WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative weight loss

  1. Weight-Loss Expectancies, Relative Weight, and Symptoms of Bulimia in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Dennis L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A canonical correlation analysis of various weight concerns in a sample of college women revealed that strong expectations of weight loss benefits and a high relative body weight were positively correlated with the four major symptoms of bulimia. Expectations of increased self-worth and social confidence were linked to eating problems. (RJM)

  2. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  3. Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azizi Soeliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight regain, and diet therapy. Finally, we assessed 26 articles in the present article. Results: Meal replacement, low carbohydrate-low glycemic index (GI diet, high protein intake, and moderate fat consumption have shown some positive effects on weight maintenance. However, the results are controversial. A Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH-type diet seems helpful for weight maintenance although the need for more study has remained. Some special behaviors were associated with less weight regain, such as, not being awake late at night, drinking lower amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, and following a healthy pattern. Some special foods have been suggested for weight maintenance. However, the roles of specific foods are not confirmed. Conclusion: Healthy diets recommend low carbohydrate, low GI, and moderate fat foods, but it is not clear whether they are useful in preventing weight gain. It seems that consuming fewer calories helps people to keep weight loss. Further research to find strategies in obesity management focusing on successful maintenance of weight loss is needed.

  4. Weight loss maintenance in relation to locus of control: The MedWeight study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Fappa, Evaggelia; Karfopoulou, Eleni; Gkza, Anastasia; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Locus of control, i.e. the degree of an individual's belief on the control of his/her life, has been related to many health outcomes, including weight loss in overweight/obese individuals. No information is available on the impact of locus of control in maintaining weight loss. We aimed to investigate the effect of locus of control in weight loss maintenance and explore potential associations with lifestyle factors. Study participants included 239 individuals (41% males) who had lost at least 10% of body weight in the past and either maintained the loss (maintainers: weight maintenance of at least 10% of initial weight) or regained it (regainers). Locus of control was defined by a relevant multi-dimensional scale; participants were categorised to internals and externals, based on "internal" and "others" sub-scales. A significant interaction was found between locus of control and weight loss maintenance status (p locus of control. Individualised treatment, according to locus of control, may increase weight loss maintenance rates in former overweight/obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relations of hedonic hunger and behavioral change to weight loss among adults in a behavioral weight loss program utilizing meal-replacement products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theim, Kelly R; Brown, Joshua D; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Malcolm, Robert R; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2013-11-01

    Greater self-regulatory behavior usage is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments. Hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may impede successful behavior change and weight loss. Adult men and women (N = 111, body mass index M ± SD = 35.89 ± 6.97 kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after a 15-week lifestyle change weight loss program with a partial meal-replacement diet. From pre- to post-treatment, reported weight control behavior usage improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely related. Individuals with higher hedonic hunger scores at baseline showed the greatest weight loss. Similarly, participants with lower baseline use of weight control behaviors lost more weight, and increased weight control behavior usage was associated with greater weight loss-particularly among individuals with low baseline hedonic hunger. Further study is warranted regarding the significance of hedonic hunger in weight loss treatments.

  6. The Exposure Effects of Online Model Pictures and Weight-Related Persuasive Messages on Women's Weight-Loss Planned Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wenjing; Peña, Jorge

    2017-10-01

    This study examined how exposure to pictures of women with different body sizes (thin, obese), physical attractiveness levels (attractive, unattractive), along with exposure to weight-related messages (pro-anorexia, anti-anorexia) embedded in a fashion website affected female participants' planned behavior toward weight loss. Participants exposed to attractive model pictures showed higher intentions, attitudes, and subjective norms to lose weight compared with unattractive models. Additionally, participants exposed to thin and attractive model pictures indicated the highest attitudes and self-efficacy to lose weight, whereas those exposed to thin and unattractive model pictures indicated the lowest. Furthermore, weight-related messages moderated the effect of model appearance (body size and attractiveness) on controllability of weight-loss activities. However, website pictures' body size differences had no main effects on planned behavior toward weight loss. These effects are discussed in the light of social comparison mechanisms.

  7. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  8. Perceptions relating to body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions in black South African women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Catherine E; Davidowitz, Kesiah J; Goedecke, Julia H

    2016-02-01

    A higher tolerance for a larger body size has been associated with obesity in black South African (SA) women. The aim of the present study was to explore perceptions regarding body size and weight loss in a sample of black women from a low-income community in Cape Town, SA. Qualitative pilot study including five focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Khayelitsha, Cape Town, SA. Twenty-one black SA women. The majority of participants had positive perceptions of overweight/obesity, which were influenced by community and cultural perceptions, but some inconsistencies were observed as overweight/obesity was also associated with ill health. Participants identified many benefits to weight loss, but due to the association with sickness, they were concerned about being stigmatised in their community. Although participants had knowledge about healthy eating, the main barrier to eating healthily included the perceived higher cost of healthier food and food insecurity. All participants saw exercise as a strategy to lose weight and improve health, and were interested in participating in a community-based exercise intervention, but negative community perceptions and conflicting views regarding who should lead the intervention were identified as barriers. These findings highlight the complexities surrounding participants' perceptions regarding body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions, and emphasise low socio-economic status as a barrier to change. The study also highlights the strong influence of cultural ideals and community perceptions on personal perceptions. These findings underscore the necessity for culturally appropriate weight-loss interventions in low-income, transitioning communities.

  9. Factors Related to Weight Gain/Loss among Emerging Adults with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ping H; Annesi, James J

    2018-05-01

    We examined the reasons for weight gain and barriers to weight loss among emerging adults with obesity. Eighty-one female undergraduate students with obesity completed 4-open ended questions in 2015-2016. Qualitative responses were analyzed using NVivo 11 Pro software. Most participants experienced weight gain prior to attending college. The most commonly reported reasons for weight gain include a lack of ability to control one's behaviors or overcome barriers (ie, poor eating habits, lack of physical activity, lack of time, easy access to food), emotional/mental health issues, physical health, and influence of significant others. Nearly half reported having a weight loss goal. Most reported having used one or more weight loss methods. Few reached short-term weight loss but quickly regained the lost weight. Major reported barriers reflect a lack of self-regulation skills, negative mood and stress, and lack of self-efficacy for healthy eating or physical activity. Results suggest that the perceived ability to control one's behaviors and overcome barriers, self-efficacy, and mood are important in weight-related behaviors, weight, and weight loss success among emerging adults, especially those enrolled in college.

  10. Behavioural factors related with successful weight loss 15 months post-enrolment in a commercial web-based weight-loss programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Melinda J; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E

    2012-07-01

    As further understanding is required of what behavioural factors are associated with long-term weight-loss success, the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of successful weight loss 15 months post-enrolment in a commercial web-based weight-loss programme and which behavioural factors were associated with success. An online survey was completed 15 months post-enrolment in a commercial web-based weight-loss programme to assess weight-related behaviours and current weight. Participants were classified as successful if they had lost ≥5 % of their starting weight after 15 months. Commercial users of a web-based weight-loss programme. Participants enrolled in the commercial programme between August 2007 and May 2008. Six hundred and seventy-seven participants completed the survey. The median (interquartile range) weight change was -2·7 (-8·2, 1·6) % of enrolment weight, with 37 % achieving ≥5 % weight loss. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found success was associated with frequency of weight self-monitoring, higher dietary restraint score, lower emotional eating score, not skipping meals, not keeping snack foods in the house and eating takeaway foods less frequently. The findings suggest that individuals trying to achieve or maintain ≥5 % weight loss should be advised to regularly weigh themselves, avoid skipping meals or keeping snack foods in the house, limit the frequency of takeaway food consumption, manage emotional eating and strengthen dietary restraint. Strategies to assist individuals make these changes to behaviour should be incorporated within obesity treatments to improve the likelihood of successful weight loss in the long term.

  11. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  12. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  13. Adiponectin changes in relation to the macronutrient composition of a weight-loss diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summer, Suzanne S; Brehm, Bonnie J; Benoit, Stephen C; D'Alessio, David A

    2011-11-01

    Adiponectin is an adipose-derived protein with beneficial metabolic effects. Low adiponectin is associated with obesity and related diseases. Significant weight loss increases adiponectin, reducing disease risk. This study compared the effects of two weight-loss diets with different macronutrient compositions on adiponectin. Eighty-one obese women in two cohorts were randomized to a low-fat (LF) or a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet. All subjects underwent equivalent weight-loss intervention, with weight and other measures assessed at baseline and after 6 (cohort I) or 4 (cohort II) months. Body fat was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Adiponectin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Diet intake was assessed using 24-h recalls and 3-day diet records. Data were analyzed via t-tests and repeated-measures factorial ANOVA using time, diet, and replicate (cohort I vs. cohort II) as factors. Age, weight, body fat, BMI, adiponectin, and diet were similar at baseline. Following intervention, macronutrient composition of the diet was vastly different between the groups, reflecting the assigned diet. Both groups lost weight and body fat (P vs. -4.97 kg weight, P vs. -2.62 kg fat, P < 0.001). Adiponectin increased in the LC (+1.92 mcg/ml, P < 0.01), but not the LF (+0.86 mcg/ml, P = 0.81), group. There was no correlation between weight loss and increase in adiponectin. These results confirm that diet-induced loss of weight and body fat is associated with increased adiponectin concentrations. This effect is evident with weight loss of 10% or more, and may be greater with LC diets.

  14. Overweight, Obesity, and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back to section menu Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ... section Home Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Weight and obesity Underweight Weight, fertility, and pregnancy Weight loss and ...

  15. Overeating with and without loss of control: Associations with weight status, weight-related characteristics, and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Loth, Katie A; MacLehose, Richard F; Pisetsky, Emily M; Berge, Jerica M; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-12-01

    The relative importance of loss of control and overeating in the relationship between binge eating and eating-related and general psychopathology has been debated in the literature. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of overeating with and without loss of control within a diverse, population-based sample of adolescents. A highly diverse (81.1% non-White) sample of adolescents (n = 2,793) from EAT-2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) completed self-report questionnaires assessing eating-related psychopathology, substance use, nonsuicidal self-injury, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem. Overeating without loss of control was reported by 6.9% of girls and 5.0% of boys, while 9.6% of girls and 6.3% of boys reported overeating with loss of control (binge eating). Overall, overeating (with or without loss of control) was positively associated with unhealthy or extreme weight control behaviors, dieting, nonsuicidal self-injury, lower body satisfaction, and self-esteem, and higher depressive symptoms relative to no overeating. Among girls, binge eating was associated with unhealthy or extreme weight control behaviors, lower self-esteem, and higher depressive symptoms relative to overeating without loss of control, while in boys, binge eating was associated with greater cigarette usage, lower body satisfaction, and greater depressive symptoms than overeating without loss of control (although cigarette usage was comparable in boys reporting binge eating and no overeating). Any overeating, with or without loss of control, was associated with multiple adverse correlates among adolescents. Loss of control was uniquely associated with multiple health indicators, further highlighting its importance as a marker of severity of overeating. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Motivation for weight loss among weight loss treatment participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeglédi, Edit

    2017-12-01

    Unrealistic expectations about weight goal and about weight loss-related benefits can hinder the effort for a successful long-term weight control. To explore weight loss-related goals and their background among overweight/obese patients. Study sample consisted of patients who participated in the inpatient weight loss treatment in the Lipidological Department of Szent Imre Hospital (n = 339, 19% men). Mean age: 50.2 years (SD = 13.47 years), mean BMI: 38.6 (SD = 7.58). self-reported anthropometric data, type and number of treated illnesses, Goals and Relative Weights Questionnaire, Motivations for Weight Loss Scale, Body Shape Questionnaire. Participants would feel disappointed with a possible 10% weight loss in a half-year time span. The acceptable weight loss percentage was higher among women, younger participants and among those who had more excess weight. Motivation regarding the increase in social desirability by weight loss is in association with body dissatisfaction, health related motivation is in association with the number of treated illnesses. Our results are contributing to the understanding of motivational factors behind weight reduction efforts, considering these can improve treatment success rates. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(49): 1960-1967.

  17. Age-related differences in body weight loss in response to altered thyroidal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, A D

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether age-related differences in body weight loss in hyperthyroidism could be related to caloric intake, the body weight and food consumption of Fischer 344 male rats were monitored every other day for four weeks. Six-month-old (young) rats were compared to 16-month-old rats (intermediate age) and 25-month-old (aged) rats. Hypothyroidism was induced with 0.025% methimazole in the drinking water for four weeks. Hyperthyroidism was induced with triiodothyronine (T3) injections (15 micrograms/100 g body weight i.p.) for the last 10 days of observation. A group of young rats pair fed with aged rats was included as a control group. The body weight changes of aged rats were similar to hypothyroid young rats. An index of T3 catabolic effect was calculated based on the net weight loss and food intake. This index was not different in aged rats compared to young rats. The apparent hypersensitivity of aged rats to T3 as evidenced by excessive weight loss could totally be attributed to decreased caloric intake. It is concluded that aged rats compared to the young are not more sensitive to the overall catabolic effects of thyroid hormones.

  18. Sex differences in the relation of weight loss self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms to weight loss success in a residential obesity treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presnell, Katherine; Pells, Jennifer; Stout, Anna; Musante, Gerard

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine whether weight loss self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms predicted weight loss during treatment, and whether gender moderates these associations with prospective data from 297 participants (223 women and 74 men) enrolled in a residential obesity treatment program. Men reported higher initial levels of self-efficacy than women, whereas women reported greater pre-treatment levels of binge eating and depressive symptoms. Higher pre-treatment levels of weight control self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms predicted greater weight loss in men, but not in women. Results suggest that certain psychological and behavioral factors should be considered when implementing weight loss interventions, and indicate a need to consider gender differences in predictors of weight loss treatment. Future research should seek to identify predictors of weight loss among women.

  19. Performance on the Iowa gambling task is related to magnitude of weight loss and salivary cortisol in a diet-induced weight loss intervention in overweight women

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function, specifically decision making, and weight loss. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to characterize decision making and compared performance on this task to weight loss in obese women (n=29) participatin...

  20. Weight-loss strategies of South African female university students and comparison of weight management-related characteristics between dieters and non-dieters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanne Senekal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female university students are at risk for weight gain and use of inappropriate weight-loss strategies. By gaining a greater understanding of the weight-loss strategies used by and weight management related characteristics of these students, effective weight management interventions for this vulnerable group can be developed. Methods Two hundred and fifty female students from South Africa universities, aged 18–25 years, participated in this cross-sectional study; 162 attempted weight loss during the year preceding the study (dieters and 88 were non-dieters. Weight and height were measured and BMI (kg/m2 computed. A self-administered questionnaire was used to record all other variables. Weight loss strategies were described for dieters and compared between BMI groups within the dieters group. Weight management related characteristics were compared between dieters and non-dieters. Statistical tests included Pearson Chi-square test, independent samples t-test or Mann-Whitney U test (depending on distribution of the data. Predictors for a higher BMI and being overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2 were identified using regression models. Results Healthy weight-loss strategies included increased exercise and fruit/vegetable intake and decreased intake of sugar and fat containing items; unhealthy methods included eating little food and skipping meals; and extreme weight loss strategies included laxatives and vomiting. The most commonly used weight-loss product was Herbex. Dieters were characterized by a higher BMI, overestimation of their weight (especially normal weight students, dissatisfaction with weight and select body parts, higher intake of breakfast and healthy foods, lower intake of unhealthy foods, higher levels of vigorous physical activity, higher use of select informal weight-loss information sources and experiencing more pressure to lose weight from mothers, siblings and friends. Predictors of higher BMI and/or increased

  1. Weight-loss strategies of South African female university students and comparison of weight management-related characteristics between dieters and non-dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senekal, Marjanne; Lasker, Gabrielle L; van Velden, Lindsay; Laubscher, Ria; Temple, Norman J

    2016-09-01

    Female university students are at risk for weight gain and use of inappropriate weight-loss strategies. By gaining a greater understanding of the weight-loss strategies used by and weight management related characteristics of these students, effective weight management interventions for this vulnerable group can be developed. Two hundred and fifty female students from South Africa universities, aged 18-25 years, participated in this cross-sectional study; 162 attempted weight loss during the year preceding the study (dieters) and 88 were non-dieters. Weight and height were measured and BMI (kg/m(2)) computed. A self-administered questionnaire was used to record all other variables. Weight loss strategies were described for dieters and compared between BMI groups within the dieters group. Weight management related characteristics were compared between dieters and non-dieters. Statistical tests included Pearson Chi-square test, independent samples t-test or Mann-Whitney U test (depending on distribution of the data). Predictors for a higher BMI and being overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2)) were identified using regression models. Healthy weight-loss strategies included increased exercise and fruit/vegetable intake and decreased intake of sugar and fat containing items; unhealthy methods included eating little food and skipping meals; and extreme weight loss strategies included laxatives and vomiting. The most commonly used weight-loss product was Herbex. Dieters were characterized by a higher BMI, overestimation of their weight (especially normal weight students), dissatisfaction with weight and select body parts, higher intake of breakfast and healthy foods, lower intake of unhealthy foods, higher levels of vigorous physical activity, higher use of select informal weight-loss information sources and experiencing more pressure to lose weight from mothers, siblings and friends. Predictors of higher BMI and/or increased risk for BMI ≥25 included weight-loss attempt

  2. Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Bonomi, Alberto G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Scholte, Jolande; Thijssen, Myriam A M A; van Berkum, Frank; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-10-10

    'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47.5 ± 11.9 kg) were compared after 3 and 12 months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3 months, and 67% for the last 9 months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7 ± 0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1 ± 0.2g/kg BW (pvs. NP (-11.5 ± 4 kg; -9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (pvs. NC (-12.3 ± 3 kg; -10.3 ± 1.1 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-14.7 ± 5 kg; -11.9 ± 1.6 kg) vs. HPNC (-13.8 ± 3 kg; -11.9 ± 1.8 kg) (ns); NPLC (-12.2 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.8 kg) vs. NPNC (-10.7 ± 4 kg; -8.6 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (pvs. NPNC (pvs. NP (-8.9 ± 3 kg; -7.7 ± 0.6 kg) (pvs. NC (11.1 ± 3 kg; 9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-11.6 ± 5 kg ; -8.2 ± 0.7 kg) vs. HPNC (-14.1 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.9 kg) (ns); NPNC (-8.2 ± 3 kg; -6.7 ± 0.6 kg) vs. NPLC (-9.7 ± 3 kg; -8.5 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (pvs. NPNC (pvs. all other diets reduced diastolic blood pressure more. Relationships between changes in BW, FM, FFM or metabolic parameters and energy percentage of fat in the diet were not statistically significant. Metabolic profile and fat-free-mass were improved following weight-loss. Body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein, but not on the 'low-carb' component of the diet, while it is unrelated to the concomitant fat-content of the diet. Copyright

  3. Biochemical, Anthropometric and Lifestyle Factors Related with Weight Maintenance after Weight Loss Secondary to a Hypocaloric Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Ovalle, Hilda F; Lopez, Juan Jose; Gomez, Emilia; Ortola, Ana; Aller, Rocio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of lifestyle factors and molecular biomarkers on the maintenance of the weight lost after a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet. After 3 months on a diet, patients (n = 335) remained with no controlled diet during 3 years and they were revaluated. Using linear regression, in the group of responders, we detected that a positive weight loss at 3 months, serum levels of leptin at 3 months, and each 30 min per week of physical activity were associated with weight loss maintenance. In the model with reduced weight (RW) as dependent variable, a positive weight loss at 3 months was associated with 2.4% RW (95% CI 1.31-8.11; p = 0.015), each unit of serum leptin levels at 3 months with -0.44% RW (95% CI -0.59 to -0.020; p = 0.007), each basal unit homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) level with -2.32% (95% CI -13.01 to -0.17; p = 0.040), and each 30 min per week of physical activity with 1.58% RW (95% CI 1.08-2.94; p = 0.020). Obese subjects who are on maintenance weight loss after a dietary intervention appear to have a better initial response during the 3 months intervention, more physical activity at 3 years, and lower basal HOMA-IR and leptin after weight loss than those who regain weight. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Gut microbiota composition may relate to weight loss rate in obese pet dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieler, Ida Nordang; Kamal, Shamrulazhar; Vitger, Anne Désiré

    2017-01-01

    Obese dogs seem to have a different gut microbiome (GM) composition compared to lean dogs, and in humans, GM composition may negatively impact the ability to lose weight in some individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between exercise, weight-loss and the composi......Obese dogs seem to have a different gut microbiome (GM) composition compared to lean dogs, and in humans, GM composition may negatively impact the ability to lose weight in some individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between exercise, weight......-loss and the composition of GM in dogs. Eighteen obese pet dogs were recruited for a 12-week weight-loss intervention. All dogs were fed restrictively with a commercial high-protein/high-fibre dry diet, and eight of these dogs were enrolled in an exercise program in addition to the diet intervention. Faecal samples were...

  5. Sexual differences in weight loss upon eclosion are related to life history strategy in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleman, Freerk; Javoiš, Juhan; Esperk, Toomas; Teder, Tiit; Davis, Robert B; Tammaru, Toomas

    2011-06-01

    Given that immature and adult insects have different life styles, different target body compositions can be expected. For adults, such targets will also differ depending on life history strategy, and thus vary among the sexes, and in females depend on the degree of capital versus income breeding and ovigeny. Since these targets may in part be approximated by loss of substances upon eclosion, comparing sexual differences in such losses upon eclosion among species that differ in life history would provide insights into insect functional ecology. We studied weight loss in eclosing insects using original data on pupal and adult live weights of 38 species of Lepidoptera (mainly Geometridae) and further literature data on 15 species of Lepidoptera and six representatives of other insect orders, and applied the phylogenetic independent contrasts approach. In addition, data on live and dry weights of pupae of four species of Lepidoptera are presented. We documented that Lepidoptera typically lose a large proportion (20-80%) of their pupal weight upon adult eclosion. Sexual differences in weight loss varied between absent and strongly male biased. Most of the weight loss was water loss, and sexual differences in adult water content correlate strongly with differences in weight loss. Using feeding habits (feeds or does not feed as an adult) and female biased sexual size dimorphism as measures of degree of capital breeding, we found that the difference among the sexes in weight loss tends to be more pronounced in capital breeding species. Additionally, females of more pro-ovigenic species (large proportion of eggs mature upon emergence) tend to have higher water contents. Our results suggests that metamorphosis is generally facilitated by a high water content, while adults excrete water upon eclosion to benefit flight unless water has been allocated to eggs, or is treated as a capital resource for adult survival or future allocation to eggs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd

  6. Gut microbiota composition may relate to weight loss rate in obese pet dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieler, Ida Nordang; Bin Shamzir Kamal, Shamrulazhar; Vitger, Anne Désiré

    2017-01-01

    Obese dogs seem to have a different gut microbiome (GM) composition compared to lean dogs, and in humans, GM composition may negatively impact the ability to lose weight in some individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction between exercise, weight......-loss and the composition of GM in dogs. Eighteen obese pet dogs were recruited for a 12-week weight-loss intervention. All dogs were fed restrictively with a commercial high-protein/high-fibre dry diet, and eight of these dogs were enrolled in an exercise program in addition to the diet intervention. Faecal samples were...... collected and the dogs were weighed at week 0, week 6 and week 12. GM composition was determined using MiSeq-based tag-encoded 16S rRNA gene high-throughput amplicon sequencing, and concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) by gas-liquid chromatography. Total weight loss, food allowance and GM were...

  7. One-year health-related quality of life outcomes in weight loss trial participants: comparison of three measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolotkin Ronette L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature on changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL in weight loss studies is inconsistent, and few studies use more than one type of measure. The purpose of the current study was to compare one-year changes in HRQOL as a function of weight change using three different measures: a weight-related measure (Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite [IWQOL-Lite] and two generic measures (SF-36; EQ-5D. Methods Data were obtained from 926 participants (mean Body Mass Index (BMI (kg/m2 = 35.4; 84% female; mean age = 49.5 years in a placebo-controlled randomized trial for weight loss. At baseline and one-year, participants completed all three HRQOL measures. HRQOL was compared across weight change categories (≥ 5% and 0–4.9% gain, 0–4.9%, 5.0–9.9% and ≥ 10% loss, using effect sizes. Results The weight-related measure of HRQOL exhibited greater improvements with one-year weight loss than either of the generic instruments, with effect sizes ranging from 0.24 to 0.62 for 5–9.9% weight reductions and 0.44 to 0.95 for ≥ 10% reductions. IWQOL-Lite Self-Esteem also showed a small improvement with weight gain. Changes in the two generic measures of HRQOL were inconsistent with each other, and in the case of the SF-36, variable across domains. For participants gaining ≥ 5% of weight, the greatest reductions in HRQOL occurred with respect to SF-36 Mental Health, MCS, and Vitality, with effect sizes of -0.82, -0.70, and -0.63 respectively. Conclusion This study found differences between weight-related and generic measures of health-related quality of life in a one-year weight loss trial, reflecting the potential value of using more than one measure in a trial. Although weight loss was generally associated with improved IWQOL-Lite, physical SF-36 subscale and EQ-5D scores, a small amount of weight gain was associated with a slight improvement on weight-specific HRQOL and almost no change on the EQ-5D, suggesting the

  8. Melanocortin-3 receptors in the limbic system mediate feeding-related motivational responses during weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mavrikaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Appetitive responses to weight loss are mediated by a nutrient-sensing neural network comprised of melanocortin neurons. The role of neural melanocortin-3 receptors (MC3R in mediating these responses is enigmatic. Mc3r knockout mice exhibit a paradoxical phenotype of obesity and reduced feeding-related behaviors in situations of nutrient scarcity. Here we examined whether MC3Rs expressed in mesolimbic neurons regulate feeding-related motivational responses. Methods: Interactions between Mc3r genotype, cognitive function and energy balance on food self-administration were assessed using operant conditioning with fixed- and progressive ratio (FR1/PR1 settings. Inhibition of Mc3r transcription by a loxP-flanked transcriptional blocker (TB in C57BL/6JN mice (Mc3rTB/TB was reversed in mesolimbic neurons using DAT-Cre (DAT-MC3R. Results: Caloric restriction (CR caused 10–15% weight loss and increased motivation to acquire food rewards during training sessions. c-Fos-expression in the nucleus accumbens was increased 1 h following food presentation. While exhibiting weight loss, total food self-administration, enhanced motivation to self-administer food rewards in training sessions held during CR and c-Fos-activation in the nucleus accumbens following re-feeding were all markedly attenuated in Mc3rTB/TB mice. In contrast, cognitive abilities were normal in Mc3rTB/TB mice. Total food self-administration during FR1 sessions was not rescued in DAT-MC3R mice, however enhanced motivational responses to self-administer food rewards in PR1 conditions were restored. The nutrient-partitioning phenotype observed with Mc3r-deficiency was not rescued in DAT-MC3R mice. Conclusions: Mesolimbic MC3Rs mediate enhanced motivational responses during CR. However, they are insufficient to restore normal caloric loading when food is presented during CR and do not affect metabolic conditions altering nutrient partitioning. Author Video: Author Video Watch what

  9. Measurement of transepidermal water loss in Tanzanian cot-nursed neonates and its relation to postnatal weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, HFH; Massawe, AW; Okken, A; Coenraads, PJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Huisman, M; Boersma, ER

    In healthy cot-nursed Tanzanian neonates (n = 92, gestation 26-42 weeks) measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and weight change were performed during the first 24 h after birth at an average ambient humidity of 70% and an environmental temperature of 32 degrees C. Urine production on day

  10. Trauma and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in relation to obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have an impact on the development of obesity, with the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity usually thought of as uni-directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD......-symptoms would decrease as a result of weight loss in obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently, a significant decline in the level of PTSD symptoms was also reported. During the first week...

  11. Qualitative content analysis of online news media coverage of weight loss surgery and related reader comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, N M; Champion, C C; Spence, J C

    2012-10-01

    The media has the ability to affect public opinion and policy direction. Prevalence of morbid obesity in Canada is increasing; as is the only effective long-term treatment, weight loss surgery (WLS). Limited research has explored media re/presentations of WLS. The purpose of this study was to examine national online news coverage (and reader comments) of WLS using content analysis. We sought to understand the dominant messages being conveyed within the news texts and reader comments, specifically whose voice was represented, who was the intended audience and what was the overall tone. Articles and comments were retrieved from the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation news web site and analysed using line-by-line techniques. Articles were predominantly 'positive/supportive' (63%) in tone and frequently presented the voices and opinions of 'experts' conveying a biomedical perspective. Comments were overwhelmingly 'negative' (56%) and often derogatory including such language as 'piggy' and 'fatty'. Comments were almost exclusively anonymous (99%) and were frequently directed at other commenters (33%) and 'fat' people (6%). The potentially problematic nature of media framing and reader comments, particularly as they could relate to weight-based stigmatization and discrimination is discussed. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Early weight loss predicts weight loss treatment response regardless of binge-eating disorder status and pretreatment weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Pittman, Brian P; Grilo, Carlos M

    2018-04-10

    Individuals seeking weight loss treatment have diverse pretreatment weight trajectories, and once enrolled, individuals' response to weight loss treatments also varies greatly and may be influenced by the presence of binge-eating disorder (BED). Reported average weight losses may obscure these considerable differences. This study examined whether BED status and different weight-related change variables are associated with successful weight loss treatment outcomes in a controlled treatment study. Participants (N = 89) with overweight/obesity, with and without BED, participated in a 3-month weight loss trial in primary care with 3- and 12-month follow-ups. We tested the prognostic significance of four weight-related change variables (the last supper, early weight loss, pretreatment weight trajectory, weight suppression) on outcomes (weight loss-overall, weight loss-"subsequent," weight loss during second half of treatment). Early weight loss was positively associated with weight loss-overall at post-treatment, and at 3-month and 12-month follow-up. Early weight loss was positively associated with weight loss-subsequent at post-treatment only. No other weight-related variables were significantly associated with weight loss. Models including BED status and treatment condition were not significant. Participants with early weight loss were more likely to continue losing weight, regardless of BED status or treatment condition. The results highlight the importance of early dedication to weight loss treatment to increase the likelihood of positive outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Obesity-related beliefs predict weight loss after an 8-week low-calorie diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamsteker, E.W.; Geenen, R.; Iestra, J.A.; Larsen, J.K.; Zelissen, P.M.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether beliefs about the cause, consequences, time line, and control of obesity are predictors of the amount of weight loss after an 8-week, low-calorie diet consisting of meal replacements. Forty-eight women and 18 men, mean age=45.9 (range=23 to 73

  14. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  15. Mechanisms of Weight Regain following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomain, Erik Scott; Dirhan, Dara Anne; Valentino, Michael Anthony; Kim, Gilbert Won; Waldman, Scott Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide pandemic and its incidence is on the rise along with associated comorbidities. Currently, there are few effective therapies to combat obesity. The use of lifestyle modification therapy, namely, improvements in diet and exercise, is preferable over bariatric surgery or pharmacotherapy due to surgical risks and issues with drug efficacy and safety. Although they are initially successful in producing weight loss, such lifestyle intervention strategies are generally unsuccessful in achieving long-term weight maintenance, with the vast majority of obese patients regaining their lost weight during followup. Recently, various compensatory mechanisms have been elucidated by which the body may oppose new weight loss, and this compensation may result in weight regain back to the obese baseline. The present review summarizes the available evidence on these compensatory mechanisms, with a focus on weight loss-induced changes in energy expenditure, neuroendocrine pathways, nutrient metabolism, and gut physiology. These findings have added a major focus to the field of antiobesity research. In addition to investigating pathways that induce weight loss, the present work also focuses on pathways that may instead prevent weight regain. Such strategies will be necessary for improving long-term weight loss maintenance and outcomes for patients who struggle with obesity.

  16. Unexplained Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight is affected by your calorie intake, activity level, overall health, age, nutrient absorption, and economic and social factors. If you're losing weight without trying and you're concerned about it, consult your doctor — as a rule of thumb, losing more than 5 ...

  17. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Maclean JC. Alcohol consumption and body weight. Health Econ . 2010;19(7):814-832. PMID: 19548203 www. ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  18. Relative shrinkage of adipocytes by paraffin in proportion to plastic embedding in human adipose tissue before and after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; van Dijk, Paul; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Adipocyte size is a major modulator of endocrine functioning of adipose tissue and methods allowing accurate determination of adipocyte size are important to study energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to assess the relative shrinkage of adipocytes before and after weight loss by comparing adipose tissue from the same subjects embedded in paraffin and plastic. 18 healthy subjects (5 males and 13 females) aged 20-50 y with a BMI of 28-38 kg/m² followed a very low energy diet for 8 weeks. Adipose tissue biopsies were taken prior to and after weight loss and were processed for paraffin and plastic sections. Parameters of adipocyte size were determined with computer image analysis. Mean adipocyte size was smaller in paraffin compared to plastic embedded tissue both before (66 ± 4 vs. 103 ± 5 μm, P paraffin embedded tissue in proportion to plastic embedded tissue was not significantly different before and after weight loss (73 and 69%, respectively). Shrinkage due to the type of embedding of the adipose tissue can be ignored when comparing before and after weight loss. Plastic embedding of adipose tissue provides more accurate and sensitive results. © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tweet for health: using an online social network to examine temporal trends in weight loss-related posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Beets, Michael W

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have used social networking sites to track temporal trends in health-related posts, particularly around weight loss. To examine the temporal relationship of Twitter messages about weight loss over 1 year (2012). Temporal trends in #weightloss mentions and #fitness, #diet, and #health tweets which also had the word "weight" in them were examined using three a priori time periods: (1) holidays: pre-winter holidays, holidays, and post-holidays; (2) Season: winter and summer; and (3) New Year's: pre-New Year's and post-New Year's. Regarding #weightloss, there were 145 (95 % CI 79, 211) more posts/day during holidays and 143 (95 % CI 76, 209) more posts/day after holidays as compared to 480 pre-holiday posts/day; 232 (95 % CI 178, 286) more posts/day during the winter versus summer (441 posts/day); there was no difference in posts around New Year's. Examining social networks for trends in health-related posts may aid in timing interventions when individuals are more likely to be discussing weight loss.

  20. Executive functions predict weight loss in a medically supervised weight loss programme

    OpenAIRE

    Galioto, R.; Bond, D.; Gunstad, J.; Pera, V.; Rathier, L.; Tremont, G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Deficits in executive functions are related to poorer weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, less is known about the role that these deficits may play during participation in nonsurgical weight loss programmes. This study examined associations between objectively measured executive functions and weight loss during participation in a medically supervised weight loss programme. Methods Twenty?three adult patients (age 50.4???15.1, BMI 44.2???8.8, 68% female, 92% White)...

  1. A Mindfulness-Based Decentering Technique Increases the Cognitive Accessibility of Health and Weight Loss Related Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Tapper

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that a mindfulness-based decentering technique can help individuals resist eating chocolate over a 5-day period. However, it is unclear how this technique exerts its effect. This study explored one potential mechanism; that decentering increases the cognitive accessibility of relevant goals. Male and female participants (n = 90 spent 5 min practicing either a decentering or relaxation (control technique. They then viewed a picture of a chocolate bar for 3 min whilst either applying the decentering technique or letting their mind wander (control. Finally, all participants completed 20 letter strings, rated their motivation for weight loss and for healthy eating, and indicated whether or not they were dieting to lose weight. As predicted, those who had applied the decentering technique produced a greater number of health and weight loss related words when completing the letter strings, compared to those who had simply let their mind wander (p < 0.001. However, contrary to predictions, these effects were not significantly greater amongst those who were more motivated to lose weight or eat healthily, or amongst those who were dieting to lose weight, though the means were in the predicted directions. The results suggest that this particular mindfulness technique may increase the accessibility of relevant goals. Further research would be needed to (a compare effects with other strategies that prompt individuals to remember their goals, (b examine other potential mechanisms of action, and (c confirm that effects on self-control are mediated by increased goal accessibility.

  2. Executive function in weight loss and weight loss maintenance: a conceptual review and novel neuropsychological model of weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettens, Katelyn M; Gorin, Amy A

    2017-10-01

    Weight loss maintenance is a complex, multifaceted process that presents a significant challenge for most individuals who lose weight. A growing body of literature indicates a strong relationship between cognitive dysfunction and excessive body weight, and suggests that a subset of high-order cognitive processes known as executive functions (EF) likely play an important role in weight management. Recent reviews cover neuropsychological correlates of weight status yet fail to address the role of executive function in the central dilemma of successful weight loss maintenance. In this paper, we provide an overview of the existing literature examining executive functions as they relate to weight status and initial weight loss. Further, we propose a novel conceptual model of the relationships between EF, initial weight loss, and weight loss maintenance, mapping specific executive functions onto strategies known to be associated with both phases of the weight control process. Implications for the development of more efficacious weight loss maintenance interventions are discussed.

  3. The impact of a workplace-based weight loss program on work-related outcomes in overweight male shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Cook, Alyce T; Berthon, Bronwyn; Mitchell, Simon; Callister, Robin

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a workplace-based weight loss program (Workplace POWER [Preventing Obesity Without Eating like a Rabbit]) for male shift workers on a number of work-related outcomes. A total of 110 overweight/obese (body mass index = 25-40) (mean [SD] age = 44.3 [8.6] years; body mass index = 30.5 [3.6]) male employees at Tomago Aluminium (New South Wales, Australia) were randomized to either (i) Workplace POWER program (n = 65) or (ii) a 14-week wait-list control group (n = 45). Men were assessed at baseline and 14-week follow-up for weight, quality of life, sleepiness, productivity at work (presenteeism), absenteeism, and workplace injuries. Retention was 81%. Intention-to-treat analysis using linear mixed models revealed a significant intervention effect for weight, quality of life (mental), presenteeism, absenteeism, and injuries. The Workplace POWER weight loss program improved a number of important work-related outcomes in male shift workers.

  4. Cancer Cachexia: Beyond Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Andrew R; Kamal, Arif H; LeBlanc, Thomas W; Ma, Joseph D; Baracos, Vickie E; Roeland, Eric J

    2016-11-01

    Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by skeletal muscle loss leading to progressive functional impairment. Despite the ubiquity of cachexia in clinical practice, prevention, early identification, and intervention remain challenging. The impact of cancer cachexia on quality of life, treatment-related toxicity, physical function, and mortality are well established; however, establishing a clinically meaningful definition has proven challenging because of the focus on weight loss alone. Attempts to more comprehensively define cachexia through body composition, physical functioning, and molecular biomarkers, while promising, are yet to be routinely incorporated into clinical practice. Pharmacologic agents that have not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration but that are currently used in cancer cachexia (ie, megestrol, dronabinol) may improve weight but not outcomes of interest such as muscle mass, physical activity, or mortality. Their routine use is limited by adverse effects. For the practicing oncologist, early identification and management of cachexia is critical. Oncologists must recognize cachexia beyond weight loss alone, focusing instead on body composition and physical functioning. In fact, becoming emaciated is a late sign of cachexia that characterizes its refractory stage. Given that cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome, it requires early identification and polymodal intervention, including optimal cancer therapy, symptom management, nutrition, exercise, and psychosocial support. Consequently, oncologists have a role in ensuring that these resources are available to their patients. In addition, in light of the promising investigational agents, it remains imperative to refer patients with cachexia to clinical trials so that available options can be expanded to effectively treat this pervasive problem.

  5. The benefits of body weight loss on health-related quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Ju Pan

    2011-04-01

    Conclusion: Obesity can cause impaired HRQOL, which can be improved through BMI intervention. In addition to the benefits of biomedical aspect, this could be an incentive goal for keeping body weight control.

  6. Iatrogenic hyperthyroidism does not promote weight loss or prevent ageing-related increases in body mass in thyroid cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polotsky, Hanah N; Brokhin, Matvey; Omry, Gal; Polotsky, Alex J; Tuttle, R Michael

    2012-04-01

    otherwise, healthy patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, significant weight gain occurred during the 3-5 years of follow-up despite ongoing thyrotropin suppression. The data suggest that mild iatrogenic hyperthyroidism does not promote weight loss or prevent ageing-related weight gain. Greater weight gain was seen in patients prepared for radioactive remnant ablation with THW than with rhTSH. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Osteoarthritis, obesity and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Henning; Leeds, A R; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is widely acknowledged as a risk factor for both the incidence and progression of osteoarthritis, and has a negative influence on outcomes. Loss of at least 10% of body weight, coupled with exercise, is recognized as a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with osteoarthritis......, and can lead to significant improvement in symptoms, pain relief, physical function and health-related quality of life. However, questions still remain surrounding optimal management. Given the significant health, social and economic burden of osteoarthritis, especially in obese patients, it is imperative...... to advance our knowledge of osteoarthritis and obesity, and apply this to improving care and outcomes. This paper overviews what is already known about osteoarthritis and obesity, discusses current key challenges and ongoing hypotheses arising from research in these areas, and finally, postulates what...

  8. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the FTO genotype on weight loss after dietary, physical activity, or drug based interventions in randomised controlled trials. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURC...

  9. Relative effects of weight loss and dietary fat modification on serum lipid levels in the dietary treatment of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R; van der Kooy, K; Meyboom, S; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Weststrate, J A

    1993-01-01

    The independent effects of weight loss and dietary fat modification on serum lipids were investigated in two groups of healthy moderately obese men and women. In one group (sequential group, n = 19), a weight-stable low-fat, low-saturated-fat diet (Low-Sat) was given for 7 weeks (= dietary

  10. The Relation of Anxiety, Depression, and Happiness with Binge Eating Disorder among Binge Eating Applicants of Weight-Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Safi

    2017-02-01

    Z = 0.62, respectively. It was shown that depression, anxiety, and absence of happiness had important roles in the process of weight reduction among applicants of weight loss. Conclusions: Anxiety and depression lead to over-eating and over-eating inturn reinforces both depression and anxiety.

  11. Instrumentalization of eating improves weight loss maintenance in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bodil Just; Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial determinants for maintaining weight loss. Methods: 42 obese individuals who achieved a 12% weight loss before entering a 52-week weight maintenance program were interviewed qualitatively. Psychosocial factors related to weight loss...... weight loss maintenance was associated with an interplay between behavioral, affective and contextual changes. ‘Instrumentalization of eating behavior' seems to be an important element in long-term weight maintenance....

  12. Mindfulness Approaches and Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Weight Regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Carolyn; Haubenreiser, Megan; Johnson, Madison; Nordby, Kelly; Aggarwal, Surabhi; Myer, Sarah; Thomas, Cathy

    2018-03-01

    There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management. The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight. Past reviews evaluating the relationship between mindfulness and weight management did not focus on change in mindful eating as the primary outcome or mindful eating as a measured variable. This review demonstrates strong support for inclusion of mindful eating as a component of weight management programs and may provide substantial benefit to the treatment of overweight and obesity.

  13. Weight Loss and Lowering Androgens Predict Improvements in Health-Related Quality of Life in Women With PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokras, Anuja; Sarwer, David B; Allison, Kelly C; Milman, Lauren; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Kunselman, Allen R; Stetter, Christy M; Williams, Nancy I; Gnatuk, Carol L; Estes, Stephanie J; Fleming, Jennifer; Coutifaris, Christos; Legro, Richard S

    2016-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and increased prevalence of depressive and anxiety disorders. The impact of PCOS-specific treatments on these co-morbidities is unclear. To assess the impact of weight loss and decreasing hyperandrogenism on HRQOL and mood and anxiety disorders in women with PCOS. A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (OWL-PCOS) of preconception treatment conducted at two academic centers in women (age, 18-40 years; body mass index, 27-42 kg/m(2)) with PCOS defined by Rotterdam criteria. Continuous oral contraceptive pill (OCP) or intensive lifestyle intervention or the combination (Combined) for 16 weeks. Changes in HRQOL assessed by PCOSQ and SF-36 and prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder assessed by PRIME-MD PHQ. The lowest scores were noted on the general health domain of the SF-36 and the weight and infertility domains on the PCOSQ. All three interventions resulted in significant improvement in the general health score on the SF-36. Both the OCP and Combined groups showed improvements in all domains of the PCOSQ (P symptoms, and anxiety disorders, and combined therapies offer further benefits in overweight/obese women with PCOS.

  14. Women's challenges with postpartum weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kristen S; Bushee, Tracy D; Phillips, Jennifer D; Kirkpatrick, Terrie; Catledge, Courtney; Braveboy, Kristin; O'Rourke, Carol; Patel, Neema; Prophet, Malshundria; Cooper, Anita; Mosley, Lori; Parker, Christie; Douglas, Gaye M

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to examine women's experiences of weight loss during the postpartum period. Understanding women's positive and negative experiences can assist health care providers to successfully intervene in helping women lose weight following pregnancy and avoid long-term weight gain and obesity development. Phenomenology, according to Husserl's perspective. Private location of the women's choosing. Twenty-six women, who ranged in age from 25 to 35 years, and had given birth within the last 5 years, were interviewed regarding their experiences with postpartum weight loss. The majority of the sample was Caucasian. Interviews were transcribed and themes were identified from each of the interviews. Comparisons were made between interviews to identify common experiences between women. Data were analyzed according to the Giorgi method. The women in the study had a wide range of experiences. Themes that emerged from the interviews related to women's challenges with return to prepregnancy weight. These included: time and motivation issues, the need for support, and weight and other struggles. This study provides a look inside the lives of women faced with the reality of losing weight after childbirth. Losing weight after delivery is multi-faceted and influenced by many factors. Interventions to assist women with weight loss should target the challenges described in this paper. When effective strategies are developed, education can be done during pregnancy to prepare for the postpartum period. Ultimately, future research efforts can help us to eliminate pregnancy as a risk factor for obesity in women.

  15. Tailoring dietary approaches for weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, C D

    2012-07-01

    Although the 'Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative 'low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for several related metabolic health measures. From a glass half full perspective, this suggests that there is more than one choice for a dietary approach to lose weight, and that Low-Fat and Low-Carb diets may be equally effective. From a glass half empty perspective, the average amount of weight lost on either of these two dietary approaches under the conditions studied, particularly when followed beyond 1 year, has been modest at best and negligible at worst, suggesting that the two approaches may be equally ineffective. One could resign themselves at this point to focusing on calories and energy intake restriction, regardless of macronutrient distributions. However, before throwing out the half-glass of water, it is worthwhile to consider that focusing on average results may mask important subgroup successes and failures. In all weight-loss studies, without exception, the range of individual differences in weight change within any particular diet groups is orders of magnitude greater than the average group differences between diet groups. Several studies have now reported that adults with greater insulin resistance are more successful with weight loss on a lower-carbohydrate diet compared with a lower-fat diet, whereas adults with greater insulin sensitivity are equally or more successful with weight loss on a lower-fat diet compared with a lower-carbohydrate diet. Other preliminary findings suggest that there may be some promise with matching individuals with certain genotypes to

  16. The effects of exercise-induced weight loss on appetite-related peptides and motivation to eat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cecilia; Kulseng, B; King, N A

    2010-01-01

    The magnitude of exercise-induced weight loss depends on the extent of compensatory responses. An increase in energy intake is likely to result from changes in the appetite control system toward an orexigenic environment; however, few studies have measured how exercise impacts on both orexigenic...

  17. Preoperative unintended weight loss and low body mass index in relation to complications and length of stay after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M. W.; de Vos, Rien; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M. M. J.; Haaring, Cees; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    Background: Several studies reported increased adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery in patients with low body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)). Little is known yet, however, about the effect of preoperative unintended weight loss (UWL) in cardiac surgery patients. Objective: We explored the prevalence

  18. Preoperative unintended weight loss and low body mass index in relation to complications and length of stay after cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, Lenny M. W.; de Vos, Rien; Borgmeijer-Hoelen, Mieke M. M. J.; Haaring, Cees; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies reported increased adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery in patients with low body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)). Little is known yet, however, about the effect of preoperative unintended weight loss (UWL) in cardiac surgery patients. OBJECTIVE: We explored the prevalence

  19. Adherence to low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets in relation to weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; Whelton, Paul K; He, Jiang; Steffen, Lyn M; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2016-03-01

    A low-carbohydrate diet can reduce body weight and some cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors more than a low-fat diet, but differential adherence may play a role in these effects. Data were used from 148 adults who participated in a 12-month clinical trial examining the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet (fat diet (fat, fat) on weight and CVD risk factors. We compared attendance at counseling sessions, deviation from nutrient goals, urinary ketone presence, and composite scores representing the overall adherence based on the distribution of these individual indicators between two interventions. Composite scores were similar between the two groups. A one-interquartile-range increase in composite score representing better adherence to a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with 2.2 kg or 2.3 % greater weight loss, 1.1 greater reduction in percent fat mass, and 1.3 greater increase in proportion of lean mass. Indicators of adherence to a low-fat diet was not associated with changes in weight, fat mass or lean mass. Despite comparable adherence between groups, a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with greater reductions in body weight and improvement in body composition, while a low-fat diet was not associated with weight loss.

  20. Decreases in Dietary Glycemic Index Are Related to Weight Loss among Individuals following Therapeutic Diets for Type 2 Diabetes1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Jenkins, David J. A.; Barnard, Neal D.; Cohen, Joshua; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber A.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of changes in glycemic index (GI) and load (GL) on weight loss and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among individuals with type 2 diabetes beginning a vegan diet or diet following the 2003 American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations. The study was a 22-wk, randomized trial of 99 participants with type 2 diabetes who were counseled to follow 1 of 2 diet treatments. GI and GL changes were assessed based on 3-d dietary records. The relationships between GI/GL and changes in weight and HbA1C were calculated. In an intention-to-treat analysis (n = 99), the vegan group reduced GI to a greater extent than the ADA group (P vegan group (P vegan or ADA diet in reducing body weight among people with type 2 diabetes. The reduction of body weight, in turn, was predictive of decreasing HbA1C. PMID:21653575

  1. Decreases in dietary glycemic index are related to weight loss among individuals following therapeutic diets for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Jenkins, David J A; Barnard, Neal D; Cohen, Joshua; Gloede, Lise; Green, Amber A

    2011-08-01

    This study assessed the effect of changes in glycemic index (GI) and load (GL) on weight loss and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among individuals with type 2 diabetes beginning a vegan diet or diet following the 2003 American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations. The study was a 22-wk, randomized trial of 99 participants with type 2 diabetes who were counseled to follow 1 of 2 diet treatments. GI and GL changes were assessed based on 3-d dietary records. The relationships between GI/GL and changes in weight and HbA1C were calculated. In an intention-to-treat analysis (n = 99), the vegan group reduced GI to a greater extent than the ADA group (P vegan group (P vegan or ADA diet in reducing body weight among people with type 2 diabetes. The reduction of body weight, in turn, was predictive of decreasing HbA1C.

  2. Executive functions predict weight loss in a medically supervised weight loss programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, D.; Gunstad, J.; Pera, V.; Rathier, L.; Tremont, G.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Deficits in executive functions are related to poorer weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, less is known about the role that these deficits may play during participation in nonsurgical weight loss programmes. This study examined associations between objectively measured executive functions and weight loss during participation in a medically supervised weight loss programme. Methods Twenty‐three adult patients (age 50.4 ± 15.1, BMI 44.2 ± 8.8, 68% female, 92% White) enrolled in a medically supervised weight loss programme, involving prescription of a very low calorie diet and strategies to change eating and activity behaviours, underwent comprehensive computerized testing of executive functions at baseline. Weight was obtained at baseline and 8 weeks. Demographic and clinical information were obtained through medical chart review. Results Participants lost an average of 9.8 ± 3.4% of their initial body weight at 8 weeks. Fewer correct responses on a set‐shifting task and faster reaction time on a response inhibition task were associated with lower weight loss percentage at 8 weeks after adjusting for age, education and depressive symptoms. There were no associations between performance on tests of working memory or planning and weight loss. Conclusions This study shows that worse performance on a set‐shifting task (indicative of poorer cognitive flexibility) and faster reaction times on a response inhibition test (indicative of higher impulsivity) are associated with lower weight loss among participants in a medically supervised weight loss programme. Pre‐treatment assessment of executive functions may be useful in identifying individuals who may be at risk for suboptimal treatment outcomes. Future research is needed to replicate these findings in larger samples and identify underlying mechanisms. PMID:28090338

  3. Weight loss and weight loss maintenance efficacy of a novel weight loss program: The retrospective RNPC® cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Fabre, Odile; Legrand, Rémy

    2018-01-01

    or obese patients treated in 54 RNPC® weight loss clinics in France. Results: A total of 10,809 (89%) patients completed the initial weight loss phase and 2996 (25%) completed the full program. Median weight loss percentage was 10.7% (Interquartile range [IQR]: 5.8; 16.5) after a median of 105 days (IQR...

  4. The effects of mindfulness training on weight-loss and health-related behaviours in adults with overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffault, Alexis; Czernichow, Sébastien; Hagger, Martin S; Ferrand, Margot; Erichot, Nelly; Carette, Claire; Boujut, Emilie; Flahault, Cécile

    The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive quantitative synthesis of the effects of mindfulness training interventions on weight-loss and health behaviours in adults with overweight and obesity using meta-analytic techniques. Studies included in the analysis (k=12) were randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of any form of mindfulness training on weight loss, impulsive eating, binge eating, or physical activity participation in adults with overweight and obesity. Random effects meta-analysis revealed that mindfulness training had no significant effect on weight loss, but an overall negative effect on impulsive eating (d=-1.13) and binge eating (d=-.90), and a positive effect on physical activity levels (d=.42). Meta-regression analysis showed that methodological features of included studies accounted for 100% of statistical heterogeneity of the effects of mindfulness training on weight loss (R 2 =1,00). Among methodological features, the only significant predictor of weight loss was follow-up distance from post-intervention (β=1.18; pmindfulness training has short-term benefits on health-related behaviours. Future studies should explore the effectiveness of mindfulness training on long-term post-intervention weight loss in adults with overweight and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss - herbal remedies and supplements; Obesity - herbal remedies; Overweight - herbal remedies ... health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  6. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... The term “inability to gain weight” means that there has been substantial weight loss with inability... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions...

  7. Mediation of Weight Loss and Weight Loss Maintenance through Dietary Disinhibition and Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JaKa, Meghan M; Sherwood, Nancy E; Flatt, Shirley W; Pacanowski, Carly R; Pakiz, Bilgé; Thomson, Cynthia A; Rock, Cheryl L

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the degree to which eating behaviors, such as disinhibition and restraint, are associated with weight loss and weight loss maintenance could contribute to further refinement of effective weight management intervention strategies. The purpose of this analysis was to examine if these factors mediate weight loss or weight loss maintenance using data from a randomized controlled trial testing a commercial weight loss program that delivered behavioral counseling and structured meal plans including prepackaged foods. Mediation analyses were used to examine whether changes in disinhibition and restraint mediated the relationship between intervention and weight change during initial weight loss (0-6 months), continued weight loss (6-12 months), or weight loss maintenance (12-24 months) phases. Only decreases in disinhibition between baseline and 6 months mediated the intervention effect on initial weight loss. Our results suggest the mediation effects of these eating behaviors are modest and other factors contribute to a larger, more complex long-term weight loss prognosis.

  8. Total adiponectin and adiponectin multimeric complexes in relation to weight loss-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polak, J.; Kovacova, Z.; Holst, C.

    2008-01-01

    , and LMW). The HMW form was suggested to be closely associated with insulin sensitivity. This study investigated whether diet-induced changes in insulin sensitivity were associated with changes in adiponectin multimeric complexes. SUBJECTS: Twenty obese women with highest and twenty obese women with lowest...... diet induced changes in insulin sensitivity (responders and non-responders respectively), matched for weight loss (body mass index (BMI)=34.5 (s.d. 2.9) resp. 36.5 kg/m(2) (s.d. 4.0) for responders and non-responders), were selected from 292 women who underwent a 10-week low-caloric diet (LCD; 600 kcal...

  9. Obesity-related gene ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms and the response to a weight loss diet intervention in adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise F. Saliba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The individual response to diet may be influenced by gene polymorphisms. This study hypothesized that ADRB2 (Gln27Glu, rs1042714 and Arg16Gly, rs1042713, ADRB3 (Trp64Arg, rs4994 and GHRL (Leu72Met, rs696217 polymorphisms moderate weight loss. The study was a seven weeks dietary weight loss intervention with Brazilian adult obese women (n = 109. The body mass index (BMI was calculated and polymorphisms in these genes were assessed by real-time PCR assays. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (2 x 2 were used to analyze the intervention effect between polymorphisms and BMI over the period and after stratification for age and socioeconomic status (SES. The weight loss intervention resulted in decreased BMI over the seven-week period (p < 0.001, for high and low SES (p < 0.05 and mainly for participants with 30-49 y. The intervention did not result in a statistically significant difference in weight loss between polymorphism carriers and non-carriers, and although, the ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms did not moderate weight loss, the Gln27Glu polymorphism carriers showed a lower BMI compared to non-carriers in the low SES (p = 0.018 and the 30-39 y (p = 0.036 groups, suggesting a role for this polymorphism related to BMI control.

  10. Weight loss and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Plaisance, Eric P; Fisher, Gordon

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that energy deficit produces multiple physiological and metabolic benefits, clinicians are often reluctant to prescribe weight loss in older individuals or those with low bone mineral density (BMD), fearing BMD will be decreased. Confusion exists concerning the effects that weight loss has on bone health. Bone density is more closely associated with lean mass than total body mass and fat mass. Although rapid or large weight loss is often associated with loss of bone density, slower or smaller weight loss is much less apt to adversely affect BMD, especially when it is accompanied with high intensity resistance and/or impact loading training. Maintenance of calcium and vitamin D intake seems to positively affect BMD during weight loss. Although dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is normally used to evaluate bone density, it may overestimate BMD loss following massive weight loss. Volumetric quantitative computed tomography may be more accurate for tracking bone density changes following large weight loss. Moderate weight loss does not necessarily compromise bone health, especially when exercise training is involved. Training strategies that include heavy resistance training and high impact loading that occur with jump training may be especially productive in maintaining, or even increasing bone density with weight loss.

  11. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years.......Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....

  12. Promoting weight loss methods in parenting magazines: Implications for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey H; Roberts, Katherine J; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Glaser, Debra B

    2016-01-01

    Weight gain before and after pregnancy is important for women's health. The purpose of this study was to assess articles and advertisements related to weight loss in three widely read parenting magazines, "Parenting School Years," "Parenting Early Years," and "Parenting," which have an estimated combined readership of approximately 24 million (mainly women readers). Almost a quarter (23.7%, n = 32) of the 135 magazine issues over a four year period included at least one feature article on weight loss. A variety of topics were covered in the featured articles, with the most frequent topics being on losing weight to please yourself (25.2%), healthy ways to lose weight (21.1%), and how to keep the weight off (14.7%). Less than half (45.9%) of the articles displayed author credentials, such as their degree, qualifications, or expertise. A fifth (20.0%, n = 27) of the magazines included at least one prominent advertisement for weight loss products. Almost half (46.9%) of the weight loss advertisements were for weight loss programs followed by weight loss food products (25.0%), weight loss aids (21.9%), and only 6.2% of the advertisements for weight loss were on fitness. Parenting magazines should advocate for healthy weight loss, including lifestyle changes for sustained health.

  13. Obesity-related gene ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms and the response to a weight loss diet intervention in adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Louise F; Reis, Rodrigo S; Brownson, Ross C; Hino, Adriano A; Tureck, Luciane V; Valko, Cheryl; de Souza, Ricardo L R; Furtado-Alle, Lupe

    2014-03-01

    The individual response to diet may be influenced by gene polymorphisms. This study hypothesized that ADRB2 (Gln27Glu, rs1042714 and Arg16Gly, rs1042713), ADRB3 (Trp64Arg, rs4994) and GHRL (Leu72Met, rs696217) polymorphisms moderate weight loss. The study was a seven weeks dietary weight loss intervention with Brazilian adult obese women (n = 109). The body mass index (BMI) was calculated and polymorphisms in these genes were assessed by real-time PCR assays. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (2 × 2) were used to analyze the intervention effect between polymorphisms and BMI over the period and after stratification for age and socioeconomic status (SES). The weight loss intervention resulted in decreased BMI over the seven-week period (p polymorphism carriers and non-carriers, and although, the ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms did not moderate weight loss, the Gln27Glu polymorphism carriers showed a lower BMI compared to non-carriers in the low SES (p = 0.018) and the 30-39 y (p = 0.036) groups, suggesting a role for this polymorphism related to BMI control.

  14. Teammates and social influence affect weight loss outcomes in a team-based weight loss competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad M; Wing, Rena R

    2012-07-01

    Team-based internet interventions are increasing in popularity as a way of promoting weight loss in large numbers of individuals. Given that social networks influence health behavior change, this study investigated the effects of teammates and social influence on individual weight loss during a team-based weight loss competition. Shape Up Rhode Island (SURI) 2009 was a 12-week online program open to adult residents of Rhode Island. Participants joined with a team and competed with other teams on weight loss and/or physical activity. Overweight/obese (OW/OB) individuals (N = 3,330; 76% female; age = 46.1 ± 10.8; BMI = 31.2 ± 5.3 kg/m(2)), representing 987 teams, completed the weight loss program. Multilevel modeling was used to examine whether weight loss clustered among teammates and whether percentage of teammates in the weight loss division and reported teammate influence on weight loss were associated with individual weight outcomes. OW/OB completers reported losing 4.2 ± 3.4% of initial body weight. Weight loss was similar among teammates (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.10, P social influence for weight loss were associated with greater percent weight loss (P's ≤ 0.002). Similarly, achieving a clinically significant (5%) weight loss tended to cluster within teams (ICC = 0.09; P social influence for weight loss were associated with increased likelihood of achieving a 5% weight loss (odds ratio (OR) = 1.06; OR = 1.20, respectively). These results suggest that teammates affect weight loss outcomes during a team-based intervention. Harnessing and maximizing teammate influence for weight loss may enhance weight outcomes in large-scale team-based programs.

  15. Obesity Treatment in Adults - A Pilot Study of the Relation between Speed of Weight Loss and the Course of Autonomous Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Flataas, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is an important factor for weight loss and weight loss maintenance, but knowledge is needed on different weight loss interventions and how they affect motivation. Because it is assumed that a sustained motivation for dieting makes the patient more able to comply with the treatment and thus succeed in losing weight, identifying how different interventions affect motivation is of great importance. The current RCT therefore aimed to explore the course of motivation for dieting in two ...

  16. Diet in the management of weight loss

    OpenAIRE

    Strychar, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for numerous chronic diseases, and successful treatment will have an important impact on medical resources utilization, health care costs, and patient quality of life. With over 60% of our population being overweight, physicians face a major challenge in assisting patients in the process of weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. Low-calorie diets can lower total body weight by an average of 8% in the short term. These diets are well-tolerated and charac...

  17. FTO genotype and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Papandonatos, George D

    2016-01-01

    : Ovid Medline, Scopus, Embase, and Cochrane from inception to November 2015. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials in overweight or obese adults reporting reduction in body mass index, body weight, or waist circumference by FTO genotype (rs9939609 or a proxy) after...

  18. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preserving Healthy Muscle during Weight Loss123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cava, Edda; Yeat, Nai Chien; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2017-01-01

    Weight loss is the cornerstone of therapy for people with obesity because it can ameliorate or completely resolve the metabolic risk factors for diabetes, coronary artery disease, and obesity-associated cancers. The potential health benefits of diet-induced weight loss are thought to be compromised by the weight-loss–associated loss of lean body mass, which could increase the risk of sarcopenia (low muscle mass and impaired muscle function). The objective of this review is to provide an overview of what is known about weight-loss–induced muscle loss and its implications for overall physical function (e.g., ability to lift items, walk, and climb stairs). The currently available data in the literature show the following: 1) compared with persons with normal weight, those with obesity have more muscle mass but poor muscle quality; 2) diet-induced weight loss reduces muscle mass without adversely affecting muscle strength; 3) weight loss improves global physical function, most likely because of reduced fat mass; 4) high protein intake helps preserve lean body and muscle mass during weight loss but does not improve muscle strength and could have adverse effects on metabolic function; 5) both endurance- and resistance-type exercise help preserve muscle mass during weight loss, and resistance-type exercise also improves muscle strength. We therefore conclude that weight-loss therapy, including a hypocaloric diet with adequate (but not excessive) protein intake and increased physical activity (particularly resistance-type exercise), should be promoted to maintain muscle mass and improve muscle strength and physical function in persons with obesity. PMID:28507015

  20. Expert Coaching in Weight Loss: Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Stefanie Lynn; Ahmed, Rezwan; Kushner, Robert F; Hill, James O; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy

    2018-03-13

    Providing coaches as part of a weight management program is a common practice to increase participant engagement and weight loss success. Understanding coach and participant interactions and how these interactions impact weight loss success needs to be further explored for coaching best practices. The purpose of this study was to analyze the coach and participant interaction in a 6-month weight loss intervention administered by Retrofit, a personalized weight management and Web-based disease prevention solution. The study specifically examined the association between different methods of coach-participant interaction and weight loss and tried to understand the level of coaching impact on weight loss outcome. A retrospective analysis was performed using 1432 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2016 in the Retrofit weight loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a baseline body mass index of ≥25 kg/m², who also provided at least one weight measurement beyond baseline. First, a detailed analysis of different coach-participant interaction was performed using both intent-to-treat and completer populations. Next, a multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures associated with coach-participant interactions involving expert coaching sessions, live weekly expert-led Web-based classes, and electronic messaging and feedback. Finally, 3 significant predictors (Pcoaching session attendance (Pcoaching sessions, attending 60% of live weekly Web-based classes, and receiving a minimum of 1 food log feedback day per week were associated with clinically significant weight loss. Participant's one-on-one expert coaching session attendance, live weekly expert-led interactive Web-based class attendance, and the number of food log feedback days per week from expert coach were significant predictors of weight loss in a 6-month intervention. ©Stefanie Lynn Painter, Rezwan Ahmed, Robert F Kushner, James O Hill, Richard Lindquist, Scott

  1. Expert Coaching in Weight Loss: Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Robert F; Hill, James O; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Background Providing coaches as part of a weight management program is a common practice to increase participant engagement and weight loss success. Understanding coach and participant interactions and how these interactions impact weight loss success needs to be further explored for coaching best practices. Objective The purpose of this study was to analyze the coach and participant interaction in a 6-month weight loss intervention administered by Retrofit, a personalized weight management and Web-based disease prevention solution. The study specifically examined the association between different methods of coach-participant interaction and weight loss and tried to understand the level of coaching impact on weight loss outcome. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed using 1432 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2016 in the Retrofit weight loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a baseline body mass index of ≥25 kg/m², who also provided at least one weight measurement beyond baseline. First, a detailed analysis of different coach-participant interaction was performed using both intent-to-treat and completer populations. Next, a multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures associated with coach-participant interactions involving expert coaching sessions, live weekly expert-led Web-based classes, and electronic messaging and feedback. Finally, 3 significant predictors (Pcoaching session attendance (Pcoaching sessions, attending 60% of live weekly Web-based classes, and receiving a minimum of 1 food log feedback day per week were associated with clinically significant weight loss. Conclusions Participant’s one-on-one expert coaching session attendance, live weekly expert-led interactive Web-based class attendance, and the number of food log feedback days per week from expert coach were significant predictors of weight loss in a 6-month intervention. PMID:29535082

  2. Early-treatment weight loss predicts 6-month weight loss in women with obesity and depression: implications for stepped care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Rodrigues, Stephanie; Lemon, Stephenie C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Some adults with comorbid depression and obesity respond well to lifestyle interventions while others have poor outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether early-treatment weight loss progress predicts clinically significant 6-month weight loss among women with obesity and depression. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 75 women with obesity and depression who received a standard lifestyle intervention. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for achieving ≥5% weight loss by 6 months were calculated based on whether they achieved ≥1 lb/week weight loss in weeks 2-8. Among those on target at week 3, we examined potential subsequent time points at which weight loss progress might identify additional individuals at risk for treatment failure. At week 2, women who averaged ≥1 lb/week loss were twice as likely to achieve 5% weight loss by 6 months than those who did not (RR=2.40; 95% CI: 2.32-4.29); weight loss at weeks 3-8 was similarly predictive (RRs=2.02-3.20). Examining weight loss progress at week 3 and subsequently at a time point during weeks 4-8, 52-67% of participants were not on target with their weight loss, and those on target were 2-3 times as likely to achieve 5% weight loss by 6 months (RRs=1.82-2.92). Weight loss progress as early as week 2 of treatment predicts weight loss outcomes for women with comorbid obesity and depression, which supports the feasibility of developing stepped care interventions that adjust treatment intensity based on early progress in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    No matter what your weight loss goal is, the key to reaching your goals is to make changes to your lifestyle behaviors like eating and physical activity. This involves setting realistic expectations and making a plan.

  4. Dramatic weight loss associated with commencing clozapine

    OpenAIRE

    Lally, John; McDonald, Colm

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 44-year-old man with a long history of chronic enduring schizophrenia who experienced dramatic weight loss after commencing treatment with clozapine, an antipsychotic medication characteristically associated with the greatest degree of weight gain among medical treatments for schizophrenia. He was obese with a body mass index (BMI) of 41.5 kg/m2, but after commencing clozapine therapy he experienced an improvement in psychotic symptoms and 40% loss of his body...

  5. Ischemic Colitis after Weight-Loss Medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Comay

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous weight-loss medications have received cautious support due to their association with pulmonary hypertension and valvular heart disease. However, newer drugs are increasingly being recommended as potentially safer and more efficacious. We report a case of ischemic colitis possibly linked to the use of a weight-loss drug, and review the literature to highlight an important latent consequence of these medications.

  6. Ventricular tachycardia induced by weight loss pills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Hansson, Nils Henrik; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non......-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged....

  7. Weight Loss for the Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Uth Thomsen, Thyra

    ). Second, we illustrate how different constructions of food related health affect involvement, and ultimately food health behaviour (Study 2). Study 1 is based on qualitative depth interviews with 16 interviewees, while Study 2 is based on data (n=599) collected from a nationally representative consumer......Consumers may pursue health as a value through their food consumption. However, health may be constructed in various ways and thus have various impacts on nutritional behaviour. This is what this paper sets out to explore. First, we investigate what food related health means to consumers (Study 1...... panel. Results show that food related health can be constructed in several different ways and that certain health values have a positive indirect impact on food health behaviour through food health involvement, while others have a negative indirect impact on food health behaviour through food health...

  8. Instrumentalization of Eating Improves Weight Loss Maintenance in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Just Christensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial determinants for maintaining weight loss. Methods: 42 obese individuals who achieved a 12% weight loss before entering a 52-week weight maintenance program were interviewed qualitatively. Psychosocial factors related to weight loss maintenance were identified in two contrasting groups: weight reducers and weight regainers. Groups were defined by health-relevant weight maintenance (additional weight loss > 3% at week 52, n = 9 versus weight gain > 3%, at week 52, n = 20. Results: Weight reducers reported structured meal patterns (p = 0.008, no comfort eating (p = 0.016 and less psychosocial stress (p = 0.04 compared to weight regainers. The ability to instrumentalize eating behavior emerged as an important factor (p = 0.007. Nutritional knowledge, motivation or exercise level did not differ between groups (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Successful weight loss maintenance was associated with an interplay between behavioral, affective and contextual changes. ‘Instrumentalization of eating behavior' seems to be an important element in long-term weight maintenance.

  9. NGS Reveals Molecular Pathways Affected by Obesity and Weight Loss-Related Changes in miRNA Levels in Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kuryłowicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Both obesity and weight loss may cause molecular changes in adipose tissue. This study aimed to characterize changes in adipose tissue miRNome in order to identify molecular pathways affected by obesity and weight changes. Next generation sequencing (NGS was applied to identify microRNAs (miRNAs differentially expressed in 47 samples of visceral (VAT and subcutaneous (SAT adipose tissues from normal-weight (N, obese (O and obese after surgery-induced weight loss (PO individuals. Subsequently miRNA expression was validated by real-time PCR in 197 adipose tissues and bioinformatics analysis performed to identify molecular pathways affected by obesity-related changes in miRNA expression. NGS identified 344 miRNAs expressed in adipose tissues with ≥5 reads per million. Using >2 and <−2 fold change as cut-offs we showed that the expression of 54 miRNAs differed significantly between VAT-O and SAT-O. Equally, between SAT-O and SAT-N, the expression of 20 miRNAs differed significantly, between SAT-PO and SAT-N the expression of 79 miRNAs differed significantly, and between SAT-PO and SAT-O, the expression of 61 miRNAs differed significantly. Ontological analyses disclosed several molecular pathways regulated by these miRNAs in adipose tissue. NGS-based miRNome analysis characterized changes of the miRNA profile of adipose tissue, which are associated with changes of weight possibly responsible for a differential regulation of molecular pathways in adipose tissue when the individual is obese and after the individual has lost weight.

  10. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health Organization’s Health and Work Performance Questionnaire) at baseline and postintervention. Twenty-two percent of the participants lost a clinically meaningful amount of weight (≥5% weight loss). There were no statistically significant (p absenteeism or for absolute or relative presenteeism. Within a modestly successful Internet-based, worksite weight loss intervention, weight loss did not improve self-reported absenteeism or presenteeism. Further studies are needed to explore the sensitivity of the World Health Organization’s Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and the long-term effects of weight loss on productivity. PMID:25842385

  11. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Samantha M; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A; Hill, Jennie L; Linnan, Laura A; Allen, Kacie C; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-12-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire) at baseline and postintervention. Twenty-two percent of the participants lost a clinically meaningful amount of weight (≥5% weight loss). There were no statistically significant (p absenteeism or for absolute or relative presenteeism. Within a modestly successful Internet-based, worksite weight loss intervention, weight loss did not improve self-reported absenteeism or presenteeism. Further studies are needed to explore the sensitivity of the World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and the long-term effects of weight loss on productivity. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  12. Dramatic weight loss associated with commencing clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, John; McDonald, Colm

    2011-11-08

    The authors report the case of a 44-year-old man with a long history of chronic enduring schizophrenia who experienced dramatic weight loss after commencing treatment with clozapine, an antipsychotic medication characteristically associated with the greatest degree of weight gain among medical treatments for schizophrenia. He was obese with a body mass index (BMI) of 41.5 kg/m(2), but after commencing clozapine therapy he experienced an improvement in psychotic symptoms and 40% loss of his body weight attained through an altered diet and exercise regime, which resulted in him attaining a normal BMI of 24.8 kg/m(2).

  13. Quality of life among obese patients seeking weight loss surgery: the importance of obesity-related social stigma and functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Christina C; Davis, Roger B; Huskey, Karen W; Jones, Daniel B; Hamel, Mary B

    2013-02-01

    Obesity is a stigmatizing condition associated with adverse psychosocial consequences. The relative importance of weight stigma in reducing health utility or the value a person places on their current health state is unknown. We conducted a telephone survey of patients with obesity. All were seeking weight loss surgery at two bariatric centers (70 % response rate). We assessed patients' health utility (preference-based quality life measure) via a series of standard gamble scenarios assessing patients' willingness to risk death to lose various amounts of weight or achieve perfect health (range 0 to 1; 0 = death and 1 = most valued health/weight state). Multivariable models assessed associations among quality of life domains from the Short-form 36 (SF-36) and Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-lite (IWQOL-lite) and patients' health utility. Our study sample (n = 574) had a mean body mass index of 46.5 kg/m(2) and a mean health utility of 0.87, reflecting the group's average willingness to accept a 13 % risk of death to achieve their most desired health/weight state; utilities were highly variable, however, with 10 % reporting a utility of 1.00 and 27 % reporting a utility lower than 0.90. Among the IWQOL-lite subscales, Public Distress and Work Life were the only two subscales significantly associated with patients' utility after adjustment for sociodemographic factors. Among the SF-36 subscales, Role Physical, Physical Functioning, and Role Emotional were significantly associated with patients' utility. When the leading subscales on both IWQOL-lite and SF-36 were considered together, Role Physical, Public Distress, and to a lesser degree Role Emotional remained independently associated with patients' health utility. Patients seeking weight loss surgery report health utilities similar to those reported for people living with diabetes or with laryngeal cancer; however, utility values varied widely with more than a quarter of patients willing to accept more than a

  14. Telephone based weight loss intervention: Relevance for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayisi Addo, Sandra; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda

    2018-02-08

    Obesity is a major public health challenge not only for developed but developing countries as well. The World Health Organization recommends the immediate use of effective, efficient and widely accessible weight loss interventions. Telephone based weight loss intervention could provide a cheaper and wider reach of obese participants. Previous systematic reviews on telephone based weight loss interventions either excluded studies that had obese participants with co-morbidities or were silent on their inclusion. Obese/overweight individuals with co-morbidities constitute an important population in any weight loss intervention study due to the strong association of obesity with major chronic health conditions. This paper, reviews the efficacy of telephone based weight loss intervention solely in overweight/obese individuals with obesity related diseases and discusses its relevance for developing countries.

  15. Mandatory weight loss during the wait for bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Nicole M; Raine, Kim D; Spence, John C

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory presurgical, behavior-induced weight loss, although not standard, is a relatively common practice among bariatric surgical clinics. We explore the patient's experience of this practice using phenomenology. We gathered experiential accounts from 7 individuals waiting to have the procedure at a large publically funded clinic in western Canada. In writing this article, we focused on four phenomenological themes: "just nod your head and carry on"-silencing through the ideal; waiting and weighing-promoting weight consciousness to the weight conscious; paying for surgical approval through weight loss; and presurgical weight loss and questioning the need for weight loss surgery altogether. We contrast the experiential findings with the clinical literature to question the impact and possible (unintended or unexpected) effects the practice might have, particularly on patients' lives. We situate this article within a larger discussion about the possible contribution of experiential knowledge to clinical guidelines, practices, and pedagogies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Maintained intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterson, I D; Finer, N; Coutinho, W

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes trial showed that sibutramine produced greater mean weight loss than placebo but increased cardiovascular morbidity but not mortality. The relationship between 12-month weight loss and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes is explored. Methods: Overweight....../obese subjects (N = 10 744), =55 years with cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, received sibutramine plus weight management during a 6-week Lead-in Period before randomization to continue sibutramine (N = 4906) or to receive placebo (N = 4898). The primary endpoint was the time from...... randomization to first occurrence of a primary outcome event (non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death). Results: For the total population, mean weight change during Lead-in Period (sibutramine) was -2.54 kg. Post-randomization, mean total weight...

  17. A "small-changes" workplace weight loss and maintenance program: examination of weight and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant M; Hopkins, Will G

    2012-10-01

    To compare the effect of "small-changes" and "usual care" workplace interventions on weight loss and to investigate the effect of small changes with or without maintenance on weight and health outcomes. Overweight/obese employees at two New Zealand worksites received a 12-month usual-care intervention (n = 53), followed by a 12-month small-changes intervention (n = 102). Small changes comprised a 12-week component, followed by 9 months of maintenance, implemented at only one worksite. Magnitudes of effects were assessed via a threshold of -5% (weight loss) and standardization (health outcomes). Small changes showed beneficial weight loss relative to usual care in both worksites. For small-changes interventions, worksites reduced weight (12 weeks) and maintained lost weight (12 months). One in every three participants lost 5% or more weight. Some improvements in health outcomes were shown. Regardless of maintenance, the small-changes intervention was successful in sustaining weight loss.

  18. Collagen metabolism in obesity: the effect of weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Jensen, L T; Andersen, T

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of obesity, fat distribution and weight loss on collagen turnover using serum concentrations of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (S-PICP) and the aminoterminal propeptide of type III pro-collagen (S-PIIINP) as markers for collagen turnover...... an increased turnover of type III collagen related to obesity in general and to abdominal obesity in particular. S-PIIINP levels decreases during weight loss in obese subjects, whereas S-PICP levels seems un-related to obesity and weight loss....

  19. A retrospective study to determine if there is a gender-related difference in weight loss in non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, L.; Hodson, I.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if male non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients undergoing radiation therapy experience greater weight loss than female patients. A secondary objective was to demonstrate that a specific gender could be targeted earlier during treatment for nutritional consultations. Weight and nutritional consultation data were retrospectively collected from 40 patient charts. The sample had an equal number of males and females with similar patient characteristics. It was found that, on average, males lost more weight than females during radiation therapy and at follow-up. An independent samples t-test showed that the difference was statistically significant. Men had more weight loss than women during radiation therapy, suggesting men are at a greater risk for nutritional problems. Furthermore, more men that women experienced their maximum weight loss before receiving a nutritional consultation. Thus, males with NSCLC should be targeted earlier for dietary consultations to help maintain their weight. (author)

  20. (Dis-)solving the Weight Problem in Binge-Eating Disorder: Systemic Insights From Three Treatment Contexts With Weight Stability, Weight Loss, and Weight Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lene Bomholt; Waaddegaard, Mette; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2018-04-01

    Binge-eating disorder (BED) is a severe eating disorder strongly associated with obesity. Treatments struggle to provide safe and effective ways of addressing weight in a BED context. This study explored a two-phased treatment for BED developed at a major out-patient eating disorder service in Denmark. The study used interviews and participant observations to gain insight into experiences and processes related to weight and body issues in three treatment contexts that addressed weight stability, weight acceptance, and weight loss. Using systems theory, the study proposed a relational weight problem that embeds feelings of non-acceptance due to weight, a merge of weight and identity, and an internalized body- and weight-critical gaze of others. Contrary to critical claims that weight acceptance discourages people with obesity from engaging in weight loss efforts, this study suggests that acceptance and a disentanglement of weight and identity are prerequisites for weight loss for this group.

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, obesity, and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have an impact on the development of obesity, with the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity usually thought of as uni-directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD......-symptoms would decrease as a result of weight loss in obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently, a significant decline in the level of PTSD symptoms was also reported. During the first week...

  2. Maintenance of weight loss after lifestyle interventions for overweight and obesity, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barte, J. C. M.; ter Bogt, N. C. W.; Bogers, R. P.; Teixeira, P. J.; Blissmer, B.; Mori, T. A.; Bemelmans, W. J. E.

    P>Lifestyle interventions can reduce body weight, but weight regain is common and may particularly occur with higher initial weight loss. If so, one may argue whether the 10% weight loss in clinical guidelines is preferable above a lower weight loss. This systematic review explores the relation

  3. Treatment of Obesity: Weight Loss and Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Bruce M.; Kvach, Elizaveta; Eckel, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying, and indications for, bariatric surgery in the reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as other expected benefits of this intervention. The fundamental basis for bariatric surgery for the purpose of accomplishing weight loss is the determination that severe obesity is a disease associated with multiple adverse effects on health which can be reversed or improved by successful weight loss in patients who have been unable to sustain weight loss by non-surgical means. An explanation of possible indications for weight loss surgery as well as specific bariatric surgical procedures is presented, along with review of the safety literature of such procedures. Procedures that are less invasive or those that involve less gastrointestinal rearrangement accomplish considerably less weight loss but have substantially lower perioperative and longer-term risk. The ultimate benefit of weight reduction relates to the reduction of the co-morbidities, quality of life and all-cause mortality. With weight loss being the underlying justification for bariatric surgery in ameliorating CVD risk, current evidence-based research is discussed concerning body fat distribution, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, obstructive sleep apnea and others. The rationale for bariatric surgery reducing CVD events is discussed and juxtaposed with impacts on all-cause mortalities. Given the improvement of established obesity-related CVD risk factors following weight loss, it is reasonable to expect a reduction of CVD events and related mortality following weight loss in populations with obesity. The quality of the current evidence is reviewed and future research opportunities and summaries are stated. PMID:27230645

  4. FORUM Achieving weight loss and avoiding obesity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficacy of diets advocating extreme macronutrient manipulation has been reviewed extensively. Studies involving participation for 12 months or longer revealed that diet adherence, length of intervention and level of calorie. ISSUES IN MEDICINE. Achieving weight loss and avoiding obesity. Maria Elizabeth Catsicas.

  5. Global warming: is weight loss a solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryka, A; Broom, J; Rolland, C

    2012-03-01

    The current climate change has been most likely caused by the increased greenhouse gas emissions. We have looked at the major greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and estimated the reduction in the CO(2) emissions that would occur with the theoretical global weight loss. The calculations were based on our previous weight loss study, investigating the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on body weight, body composition and resting metabolic rate of obese volunteers with type 2 diabetes. At 6 months, we observed decreases in weight, fat mass, fat free mass and CO(2) production. We estimated that a 10 kg weight loss of all obese and overweight people would result in a decrease of 49.560 Mt of CO(2) per year, which would equal to 0.2% of the CO(2) emitted globally in 2007. This reduction could help meet the CO(2) emission reduction targets and unquestionably would be of a great benefit to the global health.

  6. Popular Weight Loss Strategies: a Review of Four Weight Loss Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obert, Jonathan; Pearlman, Michelle; Obert, Lois; Chapin, Sarah

    2017-11-09

    The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of obesity and the most recent literature on popular fad diets and exercise regimens that are used for weight loss. The weight loss plans that will be discussed in this article include juicing or detoxification diets, intermittent fasting, the paleo diet, and high intensity training. Despite the growing popularity of fad diets and exercise plans for weight loss, there are limited studies that actually suggest these particular regimens are beneficial and lead to long-term weight loss. Juicing or detoxification diets tend to work because they lead to extremely low caloric intake for short periods of time, however tend to lead to weight gain once a normal diet is resumed. Both intermittent fasting and the paleo diet lead to weight loss because of overall decreased caloric intake as well. Lastly, studies on short bursts of high intensity training have shown remarkable weight loss and improvements in cardiovascular health. Review of the literature does suggest that some fad diets and exercise plans do lead to weight loss; however, the studies are quite limited and are all based on the concept of caloric restriction.

  7. Weight loss methods and changes in eating habits among successful weight losers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, Sirpa; Mustajoki, Pertti; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-01-01

    Changes in several lifestyle related factors are required for successful long-term weight loss. Identification of these factors is of major importance from a public health point of view. This study was based upon findings from the Finnish Weight Control Registry (FWCR), a web-based registry. In total, 316 people were recruited and 184 met the study inclusion criteria. The aims of this study were to assess means and typical changes in eating habits associated with successful long-term weight loss. Half of the participants (48%) reported that they lost weight slowly primarily with dietary changes. Self-weighing frequency was high, 92% was weighing themselves at least once a week during the weight loss phase, and 75% during the maintenance phase. Dietary aspects associated with successful weight loss and weight maintenance included an increase in intake of vegetables, a reduction in frequency of eating candies and fast food, regular meal frequency and application of the Plate model. Both slow and fast weight loss may lead to successful long-term results and weight maintenance. A decrease in energy intake was achieved by reducing intake of energy-dense food, applying the Plate model and by regular meal frequency. Key messages Successful long-term weight loss is associated with a reduction in intake of energy-dense food. A more regular meal frequency and a high frequency of self-weighing seem to be helpful.

  8. Physician Communication Techniques and Weight Loss in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Kathryn I.; Alexander, Stewart C.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Tulsky, James A.; Lyna, Pauline; Dolor, Rowena J.; James, Iguehi E.; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J.; Manusov, Justin R.E.; Østbye, Truls

    2010-01-01

    Background Physicians are encouraged to counsel overweight and obese patients to lose weight. Purpose It was examined whether discussing weight and use of motivational-interviewing techniques (e.g., collaborating, reflective listening) while discussing weight predicted weight loss 3 months after the encounter. Methods 40 primary care physicians and 461 of their overweight or obese patient visits were audio recorded between December 2006 and June 2008. Patient actual weight at the encounter and 3 months after the encounter (n=426), whether weight was discussed, physicians’ use of Motivational-Interviewing techniques, and patient, physician and visit covariates (e.g., race, age, specialty) were assessed. This was an observational study and data were analyzed in April 2009. Results No differences in weight loss were found between patients whose physicians discussed weight or did not. Patients whose physicians used motivational interviewing–consistent techniques during weight-related discussions lost weight 3 months post-encounter; those whose physician used motivational interviewing–inconsistent techniques gained or maintained weight. The estimated difference in weight change between patients whose physician had a higher global “motivational interviewing–Spirit” score (e.g., collaborated with patient) and those whose physician had a lower score was 1.6 kg (95% CI=−2.9, −0.3, p=.02). The same was true for patients whose physician used reflective statements 0.9 kg (95% CI=−1.8, −0.1, p=.03). Similarly, patients whose physicians expressed only motivational interviewing–consistent behaviors had a difference in weight change of 1.1 kg (95% CI=−2.3, 0.1, p=.07) compared to those whose physician expressed only motivational interviewing–inconsistent behaviors (e.g., judging, confronting). Conclusions In this small observational study, use of motivational-interviewing techniques during weight loss discussions predicted patient weight loss. PMID

  9. Diabesity: are weight loss medications effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Alfredo; Mancini, Marcio C

    2005-01-01

    Weight reduction has been shown to improve glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors associated with insulin resistance in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therapeutic options for these patients include promoting weight loss (non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment) and improving glycemic control, as well as treating common associated risk factors such as arterial hypertension and dyslipidemias. This article provides an overview of anti-obesity drugs used in the treatment of obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. The most widely investigated drugs, sibutramine and orlistat, result in modest, clinically worthwhile weight loss, with demonstrable improvements in many co-morbidities, among them, type 2 diabetes. Clinical trials with these anti-obesity medications in cohorts of obese diabetic patients have been reviewed as well as cathecolaminergic agents (diethylpropion [amfepramone], fenproporex, mazindol, ephedrine-caffeine combination), serotoninergic drugs (fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, fluoxetine), and other drugs that have some action on weight loss (the antidiabetic agent metformin, anti-epileptic agents topiramate and zonisamide, and the antidepressive bupropion [amfebutamone]). These trials show variable benefits in terms of effects on glucose profiles.

  10. History of Smoking and Postcessation Weight Gain among Weight Loss Surgery Candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Levine, Michele D.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Wisinski, Meghan S.C.; Marcus, Marsha D.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking cessation often results in weight gain. Although smoking cessation frequently is recommended to patients presenting for weight loss surgery (WLS), the relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain among WLS candidates is poorly understood. Thus, we sought to document the history and prevalence of smoking and smoking-related weight gain among WLS candidates. Subjects (N = 67) presenting for bariatric surgery provided demographic information, were interviewed about smoking, and...

  11. Body contouring following massive weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Langer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global disease with epidemic proportions. Bariatric surgery or modified lifestyles go a long way in mitigating the vast weight gain. Patients following these interventions usually undergo massive weight loss. This results in redundant tissues in various parts of the body. Loose skin causes increased morbidity and psychological trauma. This demands various body contouring procedures that are usually excisional. These procedures are complex and part of a painstaking process that needs a committed patient and an industrious plastic surgeon. As complications in these patients can be quite frequent, both the patient and the surgeon need to be aware and willing to deal with them.

  12. Effects of Weight Loss, Weight Cycling, and Weight Loss Maintenance on Diabetes Incidence and Change in Cardiometabolic Traits in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Aroda, Vanita R.; Watson, Karol E.; Bray, George A.; Kahn, Steven E.; Florez, Jose C.; Perreault, Leigh; Franks, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined specific measures of weight loss in relation to incident diabetes and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective, observational study analyzed nine weight measures, characterizing baseline weight, short- versus long-term weight loss, short- versus long-term weight regain, and weight cycling, within the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention arm (n = 1,000) for predictors of incident diabetes and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors over 2 years. RESULTS Although weight loss in the first 6 months was protective of diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 0.94 per kg, 95% CI 0.90, 0.98; P weight loss from 0 to 2 years was the strongest predictor of reduced diabetes incidence (HR 0.90 per kg, 95% CI 0.87, 0.93; P Weight cycling (defined as number of 5-lb [2.25-kg] weight cycles) ranged 0–6 times per participant and was positively associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12, 1.58; P weight, the effect of weight cycling remained statistically significant for diabetes risk (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02, 1.47; P = 0.03) but not for cardiometabolic traits. CONCLUSIONS Two-year weight loss was the strongest predictor of reduced diabetes risk and improvements in cardiometabolic traits. PMID:25024396

  13. Obesity-related gene ADRB2, ADRB3 and GHRL polymorphisms and the response to a weight loss diet intervention in adult women

    OpenAIRE

    Saliba,Louise F.; Reis,Rodrigo S.; Brownson,Ross C.; Hino,Adriano A.; Tureck,Luciane V.; Valko,Cheryl; Souza,Ricardo L.R. de; Furtado-Alle,Lupe

    2014-01-01

    The individual response to diet may be influenced by gene polymorphisms. This study hypothesized that ADRB2 (Gln27Glu, rs1042714 and Arg16Gly, rs1042713), ADRB3 (Trp64Arg, rs4994) and GHRL (Leu72Met, rs696217) polymorphisms moderate weight loss. The study was a seven weeks dietary weight loss intervention with Brazilian adult obese women (n = 109). The body mass index (BMI) was calculated and polymorphisms in these genes were assessed by real-time PCR assays. Two-way repeated-measures ANOVA (...

  14. What distinguishes weight loss maintainers of the German Weight Control Registry from the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Silke; Müller, Astrid; Mayr, Andreas; Engeli, Stefan; Hilbert, Anja; de Zwaan, Martina

    2015-05-01

    Differences between successful long-term weight loss maintainers and the general population with regard to eating and weighing habits, non-normative eating behaviors, and eating-related and general psychopathological parameters are unknown. Self-identified weight loss maintainers from the German Weight Control Registry (GWCR, n = 494) were compared with a representative sample of the general German population (n = 2,129). The samples did not differ in current BMI. Using the same assessment instruments in both cohorts, a variety of eating-related and psychological variables were determined. The GWCR participants reported more self-weighing and higher eating frequency but less hot meal consumption and more eating-out-of-home. Binge eating, compensatory behaviors, and concerns about shape and weight were reported more often by successful weight loss maintainers. Scores of depression and worrying about health were slightly higher whereas severity of somatic symptoms was less pronounced in the GWCR participants. Overall, our data suggest that successful weight loss maintainers are characterized by more concerns about shape and weight, greater binge eating frequency, and higher use of compensatory behaviors. The latter suggests that weight loss maintenance might not only be achieved by healthy strategies but also by non-normative behaviors which might increase the vulnerability for weight regain. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  15. Effects of orlistat vs. metformin on weight loss-related clinical variables in women with PCOS: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, S K; Mario, F M; Ziegelmann, P; Spritzer, P M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of orlistat on weight loss-related clinical variables in overweight/obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to compare treatment with orlistat vs. metformin in this group. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence about the use of orlistat in women with PCOS. We searched the literature published until May 2015 in MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and LILACS. Of 3951 studies identified, nine were included in the systematic review (three prospective, non-randomised studies and six randomised control trials). Eight studies used the Rotterdam criteria and 1 used NIH criteria to diagnose PCOS. Data suggest that orlistat promotes a significant reduction in BMI/weight in overweight/obese PCOS women. Eight studies evaluated orlistat impact on testosterone. Seven reported an improvement in testosterone levels. Eight studies evaluated impact on insulin resistance, and five reported improvement. Finally, five studies evaluated impact on lipid profile, and four reported improvement. Three randomised control trials were included in the fixed effects model meta-analysis for a total of 121 women with PCOS. Orlistat and metformin had similar positive effects on BMI (-0.65%, 95% CI: -2.03 to 0.73), HOMA (-3.60%, 95% CI: -16.99 to 9.78), testosterone (-2.08%, 95% CI: -13.08 to 8.93) and insulin (-5.51%, 95% CI: -22.27 to 11.26). The present results suggest that orlistat leads to significant reduction in BMI/body weight in PCOS. In addition, the available evidence indicates that orlistat and metformin have similar effects in reducing BMI, HOMA, testosterone and insulin in overweight/obese PCOS women. This study was registered in PROSPERO under number CRD42014012877. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The relationship between prevalence and duration of weight loss strategies and weight loss among overweight managed care organization members enrolled in a weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Robert W

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adults in the United States report engaging in weight loss behaviors. The current study examined weight loss strategies among managed care organization members, to determine the prevalence and impact of weight loss behaviors in this population. We hypothesized that greater engagement in weight loss strategies would be associated with greater weight loss success. Methods Data were taken from Weigh-to-Be (WTB, a two-year weight loss trial (N = 1801, 72% female, mean age = 50.7 years, mean weight = 95.9 kg, mean BMI = 34.2 kg/m2. Every six months, participants completed a questionnaire assessing frequency and duration of weight loss strategies (calorie reduction, fat reduction, increased fruit/vegetable intake, increased exercise, elimination of sweets, consumption of less food. General linear models and structural equation methods were used to examine associations between weight loss strategy use and weight change over time. Results Weight loss strategy prevalence rates ranged from 68% to 76% over two years. For all dietary strategies, any use of the strategy between baseline and 24 months was associated with weight loss at 24 months; those who did not engage in the strategy showed weight gains during that period. Results of general linear models and structural equation models indicated that increased use of weight loss strategies was significantly associated with greater 24-month weight loss. Conclusion The prevalence of weight loss strategies in this obese adult managed care population was quite high, and use of these strategies was associated in dose-response fashion with better weight loss. Future interventions may benefit from emphasis on persistence of similar strategies to achieve more successful outcomes.

  17. Relationship Between Tobacco Use and Weight Loss After Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Federico; Signorini, Franco J; Maldonado, Pablo S; Lopez Sivilat, Arturo; Gorodner, Verónica; Viscido, Germán; Saleg, Patricia; Obeide, Lucio R

    2016-08-01

    Smoking cessation had been typically associated with weight gain. So far, there are no reports documenting the relationship between weight loss after bariatric surgery and smoking habit. The objective of the study was to establish the relationship between weight loss and smoking habit in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and to analyze weight loss on severe smokers and on those patients who stopped smoking during the postoperative period. All patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) with at least 2-year follow-up were included. Patients were divided into three groups: (A) smokers, (B) ex-smokers, and (C) non-smokers. Demographics and weight loss at 6, 12, and 24 months were analyzed. Smokers were subdivided for further analysis into the following: group A1: heavy smokers, group A2: non-heavy smokers, group A3: active smokers after surgery, and group A4: quitters after surgery. Chi-square test was used for statistics. One hundred eighty-four patients were included; group A: 62 patients, group B: 57 patients, and group C: 65 patients. Mean BMI was 34 ± 6, 31 ± 6, and 31 ± 6 kg/m2; mean %EWL was 63 ± 18, 76 ± 21, and 74 ± 22 % at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively. The subgroup analysis showed the following composition: group A1: 19 patients, group A2: 43 patients, group A3: 42 patients, and group A4: 20 patients. Weight loss difference among groups and subgroups was statistically non-significant. Our study shows that weight loss evolution was independent from smoking habit. Neither smoking cessation during the postoperative period nor smoking severity could be related to weight loss after LSG.

  18. The weight-loss experience: a qualitative exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rogerson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term weight management consists of weight-loss, weight-loss maintenance, and weight-gain stages. Qualitative insights into weight management are now appearing in the literature however research appears to be biased towards explorations of weight-loss maintenance. The qualitative understanding of weight loss, which begets weight-loss maintenance and might establish the experiences and behaviours necessary for successful long-term weight management, is comparatively under-investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the weight-loss experiences of a sample of participants not aligned to clinical intervention research, in order to understand the weight-loss experiences of a naturalistic sample. Methods Participants (n = 8 with weight-loss (n = 4 and weight-maintenance experiences (n = 4 were interviewed using a semi-structured interview to understand the weight-loss experience. Interview data was analysed thematically using Framework Analysis and was underpinned by realist meta-theory. Results Weight loss was experienced as an enduring challenge, where factors that assisted weight loss were developed and experienced dichotomously to factors that hindered it. Participants described barriers to (dichotomous thinking, environments, social pressures and weight centeredness and facilitators of (mindfulness, knowledge, exercise, readiness to change, structure, self-monitoring and social support their weight-loss goals in rich detail, highlighting that weight loss was a complex experience. Conclusions Weight loss was a difficult task, with physical, social, behavioural and environmental elements that appeared to assist and inhibit weight-loss efforts concurrently. Health professionals might need to better understand the day-to-day challenges of dieters in order to provide more effective, tailored treatments. Future research should look to investigate the psycho-social consequences of weight-loss dieting, in

  19. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Elbelt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028. Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75, with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20 and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10 did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT: −0.2 kcal/kg/day or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019 over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  20. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-07-16

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was -1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: -0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: -0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): -0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: -2 min/day; steps/day: -156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  1. Assessing the effect of weight and weight loss in obese persons with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Curtis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Bradley Curtis1, Risa P Hayes1, Sheri Fehnel2, Laurie Zografos21Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Co, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: The objective of this study was to assess specific areas of life in which obesity affects individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and changes that obese persons with T2DM experience with weight loss of varying degrees. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted in persons identified as: age ≥40 years, diagnosed with T2DM for ≥2 years, on oral antihyperglycemic medications >3 months, BMI 30–35 kg/m2, having attempted to lose weight in the last 2 years. Participants (60% female, mean age 53 years, 53% Caucasian, mean BMI 32.2 kg/m2 agreed that 5% weight loss, while not reflective of an ultimate goal, would be meaningful and important; benefits were expected to accrue in physical functioning, self-confidence, blood glucose levels, and motivation to keep losing weight. Participants reported the greatest effect of weight loss on energy, physical activity, mobility, pain, and clothes/appearance. Participants reported weight affecting mood, with feelings of depression and frustration most commonly described. This research indicates that weight loss is likely to affect health-related quality of life in obese individuals with T2DM. Given the purported weight loss benefits of many emerging diabetic medications, it will be important to include measures of weight-related quality of life in future clinical trials of these agents.Keywords: health-related quality of life, obesity, type 2 diabetes, weight loss, patient-reported outcomes

  2. Effects of Serum Albumin, Calcium Levels, Cancer Stage and Performance Status on Weight Loss in Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide Positive or Negative Patients with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Yeon Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA recent animal study showed that parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP is associated with cancer cachexia by promoting adipose tissue browning, and we previously demonstrated that PTHrP predicts weight loss (WL in patients with cancer. In this study, we investigated whether prediction of WL by PTHrP is influenced by clinical factors such as serum albumin, corrected calcium levels, cancer stage, and performance status (PS.MethodsA cohort of 219 patients with cancer whose PTHrP level was measured was enrolled and followed for body weight (BW changes. Subjects were divided into two groups by serum albumin (cutoff value, 3.7 g/dL, corrected calcium (cutoff value, 10.5 mg/dL, cancer stage (stage 1 to 3 or 4, or PS (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 0 to 1 or 2 to 4, respectively. Clinically significant WL was defined as either percent of BW change (% BW <−5% or % BW <−2% plus body mass index (BMI <20 kg/m2.ResultsAfter a median follow-up of 327 days, 74 patients (33.8% experienced clinically significant WL. A positive PTHrP level was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of WL after adjusting for age, baseline BMI, serum albumin, corrected calcium level, cancer stage, and PS. The effect of PTHrP on WL remained significant in patients with low serum albumin, stage 4 cancer, and good PS. Regardless of calcium level, the effect of PTHrP on WL was maintained, although there was an additive effect of higher calcium and PTHrP levels.ConclusionEarly recognition of patients with advanced cancer who are PTHrP positive with hypercalcemia or hypoalbuminemia is needed for their clinical management.

  3. Children’s, Their Guardians’, and Health Care Professionals’ Perceptions of Child Overweight in Relation to Children’s Weight Loss Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Y. N.; Rossen, L. M.; Schoendorf, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine accuracy of children’s, their guardians’, and health care professionals’ (HCPs’) perceptions of child overweight and obesity, the degree of agreement between their perceptions, and relationships with weight loss attempts among overweight or obese children. Design Cross-sectional study using 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Setting United States. Subjects Out of 4691 children and adolescents, ages 8 to 15 years, 16.4% were overweight (body mass index [BMI] percentiles 85–94.99) and 19.3% were obese (BMI percentiles ≥95). Measures Age and sex-specific BMI percentiles; responses of adult proxies (guardians) on whether they considered their child overweight and whether an HCP had ever told them that their child was overweight; responses of children and adolescents on their self-perceived weight status and whether they were trying to lose weight; children’s and guardians’ socio-demographic characteristics. Analysis Weighted percentages; sensitivities and Cohen’s kappas; adjusted prevalence ratios. Results Children, their guardians, and HCPs underestimated child’s actual overweight or obesity status. Little agreement existed between overweight or obese children, their parents, and HCPs on whether these children were overweight or obese. Overweight and obese children perceived as such by themselves, their guardians, and HCPs were 88% and 32%, respectively, more likely to attempt weight loss based on multivariable analyses. Conclusion Accurate and shared perceptions of adiposity in children and adolescents between children themselves, their guardians, and HCPs are positively associated with weight loss attempts among overweight or obese children in the United States. PMID:24459998

  4. Age-related hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grow older. Your genes and loud noise (from rock concerts or music headphones) may play a large role. The following factors contribute to age-related hearing loss: Family history (age-related hearing loss tends to run in ...

  5. Behavioral therapy for weight loss in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Rohan

    2007-01-01

    Compared with the general population, individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate an increased prevalence of obesity. While most antipsychotics are associated with weight gain, certain second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) appear to be especially problematic. Weight gain and obesity are highly distressing to these patients, can reduce treatment adherence, and may increase the relative risk of serious medical conditions and all-cause premature mortality. The selection of an antipsychotic on the basis of its effectiveness and relative side effect profile is recognized as an important initial consideration in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, less is known regarding the efficacy of dietary, pharmacologic, and behavioral therapy in reducing antipsychotic-related weight gain and obesity. Behavioral therapy, in particular, is understudied, and there are relatively few controlled trials of its effectiveness in reducing SGA-induced weight gain. Although weight loss resulting from behavioral therapy has been observed mostly as a result of effective short-term interventions, controlled behavioral studies do exist to suggest that weight can be controlled long term. In addition, a small pilot study in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder recently demonstrated that behavioral therapy that utilizes stepped interventions, involving body weight self-monitoring, diet, and exercise, can prevent weight gain in patients initiating treatment with SGAs. Additional studies of behavioral therapy for long-term weight control in patients with schizophrenia and other forms of severe mental illness are warranted.

  6. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  7. Abandoning weight-loss programmes | Van Staden | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    "ies in maintaining weight loss. A study of unsuccessful dieters focused on a group of 50 obese subjects who had previously joined a slimming organisation, but who had dropped out. They were interviewed with emphasis on factors relating to ...

  8. Adherence to a behavioral weight loss treatment program enhances weight loss and improvements in biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama D Acharya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sushama D Acharya3, Okan U Elci3, Susan M Sereika1,2,3, Edvin Music3, Mindi A Styn3, Melanie Warziski Turk3, Lora E Burke2,31Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, 2Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, 3School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USAObjectives: To describe participants’ adherence to multiple components (attendance, energy intake, fat gram, exercise goals, and self-monitoring eating and exercise behaviors of a standard behavioral treatment program (SBT for weight loss and how adherence to these components may influence weight loss and biomarkers (triglycerides, low density lipoproteins [LDL], high density lipoprotein, and insulin during the intensive and less-intensive intervention phases. Methods: A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial consisting of a SBT with either fat-restricted standard or lacto-ovo vegetarian diet. The 12-month intervention was delivered in 33 group sessions. The first six months reflected the intensive phase; the second six months, the less-intensive intervention phase. We conducted the analysis without regard to treatment assignment. Eligible participants included overweight/obese adults (N = 176; mean body mass index = 34.0 kg/m2. The sample was 86.9% female, 70.5% White, and 44.4 ± 8.6 years old. The outcome measures included weight and biomarkers. Results: There was a significant decline in adherence to each treatment component over time (P < 0.0001. In the first six months, adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and the energy goal were significantly associated with greater weight loss (P < 0.05. Adherence to attendance and exercise remained significantly associated with weight loss in the second six months (P < 0.05. Adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and exercise had indirect effects through weight loss on LDL, triglycerides, and insulin (P < 0.05.Conclusions: We observed a decline in adherence to each

  9. Weight loss and skin manifestations in obese patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Jensen, Peter; Kirchner Larsson, Lena

    Objective To examine if psoriatic patients can achieve a weight loss to the same extent as non-psoriatic patients To describe the effect of weight loss on the cutaneous manifestations. Conclusion Patients with psoriasis achieved a weight loss, similar to non-psoriatic patients, of 12...... % of their body weight following calorie restriction for 12 weeks. Taken together with recent literature the findings suggest that weight loss has a potential to reduce skin manifestations. Weight loss might also attenuate the increased cardiovascular and diabetes risks posed by obese psoriatric patients....

  10. Effect of weight loss on adipokine levels in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hession M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Rolland, Michelle Hession, Iain BroomCentre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland, UKBackground: Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by releasing adipokines which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Although there is evidence of improvement in circulating levels of adipokines with weight loss, few studies relate such changes to specific diets. We investigated the effects of weight loss achieved by two different diets on circulating adipokine levels in obese individuals.Methods: A total of 120 obese patients (body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m2 underwent a three-month screening period on a low-fat, reduced-calorie diet. Patients failing to achieve a 5% weight loss using this approach were randomly allocated to either a low carbohydrate/high protein diet (n = 17 or to a commercial very low calorie diet (LighterLife®, n = 14 for a period of nine months.Results: At nine months, a significant weight loss was only maintained for LighterLife® (−32.3 ± 22.7 kg, P < 0.0001 but not on the low carbohydrate/high protein diet. Changes in adiponectin (15.8 ± 17.1 ng/mL versus −0.8 ± 6.2 ng/mL, P = 0.003 and leptin (−17.6 ± 24.3 ng/mL versus −3.0 ± 9.2 ng/mL, P = 0.049 at nine months were significantly greater for LighterLife® than for the low carbohydrate/high protein diet, which may reflect greater weight loss and decrease in fat mass. Changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 did not differ significantly between the dietary interventions at nine months.Conclusion: A significant weight loss of 23.8% from baseline weight was observed using a very low calorie diet and resulted in significant improvements in circulating levels of leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, and adiponectin, which are likely to be due to weight loss and not macronutrient intake.Keywords: weight loss

  11. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  12. Weight control behaviors of highly successful weight loss maintainers: the Portuguese Weight Control Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês; Vieira, Paulo N; Silva, Marlene N; Sardinha, Luís B; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2017-04-01

    To describe key behaviors reported by participants in the Portuguese Weight Control Registry and to determine associations between these behaviors and weight loss maintenance. A total of 388 adults participated in this cross-sectional study. Assessments included demographic information, weight history, weight loss and weight maintenance strategies, dietary intake, and physical activity. Participants lost on average 18 kg, which they had maintained for ~28 months. Their average dietary intake was 2199 kcal/day, with 33 % of energy coming from fat. About 78 % of participants engaged in levels of moderate-plus-vigorous physical activity exceeding 150 min/week (51 % above 250 min/week), with men accumulating 82 more minutes than women (p breakfast. Greater weight loss maintenance was associated with higher levels of physical activity, walking, weight self-monitoring, establishing specific goals, and with reduced portion size use, reduced consumption of carbohydrates, and increased consumption of protein, (p < 0.05). Results indicate that weight loss maintenance is possible through the adoption of a nutritionally-balanced diet and regular participation in physical activity, but also suggest that adopting different (and, to a degree, individualized) set of behavioral strategies is key for achieving success.

  13. A Clinical Trial on Weight Loss among Truck Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Thiese

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of obesity among commercial truck drivers may be related to sedentary nature of the job, lack of healthy eating choices, and lack of exercise. There may be a link between obesity and crash risk, therefore an intervention to reduce obesity in this population is needed. Objective: To assess feasibility of a 12-week weight loss intervention for truck drivers with a weight loss goal of 10% of initial body weight. Methods: Drivers were selected based on age (≥21 years and body mass index (≥30 kg/m2. The drivers participated in a before-after clinical trial. The intervention included a 12-week program that provided information on healthy diet and increasing exercise, and telephone-based coaching using SMART goals. Outcomes included change from baseline in reported energy intake, measured weight, waist, hip, and neck circumference, blood pressure, and point of care capillary blood lipids and hemoglobin A1c. Exit interviews were conducted to gain insight into driver opinions on the program features and usefulness. This study was registered with the NIH Clinical Trials Registry, number NCT02348983. Results: 12 of 13 drivers completed the study. Weight loss was statistically significant (p=0.03. Reported energy (p=0.005, total fat consumption (p=0.04, and saturated fat consumption (p=0.02 intake were also lower after the 12-week intervention. Drivers attributed their weight loss to health coaching and suggested a longer intervention so that they could reach their goal and become accustomed to the changes. Conclusion: This weight loss intervention is feasible for this difficult population. Additional research is needed to compare this intervention with a control group.

  14. Repeated lifestyle interventions lead to progressive weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Sune; Ritz, Christian; Verdich, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    in one to four 11-12 week lifestyle interventions (residential weight loss programme, mixed activities). Weight loss was promoted through a hypocaloric diet (-500 to -700 kcal/day) and daily physical activity (1-3 hours/day). Primary outcomes were weight loss and change in body composition (bioimpedance...

  15. Role of fermented beverages in the maintenance of weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monereo Megías, Susana; Arnoriaga Rodríguez, María; Olmedilla Ishishi, Yoko Lucía; Martínez de Icaya, Purificación

    2016-07-12

    Obesity is a very prevalent disease with multiple chronic complications that decrease or disappear after a small (5-10%) but maintained weight loss. Nevertheless, maintaining weight loss after the treatment is very difficult and it involves one of the biggest challenges to control this epidemic. Although the reasons that contribute to regain the lost weight are diverse and related to the biological response to caloric restriction and the lack of adherence to treatment, up to 20% of the patients are able to keep it off. The keys to success, involve the maintenance of healthy habits, exercise and a reasonable daily calorie intake to allow a normal way of life, without sacrificing the social life. At this point, learning to distinguish food and drink options in a society where social life often revolves around the table is very important. We review the keys to keep the weight off after a diet as well as the role of fermented beverages such as beer, in this process. In conclusion, maintenance the weight loss is harder than losing it. The mild-to-moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as beer is not associated with weight increase.

  16. The Effect of Adherence to Dietary Tracking on Weight Loss: Using HLM to Model Weight Loss over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingels, John Spencer; Misra, Ranjita; Stewart, Jonathan; Lucke-Wold, Brandon; Shawley-Brzoska, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    The role of dietary tracking on weight loss remains unexplored despite being part of multiple diabetes and weight management programs. Hence, participants of the Diabetes Prevention and Management (DPM) program (12 months, 22 sessions) tracked their food intake for the duration of the study. A scatterplot of days tracked versus total weight loss revealed a nonlinear relationship. Hence, the number of possible tracking days was divided to create the 3 groups of participants: rare trackers (66% total days tracked). After controlling for initial body mass index, hemoglobin A 1c , and gender, only consistent trackers had significant weight loss (-9.99 pounds), following a linear relationship with consistent loss throughout the year. In addition, the weight loss trend for the rare and inconsistent trackers followed a nonlinear path, with the holidays slowing weight loss and the onset of summer increasing weight loss. These results show the importance of frequent dietary tracking for consistent long-term weight loss success.

  17. Alterations of plasma lysophosphatidylcholine species in obesity and weight loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Heimerl

    Full Text Available Obesity and related diseases of the metabolic syndrome contribute to the major health problems in industrialized countries. Alterations in the metabolism of lipid classes and lipid species may significantly be involved in these metabolic overload diseases. However, little is known about specific lipid species in this syndrome and existing data are contradictive.In this study, we quantified plasma lipid species by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS in obese subjects before and after 3 month weight loss as well as in a control group.The comparison of obese subjects with control subjects before weight loss revealed significantly lower lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC concentrations in obesity. LPC concentrations did not significantly increase during the observed period in the weight loss group. Analysis of LPC species revealed a decrease of most species in obesity and negative correlations with C-reactive protein (CRP and body mass index (BMI. Correlating BMI ratio before and after weight loss with the ratio of total LPC and individual LPC species revealed significant negative relationships of LPC ratios with BMI ratio.Our findings contribute to the contradictive discussion of the role of LPC in obesity and related chronic inflammation strongly supporting pre-existing data in the literature that show a decrease of LPC species in plasma of obese and a potentially anti-inflammatory role in these subjects.

  18. [Weight loss in overweight or obese patients and family functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Sánchez, Rosalba; Espinosa-de Santillana, Irene; Espíndola-Jaramillo, Ilia Angélica

    2012-01-01

    to determine the association between weight loss and family functioning. a cohort of 168 persons with overweight or obesity from 20-49 years, either sex, with no comorbidity was studied at the nutrition department. A sociodemographic data was obtained and FACES III instrument to measure family functioning was applied. At the third month a new assessment of the body mass index was measured. Descriptive statistical analysis and relative risk were done. obesity presented in 50.6 %, 59.53 % of them did not lose weight. Family dysfunction was present in 56.6 % of which 50 % did not lose weight. From 43.4 % of functional families, 9.52 % did not lose weight (p = 0.001). The probability or risk of not losing weight was to belong to a dysfunctional family is 4.03 % (CI = 2.60-6.25). A significant association was found between the variables: weight loss and family functioning. Belonging to a dysfunctional family may be a risk factor for not losing weight.

  19. After massive weight loss: patients' expectations of body contouring surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzinger, Hugo B; Abayev, Sara; Pittermann, Anna; Karle, Birgit; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix B; Prager, Gerhard; Frey, Manfred

    2012-04-01

    Massive weight loss following bariatric surgery leads to excess skin with functional and aesthetic impairments. Surplus skin can then contribute to problems with additional weight loss or gain. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency of massive soft tissue development in gastric bypass patients, to determine whether males and females experience similar post-bypass body changes, and to learn about the expectations and impairments related to body contouring surgery. A questionnaire addressing information on the satisfaction of body image, quality of life, and expectation of body contouring surgery following massive weight loss was mailed to 425 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery between 2003 and 2009. Of these 425 individuals, 252 (59%) patients completed the survey. Ninety percent of women and 88% of men surveyed rated their appearance following massive weight loss as satisfactory, good, or very good. However, 96% of all patients developed surplus skin, which caused intertriginous dermatitis and itching. In addition, patients reported problems with physical activity (playing sports) and finding clothing that fit appropriately. Moreover, 75% of female and 68% of male patients reported desiring body contouring surgery. The most important expectation of body contouring surgery was improved appearance, followed by improved self-confidence and quality of life. Surplus skin resulting from gastric bypass surgery is a common issue that causes functional and aesthetic impairments in patients. Consequently, this increases the desire for body contouring surgery with high expectations for the aesthetic outcome as well as improved life satisfaction.

  20. Blood ketones are directly related to fatigue and perceived effort during exercise in overweight adults adhering to low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrea M; Johnston, Carol S; Swan, Pamela D; Tjonn, Sherrie L; Sears, Barry

    2007-10-01

    Ketogenic diets have been associated with reductions in free-living physical activity, a response that can be counterproductive in individuals trying to lose weight. To explore whether popular low-carbohydrate diets might impact the desire to exercise by raising blood ketone concentrations, fatigue and perceived effort during exercise were compared in untrained, overweight adults adhering to a ketogenic low-carbohydrate diet or to a control diet low in carbohydrate, but not ketogenic (5%, 65%, and 30% or 40%, 30%, and 30% of energy from carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively). In this prospective, randomized, 2-week pilot study, all meals and snacks were provided to subjects, and energy intake was strictly controlled to provide approximately 70% of that needed for weight maintenance. At baseline and at the end of week 2, exercise testing was conducted in fasting participants. Weight loss and the reductions in fat mass did not differ by group during the trial. At week 2, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were 3.6-fold greater for the ketogenic vs nonketogenic group (P=0.018) and correlated significantly with perceived exercise effort (r2=0.22, P=0.049). Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate was also significantly correlated to feelings of "fatigue" (r=0.458, P=0.049) and to "total mood disturbance" (r=0.551, P=0.015) while exercising. These pilot data indicate that ketogenic, low-carbohydrate diets enhance fatigability and can reduce the desire to exercise in free-living individuals.

  1. Determinants of weight loss after vertical banded gastroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, K R; Saris, W H; Soeters, P B; ten Hoor, F

    1991-08-01

    Weight loss after gastric partition is highly variable even when the operation itself has been successful. We studied changes in body composition in relation to energy expenditure before and one year after surgery in one woman and five men, age 20-38 years, and BMI 42-62 kg/m2. Observations were performed shortly before, and 6, 12, 27 and 54 weeks after surgery. Body composition was measured with hydrostatic weighing and isotope dilution, and energy expenditure over 24 h (24EE) and during complete rest (sleeping metabolic rate (SMR)) with a respiration chamber and in five of the six subjects under daily living conditions over two-week intervals with doubly labeled water (average daily metabolic rate (ADMR). Weight loss and fat loss over the full observation period until 54 weeks after surgery was 54 +/- 8 and 43 +/- 9 kg (mean +/- s.e.m.), respectively. There was a more than three-fold difference in fat loss between the subject losing most, i.e. 70 kg, and the subject losing least, i.e. 20 kg. Fat loss was not related to initial fat mass in this group of six subjects but there was a significant negative relation with the loss of protein mass. There was a strong negative relation between fat loss and activity level of the subjects expressed as the quotient ADMR/SMR. These results show the contrary from what would be expected. Reduction of fat mass after successful gastric partition is highest in those subjects having the lowest physical activity level (before and) after surgery; these subjects lose less fat-free mass.

  2. Orange juice allied to a reduced-calorie diet results in weight loss and ameliorates obesity-related biomarkers: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carolina; Dourado, Grace; Cesar, Thais

    2017-06-01

    Assumptions have linked orange juice (OJ) consumption with weight gain and adverse effects on health due to its sugar content; however, epidemiologic studies have not shown increased risk for overweight or obesity with the consumption of 100% OJ. The aim of this study was to verify whether the combination of a reduced-calorie diet (RCD) and 100% OJ contribute to weight loss, promote changes in glucose and lipid metabolism, and improve diet quality in obese individuals. A randomized controlled trial with 78 obese patients (age 36 ± 1 y, body mass index [BMI] 33 ± 3 kg/m 2 ) were enrolled in two groups: Individuals in the OJ group submitted to an RCD that included OJ (500 mL/d), and individuals in the control group submitted to an RCD without OJ. Body composition, biochemical biomarkers, and dietary intake were analyzed over a 12-wk period. Both treatments had similar outcomes regarding body weight (-6.5 kg; P = 0.363), BMI (-2.5 kg/m 2 ; P = 0.34), lean mass (-1 kg; P = 0.29), fat mass (-5 kg; P = 0.58), body fat (-3%; P = 0.15), and waist-to-hip ratio (-0.1; P = 0.79). Insulin levels in the OJ group decreased by 18% (P = 0.05), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance by 33% (P = 0.04), total cholesterol by 24% (P = 0.004), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 24% (P ≤ 0.001), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels by 33% (P = 0.001) compared with the control group. Consumption of energy and nutrients was similar between the two groups, but vitamin C and folate increased by 62% (P ≤ 0.015) and 39% (P = 0.033), respectively, after OJ intervention. When consumed concomitantly with an RCD, OJ does not inhibit weight loss; ameliorate the insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, or inflammatory status, or contribute nutritionally to the quality of the diet. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Weight loss in obese women - exercise v. dietary education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weight loss, body fat loss (%) and daily energy intake reductions were equally reduced in the subjects in all three groups who completed the programme. There was, however, a significantly higher dropout rate in the control group. Taking this into account, the weight loss in the two test groups was similar and greater than ...

  4. Vaping to lose weight: Predictors of adult e-cigarette use for weight loss or control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Wedel, Amelia V

    2017-03-01

    Some traditional cigarette smokers are motivated to smoke to lose weight or control their weight. The current study evaluated whether a subset of adult e-cigarette users reported vaping to lose or control their weight and examined potential predictors of vaping for weight management. Adult e-cigarette users (n=459) who reported wanting to lose weight or maintain their weight completed an anonymous online survey. Participants reported on demographics, vaping frequency, e-cigarette nicotine content, cigarette smoking status, preferred e-cigarette/e-liquid flavors, current weight status (i.e., overweight, underweight), use of dieting strategies associated with anorexia and bulimia, lifetime history of binge eating, self-discipline, and impulse control. Binary logistic regression was used to examine whether vaping for weight loss/control was associated with the aforementioned variables. Participants who reported vaping for weight loss/control (13.5%) were more likely to vape frequently (adjOR=1.15; 95% CI [1.00, 1.31]); be overweight (adjOR=2.80; [1.33, 5.90]); restrict calories (adjOR=2.23; [1.13, 4.42]); have poor impulse control (adjOR=0.59; [0.41, 0.86]); and prefer coffee- (adjOR=2.92; [1.47, 5.80]) or vanilla-flavored e-liquid (adjOR=7.44; [1.56, 36.08]). A subset of adult e-cigarette users reported vaping for weight loss/control, raising concerns about expanded, scientifically unsubstantiated uses of e-cigarettes. Identifying where individuals obtain information about vaping for weight loss (e.g., e-cigarette ads, Internet) and whether weight-related motives promote e-cigarette initiation among e-cigarette naïve individuals is important to informing regulatory efforts. Further research also is needed to better understand the link between e-liquid flavors and weight loss motivations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. First-day newborn weight loss predicts in-hospital weight nadir for breastfeeding infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherman, Valerie J; Bokser, Seth; Newman, Thomas B

    2010-08-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant infectious disease. Losing > or =10% birth weight may lead to formula use. The predictive value of first-day weight loss for subsequent weight loss has not been studied. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between weight loss at or =10%. For 1,049 infants, we extracted gestational age, gender, delivery method, feeding type, and weights from medical records. Weight nadir was defined as the lowest weight recorded during birth hospitalization. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the effect of first-day weight loss on subsequent in-hospital weight loss. Mean in-hospital weight nadir was 6.0 +/- 2.6%, and mean age at in-hospital weight nadir was 38.7 +/- 18.5 hours. While in the hospital 6.4% of infants lost > or =10% of birth weight. Infants losing > or =4.5% birth weight at or =10% (adjusted odds ratio 3.57 [1.75, 7.28]). In this cohort, 798 (76.1%) infants did not have documented weight gain while in the hospital. Early weight loss predicts higher risk of > or =10% in-hospital weight loss. Infants with high first-day weight loss could be targeted for further research into improved interventions to promote breastfeeding.

  6. Using personality as a predictor of diet induced weight loss and weight management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munro Irene A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge for successful weight management is tailoring weight loss programs to individual needs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits could be used to match individuals to a compatible weight loss program that would maximize weight loss. Method Two different weight loss trials were conducted, both with a weight loss greater than 5% the measure of success. Fifty-four individuals, BMI 30-40 kg/m2, either followed a slow, healthy eating weight loss diet (HEWLD of 5000-6000 kJ/day for 12 weeks (n = 22, or a fast, very low energy diet (VLED of 3000 kJ/day for 4 weeks (n = 32. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline, at the end of the weight loss period and, for VLED, at the end of 10 weeks of weight maintenance. Personality traits were measured at baseline using the Tangney Self Control Scale plus 3 of the scales from the Five Factor Model - Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and Extraversion. Results The percentage weight loss was significantly greater in VLED (-7.38% compared to HEWLD (-4.11%, (p Conclusion The personality factor, Neuroticism, was linked to successful weight loss (that is ≥ 5% with a particular weight loss treatment, suggesting that there is a potential to use measures of personality to identify appropriate weight loss/management strategies for individuals. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12611000716965

  7. The effectiveness of breakfast recommendations on weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhurandhar, Emily J; Dawson, John; Alcorn, Amy

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breakfast is associated with lower body weight in observational studies. Public health authorities commonly recommend breakfast consumption to reduce obesity, but the effectiveness of adopting these recommendations for reducing body weight is unknown.OBJECTIVE: We tested the relative...... effectiveness of a recommendation to eat or skip breakfast on weight loss in adults trying to lose weight in a free-living setting. DESIGN: We conducted a multisite, 16-wk, 3-parallel-arm randomized controlled trial in otherwise healthy overweight and obese adults [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) between 25 and 40.......53 ± 1.16, -0.59 ± 1.06, and -0.71 ± 1.17 kg for the control, breakfast, and NB groups, respectively. Self-reported compliance with the recommendation was 93.6% for the breakfast group and 92.4% for the NB group.Conclusions: A recommendation to eat or skip breakfast for weight loss was effective...

  8. Ain’t no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predicts effort and short-term weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vet, de E.; Nelissen, R.M.A.; Zeelenberg, M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more

  9. Initial weight loss on an 800-kcal diet as a predictor of weight loss success after 8 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handjieva-Darlenska, T.; Handjiev, S.; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-treatment subject characteristics and weight change during the first weeks of a low-calorie diet (LCD) can predict weight loss outcomes at the end of a controlled 8-week weight loss period in overweight and obese adults....

  10. Ain’t no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predict effort and short-term weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vet, E.; Nelissen, R.M.A.; Zeelenberg, M.; de Ridder, D.T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more

  11. Radiologic findings and weight loss following gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskowiak, J.; Fleckenstein, P.; Andersen, B.

    Gastroplasty aimed at treatment of morbid obesity creates a small proximal pouch and a narrow stoma to the remainder of the stomach. In 11 consecutive obese patients subjected to gastroplasty radiologic examinations of the stomach were performed before operation and one week, 3 and 12 months postoperatively. All stomachs were normal before operation. A significant decrease in pouch area and increase in stoma diameter were registered over the observation period. There were no statistically significant correlations between postoperative weight loss and stoma diameter or pouch area. Nor was retention in the pouch one week after gastroplasty related to weight loss. Radiographic evidence of gastroesophageal reflux was present in only one patient. The described method of follow-up is evidently not suited to predict the outcome of gastroplasty.

  12. Weight loss and survival of Biomphalaria Glabrata deprived of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Vianey-Liaud

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Immature and mature Biomphalaria glabrata are kept out of water at relative humidities varying from 0 to 100%. When snails are submitted to a saturated atmosphere, they show a slow weight loss and survival may be long. If relative humidity (RH decreases, weight loss becomes important and survival is short. A reduced RH (0 to 65% produces similar effects. During desiccation, fasting has no noticeable effect; survival depends essentially on weight loss.Biomphalaria glabrata maduros ou imaturos são mantidos fora da água, variando a umidade de 0 a 100%. Quando caramujos são submetidos a uma atmosfera saturada, sofrem uma lenta perda de peso e a sobrevivência pode ser longa. Se a umidade relativa decresce, a perda de peso será importante e a sobrevida será abreviada. Uma umidade relativa de 0 a 65% pode produzir efeitos similares. Durante a dessecação, a privação de alimento não tem efeito notável, a sobrevivência dependendo essencialmente da perda de peso.

  13. Metabolic Benefits of Prior Weight Loss with and without Exercise on Subsequent 6-Month Weight Regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alice S; Serra, Monica C; Goldberg, Andrew P

    2018-01-01

    To determine the 6-month follow-up effects after intentional 6-month weight loss alone (WL) and after weight loss with aerobic exercise (AEX + WL) on body composition, glucose metabolism, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in older postmenopausal women and to identify the mechanisms for weight regain. Women (n = 65, BMI > 25 kg/m 2 ) underwent maximal oxygen consumption testing, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography scans, and oral glucose tolerance tests before and after 6 months of AEX + WL or WL and at 12 months ad libitum follow-up. Insulin sensitivity (M) (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) was measured at baseline and 6 months. Thirty WL and thirty-five AEX + WL women completed a follow-up at 12 months. Similar weight loss was observed (-8%) in both groups from 0 to 6 months. Total fat mass, fat-free mass, visceral fat area, subcutaneous abdominal and midthigh fat areas, fasting glucose, insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin areas under the curve, and triglyceride levels decreased similarly after WL and AEX + WL and remained lower at 12 months than at baseline, despite weight regain at 12 months. Initial M was associated with weight regain (r = -0.40, P < 0.01). Weight regain was related to independent changes in leptin and HOMA-IR from 6 to 12 months in a multiple regression model (r = 0.77, P < 0.0001). Reductions in body fat and improvements in insulin sensitivity after AEX + WL and WL were maintained at 12 months despite modest weight regain. Baseline insulin resistance partially predicted the magnitude of weight regain in postmenopausal women. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  14. A pilot study of the effects of behavioral weight loss treatment on fibromyalgia symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jennifer R; Anderson, Drew A; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have found a relation between weight loss and pain severity in various chronic pain populations. However, there has been little research examining the relation between body mass index (BMI) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between BMI and FMS symptoms and to determine if FMS symptoms would decrease following weight loss. Overweight and obese women participated in a 20-week behavioral weight loss treatment. Participants, on average, lost 9.2 lbs (4.4% of their initial weight), and there were significant pre-postimprovements on several outcome measures. Although weight was not significantly related to pain at baseline, weight loss significantly predicted a reduction in FMS, pain interference, body satisfaction, and quality of life (QOL). Findings suggest that behavioral weight loss treatment could be included in the treatment for overweight/obese women with FMS.

  15. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction.......Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  16. Weight loss in grappling combat sports: review and applied recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lancha Junior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to organize the main literature findings on the effects of rapid weight loss onphysiological systems and performance in grappling combat sports. Several surveys showed that most wrestlers lose significant amount of body weight few days prior to competitions by means of several harmful methods, as severe food and water restriction, or even vomiting and use of laxative and diuretics. The same weight loss patterns seems to occur among Brazilian judo athletes. Many athletes begin to lose weight frequently in puberty. In general, the weight cycles are very recurrent during seasons. A small decrease in some growth variables, followed by a rapid catch-up can be observed during a season. The rapid weight loss involves several adverse effects such as hormonal imbalance, body fat redistribution, decrease of immune system activity, impairments on cardiovascular system, imbalance on water and electrolytes homeostasis and decrease in renal function and in mental and mood state. The aerobic as well as anaerobic performance can be negatively affected by weight reduction. Depending on the kind of weight loss, diet and the recovery time after weighing, anaerobic performance may not be decreased. The weight reduction, if necessary, should be gradual and small. Athletes must consume a high carbohydrate diet during weight loss period and after weighing, prior to the beginning of the competitions. Dehydration should be avoided. Relatively simple changes in rules combined with educational programs could minimize rapid weight loss-related problems. RESUMO O objetivo desta revisão é organizar os principais achados da literatura a respeito dos efeitos das práticas de perda rápida de peso sobre os sistemas fisiológicos e sobre o desempenho em esportes de combate. Diversos levantamentos demonstraram que grande parte dos atletas norte-americanos de luta olímpica perde significativaquantidade de peso dias antes das competições, por

  17. Weight Loss: Ready to Change Your Habits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calories more than you consume each day — through diet and exercise. You might lose weight more quickly if you ... yourself with regular weigh-ins and tracking your diet and activity, which is ... don't have a positive attitude about losing weight, you might not be ready — ...

  18. Weight Loss Five Years After Behavioral Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitz, Leonard S.; And Others

    The behaviorally-based weight control program conducted by Levitz and Jordan at the University of Pennsylvania and the Institute for Behavioral Education is tailored to patient needs and includes stimulus control, cognitive restructuring, and nutrition education. The success of patients in maintaining the clinically meaningful weight losses…

  19. Early Weight Loss with Liraglutide 3.0 mg Predicts 1-Year Weight Loss and is Associated with Improvements in Clinical Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Ken; O'Neil, Patrick M; Davies, Melanie; Greenway, Frank; C W Lau, David; Claudius, Birgitte; Skjøth, Trine Vang; Bjørn Jensen, Christine; P H Wilding, John

    2016-11-01

    To identify an early response criterion for predicting ≥5% weight loss with liraglutide 3.0 mg at week 56 and to compare efficacy outcomes in early responders (ERs) and early nonresponders (ENRs). Using pooled data from the SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes and SCALE Diabetes trials, weight loss of ≥4% at 16 weeks best predicted ≥5% weight loss after 56 weeks. Weight loss and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and health-related quality of life were evaluated in ERs (≥4% weight loss at week 16) and ENRs (3.0 mg were 77.3%/22.7% (individuals without type 2 diabetes, T2D) and 62.7%/37.3% (those with T2D). Greater mean weight loss was observed in ERs versus ENRs: 10.8% versus 3.0% (without T2D) and 8.5% versus 3.1% (T2D). In both trials, greater proportions of ERs versus ENRs achieved ≥5%, >10%, and >15% weight loss at week 56 with liraglutide 3.0 mg. Greater improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors and health-related quality of life scores were observed in ERs versus ENRs. The early response criterion was clinically useful to identify individuals who would achieve clinically meaningful weight loss at 56 weeks. © 2016 The Authors Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  20. Early Weight Loss with Liraglutide 3.0 mg Predicts 1‐Year Weight Loss and is Associated with Improvements in Clinical Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Patrick M.; Davies, Melanie; Greenway, Frank; C.W. Lau, David; Claudius, Birgitte; Skjøth, Trine Vang; Bjørn Jensen, Christine; P.H. Wilding, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify an early response criterion for predicting ≥5% weight loss with liraglutide 3.0 mg at week 56 and to compare efficacy outcomes in early responders (ERs) and early nonresponders (ENRs). Methods Using pooled data from the SCALE Obesity and Prediabetes and SCALE Diabetes trials, weight loss of ≥4% at 16 weeks best predicted ≥5% weight loss after 56 weeks. Weight loss and changes in cardiometabolic risk factors and health‐related quality of life were evaluated in ERs (≥4% weight loss at week 16) and ENRs (3.0 mg were 77.3%/22.7% (individuals without type 2 diabetes, T2D) and 62.7%/37.3% (those with T2D). Greater mean weight loss was observed in ERs versus ENRs: 10.8% versus 3.0% (without T2D) and 8.5% versus 3.1% (T2D). In both trials, greater proportions of ERs versus ENRs achieved ≥5%, >10%, and >15% weight loss at week 56 with liraglutide 3.0 mg. Greater improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors and health‐related quality of life scores were observed in ERs versus ENRs. Conclusions The early response criterion was clinically useful to identify individuals who would achieve clinically meaningful weight loss at 56 weeks. PMID:27804269

  1. Changes in weight control behaviors and hedonic hunger during a 12-week commercial weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Theim, Kelly R; Boeka, Abbe; Johnson, Gail; Miller-Kovach, Karen

    2012-12-01

    Greater use of key self-regulatory behaviors (e.g., self-monitoring of food intake and weight) is associated with greater weight loss within behavioral weight loss treatments, although this association is less established within widely-available commercial weight loss programs. Further, high hedonic hunger (i.e., susceptibility to environmental food cues) may present a barrier to successful behavior change and weight loss, although this has not yet been examined. Adult men and women (N=111, body mass index M±SD=31.5±2.7kg/m(2)) were assessed before and after participating in a 12-week commercial weight loss program. From pre- to post-treatment, reported usage of weight control behaviors improved and hedonic hunger decreased, and these changes were inversely associated. A decrease in hedonic hunger was associated with better weight loss. An improvement in reported weight control behaviors (e.g., self-regulatory behaviors) was associated with better weight loss, and this association was even stronger among individuals with high baseline hedonic hunger. Findings highlight the importance of specific self-regulatory behaviors within weight loss treatment, including a commercial weight loss program developed for widespread community implementation. Assessment of weight control behavioral skills usage and hedonic hunger may be useful to further identify mediators of weight loss within commercial weight loss programs. Future interventions might specifically target high hedonic hunger and prospectively examine changes in hedonic hunger during other types of weight loss treatment to inform its potential impact on sustained behavior change and weight control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ain't no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predict effort and short-term weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vet, Emely; Nelissen, Rob M A; Zeelenberg, Marcel; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2013-05-01

    Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more positive psychological and behavioral outcomes. Hereto, 447 overweight and obese participants trying to lose weight completed two questionnaires with a 2-month interval. Many participants set goals that could be considered unrealistically high. However, higher weight loss goals did not predict dissatisfaction but predicted more effort in the weight loss attempt, as well as more self-reported short-term weight loss when baseline commitment and motivation were controlled for.

  3. History of Smoking and Postcessation Weight Gain among Weight Loss Surgery Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michele D.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Wisinski, Meghan S.C.; Marcus, Marsha D.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking cessation often results in weight gain. Although smoking cessation frequently is recommended to patients presenting for weight loss surgery (WLS), the relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain among WLS candidates is poorly understood. Thus, we sought to document the history and prevalence of smoking and smoking-related weight gain among WLS candidates. Subjects (N = 67) presenting for bariatric surgery provided demographic information, were interviewed about smoking, and weighed and measured prior to operation. Sixty-seven percent of patients reported a lifetime history of smoking, and 26.9% were current smokers. Among lifetime smokers who had attempted to quit, the average maximum amount of weight gained following smoking cessation was 28.1 pounds, but there was wide variability in postcessation weight gain. These data suggest that smoking among candidates for bariatric surgery is prevalent, and that previous cessation attempts were associated with considerable weight gain. Because patients often receive recommendations to quit smoking and lose weight prior to surgery, additional information on the impact of presurgical smoking cessation on long-tem weight control in this population is needed. PMID:17408868

  4. Longitudinal Analysis of Leptin Variation during Weight Regain after Weight Loss in Obese Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens-Christian; Gamborg, Michael; Ward, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed if lower than predicted serum leptin concentrations seen during weight loss persisted during weight regain, with possible implications for weight control. Methods: 115 children were investigated during a 12-week weight loss program. 90 children completed the program....... Results: Children with the greatest increases in BMI standard deviation score (SDS) exhibited the largest leptin increments. The disproportionate reduction of leptin seen during weight loss recovered after weight loss. Leptin increases mirrored increases in BMI SDS during weight regain, and the leptin......-BMI SDS relationship seen during follow-up resembled the baseline leptin-BMI SDS relationship. Conclusion: Proportional increases of leptin and BMI SDS during weight regain suggests an intact leptin response during re-accumulation of fat. Following the pronounced reduction of leptin during weight loss...

  5. Overnight weight loss: relationship with sleep structure and heart rate variability

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Moraes; Dalva Poyares; Christian Guilleminault; Agostinho Rosa; Marco Tulio Mello; Adriana Rueda; Sergio Tufik

    2008-01-01

    Background: Weight loss can be caused by a loss of body mass due to metabolism and by water loss as unsensible water loss, sweating, or excretion in feces and urine. Although weight loss during sleep is a well-known phenomenon, it has not yet been studied in relation to sleep structure or autonomic tonus during sleep. Our study is proposed to be a first step in assessing the relationship between overnight weight loss, sleep structure, and HRV (heart rate variability) parameters.Methods: Twent...

  6. Weight-Loss and Nutrition Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kale vitamin D—cereals or soy-based beverages Myth: “Going vegetarian” will help you lose weight and be healthier. Some research shows that a healthy vegetarian eating plan may be linked to lower obesity levels. ...

  7. Selecting a Weight-Loss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... should teach you how to change permanently those eating habits and lifestyle factors, such as lack of physical ... skills and techniques to make permanent changes in eating habits and levels of physical activity to prevent weight ...

  8. Weight-loss surgery and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the extra body weight. The body mass index (BMI) measures below are used by many doctors ... Saunders; 2015:chap 29. Mechanick JI, Youdim A, Jones DB, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the ...

  9. Gender Differences in Weight Loss: Evidence from a NHS Weight Management Service

    OpenAIRE

    BHOGAL, Manpal Singh; Langford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Provides evidence that men lose more weight than women when enrolled on a weight loss intervention.\\ud •\\ud Men lose more weight than women from their initial assessment up to 12-months.\\ud •\\ud Men maintain their weight and continue to lose more weight postintervention compared to women.

  10. Relative biological effectiveness (R.B.E.) of Cf-252 vs. acute Co-60 and low dose rate Cs-137 irradiation by spleen weight loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Feola, J.M.; Magura, C.; Beach, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    R.B.E. of Cf-252 on lymphoid tissue was assessed by radiation study of spleen weight loss following acute Co-60, and low dose rate (L.D.R.) Cs-137 and Cf-252 irradiations. Acute Co-60 and L.D.R. Cs-137 dose-response followed two component exponential curves with a 1.3-fold greater effect of L.D.R. Cs-137 vs. acute Co-60 on the first slope and 1.9-fold greater effect for the 2nd slope. L.D.R. Cf-252 response was 1.3 x greater than acute Co-60 but was 1.0 vs. L.D.R. Cs-137 for the first slope indicating a similar effect of Cf-252 mixed neutron/gamma radiation to L.D.R. gamma radiation in producing spleen shrinkage. There was no effect of different sequences and schedules of mixing acute Co-60 with Cf-252 irradiation observed by endogenous CFU-S survival. The R.B.E. of 1.0 - 1.9 indicates that lymphohemopoietic in vivo, presumably well oxygenated, does not respond acutely or as sensitively as hypoxic tumor where R.B.E. is 5 - 7. (author)

  11. Lower dipeptidyl peptidase-4 following exercise training plus weight loss is related to increased insulin sensitivity in adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K; Huang, Hazel; Mulya, Anny; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Kirwan, John P

    2013-09-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a circulating glycoprotein that impairs insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and is linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the effect of exercise on plasma DPP-4 in adults with metabolic syndrome is unknown. Therefore, we determined the effect of exercise on DPP-4 and its role in explaining exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity. Fourteen obese adults (67.9±1.2 years, BMI: 34.2±1.1kg/m(2)) with metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria) underwent a 12-week supervised exercise intervention (60min/day for 5 days/week at ∼85% HRmax). Plasma DPP-4 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (40mU/m(2)/min) and estimated by HOMA-IR. Visceral fat (computerized tomography), 2-h glucose levels (75g oral glucose tolerance), and basal fat oxidation as well as aerobic fitness (indirect calorimetry) were also determined before and after exercise. The intervention reduced visceral fat, lowered blood pressure, glucose and lipids, and increased aerobic fitness (PExercise improved clamp-derived insulin sensitivity by 75% (PExercise training reduces plasma DPP-4, which may be linked to elevated insulin sensitivity and fat oxidation. Maintaining low plasma DPP-4 concentrations is a potential mechanism whereby exercise plus weight loss prevents/delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in adults with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Epigenetics in adipose tissue, obesity, weight loss, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I; Claycombe, Kate J; Schalinske, Kevin L

    2014-01-01

    Given the role that diet and other environmental factors play in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the implication of different epigenetic processes is being investigated. Although it is well known that external factors can cause cell type-dependent epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and chromatin remodeling, the regulation of these processes, the magnitude of the changes and the cell types in which they occur, the individuals more predisposed, and the more crucial stages of life remain to be elucidated. There is evidence that obese and diabetic people have a pattern of epigenetic marks different from nonobese and nondiabetic individuals. The main long-term goals in this field are the identification and understanding of the role of epigenetic marks that could be used as early predictors of metabolic risk and the development of drugs or diet-related treatments able to delay these epigenetic changes and even reverse them. But weight gain and insulin resistance/diabetes are influenced not only by epigenetic factors; different epigenetic biomarkers have also been identified as early predictors of weight loss and the maintenance of body weight after weight loss. The characterization of all the factors that are able to modify the epigenetic signatures and the determination of their real importance are hindered by the following factors: the magnitude of change produced by dietary and environmental factors is small and cumulative; there are great differences among cell types; and there are many factors involved, including age, with multiple interactions between them.

  13. Epigenetics in Adipose Tissue, Obesity, Weight Loss, and Diabetes12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J. Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I.; Claycombe, Kate J.; Schalinske, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    Given the role that diet and other environmental factors play in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the implication of different epigenetic processes is being investigated. Although it is well known that external factors can cause cell type-dependent epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and chromatin remodeling, the regulation of these processes, the magnitude of the changes and the cell types in which they occur, the individuals more predisposed, and the more crucial stages of life remain to be elucidated. There is evidence that obese and diabetic people have a pattern of epigenetic marks different from nonobese and nondiabetic individuals. The main long-term goals in this field are the identification and understanding of the role of epigenetic marks that could be used as early predictors of metabolic risk and the development of drugs or diet-related treatments able to delay these epigenetic changes and even reverse them. But weight gain and insulin resistance/diabetes are influenced not only by epigenetic factors; different epigenetic biomarkers have also been identified as early predictors of weight loss and the maintenance of body weight after weight loss. The characterization of all the factors that are able to modify the epigenetic signatures and the determination of their real importance are hindered by the following factors: the magnitude of change produced by dietary and environmental factors is small and cumulative; there are great differences among cell types; and there are many factors involved, including age, with multiple interactions between them. PMID:24425725

  14. Weight loss for overweight and obese individuals with gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sabrina M; Bartels, Else Marie; Henriksen, Marius

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Weight loss is commonly recommended for gout, but the magnitude of the effect has not been evaluated in a systematic review. The aim of this systematic review was to determine benefits and harms associated with weight loss in overweight and obese patients with gout. METHODS: We search...

  15. Personalized weight loss strategies - the role of macronutrient distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, J Alfredo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Saris, Wim H M

    2014-01-01

    A large number of different dietary approaches have been studied in an attempt to achieve healthy, sustainable weight loss among individuals with overweight and obesity. Restriction of energy intake is the primary method of producing a negative energy balance leading to weight loss. However, owin...

  16. Probability Weighting and Loss Aversion in Futures Hedging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattos, F.; Garcia, P.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze how the introduction of probability weighting and loss aversion in a futures hedging model affects decision making. Analytical findings indicate that probability weighting alone always affects optimal hedge ratios, while loss and risk aversion only have an impact when probability

  17. Predictors of Weight Loss Maintenance following an Insurance-Sponsored Weight Management Program

    OpenAIRE

    Christiaan G. Abildso; Olivier Schmid; Megan Byrd; Sam Zizzi; Alessandro Quartiroli; Sean J. Fitzpatrick

    2014-01-01

    Intentional weight loss among overweight and obese adults (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2) is associated with numerous health benefits, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) following participation in weight management programming has proven to be elusive. Many individuals attempting to lose weight join formal programs, especially women, but these programs vary widely in focus, as do postprogram weight regain results. We surveyed 2,106 former participants in a community-based, insurance-sponsored wei...

  18. Complications following body contouring surgery after massive weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post......-bariatric. The purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....

  19. Ineffectiveness of commercial weight-loss programs for achieving modest but meaningful weight loss: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvedy, Samantha M; Sullivan-Mort, Gillian; McLean, Siân A; Pascoe, Michaela C; Paxton, Susan J

    2017-10-01

    This study collates existing evidence regarding weight loss among overweight but otherwise healthy adults who use commercial weight-loss programs. Systematic search of 3 databases identified 11 randomized controlled trials and 14 observational studies of commercial meal-replacement, calorie-counting, or pre-packaged meal programs which met inclusion criteria. In meta-analysis using intention-to-treat data, 57 percent of individuals who commenced a commercial weight program lost less than 5 percent of their initial body weight. One in two (49%) studies reported attrition ≥30 percent. A second meta-analysis found that 37 percent of program completers lost less than 5 percent of initial body weight. We conclude that commercial weight-loss programs frequently fail to produce modest but clinically meaningful weight loss with high rates of attrition suggesting that many consumers find dietary changes required by these programs unsustainable.

  20. Weight Loss Expectations and Attrition in Treatment-Seeking Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Dalle Grave

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The analysis of the relation between weight loss goals and attrition in the treatment of obesity has produced conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of weight loss goals on attrition in a cohort of obese women seeking treatment at 8 Italian medical centres. Methods: 634 women with obesity, consecutively enrolled in weight loss programmes, were included in the study. Weight loss goals were evaluated with the Goals and Relative Weights Questionnaire (GRWQ, reporting a sequence of unrealistic (‘dream' and ‘happy' and more realistic (‘acceptable' and ‘disappointing' weight loss goals. Attrition was assessed at 12 months on the basis of patients' medical records. Results: At 12 months, 205/634 patients (32.3% had interrupted their programme and were lost to follow-up. After adjustment for age, baseline weight, education and employment status, attrition was significantly associated with higher percent acceptable and disappointing weight loss targets, not with dream and happy weight loss. Conclusion: In ‘real world' clinical settings, only realistic expectations might favour attrition whenever too challenging, whereas unrealistic weight loss goals have no effect. Future studies should assess the effect of interventions aimed at coping with too challenging weight goals on attrition.

  1. Amino Acid Signatures to Evaluate the Beneficial Effects of Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Geidenstam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. We investigated the relationship between circulating amino acid levels and obesity; to what extent weight loss followed by weight maintenance can correct amino acid abnormalities; and whether amino acids are related to weight loss. Methods. Amino acids associated with waist circumference (WC and BMI were studied in 804 participants from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cardiovascular Cohort (MDC-CC. Changes in amino acid levels were analyzed after weight loss and weight maintenance in 12 obese subjects and evaluated in a replication cohort (n=83. Results. Out of the eight identified BMI-associated amino acids from the MDC-CC, alanine, isoleucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and glutamate decreased after weight loss, while asparagine increased after weight maintenance. These changes were validated in the replication cohort. Scores that were constructed based on obesity-associated amino acids and known risk factors decreased in the ≥10% weight loss group with an associated change in BMI (R2=0.16–0.22, p<0.002, whereas the scores increased in the <10% weight loss group (p<0.0004. Conclusions. Weight loss followed by weight maintenance leads to differential changes in amino acid levels associated with obesity. Treatment modifiable scores based on epidemiological and interventional data may be used to evaluate the potential metabolic benefit of weight loss.

  2. Zonisamide-induced weight loss in schizophrenia: case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaewon; Lee, Moon-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa; Kim, Seung-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Weight gain and metabolic disturbances constitute bothersome problems in schizophrenic patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. Several medications, exercise regimens, and lifestyle changes have been used in attempts to ameliorate these problems. We describe 3 patients with schizophrenia who manifested distinct weight loss and reduction in waist circumference during medication with zonisamide. This report suggests that zonisamide might be associated with weight loss in patients with schizophrenia.

  3. Getting Past a Weight-Loss Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... America. 2018;102:49. Smethers AD, et al. Dietary management of obesity — Cornerstones of healthy eating patterns. Medical Clinics of ... and factors favouring weight regain. International Journal of Obesity. ... In: The Mayo Clinic Diet. 2nd ed. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical ...

  4. The potential of phototherapy to reduce body fat, insulin resistance and "metabolic inflexibility" related to obesity in women undergoing weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; de Aquino Junior, Antonio Eduardo; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Masquio, Deborah Cristina Landi; Tock, Lian; de Oliveira Duarte, Ana Claudia Garcia; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda; Parizotto, Nivaldo Antonio; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic flexibility is often impaired in diseases associated with obesity, and many studies are based on the hypothesis that dysfunction in peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue represent the etiology of development of metabolic inflexibility. Experimental evidence shows that the use of phototherapy combined with exercise was effective in controlling the lipid profile, reducing the mass of adipose tissue, suggesting increased metabolic activity and changes in lipid metabolism. However, we found few data in the literature involving the use of phototherapy in association to physical training in the obese population. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the effects of exercise training (aerobic plus resistance exercises) plus phototherapy (laser, 808 nm) on metabolic profile and adiponectinemia in obese women. Sixty-four obese women (BMI 30-40 kg/m2 , age between 20 and 40 years old) were randomly assigned in two groups: Exercise Training plus SHAM group (ET-SHAM, n = 32) and Exercise Training plus Phototherapy group (ET-PHOTO, n = 32). The treatment consisted in physical exercise intervention and the individual application of phototherapy immediately after the end of the training session. However, in the ET-SHAM group the device was turned off simulating the phototherapy application (placebo effect). The study protocol lasted for 20 weeks and comprised of three weekly sessions of aerobic plus resistance training and application of phototherapy (when applicable). The body composition and metabolic parameters were assessed (HOMA, adiponectin, insulin, glucose). Comparing the magnitude of effects between groups (ET-PHOTO vs. ET-SHAM), we observed that physical training plus phototherapy was more effective than physical training in reducing the delta of percentage of fat mass (%; -5.60 ± 1.59 vs. -4.33 ± 1.5; P obese women undergoing weight loss treatment promoting significant changes in inflexibility metabolic

  5. Relative plan robustness of step-and-shoot vs rotational intensity–modulated radiotherapy on repeat computed tomographic simulation for weight loss in head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, David J. [Department of Clinical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Beasley, William J. [The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Garcez, Kate; Lee, Lip W.; Sykes, Andrew J. [Department of Clinical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Rowbottom, Carl G. [The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Slevin, Nicholas J., E-mail: nick.slevin@christie.nhs.uk [Department of Clinical Oncology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: Interfractional anatomical alterations may have a differential effect on the dose delivered by step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The increased degrees of freedom afforded by rotational delivery may increase plan robustness (measured by change in target volume coverage and doses to organs at risk [OARs]). However, this has not been evaluated for head and neck cancer. Materials and methods: A total of 10 patients who required repeat computed tomography (CT) simulation and replanning during head and neck IMRT were included. Step-and-shoot IMRT and VMAT plans were generated from the original planning scan. The initial and second CT simulation scans were fused and targets/OAR contours transferred, reviewed, and modified. The plans were applied to the second CT scan and doses recalculated without repeat optimization. Differences between step-and-shoot IMRT and VMAT for change in target volume coverage and doses to OARs between first and second CT scans were compared by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: There were clinically relevant dosimetric changes between the first and the second CT scans for both the techniques (reduction in mean D{sub 95%} for PTV2 and PTV3, D{sub min} for CTV2 and CTV3, and increased mean doses to the parotid glands). However, there were no significant differences between step-and-shoot IMRT and VMAT for change in any target coverage parameter (including D{sub 95%} for PTV2 and PTV3 and D{sub min} for CTV2 and CTV3) or dose to any OARs (including parotid glands) between the first and the second CT scans. Conclusions: For patients with head and neck cancer who required replanning mainly due to weight loss, there were no significant differences in plan robustness between step-and-shoot IMRT and VMAT. This information is useful with increased clinical adoption of VMAT.

  6. Relative plan robustness of step-and-shoot vs rotational intensity–modulated radiotherapy on repeat computed tomographic simulation for weight loss in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, David J.; Beasley, William J.; Garcez, Kate; Lee, Lip W.; Sykes, Andrew J.; Rowbottom, Carl G.; Slevin, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Interfractional anatomical alterations may have a differential effect on the dose delivered by step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The increased degrees of freedom afforded by rotational delivery may increase plan robustness (measured by change in target volume coverage and doses to organs at risk [OARs]). However, this has not been evaluated for head and neck cancer. Materials and methods: A total of 10 patients who required repeat computed tomography (CT) simulation and replanning during head and neck IMRT were included. Step-and-shoot IMRT and VMAT plans were generated from the original planning scan. The initial and second CT simulation scans were fused and targets/OAR contours transferred, reviewed, and modified. The plans were applied to the second CT scan and doses recalculated without repeat optimization. Differences between step-and-shoot IMRT and VMAT for change in target volume coverage and doses to OARs between first and second CT scans were compared by Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: There were clinically relevant dosimetric changes between the first and the second CT scans for both the techniques (reduction in mean D_9_5_% for PTV2 and PTV3, D_m_i_n for CTV2 and CTV3, and increased mean doses to the parotid glands). However, there were no significant differences between step-and-shoot IMRT and VMAT for change in any target coverage parameter (including D_9_5_% for PTV2 and PTV3 and D_m_i_n for CTV2 and CTV3) or dose to any OARs (including parotid glands) between the first and the second CT scans. Conclusions: For patients with head and neck cancer who required replanning mainly due to weight loss, there were no significant differences in plan robustness between step-and-shoot IMRT and VMAT. This information is useful with increased clinical adoption of VMAT.

  7. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  8. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models, but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie". Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1 dietary carbohydrate, via its

  9. Variation in extracellular matrix genes is associated with weight regain after weight loss in a sex-specific manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roumans, Nadia J T; Vink, Roel G; Gielen, Marij

    2015-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of adipocytes is important for body weight regulation. Here, we investigated whether genetic variation in ECM-related genes is associated with weight regain among participants of the European DiOGenes study. Overweight and obese subjects (n = 469, 310 females, 159 m.......40-5.63). Concluding, variants of ECM genes are associated with weight regain after weight loss in a sex-specific manner....

  10. Population-wide weight loss and regain in relation to diabetes burden and cardiovascular mortality in Cuba 1980-2010: repeated cross sectional surveys and ecological comparison of secular trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Manuel; Bilal, Usama; Orduñez, Pedro; Benet, Mikhail; Morejón, Alain; Caballero, Benjamín; Kennelly, Joan F; Cooper, Richard S

    2013-04-09

    To evaluate the associations between population-wide loss and gain in weight with diabetes prevalence, incidence, and mortality, as well as cardiovascular and cancer mortality trends, in Cuba over a 30 year interval. Repeated cross sectional surveys and ecological comparison of secular trends. Cuba and the province of Cienfuegos, from 1980 to 2010. Measurements in Cienfuegos included a representative sample of 1657, 1351, 1667, and 1492 adults in 1991, 1995, 2001, and 2010, respectively. National surveys included a representative sample of 14 304, 22 851, and 8031 participants in 1995, 2001, and 2010, respectively. Changes in smoking, daily energy intake, physical activity, and body weight were tracked from 1980 to 2010 using national and regional surveys. Data for diabetes prevalence and incidence were obtained from national population based registries. Mortality trends were modelled using national vital statistics. Rapid declines in diabetes and heart disease accompanied an average population-wide loss of 5.5 kg in weight, driven by an economic crisis in the mid-1990s. A rebound in population weight followed in 1995 (33.5% prevalence of overweight and obesity) and exceeded pre-crisis levels by 2010 (52.9% prevalence). The population-wide increase in weight was immediately followed by a 116% increase in diabetes prevalence and 140% increase in diabetes incidence. Six years into the weight rebound phase, diabetes mortality increased by 49% (from 9.3 deaths per 10 000 people in 2002 to 13.9 deaths per 10 000 people in 2010). A deceleration in the rate of decline in mortality from coronary heart disease was also observed. In relation to the Cuban experience in 1980-2010, there is an association at the population level between weight reduction and death from diabetes and cardiovascular disease; the opposite effect on the diabetes and cardiovascular burden was seen on population-wide weight gain.

  11. A within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis of primary care referral to a commercial provider for weight loss treatment, relative to standard care—an international randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, N R; Colagiuri, S; Schofield, D; Olson, A D; Shrestha, R; Holzapfel, C; Wolfenstetter, S B; Holle, R; Ahern, A L; Hauner, H; Jebb, S A; Caterson, I D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity there is a need to identify cost-effective approaches for weight loss in primary care and community settings. Objective: We evaluated the cost effectiveness of two weight loss programmes of 1-year duration, either standard care (SC) as defined by national guidelines, or a commercial provider (Weight Watchers) (CP). Design: This analysis was based on a randomised controlled trial of 772 adults (87% female; age 47.4±12.9 years; body mass index 31.4±2.6 kg m−2) recruited by health professionals in primary care in Australia, United Kingdom and Germany. Both a health sector and societal perspective were adopted to calculate the cost per kilogram of weight loss and the ICER, expressed as the cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY). Results: The cost per kilogram of weight loss was USD122, 90 and 180 for the CP in Australia, the United Kingdom and Germany, respectively. For SC the cost was USD138, 151 and 133, respectively. From a health-sector perspective, the ICER for the CP relative to SC was USD18 266, 12 100 and 40 933 for Australia, the United Kingdom and Germany, respectively. Corresponding societal ICER figures were USD31 663, 24 996 and 51 571. Conclusion: The CP was a cost-effective approach from a health funder and societal perspective. Despite participants in the CP group attending two to three times more meetings than the SC group, the CP was still cost effective even including these added patient travel costs. This study indicates that it is cost effective for general practitioners (GPs) to refer overweight and obese patients to a CP, which may be better value than expending public funds on GP visits to manage this problem. PMID:22929209

  12. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger: results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a 6 month worksite lifestyle weight loss program. This randomized controlled trial of the intervention versus a wait-listed control was conducted at 4 worksites, and 95 participants completed outcome assessments ...

  13. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  14. Green tea for weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Tannis M; Whelan, Anne Marie; Killian, Lara; Doucette, Steve; Kirk, Sara; Foy, Elizabeth

    2012-12-12

    enough to allow pooling of results and MD in weight loss ranged from -0.2 kg to -3.5 kg (1030 participants) in favour of green tea preparations. Meta-analysis of studies measuring change in body mass index (BMI) conducted outside Japan showed a MD in BMI of -0.2 kg/m(2) (95% CI -0.5 to 0.1; P = 0.21; I(2) = 38%; 222 participants). Differences among the eight studies conducted in Japan did not allow pooling of results and showed a reduction in BMI ranging from no effect to -1.3 kg/m(2) (1030 participants), in favour of green tea preparations over control. Meta-analysis of five studies conducted outside Japan and measuring waist circumference reported a MD of -0.2 cm (95% CI -1.4 to 0.9; P = 0.70; I(2) = 58%; 404 participants). Differences among the eight studies conducted in Japan did not allow pooling of results and showed effects on waist circumference ranging from a gain of 1 cm to a loss of 3.3 cm (1030 participants). Meta-analysis for three weight loss studies, conducted outside Japan, with waist-to-hip ratio data (144 participants) yielded no significant change (MD 0; 95% CI -0.02 to 0.01). Analysis of two studies conducted to determine if green tea could help to maintain weight after a period of weight loss (184 participants) showed a change in weight loss of 0.6 to -1.6 kg, a change in BMI from 0.2 to -0.5 kg/m(2) and a change in waist circumference from 0.3 to -1.7 cm. In the eight studies that recorded adverse events, four reported adverse events that were mild to moderate, with the exception of two (green tea preparations group) that required hospitalisation (reported as not associated with the intervention). Nine studies reported on compliance/adherence, one study assessed attitude towards eating as part of the health-related quality of life outcome. No studies reported on patient satisfaction, morbidity or cost. Green tea preparations appear to induce a small, statistically non-significant weight loss in overweight or obese adults. Because the amount of

  15. Young adults, technology, and weight loss: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions.

  16. Energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones as predictors of weight loss in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca L; Wood, Lisa G; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Sex differences in weight loss are often seen despite using the same weight loss program. There has been relatively little investigation of physiological influences on weight loss success in males and females, such as energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones. The aims were to 1) characterise baseline plasma leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin concentrations in overweight and obese males and females, and 2) determine whether baseline concentrations of these hormones predict weight loss in males and females. Subjects were overweight or obese (BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) adults aged 18-60 years. Weight was measured at baseline, and after three and six months participation in a weight loss program. Baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An independent t-test or non-parametric equivalent was used to determine any differences between sex. Linear regression determined whether baseline hormone concentrations were predictors of six-month weight change. Females had significantly higher baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and unacylated ghrelin as well as ratios of leptin:adiponectin and leptin:ghrelin. The ratio of acylated:unacylated ghrelin was significantly higher in males. In males and females, a higher baseline concentration of unacylated ghrelin predicted greater weight loss at six months. Additionally in females, higher baseline total ghrelin predicted greater weight loss and a higher ratio of leptin:ghrelin predicted weight gain at six months. A higher pre-weight-loss plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin is a modest predictor of weight loss success in males and females, while a higher leptin:ghrelin ratio is a predictor of weight loss failure in females. Further investigation is required into what combinations and concentrations of these hormones are optimal for weight loss success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Presbycusis - Age Related Hearing Loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, N; Weber, B; Riechelmann, H

    2016-07-01

    Presbycusis or age related hearing loss can be defined as a progressive, bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss due to age related degeneration of inner ear structures. It can be considered a multifactorial complex disorder with environmental and genetic factors. The molecular, electrophysiological and histological damage at different levels of the inner ear cause a progressive hearing loss, which usually affects the high frequencies of hearing. The resulting poor speech recognition has a negative impact on cognitive, emotional and social function in older adults. Recent investigations revealed an association between hearing impairment and social isolation, anxiety, depression and cognitive decline in elderly. These findings emphasize the importance of diagnosis and treating hearing loss in the elderly population. Hearing aids are the most commonly used devices for treating presbycusis. The technical progress of implantable hearing devices allows an effective hearing rehabilitation even in elderly with severe hearing loss. However, most people with hearing impairments are not treated adequately. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Salivary habituation to food stimuli in successful weight loss maintainers, obese and normal-weight adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, DS; Raynor, HA; McCaffery, JM; Wing, RR

    2017-01-01

    Objective Research shows that slower habituation of salivary responses to food stimuli is related to greater energy intake and that obese (Ob) individuals habituate slower than those of normal weight (NW). No study has examined habituation rates in weight loss maintainers (WLMs) who have reduced from obese to normal weight, relative to those who are Ob or NW. Design Salivation to two baseline water trials and 10 lemon-flavored lollipop trials were studied in 14 WLMs, 15 Ob and 18 NW individuals comparable in age, gender and ethnicity. Linear mixed models were used to compare WLMs with Ob and NW groups. Results Salivation in the WLM and NW groups decreased significantly (for both P <0.005) across trials, indicative of habituation. Salivary responses in the Ob group did not habituate (P=0.46). When compared with Ob group, WLMs showed a quicker reduction in salivation (P<0.05). WLM and NW groups did not differ in habituation rate (P=0.49). Conclusions WLMs have habituation rates that are comparable to NW individuals without previous history of obesity, and show quicker habituation than those who are currently obese. These results suggest that physiological responses to food may ‘normalize’ with successful weight loss maintenance. PMID:20010900

  19. Age-Related Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 29, 2017 Granicus - Health Topics Languages Español Download PDF version Order free publications Find organizations Syndicate content Related Topics Do You Need a Hearing Test? Hearing Loss and Older Adults News Spatial organization of cells in the inner ear enables the sense and ...

  20. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-11-27

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss.

  1. Weight loss and elevated gluconeogenesis from alanine in lung cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Leij-Halfwerk (Susanne); P.C. Dagnelie (Pieter); J.W.O. van den Berg (Willem); J.L.D. Wattimena (Josias); C.H. Hordijk-Luijk; J.H.P. Wilson (Paul)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The role of gluconeogenesis from protein in the pathogenesis of weight loss in lung cancer is unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study gluconeogenesis from alanine in lung cancer patients and to analyze its relation to the degree of weight loss.

  2. Initial very low calorie diet (VLCD) improves ultimate weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, F; Astrup, A

    1989-01-01

    (4.1-28.8], than group 1 (8.7 kg (-1.1 to 19.1), P = 0.008; and 7.3 kg (0.9-18.2 P = 0.01). Weight losses in both groups eliminated or strongly reduced the need for a wide variety of expensive drugs: antidiabetics, diuretics, antihypertensives, analgetics, etc. It is concluded that VLCD...... for 2 months or more. The two groups were comparable with regard to height, absolute weight and percentual overweight, but group 2 was somewhat older than group 1 (49.5 vs 38.3 years, P less than 0.01). Group 2 lost significantly more weight, both totally (17.1 kg (7.8-40.1] and on VLCD alone (12.3 kg...... is an effective and encouraging way of starting a dieting program, and that it should be continued for at least two months, as the length of the initial VLCD period related significantly to the amount of weight eventually lost....

  3. Preoperative thyroid function and weight loss after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, João Sérgio; Souteiro, Pedro; Oliveira, Sofia Castro; Pedro, Jorge; Magalhães, Daniela; Guerreiro, Vanessa; Costa, Maria Manuel; Bettencourt-Silva, Rita; Santos, Ana Cristina; Queirós, Joana; Varela, Ana; Freitas, Paula; Carvalho, Davide

    2018-05-16

    Thyroid function has an important role on body weight regulation. However, the impact of thyroid function on weight loss after bariatric surgery is still largely unknown. We evaluated the association between preoperative thyroid function and the excess weight loss 1 year after surgery, in 641 patients with morbid obesity who underwent bariatric surgery. Patients with a history of thyroid disease, treatment with thyroid hormone or antithyroid drugs and those with preoperative evaluation consistent with overt hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism were excluded. The preoperative levels of TSH and FT4 were not associated with weight loss after bariatric surgery. The variation of FT3 within the reference range was also not associated with weight loss. In contrast, the subgroup with FT3 above the reference range (12.3% of patients) had a significantly higher excess weight loss than patients with normal FT3. This difference remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, type of surgery, TSH and FT4. In conclusion, we observed an association between high FT3 and a greater weight loss after bariatric surgery, highlighting a group of patients with an increased benefit from this intervention. Our results also suggest a novel hypothesis: the pharmacological modulation of thyroid function may be a potential therapeutic target in patients undergoing bariatric surgery.

  4. Cultural conflicts in the weight loss experience of overweight Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, V A; Mainous, A G; Pope, C

    2007-02-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of obesity in the Latino population, there is limited recent information that can be used by health-care providers to develop culturally appropriate weight loss strategies for this population. Therefore, we describe weight loss experiences, attitudes and barriers in overweight Latino adults. Qualitative study using focus group methodology. Twenty-one overweight adults (body mass index >/=25, age >/=20 years) self-identified as Latinos. Subjects participated in one of three focus groups. Reccurring themes within group discussions were identified by three independent investigators, one who was ethnicity concordant. Themes included the presence of mixed messages when determining one's appropriate weight, with participants' desire to lose weight to be healthy (based on professional advice and personal experience) conflicting with the cultural idea that being overweight is healthy. Participants described discordance when adapting to the mainstream, leading to the loss of healthy traditional habits. Participants expressed interest in weight loss and familiarity with dieting and weight loss interventions. They desired culturally appropriate nutrition education and reassurance regarding healthy dieting from health-care providers. The importance of interactions with peers during education was another relevant theme, and participants were overwhelmingly positive about group education. To improve health promotion for Latinos, cultural factors distinctive to this underserved population, and barriers they articulate, should be considered when developing weight loss interventions.

  5. Brief Self-Efficacy Scales for use in Weight-Loss Trials: Preliminary Evidence of Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn E.; Harden, Samantha M.; Almeida, Fabio A.; You, Wen; Hill, Jennie L.; Goessl, Cody; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy is a commonly included cognitive variable in weight-loss trials, but there is little uniformity in its measurement. Weight-loss trials frequently focus on physical activity (PA) and eating behavior, as well as weight loss, but no survey is available that offers reliable measurement of self-efficacy as it relates to each of these targeted outcomes. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of brief, pragmatic self-efficacy scales specific to PA, healthful eating and weight-loss (4 items each). An adult sample (n=1790) from 28 worksites enrolled in a worksite weight-loss program completed the self-efficacy scale, as well as measures of PA, dietary fat intake, and weight, at baseline, 6-, and 12-months. The hypothesized factor structure was tested through confirmatory factor analysis, which supported the expected factor structure for three latent self-efficacy factors, specific to PA, healthful eating, and weight-loss. Measurement equivalence/invariance between relevant demographic groups, and over time was also supported. Parallel growth processes in self-efficacy factors and outcomes (PA, fat intake, and weight) support the predictive validity of score interpretations. Overall, this initial series of psychometric analyses supports the interpretation that scores on these scales reflect self-efficacy for PA, healthful eating, and weight-loss. The use of this instrument in large-scale weight-loss trials is encouraged. PMID:26619093

  6. Baby-Friendly Practices Minimize Newborn Infants Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procaccini, Diane; Curley, Ann L Cupp; Goldman, Martha

    2018-04-01

    It is accepted that newborns lose weight in the first few days of life. Baby-Friendly practices that support breastfeeding may affect newborn weight loss. The objective of this study were: 1) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices are associated with term newborn weight loss day 0-2 in three feeding categories (exclusively breastfed, mixed formula fed and breastfed, and formula fed). 2) To determine whether Baby-Friendly practices increase exclusive breast feeding rates in different ethnic populations. This was a retrospective case-control study. Term newborn birth weight, neonatal weights days 0-2, feeding type, type of birth, and demographic information were collected for 1,000 births for the year before Baby-Friendly designation (2010) and 1,000 in 2013 (after designation). Ultimately 683 in the first group and 518 in the second met the inclusion criteria. Mean weight loss decreased day 0-2 for infants in all feeding types after the initiation of Baby-Friendly practices. There was a statistically significant effect of Baby-Friendly designation on weight loss for day 0-2 in exclusively breastfed infants (p Baby-Friendly practices were put in place. There was a decrease in mean weight loss day 0-2 regardless of feeding type after Baby-Friendly designation. Exclusive breast feeding increased in the presence of Baby-Friendly practices.

  7. Relationship between perilipin gene polymorphisms and body weight and body composition during weight loss and weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Mariman, Edwin C M; Vogels, Neeltje; Bouwman, Freek G; den Hoed, Marcel; Brown, Louise; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-03-23

    Genetic variation in the perilipin (PLIN) gene may play a role in the etiology and treatment of obesity. To examine different polymorphisms in the PLIN gene in relation to body-weight regulation. 118 subjects followed a 6 wk VLCD, followed by 1 year weight maintenance. Body-weight (BW), body composition, leptin concentration, and polymorphisms of the PLIN gene: PLIN1:rs2289487, PLIN4:rs894160, PLIN6:rs1052700, PLIN5:rs2304795 and PLIN7:rs 2304796 were determined. BW loss during VLCD was 7.0+/-3.1 kg (p0.9, r2=0.72; PLIN5 and PLIN7: D' >0.9, r2=0.85. In men, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat, leptin concentrations were significantly lower for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). In women weight loss and loss of fat mass were larger for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). For PLIN6 genotypes body weight and body fat were lower for homozygotes of the minor allele (T/T) in the men; in the women leptin concentrations were lower. The haplotype of PLIN5 and PLIN7 consisting of A/G and G/G of PLIN5 and A/A of PLIN7 showed a reduction in FM: 5.9+/-0.6 kg vs 3.1+/-0.4 kg, % body fat: 5.5+/-0.6% vs 2.2+/-0.2%, and leptin: 20.5+/-10.8 ng/ml vs 12.9+/-6.7 ng/ml over time in the women (pinfluencer of obesity risk in humans.

  8. Weight change in a commercial web-based weight loss program and its association with website use: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Melinda; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E

    2011-10-12

    There is a paucity of information in the scientific literature on the effectiveness of commercial weight loss programs, including Web-based programs. The potential of Web-based weight loss programs has been acknowledged, but their ability to achieve significant weight loss has not been proven. The objectives were to evaluate the weight change achieved within a large cohort of individuals enrolled in a commercial Web-based weight loss program for 12 or 52 weeks and to describe participants' program use in relation to weight change. Participants enrolled in an Australian commercial Web-based weight loss program from August 15, 2007, through May 31, 2008. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 12- and 52-week subscriptions. The primary analysis estimated weight change using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) for all participants who subscribed for 12 weeks and also for those who subscribed for 52 weeks. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using the last observation carried forward (LOCF) method. Website use (ie, the number of days participants logged on, made food or exercise entries to the Web-based diary, or posted to the discussion forum) was described from program enrollment to 12 and 52 weeks, and differences in website use by percentage weight change category were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test for equality of populations. Participants (n = 9599) had a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 35.7 (9.5) years and were predominantly female (86% or 8279/9599) and obese (61% or 5866/9599). Results from the primary GLMM analysis including all enrollees found the mean percentage weight change was -6.2% among 12-week subscribers (n = 6943) and -6.9% among 52-week subscribers (n = 2656). Sensitivity analysis using LOCF revealed an average weight change of -3.0% and -3.5% after 12 and 52 weeks respectively. The use of all website features increased significantly (P Web-based weight loss program is likely to be in the range of

  9. [Etiological and exacerbation factors for COPD. Body weight loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akihito

    2016-05-01

    Hunger or malnutrition is not only a historical issue but also a current problem worldwide. Biological responses to hunger are evolutionary prepared in our body, including energy generation by degradation of body proteins. Extreme weight loss (malnutrition) can cause air space enlargement in human and rodents. However, the changes in rodents could be reversible, since refeeding could repair the pathology. On the other hand, weight loss is a common feature in patients with more severe COPD. Complex factors, such as increased energy consumption, decreased food uptake by low grade inflammation, socio-economic factors and so on, are involved in weight loss. Weight loss in patients with COPD also increases the risk of exacerbation, hospitalization, and death.

  10. Choosing a Safe and Successful Weight-Loss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting enough sleep, changes in work schedules, lack of motivation, and injury or illness? Is the program in ... physical activity, behavior change, and weight loss? What type of certifications, education, experience, and training do staff members ...

  11. Weight Loss: Choosing a Diet That's Right for You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes, heart disease or allergies? Do you have cultural or ethnic requirements or preferences regarding food? It's tempting to buy into promises of rapid and dramatic weight loss, but a slow and steady approach is easier ...

  12. Weight loss practices among newly enrolling clients in a commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-01

    Mar 1, 2016 ... Background: In Ghana, obesity is showing a rising trend and there are weight loss initiatives being practised by .... tients seeking treatment in Italian medical centres, the .... Childhood Obesity: Need for a Trans-Sectoral.

  13. Major rapid weight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Iepsen, Eva Winning; Lundgren, Julie

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with increased all-cause mortality, but weight loss may not decrease cardiovascular events. In fact, very low calorie diets have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The QT interval is the standard marker for cardiac repolarization, but T-wave morphology...... analysis has been suggested as a more sensitive method to identify changes in cardiac repolarization. We examined the effect of a major and rapid weight loss on T-wave morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six individuals had electrocardiograms (ECG) taken before and after eight weeks of weight loss......A1c (pweight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization. Monitoring of MCS during calorie restriction makes it possible to detect repolarization changes with higher discriminative power than the QT-interval during major rapid weight...

  14. Weight loss for overweight and obese individuals with gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sabrina M; Bartels, Else Marie; Henriksen, Marius

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Weight loss is commonly recommended for gout, but the magnitude of the effect has not been evaluated in a systematic review. The aim of this systematic review was to determine benefits and harms associated with weight loss in overweight and obese patients with gout. METHODS: We searched...... six databases for longitudinal studies, reporting the effect of weight loss in overweight/obese gout patients. Risk of bias was assessed using the tool Risk of Bias in Non-Randomised Studies of Interventions. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment......, Development and Evaluation. RESULTS: From 3991 potentially eligible studies, 10 were included (including one randomised trial). Interventions included diet with/without physical activity, bariatric surgery, diuretics, metformin or no intervention. Mean weight losses ranged from 3 kg to 34 kg. Clinical...

  15. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calling 1-800-FDA-1088 or visiting FDA online . Updated: January 5, 2015 back to top Related Consumer Updates Don't Be Fooled By Health Fraud Scams Mixing Medications and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your ...

  16. How family interactions about lifestyle changes affect adolescents' possibilities for maintaining weight loss after a weight loss intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eg, Marianne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Vamosi, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    -loss programme. Three rounds of semi-structured interviews stretching over 5 years (2010-2015) were transcribed verbatim, then analyzed using Kvale and Brinkmann's framework for working with qualitative research interviews. FINDINGS: Five years after the intervention ended, we found that a family's interactions...... support is crucial if adolescents are to benefit from weight-loss intervention. DESIGN: Qualitative research interviews with families who participated in a weight-loss programme. METHODS: The sample consisted of 10 families selected among participants in a 1-year multidisciplinary family-based weight...

  17. Interventions to improve long-term weight loss in patients following bariatric surgery: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGrice M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanie McGrice, Kathlene Don Paul Nutrition Plus Enterprises, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Bariatric surgery aims to provide long-term weight loss and improvement in weight-related comorbidities. Unfortunately, some patients do not achieve predicted weight loss targets and many regain a portion of their lost weight within 2–10 years postsurgery. A review of the literature found that behavioral, dietary, psychological, physical, and medical considerations can all play a role in suboptimal long-term weight loss. Recommendations to optimize long-term weight loss include ensuring that the patient understands how the procedure works, preoperative and postoperative education sessions, tailored nutritional supplements, restraint with liquid kilojoules, pureed foods, grazing and eating out of the home, an average of 60 minutes of physical activity per day, and lifelong annual medical, psychological, and dietary assessments.Keywords: weight, bariatric, surgery

  18. A systematic review of the relationship between weight status perceptions and weight loss attempts, strategies, behaviours and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersbergen, I.; Sutin, A.; Daly, M.; Robinson, E.

    2017-01-01

    Summary It is commonly assumed that a person identifying that they are ‘overweight’ is an important prerequisite to successful weight management. However, there has been no systematic evaluation of evidence supporting this proposition. The aim of the present research was to systematically review evidence on the relationship between perceived overweight and (i) weight loss attempts, (ii) weight control strategies (healthy and unhealthy), (iii) weight‐related behaviours (physical activity and eating habits), (iv) disordered eating and (v) weight change. We synthesized evidence from 78 eligible studies and evaluated evidence linking perceived overweight with outcome variables separately according to the gender, age and objective weight status of study participants. Results indicated that perceived overweight was associated with an increased likelihood of attempting weight loss and with healthy and unhealthy weight control strategies in some participant groups. However, perceived overweight was not reliably associated with physical activity or healthy eating and was associated with greater disordered eating in some groups. Rather than being associated with improved weight management, there was consistent evidence that perceived overweight was predictive of increased weight gain over time. Individuals who perceive their weight status as overweight are more likely to report attempting weight loss but over time gain more weight. PMID:29266851

  19. How adolescent girls interpret weight-loss advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Renee; Broder, Sharon; Pope, Holly; Rowe, Jonelle

    2006-10-01

    While they demonstrate some ability to critically analyze the more obvious forms of deceptive weight-loss advertising, many girls do not recognize how advertising evokes emotional responses or how visual and narrative techniques are used to increase identification in weight-loss advertising. This study examined how girls aged 9-17 years interpreted magazine advertising, television (TV) advertising and infomercials for weight-loss products in order to determine whether deceptive advertising techniques were recognized and to assess pre-existing media-literacy skills. A total of 42 participants were interviewed in seven geographic regions of the United States. In groups of three, participants were shown seven print and TV advertisements (ads) for weight-loss products and asked to share their interpretations of each ad. Common factors in girls' interpretation of weight-loss advertising included responding to texts emotionally by identifying with characters; comparing and contrasting persuasive messages with real-life experiences with family members; using prior knowledge about nutrition management and recognizing obvious deceptive claims like 'rapid' or 'permanent' weight loss. Girls were less able to demonstrate skills including recognizing persuasive construction strategies including message purpose, target audience and subtext and awareness of economic factors including financial motives, credibility enhancement and branding.

  20. Hurricane Loss Analysis Based on the Population-Weighted Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Kakareko

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses different measures for quantifying regional hurricane loss. The main measures used in the past are normalized percentage loss and dollar value loss. In this research, we show that these measures are useful but may not properly reflect the size of the population influenced by hurricanes. A new loss measure is proposed that reflects the hurricane impact on people occupying the structure. For demonstrating the differences among these metrics, regional loss analysis was conducted for Florida. The regional analysis was composed of three modules: the hazard module stochastically modeled the wind occurrence in the region; the vulnerability module utilized vulnerability functions developed in this research to calculate the loss; and the financial module quantified the hurricane loss. In the financial module, we calculated three loss metrics for certain region. The first metric is the average annual loss (AAL which represents the expected loss per year in percentage. The second is the average annual dollar loss which represents the expected dollar amount loss per year. The third is the average annual population-weighted loss (AAPL—a new measure proposed in this research. Compared with the AAL, the AAPL reflects the number of people influenced by the hurricane. The advantages of the AAPL are illustrated using three different analysis examples: (1 conventional regional loss analysis, (2 mitigation potential analysis, and (3 forecasted future loss analysis due to the change in population.

  1. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Herring, Cortney; Pories, Walter J.; Rider, Patrick; DeVita, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Hortobagyi T, Herring C, Pories WJ, Rider P, DeVita P. Massive weight loss-induced mechanical plasticity in obese gait. J Appl Physiol 111: 1391-1399, 2011. First published August 18, 2011; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00291.2011.-We examined the hypothesis that metabolic surgery-induced massive weight

  2. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose modifies dietary weight loss maintenance success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6...

  3. Cannabis and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for weight loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Bernard; Trigo, Jose M; Sharkey, Keith A; Le Strat, Yann

    2013-05-01

    Obesity is one of the highest preventable causes of morbidity and mortality in the developed world [1]. It has been well known for a long time that exposure to cannabis produces an increase of appetite (a phenomenon referred to as the 'munchies'). This phenomenon led to an exploration of the role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of obesity and associated metabolic syndrome. This effort subsequently led to the development of a successful therapeutic approach for obesity that consisted of blocking the cannabinoid CB1 receptors using ligands such as Rimonabant in order to produce weight loss and improve metabolic profile [2]. Despite being efficacious, Rimonabant was associated with increased rates of depression and anxiety and therefore removed from the market. We recently discovered that the prevalence of obesity is paradoxically much lower in cannabis users as compared to non-users and that this difference is not accounted for by tobacco smoking status and is still present after adjusting for variables such as sex and age. Here, we propose that this effect is directly related to exposure to the Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) present in cannabis smoke. We therefore propose the seemingly paradoxical hypothesis that THC or a THC/cannabidiol combination drug may produce weight loss and may be a useful therapeutic for the treatment of obesity and its complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Breast cancer biomarkers predict weight loss after gastric bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauter Edward R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has long been associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk and more recently with premenopausal breast cancer risk. We previously observed that nipple aspirate fluid (n levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA were associated with obesity. Serum (s levels of adiponectin are lower in women with higher body mass index (BMI and with breast cancer. We conducted a prospective study of obese women who underwent gastric bypass surgery to determine: 1 change in n- and s-adiponectin and nPSA after surgery and 2 if biomarker change is related to change in BMI. Samples (30-s, 28-n and BMI were obtained from women 0, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery. Findings There was a significant increase after surgery in pre- but not postmenopausal women at all time points in s-adiponectin and at 3 and 6 months in n-adiponectin. Low n-PSA and high s-adiponectin values were highly correlated with decrease in BMI from baseline. Conclusions Adiponectin increases locally in the breast and systemically in premenopausal women after gastric bypass. s-adiponectin in pre- and nPSA in postmenopausal women correlated with greater weight loss. This study provides preliminary evidence for biologic markers to predict weight loss after gastric bypass surgery.

  5. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger. Results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Payal; Das, Sai Krupa; Salinardi, Taylor; Robinson, Lisa; Saltzman, Edward; Scott, Tammy; Pittas, Anastassios G; Roberts, Susan B

    2013-10-01

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss in worksites. This research was part of a randomized controlled trial of a 6-month weight loss intervention versus a wait-listed control in 4 Massachusetts worksites. The intervention emphasized reducing energy intake by adherence to portion-controlled menu suggestions, and assessments were obtained in 95 participants at baseline and 6 months including non-fasting body weight, food cravings (Craving Inventory and Food Craving Questionnaire for state and trait) and the eating behavior constructs restraint, disinhibition and hunger (Eating Inventory). There were statistically significant reductions in all craving variables in the intervention group compared to the controls. Within the intervention group, changes in craving-trait were significantly associated with weight loss after controlling for baseline weight, age, gender and worksite. However, in a multivariate model with craving-trait and eating behaviors (restraint, disinhibition and hunger), hunger was the only significant predictor of weight change. In contrast to some previous reports of increased food cravings with weight loss in lifestyle interventions, this study observed a broad reduction in cravings associated with weight loss. In addition, greater reductions in craving-trait were associated with greater weight change, but craving-trait was not a significant independent correlate of weight change when hunger was included in statistical models. Studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of hunger suppressing versus craving-suppressing strategies in lifestyle interventions for obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of liraglutide on weight loss in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Bording Rasmussen; Svend eLindenberg

    2014-01-01

    AbstractObjective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue liraglutide on weight loss in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: In an observational study, 84 overweight or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome were treated with liraglutide. Baseline characteristics and weight changes at clinical follow-up were recorded. Main outcome measures were absolute and relative weight loss.Results: In overweight o...

  7. Efficacy of a "small-changes" workplace weight loss initiative on weight and productivity outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; Schofield, Grant M; Hopkins, Will G

    2012-10-01

    The effect of weight reduction on workplace productivity is unknown. We have investigated a "small-changes" workplace weight loss intervention on weight and productivity outcomes. Overweight/obese employees at two New Zealand worksites (n = 102) received the 12-week intervention. One site received an extra 9-month weight-maintenance component. Magnitudes of effects on weight and productivity were assessed via standardization. Both groups reduced weight at 12 weeks and maintained lost weight at 12 months. There were small possible improvements in productivity at one worksite and trivial reductions at the other by 12 weeks, with little subsequent change during maintenance in either group. At an individual level, weight change was associated with at most only small improvements or small reductions in productivity. Workplace weight loss initiatives may need to be more intensive or multidimensional to enhance productivity.

  8. Rise of plasma ghrelin with weight loss is not sustained during weight maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is postulated to be an orexigenic signal that promotes weight regain after weight loss (WL). However, it is not known whether this putative effect of ghrelin is sustained after weight stabilization. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of plasma ghrelin concentrati...

  9. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose modifies dietary weight loss maintenance success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6.......12 to -0.43]; P = 0.020). The addition of FI strengthened these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Slightly elevated pretreatment FPG determined success in dietary weight loss maintenance among overweight patients on ad libitum diets differing in macronutrient and fiber content....

  10. Perceived Self-Efficacy and Financial Incentives: Factors Affecting Health Behaviors and Weight Loss in a Workplace Weight Loss Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghri, Pouran D; Simon, Julia; Huedo-Medina, Tania; Gorin, Amy

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate if self-efficacy (SE) and financial incentives (FI) mediate the effect of health behavior on weight loss in a group of overweight and obese nursing-home employees participating in a 16-week weight-loss intervention with 12-week follow-up. Ninety nine overweight/obese (body mass index [BMI] > 25) employees from four nursing-homes participated, with a mean age of 46.98 years and BMI of 35.33. Nursing-homes were randomized to receiving an incentive-based intervention (n = 51) and no incentive (n = 48). Participants' health behaviors and eating and exercise self-efficacy (Ex-SE) were assessed at week 1, 16, and 28 using a self-reported questionnaire. Mediation and moderated mediation analysis assessed relationships among these variables. Eating self-efficacy (Eat-SE) and Ex-SE were significant mediators between health behaviors and weight loss (P self-efficacy (P = 0.00) on weight loss. Self-efficacy and FI may affect weight loss and play a role in weight-loss interventions.

  11. Updates in weight loss surgery and gastrointestinal peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Maria Saur; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Madsbad, Sten

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy are referred to as 'metabolic surgery' due to hormonal shifts with impacts on diabetes remission and weight loss. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings in mechanisms underlying beneficial effects...... of weight loss surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Importantly, gut hormone secretion is altered after RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy due to accelerated transit of nutrients to distal parts of the small intestine, leading to excessive release of L-cell peptide hormones [e.g. glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY......; as demonstrated by relapse of impaired glucose tolerance in studies blocking the GLP-1 receptor by exendin 9-39, and later after major weight loss increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. Gut hormone secretion changes towards a more anorectic profile and is likely important for less caloric intake and weight...

  12. Psychological predictors of weight loss after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    factors are thought to play animportant role for maintaining the surgical weight loss. However, results from priorresearch examining preoperative psychological predictors of weight loss outcomeare inconsistent. The aim of this article was to review more recent literature onpsychological predictors...... studies published after 2003 were included.Results: 19 eligible studies were identified. Psychological predictors of surgicalweight loss investigated in the reviewed studies include cognitive function, per-sonality, psychiatric disorder, and eating behaviour.......Background: Morbid obesity is the fastest growing BMI group in the U.S. and the prevalence of morbid obesity worldwide has never been higher. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe forms of obesity especially with regardto a sustained long-term weight loss. Psychological...

  13. Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, M; Gómez-Abellán, P; Alburquerque-Béjar, J J; Lee, Y-C; Ordovás, J M; Scheer, F A J L

    2013-04-01

    There is emerging literature demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation in animals. However, whether the timing of food intake influences the success of a weight-loss diet in humans is unknown. To evaluate the role of food timing in weight-loss effectiveness in a sample of 420 individuals who followed a 20-week weight-loss treatment. Participants (49.5% female subjects; age (mean ± s.d.): 42 ± 11 years; BMI: 31.4 ± 5.4 kg m(-2)) were grouped in early eaters and late eaters, according to the timing of the main meal (lunch in this Mediterranean population). 51% of the subjects were early eaters and 49% were late eaters (lunch time before and after 1500 hours, respectively), energy intake and expenditure, appetite hormones, CLOCK genotype, sleep duration and chronotype were studied. Late lunch eaters lost less weight and displayed a slower weight-loss rate during the 20 weeks of treatment than early eaters (P=0.002). Surprisingly, energy intake, dietary composition, estimated energy expenditure, appetite hormones and sleep duration was similar between both groups. Nevertheless, late eaters were more evening types, had less energetic breakfasts and skipped breakfast more frequently that early eaters (all; Pmeal (P=0.015) with a higher frequency of minor allele (C) carriers among the late eaters (P=0.041). Neither sleep duration, nor CLOCK SNPs or morning/evening chronotype was independently associated with weight loss (all; P>0.05). Eating late may influence the success of weight-loss therapy. Novel therapeutic strategies should incorporate not only the caloric intake and macronutrient distribution - as is classically done - but also the timing of food.

  14. Should providers encourage realistic weight expectations and satisfaction with lost weight in commercial weight loss programs? a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Gretchen E; Thomas, Colleen S; Patel, Roshni H; McMullen, Jillian S; Lutes, Lesley D

    2014-01-01

    Attrition is a problem among patients who participate in commercial weight loss programs. One possible explanation is that if patients are unable to reach a weight that they expect to achieve, they may be more likely to drop out of treatment. This study investigated variables associated with attrition among 30 obese patients who completed a liquid meal replacement program (LMR) and enrolled in a 52-week Small Changes Maintenance intervention (SCM). Patients lost a median 18% of body weight during LMR and completed assessments about weight expectations and weight satisfaction pre- and post-SCM. Of the 30 patients who started SCM, 8 (27%) were lost to attrition. Odds of SCM attrition were higher in patients who lost ≤ 18.2% of pre-LMR weight (OR: 12.25, P = 0.035), had lower satisfaction (≤7) pre-SCM (OR: 10.11, P = 0.040), and who expected further weight loss of 9.1 kg or more pre-SCM (OR: 10.11, P = 0.040). SCM completers significantly increased weight loss expectations by a median of 2.3 kg from pre-SCM to post-SCM (WSR P = 0.049) that paralleled weight regained post-SCM (2.7 kg). After completion of a medically-supervised commercial weight loss program, patients with the greatest expectations for further weight loss and the lowest weight satisfaction were more likely to drop out of SCM. Failure to participate in maintenance treatment may lead to regain of greater than half of lost weight over the next year. Among SCM completers, lower expectations for further weight loss and greater weight satisfaction appeared to be associated with continued engagement in maintenance treatment.

  15. Liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight management: weight-loss dependent and independent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Hemmingsson, Joanna Uddén; Claudius, Birgitte; Jensen, Christine B; Van Gaal, Luc

    2017-02-01

    As an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity, treatment with liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight management provides a statistically significant and clinically meaningful weight loss of 5.7%-8.0% compared to 1.6%-2.6% with placebo. The objective of this post hoc analysis was to quantify the relative contribution of weight loss to the treatment effects of liraglutide 3.0 mg on key efficacy endpoints. The analysis utilized data from 4725 participants across three randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials that evaluated the efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg versus placebo, as an adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and increased physical activity (ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT01272219, NCT01272232 and NCT01557166). The duration of two of the trials was 56 weeks; one trial was of 32 weeks' duration. A mediation analysis was performed, which ranked the relative contribution of weight loss to the treatment effects of liraglutide 3.0 mg on key cardiometabolic efficacy endpoints, Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) and health-related quality of life (QoL). A limitation of this type of analysis is that it cannot conclusively prove a causal relationship. In individuals without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), endpoints predominantly driven by liraglutide-induced weight loss included waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, AHI, and Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite total and physical function scores. Endpoints predominantly independent of weight loss included the glycemic endpoints hemoglobin A1c and fasting plasma glucose in individuals with and without T2DM. Regardless of the degree of dependence on weight loss according to the mediation analysis, greater weight loss was associated with greater improvement in all endpoints. Treatment with liraglutide 3.0 mg contributes to improved cardiometabolic parameters, AHI and health-related QoL through both weight-loss

  16. The Role of Attachment in Body Weight and Weight Loss in Bariatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Abigail; Hollywood, Amelia; Ogden, Jane; Hashemi, Majid

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the role of attachment styles in obesity. The present study explored differences in insecure attachment styles between an obese sample waiting for bariatric surgery (n = 195) and an age, sex and height matched normal weight control group (n = 195). It then explored the role of attachment styles in predicting change in BMI 1 year post bariatric surgery (n = 143). The bariatric group reported significantly higher levels of anxious attachment and lower levels of avoidant attachment than the control non-obese group. Baseline attachment styles did not, however, predict change in BMI post surgery. Attachment style is different in those that are already obese from those who are not. Attachment was not related to weight loss post surgery.

  17. Effects of diet composition on weight loss, metabolic factors and biomarkers in a 1-year weight loss intervention in obese women examined by baseline insulin resistance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Pakiz, Bilge; Quintana, Elizabeth L; Heath, Dennis D; Rana, Brinda K; Natarajan, Loki

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer mortality, which may be explained by several metabolic and hormonal factors (sex hormones, insulin resistance, and inflammation) that are biologically related. Differential effects of dietary composition on weight loss and these metabolic factors may occur in insulin-sensitive vs. insulin-resistant obese women. To examine the effect of diet composition on weight loss and metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory factors in overweight/obese women stratified by insulin resistance status in a 1-year weight loss intervention. Nondiabetic women who were overweight/obese (n=245) were randomly assigned to a lower fat (20% energy), higher carbohydrate (65% energy) diet; a lower carbohydrate (45% energy), higher fat (35% energy) diet; or a walnut-rich (18% energy), higher fat (35% energy), lower carbohydrate (45% energy) diet. All groups lost weight at follow-up (Ploss of 9.2(1.1)% in lower fat, 6.5(0.9)% in lower carbohydrate, and 8.2(1.0)% in walnut-rich groups at 12months. The diet×time×insulin resistance status interaction was not statistically significant in the model for overall weight loss, although insulin sensitive women at 12months lost more weight in the lower fat vs. lower carbohydrate group (7.5kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.06), and in the walnut-rich vs. lower carbohydrate group (8.1kg vs. 4.3kg, P=0.04). Sex hormone binding globulin increased within each group except in the lower carbohydrate group at 12months (Ploss depending on insulin resistance status. Prescribing walnuts is associated with weight loss comparable to a standard lower fat diet in a behavioral weight loss intervention. Weight loss itself may be the most critical factor for reducing the chronic inflammation associated with increased breast cancer risk and progression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Treatment for snoring. Combined weight loss, sleeping on side, and nasal spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, H M; Block, A J; Perri, M G

    1995-05-01

    We sought to find a combination of noninvasive treatments for snoring by adding weight loss to previously studied treatments, including the combination of sleeping on one's side and using a decongestant nasal spray. Twenty asymptomatic men who snore heavily were studied previously on a control night and on a night when they slept on their side and used a nasal spray. With these two treatments, minor improvements in apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) were seen, but no improvement occurred in snoring frequency. Nineteen of these subjects subsequently completed a 6-month weight loss program, and 12 lost weight. These 19 subjects comprise the study population of this report. At the conclusion of the weight loss program, a repeated sleep study was done from which the effect of adding weight loss to the two previously studied treatments could be assessed. Those 12 subjects who lost any amount of weight showed a very mild reduction in snores per hour from 328 using two modalities of treatment to 232 per hour with the addition of weight loss (p = 0.15). The nine subjects who lost > or = 3 kg reduced the number of snores per hour from 320 to 176 (p = 0.0496). Three subjects losing an average of only 7.6 kg showed virtual elimination of snoring after weight loss. Subjects who gained weight had no improvement in snoring. Weight loss added to the other two modalities of treatment had no effect on the AHI. In most cases, the combination of weight loss, sleeping on one's side, and the administration of a nasal decongestant significantly reduces the frequency of snoring in asymptomatic men who snore heavily. The major effect appears to be related to weight loss.

  19. Changes in lifestyle habits and behaviours are associated with weight loss maintenance in members of a commercial weight loss organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Stubbs, RJ; McConnon, A; Gibbs, M; Raats, M; Whybrow, S

    2012-01-01

    This analysis examined the lifestyle correlates of weight loss maintenance in 1428 participants of a slimming organisation, who had been members for a mean SD of 16 16 months, had lost 13.8% 9.2% weight and were trying to maintain, or increase, their weight loss during a subsequent 6 month study period. Data were collected as part of the DiOGenes study(1). Ethical approval was given by the University of Surrey Ethics Committee. Adults were recruited between August 2006 and July 2008 from Slim...

  20. High-frequency binge eating predicts weight gain among veterans receiving behavioral weight loss treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; Lutes, Lesley D; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Holleman, Robert G; Goodrich, David E; Janney, Carol A; Kirsh, Susan; Richardson, Caroline R; Damschroder, Laura J

    2015-01-01

    To assess for the frequency of binge eating behavior and its association with weight loss in an overweight/obese sample of veterans. This study is a secondary analysis of data from the ASPIRE study, a randomized effectiveness trial of weight loss among veterans. Of the 481 enrolled veterans with overweight/obesity, binge eating frequency was obtained by survey for 392 (82%). The majority (77.6%) reported binge eating, and 6.1% reported high-frequency binge eating. Those reporting any binge eating lost 1.4% of body weight, decreased waist circumference by 2.0 cm, and had significantly worse outcomes than those reporting never binge eating who lost about double the weight (2.7%) and reduced waist circumference by twice as much (4.2 cm). The high-frequency binge group gained 1.4% of body weight and increased waist circumference by 0.3 cm. High rates of binge eating were observed in an overweight/obese sample of veterans enrolled in weight loss treatment. The presence of binge eating predicted poorer weight loss outcomes. Furthermore, high-frequency binge eating was associated with weight gain. These findings have operational and policy implications for developing effective strategies to address binge eating in the context of behavioral weight loss programs for veterans. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  1. Chili pepper as a body weight-loss food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Sharon; Kubatka, Peter; Rodrigo, Luis; Gazdikova, Katarina; Caprnda, Martin; Fedotova, Julia; Zulli, Anthony; Kruzliak, Peter; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2017-06-01

    Chili has culinary as well as medical importance. Studies in humans, using a wide range of doses of chili intake (varying from a single meal to a continuous uptake for up to 12 weeks), concluded that it facilitates weight loss. In regard to this, the main targets of chili are fat metabolism, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis. To induce weight loss, the active substance of chili, capsaicin, activates Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel sub-family V member 1 (TRPV1) channels) receptors causing an increase in intracellular calcium levels and triggering the sympathetic nervous system. Apart from TRPV1, chili directly reduces energy expenditure by activating Brown Adipose Tissue. Weight loss by chili is also the result of an improved control of insulin, which supports weight management and has positive effects for treatment for diseases like obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review summarizes the major pathways by which chili contributes to ameliorating parameters that help weight management and how the consumption of chili can help in accelerating weight loss through dietary modifications.

  2. Structural changes in the knee during weight loss maintenance after a significant weight loss in obese patients with osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, M; Christensen, R; Hunter, D J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare structural knee joint changes in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) that after an intensive weight loss therapy were randomized to continuous dietetic support, a specialized knee exercise program, or 'no attention' for 1 year. METHODS: 192 obese individuals with knee...... OA underwent an intensive 16-week weight loss program with subsequent randomization to one of the three treatment groups. Changes in cartilage loss, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), synovitis, and effusion were assessed using semi quantitative assessments of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained...... (difference: -0.21 [95%CI -0.40:-0.03]) and "no attention" (difference: -0.26 [95%CI -0.44:-0.07]) groups. CONCLUSION: In this 1 year follow-up after weight-loss in obese knee OA patients, we found a potentially increased number of BMLs in the exercise group compared to the diet and no attention groups...

  3. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitcomb EL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative

  4. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Emily L; Subak, Leslee L

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence. Methods A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized. Results Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence) than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence. Conclusion Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative approaches is effective in reducing urinary incontinence symptoms and should be strongly considered as a first line treatment for overweight and obese women with urinary incontinence. PMID:24198645

  5. The role of carbohydrate in dietary prescription for weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne

    content of ad libitum diets produces weight loss in both the short-term and over periods as long as 7 years. A fat-reduced diet, combined with physical activity, reduces all risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The combination of reduction of dietary fat...... and energy, and increased physical activity, has been shown to reduce the incidence of diabetes by 58% in two major trials. In post hoc analyses the reduction in dietary fat (energy density) and increase in fibre were the strongest predictors of weight loss and diabetes protective effects. It remains...... to be shown whether a low-glycemic index diet provides benefits beyond this. Low-carbohydrate diets may be an option for inducing weight loss in obese patients, but a very low intake of carbohydrate-rich foods is not commensurate with a healthy and palatable diet in the long term. However, there is evidence...

  6. Dietary patterns in weight loss maintenance: results from the MedWeight study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karfopoulou, Eleni; Brikou, Dora; Mamalaki, Eirini; Bersimis, Fragiskos; Anastasiou, Costas A; Hill, James O; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2017-04-01

    The dietary habits contributing to weight loss maintenance are not sufficiently understood. We studied weight loss maintainers in comparison with regainers, to identify the differentiating behaviors. The MedWeight study is a Greek registry of weight loss maintainers and regainers. Participants had intentionally lost ≥10 % of their weight and either had maintained this loss for over a year, or had regained weight. Questionnaires on demographics and lifestyle habits were completed online. Dietary assessment was carried out by two telephone 24-h recalls. Present analysis focused on 361 participants (32 years old, 39 % men): 264 maintainers and 97 regainers. Energy and macronutrient intake did not differ by maintenance status (1770 ± 651 kcal in maintainers vs. 1845 ± 678 kcal in regainers, p = 0.338), although protein intake per kg of body weight was higher in maintainers (1.02 ± 0.39 vs. 0.83 ± 0.28 g/kg in regainers, p meal preparation and eating at home for men, and a higher eating frequency and slower eating rate for women. Men maintaining weight loss were much more likely to adhere to a healthy eating pattern. Eating at home, involvement in meal preparation, higher eating frequency and slower eating rate were also associated with maintenance. These lifestyle habits of successful maintainers provide target behaviors to improve obesity treatment.

  7. Weight loss alters severity of individual nocturnal respiratory events depending on sleeping position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkas, A; Leppänen, T; Tiihonen, P; Mervaala, E; Töyräs, J; Sahlman, J; Seppä, J; Kokkarinen, J; Randell, J; Tuomilehto, H

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The mechanisms of how weight loss affects nocturnal breathing are not fully understood. The severity of OSA is currently estimated by the number of respiratory events per hour of sleep (i.e. apnea-hypopnea-index, AHI). AHI neglects duration and morphology of individual respiratory events, which describe the severity of individual events. In the current paper, we investigate the novel Adjusted-AHI parameter (incorporating individual event severity) and AHI after weight loss in relation to sleeping position. It was hypothesised that there are positional differences in individual event severity changes during weight loss. Altogether, 32 successful (> 5% of weight) and 34 unsuccessful weight loss patients at baseline and after 1 year follow-up were analysed. The results revealed that individual respiratory event severity was reduced differently in supine and non-supine positions during weight loss. During weight loss, AHI was reduced by 54% (p = 0.004) and 74% (p < 0.001), while Adjusted-AHI was reduced by 14% (p = 0.454) and 48% (p = 0.003) in supine and non-supine positions, respectively. In conclusion, the severity of individual respiratory events decreased more in the non-supine position. The novel Adjusted-AHI parameter takes these changes into account and might therefore contribute additional information to the planning of treatment of OSA patients. (paper)

  8. Weight loss in orthognathic surgery: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Douglas; Williams, Rhodri W; Juj, Kiranjit; O'Connell, Susan; Isherwood, Grant; Hammond, Nichola

    2015-09-01

    To analyse weight change, body composition change and Body Mass Index change in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. A service evaluation was undertaken in orthognathic patients pre-operatively and at 4 weeks post-surgery. Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham outpatient department. Thirty-one patients scheduled for single- or two-jaw orthognathic surgery and rigid internal fixation. Immediately pre-operatively and at 4 weeks post-surgery the following information was gathered: (1) patient height; (2) patient weight (kg); (3) Patient Body Mass Index; and (4) patient body fat percentage. In the 4-week post-operative period, the average weight loss was -4·96 kg (range: -9·6 to +3·0 kg), with a body fat reduction of -3·07% (range: -5·80% to +2·30%) and an average reduction in Body Mass Index of -1·63 (range: -3·4 to +0·8). There was no statistically significant difference in weight loss (P = 0·1562) or body fat composition change (P = 0·2391) between single- or two-jaw surgery. There was no statistically significant difference in weight loss (P = 0·4858) or body fat composition change (P = 0·5321) between male and female patients. Weight loss observed was similar to that reported in studies using inter-maxillary fixation. Closer psychological and dietetic support is needed for patients who have a low normal or underweight Body Mass Index. Better and more bespoke tailored Oral Nutritional Supplementation must be provided for all orthognathic surgery patients to potentially reduce this significant weight loss.

  9. Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have ver...

  10. Weight loss and fatigue in an elderly patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, W S; McKnight, J A

    2005-02-01

    We report a recent clinical case of an elderly patient who presented with weight loss and fatigue and who was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Some time later, he was discovered to have underlying oesophageal lymphoma. The latter diagnosis was believed to contribute, at least in part, to his symptoms at the time of initial presentation. The case illustrates the potential difficulties associated with establishing the diagnosis of oesophageal lymphoma. Furthermore, symptoms of weight loss and fatigue are commonly encountered in general medical patients. This case reminded us that even when a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism has been established, these symptoms may be attributable to other pathology.

  11. Weight loss for overweight patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Robin; Hansen, Julie Bolvig; Lund, Hans

    2017-01-01

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows:  To determine the benefits and harms associated with weight loss in overweight individuals with knee or hip osteoarthritis in terms of pain, physical function, quality of life, and safety.  Further we will have...... an explicit focus on quality of the weight loss intervention (including magnitude and intensity) (Herbert 2005), to see whether there is a dose-response relationship at the trial (i.e. group) level....

  12. Weight Gain and Hair Loss during Anti-TNF Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Lutf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the incidence of weight gain and hair loss as adverse effects of anti-TNF therapy in rheumatic diseases. Methods. Patients using anti-TNF therapy, who are followed in rheumatology clinic, were interviewed using a questionnaire to investigate the side effects of anti-TNF therapy. Patients who complained of hair loss and weight gain were asked additional questions concerning the relationship of these adverse effects to anti-TNF use, whether therapy was stopped because of these adverse effects and if the adverse effects reversed after stopping therapy. The files were reviewed to follow the weight change before, during, and after discontinuation of anti-TNF. Results. One hundred fifty consecutive patients (82 RA, 34 ankylosing spondylitis, 32 psoriatic arthritis, and 4 for other indications were interviewed .Weight gain was observed in 20 patients (13.3% with average gain of 5.5 Kg. Anti-TNF was stopped in five patients because of this adverse effect. Hair loss during anti-TNf therapy was reported in five females (3.3% and anti-TNF therapy was stopped in all of them. Conclusion. Weight gain and hair loss appear to be associated with anti-TNF therapy and may be one reason for discontinuing the therapy.

  13. The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The replacement of sucrose with HFCS in food products has been suggested as playing a role in the development of obesity as a public health issue. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Methods This was a randomized, prospective, double blind trial, with overweight/obese participants measured for body composition and blood chemistry before and after the completion of 12 weeks following a hypocaloric diet. The average caloric deficit achieved on the hypocaloric diets was 309 kcal. Results Reductions were observed in all measures of adiposity including body mass, BMI,% body fat, waist circumference and fat mass for all four hypocaloric groups, as well as reductions in the exercise only group for body mass, BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions Similar decreases in weight and indices of adiposity are observed when overweight or obese individuals are fed hypocaloric diets containing levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup typically consumed by adults in the United States. PMID:22866961

  14. The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowndes Joshua

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The replacement of sucrose with HFCS in food products has been suggested as playing a role in the development of obesity as a public health issue. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. Methods This was a randomized, prospective, double blind trial, with overweight/obese participants measured for body composition and blood chemistry before and after the completion of 12 weeks following a hypocaloric diet. The average caloric deficit achieved on the hypocaloric diets was 309 kcal. Results Reductions were observed in all measures of adiposity including body mass, BMI,% body fat, waist circumference and fat mass for all four hypocaloric groups, as well as reductions in the exercise only group for body mass, BMI and waist circumference. Conclusions Similar decreases in weight and indices of adiposity are observed when overweight or obese individuals are fed hypocaloric diets containing levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup typically consumed by adults in the United States.

  15. The effects of four hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup on weight loss and related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, Joshua; Kawiecki, Diana; Pardo, Sabrina; Nguyen, Von; Melanson, Kathleen J; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James M

    2012-08-06

    The replacement of sucrose with HFCS in food products has been suggested as playing a role in the development of obesity as a public health issue. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of four equally hypocaloric diets containing different levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). This was a randomized, prospective, double blind trial, with overweight/obese participants measured for body composition and blood chemistry before and after the completion of 12 weeks following a hypocaloric diet. The average caloric deficit achieved on the hypocaloric diets was 309 kcal. Reductions were observed in all measures of adiposity including body mass, BMI,% body fat, waist circumference and fat mass for all four hypocaloric groups, as well as reductions in the exercise only group for body mass, BMI and waist circumference. Similar decreases in weight and indices of adiposity are observed when overweight or obese individuals are fed hypocaloric diets containing levels of sucrose or high fructose corn syrup typically consumed by adults in the United States.

  16. [The effect of sibutramine on weight loss in obese adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ruth Rocha; Cominato, Louise; Damiani, Durval

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of sibutramine on weight loss in obese adolescents. A double-blind controlled study lasting 13 months. The study included 73 obese adolescents of both sexes aged between 10 and 18 years. Laboratory tests and imaging studies were performed before, during wash-out, and at the end of 13 months. The percentage of patients who lost 10% of their initial weight in the placebo group was 46%, and in the sibutramine group was 75%. When placebo was used, average weight rose by 1.61 kg, and BMI decreased by 0.24 kg/m(2) whereas with the use of sibutramine, weight decreased by 4.47 kg, and average BMI decreased, 2.38 kg/m(2), with p Sibutramine induced significantly more weight loss in obese adolescents compared with placebo, without significant side effects. The weight loss curve was different depending on the moment sibutramine was introduced. This finding indicates that the best time to start sibutramine is when adhesion begins to fail.

  17. Levels of the soluble LDL receptor-relative LR11 decrease in overweight individuals with type 2 diabetes upon diet-induced weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A.C. Berk (Kirsten); R. Vongpromek (Ranitha); M. Jiang (Meizi); W.J. Schneider (Wolfgang); R. Timman (Reinier); A.J.M. Verhoeven; H. Bujo (Hideaki); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); M.T. Mulder (Monique)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background and aims__ Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major complication in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), especially in those with obesity. Plasma soluble low density lipoprotein receptor-relative with 11 ligand-binding repeats (sLR11) plays a role in the development of

  18. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants...... of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI (HP....../HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7...

  19. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  20. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (≤45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (Phypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (Pdiet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029

  1. Is it the resistance training itself or the combined associated weight loss that improves the metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyluk O

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ozlem Soyluk,1 Gulistan Bahat21Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Capa, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Division of Geriatrics, Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Medical School, Istanbul University, Capa, Istanbul, TurkeyWe read the article entitled “Resistance training improves isokinetic strength and metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women” by Oliveira et al1 with great interest. In the study, the authors examined the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT on metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women. They reported that total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, blood glucose, basal insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance were all significantly reduced with RT (P<0.01. Accordingly, they concluded that a 12-week progressive RT program induces beneficial alterations on metabolic syndrome-related phenotypes in postmenopausal women. View original paper by Oliveira and colleagues.

  2. What Matters in Weight Loss? An In-Depth Analysis of Self-Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Stefanie Lynn; Ahmed, Rezwan; Hill, James O; Kushner, Robert F; Lindquist, Richard; Brunning, Scott; Margulies, Amy

    2017-05-12

    Using technology to self-monitor body weight, dietary intake, and physical activity is a common practice used by consumers and health companies to increase awareness of current and desired behaviors in weight loss. Understanding how to best use the information gathered by these relatively new methods needs to be further explored. The purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of self-monitoring to weight loss in participants in a 6-month commercial weight-loss intervention administered by Retrofit and to specifically identify the significant contributors to weight loss that are associated with behavior and outcomes. A retrospective analysis was performed using 2113 participants enrolled from 2011 to 2015 in a Retrofit weight-loss program. Participants were males and females aged 18 years or older with a starting body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2, who also provided a weight measurement at the sixth month of the program. Multiple regression analysis was performed using all measures of self-monitoring behaviors involving weight measurements, dietary intake, and physical activity to predict weight loss at 6 months. Each significant predictor was analyzed in depth to reveal the impact on outcome. Participants in the Retrofit Program lost a mean -5.58% (SE 0.12) of their baseline weight with 51.87% (1096/2113) of participants losing at least 5% of their baseline weight. Multiple regression model (R 2 =.197, Pself-monitoring behaviors of self-weigh-in, daily steps, high-intensity activity, and persistent food logging were significant predictors of weight loss during a 6-month intervention. ©Stefanie Lynn Painter, Rezwan Ahmed, James O Hill, Robert F Kushner, Richard Lindquist, Scott Brunning, Amy Margulies. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 12.05.2017.

  3. Smoking, weight loss intention and obesity-promoting behaviors in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Shawna L; Lee, Rebecca E; Kaur, Harsohena; Harris, Kari J; Strother, Myra L; Huang, Terry T-K

    2006-08-01

    To examine whether college smoking was associated with trying to lose weight and other weight-related behaviors. We surveyed 300 students at the University of Kansas about smoking (ever, current, and amount), weight loss intention (y/n), weight-related attitudes, and eating and exercise behavior. Weight, height, and body fat were measured. About half the students (49%) self-identified as having ever smoked while 53 (17.6%) self-identified as current smokers. After controlling for sex, age, and ethnicity, ever smoking was not related to weight loss intention but was associated with greater pressure to maintain a healthy weight (p = 0.05), and having engaged in mild exercise on more days in the previous year (p = 0.05). Compared to nonsmokers, current smokers ate more at restaurants serving high calorie foods (p college students was related to weight loss intention. Despite wanting to lose weight, current smoking was concomitant with obesity-promoting behaviors such as eating higher calorie foods and eating in front of the TV. College-based interventions to prevent smoking initiation or promote smoking cessation should include a focus on healthy eating, exercise and healthful ways to lose or maintain weight.

  4. A core-monitoring based methodology for predictions of graphite weight loss in AGR moderator bricks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNally, K., E-mail: kevin.mcnally@hsl.gsi.gov.uk [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Warren, N. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Fahad, M.; Hall, G.; Marsden, B.J. [Nuclear Graphite Research Group, School of MACE, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • A statistically-based methodology for estimating graphite density is presented. • Graphite shrinkage is accounted for using a finite element model. • Differences in weight loss forecasts were found when compared to the existing model. - Abstract: Physically based models, resolved using the finite element (FE) method are often used to model changes in dimensions and the associated stress fields of graphite moderator bricks within a reactor. These models require inputs that describe the loading conditions (temperature, fluence and weight loss ‘field variables’), and coded relationships describing the behaviour of graphite under these conditions. The weight loss field variables are calculated using a reactor chemistry/physics code FEAT DIFFUSE. In this work the authors consider an alternative data source of weight loss: that from a longitudinal dataset of density measurements made on small samples trepanned from operating reactors during statutory outages. A nonlinear mixed-effect model is presented for modelling the age and depth-related trends in density. A correction that accounts for irradiation-induced dimensional changes (axial and radial shrinkage) is subsequently applied. The authors compare weight loss forecasts made using FEAT DIFFUSE with those based on an alternative statistical model for a layer four moderator brick for the Hinkley Point B, Reactor 3. The authors compare the two approaches for the weight loss distribution through the brick with a particular focus on the interstitial keyway, and for the average (over the volume of the brick) weight loss.

  5. Emphasising Personal Investment Effects Weight Loss and Hedonic Thoughts about Food after Obesity Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Husted

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity surgery is the most effective treatment method for the severely obese but does not work for everyone. Indications are that weight-loss success may be related to individuals’ sense of investment in surgery, with failure linked to higher automatic hedonic motivations to consume food and greater susceptibility to food in the environment. A pilot study using an independent experimental design recruited bariatric surgery patients (n=91 via a UK obesity-surgery charity website who were randomly allocated to either the intervention or the control condition. The intervention involved raising the salience of the personal investment made in having weight-loss surgery in an attempt to reduce automatic hedonic thoughts about food and aid weight loss. Data was collected initially with subsequent weight loss measured at 3 months of follow-up. Following the intervention, participants reported significantly reduced hedonic thoughts, increased liking for low-fat foods, reduced liking of high-fat food, and higher self-efficacy for achieving sustained weight loss than controls. By 3 months, this was translated into significant differences in mean weight losses of 6.77 kg for the intervention group and 0.91 kg for control participants. To conclude, a quick simple cost-effective intervention encouraging participants to focus on investment helped weight loss and changed hedonic thoughts about food in bariatric patients.

  6. The effect of liraglutide on weight loss in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Christina B; Lindenberg, Svend

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide on weight loss in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In an observational study, 84 overweight or obese women with PCOS were treated with liraglutide. Baseline characteristics and weight changes at clinical follow-up were recorded. Main outcome measures were absolute and relative weight loss. In overweight or obese women with PCOS treated with liraglutide for a minimum of 4 weeks, a mean weight loss of 9.0 kg (95% CI: 7.8-10.1, p weight loss of more than 5 and 10% of baseline weight was seen in 81.7 and 32.9% of patients, respectively. The mean duration of treatment with liraglutide was 27.8 weeks (SD 19.2). Treatment with liraglutide in combination with metformin and lifestyle intervention resulted in a significant weight loss in overweight and obese women with PCOS, indicating that liraglutide may be an effective alternative for weight loss in this group of patients. However, larger placebo-controlled studies are needed to confirm this.

  7. The effect of liraglutide on weight loss in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bording Rasmussen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue liraglutide on weight loss in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: In an observational study, 84 overweight or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome were treated with liraglutide. Baseline characteristics and weight changes at clinical follow-up were recorded. Main outcome measures were absolute and relative weight loss.Results: In overweight or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with liraglutide for a minimum of 4 weeks a mean weight loss of 9.0 kg (95% CI: 7.8-10.13, p<0.0001 and a mean decrease in BMI of 3.2 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.8-3.6, p<0.0001 was found. A weight loss of more than 5% and 10% of baseline weight was seen in 81.7% and 32.9% of patients, respectively. The mean duration of treatment with liraglutide was 27.8 weeks (SD 19.2.Conclusion: Treatment with liraglutide in combination with metformin and lifestyle intervention resulted in a significant weight loss in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome, indicating that liraglutide may be an effective alternative for weight loss in this group of patients. However, larger placebo-controlled studies are needed to confirm this.

  8. Association between Weight and Smoking Not Mediated by Weight Loss Attempts or Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2016-01-01

    Youth smoking and obesity may both be mediated by weight control behaviors and experiences of bullying. This study examines associations between smoking and obesity among youth, and explores whether associations are mediated by weight loss attempts or bullying experiences. Data from 24,173 grade 9 to 12 students in the COMPASS study (2012-13) were used to examine the prevalence of self-reported smoking, weight status, attempting to lose weight, and being a victim of bullying. Generalized linear mixed effects models were used to examine correlates of smoking. Among youth, 11% reported currently smoking, 20% were overweight or obese, 42% reported attempting to lose weight, and 18% reported being bullied. Girls who reported attempting to lose weight had higher odds of smoking (OR = 1.42, p = .0039), and students who reported being bullied had higher odds of smoking (OR = 1.85, p weight status. For girls, weight loss attempts were associated with smoking. For both sexes, being bullied was associated with smoking, independent of weight status. Programs attempting to reduce smoking among youth should consider the effects of weight control behaviors and bullying irrespective of weight status.

  9. Organizing a Community "Biggest Loser" Weight Loss Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kirstin D.

    2013-01-01

    The program described here shows how Extension can be a strong collaborative partner in a rural setting in improving the overall health of the community by organizing a three month "Biggest Loser" Weight Loss Challenge. A pre-and post-fitness assessment and bi-weekly weigh-ins were administered. Three healthy lifestyle educational…

  10. Metabolism and Weight Loss: How You Burn Calories

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... energy. During this complex biochemical process, calories in food and beverages are combined with oxygen to release the energy ... Aug. 7, 2017. Obesity for Adults, Prevention and Management of. ... weight loss. Food and Drug Administration. https://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ ...

  11. Effective strategies for weight loss in post-partum women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, S.; O'Reilly, S.; Behrens, H.

    2015-01-01

    Post-partum weight loss is critical to preventing and managing obesity in women, but the results from lifestyle interventions are variable and the components associated with successful outcomes are not yet clearly identified. This study aimed to identify lifestyle intervention strategies associated...

  12. Weight loss in bamboo ( Bambusa vulgaris ) treated with neem seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Split-bamboo samples conditioned to 11.76% moisture content were converted to test specimens for Percentage Weight Loss (PWL) and treated with mechanically extracted neem seed oil at two different treatment temperature regimes by completely soaking a set in oil at ambient room temperature of 25 ± 2oC for 24 hours ...

  13. Weight loss improves biomarkers endothelial function and systemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although postmenopausal associated disorders are important public health problems worldwide, to date limited studies evaluated the endothelial function and systemic inflammation response to weight loss in obese postmenopausal women. Objective: This study was done to evaluate the endothelial function ...

  14. Abnormal eating attitudes and weight-loss behaviour of adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes and weight-loss behaviour in female Jewish adolescents. Teachersf awareness of these factors and their attitudes towards a school programme to address these were also investigated. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted.

  15. Intentional Weight Loss Improved Performance in Obese Ischaemic Heart Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina; Myint, Khin Swe; Heck, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The risk of heart failure (HF) increases with BMI, but paradoxically obesity has been associated with reduced mortality in patients with HF. The effect of intentional or therapeutic weight loss on HF is not well known. We examined the effect of weight loss induced by low energy diet (LED......) on physical performance and cardiovascular risk factors in obese patients with moderate-to-severe HF and/or ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods and Results: Results from two weight loss interventions at two centres, one in Denmark (DK - 12 week intervention in 21 subjects (14 LED, 7 controls)) and one.......1 in the intervention group versus -22.1% ± 25.6 in the control group (P=0.000). Treatment also improved triglycerides (P=0.000), very low lipoprotein (P=0.001) and C-reactive protein (P=0.010). Conclusion: Weight loss induced by LED in obese patients with moderate-to-severe HF or IHD resulted in clinically significant...

  16. A worksite-based weight loss intervention for obesity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worksites are increasingly being used as locations for implementing healthy diet and weight loss interventions. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify programs that are both successful and sustainable. We conducted a 6-month pilot randomized controlled trial in overweight and obese employees a...

  17. Self-Management Patient Education and Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stombaugh, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    Self-management of a disease is defined as "having or being able to obtain, the skills and resources necessary to best accommodate to the chronic disease and its consequences" (Holman & Lorig, 1992, p. 309). Self-management has been used in the management of several chronic conditions and this model may be useful in the management of weight loss.…

  18. Clinical trial experience with fat-restricted vs. carbohydrate-restricted weight-loss diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Samuel

    2004-11-01

    It is unlikely that one diet is optimal for all overweight or obese persons. Both low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets have been shown to induce weight loss and reduce obesity-related comorbidities. Low-carbohydrate diets cause greater short-term (up to 6 months) weight loss than low-fat diets, but the long-term clinical safety and efficacy of these diets has not been studied.

  19. Overweight men's motivations and perceived barriers towards weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, U. N.; Raben, A.

    2007-01-01

    motive for losing weight was a strong desire to become more effective and a greater asset for one's workplace. Overweight subjects were considered less effective and attractive for the labour market. Conclusion: This study indicates that if men from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are to be motivated......Objective: To explore motivation and perceived barriers towards weight loss among Danish men. Design: The study was of an explorative nature, using qualitative focus group interviews as a method. Setting: Copenhagen, Denmark. Subjects: Twenty-two overweight men, at the age of 25-44 years...... and motivated for weight loss, were recruited and distributed into four focus groups. The men were primarily unskilled workers. Overall 13 men participated and each group contained three or four participants. Intervention: The interview guide was partly structured, partly unstructured and the themes...

  20. Arrhythmogenicity of weight-loss supplements marketed on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeri, Alireza; Massumi, Ali; Wilson, James M; Frank, Christopher M; Bensler, Michael; Cheng, Jie; Saeed, Mohammad; Rasekh, Abdi; Razavi, Mehdi

    2009-05-01

    We examined nonprescription weight-loss supplements marketed on the Internet for ingredients with potential arrhythmogenic and life-threatening cardiac adverse effects. We aimed to define the risks of life-threatening cardiac adverse effects that are associated with weight-loss supplements marketed on the Internet. We entered the key words "weight-loss supplements" and "diet pills" into three popular Internet search engines. The top four nonoverlapping hits from each search engine were purchased. After receipt, the products and their ingredient lists were inspected, and Medline and the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database were searched for reports of significant associations between each ingredient and various key words for life-threatening cardiac adverse effects. All supplements had the list of ingredients on the label. We identified 60 different ingredients (7.25 +/- 4.66 per supplement; range 1-21). Eleven ingredients representing eight different substances (because multiple names were used for some substances) were each associated with two or more reports of life-threatening cardiac complications or death. Eight of the 12 products contained one or more such ingredients, but none of these eight products had warnings about life-threatening cardiac adverse effects on the Web pages, on the labels, or in the package inserts. One product contained ma huang (Chinese ephedra), even though the marketing of ephedra-containing products is banned in the United States. The Internet provides easy access to weight-loss supplements, several of which contain ingredients with potentially life-threatening adverse effects. There is a need for increased public education and awareness regarding such weight-loss products.

  1. Reference chart for relative weight change to detect hypernatraemic dehydration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Wouwe, J.P. van; Breuning-Boers, J.M.; Buuren, S. van; Verkerk, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The validity of the rule of thumb that infants may have a weight loss of 10% in the first days after birth is unknown. We assessed the validity of this and other rules to detect breast-fed infants with hypernatraemic dehydration. Design: A reference chart for relative weight change was

  2. Who will lose weight? A reexamination of predictors of weight loss in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to analyze pretreatment predictors of short-term weight loss in Portuguese overweight and obese women involved in a weight management program. Behavioral and psychosocial predictors were selected a priori from previous results reported in American women who participated in a similar program. Methods Subjects were 140 healthy overweight/obese women (age, 38.3 ± 5.9 y; BMI, 30.3 ± 3.7 kg/m2 who participated in a 4-month lifestyle weight loss program consisting of group-based behavior therapy to improve diet and increase physical activity. At baseline, all women completed a comprehensive behavioral and psychosocial battery, in standardized conditions. Results Of all starting participants, 3.5% (5 subjects did not finish the program. By treatment's end, more than half of all women had met the recomended weight loss goals, despite a large variability in individual results (range for weight loss = 19 kg. In bivariate and multivariate correlation/regression analysis fewer previous diets and weight outcome evaluations, and to a lesser extent self-motivation and body image were significant and independent predictors of weight reduction, before and after adjustment for baseline weight. A negative and slightly curvilinear relationship best described the association between outcome evaluations and weight change, revealing that persons with very accepting evaluations (that would accept or be happy with minimal weight change lost the least amount of weight while positive but moderate evaluations of outcomes (i.e., neither low nor extremely demanding were more predictive of success. Among those subjects who reported having initiated more than 3–4 diets in the year before the study, very few were found to be in the most successful group after treatment. Quality of life, self-esteem, and exercise variables did not predict outcomes. Conclusions Several variables were confirmed as predictors of success in short

  3. Taking Orlistat: Predicting Weight Loss over 6 Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Hollywood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the predictors of weight loss following orlistat with a focus on both baseline variables and changes in beliefs and behaviours occurring over the course of taking the drug. Patients (n=566 prescribed orlistat completed a questionnaire at baseline and after 6 months concerning their weight, beliefs and behaviours. By 6 months the majority had lost some weight and showed improvements in diet. Many had also stopped taking the drug and a large minority reported using it flexibly as a lifestyle drug. Those who lost most weight showed a decrease in beliefs in a medical solution, a decrease in unhealthy eating, an increased belief in treatment control and an increased belief that the unpleasant consequences are both due to their eating behaviour and just part of the drug. When taken with fatty food orlistat causes symptoms such as anal leakage and oily stools. These may encourage some patients to focus on the behavioural aspects of their weight problem thus promoting the dietary changes needed for both short and longer term weight loss. When prescribing orlistat, clinicians should encourage patients to see the consequences as an education as a means to promote the effectiveness of this form of medical management.

  4. Weighing every day matters: daily weighing improves weight loss and adoption of weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dori M; Bennett, Gary G; Askew, Sandy; Tate, Deborah F

    2015-04-01

    Daily weighing is emerging as the recommended self-weighing frequency for weight loss. This is likely because it improves adoption of weight control behaviors. To examine whether weighing every day is associated with greater adoption of weight control behaviors compared with less frequent weighing. Longitudinal analysis of a previously conducted 6-month randomized controlled trial. Overweight men and women in Chapel Hill, NC, participated in the intervention arm (N=47). The intervention focused on daily weighing for weight loss using an e-scale that transmitted weights to a study website, along with weekly e-mailed lessons and tailored feedback on daily weighing adherence and weight loss progress. We gathered objective data on self-weighing frequency from the e-scales. At baseline and 6 months, weight change was measured in the clinic and weight control behaviors (total items=37), dietary strategies, and calorie expenditure from physical activity were assessed via questionnaires. Calorie intake was assessed using an online 24-hour recall tool. We used χ(2) tests to examine variation in discrete weight control behaviors and linear regression models to examine differences in weight, dietary strategies, and calorie intake and expenditure by self-weighing frequency. Fifty-one percent of participants weighed every day (n=24) over 6 months. The average self-weighing frequency among those weighing less than daily (n=23) was 5.4±1.2 days per week. Daily weighers lost significantly more weight compared with those weighing less than daily (mean difference=-6.1 kg; 95% CI -10.2 to -2.1; P=0.004). The total number of weight control behaviors adopted was greater among daily weighers (17.6±7.6 vs 11.2±6.4; P=0.004). There were no differences by self-weighing frequency in dietary strategies, calorie intake, or calorie expenditure. Weighing every day led to greater adoption of weight control behaviors and produced greater weight loss compared with weighing most days of the

  5. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health…

  6. Early weight loss while on lorcaserin, diet, and exercise as a predictor of week 52 weight-loss outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Steven R; O'Neil, Patrick M; Astrup, Arne

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify an early treatment milestone that optimizes sensitivity and specificity for predicting ≥5% weight loss at Week (W) 52 in patients with and without type 2 diabetes on lorcaserin or placebo. METHODS: Post hoc area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic analyses...

  7. Clozapine-induced dysphagia with secondary substantial weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mugtaba; Devadas, Vekneswaran

    2016-08-19

    Dysphagia is listed as a 'rare' side effect following clozapine treatment. In this case report, we describe how significant clozapine-induced dysphagia has led to significant reduction of nutritional intake with subsequent substantial weight loss. An 18-year-old single man with an established diagnosis of treatment-resistant paranoid schizophrenia recovered well on a therapeutic dose of clozapine. However, he was noted to lose weight significantly (up to 20% of his original weight) as the dose was uptitrated. This was brought about by development of dysphagia, likely to be due to clozapine. Addition of nutritional supplementary liquids and initiation of a modified behavioural dietary/swallowing programme, while repeatedly mastering the Mendelsohn manoeuvre technique, alleviated the swallowing difficulties and restored his weight. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Effects of manipulating eating frequency during a behavioral weight loss intervention: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Jessica L; Raynor, Hollie A

    2012-05-01

    Eating frequency has been inversely related to BMI but the impact of eating frequency on weight loss is unclear. This randomized controlled trial pilot study examined the effect of eating frequency on hunger, energy intake, and weight loss during a 6-month behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants (age: 51.0 ± 9.9 years, BMI: 35.5 ± 4.8 kg/m(2), 57.8% female, 94.1% white) were randomized to one of two eating frequency prescriptions: Three meal (n = 25): three eating bouts/day; or grazing (n = 26): eat at least 100 kcals every 2-3 h. Both groups attended 20 sessions and had identical dietary (1,200-1,500 kcals/day, frequency than three meal at 6 months (5.8 ± 1.1 eating bouts/day vs. 3.2 ± 0.6 eating bouts/day, P weight loss intervention.

  9. Weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile Diabetes Prevention Program delivery platform with human coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Andreas; Raby, Christine; Wood, Meghan; Farr, Kit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile platform delivering the Diabetes Prevention Program. Research Design and Methods 43 overweight or obese adult participants with a diagnosis of prediabetes signed-up to receive a 24-week virtual Diabetes Prevention Program with human coaching, through a mobile platform. Weight loss and engagement were the main outcomes, evaluated by repeated measures analysis of variance, backward regression, and mediation regression. Results Weight loss at 16 and 24 weeks was significant, with 56% of starters and 64% of completers losing over 5% body weight. Mean weight loss at 24 weeks was 6.58% in starters and 7.5% in completers. Participants were highly engaged, with 84% of the sample completing 9 lessons or more. In-app actions related to self-monitoring significantly predicted weight loss. Conclusions Our findings support the effectiveness of a uniquely mobile prediabetes intervention, producing weight loss comparable to studies with high engagement, with potential for scalable population health management. PMID:27651911

  10. Weight loss in patients receiving radical radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, C.A.; Keane, T.J.; Prudo, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-one patients receiving radiation therapy for localized cancer of the head and neck areas were systematically assessed before, during, and after treatment. The pathogenesis of weight loss and its association with treatment morbidity and other determinants were sought. The serial data collected consisted of a food frequency questionnaire based on Canada's Food Guide, anthropometric measurements, 10 Linear Analogue Self Assessment questions on morbidity, and biochemical and hematological indices. Twenty of 31 patients (68%) lost over 5% of their presenting weight within one month after completing treatment. The mean weight loss was 10% and the range of weight loss in this group was 5.4 to 18.9%. Pretreatment dietary habits, serum albumin, absolute lymphocyte count, serum creatinine, creatinine height index, and anthropometric measurements did not predict for weight loss. However, weight loss can be predicted on the basis of field size and site irradiated. Treatment-related morbidity involving dysguesia, xerostomia, dysphagia of solids, and mouth pain was greater and of longer duration in patients with weight loss. The sequence of development of these symptoms during treatment and their duration provide a rational basis for the timing and methods of nutritional intervention in this patient population

  11. Skipping meals and alcohol consumption. The regulation of energy intake and expenditure among weight loss participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carels, Robert A; Young, Kathleen M; Coit, Carissa; Clayton, Anna Marie; Spencer, Alexis; Wagner, Marissa

    2008-11-01

    Research suggests that specific eating patterns (e.g., eating breakfast) may be related to favorable weight status. This investigation examined the relationship between eating patterns (i.e., skipping meals; consuming alcohol) and weight loss treatment outcomes (weight loss, energy intake, energy expenditure, and duration of exercise). Fifty-four overweight or obese adults (BMI> or =27 kg/m(2)) participated in a self-help or therapist-assisted weight loss program. Daily energy intake from breakfast, lunch, dinner, and alcoholic beverages, total daily energy intake, total daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weekly weight loss were assessed. On days that breakfast or dinner was skipped, or alcoholic beverages were not consumed, less total daily energy was consumed compared to days that breakfast, dinner, or alcoholic beverages were consumed. On days that breakfast or alcohol was consumed, daily energy expenditure (breakfast only) and duration of exercise were higher compared to days that breakfast or alcohol was not consumed. Individuals who skipped dinner or lunch more often had lower energy expenditure and exercise duration than individuals who skipped dinner or lunch less often. Individuals who consumed alcohol more often had high daily energy expenditure than individuals who consumed alcohol less often. Skipping meals or consuming alcoholic beverages was not associated with weekly weight loss. In this investigation, weight loss program participants may have compensated for excess energy intake from alcoholic beverages and meals with greater daily energy expenditure and longer exercise duration.

  12. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G. Engel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL, high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (<90% DRI in B1, D, E, calcium, magnesium and potassium. The EDH diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets.

  13. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Kern, Hua; Brenna, J. Thomas; H. Mitmesser, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet (n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B12, B3, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (diet met >90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets. PMID:29361684

  14. Micronutrient Gaps in Three Commercial Weight-Loss Diet Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G Engel, Matthew; J Kern, Hua; Brenna, J Thomas; H Mitmesser, Susan

    2018-01-20

    Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated. Seven single-day menus were sampled per diet ( n = 21 menus, 7 menus/diet) and analyzed for 20 micronutrients with the online nutrient tracker CRON-O-Meter. Without adjustment for energy intake, the ETL-VAWL diet failed to provide 90% of recommended amounts for B 12 , B₃, D, E, calcium, selenium and zinc. The FMD diet was low (90% DRIs for all but vitamin D, calcium and potassium. Several micronutrients remained inadequate after adjustment to 2000 kcal/day: vitamin B 12 in ETL-VAWL, calcium in FMD and EDH and vitamin D in all diets. Consistent with previous work, micronutrient deficits are prevalent in weight-loss diet plans. Special attention to micronutrient rich foods is required to reduce risk of micronutrient deficiency in design of commercial diets.

  15. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton EF

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth F Sutton, Leanne M Redman Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA Abstract: The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or “apps” along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to “self-digitize” and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials. Keywords: smartphone, mobile phone, application, app, weight, weight loss, weight maintenance

  16. Innovation in weight loss programs: a 3-dimensional virtual-world approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Jeanne D; Massey, Anne P; Devaneaux, Celeste A

    2012-09-20

    The rising trend in obesity calls for innovative weight loss programs. While behavioral-based face-to-face programs have proven to be the most effective, they are expensive and often inaccessible. Internet or Web-based weight loss programs have expanded reach but may lack qualities critical to weight loss and maintenance such as human interaction, social support, and engagement. In contrast to Web technologies, virtual reality technologies offer unique affordances as a behavioral intervention by directly supporting engagement and active learning. To explore the effectiveness of a virtual-world weight loss program relative to weight loss and behavior change. We collected data from overweight people (N = 54) participating in a face-to-face or a virtual-world weight loss program. Weight, body mass index (BMI), percentage weight change, and health behaviors (ie, weight loss self-efficacy, physical activity self-efficacy, self-reported physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption) were assessed before and after the 12-week program. Repeated measures analysis was used to detect differences between groups and across time. A total of 54 participants with a BMI of 32 (SD 6.05) kg/m(2)enrolled in the study, with a 13% dropout rate for each group (virtual world group: 5/38; face-to-face group: 3/24). Both groups lost a significant amount of weight (virtual world: 3.9 kg, P virtual-world group lost an average of 4.2%, with 33% (11/33) of the participants losing a clinically significant (≥5%) amount of baseline weight. The face-to-face group lost an average of 3.0% of their baseline weight, with 29% (6/21) losing a clinically significant amount. We detected a significant group × time interaction for moderate (P = .006) and vigorous physical activity (P = .008), physical activity self-efficacy (P = .04), fruit and vegetable consumption (P = .007), and weight loss self-efficacy (P virtual-world group. Overall, these results offer positive early evidence that a

  17. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina R W; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D

    2016-01-01

    compared with the effect of simple energy restriction. DESIGN: A total of 60 healthy, overweight, premenopausal women were included in a 6-mo weight-loss program in which each subject consumed a diet of 1600 kcal/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a combined diet and exercise program...... that was tailored to metabolic changes of the menstrual cycle (Menstralean) or to undergo simple energy restriction (control). RESULTS: Thirty-one women (19 Menstralean and 12 control women) completed the study [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 32.0 ± 5.2]. Both groups lost weight during the study....... CONCLUSION: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...

  18. Weight loss experiences of obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei-Chen; Lin, Hung-Ru; Chu, Nain-Feng; Huang, Chih-Hsung; Tsao, Lee-Ing

    2015-07-01

    To develop a descriptive theory for the weight loss experiences of obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Obesity and metabolic syndrome both pose a threat to the health of perimenopausal women; therefore, understanding perimenopausal women's subjective feelings and experiences is beneficial to establishing effective prevention strategies. However, studies have rarely explored these relevant experiences. A qualitative study using the grounded theory method to establish a descriptive theory. Eighteen obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome aged 45-60 years participated in comprehensive interviews. 'Crossing the gaps to making life modifications' was the core category, and 'the awareness of weight gain and health alarm' was the antecedent condition. In the weight loss experience, the following three interaction categories were identified: (1) 'experiencing bad feelings,' (2) 'encountering obstacles' and (3) 'making efforts to transition to a new life.' Some women adhered to new life habits through perceiving social support and by using self-incentives. Finally, women enjoyed and mastered self-monitoring of their health in their new life, and practiced new changes as part of their life. However, some participants felt that making changes to their life was too time-consuming. Therefore, these women chose to live with their abnormal health without making changes. Obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome experienced various gaps in their weight loss process. Although they struggled with many obstacles, these women were able to learn from their experiences and face their health challenges. These findings can guide healthcare professionals to provide appropriate interventions to understand the hidden health problems of this particular group of women. Healthcare professionals should develop a set of plans by which women receive a complete weight loss program and support from professionals and family. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Lauren

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  20. Behaviours associated with weight loss maintenance and regaining in a Mediterranean population sample. A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karfopoulou, E; Mouliou, K; Koutras, Y; Yannakoulia, M

    2013-10-01

    In the US, the National Weight Control Registry revealed lifestyle behaviours shared by weight loss maintainers. In the US and the UK, qualitative studies compared the experiences of weight loss maintainers and regainers. High rates of physical activity, a low-energy/low-fat diet, weight self-monitoring, breakfast consumption and flexible control of eating are well-established maintenance behaviours. The Mediterranean lifestyle has not been studied relative to weight loss maintenance. This study focused on a sample of Greek maintainers and regainers. Maintainers emphasized home-cooked meals; their diet does not appear to be low-fat, as home-cooked Greek meals are rich in olive oil. Having a small dinner is a common strategy among maintainers. Health motives were not mentioned by maintainers. Maintainers, but not regainers, appeared to compensate for emotional eating. Weight loss maintenance is imperative to successful obesity treatment. We qualitatively explored lifestyle behaviours associated with weight regulation, in a sample of Greek volunteers who had lost weight and either maintained or regained it. A 10% intentional loss maintained for at least one year was considered successful maintenance. Volunteers (n = 44, 41% men) formed eight focus groups, four of maintainers and four of regainers. Questions regarded weight loss, weight maintenance or regaining, and beliefs on weight maintenance and regaining. All discussions were tape recorded. Maintainers lost weight on their own, whereas regainers sought professional help. Maintainers exercised during both the loss and maintenance phases, whereas regainers showed inconsistent physical activity levels. Health motives for weight loss were mentioned only by regainers. Emotional eating was a common barrier, but only maintainers compensated for it. Maintainers continuously applied specific strategies to maintain their weight: emphasizing home-cooked meals, high eating frequency, a small dinner, portion size

  1. Motivations for Weight Loss Among Active Duty Military Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclin-Akinyemi, Courtney; Krukowski, Rebecca A; Kocak, Mehmet; Talcott, G Wayne; Beauvais, Alexis; Klesges, Robert C

    2017-09-01

    Rates of overweight and obesity among Active Duty Military Personnel remain high despite fitness test requirements, negative consequences of fitness test failure, and emphasis on weight and appearance standards. Specific motivating factors for weight loss influence weight loss program interest and often differ by gender, race, ethnicity, or age. This study investigates the weight loss motivations endorsed by a diverse population of Active Duty Military Personnel initiating a behavioral weight loss study, to inform the development of future recruitment efforts and program development. Active Duty Military Personnel (n = 248) completed a 16-item questionnaire of weight loss motivations before initiating a behavioral weight loss study. We evaluated endorsement patterns by demographic characteristics (body mass index [BMI], gender, race, ethnicity, age, and military rank). Data collection for this study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgical Center and acknowledged by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Tennessee Health Science Center. Results indicated that improved physical health, improved fitness, improved quality of life, and to live long were endorsed as "very important" motivations by at least three-fourths of the sample. "To pass the fitness test" was endorsed less frequently as a "very important" motivation, by 69% of the sample. A greater proportion of women as compared to men endorsed being very motivated by improving mood/well-being, quality of life, physical mobility, job performance, appearance, and sex life, as well as fitting into clothes. Participants categorized in the "Other" racial group and African Americans more frequently endorsed motivations to improve fitness and physical strength when compared to Caucasians. Moreover, participants in the "Other" race category were significantly more likely to rate their ability to physically defend themselves, improve physical mobility, and improve

  2. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saverio Bersani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications.

  3. Hepatic effects of dietary weight loss in morbidly obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C; Franzmann, Magnus

    1991-01-01

    = 0.026). Liver biochemistry, which was of no individual diagnostic value, improved. It is concluded that morbidly obese subjects with a high degree of hepatic fatty change are at risk of developing portal inflammation and fibrosis when undergoing very fast dietary weight reductions.......This prospective study was carried out in order to evaluate the influence on liver morphology and function of a very-low-calorie formula diet. Fourty-one morbidly obese, non-alcoholic subjects had liver biopsy performed before and after a median weight loss of 34 kg. Fatty change improved (p less...

  4. The applicability of a weight loss grading system in cancer cachexia: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagnildhaug, Ola Magne; Blum, David; Wilcock, Andrew; Fayers, Peter; Strasser, Florian; Baracos, Vickie E; Hjermstad, Marianne J; Kaasa, Stein; Laird, Barry; Solheim, Tora S

    2017-10-01

    A body mass index (BMI) adjusted weight loss grading system (WLGS) is related to survival in patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of the WLGS by confirming its prognostic validity, evaluating its relationship to cachexia domains, and exploring its ability to predict cachexia progression. An international, prospective observational study of patients with incurable cancer was conducted. For each patient, weight loss grade was scored 0-4. Weight loss grade 0 represents a high BMI with limited weight loss, progressing through to weight loss grade 4 representing low BMI and a high degree of weight loss. Survival analyses were used to confirm prognostic validity. Analyses of variance were used to evaluate the relationship between the WLGS and cachexia domains [anorexia, dietary intake, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), and physical and emotional functioning]. Cox regression was used to evaluate if the addition of cachexia domains to the WLGS improved prognostic accuracy. Predictive ability of cachexia progression was assessed by estimating proportion of patients progressing to a more advanced weight loss grade. One thousand four hundred six patients were analysed (median age 66 years; 50% female, 63% KPS ≤ 70). The overall effect of the WLGS on survival was significant as expressed by change in -2 log likelihood (P cachexia domains significantly deteriorated with increasing weight loss grade, and deterioration was greatest for dietary intake, with a difference corresponding to 0.87 standard deviations between weight loss grades 0 and 4. The addition of KPS, anorexia, and physical and emotional functioning improved the prognostic accuracy of the WLGS. Likelihood of cachexia progression was greater in patients with weight loss grade 2 (39%) than that with weight loss grade 0 (19%) or 1 (22%). The WLGS is related to survival, cachexia domains, and the likelihood of progression. Adding certain cachexia domains to the WLGS

  5. Health risks, past usage, and intention to use weight loss products in normal weight women with high and low body dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenhunt, B L; Williamson, D A; Netemeyer, R G; Andrews, C

    2003-06-01

    There are many health risks involved with the use of weight loss products by normal weight women. The mass media may compound this problem through the promotion of weight loss products and a thin body size. This study tested women's perceptions of different weight loss product ads to determine if body dysphoria (i.e., an over concern with body size and shape in normal weight people) was associated with risk beliefs, past behaviors, and intention toward using weight loss products. Normal weight women (age range = 18-41 yr), who were classified as either high (n=45) or low (n=43) on a measure of body dysphoria, rated different weight loss products according to their perception of health risks, past behavior, and their intention to consume the products. These products were a dietary fat substitute (olestra), a prescription obesity medication (sibutramine), and an over-the-counter appetite suppressant (phenylpropanolamine). High body dysphoric women reported higher intentions to use the products as well as increased prior use of two of the three weight loss products. High body dysphoric women did not believe that these weight loss products were harmless. They recognized potential health risks associated with using such products, but nonetheless, expressed intention to use these weight loss products at a higher frequency. Also, several variables related to body image were found to effectively discriminate normal weight women at risk for abusing weight loss products. This study found that women who do not need to lose weight but have significant body image concerns were willing to use potentially harmful weight loss products despite the knowledge that such products might pose significant health risks. Techniques utilized by advertising regulatory agencies such as warning labels did not have a strong deterrent effect for stated intentions to use the products. Implications of these findings for public health policy issues were discussed.

  6. [A teenager presenting with vomiting, general malaise and weight loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, M E; Visser, R; van Vliet, W; Wielders, J P; Hogeman, P H

    2004-02-28

    A 16-year-old girl had symptoms of vomiting, malaise and weight loss for two months. Blood tests revealed an elevated activity of liver enzymes and hyperthyroidism. Although the patient at first denied the possibility of pregnancy, a pregnancy was subsequently confirmed. Hyperemesis gravidarum was diagnosed based on the combination of the clinical symptoms, pregnancy and increased serum human chorionic gonadotrophin and oestradiol. Hyperemesis gravidarum also explained the demonstrated biochemical hyperthyroidism and elevated liver enzyme levels. Rapid alleviation of all the clinical symptoms was seen after termination of this unwanted pregnancy. Although vomiting, malaise and weight loss in children can have many different causes, in girls at a sexually mature age a pregnancy with possible hyperemesis gravidarum should certainly also be considered and a gynaecological examination performed.

  7. Mindfulness as a Weight Loss Treatment for Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vicente Stanton

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness in treating disordered eating and obesity, mindfulness-based treatments have not been broadly implemented among Veterans. A number of reviews have reported mindfulness to be beneficial in promoting healthy eating behaviors and weight loss among non-Veteran samples. We discuss this approach in the context of the Veterans Affairs system, the largest integrated healthcare provider in the United States and in the context of Veterans, among whom obesity is at epidemic proportions. In this article, we discuss what is known about treating obesity using a mindfulness approach, mindfulness interventions for Veterans, a new pilot mindfulness-based weight loss program designed for Veterans, and future directions for this type of obesity treatment in Veterans. We conclude that this population may be uniquely poised to benefit from mindfulness-based treatments.

  8. Mindfulness as a Weight Loss Treatment for Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael V; Matsuura, Justin; Fairchild, Jennifer Kaci; Lohnberg, Jessica A; Bayley, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness in treating disordered eating and obesity, mindfulness-based treatments have not been broadly implemented among Veterans. A number of reviews have reported mindfulness to be beneficial in promoting healthy eating behaviors and weight loss among non-Veteran samples. We discuss this approach in the context of the Veterans Affairs system, the largest integrated healthcare provider in the U.S. and in the context of Veterans, among whom obesity is at epidemic proportions. In this article, we discuss what is known about treating obesity using a mindfulness approach, mindfulness interventions for Veterans, a new pilot mindfulness-based weight loss program designed for Veterans, and future directions for this type of obesity treatment in Veterans. We conclude that this population may be uniquely poised to benefit from mindfulness-based treatments.

  9. Strategies, barriers, and motivation for weight loss among veterans living with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Viverito, Kristen M; Medoff, Deborah R; Hoffmann, Rebecca M; Goldberg, Richard W

    2014-12-01

    Weight loss programs for veterans living with schizophrenia have demonstrated mixed efficacy, highlighting unique obstacles faced by this population. Data from a large national sample provide an opportunity to characterize the unique factors related to weight loss for veterans with schizophrenia. The present study compared veterans living with schizophrenia (n = 5,388) to veterans with no mental health diagnoses (n = 81,422) on responses to the MOVE!23, a multidimensional assessment of factors related to weight management. Responses to the MOVE!23 between August, 2005 and May, 2013 by veterans with a body mass index in the overweight or obese range were used to describe clinical characteristics, current strategies, perceived barriers, stages of readiness, and importance of and confidence to change behaviors related to their weight management. Both groups reported similar stages of readiness and high ratings of importance and confidence regarding weight loss behaviors. Compared with veterans with no mental health diagnoses, over 5 times as many veterans living with schizophrenia reported smoking to control weight, and a greater number endorsed 18 of the 21 barriers to modifying eating and physical activity. RESULTS highlight the necessity of addressing healthy lifestyles from a holistic perspective for all veterans. Adding regular physical activity as part of daily treatment may address the accessibility, safety concerns, and lack of social support reported as physical activity barriers. Increased access to healthier food choices and addressing smoking in conjunction with weight loss are also warranted. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Weight loss decreases self-reported appetite and alters food preferences in overweight and obese adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, Charlotte; Christensen, Pia; Vestergaard Nielsen, Lone; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Meinert Larsen, Thomas; Martinez, J.A.; Saris, Wim H.M.; Baak, van Marleen A.; Papadaki, Angeliki; Kunesova, Marie; Jebb, Susan; Blundell, John; Lawton, Clare; Raben, Anne

    2018-01-01

    People with obesity often struggle to maintain their weight loss after a weight loss period. Furthermore, the effect of weight loss on appetite and food preferences remains unclear. Hence this study investigated the effect of weight loss on subjective appetite and food preferences in healthy,

  11. Postprandial coagulation activation in overweight individuals after weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia

    2014-01-01

    . This was tested in a parallel intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28.4 (SD 4.7) years) randomly assigned to a MUFA-diet (35-45% of energy as fat; >20% as MUFA, n=21) or a low-fat (LF) diet (20-30% of energy as fat, n=22) for 6months after a weight loss of ~10%. All foods were provided free...

  12. Body image concerns amongst massive weight loss patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo

    2013-05-01

    To explore body image matters amongst patients following massive weight loss. In contemporary health care, a growing number of morbidly obese patients are seeking surgical solutions such as bariatric surgery or in other cases engaging with radical lifestyle changes. Massive weight loss can leave patients with a huge excess of lax overstretched skin that in some cases can trigger major body image dissatisfaction or depression. There is a scarcity of research about the needs of this group of patients and this is important for nursing practice. A qualitative design using in-depth interviews was employed. Twenty white adults (18 women and two men) were recruited retrospectively amongst patients who had massive weight loss by undergoing bariatric surgery or radical lifestyle changes, aged 29-63 years. All of the participants gave signed informed consent. Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. One core theme focusing on body image ugliness and three associated subthemes were identified: the subthemes included feeling socially marginalised, feeling depressed and sexual and intimacy difficulties. Body image matters are hugely significant and appear to have a lasting effect on emotional well-being and function, contributing to psychological distress and social isolation. Greater sensitivity is required in enabling patients to work through emotional isolation and shame that has been a part of their childhood. Furthermore more, treatments need to be accessible to this growing patient population such as reconstructive surgery. Nurses who care for massive weight loss patients need to be mindful of their psychodynamic needs and be non-judgemental and accepting. Moreover, nurses need to be aware of treatment options and be able to assess body image matters and implement quality care for this particular patient group including body image acceptance programmes and support groups. © 2013 Blackwell

  13. Weight loss expectations and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siervo, M; Montagnese, C; Muscariello, E; Evans, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Papa, A; Iannetti, E; Colantuoni, A

    2014-04-01

    Unrealistic weight loss expectations (WLEs) and greater body dissatisfaction may be associated with the poor long-term outcomes of dietary and lifestyle weight loss treatments. We evaluated the association between body size, WLEs and body dissatisfaction in young women attempting to lose weight. Forty-four young healthy women [age range 18-35 years, body mass index (BMI) range 23-40 kg/m2] were recruited. Women were classified as obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI social (career, family acceptance, peer acceptance, mass media, social pressure) factors. Individual WLEs were compared with recommended clinical targets (5%, 10% and 20%) for weight loss. Body dissatisfaction was lower in non-obese subjects and was directly associated with BMI (P media, whereas they perceived that family and friends were supportive of a lesser degree of weight loss. We observed a mismatch between clinical and personal expectations, and social pressure and interpersonal relationships appear to have a prominent role with respect to influencing the association. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Randomization to a low-carbohydrate diet advice improves health related quality of life compared with a low-fat diet at similar weight-loss in Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldbrand, H; Lindström, T; Dizdar, B; Bunjaku, B; Östgren, C J; Nystrom, F H; Bachrach-Lindström, M

    2014-11-01

    To compare the effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of a 2-year intervention with a low-fat diet (LFD) or a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) based on four group-meetings to achieve compliance. To describe different aspects of taking part in the intervention following the LFD or LCD. Prospective, randomized trial of 61 adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. The SF-36 questionnaire was used at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. Patients on LFD aimed for 55-60 energy percent (E%) and those on LCD for 20 E% from carbohydrates. The patients were interviewed about their experiences of the intervention. Mean body-mass-index was 32.7 ± 5.4 kg/m(2) at baseline. Weight-loss did not differ between groups and was maximal at 6 months, LFD: -3.99 ± 4.1 kg, LCD: -4.31 ± 3.6 kg (p<0.001 within groups). There was an increase in the physical component score of SF-36 from 44.1 (10.0) to 46.7 (10.5) at 12 months in the LCD group (p < 0.009) while no change occurred in the LFD group (p < 0.03 between groups). At 12 months the physical function, bodily pain and general health scores improved within the LCD group (p values 0.042-0.009) while there was no change within the LFD group. Weight-changes did not differ between the diet groups while improvements in HRQoL only occurred after one year during treatment with LCD. No changes of HRQoL occurred in the LFD group in spite of a similar reduction in body weight. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Daily pattern of energy distribution and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Li, Fan; Cardoso, Chelsi

    2018-08-01

    Timing of energy intake, a temporal dietary pattern, may enhance health. Eating a greater amount of energy earlier and a smaller amount of energy later in the day, a behavioral circadian rhythm, may assist with chronoenhancement. Chronoenhancement seeks to enhance entrainment (synchronization) of biological and behavioral circadian rhythms. In humans, research reports that eating a greater amount of energy early and a smaller amount of energy later in the day increases dietary induced thermogenesis, improves cardiometabolic outcomes, and enhances weight loss. However, little human research has examined if this eating pattern enhances regularity of biological circadian rhythm. In a randomized controlled 8-week pilot study, the influence of energy distribution timing on weight loss and regularity of sleep onset and wake times (marker for biological circadian rhythm) was examined. Within an hypocaloric, three-meal prescription, participants (n = 8) were assigned to either: 1) Morning: 50%, 30%, and 20% of kcal at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively; or 2) Evening: 20%, 30%, and 50% of kcal at breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively. Percent weight loss and regularity of sleep onset and wake times were significantly (p energy distribution timing on health, longer studies conducted in free-living participants, with dietary intake assessed using time-stamped methods, that include measures of the circadian timing system are needed. This small review is based upon a symposium presentation at the Society of the Study of Ingestive Behavior in 2017. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Herbal Weight Loss Pill Overdose: Sibutramine Hidden in Pepper Pill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Pamukcu Gunaydin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supposedly herbal weight loss pills are sold online and are widely used in the world. Some of these products are found to contain sibutramine by FDA and their sale is prohibited. We report a case of a female patient who presented to the emergency department after taking slimming pills. 17-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with palpitations, dizziness, anxiety, and insomnia. She stated that she had taken 3 pills named La Jiao Shou Shen for slimming purposes during the day. Her vital signs revealed tachycardia. On her physical examination, she was restless, her oropharynx was dry, her pupils were mydriatic, and no other pathological findings were found. Sibutramine intoxication was suspected. She was given 5 mg IV diazepam for restlessness. After supportive therapy and observation in emergency department for 12 hours there were no complications and the patient was discharged home. Some herbal pills that are sold online for weight loss have sibutramine hidden as an active ingredient, and their sale is prohibited for this reason. For people who use herbal weight loss drugs, sibutramine excessive intake should be kept in mind at all times.

  17. Weight Loss after Sleeve Gastrectomy in Super Superobesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Catheline

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This prospective study evaluated laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for its safety and efficiency in excess weight loss (%EWL in super superobese patients (BMI >60 Kg/m2. Results. Thirty patients (33 women and 7 men were included, with mean age of 35 years (range 18 to 59. Mean preoperative BMI was 66 Kg/m2 (range 60 to 85. The study included one patient with complete situs inversus and 4 (14% with previous restrictive gastric banding. The mean operative time was 120 minutes (range 80 to 220 min and the mean hospital stay was 7.5 days (4 to 28 days. There was no postoperative mortality or need for a laparotomy conversion. Two subphrenic hematomas, one gastric fistula, and one pulmonary embolism, were the major complications. After 18 months 17 (77% had sufficient weight loss and six had insufficient results, leading to either re-sleeve gastrectomy (3, or gastric bypass (2. Three years after the initial laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, the mean EWL was 51% (range 21 to 82. Conclusion. The laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a safe and efficient operating procedure for treating super superobesity. In the case of insufficient weight loss, a second-stage operation like resleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass can be proposed.

  18. Relationships between depression, gender, and unhealthy weight loss practices among overweight or obese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, E P; Kolodziejczyk, J K; Norman, G J; Calfas, K; Huang, J S; Rock, C L; Griswold, W; Fowler, J H; Marshall, S J; Gupta, A; Patrick, K

    2014-04-01

    Unhealthy weight loss practices are common among female college students. It is unknown if these practices are also most common among women in the subset of overweight or obese college students or if these practices are related to depression. We examined the relationship between gender, depression, and unhealthy weight loss practices among overweight or obese college students. Students (body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9 kg/m(2)) from three Southern California universities (M(age) = 22 years, SD = 4; 70% women) were recruited from May 2011 to May 2012 for participation in a weight loss clinical trial (N = 404). Logistic regressions were performed with baseline data to assess the cross-sectional relationship between self-reported unhealthy weight loss practices and gender and depression as measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression short form. Twenty-nine percent of participants reported engaging in at least one unhealthy weight loss behavior (e.g., fasting, purging) over the last 30 days, with no differences by gender. Self-report of at least one unhealthy weight loss behavior was associated with report of symptoms of depression (e(B) = 1.14 [confidence interval, CI: 1.08-1.20]), adjusting for potential confounders. Interactions between gender and depression were not significant (e(B) = 1.04 [CI: 0.93-1.16]). Among an overweight or obese sample of college students, unhealthy weight loss practices were equally common in both genders, and students with depressive symptomatology were at greatest risk. Obesity interventions targeting overweight or obese college students should educate both men and women about the dangers of unhealthy weight loss practices. In addition, screening for depression can help identify students who would benefit from additional supportive and coping strategies and resources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Calorie Estimation in Adults Differing in Body Weight Class and Weight Loss Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ruth E; Canning, Karissa L; Fung, Michael; Jiandani, Dishay; Riddell, Michael C; Macpherson, Alison K; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    Ability to accurately estimate calories is important for weight management, yet few studies have investigated whether individuals can accurately estimate calories during exercise or in a meal. The objective of this study was to determine if accuracy of estimation of moderate or vigorous exercise energy expenditure and calories in food is associated with body weight class or weight loss status. Fifty-eight adults who were either normal weight (NW) or overweight (OW), and either attempting (WL) or not attempting weight loss (noWL), exercised on a treadmill at a moderate (60% HRmax) and a vigorous intensity (75% HRmax) for 25 min. Subsequently, participants estimated the number of calories they expended through exercise and created a meal that they believed to be calorically equivalent to the exercise energy expenditure. The mean difference between estimated and measured calories in exercise and food did not differ within or between groups after moderate exercise. After vigorous exercise, OW-noWL overestimated energy expenditure by 72% and overestimated the calories in their food by 37% (P food compared with both WL groups (P food. There was a wide range of underestimation and overestimation of calories during exercise and in a meal. Error in calorie estimation may be greater in overweight adults who are not attempting weight loss.

  20. The Impact of Impulsivity on Weight Loss Four Years after Bariatric Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Schag

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bariatric surgery has serious implications on metabolic health. The reasons for a failure of bariatric surgery, i.e., limited weight loss, are multifactorial and include psychological factors. We established a theoretical model of how impulsivity is related to weight loss outcome. We propose that depressive symptoms act as a mediator between impulsivity and pathological eating behavior, and that pathological eating behavior has a direct impact on weight loss outcome. We calculated excessive weight loss (%EWL and assessed self-reported impulsivity (using the Baratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15 total score, depressive symptoms (the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9 score, and pathological eating behavior (the Eating Disorder Inventory 2 (EDI-2 total score in 65 patients four years after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Regression and mediation analyses were computed to validate the theoretical model. The BIS-15, PHQ-9, and EDI-2 have medium to high correlations between each other, and EDI-2 correlated with %EWL. The mediation analysis yielded that the PHQ-9 represents a significant mediator between BIS-15 and EDI-2. The regression model between EDI-2 and %EWL was also significant. These results support our theoretical model, i.e., suggest that impulsivity has an indirect impact on weight loss outcome after bariatric surgery, mediated by depression and transferred through pathological eating behavior. Thus, the underlying psychological factors should be addressed in post-operative care to optimize weight loss outcome.

  1. Features Predicting Weight Loss in Overweight or Obese Participants in a Web-Based Intervention: Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Brindal, Emily; Freyne, Jill; Saunders, Ian; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Smith, Greg; Noakes, Manny

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity remains a serious issue in many countries. Web-based programs offer good potential for delivery of weight loss programs. Yet, many Internet-delivered weight loss studies include support from medical or nutritional experts, and relatively little is known about purely web-based weight loss programs. Objective To determine whether supportive features and personalization in a 12-week web-based lifestyle intervention with no in-person professional contact affect retention and we...

  2. Metabolic syndrome, circulating RBP4, testosterone, and SHBG predict weight regain at 6 months after weight loss in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Menheere, Paul P C A; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Weight loss helps reduce the symptoms of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the obese, but weight regain after active weight loss is common. We investigated the changes and predictive role of circulating adipokines and sex hormones for weight regain in men during dietary intervention...

  3. The self-protective nature of implicit identity and its relationship to weight bias and short-term weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carels, Robert A; Hinman, Nova; Koball, Afton; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Gumble, Amanda; Young, Kathleen M

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that making overly positive self-evaluations is the norm rather than the exception. However, unlike other stigmatized groups, overweight individuals do not exhibit a positive in-group social identity and instead exhibit significant explicit, implicit, and internalized weight bias. Therefore, it is not known whether overweight/obese individuals will evidence self-enhancement on general traits (good, attractive), or on traits inconsistent with fat stereotypes (disciplined, active, healthy eater), on an assessment of implicit attitudes. Similarly, it is not known whether these ratings will be associated with preexisting levels of weight bias, gender, or short-term weight loss. At baseline, 53 overweight/obese adults (BMI > 27 kg/m(2), mean BMI = 37.3 kg/m(2), SD = 6.6 kg/m(2), 89% Caucasian, and 77% female) participating in a weight loss intervention completed measures of explicit and internalized weight bias as well as implicit weight bias and identity (self-other comparisons). Although participants evidenced significant anti-fat attitudes, they implicitly identified themselves as significantly thinner, better, more attractive, active, disciplined, and more likely to eat healthy than 'other' people. Compared to men, women were less likely to view themselves as thin and attractive relative to others. Greater implicit anti-fat bias and implicitly seeing the self as thin relative to others was associated with less short-term weight loss. Despite evidence for explicit, implicit, and internalized weight bias, participants generally evidenced a positive implicit self-identity, including areas consistent with negative fat stereotypes. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Asthma and obesity: does weight loss improve asthma control? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juel CTB

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Caroline Trunk-Black Juel,1 Zarqa Ali,1 Lisbeth Nilas,2 Charlotte Suppli Ulrik11Respiratory Section, Internal Medicine Unit, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hvidovre Hospital and University of Copenhagen, Hvidovre, DenmarkAim and methods: Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma.Results: Weight loss in obese individuals with doctor-diagnosed asthma is associated with a 48%–100% remission of asthma symptoms and use of asthma medication. Published studies, furthermore, reveal that weight loss in obese asthmatics improves asthma control, and that especially surgically induced weight loss results in significant improvements in asthma severity, use of asthma medication, dyspnoea, exercise tolerance, and acute exacerbations, including hospitalizations due to asthma. Furthermore, weight loss in obese asthmatics is associated with improvements in level of lung function and airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine, whereas no significant improvements have been observed in exhaled nitric oxide or other markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation.Conclusion: Overweight and obese adults with asthma experience a high symptomatic remission rate and significant improvements in asthma control, including objective measures of disease activity, after weight loss. Although these positive effects of weight loss on asthma-related health outcomes seem not to be accompanied by remission or improvements in markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation, it has potentially important implications for the future burden of asthma.Keywords: asthma, weight loss, diet, bariatric surgery, asthma control

  5. Temporality in British young women's magazines: food, cooking and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Rosemary J; Russell, Jean M; Barker, Margo E

    2014-10-01

    The present study examines seasonal and temporal patterns in food-related content of two UK magazines for young women focusing on food types, cooking and weight loss. Content analysis of magazines from three time blocks between 1999 and 2011. Desk-based study. Ninety-seven magazines yielding 590 advertisements and 148 articles. Cluster analysis of type of food advertising produced three clusters of magazines, which reflected recognised food behaviours of young women: vegetarianism, convenience eating and weight control. The first cluster of magazines was associated with Christmas and Millennium time periods, with advertising of alcohol, coffee, cheese, vegetarian meat substitutes and weight-loss pills. Recipes were prominent in article content and tended to be for cakes/desserts, luxury meals and party food. The second cluster was associated with summer months and 2010 issues. There was little advertising for conventional foods in cluster 2, but strong representation of diet plans and foods for weight loss. Weight-loss messages in articles focused on short-term aesthetic goals, emphasising speedy weight loss without giving up nice foods or exercising. Cluster 3 magazines were associated with post-New Year and 2005 periods. Food advertising was for everyday foods and convenience products, with fewer weight-loss products than other clusters; conversely, article content had a greater prevalence of weight-loss messages. The cyclical nature of magazine content - indulgence and excess encouraged at Christmas, restraint recommended post-New Year and severe dieting advocated in the summer months - endorses yo-yo dieting behaviour and may not be conducive to public health.

  6. The impact of rate of weight loss on body composition and compensatory mechanisms during weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, Sílvia Ribeiro; With, Emilie; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Rapid weight loss (WL) has been associated with a larger loss of fat free mass and a disproportional reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR), but the evidence is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the impact of WL rate on body composition and compensatory mechanisms activated...... with WL (reduced RMR, increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite), both during negative and neutral energy balance (EB). METHODS: Thirty-five participants with obesity were randomized to lose a similar weight rapidly (4 weeks) or gradually (8 weeks), and afterwards to maintain it (4 weeks). Body...... weight and composition, RMR, ExEff (10, 25 and 50 W), appetite feelings and appetite-regulating hormones (active ghrelin, cholecystokinin, total peptide YY (PYY), active glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin), in fasting and every 30 min up to 2.5 h, were measured at baseline and after each phase. RESULTS...

  7. Best Practice Updates for Pediatric/Adolescent Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Janey S.A.; Lenders, Carine M.; Dionne, Emily A.; Hoppin, Alison G.; Hsu, George L.K.; Inge, Thomas H.; Lawlor, David F.; Marino, Margaret F.; Meyers, Alan F.; Rosenblum, Jennifer L.; Sanchez, Vivian M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to update evidence-based best practice guidelines for pediatric/adolescent weight loss surgery (WLS). We performed a systematic search of English-language literature on WLS and pediatric, adolescent, gastric bypass, laparoscopic gastric banding, and extreme obesity published between April 2004 and May 2007 in PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library. Keywords were used to narrow the search for a selective review of abstracts, retrieval of full articles, and grading of evidence according to systems used in established evidence-based models. In light of evidence on the natural history of obesity and on outcomes of WLS in adolescents, guidelines for surgical treatment of obesity in this age group need to be updated. We recommend modification of selection criteria to include adolescents with BMI ≥ 35 and specific obesity-related comorbidities for which there is clear evidence of important short-term morbidity (i.e., type 2 diabetes, severe steatohepatitis, pseudotumor cerebri, and moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea). In addition, WLS should be considered for adolescents with extreme obesity (BMI ≥ 40) and other comorbidities associated with long-term risks. We identified >1,085 papers; 186 of the most relevant were reviewed in detail. Regular updates of evidence-based recommendations for best practices in pediatric/adolescent WLS are required to address advances in technology and the growing evidence base in pediatric WLS. Key considerations in patient safety include carefully designed criteria for patient selection, multidisciplinary evaluation, choice of appropriate procedure, thorough screening and management of comorbidities, optimization of long-term compliance, and age-appropriate fully informed consent. PMID:19396070

  8. The role of protein in weight loss and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J; Clifton, Peter M; Astrup, Arne; Wycherley, Thomas P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Woods, Stephen C; Mattes, Richard D

    2015-04-29

    Over the past 20 y, higher-protein diets have been touted as a successful strategy to prevent or treat obesity through improvements in body weight management. These improvements are thought to be due, in part, to modulations in energy metabolism, appetite, and energy intake. Recent evidence also supports higher-protein diets for improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors. This article provides an overview of the literature that explores the mechanisms of action after acute protein consumption and the clinical health outcomes after consumption of long-term, higher-protein diets. Several meta-analyses of shorter-term, tightly controlled feeding studies showed greater weight loss, fat mass loss, and preservation of lean mass after higher-protein energy-restriction diets than after lower-protein energy-restriction diets. Reductions in triglycerides, blood pressure, and waist circumference were also reported. In addition, a review of the acute feeding trials confirms a modest satiety effect, including greater perceived fullness and elevated satiety hormones after higher-protein meals but does not support an effect on energy intake at the next eating occasion. Although shorter-term, tightly controlled feeding studies consistently identified benefits with increased protein consumption, longer-term studies produced limited and conflicting findings; nevertheless, a recent meta-analysis showed persistent benefits of a higher-protein weight-loss diet on body weight and fat mass. Dietary compliance appears to be the primary contributor to the discrepant findings because improvements in weight management were detected in those who adhered to the prescribed higher-protein regimen, whereas those who did not adhere to the diet had no marked improvements. Collectively, these data suggest that higher-protein diets that contain between 1.2 and 1.6 g protein · kg -1 · d -1 and potentially include meal-specific protein quantities of at least ∼25-30 g protein/meal provide

  9. Maintenance of weight loss or stability in subjects with obesity: a retrospective longitudinal analysis of a real-world population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DerSarkissian, Maral; Bhak, Rachel H; Huang, Joanna; Buchs, Sarah; Vekeman, Francis; Smolarz, B Gabriel; Brett, Jason; Ganguly, Rahul; Duh, Mei Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Characterize patterns of weight change among subjects with obesity. A retrospective observational longitudinal study of subjects with obesity was conducted using the General Electric Centricity electronic medical record database. Subjects who were ≥18 years old with BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 (first defining index BMI), had no medical conditions associated with unintentional weight loss, and had ≥4 BMI measurements/year for ≥2.5 years were included and categorized into groups (stable weight: within <5% of index BMI; modest weight loss: ≥5 to <10% of index BMI lost; moderate weight loss: ≥10 to <15% of index BMI lost; and high weight loss: ≥15% of index BMI lost) based on weight change during 6 months following index. No interventions were considered. Patterns of weight change were then assessed for 2 years. A total of 177,743 subjects were included: 85.1% of subjects were in the stable weight, 9.3% in the modest, 2.3% in the moderate, and 3.3% in the high weight loss groups. The proportion of subjects who maintained or continued to lose weight decreased over the 2 year observation period; 11% of those with high weight loss continued to lose weight and 19% maintained their weight loss. This group had the lowest percentage of subjects who regained ≥50% of lost weight and the lowest proportion of subjects with weight cycling (defined as not continuously losing, gaining, or maintaining weight throughout the 2 year observation period relative to its beginning). This trend persisted in subgroups with class II-III obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes. Weight cycling and regain were commonly observed. Subjects losing the most weight during the initial period were more likely to continue losing weight.

  10. Equivalent weight loss for weight management programs delivered by phone and clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph E.; Goetz, Jeannine; Gibson, Cheryl; Sullivan, Debra K.; Lee, Robert; Smith, Bryan K.; Lambourne, Kate; Mayo, Matthew S.; Hunt, Suzanne; Lee, Jae Hoon; Honas, Jeffrey J.; Washburn, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Face-to-face weight management is costly and presents barriers for individuals seeking treatment; thus, alternate delivery systems are needed. The objective of this study was to compare weight management delivered by face-to-face (FTF) clinic or group conference calls (phone). Design and Methods Randomized equivalency trial in 295 overweight/obese men/women (BMI = 35.1±4.9, Age = 43.8±10.2, Minority = 39.8%). Weight loss (0–6 months) was achieved by reducing energy intake between 1,200– 1,500 kcal/day and progressing physical activity to 300 minutes/week. Weight maintenance (7–18 months) provided adequate energy to maintain weight and continued 300 minutes/week of physical activity. Behavioral weight management strategies were delivered weekly for 6 months and gradually reduced during months 7–18. A cost analysis provided a comparison of expenses between groups. Results Weight change from baseline to 6 months was −13.4 ± 6.7% and −12.3 ± 7.0% for FTF clinic and phone, respectively. Weight change from 6 months to 18 months was 6.4 ± 7.0% and 6.4 ± 5.2%, for FTF clinic and phone, respectively. The cost to FTF participants was $789.58 more person. Conclusions Phone delivery provided equivalent weight loss and maintenance and reduced program cost. Ubiquitous access to phones provides a vast reach for this approach. PMID:23408579

  11. Changes in bone marrow lesions in response to weight-loss in obese knee osteoarthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbergsen, Henrik; Boesen, Mikael; Christensen, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Patients are susceptible for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) with increasing age and obesity and KOA is expected to become a major disabling disease in the future. An important feature of KOA on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is changes in the subchondral bone, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), which...... are related to the future degeneration of the knee joint as well as prevalent clinical symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in BMLs after a 16-week weight-loss period in obese subjects with KOA and relate changes in BMLs to the effects of weight-loss on clinical symptoms....

  12. Determinants of Successful Weight Loss After Using a Commercial Web-Based Weight Reduction Program for Six Months: Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Postrach, Elisa; Aspalter, Rosa; Elbelt, Ulf; Koller, Michael; Longin, Rita; Schulzke, J?rg-Dieter; Valentini, Luzia

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet is widely available and commonly used for health information; therefore, Web-based weight loss programs could provide support to large parts of the population in self-guided weight loss. Previous studies showed that Web-based weight loss interventions can be effective, depending on the quality of the program. The most effective program tools are visual progress charts or tools for the self-monitoring of weight, diet, and exercises. KiloCoach, a commercial program curre...

  13. Bone metabolism in adolescent girls with eating disorders and weight loss: independent effects of weight change, insulin-like growth factor-1 and oestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenne, Ingemar; Stridsberg, Mats

    2015-03-01

    Adolescents with eating disorders (ED) are at risk of developing osteoporosis if weight is not recovered. Previous investigations do not separate the effects of weight change per se from those of concomitant hormonal changes. In this investigation serum osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide of collagen (CTX), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and oestradiol were measured at assessment of 498 girls with ED and during weight gain of 59 girls. At assessment, OC concentrations were associated independently with weight (change), IGF-1 and oestradiol. Low weight, a high rate of weight loss and the hormone concentrations were associated with low OC. Low weight and high rate of weight loss were associated with high CTX concentrations but there were no associations independent of weight (change) with the hormones. During weight recovery, OC and CTX were independently and positively associated with weight, weight gain, IGF-1 and oestradiol. Bone metabolism markers are related to weight change independently of IGF-1 and oestradiol during both weight loss and weight gain. During weight gain, when pubertal development and growth are resumed there is an additional independent positive association between the markers and IGF-1 and oestradiol. These relationships are strongest in premenarcheal girls.

  14. [Diagnostic value of selective anorexia in pathological weight loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braquet, P; Mercier, G; Reynes, J; Jeandel, C; Pinzani, V; Guilpain, P; Rivière, S; Le Quellec, A

    2016-02-01

    The diagnostic value of selective anorexia is debated. Some authors have suggested an association between meat aversion and cancer, but most do not use it as a diagnostic tool. We aimed to characterize anorexia of different diseases to search for an association between selective aversions and diagnostic groups. All the patients admitted to three departments of a teaching hospital were included consecutively for 22months if they had more than 10 % weight loss in less than one year. Patients were excluded if history taking was not reliable, or if they suffered from anorexia nervosa. We compiled diagnoses at discharge and validated them six months later. We used logistic regression to identify independent factors associated with selective anorexia. Inclusion criteria were met in 106patients (female 44 %, median age 65years). Most frequent diagnoses were: cancer (36 %), infection (35 %), digestive diseases (19 %), non organic diseases (21 %). Recent selective anorexia was found in 46 % of the cases. It was significantly associated with female gender (P=0.002), marginally with young age (P=0.069) and long duration of weight loss (P=0.079). Opioid use at admission was negatively associated with selective anorexia (P=0.001). No specific diagnostic category was found to be associated. Selective anorexia does not appear to be a useful symptom to investigate pathological weight loss. It behaves more like a non-specific reactivation by current disease of earlier latent personal food aversions. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Coaching and barriers to weight loss: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Obino KF

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Karen Fernanda Muñoz Obino,1 Caroline Aguiar Pereira,1 Rafaela Siviero Caron-Lienert2 1Nutrology/Clinical Nutrition Unit, Ernesto Dornelles Hospital, 2Nutrition of the Educational and Research Institute of Moinhos de Vento Hospital, Porto Alegre, Brazil Introduction: Coaching is proposed to raise a patient’s awareness and responsibility for their health behaviour change by transforming the professional–patient relationship.Objective: To review the scientific literature on how coaching can assist in weight loss and improve a patient’s state of health.Methodology: An integrative literature search was performed using PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. We selected articles that were published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish over the last 10 years. Data analysis was performed using a validated data collection instrument.Results: Among the 289 articles identified in the search, 276 were excluded because they did not address the leading research question, their full texts were not available on the Internet, or they were duplicate publications. Therefore, for the analysis, we selected 13 articles that we classified as randomized clinical studies (46.15%; n=6, cohort studies (30.76%; n=4, cross-sectional studies (7.69%; n=1, case studies (7.69%; n=1, and review articles (7.69%; n=1. Joint intervention (combined in-person and telecoaching sessions constituted the majority of session types. The use of technical coaching was superior in reducing anthropometric measurements and increasing the levels of motivation and personal satisfaction compared with formal health education alone.Conclusion: Coaching is an efficient, cost-effective method for combining formal education and treatment of health in the weight-loss process. Additional randomized studies are needed to demonstrate its effectiveness with respect to chronic disease indicators. Keywords: coaching, weight loss

  16. Translational research: bridging the gap between long-term weight loss maintenance research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Jeremy D; Estabrooks, Paul A; Davy, Brenda M

    2010-10-01

    The number of US adults classified as overweight or obese has dramatically increased in the past 25 years, resulting in a significant body of research addressing weight loss and weight loss maintenance. However, little is known about the potential of weight loss maintenance interventions to be translated into actual practice settings. Thus, the purpose of this article is to determine the translation potential of published weight loss maintenance intervention studies by determining the extent to which they report information across the reach, efficacy/effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. A secondary purpose is to provide recommendations for research based on these findings. To identify relevant research articles, a literature search was conducted using four databases; 19 weight loss maintenance intervention studies were identified for inclusion. Each article was evaluated using the RE-AIM Coding Sheet for Publications to determine the extent to which dimensions related to internal and external validity were reported. Approximately half of the articles provided information addressing three RE-AIM dimensions, yet only a quarter provided information addressing adoption and maintenance. Significant gaps were identified in understanding external validity, and metrics that could facilitate the translation of these interventions from research to practice are presented. Based upon this review, it is unknown how effective weight loss maintenance interventions could be in real-world situations, such as clinical or community practice settings. Future studies should be planned to address how weight loss maintenance intervention programs will be adopted and maintained, with special attention to costs for participants and for program implementation. Copyright © 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationship between physical activity, volitional skills and weight loss maintenance in Danish obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    . However, the relationship between weight loss maintenance and volitional skills has not been investigated yet. This study investigates if volitional skills are related to the amount of physical activity in obese individuals, and their relationship with actual successful weight loss. Methods: Participants...... to exercise. Results: Success was determined by the difference between an individual’s highest ever and current BMI. Analyses indicated that the successful weight maintainers’ possessed significantly higher values in the volitional skills initiative, general self-confidence, volitional self......-confidence and coping with failure and lower values in lack of energy, postponing training, and avoiding effort than unsuccessful weight maintainers. Furthermore, the successful were significantly more physically active. Higher physical activity was related to higher positive lower negative values in a total of 9...

  18. Pounds Off Digitally study: a randomized podcasting weight-loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Campbell, Marci K; Tate, Deborah F; Truesdale, Kimberly P; Bowling, J Michael; Crosby, Lelia

    2009-10-01

    As obesity rates rise, new weight-loss methods are needed. Little is known about the use of podcasting (audio files for a portable music player or computer) to promote weight loss, despite its growing popularity. A 12-week RCT was conducted. The study sample comprised overweight men and women (BMI=25-40 kg/m(2); n=78) in the Raleigh-Durham NC area. In 2008, participants were randomly assigned to receive 24 episodes of a currently available weight-loss podcast (control podcast) or a weight-loss podcast based on social cognitive theory (SCT) designed by the researchers (enhanced podcast) for 12 weeks. Weight was measured on a digital scale at baseline and follow-up. Both groups also completed questionnaires assessing demographic information, food intake, physical activity, and SCT constructs at the introductory and 12-week meetings. Additional questionnaires at the 12-week meeting assessed perceptions of the intervention. Data collection and analysis occurred in 2008 and intention-to-treat was used. Enhanced group participants (n=41) had a greater decrease in weight (-2.9+/-3.5 kg enhanced group vs -0.3+/-2.1 control group; p<0.001 between groups) and BMI (-1.0+/-1.2 kg/m(2) enhanced group vs -0.1+/-0.7 kg/m(2) control group; p<0.001 between groups) than the control group (n=37) and had greater weight-loss-related knowledge (p<0.05), elaboration (p<0.001), and user control (p<0.001) and less cognitive load (p<0.001). The results of this study suggest that the use of behavioral, theory-based podcasting may be an effective way to promote weight loss. NCT00771095.

  19. Weight loss strategies: association with consumption of sugary beverages, snacks and values about food purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A

    2014-07-01

    To examine whether weight loss strategies are associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), snacks or food values. Cross-sectional analysis of 24-h dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 (N=9440). Adults trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2000 total calories, 250 calories from SSBs, 225 calories from salty snacks, and 350 calories from sweet snacks. Adults not trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2300 total calories, 300 calories from SSBs, 250 calories from salty snacks, and 380 calories from sweet snacks. While overweight and obese adults trying to lose weight consumed fewer calories than those who were not, heavier adults trying to lose weight using dietary strategies or a combination of diet and physical activity consumed more calories than healthy weight adults using that same weight loss strategy (pPrice (>70%) and nutrition (>50%) were most when making food choices (psnack consumption in the clinical setting may be important for weight loss, particularly among heavier individuals. Clinicians should consider values related to food purchasing to identify concrete behavioral targets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Weight loss strategies: Association with consumption of sugary beverages, snacks and values about food purchases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether weight loss strategies are associated with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), snacks or food values. Design and Methods Cross-sectional analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 (N=9,440). Results Adults trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2000 total calories, 250 calories from SSBs, 225 calories from salty snacks, and 350 calories from sweet snacks. Adults not trying to lose weight consumed roughly 2300 total calories, 300 calories from SSBs, 250 calories from salty snacks, and 380 calories from sweet snacks. While overweight and obese adults trying to lose weight consumed fewer calories than those who were not, heavier adults trying to lose weight using dietary strategies or a combination of diet and physical activity consumed more calories than healthy weight adults using that same weight loss strategy (p Price (>70%) and nutrition (>50%) were most when making food choices (p snack consumption in the clinical setting may be important for weight loss, particularly among heavier individuals. Clinicians should consider values related to food purchasing to identify concrete behavioral targets. PMID:24801411

  1. Effects of Greenselect Phytosome? on weight maintenance after weight loss in obese women: a randomized placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Gilardini, Luisa; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Di Pierro, Francesco; Risso, Paolo; Invitti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Background Most subjects regain weight after weight loss due to compensatory adaptations finalized to maintain stable body energy stores. Green tea (GT) preparations, which help maintain energy expenditure while dieting could be a useful strategy to facilitate weight maintenance. The usefulness of GT preparations in weight maintenance has been poorly studied so far with conflicting results. This study evaluated if a supplement of GSP and piperine helps obese women to maintain the weight loss ...

  2. Awakening: a qualitative study on maintaining weight loss after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Lori; Barnason, Susan; Brage Hudson, Diane

    2016-04-01

    To describe the experiences of adults who were successful in maintaining weight loss after bariatric surgery. The majority of studies examine a homogenous demographic group of postbariatric surgical patients who have gone through initial weight loss, which occurs within the first 12-24 months post surgery. Maintenance of weight loss begins 24 months after bariatric surgery; however, there is a paucity of research examining experiences during this period. The lack of conclusive research related to interactions between intrapersonal, behavioural and environmental influences suggests a need to develop a better understanding of patients' experiences related to weight loss maintenance post bariatric surgery. Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory provided the framework for the semi-structured interviews for this qualitative descriptive study. In-person interviews with n = 14 participants who were able to maintain weight loss at least 24 months after a bariatric surgery. Participants experienced an awakening and gained a new perspective on their life. They identified negative attitudes, influences and behaviours and modified their environment to support their desired healthy behaviour. To maintain weight loss, an individual must seek out and be surrounded by positive family and peer support influences. Positive support may provide the opportunity for an individual to place personal health needs as a priority. Therapeutic education and counselling for individuals, couples and families should occur during all phases of bariatric surgery. Communication techniques may empower clients to deflect negative comments and influences in a constructive manner. Support groups should accommodate the various phases of bariatric surgery. Clients should be prepared for how to work through emotions associated with weight fluctuations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Critical weight loss in head and neck cancer - prevalence and risk factors at diagnosis : an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Vissink, A.; van der Laan, B.F.A.M.; van Oort, R.P.; Roodenburg, J.L.N.

    Goals of work Critical weight loss (>= 5% in 1 month or >= 10% in 6 months) is a common phenomenon in head and neck cancer patients. It is unknown which complaints are most strongly related to critical weight loss in head and neck cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. The aim of this explorative

  4. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance.To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study.Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured.Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%.A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  5. Initial weight loss on an 800-kcal diet as a predictor of weight loss success after 8 weeks: the Diogenes study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handjieva-Darlenska, T; Handjiev, S; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-treatment subject characteristics and weight change during the first weeks of a low-calorie diet (LCD) can predict weight loss outcomes at the end of a controlled 8-week weight loss period in overweight and obese adults....

  6. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika V Seimon

    Full Text Available Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled.Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID-(total average energy intake of controls]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding.Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05. There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01. Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups.Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative

  7. Predicting actual weight loss: A review of the determinants according to the theory of planned behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Fong, Shirley Siu Ming

    2015-01-01

    Weight reduction that corresponds with lifestyle modification is difficult to foster. The theory of planned behaviour has been actively cited in explaining health-related behaviour. This review evaluated the application of the theory of planned behaviour to weight-loss behaviour. Among the three reviewed papers, cross-sectional survey designs and subjective outcome measurements were commonly applied. All of the studies recruited obese female adults as participants, limiting the generalisabili...

  8. Weight loss and weight maintenance obtained with or without GLP-1 analogue treatment decrease branched chain amino acid levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Galijatovic, Ehm Astrid Andersson

    2016-01-01

    increased during weight loss (p = 5.2 × 10−15) and showed inverse correlation with insulin resistance measured by HOMA–IR levels (r = −0.318, p = 0.025). Valine concentrations were lower in the control group compared to the GLP-1RA group during weight maintenance (p = 0.005). Conclusion Weight loss...

  9. Mediating Effect of Body Image Distortion on Weight Loss Efforts in Normal-Weight and Underweight Korean Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Sil; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background: We explored the relationship between body mass index-for-age percentile, body image distortion, and unnecessary weight loss efforts in Korean adolescent girls who are underweight and normal weight and examined the mediating effect of body image distortion on weight loss efforts. Methods: This study used data from the 2013 Korea Youth…

  10. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome and Weight Loss: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Cowan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA syndrome is common, and obesity is a major risk factor. Increased peripharyngeal and central adiposity result in increased pharyngeal collapsibility, through increased mechanical loading around the upper airway, reduced tracheal traction on the pharynx, and reduced neuromuscular activity, particularly during sleep. Significant and sustained weight loss, if achieved, is likely to be a useful therapeutic option in the management of OSA and may be attempted by behavioural, pharmacological, and surgical approaches. Behavioural therapy programs that focus on aspects such as dietary intervention, exercise prescription patients and general lifestyle counselling have been tested. Bariatric surgery is an option in the severely obese when nonsurgical measures have failed, and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass are the most commonly employed techniques in the United Kingdom. Most evidence for efficacy of surgery comes from cohort studies. The role of sibutramine in OSA in the obese patients has been investigated, however, there are concerns regarding associated cardiovascular risk. In this paper the links between obesity and OSA are discussed, and the recent studies evaluating the behavioural, pharmacological and surgical approaches to weight loss in OSA are reviewed.

  11. Electrochemical and weight-loss study of carbon steel corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.J.; Olive, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    The Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) will undergo an 18 month refurbishment project beginning in April, 2008. During this time, most of the carbon steel piping in the primary loop will be drained of water and dried. However, some water will remain during the shutdown due to the lack of drains in some lower points in the piping system. As a result, it is necessary to examine the effect of corrosion during the refurbishment. This study examined the effect of several variables on the corrosion rate of clean carbon steel. Specifically, the effect of oxygen in the system and the presence of chloride ions were evaluated. Corrosion rates were determined using both a weight-loss technique and electrochemical methods. The experiment was conducted at room temperature. The corrosion products from the experiment were analyzed using a Raman microscope. The results of the weight-loss measurements show that the corrosion rate of polished carbon steel is independent of both the presence of oxygen and chloride ions. The electrochemical method failed to yield meaningful results due to the lack of clearly interpretable data and the inherent subjectivity in the analysis. Lepidocricite was found to be the main corrosion product using the Raman microscope. (author)

  12. Coaching and barriers to weight loss: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Obino, Karen Fernanda; Aguiar Pereira, Caroline; Caron-Lienert, Rafaela Siviero

    2017-01-01

    Coaching is proposed to raise a patient's awareness and responsibility for their health behaviour change by transforming the professional-patient relationship. To review the scientific literature on how coaching can assist in weight loss and improve a patient's state of health. An integrative literature search was performed using PubMed, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. We selected articles that were published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish over the last 10 years. Data analysis was performed using a validated data collection instrument. Among the 289 articles identified in the search, 276 were excluded because they did not address the leading research question, their full texts were not available on the Internet, or they were duplicate publications. Therefore, for the analysis, we selected 13 articles that we classified as randomized clinical studies (46.15%; n=6), cohort studies (30.76%; n=4), cross-sectional studies (7.69%; n=1), case studies (7.69%; n=1), and review articles (7.69%; n=1). Joint intervention (combined in-person and telecoaching sessions) constituted the majority of session types. The use of technical coaching was superior in reducing anthropometric measurements and increasing the levels of motivation and personal satisfaction compared with formal health education alone. Coaching is an efficient, cost-effective method for combining formal education and treatment of health in the weight-loss process. Additional randomized studies are needed to demonstrate its effectiveness with respect to chronic disease indicators.

  13. Frequency-Weighted Balancing Related Controller Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Andras; Anderson, Brian D.O.

    2002-01-01

    The efficient solution of a class of controller approximation problems by using frequency-weighted balancing related model reduction approaches is considered. It is shown that for certain standard performance and stability enforcing frequency-weights, the computation of the frequency-weighted controllability and observability grammians can be done by solving reduced order Lyapunov equations regardless the controller itself is stable or unstable. The new approach can be used in conjunction wit...

  14. The disease that caused weight loss in King David the Great.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Noun, Liubov Louba

    2004-02-01

    Older people have suffered from loss of weight since the dawn of history. This research is unique in character, as it combines contemporary medical knowledge with the presentation of a case taken from Ancient History. To analyze from a modern perspective the biblical description of a geriatric patient who suffered from weight loss. Biblical texts associated with the aged were examined and passages relating to geriatric patients who suffered from loss of weight were closely studied. This study is based on the evaluation of the biblical passages, and not on the interpretations of various rabbis and scholars. Passages such as: ". I forget to eat my bread" and "My knees are weak through fasting; and my flesh failed of fatness" and ". my bones cleave to my skin" indicate anorexia, fasting, extreme loss of weight, and subsequent cachexia. Among the numerous causes associated with weight loss, malignancy, social problems such as loneliness, social isolation and neglect by others, and psychological causes including depressed mood were most likely responsible. With regard to malignancy, it seems that the King was affected by primary carcinoma of the prostate or kidney with subsequent metastases to bones. This report demonstrates that the roots of geriatric medicine can be traced to biblical times.

  15. The Role of Stigma in Weight Loss Maintenance Among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Quinn, Diane M; Weisz, Bradley M; Suh, Young J

    2017-10-01

    Challenges of maintaining long-term weight loss are well-established and present significant obstacles in obesity prevention and treatment. A neglected but potentially important barrier to weight-loss maintenance is weight stigmatization. We examined the role of weight stigma-experienced and internalized-as a contributor to weight-loss maintenance and weight regain in adults. A diverse, national sample of 2702 American adults completed an online battery of questionnaires assessing demographics, weight-loss history, subjective weight category, experienced and internalized weight stigma, weight-monitoring behaviors, physical activity, perceived stress, and physical health. Analyses focused exclusively on participants who indicated that their body weight a year ago was at least 10% less than their highest weight ever (excluding pregnancy), the weight loss was intentional, and that attempts to lose or maintain weight occurred during the past year (n = 549). Participants were further classified as weight regainers (n = 235) or weight-loss maintainers (n = 314) based on subsequent weight loss/gain. Data were collected in 2015 and analyzed in 2016. Hierarchical logistic regression models showed that internalized weight stigma and subjective weight category made significant individual contributions to prediction of weight-loss maintenance, even after accounting for demographics, perceived stress, experienced stigma, physical health, and weight-loss behaviors. For every one-unit increase in internalized weight stigma, the odds of maintaining weight loss decreased by 28% (95% CI: 14-40%, p < .001). Findings provide initial evidence that overlooked psychosocial factors, like weight stigma, may hinder weight-loss maintenance. Implications for addressing stigma in obesity-focused clinical interventions are highlighted.

  16. Cognitive behavioral therapy to aid weight loss in obese patients: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Pietrabissa, Giada; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Cattivelli, Roberto; Rossi, Alessandro; Novelli, Margherita; Varallo, Giorgia; Molinari, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic condition associated with risk factors for many medical complications and comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, some types of cancer, osteoarthritis, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, type-2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and different psychosocial issues and psychopathological disorders. Obesity is a highly complex, multifactorial disease: genetic, biological, psychological, behavioral, familial, social, cultural, and environmental factors can influence in different ways. Evidence-based strategies to improve weight loss, maintain a healthy weight, and reduce related comorbidities typically integrate different interventions: dietetic, nutritional, physical, behavioral, psychological, and if necessary, pharmacological and surgical ones. Such treatments are implemented in a multidisciplinary context with a clinical team composed of endocrinologists, nutritionists, dietitians, physiotherapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and sometimes surgeons. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is traditionally recognized as the best established treatment for binge eating disorder and the most preferred intervention for obesity, and could be considered as the first-line treatment among psychological approaches, especially in a long-term perspective; however, it does not necessarily produce a successful weight loss. Traditional CBT for weight loss and other protocols, such as enhanced CBT, enhanced focused CBT, behavioral weight loss treatment, therapeutic education, acceptance and commitment therapy, and sequential binge, are discussed in this review. The issue of long-term weight management of obesity, the real challenge in outpatient settings and in lifestyle modification, is discussed taking into account the possible contribution of mHealth and the stepped-care approach in health care.

  17. Excessive weight loss in exclusively breastfed full-term newborns in a Baby-Friendly Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Mezzacappa

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To determine the risk factors for weight loss over 8% in full-term newborns at postpartum discharge from a Baby Friendly Hospital. Methods: The cases were selected from a cohort of infants belonging to a previous study. Healthy full-term newborns with birth weight ≥2.000g, who were exclusively breastfed were included and excluded twins and those undergoing phototherapy as well as those discharged after 96h of life. The analyzed maternal and neonatal variables were maternal age, parity, ethnicity, type of delivery, maternal diabetes, gender, gestational age and appropriate weight for age. Adjusted multiple and univariate Cox regression analyses were used, considering as significant p8% were cesarean delivery and older maternal age. At the adjusted multiple regression analysis, the model to explain the weight loss was cesarean delivery (Relative risk 2.27, 95% of Confidence Interval 1.54–3.35. Conclusions: The independent predictor for weight loss>8% in exclusively breastfed full-term newborns in a Baby-Friendly Hospital was the cesarean delivery. It is possible to reduce the number of cesarean sections to minimize neonatal excessive weight loss and the resulting use of infant formula during the first week of life.

  18. Beneficial effect of high energy intake at lunch rather than dinner on weight loss in healthy obese women in a weight-loss program: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjd, Ameneh; Taylor, Moira A; Delavari, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza; Macdonald, Ian A; Farshchi, Hamid R

    2016-10-01

    The association between the time of nutrient intake and health has been described in a few studies. To our knowledge, no study has evaluated the relation between high energy intakes at lunch compared with at dinner on weight loss in overweight and obese subjects. We compared the effect of high energy intake at lunch with that at dinner on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors in women during a weight-loss program. Overweight and obese women [n = 80; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ): 27-35; age: 18-45 y] were asked to eat either a main meal at lunch (LM) or a main meal at dinner (DM) for 12 wk while in a weight-loss program. A total of 80 participants were randomly assigned to one of 2 intervention groups. Sixty-nine subjects (86%) completed the trial (34 subjects in the DM group, and 35 subjects in the LM group). Baseline variables were not significantly different between groups. A significant reduction in anthropometric measurements and significant improvements in cardiometabolic risk characteristics were observed over 12 wk in both groups. Compared with the DM group, the LM group had greater mean ± SD reductions in weight (LM: -5.85 ± 1.96 kg; DM: -4.35 ± 1.98 kg; P = 0.003), BMI (LM: 2.27± 0.76; DM: 1.68 ± 0.76; P = 0.003), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (LM: -0.66 ± 0.33; DM: -0.46 ± 0.24; P = 0.001), and fasting insulin (LM: -2.01 ± 1.10 mIU/mL; DM: -1.16 ± 0.72 mIU/mL; P dinner may result in favorable changes in weight loss in overweight and obese women after a weight-loss program of 12 wk. The consumption may also offer clinical benefits to improve insulin resistance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02399280. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Early Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Outcomes in Terms of Weight Loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiq, G.; Aziz, W.; Pervez, M. B.; Haider, M. I.; Hussain, S. V.; Khan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the outcomes of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in terms of weight loss. Study Design: Descriptive cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, from January 2009 to January 2015. Methodology: A total of 100 consecutive patients were included in the study through retrospective chart review. A 5-port technique was utilized with the gastric sleeve being created using endostapler. Postoperatively, patients gradually progressed from clear liquid diet and oral rehydration salts to nutritional supplements over three days. By two weeks postoperatively, patients had progressed to a solid diet. SPSS was used for data entry and analysis. Body mass index (BMI) and weight in kg were determined. Results: From 100 patients, 17 were lost to follow-up less than a week into the postoperative period. Of the remaining, average age of the patients was 34.7 ±11.3 years at the time of surgery. The majority of patients were females (72 percentage). Mean preoperative and postoperative BMI was 45.3 ±10.4 kg/m2 and 35.0 ±10 kg/m2, respectively. Of the 83 patients, 62 were followed-up for longer than 1 month (average 419 days). For patients in this category, mean reduction in BMI was 10.3 ±6.5 kg/m2 with average weight loss of 34.3 ±18.2 kg. There were no mortalities associated with LSG. Conclusion: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is a safe and effective intervention in young Pakistani females with encouraging outcomes at a mean follow-up of over one year. (author)

  20. Weight loss in the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahanty, Linda M

    2017-11-01

    The American Diabetes Association nutrition and lifestyle recommendations for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes focus on losing 7% of body weight and increasing physical activity to at least 150minperweek. This emphasis is largely based on results of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trials. DPP demonstrated that a lifestyle intervention aimed at 7% weight loss and 150min of activity per week reduced diabetes incidence by 58% after 2.8years of follow-up and resulted in sustained improvements in hemoglobinA1c, blood pressure and lipid levels. After 15years of follow-up, DPP's lifestyle intervention sustained a 27% risk reduction in progression to diabetes. Look AHEAD's lifestyle intervention significantly reduced hemoglobinA1c, blood pressure, triglycerides, and the amount and costs of medications needed to treat these conditions when compared with diabetes support and education. Other clinical and psychological benefits achieved with lifestyle intervention were greater reductions in c-reactive protein, less self-reported retinopathy, reduced risk of nephropathy, less sexual dysfunction, decreased incidence of urinary incontinence and fatty liver, remission of sleep apnea, better physical functioning, less knee pain, more remission of diabetes, reduced incidence of depression, less body image dissatisfaction and improved quality-of-life. A number of DPP translation studies have demonstrated weight losses of 4 to 7% at 6month and 1year follow-up which has led to Medicare coverage for CDC recognized DPP lifestyle programs starting in April 2018. Translation studies of Look AHEAD using a variety of delivery formats are underway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E; Gower, Barbara A

    2013-06-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/day deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (75 points per 1000 kcal, n = 29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  2. Body talk among undergraduate women: why conversations about exercise and weight loss differentially predict body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylkiw, Louise; Butler, Nicole A

    2014-08-01

    Undergraduate women (N = 143) completed self-reports on exercise behavior, body orientation, body appreciation, and body-related talk. Results showed that conversations about weight loss/dieting and conversations about exercise differentially predicted body appreciation. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the relationship between talk type and body appreciation was explained by the object-process dichotomy: Conversations about exercise oriented women to consider what their bodies can do which, in turn, predicted appreciation of one's body. In contrast, the relationship between conversations about weight loss/dieting and body appreciation was mediated by negative attitudes about one's body but not by an object orientation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. They say coconut oil can aid weight loss, but can it really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, M E

    2017-10-01

    There has in recent years, been much media speculation and consumer interest in the beneficial satiating properties of consuming coconut oil and its potential to aid weight loss. However, the media has primarily cited studies using medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) oil. The current perspective looks at the research that is available on coconut oil. It examines if and how MCT-related research can be applied to coconut oil and if there is potential for coconut oil to aid weight loss. The current report indicates a lack of consistent evidence on the topic of coconut oil, satiety and weight loss. Given both the publicity and the increased consumption of coconut oil further research, particularly long-term clinical trials, in this area are warranted.

  4. Determinants of weight loss success utilizing a meal replacement plan and/or exercise, in overweight and obese adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Hayley A; Gibson, Peter G; Garg, Manohar L; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin; Wood, Lisa G

    2015-02-01

    While weight loss has been shown to reduce obesity-related comorbidity, many weight loss treatments fail. Factors that enhance weight loss success are unknown, particularly in those with asthma. The aim of the study was to identify patient characteristics that predict weight loss success in adults with asthma. Baseline and change in asthma characteristics and eating behaviours were investigated for relationships with weight loss and fat loss using multiple linear regression, in 38 overweight and obese adults with asthma randomized to dietary, exercise or combined interventions targeting weight loss for 10 weeks. Mean ± standard deviation weight loss was 6.6 ± 5.1 kg. Greater %weight loss and %fat loss was achieved in those with poorer asthma-related quality of life at baseline ((rs = 0.398, P = 0.015) and (rs = 0.455, P = 0.005) respectively), with 1.7% greater absolute weight loss at week 10 corresponding to each one unit reduction in the asthma-related quality of life score at baseline. Furthermore, a lower baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity correlated with greater weight loss (rs = 0.398, P = 0.015). Male sex was associated with a 3.6 kg greater weight loss (P = 0.087). Reducing emotional eating during the programme was associated with greater weight loss in women (rs = 0.576, P = 0.010). This study demonstrates that individuals with more severe asthma at baseline are more successful in achieving weight loss, which could be a consequence of greater motivation and could be used as a motivational tool within the clinical setting. Gender tailoring of weight loss programmes may be useful to enhance weight loss success. Future studies are urgently needed to establish predictors of long-term weight loss maintenance in those with asthma. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  5. The relationship between weight loss and time and risk preference parameters: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Akemi; Nakamura, Ryota; Furukawa, Masakazu; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Nishimura, Shuzo; Kosugi, Shinji

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of intervention (specifically, intervention by telephone and mails, known as 'tele-care') relative to self-help as a weight-loss method. The question of whether there is a correlation between changes in two preference parameters--time discounting (i.e. impatience) and risk aversion--and the level of commitment was examined. The study, spanning a period of 24 weeks in 2006-2007, comprised 118 participants, each of whom was randomly assigned to either the tele-care or the self-help group. A public-health nurse provided support through telephone and mail communications to the tele-care group, aiming to reduce their calorie intake and increase exercise via this intervention. There was a significant decrease in the body weight of the participants of the tele-care group from the baseline; however, there were no significant differences in the weight loss, median time discounting or risk aversion between the two groups. The subsequent analysis for weight loss with changes in time and risk parameters revealed a significant difference in the weight loss in the time-discounting-loss and risk-aversion-gain groups. From the results of the multiple regression analysis, the time discounting was noted to be associated with age, initial BMI and marital status among men, and risk aversion was associated with age and job status among women. There is a possibility that a decrease in time discounting and increase in risk aversion might correlate with the weight loss or effectiveness of commitment in this trial. This study suggests that time discounting and risk aversion may be useful in anti-obesity efforts, since they are accurate criteria of behavioural patterns associated with weight problems. © Cambridge University Press, 2011

  6. A behavioral weight-loss intervention in persons with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumit, Gail L; Dickerson, Faith B; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Dalcin, Arlene; Jerome, Gerald J; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Young, Deborah R; Frick, Kevin D; Yu, Airong; Gennusa, Joseph V; Oefinger, Meghan; Crum, Rosa M; Charleston, Jeanne; Casagrande, Sarah S; Guallar, Eliseo; Goldberg, Richard W; Campbell, Leslie M; Appel, Lawrence J

    2013-04-25

    Overweight and obesity are epidemic among persons with serious mental illness, yet weight-loss trials systematically exclude this vulnerable population. Lifestyle interventions require adaptation in this group because psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairment are highly prevalent. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of an 18-month tailored behavioral weight-loss intervention in adults with serious mental illness. We recruited overweight or obese adults from 10 community psychiatric rehabilitation outpatient programs and randomly assigned them to an intervention or a control group. Participants in the intervention group received tailored group and individual weight-management sessions and group exercise sessions. Weight change was assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months. Of 291 participants who underwent randomization, 58.1% had schizophrenia or a schizoaffective disorder, 22.0% had bipolar disorder, and 12.0% had major depression. At baseline, the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 36.3, and the mean weight was 102.7 kg (225.9 lb). Data on weight at 18 months were obtained from 279 participants. Weight loss in the intervention group increased progressively over the 18-month study period and differed significantly from the control group at each follow-up visit. At 18 months, the mean between-group difference in weight (change in intervention group minus change in control group) was -3.2 kg (-7.0 lb, P=0.002); 37.8% of the participants in the intervention group lost 5% or more of their initial weight, as compared with 22.7% of those in the control group (P=0.009). There were no significant between-group differences in adverse events. A behavioral weight-loss intervention significantly reduced weight over a period of 18 months in overweight and obese adults with serious mental illness. Given the epidemic of obesity and weight-related disease among persons with serious mental illness, our findings

  7. Predictors of diet-induced weight loss in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A.C. Berk (Kirsten); M.T. Mulder (Monique); A.J.M. Verhoeven; Van Wietmarschen, H. (Herman); Boessen, R. (Ruud); Pellis, L.P. (Linette P.); Van Spijker, A.T. (Adriaan T); R. Timman (Reinier); B. Özcan (Behiye); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAims A very low calorie diet improves the metabolic regulation of obesity related type 2 diabetes, but not for all patients, which leads to frustration in patients and professionals alike. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model of diet-induced weight loss in type 2

  8. Invited Commentary: Childhood and Adolescent Obesity--Psychological and Behavioral Issues in Weight Loss Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; Dilks, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has tripled in the past three decades. This increase has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in obesity-related health complications among American youth. Thus, many obese youth are now experiencing illnesses that will threaten their life expectancy in the absence of significant weight loss.…

  9. Predictors of diet-induced weight loss in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berk, K.A.; Mulder, M.T.; Verhoeven, A.J.M.; Wietmarschen, H. van; Boessen, R.; Pellis, L.P.; Spijker, A.T. van; Timman, R.; Ozcan, B.; Sijbrands, E.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims A very low calorie diet improves the metabolic regulation of obesity related type 2 diabetes, but not for all patients, which leads to frustration in patients and professionals alike. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model of diet-induced weight loss in type 2 diabetes. Methods

  10. Perfluoroalkyl substances and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate in response to weight-loss diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Gang; Dhana, Klodian; Furtado, Jeremy D

    2018-01-01

    in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight-loss setting. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the 2-year POUNDS Lost randomized clinical trial based in Boston, Massachusetts, and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, that examined the effects of energy-restricted diets on weight changes, baseline...... and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.4 kg of body weight during the first 6 months (weight-loss period) and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight during the period of 6-24 months (weight regain period). After multivariate adjustment, baseline PFAS concentrations were...... not significantly associated with concurrent body weight or weight loss during the first 6 months. In contrast, higher baseline levels of PFASs were significantly associated with a greater weight regain, primarily in women. In women, comparing the highest to the lowest tertiles of PFAS concentrations...

  11. Fasting for weight loss: an effective strategy or latest dieting trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, A

    2015-05-01

    With the increasing obesity epidemic comes the search for effective dietary approaches for calorie restriction and weight loss. Here I examine whether fasting is the latest 'fad diet' as portrayed in popular media and discuss whether it is a safe and effective approach or whether it is an idiosyncratic diet trend that promotes short-term weight loss, with no concern for long-term weight maintenance. Fasting has long been used under historical and experimental conditions and has recently been popularised by 'intermittent fasting' or 'modified fasting' regimes, in which a very low-calorie allowance is allowed, on alternate days (ADF) or 2 days a week (5:2 diet), where 'normal' eating is resumed on non-diet days. It is a simple concept, which makes it easy to follow with no difficult calorie counting every other day. This approach does seem to promote weight loss, but is linked to hunger, which can be a limiting factor for maintaining food restriction. The potential health benefits of fasting can be related to both the acute food restriction and chronic influence of weight loss; the long-term effect of chronic food restriction in humans is not yet clear, but may be a potentially interesting future dietary strategy for longevity, particularly given the overweight epidemic. One approach does not fit all in the quest to achieve body weight control, but this could be a dietary strategy for consideration. With the obesity epidemic comes the search for dietary strategies to (i) prevent weight gain, (ii) promote weight loss and (iii) prevent weight regain. With over half of the population of the United Kingdom and other developed countries being collectively overweight or obese, there is considerable pressure to achieve these goals, from both a public health and a clinical perspective. Certainly not one dietary approach will solve these complex problems. Although there is some long-term success with gastric surgical options for morbid obesity, there is still a requirement

  12. N-of-1 study of weight loss maintenance assessing predictors of physical activity, adherence to weight loss plan and weight change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnicka, Dominika; Dombrowski, Stephan U; White, Martin; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2017-06-01

    Behaviour change interventions are effective in supporting individuals to achieve clinically significant weight loss, but weight loss maintenance (WLM) is less often attained. This study examined predictive variables associated with WLM. N-of-1 study with daily ecological momentary assessment combined with objective measurement of weight and physical activity, collected with wireless devices (Fitbit™) for six months. Eight previously obese adults who had lost over 5% of their body weight in the past year took part. Data were analysed using time series methods. Predictor variables were based on five theoretical themes: maintenance motives, self-regulation, personal resources, habits, and environmental influences. Dependent variables were: objectively estimated step count and weight, and self-reported WLM plan adherence. For all participants, daily fluctuations in self-reported adherence to their WLM plan were significantly associated with most of the explanatory variables, including maintenance motivation and satisfaction with outcomes, self-regulation, habit, and stable environment. Personal resources were not a consistent predictor of plan adherence. This is the first study to assess theoretical predictions of WLM within individuals. WLM is a dynamic process including the interplay of motivation, self-regulation, habit, resources, and perceptions of environmental context. Individuals maintaining their weight have unique psychological profiles which could be accounted for in interventions.

  13. Decreased hedonic responsiveness following chronic mild stress is not secondary to loss of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, P; Moreau, J L; Nielsen, C K; Papp, M; Sluzewska, A

    1996-07-01

    Chronic exposure to mild unpredictable stress (CMS) has previously been found to decrease hedonic responsiveness, as measured by the consumption of palatable sweet solutions or sensitivity to brain stimulation reward. These effects are reversed by chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs, and the CMS procedure has been proposed as a relatively valid animal model of depression. It has recently been suggested that the behavioural effects of CMS may be secondary to loss of body weight. This article collates data from five laboratories using the CMS procedure. Data are presented from seven studies using five different rat strains, as well as CD1 mice. Three-week exposure to CMS significantly decreased sucrose consumption by Lister hooded, PVG hooded, Wistar, and Wistar WU rats, and by CD1 mice, and sensitivity to brain stimulation reward in Ibm:Ro Ro rats. Weight loss in different experiments varied between 0 and 10%. Hedonic sensitivity relative to body weight (e.g., mg sucrose/g body weight) decreased significantly in all experiments. Animals maintained on a restricted feeding regime lost weight but did not show decreases in sucrose intake. It is concluded that decreased hedonic sensitivity following chronic mild stress cannot be attributed to loss of body weight.

  14. Predicting successful long-term weight loss from short-term weight-loss outcomes: new insights from a dynamic energy balance model (the POUNDS Lost study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Diana M; Ivanescu, Andrada E; Martin, Corby K; Heymsfield, Steven B; Marshall, Kaitlyn; Bodrato, Victoria E; Williamson, Donald A; Anton, Stephen D; Sacks, Frank M; Ryan, Donna; Bray, George A

    2015-03-01

    Currently, early weight-loss predictions of long-term weight-loss success rely on fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. The objective was to develop thresholds during the first 3 mo of intervention that include the influence of age, sex, baseline weight, percent weight loss, and deviations from expected weight to predict whether a participant is likely to lose 5% or more body weight by year 1. Data consisting of month 1, 2, 3, and 12 treatment weights were obtained from the 2-y Preventing Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) intervention. Logistic regression models that included covariates of age, height, sex, baseline weight, target energy intake, percent weight loss, and deviation of actual weight from expected were developed for months 1, 2, and 3 that predicted the probability of losing model. The AUC statistic quantified the ROC curve's capacity to classify participants likely to lose models yielding the highest AUC were retained as optimal. For comparison with current practice, ROC curves relying solely on percent weight loss were also calculated. Optimal models for months 1, 2, and 3 yielded ROC curves with AUCs of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.74), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.81), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.84), respectively. Percent weight loss alone was not better at identifying true positives than random chance (AUC ≤0.50). The newly derived models provide a personalized prediction of long-term success from early weight-loss variables. The predictions improve on existing fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. Future research is needed to explore model application for informing treatment approaches during early intervention. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Prognostic markers for diet-induced weight loss in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Buemann, B; Gluud, C

    1995-01-01

    To identify prognostic metabolic and hormonal markers for long-term weight loss outcome in obese women.......To identify prognostic metabolic and hormonal markers for long-term weight loss outcome in obese women....

  16. Comparing Weight Loss-Maintenance Outcomes of a Worksite-Based Lifestyle Program Delivered via DVD and Face-to-Face: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Claire Townsend; Miyamoto, Robin E S; Fang, Rui; Antonio, Mapuana; Paloma, Diane; Braun, Kathryn L; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku

    2018-03-01

    Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders have high rates of overweight and obesity compared with other ethnic groups in Hawai'i. Effective weight loss and weight loss-maintenance programs are needed to address obesity and obesity-related health inequities for this group. Compare the effectiveness of a 9-month, worksite-based, weight loss-maintenance intervention delivered via DVD versus face-to-face in continued weight reduction and weight loss maintenance beyond the initial weight loss phase. We tested DVD versus face-to-face delivery of the PILI@Work Program's 9-month, weight loss-maintenance phase in Native Hawaiian-serving organizations. After completing the 3-month weight loss phase, participants ( n = 217) were randomized to receive the weight loss-maintenance phase delivered via trained peer facilitators or DVDs. Participant assessments at randomization and postintervention included weight, height, blood pressure, physical functioning, exercise frequency, and fat intake. Eighty-three face-to-face participants were retained at 12 months (74.1%) compared with 73 DVD participants (69.5%). There was no significant difference between groups in weight loss or weight loss maintenance. The number of lessons attended in Phase 1 of the intervention (β = 0.358, p = .022) and baseline systolic blood pressure (β = -0.038, p = .048) predicted percent weight loss at 12 months. Weight loss maintenance was similar across groups. This suggests that low-cost delivery methods for worksite-based interventions targeting at-risk populations can help address obesity and obesity-related disparities. Additionally, attendance during the weight loss phase and lower baseline systolic blood pressure predicted greater percent weight loss during the weight loss-maintenance phase, suggesting that early engagement and initial physical functioning improve long-term weight loss outcomes.

  17. Weight loss versus muscle loss: re-evaluating inclusion criteria for future cancer cachexia interventional trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeland, Eric J; Ma, Joseph D; Nelson, Sandahl H; Seibert, Tyler; Heavey, Sean; Revta, Carolyn; Gallivan, Andrea; Baracos, Vickie E

    2017-02-01

    Participation in cancer cachexia clinical trials requires a defined weight loss (WL) over time. A loss in skeletal muscle mass, measured by cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) image analysis, represents a possible alternative. Our aim was to compare WL versus muscle loss in patients who were screened to participate in a cancer cachexia clinical trial. This was a single-center, retrospective analysis in metastatic colorectal cancer patients screened for an interventional cancer cachexia trial requiring a ≥5 % WL over the preceding 6 months. Concurrent CT images obtained as part of standard oncology care were analyzed for changes in total muscle and fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total). Of patients screened (n = 36), 3 (8 %) enrolled in the trial, 17 (47 %) were excluded due to insufficient WL (20 %), and 16 (44 %) met inclusion criteria for WL. Patients who met screening criteria for WL (5-20 %) had a mean ± SD of 7.7 ± 8.7 % muscle loss, 24.4 ± 37.5 % visceral adipose loss, 21.6 ± 22.3 % subcutaneous adipose loss, and 22.1 ± 24.7 % total adipose loss. Patients excluded due to insufficient WL had 2 ± 6.4 % muscle loss, but a gain of 8.5 ± 39.8 % visceral adipose, and 4.2 ± 28.2 % subcutaneous adipose loss and 0.8 ± 28.4 % total adipose loss. Of the patients excluded due to WL 5 %. Defining cancer cachexia by WL over time may be limited as it does not capture skeletal muscle loss. Cross-sectional CT body composition analysis may improve early detection of muscle loss and patient participation in future cancer cachexia clinical trials.

  18. [Weight loss and healing of ulcers - case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet, Jasmina; Laginja, Stanislava; Marinović, Marin

    2013-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 is one of the most common diseases with a prevalence increasing with age. If blood sugar is not controlled, complications arise and diabetic foot ulcer occurs. Depending on the blood vessels involved, we distinguish venous and arterial ulcers. Venous ulcers respond very well to modern methods of treatment such as compression therapy and hydrocolloid dressings, but for arterial ulcer prevention is most significant, e.g. weight loss, dietary modification, etc. The aim of this study was to show that despite all the available therapeutic options, we cannot cure ulcers completely because the patient's readiness to change his lifestyle plays a decisive role. Therefore, we present a patient having suffered from venous ulcers for several years and arterial ulcer that healed only after the patient had lost about 20 pounds.

  19. Medical weight loss versus bariatric surgery: does method affect body composition and weight maintenance after 15% reduction in body weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulovitz, Michelle G; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Conn, Carole A; Cohen, Deborah A; Ferraro, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate body composition changes in fat mass (FM) to lean body mass (LBM) ratios following 15% body weight loss (WL) in both integrated medical treatment and bariatric surgery groups. Obese patients (body mass index [BMI] 46.6 ± 6.5 kg/m(2)) who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery (BS), were matched with 24 patients undergoing integrated medical and behavioral treatment (MT). The BS and MT groups were evaluated for body weight, BMI, body composition, and waist circumference (WC) at baseline and after 15% WL. Following 15% body WL, there were significant decreases in %FM and increased %LBM (P maintenance of WL at 1 y were found. For both groups, baseline FM was found to be negatively correlated with percentage of weight regained (%WR) at 1 y post-WL (r = -0.457; P = 0.007). Baseline WC and rate of WL to 15% were significant predictors of %WR only in the BS group (r = 0.713; P = 0.020). If followed closely by professionals during the first 15% body WL, patients losing 15% weight by either medical or surgical treatments can attain similar FM:LBM loss ratios and can maintain WL for 1 y. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reductions in knee joint forces with weight loss are attenuated by gait adaptations in class III obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, Paul; Rider, Patrick; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2016-03-01

    A consensus exists that high knee joint forces are a precursor to knee osteoarthritis and weight loss reduces these forces. Because large weight loss also leads to increased step length and walking velocity, knee contact forces may be reduced less than predicted by the magnitude of weight loss. The purpose was to determine the effects of weight loss on knee muscle and joint loads during walking in Class III obese adults. We determined through motion capture, force platform measures and biomechanical modeling the effects of weight loss produced by gastric bypass surgery over one year on knee muscle and joint loads during walking at a standard, controlled velocity and at self-selected walking velocities. Weight loss equaling 412 N or 34% of initial body weight reduced maximum knee compressive force by 824 N or 67% of initial body weight when walking at the controlled velocity. These changes represent a 2:1 reduction in knee force relative to weight loss when walking velocity is constrained to the baseline value. However, behavioral adaptations including increased stride length and walking velocity in the self-selected velocity condition attenuated this effect by ∼50% leading to a 392 N or 32% initial body weight reduction in compressive force in the knee joint. Thus, unconstrained walking elicited approximately 1:1 ratio of reduction in knee force relative to weight loss and is more indicative of walking behavior than the standard velocity condition. In conclusion, massive weight loss produces dramatic reductions in knee forces during walking but when patients stride out and walk faster, these favorable reductions become substantially attenuated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gestational Weight Gain and Post-Partum Weight Loss Among Young, Low-Income, Ethnic Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROTHBERG, Bonnie E. Gould; MAGRIPLES, Urania; KERSHAW, Trace S.; RISING, Sharon Schindler; ICKOVICS, Jeannette R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Document weight change trajectories that lead to gestational weight gain or postpartum weight loss outside clinical recommendations established by Institute of Medicine (IOM). Methods Women aged 14-25 receiving prenatal care and delivering singleton infants at term (N=427). Medical record review and four structured interviews conducted: second and third trimester, 6- and 12-months postpartum. Longitudinal mixed modeling to evaluate weight change trajectories. Results Only 22% of participants gained gestational weight within IOM guidelines. 62% exceeded maximum recommendations -- more common among those overweight/obese (BMI≥25.0; phypertension; breastfeeding promoted postpartum weight loss (all p<.02). BMI by race interaction suggested healthier outcomes for Latinas (p=0.02). Conclusion Excessive pregnancy weight gain and inadequate postpartum weight loss are highly prevalent among young low-income ethnic minority women. Pregnancy and postpartum are critical junctures for weight management interventions. PMID:20974459

  2. What Variables are Associated with Successful Weight Loss Outcomes for Bariatric Surgery After One Year?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Athena H.; Adler, Sarah; Stevens, Helen B.; Darcy, Alison M.; Morton, John M.; Safer, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior evidence indicates that predictors of weight loss outcomes after gastric bypass surgery fall within 5 domains: 1) presurgical factors; 2) postsurgical psychosocial variables (e.g., support group attendance); 3) postsurgical eating patterns; 4) postsurgical physical activity; and 5) follow-up at postsurgical clinic. However, little data exist on which specific behavioral predictors are most associated with successful outcomes (e.g., ≥50% excess weight loss) when considering the 5 domains simultaneously. Objectives Specify the behavioral variables, and their respective cutoff points, most associated with successful weight loss outcomes. Setting On-line survey. Methods Signal Detection Analysis evaluated associations between 84 pre-and postsurgical behavioral variables (within the 5 domains) and successful weight loss at ≥1 year in 274 post-gastric bypass surgery patients. Results Successful weight loss was highest (92.6%) among those reporting dietary adherence of >3 on a 9 point scale (median=5) who grazed no more than once-per-day. Among participants reporting dietary adherence <3 and grazing daily or less, success rates more than doubled when highest lifetime Body Mass Index was <53.7 kg/m2. Success rates also doubled for participants with dietary adherence =3 if attending support groups. No variables from the physical activity or postsurgical follow-up domains were significant, nor were years since surgery. The overall model’s sensitivity =.62, specificity =.92. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to simultaneously consider the relative contribution of behavioral variables within 5 domains and offer clinicians an assessment algorithm identifying cut-off points for behaviors most associated with successful postsurgical weight loss. Such data may inform prospective study designs and postsurgical interventions. PMID:24913590

  3. The Effect of Weight Loss on Health, Productivity and Medical Expenditures among Overweight Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, Marcel; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Kruger, Eliza; Tate, Deborah F.; Linnan, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test whether overweight or obese employees who achieve clinically significant weight loss of 5% or greater have reduced medical expenditures, absenteeism, presenteeism, and/or improved Health-Related Quality Of Life (HRQOL). Methods The sample analyzed combines data from full-time overweight or obese employees who took part in one of the WAY to Health weight loss studies: one that took place in 17 community colleges (935 employees) and another in 12 universities (933), all in North Carolina. The estimations are performed using non-linear difference-in-difference models where groups are identified by whether the employee achieved a 5% or greater weight loss (treated) or not (control) and the treatment variable indicates pre- and post-weight loss intervention. The outcomes analyzed are the average quarterly (90 days) amount of medical claims paid by the health insurer, number of days missed at work during the past month, Stanford Presenteeism Scale SPS-6 and the EQ-5D-3L measure of HRQOL. Results We find statistical evidence supporting that 5% or greater weight loss prevents deterioration in EQ-5D-3L scores by 0.026 points (p-value: 0.03) and reduces both absenteeism by 0.258 days per month (p-value: 0.093) and the likelihood of showing low presenteeism (Stanford SPS-6 score between 7 and 9) by 2.9 percentage points (p-value: 0.083). No reduction in medical expenditures was observed. Conclusions Clinically significant weight loss among overweight or obese employees prevents short term deterioration in HRQOL and there is some evidence that employee productivity is increased. We find no evidence of a quick return on investment from reduced medical expenditures, although this may occur over longer periods. PMID:23632594

  4. Impact of weight loss on markers of systemic inflammation in obese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Weight loss studies were conducted in children without asthma have demonstrated a reduction in systemic inflammation. However, the impact of weight loss in the obese paediatric population with asthma has not been investigated. Objective: To measure the effects of weight loss on markers of systemic ...

  5. Supervised Physical Training Improves Weight Loss After Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundbjerg, Lene Hymøller; Stolberg, Charlotte Røn; Cecere, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Bariatric surgery results in significant weight loss and reduces cardiovascular morbidity. However, a large variation in postsurgery weight loss is seen. Physical activity promotes weight loss in nonsurgically treated subjects with obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate...

  6. [Intractable diarrhoea and severe weight loss by roflumilast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horna, Oihana; Toyas, Carla

    2013-08-04

    Roflumilast is a recently marketed drug, indicated for maintenance treatment of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with chronic bronchitis in adult patients with a history of frequent exacerbations as add on to bronchodilator treatment. The safety data of this drug have always been subjected to controversy and concerns. The Food and Drug Administration rejected the drug after the first evaluation, asking the company to clarify the adverse reactions during the investigation process, the European Medicines Agency approved the drug including a Risk Management Plan, designed to promote a safe use of the drug. During the first months after the marketing process, the Spanish Pharmacovigilance System has already been acquainted of several adverse events notifications; therefore, these patients may be closely monitored, mainly because of digestive and psychiatric disorders. Here we report the case of a female patient who showed a serious digestive clinical profile and a severe weight loss, more than 25% of her initial weight, when a treatment with roflumilast was started. The suspicion of a side effect as the cause of the reported clinical profile and its resolution required 3 hospital admissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations between change in sedentary behavior and outcome in standard behavioral weight loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Stephanie G; Call, Christine; Schaumberg, Katherine; Forman, Evan; Butryn, Meghan L

    2018-03-01

    Sedentary behavior, particularly in prolonged periods, is an important determinant of health. Little research exploring changes in sedentary behavior during behavioral weight loss programs exists. This study evaluated the magnitude of changes in total and prolonged sedentary behavior and how these changes related to changes in weight and cardiovascular outcomes during a behavioral weight loss program. Participants (n = 450) in two lifestyle modification programs underwent assessments of sedentary behavior (by accelerometry), weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and resting heart rate at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Sedentary behavior was defined as both total and prolonged (≥30 continuous minutes) sedentary minutes/day. Reductions in total and prolonged sedentary time were significant and were accounted for by increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Only changes in MVPA significantly predicted change in weight when entered into a model simultaneously with changes in sedentary behavior. Changes in total and prolonged sedentary time were not associated with changes in waist circumference, heart rate, or blood pressure. Change in sedentary time was not independently associated with change in health outcomes during a behavioral weight loss treatment. High variability in changes in sedentary time indicate that individual differences may be important to examine. Reducing sedentary time may not be powerful enough to impact these health outcomes above the effects of other changes made during these programs; alternatively, it may be that increasing focus in treatment on reducing sedentary time may engender greater decreases in sedentariness, which could lead to better health outcomes.

  8. Weight Loss and Maintenance in Overweight and Obese Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neala Ambrosi-Randić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We assessed 87 overweight and obese patients with cardiovascular disease in order to explore the weight change over time, and related psychological, behavioural and environmental variables. After hospitalisation, all patients received recommendations for decreased calorie intake combined with physical activity. All of them were contacted for a follow-up after 6 to 23 months in person (N = 43 or in a telephone interview (N = 44. Results show that patients who attended the follow-up in person increased their weight significantly less and maintained their body weight more successfully in comparison with the group of patients contacted over telephone. In the present study, the most desirable techniques for weight reduction seem to be the low calorie diet and exercise. However, the level of attendance at received recommendations for dieting and exercise was not satisfactory. Patients reported different reasons that interfered with their weight loss attempt, such as problems at work or financial problems. We have discussed the necessity of continued contact and support for patients in the period of loss and maintenance of weight loss, considering their psychological, behavioural and environmental problems, and particularities.

  9. Adipose tissue transcriptome reflects variations between subjects with continued weight loss and subjects regaining weight 6 mo after caloric restriction independent of energy intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Márquez-Quinõnes, Adriana; Mutch, David M.; Debard, Cyrille

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood.......The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood....

  10. Accuracy of weight loss information in Spanish search engine results on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardel, Michelle I; Chavez, Sarah; Bian, Jiang; Peñaranda, Eribeth; Miller, Darci R; Huo, Tianyao; Modave, François

    2016-11-01

    To systematically assess the quality of online information related to weight loss that Spanish speakers in the U.S. are likely to access. This study evaluated the accessibility and quality of information for websites that were identified from weight loss queries in Spanish and compared this with previously published results in English. The content was scored with respect to five dimensions: nutrition, physical activity, behavior, pharmacotherapy, and surgical recommendations. Sixty-six websites met eligibility criteria (21 commercial, 24 news/media, 10 blogs, 0 medical/government/university, 11 unclassified sites). Of 16 possible points, mean content quality score was 3.4 (SD = 2.0). Approximately 1.5% of sites scored greater than 8 (out of 12) on nutrition, physical activity, and behavior. Unsubstantiated claims were made on 94% of the websites. Content quality scores varied significantly by type of website (P searches is suboptimal and relatively worse than weight loss information accessed in English, suggesting that U.S. Spanish speakers accessing weight loss information online may be provided with incomplete and inaccurate information. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  11. The cultural context of obesity: exploring perceptions of obesity and weight loss among Latina immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne, April A; Daubert, Rebecca; Munoz, Maria L; Scarinci, Isabel; Cherrington, Andrea L

    2012-12-01

    This study used focus group methodology to examine perceptions of obesity and weight management among Latina immigrant women in Alabama. Four focus groups (N = 25) were conducted in Spanish as part of a participatory intervention development process. Participants were obese/overweight Latina immigrant women (BMI > 25) primarily recruited from a community hospital. The majority of participants were from Mexico. Participants described obesity in the context of short-term effects such as physical symptoms and aesthetics. Perceived weight gain was related to lifestyle changes since moving to the US. Social isolation, depression, and stress were reported to contribute to weight gain. Participants expressed interest in weight loss but emphasized a desire for programs that preserve traditional foods and include family. Weight-management programs designed for Latina immigrants should address their perceptions of obesity. This data also suggests that those interventions that preserve culture and incorporate family may have increased community buy-in.

  12. Long-Term Weight Maintenance after a 17-Week Weight Loss Intervention with or without a One-Year Maintenance Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula Pekkarinen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Weight lost by obese patients is almost always regained over time. Extended treatment may improve maintenance, but solid evidence is lacking. Purpose. We determined effectiveness of maintenance therapy after a weight loss program. Methods. Together 201 patients (mean age 47 years and BMI 42 kg/m2, 71% women were randomly assigned to either a 17-week weight loss program followed by a one-year maintenance program or to a weight loss program without subsequent maintenance intervention. The weight loss program included behavior modification and a very-low-calorie diet, and maintenance program behavior modification. The primary outcome measure was percentage of patients with 5% or more weight loss at the end of maintenance (week 69 and one year later (week 121. Secondary outcomes were weight related changes in lifestyle and quality of life. Results. At week 69, 52% of the patients with and 44% of those without maintenance program had lost weight ≥5%, P=0.40, and, at week 121, 33% and 34%, P=0.77, respectively. At week 121 secondary outcomes did not differ between the groups among those successfully followed up. Conclusions. This one-year maintenance program was not effective in preventing weight regain in severely obese patients. Trial Registration. This trial is registered under clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00590655.

  13. Eating frequency is higher in weight loss maintainers and normal-weight individuals than in overweight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Jessica L; Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R; Raynor, Hollie A

    2011-11-01

    Eating frequency has been negatively related to body mass index (BMI). The relationship between eating frequency and weight loss maintenance is unknown. This secondary analysis examined eating frequency (self-reported meals and snacks consumed per day) in weight loss maintainers (WLM) who had reduced from overweight/obese to normal weight, normal weight (NW) individuals, and overweight (OW) individuals. Data collected July 2006 to March 2007 in Providence, RI, included three 24-hour dietary recalls (2 weekdays, 1 weekend day) analyzed using Nutrient Data System for Research software from 257 adults (WLM n=96, 83.3% women aged 50.0±11.8 years with BMI 22.1±1.7; NW n=80, 95.0% women aged 46.1±11.5 years with BMI 21.1±1.4; OW n=81, 53.1% women aged 51.4±9.0 years with BMI 34.2±4.1) with plausible intakes. Participant-defined meals and snacks were ≥50 kcal and separated by more than 1 hour. Self-reported physical activity was highest in WLM followed by NW, and then OW (3,097±2,572 kcal/week, 2,062±1,286 kcal/week, and 785±901 kcal/week, respectively; Pmeals consumed (2.7±0.4 meals/day). Eating frequency, particularly in regard to a pattern of three meals and two snacks per day, may be important in weight loss maintenance. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Motivation and Its Relationship to Adherence to Self-Monitoring and Weight Loss in a 16-Week Internet Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Kelly H.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine changes in motivation and the relationship of motivation to adherence to self-monitoring and weight loss in a 16-week Internet behavioral weight-loss intervention. Design: Two-group randomized design. Setting: This study was conducted over the Internet. Participants: Sixty-six women, ages 22-65, with a body mass index (BMI)…

  15. Adipose tissue mitochondrial respiration and lipolysis before and after a weight loss by diet and RYGB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Merethe; Lund, Michael T.; Gregers, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study adipose tissue mitochondrial respiration and lipolysis following a massive weight loss. METHODS: High resolution respirometry of adipose tissue biopsies and tracer determined whole body lipolysis. Sixteen obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and 27 without (OB) were...... studied following a massive weight loss by diet and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). RESULTS: The mitochondrial respiratory rates were similar in OB and T2DM, and the mass-specific oxygen flux increased significantly 4 and 18 months post-surgery (P ... 2DM, visceral fat mass was always higher relative to the body fat mass (%) compared to OB. CONCLUSIONS: Adipose tissue mitochondrial respiratory capacity increases with RYGB. Adipocytes adapt to massive weight...

  16. Predictors and effects of long-term dieting on mental well-being and weight loss in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, J; Hallgren, P; Kral, J; Lindroos, A K; Sjöström, L; Sullivan, M

    1994-08-01

    Sixty moderately obese women (mean BMI = 33, mean age = 43), randomized to a lactovegetarian or regular 1300-kcal weight-reducing diet were followed at 3, 8 and 24 months. Weight follow-up was 92%, while 47% complied with the program throughout with no differences between the two diets with respect to compliance rate, weight loss or behavioral test results. Over 24 months compliers lost a mean 3.9 kg compared to a gain of 1.8 kg in the non-compliers. Short-term improvements in mental well-being measured by the Mood Adjective Check List deteriorated after 2 years to lower levels than at entry. Self-assessed motivation to diet was inversely related to mental well-being at two years. Positive long-term changes of functional status (Sickness Impact Profile) were found. Though subjective prediction of success measured after 3 weeks on diet predicted short-term and maximum weight loss, it did not predict ultimate outcome. More difficulties in resisting emotional and social eating cues (high disinhibition score on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) before and during the diet predicted weight gain. The more initial health-related dysfunction (SIP) the greater the weight regain. Psychological characteristics at baseline did not predict compliance or overall weight loss. The magnitude of weight loss after 24 months was related to amount and duration of maximum weight loss.

  17. A weight loss intervention using a commercial mobile application in Latino Americans-Adelgaza Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Vittinghoff, Eric; Hooper, Julie

    2018-02-21

    More than half of Latino adults living in the USA are expected to develop type 2 diabetes in their lifetime. Despite the growing interest in smartphone use for weight loss and diabetes prevention, relatively few clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of mobile app-based interventions in Latino populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of an in-person weight loss intervention in conjunction with a commercially available Fitbit app in a Latino sample at risk for type 2 diabetes and explore significant predictors associated with weight loss. After the run-in period, 54 self-identified Latinos with body mass index (BMI) > 24.9 kg/m2 were enrolled in an 8-week uncontrolled pilot study, and received a Fitbit Zip, its app, and two in-person weight loss sessions adapted from the Diabetes Prevention Program. Mean age was 45.3 (SD ± 10.8) years, 61.1% were born in the USA, and mean BMI was 31.4 (SD ± 4.1) kg/m2. Participants lost an average of 3.3 (SD ± 3.4) % of their body weight (p < .0005). We also observed statistically significant reductions in hip and waist circumferences, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p < .001). After controlling for demographic factors, use of the mobile app weight diary at least twice a week (p = .01) and change in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire score (p = .03) were associated with change in percent body weight. The intervention showed the potential efficacy of this intervention, which should be formally evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

  18. Exercise decreases lipogenic gene expression in adipose tissue and alters adipocyte cellularity during weight regain after weight loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Danielle Giles

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is a potent strategy to facilitate long-term weight maintenance. In addition to increasing energy expenditure and reducing appetite, exercise also favors the oxidation of dietary fat, which likely helps prevent weight re-gain. It is unclear whether this exercise-induced metabolic shift is due to changes in energy balance, or whether exercise imparts additional adaptations in the periphery that limit the storage and favor the oxidation of dietary fat. To answer this question, adipose tissue lipid metabolism and related gene expression were studied in obese rats following weight loss and during the first day of relapse to obesity. Mature, obese rats were weight-reduced for 2 weeks with or without daily treadmill exercise (EX. Rats were weight maintained for 6 weeks, followed by relapse on: a ad libitum low fat diet (LFD, b ad libitum LFD plus EX, or c a provision of LFD to match the positive energy imbalance of exercised, relapsing animals. 24h retention of dietary- and de novo-derived fat were assessed directly using 14C palmitate/oleate and 3H20, respectively. Exercise decreased the size, but increased the number of adipocytes in both retroperitoneal (RP and subcutaneous (SC adipose depots, and prevented the relapse-induced increase in adipocyte size. Further, exercise decreased the expression of genes involved in lipid uptake (CD36 & LPL, de novo lipogenesis (FAS, ACC1, and triacylglycerol synthesis (MGAT & DGAT in RP adipose during relapse following weight loss. This was consistent with the metabolic data, whereby exercise reduced retention of de novo-derived fat even when controlling for the positive energy imbalance. The decreased trafficking of dietary fat to adipose tissue with exercise was explained by reduced energy intake which attenuated energy imbalance during refeeding. Despite having decreased expression of lipogenic genes, the net retention of de novo-derived lipid was higher in both the RP and SC adipose of exercising

  19. Systematic review of patient education practices in weight loss surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groller, Karen D

    2017-06-01

    Education plays a key role in adherence to lifestyle modifications after weight loss surgery (WLS). Education given before and after surgery may decrease weight recidivism rates and improve outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze educational practices in bariatric centers. The Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health and PubMed databases were searched in May 2016 for English-language, peer-reviewed studies about WLS patient education practices from 1999 to 2016. Publications were: (1) rated with the Advancing Research and Clinical Practice through Close Collaboration levels of evidence hierarchy (see Melnyk's pryamid [http://guides.lib.umich.edu/c.php?g=282802&p=1888246]) and (2) analyzed according to surgical phase, curriculum, program delivery, and educator. Twenty-four publications met the study criteria. Evidence ratings for preoperative (n = 16) and postoperative studies (n = 8) were levels I to III (n = 5) and IV to VII (n = 17). Two publications were not ratable. Preoperative and postoperative education programs varied in curriculum, teaching methods, and educator. Topics varied in depth. Commonalities were surgical procedure, nutrition, activity, and psychosocial behaviors. Preoperative education was mostly provided in small groups, whereas individual sessions were used postoperatively. Lecture and discussion provided by myriad of healthcare experts from multiple disciplines were typical in both phases. Written or web-based aides supported learning needs in both phases. WLS patient education varied by curriculum and dose and commonly used passive learning methods (e.g., traditional lecture style instruction with minimal engagement from learners). Results shared can inform future bariatric education programs and accreditation standard development (e.g., Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program patient education standards). Additional study is needed, but existing evidence can guide improvements

  20. Weight loss after bariatric surgery and periodontal changes: a 12-month prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Peres, Silvia Helena de Carvalho; Sales-Peres, Matheus de Carvalho; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Several longitudinal studies have explored the association of obesity and weight gain with periodontal disease. However, the effect of weight loss on periodontal tissues remains unclear. To explore whether weight loss after bariatric surgery was associated with changes in periodontal measures over 12 months. Two public hospitals in São Paulo, Brazil. We used data from 110 morbidly obese patients (body mass index [BMI]>40 kg/m 2 or≥35 kg/m 2 with co-morbid conditions) who underwent bariatric surgery between April 2011 and March 2013. Data on demographic factors, BMI, smoking habits, and glucose levels were extracted from medical records preoperatively and after 6 and 12 months postsurgery. A full-mouth periodontal examination was conducted by trained examiners to assess probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss, and bleeding on probing (BOP) at baseline and 6 and 12 months after surgery. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. BMI was not significantly related to the proportion of sites with BOP at baseline, but it was negatively associated with the rate of change in the proportion of sites with BOP. The greater the BMI loss, the higher the proportion of sites with BOP, particularly 6 months after surgery. However, BMI was not associated with baseline probing pocket depth and clinical attachment loss or rates of changes in these periodontal outcomes. The findings suggest that weight loss was associated with increased gingival bleeding, showing a peak at 6 months after bariatric surgery. Periodontal pocketing and attachment loss remained unchanged during the study period. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Discrepancy in Motivation for Weight Loss and Exercise in Rural Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jacob C; Smalley, K Bryant; Barefoot, K Nikki

    2017-11-01

    We explored the extent to which discrepancy between motivation for weight loss and exercise is related to obesity among rural patients with chronic disease, and identified the psychosocial correlates of this discrepancy. 497 patients with diabetes and/or hypertension were recruited from a network of Federally Qualified Health Centers in the rural South and completed a battery of assessments. Most persons in the sample (83.1%) were overweight and 65.0% were obese. For motivation for change, 70.8% reported being in the Action stage or higher for weight loss, whereas only 24.9% reported being in the Action stage or higher for motivation for exercise. When controlling for age, education level, income, sex, and race/ethnicity, individuals who were motivated for weight loss but not exercise were twice as likely to be obese (p = .005). Race and sex were significantly associated with this discrepancy, with African-American patients 1.7 times as likely (p = .05) and women 2.3 times as likely to be discrepant (p = .001). Findings underscore the importance of focusing not simply on weight loss among rural patients with chronic disease, but rather to incorporate specific activities designed to build simultaneous motivation for engaging in exercise.

  2. Evaluation of internet websites marketing herbal weight-loss supplements to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Melanie A; Haywood, Tasha

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and quantity of drug information available to consumers on Internet websites marketing herbal weight-loss dietary supplements in the United States. We conducted an Internet search using the search engines Yahoo and Google and the keywords "herbal weight loss." Website content was evaluated for the presence of active/inactive ingredient names and strengths and other Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling requirements. Information related to drug safety for the most common herbal ingredients in the products evaluated was compared against standard herbal drug information references. Thirty-two (32) websites were evaluated for labeling requirements and safety information. All sites listed an FDA disclaimer statement and most sites (84.4%) listed active ingredients, although few listed strengths or inactive ingredients. Based on the drug information for the most common ingredients found in the weight-loss dietary supplements evaluated, potential contraindications for cardiovascular conditions, pregnancy/nursing, and high blood pressure were listed most frequently (73%, 65.5%, and 37%, respectively), whereas few websites listed potential drug interactions or adverse reactions. Potential hazards posed by dietary supplements may not be accurately, if at all, represented on Internet websites selling these products. Since consumers may not approach their physicians or pharmacists for information regarding use of dietary supplements in weight loss, it becomes necessary for health care providers to actively engage their patients in open discussion regarding the use, benefits, and hazards of dietary supplements.

  3. Cohort Study of the Success of Controlled Weight Loss Programs for Obese Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, A J; Titcomb, J M; Holden, S L; Queau, Y; Morris, P J; Biourge, V

    2015-01-01

    Most weight loss studies in obese dogs assess rate and percentage of weight loss in the first 2-3 months, rather than the likelihood of successfully reaching target weight. To determine outcome of controlled weight loss programs for obese dogs, and to determine the factors associated with successful completion. 143 obese dogs undergoing a controlled weight loss program. This was a cohort study of obese dogs attending a referral weight management clinic. Dogs were studied during their period of weight loss, and cases classified according to outcome as "completed" (reached target weight), "euthanized" (was euthanized before reaching target weight), or "stopped prematurely" (program stopped early for other reasons). Factors associated with successful completion were assessed using simple and multiple logistic regression. 87/143 dogs (61%) completed their weight loss program, 11 [8%] died or were euthanized, and the remaining 45 [32%] stopped prematurely. Reasons for dogs stopping prematurely included inability to contact owner, refusal to comply with weight management advice, or development of another illness. Successful weight loss was positively associated with a faster rate (P obese dogs on a controlled weight loss program reach their target weight. Future studies should better clarify reasons for success in individual cases, and also the role of factors such as activity and behavioral modification. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Acceptability of financial incentives for maintenance of weight loss in mid-older adults: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Bronwyn; O'Hara, Blythe J; Grunseit, Anne C; Bauman, Adrian; Osborne, Dale; Lawler, Luke; Phongsavan, Philayrath

    2018-02-13

    Health insurers worldwide implement financial incentive schemes to encourage health-related behaviours, including to facilitate weight loss. The maintenance of weight loss is a public health challenge, and as non-communicable diseases become more prevalent with increasing age, mid-older adults could benefit from programs which motivate weight loss maintenance. However, little is understood about their perceptions of using financial incentives to maintain weight loss. We used mixed methods to explore the attitudes and views of participants who had completed an Australian weight loss and lifestyle modification program offered to overweight and obese health insurance members with weight-related chronic diseases, about the acceptability and usefulness of different types of financial incentives to support weight loss maintenance. An online survey was completed by 130 respondents (mean age = 64 years); and a further 28 participants (mean age = 65 years) attended six focus groups. Both independent samples of participants supported a formalised maintenance program. Online survey respondents reported that non-cash (85.2%) and cash (77%) incentives would be potentially motivating; but only 40.5% reported that deposit contracts would motivate weight loss maintenance. Results of in-depth discussions found overall low support for any type of financial incentive, but particularly deposit contracts and lotteries. Some participants expressed that improved health was of more value than a monetary incentive and that they felt personally responsible for their own health, which was at odds with the idea of financial incentives. Others suggested ongoing program and peer support as potentially useful for weight loss maintenance. If financial incentives are considered for mid-older Australian adults in the health insurance setting, program planners will need to balance the discordance between participant beliefs about the individual responsibility for health and their desire

  5. Psychiatric Factors and Weight Loss Patterns Following Gastric Bypass Surgery in a Veteran Population

    OpenAIRE

    Rutledge, Thomas; Groesz, Lisa M.; Savu, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Background Although pre-surgical psychological evaluations are commonly administered to patients considered for weight loss surgeries, the value of these evaluations for predicting weight loss success has been questioned. In this study, we addressed this issue by examining patient’s total number of psychiatric indicators rather than individual psychological factors as predictors of weight loss/weight regain. Methods Sixty adult veterans completed gastric bypass surgery or laparoscopic gastric...

  6. Comparison of a reduced carbohydrate and reduced fat diet for LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses during 9-months of weight maintenance subsequent to weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCheminant, James D; Smith, Bryan K; Westman, Eric C; Vernon, Mary C; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2010-06-01

    This study compared LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses in overweight or obese adults consuming either a reduced carbohydrate (RC) or reduced fat (RF) weight maintenance diet for 9 months following significant weight loss. Thirty-five (21 RC; 14 RF) overweight or obese middle-aged adults completed a 1-year weight management clinic. Participants met weekly for the first six months and bi-weekly thereafter. Meetings included instruction for diet, physical activity, and behavior change related to weight management. Additionally, participants followed a liquid very low-energy diet of approximately 2092 kJ per day for the first three months of the study. Subsequently, participants followed a dietary plan for nine months that targeted a reduced percentage of carbohydrate (approximately 20%) or fat (approximately 30%) intake and an energy intake level calculated to maintain weight loss. Lipid subclasses using NMR spectroscopy were analyzed prior to weight loss and at multiple intervals during weight maintenance. Body weight change was not significantly different within or between groups during weight maintenance (p>0.05). The RC group showed significant increases in mean LDL size, large LDL, total HDL, large and small HDL, mean VLDL size, and large VLDL during weight maintenance while the RF group showed increases in total HDL, large and small HDL, total VLDL, and large, medium, and small VLDL (p0.05). Some individual lipid subclasses improved in both dietary groups. Large and medium VLDL subclasses increased to a greater extent across weight maintenance in the RF group.

  7. Endoluminal weight loss and metabolic therapies: current and future techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christine; Khashab, Mouen A; Kalloo, Anthony N; Kumbhari, Vivek

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a public health epidemic associated with a number of comorbidities, most notably type 2 diabetes and hypertension, as well as elevated all-cause mortality. The treatment for obesity and its associated comorbidities has most recently expanded into the field of bariatric endoscopy. This field bridges a gap between lifestyle counseling with or without pharmaceutical treatment and the most effective treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery. Because of its minimally invasive nature, bariatric endoscopic therapy has the potential to appeal to the large sector of the obese population that resists surgery, as well as those early in the onset of obesity. To date, five endoscopic devices have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of obesity, and many more are in development, undergoing clinical trials, or being used around the world. Here, we present the current state of the field, highlight recent developments, and describe the clinical outcomes of these minimally invasive procedures in terms of weight loss, improvement in metabolic profile, and reduction in comorbidities. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Expert panel on weight loss surgery: executive report update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, George L; Hutter, Matthew M; Harvey, Alan M; Apovian, Caroline M; Boulton, Hannah R W; Cummings, Susan; Fallon, John A; Greenberg, Isaac; Jiser, Michael E; Jones, Daniel B; Jones, Stephanie B; Kaplan, Lee M; Kelly, John J; Kruger, Rayford S; Lautz, David B; Lenders, Carine M; Lonigro, Robert; Luce, Helen; McNamara, Anne; Mulligan, Ann T; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Perna, Frank M; Pratt, Janey S A; Riley, Stancel M; Robinson, Malcolm K; Romanelli, John R; Saltzman, Edward; Schumann, Roman; Shikora, Scott A; Snow, Roger L; Sogg, Stephanie; Sullivan, Mary A; Tarnoff, Michael; Thompson, Christopher C; Wee, Christina C; Ridley, Nancy; Auerbach, John; Hu, Frank B; Kirle, Leslie; Buckley, Rita B; Annas, Catherine L

    2009-05-01

    Rapid shifts in the demographics and techniques of weight loss surgery (WLS) have led to new issues, new data, new concerns, and new challenges. In 2004, this journal published comprehensive evidence-based guidelines on WLS. In this issue, we've updated those guidelines to assure patient safety in this fast-changing field. WLS involves a uniquely vulnerable population in need of specialized resources and ongoing multidisciplinary care. Timely best-practice updates are required to identify new risks, develop strategies to address them, and optimize treatment. Findings in these reports are based on a comprehensive review of the most current literature on WLS; they directly link patient safety to methods for setting evidence-based guidelines developed from peer-reviewed scientific publications. Among other outcomes, these reports show that WLS reduces chronic disease risk factors, improves health, and confers a survival benefit on those who undergo it. The literature also shows that laparoscopy has displaced open surgery as the predominant approach; that government agencies and insurers only reimburse procedures performed at accredited WLS centers; that best practice care requires close collaboration between members of a multidisciplinary team; and that new and existing facilities require wide-ranging changes to accommodate growing numbers of severely obese patients. More than 100 specialists from across the state of Massachusetts and across the many disciplines involved in WLS came together to develop these new standards. We expect them to have far-reaching effects of the development of health care policy and the practice of WLS.

  9. Thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and metabolic parameters in response to weight loss diets: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Liang, L; Bray, G A; Qi, L; Hu, F B; Rood, J; Sacks, F M; Sun, Q

    2017-06-01

    The role of thyroid hormones in diet-induced weight loss and subsequent weight regain is largely unknown. To examine the associations between thyroid hormones and changes in body weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a diet-induced weight loss setting. Data analysis was conducted among 569 overweight and obese participants aged 30-70 years with normal thyroid function participating in the 2-year Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST randomized clinical trial. Changes in body weight and RMR were assessed during the 2-year intervention. Thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), total T3, total T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)), anthropometric measurements and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline, 6 months and 24 months. Participants lost an average of 6.6 kg of body weight during the first 6 months and subsequently regained an average of 2.7 kg of body weight over the remaining period from 6 to 24 months. Baseline free T3 and total T3 were positively associated, whereas free T4 was inversely associated, with baseline body weight, body mass index and RMR. Total T4 and TSH were not associated with these parameters. Higher baseline free T3 and free T4 levels were significantly associated with a greater weight loss during the first 6 months (Ppressure, glucose, insulin, triglycerides and leptin at 6 months and 24 months (all P<0.05). In this diet-induced weight loss setting, higher baseline free T3 and free T4 predicted more weight loss, but not weight regain among overweight and obese adults with normal thyroid function. These findings reveal a novel role of thyroid hormones in body weight regulation and may help identify individuals more responsive to weight loss diets.

  10. Predicting successful long-term weight loss from short-term weight-loss outcomes: new insights from a dynamic energy balance model (the POUNDS Lost study)123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanescu, Andrada E; Martin, Corby K; Heymsfield, Steven B; Marshall, Kaitlyn; Bodrato, Victoria E; Williamson, Donald A; Anton, Stephen D; Sacks, Frank M; Ryan, Donna; Bray, George A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently, early weight-loss predictions of long-term weight-loss success rely on fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. Objective: The objective was to develop thresholds during the first 3 mo of intervention that include the influence of age, sex, baseline weight, percent weight loss, and deviations from expected weight to predict whether a participant is likely to lose 5% or more body weight by year 1. Design: Data consisting of month 1, 2, 3, and 12 treatment weights were obtained from the 2-y Preventing Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) intervention. Logistic regression models that included covariates of age, height, sex, baseline weight, target energy intake, percent weight loss, and deviation of actual weight from expected were developed for months 1, 2, and 3 that predicted the probability of losing <5% of body weight in 1 y. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, area under the curve (AUC), and thresholds were calculated for each model. The AUC statistic quantified the ROC curve’s capacity to classify participants likely to lose <5% of their body weight at the end of 1 y. The models yielding the highest AUC were retained as optimal. For comparison with current practice, ROC curves relying solely on percent weight loss were also calculated. Results: Optimal models for months 1, 2, and 3 yielded ROC curves with AUCs of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.74), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.81), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.84), respectively. Percent weight loss alone was not better at identifying true positives than random chance (AUC ≤0.50). Conclusions: The newly derived models provide a personalized prediction of long-term success from early weight-loss variables. The predictions improve on existing fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. Future research is needed to explore model application for informing treatment approaches during early intervention. The POUNDS Lost study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. PMID:25733628

  11. Low-maintenance energy requirements of obese dogs after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Mather, Nicola J; Morris, Penelope J; Biourge, Vincent

    2011-10-01

    Weight rebound after successful weight loss is a well-known phenomenon in humans and dogs, possibly due to the fact that energy restriction improves metabolic efficiency, reducing post-weight-loss maintenance energy requirements (MER). The aim of the present study was to estimate post-weight-loss MER in obese pet dogs that had successfully lost weight and did not subsequently rebound. A total of twenty-four obese dogs, successfully completing a weight management programme at the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool (Wirral, UK), were included. In all dogs, a period of >14 d of stable weight ( lean tissue lost was negatively associated with post-weight-loss MER. MER are low after weight loss in obese pet dogs (typically only 10 % more than required during weight-loss MER), which has implications for what should constitute the optimal diet during this period. Preserving lean tissue during weight loss may maximise post-weight-loss MER and help prevent rebound.

  12. Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Samuel; Mitchell, Nigel; Tipton, Kevin D

    2010-02-01

    To examine the influence of dietary protein on lean body mass loss and performance during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss in athletes. In a parallel design, 20 young healthy resistance-trained athletes were examined for energy expenditure for 1 wk and fed a mixed diet (15% protein, 100% energy) in the second week followed by a hypoenergetic diet (60% of the habitual energy intake), containing either 15% (approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1)) protein (control group, n = 10; CP) or 35% (approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1)) protein (high-protein group, n = 10; HP) for 2 wk. Subjects continued their habitual training throughout the study. Total, lean body, and fat mass, performance (squat jump, maximal isometric leg extension, one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press, muscle endurance bench press, and 30-s Wingate test) and fasting blood samples (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glycerol, urea, cortisol, free testosterone, free Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone), and psychologic measures were examined at the end of each of the 4 wk. Total (-3.0 +/- 0.4 and -1.5 +/- 0.3 kg for the CP and HP, respectively, P = 0.036) and lean body mass loss (-1.6 +/- 0.3 and -0.3 +/- 0.3 kg, P = 0.006) were significantly larger in the CP compared with those in the HP. Fat loss, performance, and most blood parameters were not influenced by the diet. Urea was higher in HP, and NEFA and urea showed a group x time interaction. Fatigue ratings and "worse than normal" scores on the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes were higher in HP. These results indicate that approximately 2.3 g x kg(-1) or approximately 35% protein was significantly superior to approximately 1.0 g x kg(-1) or approximately 15% energy protein for maintenance of lean body mass in young healthy athletes during short-term hypoenergetic weight loss.

  13. Motivation for weight loss affects recall from autobiographical memory in dieters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    Two studies examined the connection between motivation for weight loss and autobiographical memory by comparing characteristics of autobiographical memories between dieters and non-dieters. Study 1 involved 29 normal/overweight dieters and 48 non-dieters, and Study 2 involved 18 obese dieters and 18 normal weight non-dieters. Memories recalled in response to dieting-related cue words were rated as more central to the person's identity and life story and contained more body- or weight-related elements for the dieters than the non-dieters. No differences between dieters and non-dieters were found on memories recalled in response to neutral cue words. The findings are discussed in relation to the notions of the working self (Conway & Pleydell-Pearce, 2000) and current concerns (Klinger, 1978).

  14. Motivation for weight loss affects recall from autobiographical memory in dieters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    Two studies examined the connection between motivation for weight loss and autobiographical memory by comparing characteristics of autobiographical memories between dieters and non-dieters. Study 1 involved 29 normal/overweight dieters and 48 non-dieters, and Study 2 involved 18 obese dieters...... and 18 normal weight non-dieters. Memories recalled in response to dieting-related cue words were rated as more central to the person's identity and life story and contained more body- or weight-related elements for the dieters than the non-dieters. No differences between dieters and non-dieters were...... found on memories recalled in response to neutral cue words. The findings are discussed in relation to the notions of the working self (Conway & Pleydell-Pearce, 2000) and current concerns (Klinger, 1978)....

  15. Heart rate recovery improves after weight loss in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M; Norman, Robert J; Brinkworth, Grant D

    2010-03-01

    To determine the effects of weight loss on heart rate recovery (HRR) in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A 10-week prospective clinical intervention. Clinical research unit. Fifty-seven overweight and obese women with PCOS (age: 29.8 +/- 0.8 years; body mass index [BMI] 36.2 +/- 0.7 kg/m(2)). A dietary plan of 5-6 MJ/day ( approximately 30% energy restricted). Heart rate recovery (defined as the reduction in heart rate after 1 minute from peak heart rate after a graded treadmill test to exhaustion), weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and sex steroids before and after the intervention. The mean percentage of weight loss was (-6.7 +/- 0.4%). There were significant reductions in waist circumference (-6.9 +/- 0.6 cm), blood pressure (-4.9/-2.5 +/- 1.2/1.2 mm Hg), fasting insulin (-3.4 +/- 0.7 mU/L), fasting glucose (-0.17 +/- 0.05 mmol/L), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (-0.43 +/- 0.09), T (-0.38 +/- 0.07 nmol/L), free androgen index (-2.86 +/- 0.58), and an increase in sex hormone-binding globulin [SHBG] (5.86 +/- 1.12 nmol/L). The HRR improved from 30.9 +/- 1.1 to 38.0 +/- 1.1 beats/min and that was related to the reduction in body weight (r = -0.34) and waist circumference (r = -0.27). Weight loss in overweight and obese women with PCOS is associated with improvements in HRR, which suggests improved autonomic function. This highlights the importance of weight loss to reduce the cardiovascular disease risk in these women. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maintaining a clinical weight loss after intensive lifestyle intervention is the key to cardiometabolic health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Dandanell; Skovborg, Camilla; Præst, Charlotte Boslev

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Intensive lifestyle interventions (ILI) are criticised for ineffective obesity treatment because weight loss over time is modest and thus of limited clinical relevance. However, a subgroup (5-30%) maintains a clinical weight loss >10%, but it is not clear if cardiometabolic health foll...... activity (155±6, 130±5, 113±5μmol/g/min) and VO2max (49±1, 43±1, 41±1mL/min/FFM) (p10% weight loss compared to moderate weight loss and weight regain....

  17. Prospect theory and body mass: characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  18. Prospect theory and body mass: Characterizing psychological parameters for weight-related risk attitudes and weight-gain aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Lark eLim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We developed a novel decision-making paradigm that allows us to apply prospect theory in behavioral economics to body mass. 67 healthy young adults completed self-report measures and two decision-making tasks for weight-loss, as well as for monetary rewards. We estimated risk-related preference and loss aversion parameters for each individual, separately for weight-loss and monetary rewards choice data. Risk-seeking tendency for weight-loss was positively correlated with body mass index in individuals who desired to lose body weight, whereas the risk-seeking for momentary rewards was not. Risk-seeking for weight-loss was correlated to excessive body shape preoccupations, while aversion to weight-gain was correlated with self-reports of behavioral involvement for successful weight-loss. We demonstrated that prospect theory can be useful in explaining the decision-making process related to body mass. Applying prospect theory is expected to advance our understanding of decision-making mechanisms in obesity, which might prove helpful for improving healthy choices.

  19. Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M; Bray, George A; Carey, Vincent J; Smith, Steven R; Ryan, Donna H; Anton, Stephen D; McManus, Katherine; Champagne, Catherine M; Bishop, Louise M; Laranjo, Nancy; Leboff, Meryl S; Rood, Jennifer C; de Jonge, Lilian; Greenway, Frank L; Loria, Catherine M; Obarzanek, Eva; Williamson, Donald A

    2009-02-26

    The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year. We randomly assigned 811 overweight adults to one of four diets; the targeted percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrates in the four diets were 20, 15, and 65%; 20, 25, and 55%; 40, 15, and 45%; and 40, 25, and 35%. The diets consisted of similar foods and met guidelines for cardiovascular health. The participants were offered group and individual instructional sessions for 2 years. The primary outcome was the change in body weight after 2 years in two-by-two factorial comparisons of low fat versus high fat and average protein versus high protein and in the comparison of highest and lowest carbohydrate content. At 6 months, participants assigned to each diet had lost an average of 6 kg, which represented 7% of their initial weight; they began to regain weight after 12 months. By 2 years, weight loss remained similar in those who were assigned to a diet with 15% protein and those assigned to a diet with 25% protein (3.0 and 3.6 kg, respectively); in those assigned to a diet with 20% fat and those assigned to a diet with 40% fat (3.3 kg for both groups); and in those assigned to a diet with 65% carbohydrates and those assigned to a diet with 35% carbohydrates (2.9 and 3.4 kg, respectively) (P>0.20 for all comparisons). Among the 80% of participants who completed the trial, the average weight loss was 4 kg; 14 to 15% of the participants had a reduction of at least 10% of their initial body weight. Satiety, hunger, satisfaction with the diet, and attendance at group sessions were similar for all diets; attendance was strongly associated with weight loss (0.2 kg per session attended). The diets improved lipid-related risk factors and fasting insulin levels. Reduced-calorie diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of which macronutrients they emphasize

  20. Comparison of Weight-Loss Diets with Different Compositions of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M.; Bray, George A.; Carey, Vincent J.; Smith, Steven R.; Ryan, Donna H.; Anton, Stephen D.; McManus, Katherine; Champagne, Catherine M.; Bishop, Louise M.; Laranjo, Nancy; Leboff, Meryl S.; Rood, Jennifer C.; de Jonge, Lilian; Greenway, Frank L.; Loria, Catherine M.; Obarzanek, Eva; Williamson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year. METHODS We randomly assigned 811 overweight adults to one of four diets; the targeted percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrates in the four diets were 20, 15, and 65%; 20, 25, and 55%; 40, 15, and 45%; and 40, 25, and 35%. The diets consisted of similar foods and met guidelines for cardiovascular health. The participants were offered group and individual instructional sessions for 2 years. The primary outcome was the change in body weight after 2 years in two-by-two factorial comparisons of low fat versus high fat and average protein versus high protein and in the comparison of highest and lowest carbohydrate content. RESULTS At 6 months, participants assigned to each diet had lost an average of 6 kg, which represented 7% of their initial weight; they began to regain weight after 12 months. By 2 years, weight loss remained similar in those who were assigned to a diet with 15% protein and those assigned to a diet with 25% protein (3.0 and 3.6 kg, respectively); in those assigned to a diet with 20% fat and those assigned to a diet with 40% fat (3.3 kg for both groups); and in those assigned to a diet with 65% carbohydrates and those assigned to a diet with 35% carbohydrates (2.9 and 3.4 kg, respectively) (P>0.20 for all comparisons). Among the 80% of participants who completed the trial, the average weight loss was 4 kg; 14 to 15% of the participants had a reduction of at least 10% of their initial body weight. Satiety, hunger, satisfaction with the diet, and attendance at group sessions were similar for all diets; attendance was strongly associated with weight loss (0.2 kg per session attended). The diets improved lipid-related risk factors and fasting insulin levels. CONCLUSIONS Reduced-calorie diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of

  1. Preoperative weight loss in super-obese patients: study of the rate of weight loss and its effects on surgical morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurelio Santo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The incidence of obesity and particularly super obesity, has increased tremendously. At our institution, super obesity represents 30.1% of all severely obese individuals in the bariatric surgery program. In super obesity, surgical morbidity is higher and the results are worse compared with morbid obesity, independent of the surgical technique. The primary strategy for minimizing complications in these patients is to decrease the body mass index before surgery. Preoperative weight reduction can be achieved by a hypocaloric diet, drug therapy, an intragastric balloon, or hospitalization. The objective of this study was to analyze the results of a period of hospitalization for preoperative weight loss in a group of super-obese patients. METHODS: Twenty super-obese patients were submitted to a weight loss program between 2006 and 2010. The mean patient age was 46 years (range 21-59. The mean BMI was 66 kg/m2 (range 51-98 and 12 were women. The average hospital stay was 19.9 weeks and the average weight loss was 19% of the initial weight (7-37%. The average caloric intake was 5 kcal/kg/day. After the weight loss program, the patients underwent gastric bypass surgery. RESULTS: The statistical analysis revealed that after 14 weeks of treatment (15% loss of initial weight, the weight loss was not significant. All patients had satisfactory surgical recovery and were discharged after an average of 4.6 days. CONCLUSION: In super obesity, preoperative weight loss is an important method for reducing surgical risks. Hospitalization and a hypocaloric diet are safe and effective. After 14 weeks, the weight loss rate stabilized, signaling the time of surgical intervention in our study.

  2. Weight loss in Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus on the roost and after capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Zegers, PM

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the weight loss in Oystercatchers on the roost and after capture and attempts to investigate to what degree this weight loss is due to defecation of digested food, to dehydration and to utilisation of nutrient stores. The study emphasizes the need to record weight changes

  3. Effects of motivational interviewing to promote weight loss in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Emmy M Y; Cheng, May M H

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effects of motivational interviewing for obese children and telephone consultation for parents to promote weight loss in obese children. Childhood obesity is a worldwide health problem that leads to serious metabolic and physiological consequences. An effective intervention to manage obesity is essential. Motivational interviewing is designed to resolve ambivalence, enhance intrinsic motivation and promote confidence in a person's ability to make behaviour changes. It has shown promise in the adult obesity literature as effecting positive health behaviour changes. Motivational interviewing has also been proposed as an effective method for improving the weight loss of obese children. A pre-post quasi-experimental design with repeated measures was used. The study was conducted in four primary schools over an 11-month period in 2010-2011. Obese children (n = 185) were screened from 791 school children studying the equivalent to UK grades 5 and 6 and were divided into three groups: motivational interviewing, motivational interviewing+ and a control group. The motivational interviewing group (n = 70) children were provided with motivational interviewing counselling; the motivational interviewing+ group (n = 66) children were provided with motivational interviewing counselling while telephone consultation was provided for their parents; and the control group did not receive any intervention (n = 49). Children in both the motivational interviewing and motivational interviewing+ groups showed significant improvement in their weight-related behaviour and obesity-related anthropometric measures from the baseline to the end of the 14-week intervention, while the control group had significant deterioration in their anthropometric measures. Motivational interviewing appears to be a promising intervention for promoting weight loss in obese children. Motivational interviewing counselling may be extended to obese children of different age groups. This study

  4. Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low- Carbohydrate Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…

  5. Predictors of Diet-Induced Weight Loss in Overweight Adults with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten A Berk

    Full Text Available A very low calorie diet improves the metabolic regulation of obesity related type 2 diabetes, but not for all patients, which leads to frustration in patients and professionals alike. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model of diet-induced weight loss in type 2 diabetes.192 patients with type 2 diabetes and BMI>27 kg/m2 from the outpatient diabetes clinic of the Erasmus Medical Center underwent an 8-week very low calorie diet. Baseline demographic, psychological and physiological parameters were measured and the C-index was calculated of the model with the largest explained variance of relative weight loss using backward linear regression analysis. The model was internally validated using bootstrapping techniques.Weight loss after the diet was 7.8±4.6 kg (95%CI 7.2-8.5; p<0.001 and was independently associated with the baseline variables fasting glucose (B = -0.33 (95%CI -0.49, -0.18, p = 0.001, anxiety (HADS; B = -0.22 (95%CI -0.34, -0.11, p = 0.001, numb feeling in extremities (B = 1.86 (95%CI 0.85, 2.87, p = 0.002, insulin dose (B = 0.01 (95%CI 0.00, 0.02, p = 0.014 and waist-to-hip ratio (B = 6.79 (95%CI 2.10, 11.78, p = 0.003. This model explained 25% of the variance in weight loss. The C-index of this model to predict successful (≥5% weight loss was 0.74 (95%CI 0.67-0.82, with a sensitivity of 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.97 and specificity of 0.29 (95% CI 0.16-0.42. When only the obese T2D patients (BMI≥30 kg/m2; n = 181 were considered, age also contributed to the model (B = 0.06 (95%CI 0.02, 0.11, p = 0.008, whereas waist-to-hip ratio did not.Diet-induced weight loss in overweight adults with T2D was predicted by five baseline parameters, which were predominantly diabetes related. However, failure seems difficult to predict. We propose to test this prediction model in future prospective diet intervention studies in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Responses of gut microbiota to diet composition and weight loss in lean and obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravussin, Yann; Koren, Omry; Spor, Ayme; LeDuc, Charles; Gutman, Roee; Stombaugh, Jesse; Knight, Rob; Ley, Ruth E; Leibel, Rudolph L

    2012-04-01

    Maintenance of a reduced body weight is accompanied by a decrease in energy expenditure beyond that accounted for by reduced body mass and composition, as well as by an increased drive to eat. These effects appear to be due--in part--to reductions in circulating leptin concentrations due to loss of body fat. Gut microbiota have been implicated in the regulation of body weight. The effects of weight loss on qualitative aspects of gut microbiota have been studied in humans and mice, but these studies have been confounded by concurrent changes in diet composition, which influence microbial community composition. We studied the impact of 20% weight loss on the microbiota of diet-induced obese (DIO: 60% calories fat) mice on a high-fat diet (HFD). Weight-reduced DIO (DIO-WR) mice had the same body weight and composition as control (CON) ad-libitum (AL) fed mice being fed a control diet (10% calories fat), allowing a direct comparison of diet and weight-perturbation effects. Microbial community composition was assessed by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA genes derived from the ceca of sacrificed animals. There was a strong effect of diet composition on the diversity and composition of the microbiota. The relative abundance of specific members of the microbiota was correlated with circulating leptin concentrations and gene expression levels of inflammation markers in subcutaneous white adipose tissue in all mice. Together, these results suggest that both host adiposity and diet composition impact microbiota composition, possibly through leptin-mediated regulation of mucus production and/or inflammatory processes that alter the gut habitat.

  7. Effect of weight loss on the severity of psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P; Zachariae, Claus; Christensen, R

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with adiposity and weight gain increases the severity of psoriasis and the risk of incident psoriasis. Therefore, we aimed to measure the effect of weight reduction on the severity of psoriasis in obese patients with psoriasis.......Psoriasis is associated with adiposity and weight gain increases the severity of psoriasis and the risk of incident psoriasis. Therefore, we aimed to measure the effect of weight reduction on the severity of psoriasis in obese patients with psoriasis....

  8. Iatrogenic Subclinical Hyperthyroidism Does Not Promote Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Rohit; Lowes, Alicia; Gillis, Sarah; Markert, Ronald; Koroscil, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Among patients who have undergone total thyroidectomy, do those with thyroid cancer being kept iatrogenically subclinical hyperthyroid (SCH) differ from euthyroid patients in long-term weight change? In a retrospective study, medical records identified 291 patients who had undergone a thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer or benign thyroid disease. Weight, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and levothyroxine dose were measured presurgery and 1, 2, and 3 years postsurgery. Of 291 patients, 147 were in the SCH group and 144 were in the euthyroid group. At all 3 years both groups gained weight from baseline, but the two groups did not differ in weight change from baseline at any time period: year 1 (SCH mean 0.4% ± 6.2% weight gain vs euthyroid group mean 2.2% ± 6.6% weight gain; P = 0.12), year 2 (SCH mean 1.1% ± 9.1% weight gain vs euthyroid mean 2.9% ± 7.8% weight gain; P = 0.22), and year 3 (SCH mean 2.6% ± 9.2% weight gain vs euthyroid mean 3.1% ± 11.1% weight gain; P = 0.49). Among total thyroidectomy patients, weight change did not differ between SCH patients and euthyroid patients at years 1 through 3. As such, the use of levothyroxine to induce SCH did not lead to long-term weight change when compared with euthyroid patients.

  9. Obesity: locus of control, body image, weight loss, and age-at-onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wineman, N M

    1980-01-01

    In a retrospective investigation designed to measure locus of control, body image, and weight loss in Overeaters Anonymous members who had childhood, adolescence, or adulthood onset of obesity, 116 subjects were grouped according to age at onset of obesity and the year they joined OA. A convenience, volunteer sample of OA members completed a demographic data questionnaire, Rotter's Social Reaction. Inventory, and Secord and Jourard's Body Cathexis Scale. Significant overweight percentage differences were not found when the three age-at-onset groups were compared. Significant differences emerged, however, for adolescent-onset group persons who were categorized as "old" members; they had a larger weight loss and were more satisfied with their body image. A positive linear relationship between greater perception of internal control and a good body image was found in the entire adulthood-onset group. Weight loss and good body image of the oldest adolescent-onset group probably was the outcome of their association with a self-help group i.e., OA. Assessment of developmental issues related to the time of initial weight gain may indicate which treatment regime would be most effective.

  10. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  11. Does Weight Gain During the Operation Wait Time Have an Impact on Weight Loss After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayci, Haci Murat; Erdogdu, Umut Eren; Karaman, Kerem; Budak, Ersin; Taymur, İbrahim; Buyukuysal, Cagatay

    2017-02-01

    The effect of preoperative weight changes on postoperative outcomes after bariatric surgery remains inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative weight gain on postoperative weight loss outcomes after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG). Ninety-two morbidly obese patients undergoing SG from January 2014 to April 2016 were separated into two groups according to whether they gained weight or not during the waiting time prior to surgery. Thirty-nine patients (42.4 %) gained weight during the waiting time and 53 patients (57.6 %) did not. The median body mass index (BMI; kg/m 2 ) at surgery was significantly higher in weight-gained patients (47.8 (min-max, 40-62)) compared to patients who had not gained weight (45.10 (min-max, 41-67)), (P = 0.034). No significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the distribution of age, gender, family history of obesity, existence of comorbidity, smoking, weight gain during childhood or adulthood, preoperative Beck depression and Beck anxiety scores, waiting time period, and body weight at the initial visit (P > 0.05). The ASA I score was higher in weight-gained patients whereas ASA II score was higher in those who did not gain, and the difference was significant (P = 0.046). Postoperative % BMI loss and % weight loss were not significantly different between the two groups at the first, third, sixth months, and the end of the first year (P > 0.05). Weight gain during waiting time has no negative impact on % weight loss and % BMI loss after SG.

  12. Obesity, knee osteoarthritis, and polypathology: factors favoring weight loss in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla Pera, Pilar; Ferrér, M Carmen Olivé; Nuñez Juarez, Montserrat; Nuñez Juarez, Esther; Maciá Soler, Loreto; López Matheu, Carmen; Rigol Cuadra, Assumpta; Pérez, María Honrubia; Marre, Diana

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to explore the meaning of obesity in elderly persons with knee osteoarthritis (KO) and to determine the factors that encourage or discourage weight loss. Various studies have demonstrated that body mass index is related to KO and that weight loss improves symptoms and functional capacity. However, dietary habits are difficult to modify and most education programs are ineffective. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted. Intentional sampling was performed in ten older persons with KO who had lost weight and improved their health-related quality of life after participating in a health education program. A thematic content analysis was conducted following the stages proposed by Miles and Huberman. Participants understood obesity as a risk factor for health problems and stigma. They believed that the cause of obesity was multifactorial and criticized health professionals for labeling them as "obese" and for assigning a moral value to slimness and diet. The factors identified as contributing to the effectiveness of the program were a tolerant attitude among health professionals, group education that encouraged motivation, quantitative dietary recommendations, and a meaningful learning model based on social learning theories. Dietary self-management without prohibitions helped participants to make changes in the quantity and timing of some food intake and to lose weight without sacrificing some foods that were deeply rooted in their culture and preferences. Dietary education programs should focus on health-related quality of life and include scientific knowledge but should also consider affective factors and the problems perceived as priorities by patients.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of sibutramine in the LOSE Weight Study: evaluating the role of pharmacologic weight-loss therapy within a weight management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Daniel C; Raebel, Marsha A; Porter, Julie A; Lanty, Frances A; Conner, Douglas A; Gay, Elizabeth C; Merenich, John A; Vogel, Erin A

    2005-01-01

    the cost-effectiveness of drug therapy when used in conjunction with a weight management program (WMP) for treatment of obesity. The objective was to compare the cost-effectiveness of sibutramine (Meridia) plus a structured WMP versus only a structured WMP in both overweight and obese individuals. The core WMP was a physician-supervised, multidisciplinary program for which each enrollee paid $100 out of pocket. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed based upon the results of a previously published randomized controlled trial conducted within a managed care organization. The target population for this study was obese or overweight persons. The perspective of the study was that of a managed care organization. The intervention consisted of subjects receiving a WMP with or without sibutramine. The primary outcomes of this study were (a) absolute change in body weight and percentage change in body weight over 12 months, (b) change in obesity-related and total medical costs from 12 months prior to enrollment through 12 months after enrollment, and (c) cost-effectiveness in terms of cost per pound of weight loss. All costs were adjusted to 2004 dollars using the respective components of the consumer price index for each medical service or medication. A total of 501 evaluable subjects were enrolled in the study, with 281 receiving sibutramine plus a structured WMP and 220 receiving only the structured WMP. The meanSD weight loss was significantly greater in the sibutramine (13.715.5 pounds, 4.8%) group than in the nondrug group (513.2 pounds, 2.2%) (P cost was a median increase of $408 for the sibutramine group compared with $31 for the nondrug group (P cost was a median $1,279 increase in the sibutramine group compared with $271 for the nondrug group (P cost by $44 per additional pound of weight loss (95% confidence interval, 42-46). Sensitivity analyses found that the results were sensitive to the price of sibutramine, whereas varying the cost of clinic visits did

  14. Preoperative weight loss with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist treatment predicts greater weight loss achieved by the combination of medical weight management and bariatric surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes: A longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tien; Abbott, Sally; le Roux, Carel W; Wilson, Violet; Singhal, Rishi; Bellary, Srikanth; Tahrani, Abd A

    2018-03-01

    We examined the relationship between weight changes after preoperative glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) treatment and weight changes from the start of medical weight management (MWM) until 12 months after bariatric surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes in a retrospective cohort study. A total of 45 patients (64.4% women, median [interquartile range] age 49 [45-60] years) were included. The median (interquartile range) weight loss from start of MWM until 12 months post-surgery was 17.9% (13.0%-29.3%). GLP-1RA treatment during MWM resulted in 5.0% (1.9%-7.7%) weight loss. Weight loss during GLP-1RA treatment predicted weight loss from the start of MWM until 12 months post-surgery, but not postoperative weight loss after adjustment. The proportion of weight loss from start of MWM to 12 months post-surgery attributed to GLP-1RA treatment was negatively associated with that attributed to surgery, after adjustment. In conclusion, weight change after GLP-1RA treatment predicted the weight loss achieved by a combination of MWM and bariatric surgery, but not weight loss induced by surgery only. Failure to lose weight after GLP-1RA treatment should not be considered a barrier to undergoing bariatric surgery. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Softened food reduces weight loss in the streptozotocin-induced male mouse model of diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Sisse A; Sand, Fredrik W; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2018-01-01

    The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mouse is a widely used model of diabetes and diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, it is a well-known issue that this model is challenged by high weight loss, which despite supportive measures often results in high euthanization rates. To overcome...... these issues, we hypothesized that supplementing STZ-induced diabetic mice with water-softened chow in addition to normal chow would reduce weight loss, lower the need for supportive treatment, and reduce the number of mice reaching the humane endpoint of 20% weight loss. In a 15 week STZ-induced DN study we...... demonstrated that diabetic male mice receiving softened chow had reduced acute weight loss following STZ treatment ( p = 0.045) and additionally fewer mice were euthanized due to weight loss. By supplementing the diabetic mice with softened chow, no mice reached 20% weight loss whereas 37.5% of the mice...

  16. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Egras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss.

  17. Efficacy of a meal replacement diet plan compared to a food-based diet plan after a period of weight loss and weight maintenance: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchisen Tammy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. It is implicated in the development of a variety of chronic disease states and is associated with increased levels of inflammation and oxidative stress. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of Medifast's meal replacement program (MD on body weight, body composition, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among obese individuals following a period of weight loss and weight maintenance compared to a an isocaloric, food-based diet (FB. Methods This 40-week randomized, controlled clinical trial included 90 obese adults with a body mass index (BMI between 30 and 50 kg/m2, randomly assigned to one of two weight loss programs for 16 weeks and then followed for a 24-week period of weight maintenance. The dietary interventions consisted of Medifast's meal replacement program for weight loss and weight maintenance, or a self-selected, isocaloric, food-based meal plan. Results Weight loss at 16 weeks was significantly better in the Medifast group (MD versus the food-based group (FB (12.3% vs. 6.9%, and while significantly more weight was regained during weight maintenance on MD versus FB, overall greater weight loss was achieved on MD versus FB. Significantly more of the MD participants lost ≥ 5% of their initial weight at week 16 (93% vs. 55% and week 40 (62% vs. 30%. There was no difference in satiety observed between the two groups during the weight loss phase. Significant improvements in body composition were also observed in MD participants compared to FB at week 16 and week 40. At week 40, both groups experienced improvements in biochemical outcomes and other clinical indicators. Conclusions Our data suggest that the meal replacement diet plan evaluated was an effective strategy for producing robust initial weight loss and for achieving improvements in a number of health-related parameters during weight maintenance, including inflammation

  18. Length-weight relationships, condition factors and relative weight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to record the length-weight relationship parameters and condition factors for some commercially important fish of Bushehr coastal waters of Persian Gulf. The length-weight relationships were calculated for five species caught during fishing surveys using different types of fishing gears (trawls, pots ...

  19. Examining behavioral processes through which lifestyle interventions promote weight loss: results from PREMIER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Stevens, Victor J; Coughlin, Janelle W; Rubin, Richard R; Brantley, Phillip J; Funk, Kristine L; Svetkey, Laura P; Jerome, Gerald J; Dalcin, Arlene; Charleston, Jeanne; Appel, Lawrence J

    2014-04-01

    To examine the behavioral processes through which lifestyle interventions impacted weight loss. The analyses were limited to overweight and obese Black and White adults randomized to a PREMIER lifestyle intervention (N = 501). Structural equation modeling was conducted to test the direct and indirect relationships of session attendance, days of self-monitoring diet and exercise, change in diet composition and exercise, and 6-month weight change. Greater session attendance was associated with increased self-monitoring, which was in turn significantly related to reduction in percent energy from total fat consumed. Change in percent energy from fat and self-monitoring was associated with 6-month percent change in weight. Both a decrease in fat intake and increase in self-monitoring are potential mediators of the relationship between attendance and weight change. The findings provide a reasonable model that suggests regular session attendance and use of behavioral strategies like self-monitoring are associated with improved behavioral outcomes that are associated with weight loss. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  20. Prandial subcutaneous injections of glucagon-like peptide-1 cause weight loss in obese human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund, Erik; King, N; Mansten, S

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)amide (rGLP-1) was recently shown to cause significant weight loss in type 2 diabetics when administered for 6 weeks as a continuous subcutaneous infusion. The mechanisms responsible for the weight loss are not clarified. In the present study, rGLP-1 was ...... as a probable mechanism of action of increased satiety, decreased hunger and, hence, reduced food intake with an ensuing weight loss....

  1. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Andersen, Malene R

    2011-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance.......Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance....

  2. A Weight-Loss Diet Including Coffee-Derived Mannooligosaccharides Enhances Adipose Tissue Loss in Overweight Men but Not Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Salinardi, Taylor; Herron-Rubin, Kristin; Black, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Mannooligosaccharides (MOS), extracted from coffee, have been shown to promote a decrease in body fat when consumed as part of free-living, weight-maintaining diets. Our objective was to determine if MOS consumption (4 g/day), in conjunction with a weight-loss diet, would lead to greater reductions in adipose tissue compartments than placebo. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled weight-loss study in which 60 overweight men and women consumed study beverages and received weekly group counseling for 12 weeks. Weight and blood pressure were measured weekly, and adipose tissue distribution was assessed at baseline and at end point using magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 54 subjects completed the study. Men consuming the MOS beverage had greater loss of body weight than men consuming the Placebo beverage (−6.0 ± 0.6% vs. −2.3 ± 0.5%, respectively, P coffee-derived MOS to a weight-loss diet enhanced both weight and adipose tissue losses in men, suggesting a potential functional use of MOS for weight management and improvement in adipose tissue distribution. More studies are needed to investigate the apparent gender difference in response to MOS consumption. PMID:21938072

  3. Diffusion-weighted MRI and quantitative biophysical modeling of hippocampal neurite loss in chronic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vestergaard-Poulsen

    Full Text Available Chronic stress has detrimental effects on physiology, learning and memory and is involved in the development of anxiety and depressive disorders. Besides changes in synaptic formation and neurogenesis, chronic stress also induces dendritic remodeling in the hippocampus, amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. Investigations of dendritic remodeling during development and treatment of stress are currently limited by the invasive nature of histological and stereological methods. Here we show that high field diffusion-weighted MRI combined with quantitative biophysical modeling of the hippocampal dendritic loss in 21 day restraint stressed rats highly correlates with former histological findings. Our study strongly indicates that diffusion-weighted MRI is sensitive to regional dendritic loss and thus a promising candidate for non-invasive studies of dendritic plasticity in chronic stress and stress-related disorders.

  4. Polysomnographic sleep, growth hormone insulin-like growth factor-I axis, leptin, and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael; Wildschiødtz, Gordon; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    compared with nonobese subjects After diet-induced weight loss the differences in GH, free IGF-I, and leptin were no longer present between previously obese and nonobese subjects, whereas a significant difference in sleep duration and total IGF-I levels persisted. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, non-REM......Short sleep appears to be strongly associated with obesity and altered metabolic function, and sleep and growth hormone (GH) secretion seems interlinked. In obesity, both the GH-insulin-like-growth-factor-I (GH-IGF-I) axis and sleep have been reported to be abnormal, however, no studies have...... investigated sleep in relation to the GH-IGF-I axis and weight loss in obese subjects. In this study polygraphic sleep recordings, 24-h GH release, 24-h leptin levels, free-IGF-I, total-IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), acid-labile subunit (ALS), cortisol and insulin sensitivity were determined in six...

  5. Weight-loss interventions for Hispanic populations: the role of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nangel M; Stevens, Victor J; Halperin, Ruben O

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, ethnic minorities are overrepresented among the overweight and obese population, with Hispanic individuals being among the groups most at risk for obesity and obesity-related disease and disability. Most weight-loss interventions designed for the general population have been less successful with individuals from ethnic minorities and there is a pressing need to develop more effective interventions for these groups. This paper examines the importance of culture in the development of "culturally competent" weight-loss interventions for ethnic minority populations, and discusses specific culturally mediated factors that should be considered in the design and implementation of treatment interventions. While specifically focusing on Hispanic populations, we also address issues of relevance to other multiethnic societies.

  6. Patient and Physician Characteristics Associated with the Provision of Weight Loss Counseling in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Gareth R.; Herman, Katharine G.; Tan, Fei; Goble, Mary; Dancer-Brown, Melissa; Van Vessem, Nancy; Ard, Jamy D.

    2013-01-01

    Background A variety of physician and patient characteristics may influence whether weight loss counseling occurs in primary care encounters. Objectives This study utilized a cross-sectional survey of primary care patients, which examined patient characteristics, physician characteristics, and characteristics of the physician-patient relationship associated with weight loss counseling and recommendations provided by physicians. Participants Participants (N=143, mean age=46.8 years, mean BMI=36.9 kg/m2, 65% Caucasian) were overweight and obese primary care patients participating in a managed care weight loss program. Measures Participants completed self-report surveys in the clinic prior to the initial weight loss session. Surveys included items assessing demographic/background characteristics, weight, height, and a health care questionnaire evaluating whether their physician had recommended weight loss, the frequency of their physicians’ weight loss counseling, and whether their physician had referred them for obesity treatment. Results Patient BMI and physician sex were most consistently associated with physicians’ weight loss counseling practices. Patients seen by female physicians were more likely to be told that they should lose weight, received more frequent obesity counseling, and were more likely to have been referred for obesity treatment by their physician. Length and frequency of physician-patient contacts were unrelated to the likelihood of counseling. Conclusions These findings add to previous evidence suggesting possible differences in the weight loss counseling practices of male and female physicians, although further research is needed to understand this potential difference between physicians. PMID:24743007

  7. Sex differences in the composition of weight gain and loss in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, D Joe; Truby, Helen; Fox, Kenneth R; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Macdonald, Ian A; Tothill, Peter

    2014-03-14

    Sex differences in the ratio of fat mass (FM):fat-free mass (FFM) during weight change should differentially affect the extent of weight change during energy imbalance in men and women. In the present study, we determined FM and FFM contents by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and calculated the P-ratios (protein energy/total energy) of excess weight and weight loss during a randomised controlled trial of four commercial weight loss regimens. Overweight and obese women (n 210) and men (n 77) were studied at baseline and at 2 and 6 months during weight loss on four dietary regimens: Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution; The Slim-Fast Plan; Weight-Watchers programme; Rosemary Conley's Diet and Fitness Plan. At baseline, the percentage of FFM (%FFM) and P-ratios of excess weight were 40 % and 0·071 for men and 27 % and 0·039 for women. At 2 months, men had lost twice as much weight as women and three times more FFM than women, indicating higher FFM content and P-ratios of weight loss for men, 0·052, than for women, 0·029, with no dietary effects. Between 2 and 6 months, the rate at which weight was lost decreased and the %FFM of weight loss decreased to similar low levels in men (7 %) and women (5 %): i.e. P-ratios of 0·009 and 0·006, respectively, with no dietary effects. Thus, for men compared with women, there were greater FFM content and P-ratios of weight change, which could partly, but not completely, explain their greater weight loss at 2 months. However, protein-conserving adaptations occur with increasing weight loss and over time, more extensively in men, eventually eliminating any sex difference in the composition of weight loss.

  8. Radiotherapy on the neck nodes predicts severe weight loss in patients with early stage laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langius, Jacqueline A.E.; Doornaert, Patricia; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Leemans, C. Rene; Schueren, Marian A.E. van Bokhorst-de van der

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although patients with early stage (T1/T2) laryngeal cancer (LC) are thought to have a low incidence of malnutrition, severe weight loss is observed in a subgroup of these patients during radiotherapy (RT). The objective of this study was to evaluate weight loss and nutrition-related symptoms in patients with T1/T2 LC during RT and to select predictive factors for early identification of malnourished patients. Methods: Of all patients with T1/T2 LC, who received primary RT between 1999 and 2007, the following characteristics were recorded: sex, age, TNM classification, tumour location, radiation schedule, performance status, quality of life, weight loss, and nutrition-related symptoms. The association between baseline characteristics and malnutrition (>5% weight loss during RT) was investigated by Cox regression analysis. Results: The study population consisted of 238 patients. During RT, 44% of patients developed malnutrition. Tumour location, TNM classification, RT on the neck nodes, RT dose, nausea/vomiting, pain, swallowing, senses problems, trouble with social eating, dry mouth and the use of painkillers were all significantly associated with malnutrition. In the multivariate analysis, RTs on both the neck nodes (HR 4.16, 95% CI 2.62-6.60) and dry mouth (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.14-2.60) remained predictive. Nevertheless, RT on the neck nodes alone resulted in the best predictive model for malnutrition scores. Conclusions: Patients with early stage laryngeal cancer are at risk of malnutrition during radiotherapy. Radiotherapy on the neck nodes is the best predictor of malnutrition during radiotherapy. Therefore, we suggest to offer nutritional counselling to all the patients who receive nodal irradiation.

  9. A randomized controlled trial of behavioral weight loss treatment versus combined weight loss/depression treatment among women with comorbid obesity and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Jennifer A; Simon, Gregory E; Ludman, Evette J; Ichikawa, Laura E; Operskalski, Belinda H; Arterburn, David; Rohde, Paul; Finch, Emily A; Jeffery, Robert W

    2011-02-01

    Obesity is associated with clinical depression among women. However, depressed women are often excluded from weight loss trials. This study examined treatment outcomes among women with comorbid obesity and depression. Two hundred three (203) women were randomized to behavioral weight loss (n = 102) or behavioral weight loss combined with cognitive-behavioral depression management (n = 101). Average participant age was 52 years; mean baseline body mass index was 39 kg/m(2). Mean Patient Health Questionnaire and Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-20) scores indicated moderate to severe baseline depression. Weight loss and SCL-20 changes did not differ between groups at 6 or 12 months in intent-to-treat analyses (p = 0.26 and 0.55 for weight, p = 0.70 and 0.25 for depressive symptoms). Depressed obese women lost weight and demonstrated improved mood in both treatment programs. Future weight loss trials are encouraged to enroll depressed women.

  10. Sustained Weight Loss with Vagal Nerve Blockade but Not with Sham: 18-Month Results of the ReCharge Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Shikora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives. Vagal block therapy (vBloc is effective for moderate to severe obesity at one year. Subjects/Methods. The ReCharge trial is a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial of 239 participants with body mass index (BMI of 40 to 45 kg/m or 35 to 40 kg/m with one or more obesity-related conditions. Interventions were implantation of either vBloc or Sham devices and weight management counseling. Mixed models assessed percent excess weight loss (%EWL and total weight loss (%TWL in intent-to-treat analyses. At 18 months, 142 (88% vBloc and 64 (83% Sham patients remained enrolled in the study. Results. 18-month weight loss was 23% EWL (8.8% TWL for vBloc and 10% EWL (3.8% TWL for Sham (P<0.0001. vBloc patients largely maintained 12-month weight loss of 26% EWL (9.7% TWL. Sham regained over 40% of the 17% EWL (6.4% TWL by 18 months. Most weight regain preceded unblinding. Common adverse events of vBloc through 18 months were heartburn/dyspepsia and abdominal pain; 98% of events were reported as mild or moderate and 79% had resolved. Conclusions. Weight loss with vBloc was sustained through 18 months, while Sham regained weight between 12 and 18 months. vBloc is effective with a low rate of serious complications.

  11. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet increases C-reactive protein during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Janet W; Turpyn, Abigail D

    2007-04-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with elevated risk of heart disease and may be linked to oxidative stress in obesity. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of weight loss diet composition (low carbohydrate, high fat, LC or high carbohydrate, low fat, HC) on inflammation and to determine whether this was related to oxidative stress. Twenty nine overweight women, BMI 32.1 +/- 5.4 kg/m(2), were randomly assigned to a self-selected LC or HC diet for 4 wks. Weekly group sessions and diet record collections helped enhance compliance. Body weight, markers of inflammation (serum interleukin-6, IL-6; C-reactive protein, CRP) oxidative stress (urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha, 8-epi) and fasting blood glucose and free fatty acids were measured weekly. The diets were similar in caloric intake (1357 kcal/d LC vs. 1361 HC, p=0.94), but differed in macronutrients (58, 12, 30 and 24, 59, 18 for percent of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein for LC and HC, respectively). Although LC lost more weight (3.8 +/- 1.2 kg LC vs. 2.6 +/- 1.7 HC, p=0.04), CRP increased 25%; this factor was reduced 43% in HC (p=0.02). For both groups, glucose decreased with weight loss (85.4 vs. 82.1 mg/dl for baseline and wk 4, p<0.01), while IL-6 increased (1.39 to 1.62 pg/mL, p=0.04). Urinary 8-epi varied differently over time between groups (p<0.05) with no consistent pattern. Diet composition of the weight loss diet influenced a key marker of inflammation in that LC increased while HC reduced serum CRP but evidence did not support that this was related to oxidative stress.

  12. Effects of diet composition on postprandial energy availability during weight loss maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn O Walsh

    Full Text Available The major circulating metabolic fuels regulate hunger, and each is affected by dietary composition. An integrated measure of postprandial energy availability from circulating metabolic fuels may help inform dietary recommendations for weight maintenance after weight loss.We examined the effect of low-fat (LF, 60% of energy from carbohydrate, 20% fat, 20% protein, low-glycemic index (LGI, 40%-40%-20%, and very low-carbohydrate (VLC, 10%-60%-30% diets on total postprandial metabolic fuel energy availability (EA during weight loss maintenance.Eight obese young adults were fed a standard hypocaloric diet to produce 10-15% weight loss. They were then provided isocaloric LF, LGI, and VLC diets in a randomized crossover design, each for a 4-week period of weight loss maintenance. At the end of each dietary period, a test meal representing the respective diet was provided, and blood samples were obtained every 30 minutes for 5 hours. The primary outcome was EA, defined as the combined energy density (circulating level × relative energy content of glucose, free fatty acids, and β-hydroxybutyrate. Secondary outcomes were individual metabolic fuels, metabolic rate, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, and hunger ratings. Respiratory quotient was a process measure. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance, with outcomes compared in the early (30 to 150 min and late (180 to 300 min postprandial periods.EA did not differ between the test meals during the early postprandial period (p = 0.99. However, EA in the late postprandial period was significantly lower after the LF test meal than the LGI (p<0.0001 and VLC (p<0.0001 test meals. Metabolic rate also differed in the late postprandial period (p = 0.0074, with higher values on the VLC than LF (p = 0.0064 and LGI (p = 0.0066 diets.These findings suggest that an LF diet may adversely affect postprandial EA and risk for weight regain during weight loss maintenance.

  13. A Systematic Review of Electronic Mindfulness-Based Therapeutic Interventions for Weight, Weight-Related Behaviors, and Psychological Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyzwinski, Lynnette Nathalie; Caffery, Liam; Bambling, Matthew; Edirippulige, Sisira

    2018-03-01

    Recent research indicates that mindfulness-based interventions are effective for stress, maladaptive weight-related behaviors, and weight loss. Little is presently known about their applicability and effectiveness when delivered electronically, including through Web-based and mobile device media. The primary aims of this review were to identify what types of electronic mindfulness-based interventions have been undertaken for stress, maladaptive weight-related behaviors, and weight loss, and to assess their overall effectiveness. A systematic search of PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases was undertaken in June 2016. A total of 21 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria and were selected in the final review. Of these, 19 were mindfulness-based interventions for stress reduction. Two were Web-based mindful eating/intuitive eating interventions for weight. Only one electronic mindfulness-based study was identified that targeted both stress and maladaptive weight-related behaviors. Most electronic interventions were effective for stress reduction N = 14/19 (74%). There were insufficient electronic mindfulness-based interventions for weight to determine if they were effective or not. Additionally, no mobile mindfulness-based intervention was identified for weight or weight-related behaviors. Electronic mindfulness-based interventions through diverse media appear to be effective for stress reduction. More studies are needed that target weight and weight-related behaviors as well as studies that target both stress and weight. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assess mobile mindfulness-based apps are needed as we only identified four app trials for stress. Mobile mindfulness-based interventions for weight and weight-related behaviors are a future area of research novelty.

  14. Impact of weight loss on oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with abnormal markers of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers. Although, these abnormalities could be modulated with weight reduction; there is limitation in clinical studies that have addressed the beneficial effects of weight reduction in modulating ...

  15. Relationship Between Changes in Fat and Lean Depots Following Weight Loss and Changes in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Peter M

    2018-04-04

    Gluteofemoral fat mass has been associated with improved cardiovascular disease risk factors. It is not clear if loss of this protective fat during weight loss partially negates the effect of loss of visceral fat. The aim of this study was to examine regional fat loss in a large weight-loss cohort from one center and to determine if fat loss in the leg and total lean tissue loss is harmful. We combined the data from 7 of our previously published 3-month weight-loss studies and examined the relationship between regional fat and lean tissue loss and changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors in 399 participants. At baseline, leg fat was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women and inversely with fasting triglyceride level in both sexes. Abdominal lean tissue was also related to systolic blood pressure in men. Changes in regional fat and lean tissue were positively associated with changes in glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure ( r =0.11-0.22, P lean tissue dominating in multivariate regression. After adjustment for total weight or total fat change, these relationships disappeared except for a positive relationship between arm and lean leg mass loss and changes in triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. Loss of leg fat and leg lean tissue was directly associated with beneficial changes in cardiovascular disease risk markers. Loss of lean tissue may not have an adverse effect on cardiovascular disease risk, and measures to retain lean tissue during weight loss may not be necessary. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  16. Long-term weight loss after bariatric surgery in patients visited at home outside the study environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M H

    2006-11-01

    Bariatric surgery results in sustained weight loss in the majority of patients. The controlled setting of a trial, however, does not necessarily reflect the everyday routine practice. Therefore, to investigate the results of bariatric surgery in a more natural setting, patients were visited at home, outside a study and hospital environment. Patients who underwent a vertical banded gastroplasty or a gastric bypass between 1980 and 1997 were eligible. Body weight and height were measured. Patients filled out general and health status questionnaires (Nottingham Health Profile (NHP)). Responses were obtained from 236/313 subjects (75%) with a mean +/- SD age of 42.9 +/- 10.2 years and a mean current body weight of 100.3 +/- 20.7 kg. A maximum weight loss of 48.2 +/- 18.4 kg or 70.8 +/- 22.4% excess weight loss was obtained after 17 +/- 15 months, of which 32.1 +/- 22.6 kg or 45.2 +/- 29.3%, respectively, was maintained at 8.2 +/- 4.5 years after the intervention. Males and females did not differ in weight loss. The type of operation had no influence. Age >50 years and a BMI >50 kg/m(2) were not related to a poor outcome, but a time lapse of >5 years since the operation resulted in a less well sustained weight loss. The subjective health status improved considerably, but less so with a smaller weight loss and longer lapse of time since the operation. Especially in females, the NHP still deviated substantially from Dutch norm values. Surgically obtained weight loss is satisfactory in patients outside a strictly controlled study setting. Health benefits are substantial, but are adversely affected by weight gain and time elapsed since the operation.

  17. The complexity of self-regulating food intake in weight loss maintenance. A qualitative exploration among short- and long-term weight loss maintainers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne; Sniethotta, Falko; Sainsbury, Kirby

    Objective: The aim of this study was to better understand whether self-regulation of food intake in WLM differs in the challenging transition from being a short-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining less than 12 months) to a long-term maintainer (having maintained without regaining....../storing, preparing/cooking, eating, and general barriers and resources in WLM. Post-hoc coding was applied based on self-regulation strategies and self-efficacy beliefs, and thematic analysis was also applied to identify additional themes. A content analysis approach using NVivo 11 highlighted the differences...... describe and understand the self-regulatory strategies related to food intake in WLM. Methods: Individual interviews (14 female/5 male) were conducted with 9 Danish short- and 10 long-term weight loss maintainers. Initial codes were based on five themes related to food intake: planning, shopping...

  18. Predicting actual weight loss: A review of the determinants according to the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Louisa Ming Yan; Fong, Shirley Siu Ming

    2015-01-01

    Weight reduction that corresponds with lifestyle modification is difficult to foster. The theory of planned behaviour has been actively cited in explaining health-related behaviour. This review evaluated the application of the theory of planned behaviour to weight-loss behaviour. Among the three reviewed papers, cross-sectional survey designs and subjective outcome measurements were commonly applied. All of the studies recruited obese female adults as participants, limiting the generalisability of the studies' findings. The theory of planned behaviour can be effectively applied in weight-reduction programmes targeting female obese patients. This review confirmed critiques citing the limitations of experimental studies, the subjective measurement of behaviour and short follow-up periods.

  19. Timeline of changes in appetite during weight loss with a ketogenic diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymo, S; Coutinho, S R; Jørgensen, J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to increased hunger and reduced fullness feelings, increased ghrelin and reduced satiety peptides concentration (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY)). Ketogenic diets seem to minimise or supress some...... of these responses. The aim of this study was to determine the timeline over which changes in appetite occur during progressive WL with a ketogenic very-low-energy diet (VLED). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty-one sedentary adults (18 men), with obesity (body mass index: 37±4.5 kg m-2) underwent 8 weeks (wks) of a VLED...... followed by 4 wks of weight maintenance. Body weight and composition, subjective feelings of appetite and appetite-related hormones (insulin, active ghrelin (AG), active GLP-1, total PYY and CCK) were measured in fasting and postprandially, at baseline, on day 3 of the diet, 5 and 10% WL, and at wks 9...

  20. Predictors of weight loss in young adults who are over-weight or obese and have psychosocial problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lous, Jørgen; Freund, Kirsten S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is in a general practice trial setting to identify predictive factors for weight loss after 1 year among young adults who are over-weight or obese and who have several psychosocial problems. METHODS: Twenty-eight general practitioners recruited 495 patients aged 20...

  1. Amiodarone-induced hyperthyroidism during massive weight loss following gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourron, Olivier; Ciangura, Cécile; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Massias, Laurent; Poitou, Christine; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2007-11-01

    Gastric bypass is increasingly used in morbidly obese patients to achieve significant reduction of body weight and fat mass and concurrent improvement in co-morbidities. We report the case of a 53-year-old male patient (141 kg, BMI 50 kg/m2), successfully treated by amiodarone for supraventricular arrythmia, who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP). 6 months after surgery, he had lost 45% of his preoperative weight (44.8% of weight loss was lean mass) and developed amiodarone-induced subclinical hyperthyroidism. We hypothesize the following sequence of events: weight loss after RYGBP, therefore fat loss, decrease in distribution volume of amiodarone inducing iodine overload and hyperthyroidism, reinforcing weight loss and particularly loss of lean mass. This report emphasizes the importance of careful monitoring of weight and body composition changes after RYGBP. In this situation, checking thyroid status is recommended, especially when there is a history of thyroid disease or potentially toxic thyroid medication.

  2. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Mobile Devices and Weight Loss with an Intervention Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyzwinski, Lynnette Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Overweight and obesity constitute leading global public health challenges. Tackling overweight and obesity by influencing human behaviour is a complex task, requiring novel emerging health psychology interventions. The aims of this review will be to determine whether mobile devices induce weight loss and improvements in diet and physical activity levels when compared with standard controls without a weight loss intervention or controls allocated to non-mobile device weight loss interventions. Methods: A systematic review on mobile devices and weight loss was conducted. The inclusion criteria were all randomized controlled trials with baseline and post-intervention weight measures in adult subjects >18 years of age without pre-specified co-morbidities. Mobile device specifications included modern, portable devices in the form of smartphones, PDAs, iPods, and Mp3 players. Cohen’s d for standardized differences in mean weight loss was calculated. A random effects meta-analysis was generated using Comprehensive meta-analysis software. Theories and intervention content were coded and analysed. Results: A total of 17 studies were identified, of which 12 were primary trials and 5 were secondary analyses. The meta-analysis generated a medium significant effect size of 0.430 (95% CI 0.252–0.609) (p-value ≤ 0.01), favouring mobile interventions. Throughout the systematic review, mobile devices were found to induce weight loss relative to baseline weight. When comparing them with standard no intervention controls as well as controls receiving non-mobile weight loss interventions, results favoured mobile devices for weight loss. Reductions in Body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage body fat were also found in the review. Improvements in the determinants of weight loss in the form of improved dietary intake and physical activity levels were also found. Theory appears to largely inform intervention design, with the most common theories being

  3. A systematic review and meta-analysis of mobile devices and weight loss with an intervention content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyzwinski, Lynnette Nathalie

    2014-06-30

    Overweight and obesity constitute leading global public health challenges. Tackling overweight and obesity by influencing human behaviour is a complex task, requiring novel emerging health psychology interventions. The aims of this review will be to determine whether mobile devices induce weight loss and improvements in diet and physical activity levels when compared with standard controls without a weight loss intervention or controls allocated to non-mobile device weight loss interventions. A systematic review on mobile devices and weight loss was conducted. The inclusion criteria were all randomized controlled trials with baseline and post-intervention weight measures in adult subjects >18 years of age without pre-specified co-morbidities. Mobile device specifications included modern, portable devices in the form of smartphones, PDAs, iPods, and Mp3 players. Cohen's d for standardized differences in mean weight loss was calculated. A random effects meta-analysis was generated using Comprehensive meta-analysis software. Theories and intervention content were coded and analysed. A total of 17 studies were identified, of which 12 were primary trials and 5 were secondary analyses. The meta-analysis generated a medium significant effect size of 0.430 (95% CI 0.252-0.609) (p-value ≤ 0.01), favouring mobile interventions. Throughout the systematic review, mobile devices were found to induce weight loss relative to baseline weight. When comparing them with standard no intervention controls as well as controls receiving non-mobile weight loss interventions, results favoured mobile devices for weight loss. Reductions in Body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage body fat were also found in the review. Improvements in the determinants of weight loss in the form of improved dietary intake and physical activity levels were also found. Theory appears to largely inform intervention design, with the most common theories being Social Cognitive Theory, Elaboration

  4. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Mobile Devices and Weight Loss with an Intervention Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnette Nathalie Lyzwinski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overweight and obesity constitute leading global public health challenges. Tackling overweight and obesity by influencing human behaviour is a complex task, requiring novel emerging health psychology interventions. The aims of this review will be to determine whether mobile devices induce weight loss and improvements in diet and physical activity levels when compared with standard controls without a weight loss intervention or controls allocated to non-mobile device weight loss interventions. Methods: A systematic review on mobile devices and weight loss was conducted. The inclusion criteria were all randomized controlled trials with baseline and post-intervention weight measures in adult subjects >18 years of age without pre-specified co-morbidities. Mobile device specifications included modern, portable devices in the form of smartphones, PDAs, iPods, and Mp3 players. Cohen’s d for standardized differences in mean weight loss was calculated. A random effects meta-analysis was generated using Comprehensive meta-analysis software. Theories and intervention content were coded and analysed. Results: A total of 17 studies were identified, of which 12 were primary trials and 5 were secondary analyses. The meta-analysis generated a medium significant effect size of 0.430 (95% CI 0.252–0.609 (p-value ≤ 0.01, favouring mobile interventions. Throughout the systematic review, mobile devices were found to induce weight loss relative to baseline weight. When comparing them with standard no intervention controls as well as controls receiving non-mobile weight loss interventions, results favoured mobile devices for weight loss. Reductions in Body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage body fat were also found in the review. Improvements in the determinants of weight loss in the form of improved dietary intake and physical activity levels were also found. Theory appears to largely inform intervention design, with the most common

  5. Inverse relationship between changes of maximal aerobic capacity and changes in walking economy after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Juliano H; Carter, Stephen J; Singh, Harshvardhan; Hunter, Gary R

    2018-05-16

    The aims of this study were to: (1) determine the relationships between maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2max ) and walking economy during non-graded and graded walking among overweight women and (2) examine potential differences in [Formula: see text]O 2max and walking economy before and after weight loss. One-hundred and twenty-four premenopausal women with a body mass index (BMI) between 27 and 30 kg/m 2 were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) diet only; (b) diet and aerobic exercise training; and (c) diet and resistance exercise training. All were furnished with standard, very-low calorie diet to reduce BMI to < 25 kg/m 2 . [Formula: see text]O 2max was measured using a modified-Bruce protocol while walking economy (1-net [Formula: see text]O 2 ) was obtained during fixed-speed (4.8 k·h -1 ), steady-state treadmill walking at 0% grade and 2.5% grade. Assessments were conducted before and after achieving target BMI. Prior to weight loss, [Formula: see text]O 2max was inversely related (P < 0.05) with non-graded and graded walking economy (r = - 0.28 to - 0.35). Similar results were also observed following weight loss (r = - 0.22 to - 0.28). Additionally, we also detected a significant inverse relationship (P < 0.05) between the changes (∆, after weight loss) in ∆[Formula: see text]O 2max , adjusted for fat-free mass, with non-graded and graded ∆walking economy (r = - 0.37 to - 0.41). Our results demonstrate [Formula: see text]O 2max and walking economy are inversely related (cross-sectional) before and after weight loss. Importantly though, ∆[Formula: see text]O 2max and ∆walking economy were also found to be inversely related, suggesting a strong synchrony between maximal aerobic capacity and metabolic cost of exercise.

  6. Dronabinol oral solution in the management of anorexia and weight loss in AIDS and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badowski, Melissa E; Yanful, Paa Kwesi

    2018-01-01

    The true incidence of anorexia secondary to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cancer is not well classified owing to the fact that there is a lack of standardized definitions and recent clinical data in these settings. Dronabinol, or Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is a synthetic molecule that closely mimics the action of Cannabis sativa L., a naturally occurring compound activated in the central nervous system by cannabinoid receptors. Dronabinol exerts its effects by directly acting on the vomiting and appetite control centers in the brain, which in turn increases appetite and prevents vomiting. In the USA, dronabinol is currently available in two dosage formulations - oral capsule and oral solution. While the oral capsule was initially approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1985, the recent approval of the oral solution in 2016 presents an "easy-to-swallow" alternative for patients using or intending to use dronabinol. Dronabinol is indicated in adult patients with HIV/AIDS for the treatment of anorexia and weight loss. However, there is no approved indication in the setting of cancer-related anorexia and weight loss. This review aims at presenting available data on the use of oral dronabinol in the management of anorexia and weight loss in HIV/AIDS and cancer, as well as characterizing and highlighting the pharmacotherapeutic considerations of the newest formulation of dronabinol.

  7. Appetite and Weight Loss Symptoms in Late-Life Depression Predict Dementia Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sayoni; Hatch, Daniel J; Hayden, Kathleen M; Steffens, David C; Potter, Guy G

    2016-10-01

    Identify depression symptoms during active late-life depression (LLD) that predict conversion to dementia. The authors followed a cohort of 290 participants from the Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly study. All participants were actively depressed and cognitively normal at enrollment. Depression symptom factors were derived from prior factor analysis: anhedonia and sadness, suicidality and guilt, appetite and weight loss, sleep disturbance, and anxiety and tension. Cox regression analysis modeled time to Alzheimer disease (AD) and non-AD dementia onset on depression symptom factors, along with age, education, sex, and race. Significant dementia predictors were tested for interaction with age at depression onset. Higher scores on the appetite and weight loss symptom factor were associated with an increased hazard of both AD and non-AD dementia. This factor was moderated by age at first depression onset, such that higher scores were associated with higher risk of non-AD dementia when depression first occurred earlier in life. Other depression symptom factors and overall depression severity were not related to risk of AD or non-AD dementia. Results suggest greater appetite/weight loss symptoms in active episodes of LLD are associated with increased likelihood of AD and non-AD dementia, but possibly via different pathways moderated by age at first depression onset. Results may help clinicians identify individuals with LLD at higher risk of developing AD and non-AD dementia and design interventions that reduce this risk. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Weight loss and quality of life in patients surviving 2 years after gastric cancer resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, M; Munarriz, M; Blazeby, J M; Dorcaratto, D; Ramón, J M; Carrera, M J; Fontane, L; Grande, L; Pera, M

    2017-07-01

    Malnutrition is common in patients undergoing gastric cancer resection, leading to weight loss, although little is known about how this impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQL). This study aimed to explore the association between HRQL and weight loss in patients 2 years after curative gastric cancer resection. Consecutive patients undergoing curative gastric cancer resection and surviving at least 2 years without disease recurrence were recruited. Patients completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the specific module for gastric cancer (STO22) before and 2 years postoperatively and associations between HRQL scores and patients with and without ≥ 10% body weight loss (BWL) were examined. A total of 76 patients were included, of whom 51 (67%) had BWL ≥10%. At 2 years postoperatively, BWL ≥10% was associated with deterioration of all functional aspects of quality of life, with persistent pain (21.6%), diarrhoea (13.7%) and nausea/vomiting (13.7%). By contrast, none of the patients with BWL patients with ≥10% BWL than in those with Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  9. An Observational Study of the Association between Adenovirus 36 Antibody Status and Weight Loss among Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillon S. Vander Wal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although the human adenovirus 36 (Ad-36 is associated with obesity and relative hypolipidemia, its role in pediatric weight loss treatment response is uncertain. Therefore, the primary study objective was to determine whether Ad-36 antibody (AB status was associated with response to a pediatric weight loss program. The secondary objective was to assess the association between Ad-36 AB status and baseline lipid values. Methods: Participants included 73 youth aged 10-17 years in a residential camp-based weight loss program. The study examined differences in baseline lipid values between Ad-36 AB+ and AB- youth as well as differences in response to treatment, including indices of body size and fitness. Results: At baseline, results showed that Ad-36 AB+ youth evidenced significantly lower levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides than Ad-36 AB- youth (all p Conclusion: Ad-36 AB status showed a weak association with treatment response, but was associated with a better lipid profile. Ad-36 AB status should be assessed in studies of pediatric obesity treatment and prevention.

  10. Dronabinol oral solution in the management of anorexia and weight loss in AIDS and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badowski ME

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Melissa E Badowski, Paa Kwesi Yanful Section of Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy, Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Pharmacy, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The true incidence of anorexia secondary to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and cancer is not well classified owing to the fact that there is a lack of standardized definitions and recent clinical data in these settings. Dronabinol, or Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is a synthetic molecule that closely mimics the action of Cannabis sativa L., a naturally occurring compound activated in the central nervous system by cannabinoid receptors. Dronabinol exerts its effects by directly acting on the vomiting and appetite control centers in the brain, which in turn increases appetite and prevents vomiting. In the USA, dronabinol is currently available in two dosage formulations – oral capsule and oral solution. While the oral capsule was initially approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1985, the recent approval of the oral solution in 2016 presents an “easy-to-swallow” alternative for patients using or intending to use dronabinol. Dronabinol is indicated in adult patients with HIV/AIDS for the treatment of anorexia and weight loss. However, there is no approved indication in the setting of cancer-related anorexia and weight loss. This review aims at presenting available data on the use of oral dronabinol in the management of anorexia and weight loss in HIV/AIDS and cancer, as well as characterizing and highlighting the pharmacotherapeutic considerations of the newest formulation of dronabinol. Keywords: HIV/AIDS, cancer, anorexia, weight loss, cachexia, dronabinol

  11. Impact of weight loss on oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diet regimen, where as the control group received medical treatment only for 12 weeks. Results: The mean values of ... Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, weight reduction, oxidative stress, cytokines, obesity. ..... muscle in severely obese subjects.

  12. Weight Loss and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... engaging in this behavior; however, evidence for any benefit on weight is mixed. A 2013 systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of food intake memory and awareness on eating indicates that attentive eating is likely to influence ...

  13. Exercise for Weight Loss: Calories Burned in One Hour

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... second update of codes and MET values. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2011;43:1575. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines ... second update of codes and MET values. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2011;43:1575. Losing weight. Centers for ...

  14. Long-Lasting Improvements in Liver Fat and Metabolism Despite Body Weight Regain After Dietary Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were ra...

  15. Identification of factors contributing to successful self-directed weight loss: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, N; Gill, T

    2017-11-21

    Despite the number of weight management programmes and their wide promotion, most overweight and obese individuals tend to lose weight on their own. The present study aimed to understand the characteristics and strategies of those who successfully engage in self-directed weight loss, which could empower other overweight and obese individuals with information and strategies to manage their weight on their own. Men and women who had lost at least 5% of their body weight without direct interaction with professionals or weight management programmes were recruited. Demographic data were collected by questionnaire and participants' weight-loss experiences were explored using semi- structured interviews to elicit in-depth individual experiences and perspectives. Iterative thematic method data analysis was used to generate themes describing contributing factors to the success of self-directed weight loss identified by participants. Most characteristics of those who successfully self-managed their weight loss were in line with those reported by successful weight losers participating in professional-led projects. However, strategies such as early embedding of new lifestyle behaviours into daily routine, the ability to learn from previous weight-loss experiences, and not requiring social support were identified as distinctive factors that contributed to the success of self-directed weight loss by participants of the present study. Overweight or obese individuals with strong internal motivation, problem-solving skills and self-reliance are more likely to be successful at achieving self-directed weight loss. The patients identified with these characteristics could be encouraged to self-manage their weight-loss process, leaving the places available in more resource-intensive professional-led programmes to those individuals unlikely to succeed on their own. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Weight Loss and Health Status 3 Years after Bariatric Surgery in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, Thomas H; Courcoulas, Anita P; Jenkins, Todd M; Michalsky, Marc P; Helmrath, Michael A; Brandt, Mary L; Harmon, Carroll M; Zeller, Meg H; Chen, Mike K; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Horlick, Mary; Buncher, C Ralph

    2016-01-14

    Bariatric surgery is increasingly considered for the treatment of adolescents with severe obesity, but few prospective adolescent-specific studies examining the efficacy and safety of weight-loss surgery are available to support clinical decision making. We prospectively enrolled 242 adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery at five U.S. centers. Patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (161 participants) or sleeve gastrectomy (67) were included in the analysis. Changes in body weight, coexisting conditions, cardiometabolic risk factors, and weight-related qua