these 3+1 splittings of space-time the freedom in the choice of time (the problem of clock synchronization) is described by the inertial gauge variable York time (the trace of the extrinsic curvature of the instantaneous 3-spaces). This inertial gauge freedom and the non-Euclidean nature of the instantaneous 3-spaces required by the equivalence principle need to be incorporated as metrical conventions in a relativistic suitable extension of the existing (essentially Galilean) ICRS celestial reference system. In this paper I make a short review of the existing possibilities to explain the presence of dark matter (or at least of part of it) as a relativistic inertial effect induced by the non- Euclidean nature of the 3-spaces. After a Hamiltonian Post-Minkowskian (HPM) linearization of canonical ADM tetrad gravity with particles, having equal inertial and gravitational masses, as matter, followed by a Post-Newtonian (PN) expansion, we find that the Newtonian equality of inertial and gravitational masses breaks down and that the inertial gauge York time produces an increment of the inertial masses explaining at least
Random phase approximation in relativistic approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Zhongyu; Yang Ding; Tian Yuan; Cao Ligang
2009-01-01
Some special issues of the random phase approximation(RPA) in the relativistic approach are reviewed. A full consistency and proper treatment of coupling to the continuum are responsible for the successful application of the RPA in the description of dynamical properties of finite nuclei. The fully consistent relativistic RPA(RRPA) requires that the relativistic mean filed (RMF) wave function of the nucleus and the RRPA correlations are calculated in a same effective Lagrangian and the consistent treatment of the Dirac sea of negative energy states. The proper treatment of the single particle continuum with scattering asymptotic conditions in the RMF and RRPA is discussed. The full continuum spectrum can be described by the single particle Green's function and the relativistic continuum RPA is established. A separable form of the paring force is introduced in the relativistic quasi-particle RPA. (authors)
Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations
Zenitani, S.
2015-12-01
In order to study energetic plasma phenomena by using particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations, we need to deal with relativistic velocity distributions in these simulations. However, numerical algorithms to deal with relativistic distributions are not well known. In this contribution, we overview basic algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in PIC and Monte-Carlo simulations. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are newly proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are 50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.
Relativistic theory of spontaneous emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barut, A.O.; Salamin, Y.I.
1987-06-01
We derive a formula for the relativistic decay rates in atoms in a formulation of Quantum Electrodynamics based upon the electron's self energy. Relativistic Coulomb wavefunctions are used, the full spin calculation is carried out and the dipole approximation is not employed. The formula has the correct nonrelativistic limit and is used here for calculating the decay rates in Hydrogen and Muonium for the transitions 2P → 1S 1/2 and 2S 1/2 → 1S 1/2 . The results for Hydrogen are: Γ(2P → 1S 1/2 )=6.2649x10 8 s -1 and Γ(2S 1/2 → 1S 1/2 )=2.4946x10 -6 s -1 . Our result for the 2P → 1S 1/2 transition rate is in perfect agreement with the best nonrelativistic calculations as well as with the results obtained from the best known radiative decay lifetime measurements. As for the Hydrogen 2S 1/2 → 1S 1/2 decay rate, the result obtained here is also in good agreement with the best known magnetic dipole calculations. For Muonium we get: Γ(2P → 1S 1/2 )=6.2382x10 8 s -1 and Γ(2S 1/2 → 1S 1/2 )=2.3997x10 -6 s -1 . (author). 23 refs, 4 tabs
Physical processes in relativistic plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svensson, R.
1984-01-01
The continuum emission in many active galactic nuclei (AGNs) extend to 100 keV and beyond (e.g. Rothschild et al. 1983). In thermal models of the continuum emission this implies temperatures above 10 9 K or kT of order mc 2 . In such a plasma the electrons are at least mildly relativistic and furthermore the particles and the photons are energetic enough to produce electron-positron pairs. The physics of such hot plasmas has only recently been studied in any detail and here we review the results of those studies. Significant electron-positron pair production may also occur in non-thermal models of the continuum emission if the optical depth to photon-photon pair production is greater than unity. We review the few results obtained regarding this interesting but not very well studied possibility. First, however, we briefly discuss the processes taking place in relativistic plasmas and the standard models for the continuum emission from AGNs. We then summarize the effects pair production have on these models and the observational implications of the presence of electron-positron pairs. (orig./WL)
24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment.
Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo
2016-09-30
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.
Multifragmentation in relativistic heavy ion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trautmann, W.
1996-11-01
Multifragmentation is the dominant decay mode of heavy nuclear systems with excitation energies in the vicinity of their binding energies. It explores the partition space associated with the number of nucleonic constituents and it is characterized by a multiple production of nuclear fragments with intermediate mass. Reactions at relativistic bombarding energies, exceeding several hundreds of MeV per nucleon, have been found very efficient in creating such highly excited systems. Peripheral collisions of heavy symmetric systems or more central collisions of mass asymmetric systems produce spectator nuclei with properties indicating a high degree of equilibration. The observed decay patterns are well described by statistical multifragmentation models. The present experimental and theoretical studies are particularly motivated by the fact that multifragmentation is being considered a possible manifestation of the liquid-gas phase transition in finite nuclear systems. From the simultaneous measurement of the temperature and of the energy content of excited spectator systems a caloric curve of nuclei has been obtained. The characteristic S-shaped behavior resembles that of ordinary liquids. Signatures of critical phenomena in finite nuclear systems are searched for in multifragmentation data. These studies, supported by the success of percolation in reproducing the experimental mass or charge correlations, concentrate on the fluctuations observed in these observables. Attempts have been made to deduce critical-point exponents associated with multifragmentation. (orig.)
130 kV 130 A High voltage switching mode power supply for neutral beam plasma heating: design issues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganuza, D.; Del Rio, J.M.; Garcia, I.; Garcia, F.; Garcia de Madinabeitia, P.; Perez, A.; Zabaleta, J.R.
2003-01-01
The company JEMA has designed and manufactured two High Voltage Switching Mode Power Supplies (HVSMPS), rated at 130 kV dc and 130 A, each of which will feed the accelerator grids of two Positive Ion Neutral Injector (PINI) loads, to be installed at the Joint European Torus (EFDA-JET facility located at Culham, UK). The solution designed by JEMA includes two matching transformers which adapt the 36 kV of the JET AC power distribution network to the required 670 V at the secondary side. Additionally, such transformers provide a 30 deg.phase shift which is required by a 30000 A 12 pulse thyristor rectifier. The obtained and stabilised 650 V feed 120 IGBT invertors, which operate at 2778 Hz with modulated square waveform. Each invertor feeds a High Insulation High Frequency Transformer. The 120 transformers corresponding to one power supply are arranged in three oil filled tanks and provide the main insulation from the low voltage to the high voltage side. The square waveform obtained at the secondary of each transformer is rectified by means of a diode bridge. The connection in series of the 120 diode bridges provides the required 130 kV d.c. at the output. In order to protect the load, a redundant solid state crowbar has been designed. Such short circuiting device is composed of 26 Light Triggered Thyristors (LTTs), connected in series. Electrical simulations have been carried out in order to ensure that the system complies with the requirements of high accuracy and adequate protection of the load. The critical design of the High Voltage-High Frequency Transformers has also required electrostatic simulations of the electric field distribution
Relativistic stability of interacting Fermi gas in a strong magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Lilin; Tian Jincheng; Men Fudian; Zhang Yipeng
2013-01-01
By means of the single particle energy spectrum of weak interaction between fermions and Poisson formula, the thermodynamic potential function of relativistic Fermi gas in a strong magnetic field is derived. Based on this, we obtained the criterion of stability for the system. The results show that the mechanics stability of a Fermi gas with weak interacting is influenced by the interacting. While the magnetic field is able to regulate the influence and the relativistic effect has almost no effect on it. (authors)
Relativistic two-fermion equations with form factors and anomalous magnetic moment interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, S.
1977-04-01
Relativistic equations for two-fermion systems are derived from quantum field theory taking into account the form factors of the particles. When the q 2 dependence of the form factors is disregarded, in the static approximation, the two-fermion equations with Coulomb and anomalous magnetic moment interactions are obtained. Separating the angular variables, a sixteen-component relativistic radial equation are finally given
Electromagnetic excitation of 136Xe in relativistic heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, R.D.
1991-11-01
In the framework of the experimental program at the accelerator facilities SIS/ESR at the Society for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt a detector system for relativistic neutrons was developed, constructed, and applied in first experiments. An essential research aim is the study of collective states after electromagnetic excitation in relativistic heavy ion collisions. In peripheral collisions high-energy virtual photons are exchanged. This leads to the excitation of giant resonances, especially of the giant dipole and quadrupole resonance. An essential decay channel of giant resonances in heavy nuclei is the emission of neutrons, followed by the emission of γ radiation below the particle threshold. These decay channels were studied with the detector system developed by the LAND collaboration. A first experiment on the electromagnetic excitation was performed with a 136 Xe beam at an energy of 700 MeV/u and Pb respectively C targets. (orig./HSI) [de
Production of spectator hypermatter in relativistic heavy-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botvina, A. S.; Gudima, K. K.; Steinheimer, J.; Bleicher, M.; Mishustin, I. N.
2011-01-01
Possible formation of large hyperfragments in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is studied within two transport models, the Dubna cascade model and UrQMD model. Our goal is to explore a new mechanism for the formation of strange nuclear systems via capture of hyperons by relatively cold spectator matter produced in semiperipheral collisions. We investigate basic characteristics of the produced hyperspectators and estimate the production probabilities of multistrange systems. Advantages of the proposed mechanisms over an alternative coalescence process are analyzed. We also discuss how such hyperfragments can be detected by taking into account the background of free hyperons. This investigation is important for the development of new experimental methods for producing hypernuclei in peripheral relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions, which are now underway at GSI and are planned for the future FAIR and NICA facilities.
Origin of constraints in relativistic classical Hamiltonian dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mallik, S.; Hugentobler, E.
1979-01-01
We investigate the null-plane or the front form of relativistic classical Hamiltonian dynamics as proposed by Dirac and developed by Leutwyler and Stern. For systems of two spinless particles we show that the algebra of Poincare generators is equivalent to describing dynamics in terms of two covariant constraint equations, the Poisson bracket of the two constraints being weakly zero. The latter condition is solved for certain simple forms of constraints
Study of the properties of general relativistic Kink model (GRK)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, L.C.S. de.
1980-01-01
The stability of the general relativistic Kink model (GRK) is studied. It is shown that the model is stable at least against radial perturbations. Furthermore, the Dirac field in the background of the geometry generated by the GRK is studied. It is verified that the GRK localizes the Dirac field, around the region of largest curvature. The physical interpretation of this system (the Dirac field in the GRK background) is discussed. (Author) [pt
Note of positions of particles in classical relativistic mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pazma, V.
1983-01-01
The relation between world-lines and the position vector of a particle is studied from the point of view of gauge system theory. The expressions for the position vector of a free relativistic particle and of two interacting particles described by the Todorov-Komar model are derived under plausible assumptions. The relation between the physical meaning of basic canonical variables and the choice of a gauge is also discussed. (author)
On the fundamental principles of the relativistic theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1990-01-01
This paper expounds consistently within the frames of the Special Relativity Theory the fundamental postulates of the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation (RTG) which make it possible to obtain the unique complete system of the equations for gravitational field. Major attention has been paid to the analysis of the gauge group and of the causality principle. Some results related to the evolution of the Friedmann Universe, to gravitational collapse, etc. being the consequences of the RTG equations are also presented. 7 refs
Nucleation of relativistic first-order phase transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Csernai, L.P.; Kapusta, J.I.
1992-01-01
The authors apply the general formalism of Langer to compute the nucleation rate for systems of relativistic particles with zero or small baryon number density and which undergo first-order phase transitions. In particular, the pre-exponential factor is computed and it is proportional to the viscosity. The initial growth rate of a critical size bubble or droplet is limited by the ability of dissipative processes to transport latent heat away from the surface. 30 refs., 4 figs
Chemistry of the 5g Elements: Relativistic Calculations on Hexafluorides.
Dognon, Jean-Pierre; Pyykkö, Pekka
2017-08-14
A Periodic System was proposed for the elements 1-172 by Pyykkö on the basis of atomic and ionic calculations. In it, the elements 121-138 were nominally assigned to a 5g row. We now perform molecular, relativistic four-component DFT calculations and find that the hexafluorides of the elements 125-129 indeed enjoy occupied 5g states. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Chemistry of the 5g elements. Relativistic calculations on hexafluorides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dognon, Jean-Pierre; Pyykkoe, Pekka
2017-01-01
A Periodic System was proposed for the elements 1-172 by Pyykkoe on the basis of atomic and ionic calculations. In it, the elements 121-138 were nominally assigned to a 5g row. We now perform molecular, relativistic four-component DFT calculations and find that the hexafluorides of the elements 125-129 indeed enjoy occupied 5g states. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Chemistry of the 5g elements. Relativistic calculations on hexafluorides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dognon, Jean-Pierre [NIMBE, CEA, CNRS, Universite Paris-Saclay, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pyykkoe, Pekka [Department of Chemistry, University of Helsinki (Finland)
2017-08-14
A Periodic System was proposed for the elements 1-172 by Pyykkoe on the basis of atomic and ionic calculations. In it, the elements 121-138 were nominally assigned to a 5g row. We now perform molecular, relativistic four-component DFT calculations and find that the hexafluorides of the elements 125-129 indeed enjoy occupied 5g states. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
New analytically solvable models of relativistic point interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gesztesy, F.; Seba, P.
1987-01-01
Two new analytically solvable models of relativistic point interactions in one dimension (being natural extensions of the nonrelativistic δ-resp, δ'-interaction) are considered. Their spectral properties in the case of finitely many point interactions as well as in the periodic case are fully analyzed. Moreover the spectrum is explicitely determined in the case of independent, identically distributed random coupling constants and the analog of the Saxon and Huther conjecture concerning gaps in the energy spectrum of such systems is derived
Magnetic resonance phenomena in dynamics of relativistic particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ternov, I.M.; Bordovitsyn, V.A.
1987-01-01
A relativistic generalization of Rabi's formula for magnetic resonance is given. On this basis, we consider fast and slow passage through resonance. We define a magnetic resonance exterior field as usual, using unit vectors of a Cartesian coordinate system, a homogeneous magnetic field, and the amplitude of a rotating magnetic field. For the description of spin dynamics we use the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation
Tachyonless models of relativistic particles with curvature and torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuznetsov, Yu.A.; Plyushchaj, M.S.
1992-01-01
The problem of construction (2+1)-dimensional tachyonless models of relativistic particles with an action depending on the world-trajectory curvature and torsion is investigated. The special class of models, described by maximum symmetric action and comprising only spin internal degrees of freedom is found. The examples of systems from the special class are given, whose classical and quantum spectra contain only massive states. 23 refs
Relativistic effects in resonance absorption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.F.; Lee, Y.C.
1976-01-01
The role of the relativistic-electron-mass variation in the generation of plasma waves by the linear mode conversion of intense electromagnetic waves is investigated. The increase in the electron mass in high intensity regions of the mode-converted wave reduces the local plasma frequency and thereby strongly modifies the plasma-driver resonance. A spatial discontinuity in the structure of the mode-converted wave results and causes the wave to break. Under rather modest restrictions, the wave breaking resulting from these effects occurs before the wave amplitude is limited either by thermal convection or by breaking caused by previously investigated nonrelativistic effects. Consequently, the amplitude of the mode-converted plasma wave should saturate at a much lower level than previously predicted. For simplicity, the analysis is limited to the initial stages of mode conversion where the ion dynamics can be neglected. The validity of this approximation is discussed
Parton distribution in relativistic hadrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopeliovich, B.Z.; Lapidus, L.I.; Zamolodchikov, Al.B.
1979-01-01
The distribution in the slow-parton number in the relativistic hadron is considered as a function of its rapidity (y). Neglecting corrections due to the tarton chain recombination the equation is derived and its explicit solution is found. It describes this distribution depending on the initial distribution at y approximately 1. Comparison with the reggeon diagrams results in relations between the parton model and the regaeon field theory parameters. The interpretation of the cutting rules in the framework of the parton model is presented. The numerical estimation of the parton model parameters is performed. It is shown that the slow-parton density corresponding to accessible energies seems to be close to the saturated density. Therefore, the enhanced graphs contributions turn out to be of considerable importance
Relativistic three-particle theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hochauser, S.
1979-01-01
In keeping with recent developments in experimental nuclear physics, a formalism is developed to treat interactions between three relativistic nuclear particles. The concept of unitarity and a simple form of analyticity are used to construct coupled, integral, Faddeev-type equations and, with the help of analytic separable potentials, these are cast in simple, one-dimensional form. Energy-dependent potentials are introduced so as to take into account the sign-change of some phase shifts in the nucleon-nucleon interaction and parameters for these potentials are obtained. With regard to the success of such local potentials as the Yukawa potential, a recently developed method for expanding these in separable form is discussed. Finally, a new method for the numerical integration of the Faddeev equations along the real axis is introduced, thus avoiding the traditional need for contour rotations into the complex plane. (author)
Cooling rates and intensity limitations for laser-cooled ions at relativistic energies
Eidam, Lewin; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver; Winters, Danyal
2018-04-01
The ability of laser cooling for relativistic ion beams is investigated. For this purpose, the excitation of relativistic ions with a continuous wave and a pulsed laser is analyzed, utilizing the optical Bloch equations. The laser cooling force is derived in detail and its scaling with the relativistic factor γ is discussed. The cooling processes with a continuous wave and a pulsed laser system are investigated. Optimized cooling scenarios and times are obtained in order to determine the required properties of the laser and the ion beam for the planed experiments. The impact of beam intensity effects, like intrabeam scattering and space charge are analyzed. Predictions from simplified models are compared to particle-in-cell simulations and are found to be in good agreement. Finally two realistic example cases of Carbon ions in the ESR and relativistic Titanium ions in SIS100 are compared in order to discuss prospects for future laser cooling experiments.
The incompressible non-relativistic Navier-Stokes equation from gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Minwalla, Shiraz; Wadia, Spenta R.
2009-01-01
We note that the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics reduce to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a particular scaling limit. In this limit boundary metric fluctuations of the underlying relativistic system turn into a forcing function identical to the action of a background electromagnetic field on the effectively charged fluid. We demonstrate that special conformal symmetries of the parent relativistic theory descend to 'accelerated boost' symmetries of the Navier-Stokes equations, uncovering a conformal symmetry structure of these equations. Applying our scaling limit to holographically induced fluid dynamics, we find gravity dual descriptions of an arbitrary solution of the forced non-relativistic incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. In the holographic context we also find a simple forced steady state shear solution to the Navier-Stokes equations, and demonstrate that this solution turns unstable at high enough Reynolds numbers, indicating a possible eventual transition to turbulence.