WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative volume error

  1. Error-related brain activity and error awareness in an error classification paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gregorio, Francesco; Steinhauser, Marco; Maier, Martin E

    2016-10-01

    Error-related brain activity has been linked to error detection enabling adaptive behavioral adjustments. However, it is still unclear which role error awareness plays in this process. Here, we show that the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN), an event-related potential reflecting early error monitoring, is dissociable from the degree of error awareness. Participants responded to a target while ignoring two different incongruent distractors. After responding, they indicated whether they had committed an error, and if so, whether they had responded to one or to the other distractor. This error classification paradigm allowed distinguishing partially aware errors, (i.e., errors that were noticed but misclassified) and fully aware errors (i.e., errors that were correctly classified). The Ne/ERN was larger for partially aware errors than for fully aware errors. Whereas this speaks against the idea that the Ne/ERN foreshadows the degree of error awareness, it confirms the prediction of a computational model, which relates the Ne/ERN to post-response conflict. This model predicts that stronger distractor processing - a prerequisite of error classification in our paradigm - leads to lower post-response conflict and thus a smaller Ne/ERN. This implies that the relationship between Ne/ERN and error awareness depends on how error awareness is related to response conflict in a specific task. Our results further indicate that the Ne/ERN but not the degree of error awareness determines adaptive performance adjustments. Taken together, we conclude that the Ne/ERN is dissociable from error awareness and foreshadows adaptive performance adjustments. Our results suggest that the relationship between the Ne/ERN and error awareness is correlative and mediated by response conflict. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prediction and error of baldcypress stem volume from stump diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    1998-01-01

    The need to estimate the volume of removals occurs for many reasons, such as in trespass cases, severance tax reports, and post-harvest assessments. A logarithmic model is presented for prediction of baldcypress total stem cubic foot volume using stump diameter as the independent variable. Because the error of prediction is as important as the volume estimate, the...

  3. Human errors related to maintenance and modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, K.; Pyy, P.; Reiman, L.

    1998-01-01

    The focus in human reliability analysis (HRA) relating to nuclear power plants has traditionally been on human performance in disturbance conditions. On the other hand, some studies and incidents have shown that also maintenance errors, which have taken place earlier in plant history, may have an impact on the severity of a disturbance, e.g. if they disable safety related equipment. Especially common cause and other dependent failures of safety systems may significantly contribute to the core damage risk. The first aim of the study was to identify and give examples of multiple human errors which have penetrated the various error detection and inspection processes of plant safety barriers. Another objective was to generate numerical safety indicators to describe and forecast the effectiveness of maintenance. A more general objective was to identify needs for further development of maintenance quality and planning. In the first phase of this operational experience feedback analysis, human errors recognisable in connection with maintenance were looked for by reviewing about 4400 failure and repair reports and some special reports which cover two nuclear power plant units on the same site during 1992-94. A special effort was made to study dependent human errors since they are generally the most serious ones. An in-depth root cause analysis was made for 14 dependent errors by interviewing plant maintenance foremen and by thoroughly analysing the errors. A more simple treatment was given to maintenance-related single errors. The results were shown as a distribution of errors among operating states i.a. as regards the following matters: in what operational state the errors were committed and detected; in what operational and working condition the errors were detected, and what component and error type they were related to. These results were presented separately for single and dependent maintenance-related errors. As regards dependent errors, observations were also made

  4. Challenge and Error: Critical Events and Attention-Related Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, James Allan; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Solman, Grayden J. F.; Smilek, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Attention lapses resulting from reactivity to task challenges and their consequences constitute a pervasive factor affecting everyday performance errors and accidents. A bidirectional model of attention lapses (error [image omitted] attention-lapse: Cheyne, Solman, Carriere, & Smilek, 2009) argues that errors beget errors by generating attention…

  5. Training errors and running related injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries.......The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries....

  6. Finding related functional neuroimaging volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a content-based image retrieval technique for finding related functional neuroimaging experiments by voxelization of sets of stereotactic coordinates in Talairach space, comparing the volumes and reporting related volumes in a sorted list. Voxelization is accomplished by convolving ea...

  7. How Do Simulated Error Experiences Impact Attitudes Related to Error Prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkreuz, Karen R; Dougal, Renae L; Wright, Melanie C

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this project was to determine whether simulated exposure to error situations changes attitudes in a way that may have a positive impact on error prevention behaviors. Using a stratified quasi-randomized experiment design, we compared risk perception attitudes of a control group of nursing students who received standard error education (reviewed medication error content and watched movies about error experiences) to an experimental group of students who reviewed medication error content and participated in simulated error experiences. Dependent measures included perceived memorability of the educational experience, perceived frequency of errors, and perceived caution with respect to preventing errors. Experienced nursing students perceived the simulated error experiences to be more memorable than movies. Less experienced students perceived both simulated error experiences and movies to be highly memorable. After the intervention, compared with movie participants, simulation participants believed errors occurred more frequently. Both types of education increased the participants' intentions to be more cautious and reported caution remained higher than baseline for medication errors 6 months after the intervention. This study provides limited evidence of an advantage of simulation over watching movies describing actual errors with respect to manipulating attitudes related to error prevention. Both interventions resulted in long-term impacts on perceived caution in medication administration. Simulated error experiences made participants more aware of how easily errors can occur, and the movie education made participants more aware of the devastating consequences of errors.

  8. Error-related anterior cingulate cortex activity and the prediction of conscious error awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eOrr

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research examining the neural mechanisms associated with error awareness has consistently identified dorsal anterior cingulate activity (ACC as necessary but not predictive of conscious error detection. Two recent studies (Steinhauser and Yeung, 2010; Wessel et al. 2011 have found a contrary pattern of greater dorsal ACC activity (in the form of the error-related negativity during detected errors, but suggested that the greater activity may instead reflect task influences (e.g., response conflict, error probability and or individual variability (e.g., statistical power. We re-analyzed fMRI BOLD data from 56 healthy participants who had previously been administered the Error Awareness Task, a motor Go/No-go response inhibition task in which subjects make errors of commission of which they are aware (Aware errors, or unaware (Unaware errors. Consistent with previous data, the activity in a number of cortical regions was predictive of error awareness, including bilateral inferior parietal and insula cortices, however in contrast to previous studies, including our own smaller sample studies using the same task, error-related dorsal ACC activity was significantly greater during aware errors when compared to unaware errors. While the significantly faster RT for aware errors (compared to unaware was consistent with the hypothesis of higher response conflict increasing ACC activity, we could find no relationship between dorsal ACC activity and the error RT difference. The data suggests that individual variability in error awareness is associated with error-related dorsal ACC activity, and therefore this region may be important to conscious error detection, but it remains unclear what task and individual factors influence error awareness.

  9. Vector velocity volume flow estimation: Sources of error and corrections applied for arteriovenous fistulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2016-01-01

    radius. The error sources were also studied in vivo under realistic clinical conditions, and the theoretical results were applied for correcting the volume flow errors. Twenty dialysis patients with arteriovenous fistulas were scanned to obtain vector flow maps of fistulas. When fitting an ellipsis......A method for vector velocity volume flow estimation is presented, along with an investigation of its sources of error and correction of actual volume flow measurements. Volume flow errors are quantified theoretically by numerical modeling, through flow phantom measurements, and studied in vivo...

  10. A Relative View on Tracking Error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.G.P.M. Hallerbach (Winfried); I. Pouchkarev (Igor)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWhen delegating an investment decisions to a professional manager, investors often anchor their mandate to a specific benchmark. The manager’s exposure to risk is controlled by means of a tracking error volatility constraint. It depends on market conditions whether this constraint is

  11. Effects of Measurement Errors on Individual Tree Stem Volume Estimates for the Austrian National Forest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambros Berger; Thomas Gschwantner; Ronald E. McRoberts; Klemens. Schadauer

    2014-01-01

    National forest inventories typically estimate individual tree volumes using models that rely on measurements of predictor variables such as tree height and diameter, both of which are subject to measurement error. The aim of this study was to quantify the impacts of these measurement errors on the uncertainty of the model-based tree stem volume estimates. The impacts...

  12. Abnormal error monitoring in math-anxious individuals: evidence from error-related brain potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Suárez-Pellicioni

    Full Text Available This study used event-related brain potentials to investigate whether math anxiety is related to abnormal error monitoring processing. Seventeen high math-anxious (HMA and seventeen low math-anxious (LMA individuals were presented with a numerical and a classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of trait or state anxiety. We found enhanced error-related negativity (ERN in the HMA group when subjects committed an error on the numerical Stroop task, but not on the classical Stroop task. Groups did not differ in terms of the correct-related negativity component (CRN, the error positivity component (Pe, classical behavioral measures or post-error measures. The amplitude of the ERN was negatively related to participants' math anxiety scores, showing a more negative amplitude as the score increased. Moreover, using standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA we found greater activation of the insula in errors on a numerical task as compared to errors in a non-numerical task only for the HMA group. The results were interpreted according to the motivational significance theory of the ERN.

  13. Assessing errors related to characteristics of the items measured

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liggett, W.

    1980-01-01

    Errors that are related to some intrinsic property of the items measured are often encountered in nuclear material accounting. An example is the error in nondestructive assay measurements caused by uncorrected matrix effects. Nuclear material accounting requires for each materials type one measurement method for which bounds on these errors can be determined. If such a method is available, a second method might be used to reduce costs or to improve precision. If the measurement error for the first method is longer-tailed than Gaussian, then precision might be improved by measuring all items by both methods. 8 refs

  14. CORRECTING ERRORS: THE RELATIVE EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF ERROR FEEDBACK IN SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra Jayathilake

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Error correction in ESL (English as a Second Language classes has been a focal phenomenon in SLA (Second Language Acquisition research due to some controversial research results and diverse feedback practices. This paper presents a study which explored the relative efficacy of three forms of error correction employed in ESL writing classes: focusing on the acquisition of one grammar element both for immediate and delayed language contexts, and collecting data from university undergraduates, this study employed an experimental research design with a pretest-treatment-posttests structure. The research revealed that the degree of success in acquiring L2 (Second Language grammar through error correction differs according to the form of the correction and to learning contexts. While the findings are discussed in relation to the previous literature, this paper concludes creating a cline of error correction forms to be promoted in Sri Lankan L2 writing contexts, particularly in ESL contexts in Universities.

  15. A posteriori error estimates for finite volume approximations of elliptic equations on general surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Lili; Tian, Li; Wang, Desheng

    2008-10-31

    In this paper, we present a residual-based a posteriori error estimate for the finite volume discretization of steady convection– diffusion–reaction equations defined on surfaces in R3, which are often implicitly represented as level sets of smooth functions. Reliability and efficiency of the proposed a posteriori error estimator are rigorously proved. Numerical experiments are also conducted to verify the theoretical results and demonstrate the robustness of the error estimator.

  16. Relating physician's workload with errors during radiation therapy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Lukasz M; Mosaly, Prithima R; Hoyle, Lesley M; Jones, Ellen L; Chera, Bhishamjit S; Marks, Lawrence B

    2014-01-01

    To relate subjective workload (WL) levels to errors for routine clinical tasks. Nine physicians (4 faculty and 5 residents) each performed 3 radiation therapy planning cases. The WL levels were subjectively assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX). Individual performance was assessed objectively based on the severity grade of errors. The relationship between the WL and performance was assessed via ordinal logistic regression. There was an increased rate of severity grade of errors with increasing WL (P value = .02). As the majority of the higher NASA-TLX scores, and the majority of the performance errors were in the residents, our findings are likely most pertinent to radiation oncology centers with training programs. WL levels may be an important factor contributing to errors during radiation therapy planning tasks. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Comprehensive analysis of a medication dosing error related to CPOE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsky, Jan; Kuperman, Gilad J; Patel, Vimla L

    2005-01-01

    This case study of a serious medication error demonstrates the necessity of a comprehensive methodology for the analysis of failures in interaction between humans and information systems. The authors used a novel approach to analyze a dosing error related to computer-based ordering of potassium chloride (KCl). The method included a chronological reconstruction of events and their interdependencies from provider order entry usage logs, semistructured interviews with involved clinicians, and interface usability inspection of the ordering system. Information collected from all sources was compared and evaluated to understand how the error evolved and propagated through the system. In this case, the error was the product of faults in interaction among human and system agents that methods limited in scope to their distinct analytical domains would not identify. The authors characterized errors in several converging aspects of the drug ordering process: confusing on-screen laboratory results review, system usability difficulties, user training problems, and suboptimal clinical system safeguards that all contributed to a serious dosing error. The results of the authors' analysis were used to formulate specific recommendations for interface layout and functionality modifications, suggest new user alerts, propose changes to user training, and address error-prone steps of the KCl ordering process to reduce the risk of future medication dosing errors.

  18. Association of medication errors with drug classifications, clinical units, and consequence of errors: Are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroi, Maki; Shen, Jay J; Angosta, Alona

    2017-02-01

    Registered nurses (RNs) play an important role in safe medication administration and patient safety. This study examined a total of 1276 medication error (ME) incident reports made by RNs in hospital inpatient settings in the southwestern region of the United States. The most common drug class associated with MEs was cardiovascular drugs (24.7%). Among this class, anticoagulants had the most errors (11.3%). The antimicrobials was the second most common drug class associated with errors (19.1%) and vancomycin was the most common antimicrobial that caused errors in this category (6.1%). MEs occurred more frequently in the medical-surgical and intensive care units than any other hospital units. Ten percent of MEs reached the patients with harm and 11% reached the patients with increased monitoring. Understanding the contributing factors related to MEs, addressing and eliminating risk of errors across hospital units, and providing education and resources for nurses may help reduce MEs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Relating Complexity and Error Rates of Ontology Concepts. More Complex NCIt Concepts Have More Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hua; Zheng, Ling; Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; De Coronado, Sherri; Ochs, Christopher

    2017-05-18

    Ontologies are knowledge structures that lend support to many health-information systems. A study is carried out to assess the quality of ontological concepts based on a measure of their complexity. The results show a relation between complexity of concepts and error rates of concepts. A measure of lateral complexity defined as the number of exhibited role types is used to distinguish between more complex and simpler concepts. Using a framework called an area taxonomy, a kind of abstraction network that summarizes the structural organization of an ontology, concepts are divided into two groups along these lines. Various concepts from each group are then subjected to a two-phase QA analysis to uncover and verify errors and inconsistencies in their modeling. A hierarchy of the National Cancer Institute thesaurus (NCIt) is used as our test-bed. A hypothesis pertaining to the expected error rates of the complex and simple concepts is tested. Our study was done on the NCIt's Biological Process hierarchy. Various errors, including missing roles, incorrect role targets, and incorrectly assigned roles, were discovered and verified in the two phases of our QA analysis. The overall findings confirmed our hypothesis by showing a statistically significant difference between the amounts of errors exhibited by more laterally complex concepts vis-à-vis simpler concepts. QA is an essential part of any ontology's maintenance regimen. In this paper, we reported on the results of a QA study targeting two groups of ontology concepts distinguished by their level of complexity, defined in terms of the number of exhibited role types. The study was carried out on a major component of an important ontology, the NCIt. The findings suggest that more complex concepts tend to have a higher error rate than simpler concepts. These findings can be utilized to guide ongoing efforts in ontology QA.

  20. Impact of systematic errors on DVH parameters of different OAR and target volumes in Intracavitary Brachytherapy (ICBT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourya, Ankur; Singh, Gaganpreet; Kumar, Vivek; Oinam, Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study is to analyze the impact of systematic errors on DVH parameters of different OAR and Target volumes in intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). To quantify the changes in dose-volume histogram parameters due to systematic errors in applicator reconstruction of brachytherapy planning, known errors in catheter reconstructions have to be introduced in applicator coordinate system

  1. Accuracy and Sources of Error for an Angle Independent Volume Flow Estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Hansen, Peter Møller

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates sources of error for a vector velocity volume flow estimator. Quantification of the estima tor’s accuracy is performed theoretically and investigated in vivo . Womersley’s model for pulsatile flow is used to simulate velo city profiles and calculate volume flow errors....... A BK Medical UltraView 800 ultrasound scanner with a 9 MHz linear array transducer is used to obtain Vector Flow Imaging sequences of a superficial part of the fistulas. Cross-sectional diameters of each fistu la are measured on B-mode images by rotating the scan plane 90 degrees. The major axis...

  2. The Hurst Phenomenon in Error Estimates Related to Atmospheric Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Nelson Luís; Crivellaro, Bianca Luhm; Chamecki, Marcelo

    2018-05-01

    The Hurst phenomenon is a well-known feature of long-range persistence first observed in hydrological and geophysical time series by E. Hurst in the 1950s. It has also been found in several cases in turbulence time series measured in the wind tunnel, the atmosphere, and in rivers. Here, we conduct a systematic investigation of the value of the Hurst coefficient H in atmospheric surface-layer data, and its impact on the estimation of random errors. We show that usually H > 0.5 , which implies the non-existence (in the statistical sense) of the integral time scale. Since the integral time scale is present in the Lumley-Panofsky equation for the estimation of random errors, this has important practical consequences. We estimated H in two principal ways: (1) with an extension of the recently proposed filtering method to estimate the random error (H_p ), and (2) with the classical rescaled range introduced by Hurst (H_R ). Other estimators were tried but were found less able to capture the statistical behaviour of the large scales of turbulence. Using data from three micrometeorological campaigns we found that both first- and second-order turbulence statistics display the Hurst phenomenon. Usually, H_R is larger than H_p for the same dataset, raising the question that one, or even both, of these estimators, may be biased. For the relative error, we found that the errors estimated with the approach adopted by us, that we call the relaxed filtering method, and that takes into account the occurrence of the Hurst phenomenon, are larger than both the filtering method and the classical Lumley-Panofsky estimates. Finally, we found that there is no apparent relationship between H and the Obukhov stability parameter. The relative errors, however, do show stability dependence, particularly in the case of the error of the kinematic momentum flux in unstable conditions, and that of the kinematic sensible heat flux in stable conditions.

  3. Errors of the backextrapolation method in determination of the blood volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, T.; Rösler, U.; Frerichs, I.; Hahn, G.; Ennker, J.; Hellige, G.

    1999-01-01

    Backextrapolation is an empirical method to calculate the central volume of distribution (for example the blood volume). It is based on the compartment model, which says that after an injection the substance is distributed instantaneously in the central volume with no time delay. The occurrence of recirculation is not taken into account. The change of concentration with time of indocyanine green (ICG) was observed in an in vitro model, in which the volume was recirculating in 60 s and the clearance of the ICG could be varied. It was found that the higher the elimination of ICG, the higher was the error of the backextrapolation method. The theoretical consideration of Schröder et al ( Biomed. Tech. 42 (1997) 7-11) was proved. If the injected substance is eliminated somewhere in the body (i.e. not by radioactive decay), the backextrapolation method produces large errors.

  4. Evaluating Equating Results: Percent Relative Error for Chained Kernel Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanlin; von Davier, Alina A.; Chen, Haiwen

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a method for evaluating equating results. Within the kernel equating framework, the percent relative error (PRE) for chained equipercentile equating was computed under the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design. The method was applied to two data sets to obtain the PRE, which can be used to measure equating…

  5. An overview of intravenous-related medication administration errors as reported to MEDMARX, a national medication error-reporting program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Rodney W; Becker, Shawn C

    2006-01-01

    Medication errors can be harmful, especially if they involve the intravenous (IV) route of administration. A mixed-methodology study using a 5-year review of 73,769 IV-related medication errors from a national medication error reporting program indicates that between 3% and 5% of these errors were harmful. The leading type of error was omission, and the leading cause of error involved clinician performance deficit. Using content analysis, three themes-product shortage, calculation errors, and tubing interconnectivity-emerge and appear to predispose patients to harm. Nurses often participate in IV therapy, and these findings have implications for practice and patient safety. Voluntary medication error-reporting programs afford an opportunity to improve patient care and to further understanding about the nature of IV-related medication errors.

  6. Thermal error analysis and compensation for digital image/volume correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bing

    2018-02-01

    Digital image/volume correlation (DIC/DVC) rely on the digital images acquired by digital cameras and x-ray CT scanners to extract the motion and deformation of test samples. Regrettably, these imaging devices are unstable optical systems, whose imaging geometry may undergo unavoidable slight and continual changes due to self-heating effect or ambient temperature variations. Changes in imaging geometry lead to both shift and expansion in the recorded 2D or 3D images, and finally manifest as systematic displacement and strain errors in DIC/DVC measurements. Since measurement accuracy is always the most important requirement in various experimental mechanics applications, these thermal-induced errors (referred to as thermal errors) should be given serious consideration in order to achieve high accuracy, reproducible DIC/DVC measurements. In this work, theoretical analyses are first given to understand the origin of thermal errors. Then real experiments are conducted to quantify thermal errors. Three solutions are suggested to mitigate or correct thermal errors. Among these solutions, a reference sample compensation approach is highly recommended because of its easy implementation, high accuracy and in-situ error correction capability. Most of the work has appeared in our previously published papers, thus its originality is not claimed. Instead, this paper aims to give a comprehensive overview and more insights of our work on thermal error analysis and compensation for DIC/DVC measurements.

  7. On pressure: volume relations in hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H.Y. Ie (Eric)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractChapter 1 is a brief introduction to several aspects of cardiovascular pressure-volume relations in dialysis patients. The aims of the thesis are presented. In Chapter 2, an overview is presented of circulatory physiology in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Volume withdrawal by

  8. A lower bound on the relative error of mixed-state cloning and related operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastegin, A E

    2003-01-01

    We extend the concept of the relative error to mixed-state cloning and related physical operations, in which the ancilla contains some information a priori about the input state. The lower bound on the relative error is obtained. It is shown that this result provides further support for a stronger no-cloning theorem

  9. An improved approach to reduce partial volume errors in brain SPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, R.L.; Hatton, B.F.; Michael, G.; Barnden, L.; QUT, Brisbane, QLD; The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Adelaide, SA

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Limitations in SPET resolution give rise to significant partial volume error (PVE) in small brain structures We have investigated a previously published method (Muller-Gartner et al., J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1992;16: 650-658) to correct PVE in grey matter using MRI. An MRI is registered and segmented to obtain a grey matter tissue volume which is then smoothed to obtain resolution matched to the corresponding SPET. By dividing the original SPET with this correction map, structures can be corrected for PVE on a pixel-by-pixel basis. Since this approach is limited by space-invariant filtering, modification was made by estimating projections for the segmented MRI and reconstructing these using identical parameters to SPET. The methods were tested on simulated brain scans, reconstructed with the ordered subsets EM algorithm (8,16, 32, 64 equivalent EM iterations) The new method provided better recovery visually. For 32 EM iterations, recovery coefficients were calculated for grey matter regions. The effects of potential errors in the method were examined. Mean recovery was unchanged with one pixel registration error, the maximum error found in most registration programs. Errors in segmentation > 2 pixels results in loss of accuracy for small structures. The method promises to be useful for reducing PVE in brain SPET

  10. Refractive error magnitude and variability: Relation to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Elizabeth L; Machan, Carolyn M; Lam, Sharon; Hrynchak, Patricia K; Lillakas, Linda

    2018-03-19

    To investigate mean ocular refraction (MOR) and astigmatism, over the human age range and compare severity of refractive error to earlier studies from clinical populations having large age ranges. For this descriptive study patient age, refractive error and history of surgery affecting refraction were abstracted from the Waterloo Eye Study database (WatES). Average MOR, standard deviation of MOR and astigmatism were assessed in relation to age. Refractive distributions for developmental age groups were determined. MOR standard deviation relative to average MOR was evaluated. Data from earlier clinically based studies with similar age ranges were compared to WatES. Right eye refractive errors were available for 5933 patients with no history of surgery affecting refraction. Average MOR varied with age. Children <1 yr of age were the most hyperopic (+1.79D) and the highest magnitude of myopia was found at 27yrs (-2.86D). MOR distributions were leptokurtic, and negatively skewed. The mode varied with age group. MOR variability increased with increasing myopia. Average astigmatism increased gradually to age 60 after which it increased at a faster rate. By 85+ years it was 1.25D. J 0 power vector became increasingly negative with age. J 45 power vector values remained close to zero but variability increased at approximately 70 years. In relation to comparable earlier studies, WatES data were most myopic. Mean ocular refraction and refractive error distribution vary with age. The highest magnitude of myopia is found in young adults. Similar to prevalence, the severity of myopia also appears to have increased since 1931. Copyright © 2018 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Transmitted wavefront error of a volume phase holographic grating at cryogenic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Taylor, Gordon D; Baillie, Thomas E C; Montgomery, David

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the results of transmitted wavefront error (WFE) measurements on a volume phase holographic (VPH) grating operating at a temperature of 120 K. The VPH grating was mounted in a cryogenically compatible optical mount and tested in situ in a cryostat. The nominal root mean square (RMS) wavefront error at room temperature was 19 nm measured over a 50 mm diameter test aperture. The WFE remained at 18 nm RMS when the grating was cooled. This important result demonstrates that excellent WFE performance can be obtained with cooled VPH gratings, as required for use in future cryogenic infrared astronomical spectrometers planned for the European Extremely Large Telescope.

  12. Factors controlling volume errors through 2D gully erosion assessment: guidelines for optimal survey design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Carlos; Pérez, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of gully erosion volumes is essential for the quantification of soil losses derived from this relevant degradation process. Traditionally, 2D and 3D approaches has been applied for this purpose (Casalí et al., 2006). Although innovative 3D approaches have recently been proposed for gully volume quantification, a renewed interest can be found in literature regarding the useful information that cross-section analysis still provides in gully erosion research. Moreover, the application of methods based on 2D approaches can be the most cost-effective approach in many situations such as preliminary studies with low accuracy requirements or surveys under time or budget constraints. The main aim of this work is to examine the key factors controlling volume error variability in 2D gully assessment by means of a stochastic experiment involving a Monte Carlo analysis over synthetic gully profiles in order to 1) contribute to a better understanding of the drivers and magnitude of gully erosion 2D-surveys uncertainty and 2) provide guidelines for optimal survey designs. Owing to the stochastic properties of error generation in 2D volume assessment, a statistical approach was followed to generate a large and significant set of gully reach configurations to evaluate quantitatively the influence of the main factors controlling the uncertainty of the volume assessment. For this purpose, a simulation algorithm in Matlab® code was written, involving the following stages: - Generation of synthetic gully area profiles with different degrees of complexity (characterized by the cross-section variability) - Simulation of field measurements characterised by a survey intensity and the precision of the measurement method - Quantification of the volume error uncertainty as a function of the key factors In this communication we will present the relationships between volume error and the studied factors and propose guidelines for 2D field surveys based on the minimal survey

  13. Statistical evaluation of design-error related nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, general methodology for the statistical evaluation of design-error related accidents is proposed that can be applied to a variety of systems that evolves during the development of large-scale technologies. The evaluation aims at an estimate of the combined ''residual'' frequency of yet unknown types of accidents ''lurking'' in a certain technological system. A special categorization in incidents and accidents is introduced to define the events that should be jointly analyzed. The resulting formalism is applied to the development of U.S. nuclear power reactor technology, considering serious accidents (category 2 events) that involved, in the accident progression, a particular design inadequacy. 9 refs

  14. Error-related potentials during continuous feedback: using EEG to detect errors of different type and severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eSpüler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When a person recognizes an error during a task, an error-related potential (ErrP can be measured as response. It has been shown that ErrPs can be automatically detected in tasks with time-discrete feedback, which is widely applied in the field of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs for error correction or adaptation. However, there are only a few studies that concentrate on ErrPs during continuous feedback.With this study, we wanted to answer three different questions: (i Can ErrPs be measured in electroencephalography (EEG recordings during a task with continuous cursor control? (ii Can ErrPs be classified using machine learning methods and is it possible to discriminate errors of different origins? (iii Can we use EEG to detect the severity of an error? To answer these questions, we recorded EEG data from 10 subjects during a video game task and investigated two different types of error (execution error, due to inaccurate feedback; outcome error, due to not achieving the goal of an action. We analyzed the recorded data to show that during the same task, different kinds of error produce different ErrP waveforms and have a different spectral response. This allows us to detect and discriminate errors of different origin in an event-locked manner. By utilizing the error-related spectral response, we show that also a continuous, asynchronous detection of errors is possible.Although the detection of error severity based on EEG was one goal of this study, we did not find any significant influence of the severity on the EEG.

  15. Error-related potentials during continuous feedback: using EEG to detect errors of different type and severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spüler, Martin; Niethammer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    When a person recognizes an error during a task, an error-related potential (ErrP) can be measured as response. It has been shown that ErrPs can be automatically detected in tasks with time-discrete feedback, which is widely applied in the field of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) for error correction or adaptation. However, there are only a few studies that concentrate on ErrPs during continuous feedback. With this study, we wanted to answer three different questions: (i) Can ErrPs be measured in electroencephalography (EEG) recordings during a task with continuous cursor control? (ii) Can ErrPs be classified using machine learning methods and is it possible to discriminate errors of different origins? (iii) Can we use EEG to detect the severity of an error? To answer these questions, we recorded EEG data from 10 subjects during a video game task and investigated two different types of error (execution error, due to inaccurate feedback; outcome error, due to not achieving the goal of an action). We analyzed the recorded data to show that during the same task, different kinds of error produce different ErrP waveforms and have a different spectral response. This allows us to detect and discriminate errors of different origin in an event-locked manner. By utilizing the error-related spectral response, we show that also a continuous, asynchronous detection of errors is possible. Although the detection of error severity based on EEG was one goal of this study, we did not find any significant influence of the severity on the EEG. PMID:25859204

  16. Error-related negativities during spelling judgments expose orthographic knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lindsay N; Perfetti, Charles A; Rickles, Benjamin

    2014-02-01

    In two experiments, we demonstrate that error-related negativities (ERNs) recorded during spelling decisions can expose individual differences in lexical knowledge. The first experiment found that the ERN was elicited during spelling decisions and that its magnitude was correlated with independent measures of subjects' spelling knowledge. In the second experiment, we manipulated the phonology of misspelled stimuli and observed that ERN magnitudes were larger when misspelled words altered the phonology of their correctly spelled counterparts than when they preserved it. Thus, when an error is made in a decision about spelling, the brain processes indexed by the ERN reflect both phonological and orthographic input to the decision process. In both experiments, ERN effect sizes were correlated with assessments of lexical knowledge and reading, including offline spelling ability and spelling-mediated vocabulary knowledge. These results affirm the interdependent nature of orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge components while showing that spelling knowledge uniquely influences the ERN during spelling decisions. Finally, the study demonstrates the value of ERNs in exposing individual differences in lexical knowledge. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The error analysis of Lobular and segmental division of right liver by volume measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianfei; Lin, Weigang; Chi, Yanyan; Zheng, Nan; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Guowei; Yu, Shengbo; Li, Chan; Wang, Bin; Sui, Hongjin

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the inconsistencies between right liver volume as measured by imaging and the actual anatomical appearance of the right lobe. Five healthy donated livers were studied. The liver slices were obtained with hepatic segments multicolor-infused through the portal vein. In the slices, the lobes were divided by two methods: radiological landmarks and real anatomical boundaries. The areas of the right anterior lobe (RAL) and right posterior lobe (RPL) on each slice were measured using Photoshop CS5 and AutoCAD, and the volumes of the two lobes were calculated. There was no statistically significant difference between the volumes of the RAL or RPL as measured by the radiological landmarks (RL) and anatomical boundaries (AB) methods. However, the curves of the square error value of the RAL and RPL measured using CT showed that the three lowest points were at the cranial, intermediate, and caudal levels. The U- or V-shaped curves of the square error rate of the RAL and RPL revealed that the lowest value is at the intermediate level and the highest at the cranial and caudal levels. On CT images, less accurate landmarks were used to divide the RAL and RPL at the cranial and caudal layers. The measured volumes of hepatic segments VIII and VI would be less than their true values, and the measured volumes of hepatic segments VII and V would be greater than their true values, according to radiological landmarks. Clin. Anat. 30:585-590, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Statistical evaluation of design-error related accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.; Marchaterre, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    In a recently published paper (Campbell and Ott, 1979), a general methodology was proposed for the statistical evaluation of design-error related accidents. The evaluation aims at an estimate of the combined residual frequency of yet unknown types of accidents lurking in a certain technological system. Here, the original methodology is extended, as to apply to a variety of systems that evolves during the development of large-scale technologies. A special categorization of incidents and accidents is introduced to define the events that should be jointly analyzed. The resulting formalism is applied to the development of the nuclear power reactor technology, considering serious accidents that involve in the accident-progression a particular design inadequacy

  19. Adjustment of Measurements with Multiplicative Errors: Error Analysis, Estimates of the Variance of Unit Weight, and Effect on Volume Estimation from LiDAR-Type Digital Elevation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM.

  20. Thermodynamic volume and the extended Smarr relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Jeong, Jaehoon; Park, Sang-A; Yi, Sang-Heon [Department of Physics, College of Science, Yonsei University,Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-10

    We continue to explore the scaling transformation in the reduced action formalism of gravity models. As an extension of our construction, we consider the extended forms of the Smarr relation for various black holes, adopting the cosmological constant as the bulk pressure as in some literatures on black holes. Firstly, by using the quasi-local formalism for charges, we show that, in a general theory of gravity, the volume in the black hole thermodynamics could be defined as the thermodynamic conjugate variable to the bulk pressure in such a way that the first law can be extended consistently. This, so called, thermodynamic volume can be expressed explicitly in terms of the metric and field variables. Then, by using the scaling transformation allowed in the reduced action formulation, we obtain the extended Smarr relation involving the bulk pressure and the thermodynamic volume. In our approach, we do not resort to Euler’s homogeneous scaling of charges while incorporating the would-be hairy contribution without any difficulty.

  1. Volume of eggs in the clutches of Grass snake Natrix natrix and Dice snake N. tessellata: error correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klenina Anastasiya Aleksandrovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors have made a mistake in calculating the volume of eggs in the clutches of snake family Natrix. In this article we correct the error. As a result, it was revealed, that the volume of eggs positively correlates with a female length and its mass, as well as with the quantity of eggs in the clutches. There is a positive correlation between the characteristics of newborn snakes (length and mass and the volume of eggs, from which they hatched.

  2. Flight Technical Error Analysis of the SATS Higher Volume Operations Simulation and Flight Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of Flight Technical Error (FTE) from recent SATS experiments, called the Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Simulation and Flight experiments, which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal operating conditions. Reported are FTE results from simulation and flight experiment data indicating the SATS HVO concept is viable and acceptable to low-time instrument rated pilots when compared with today s system (baseline). Described is the comparative FTE analysis of lateral, vertical, and airspeed deviations from the baseline and SATS HVO experimental flight procedures. Based on FTE analysis, all evaluation subjects, low-time instrument-rated pilots, flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently in comparison to today s system. In all cases, the results of the flight experiment validated the results of the simulation experiment and confirm the utility of the simulation platform for comparative Human in the Loop (HITL) studies of SATS HVO and Baseline operations.

  3. The relative volume growth of minimal submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, V.

    2002-01-01

    The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature.......The volume growth of certain well-defined subsets of minimal submanifolds in riemannian spaces are compared with the volume growth of balls and spheres ill space forms of constant curvature....

  4. In-Situ Systematic Error Correction for Digital Volume Correlation Using a Reference Sample

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, B.

    2017-11-27

    The self-heating effect of a laboratory X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner causes slight change in its imaging geometry, which induces translation and dilatation (i.e., artificial displacement and strain) in reconstructed volume images recorded at different times. To realize high-accuracy internal full-field deformation measurements using digital volume correlation (DVC), these artificial displacements and strains associated with unstable CT imaging must be eliminated. In this work, an effective and easily implemented reference sample compensation (RSC) method is proposed for in-situ systematic error correction in DVC. The proposed method utilizes a stationary reference sample, which is placed beside the test sample to record the artificial displacement fields caused by the self-heating effect of CT scanners. The detected displacement fields are then fitted by a parametric polynomial model, which is used to remove the unwanted artificial deformations in the test sample. Rescan tests of a stationary sample and real uniaxial compression tests performed on copper foam specimens demonstrate the accuracy, efficacy, and practicality of the presented RSC method.

  5. In-Situ Systematic Error Correction for Digital Volume Correlation Using a Reference Sample

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, B.; Pan, B.; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    The self-heating effect of a laboratory X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner causes slight change in its imaging geometry, which induces translation and dilatation (i.e., artificial displacement and strain) in reconstructed volume images recorded at different times. To realize high-accuracy internal full-field deformation measurements using digital volume correlation (DVC), these artificial displacements and strains associated with unstable CT imaging must be eliminated. In this work, an effective and easily implemented reference sample compensation (RSC) method is proposed for in-situ systematic error correction in DVC. The proposed method utilizes a stationary reference sample, which is placed beside the test sample to record the artificial displacement fields caused by the self-heating effect of CT scanners. The detected displacement fields are then fitted by a parametric polynomial model, which is used to remove the unwanted artificial deformations in the test sample. Rescan tests of a stationary sample and real uniaxial compression tests performed on copper foam specimens demonstrate the accuracy, efficacy, and practicality of the presented RSC method.

  6. Classifying running-related injuries based upon etiology, with emphasis on volume and pace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.O.; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Rasmussen, Sten

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers acknowledge the importance of "training errors" as the main cause of running-related injuries. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to present a theoretical framework for the assumption that some running-related injuries among rear-foot strikers develop due to rapidly...... changing running volume, while others develop due to rapidly changing running pace....

  7. (AJST) RELATIVE EFFICIENCY OF NON-PARAMETRIC ERROR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NORBERT OPIYO AKECH

    on 100 bootstrap samples, a sample of size n being taken with replacement in each initial sample of size n. .... the overlap (or optimal error rate) of the populations. However, the expression (2.3) for the computation of ..... Analysis and Machine Intelligence, 9, 628-633. Lachenbruch P. A. (1967). An almost unbiased method ...

  8. CREME96 and Related Error Rate Prediction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the rate of occurrence of single event effects (SEEs) in space requires knowledge of the radiation environment and the response of electronic devices to that environment. Several analytical models have been developed over the past 36 years to predict SEE rates. The first error rate calculations were performed by Binder, Smith and Holman. Bradford and Pickel and Blandford, in their CRIER (Cosmic-Ray-Induced-Error-Rate) analysis code introduced the basic Rectangular ParallelePiped (RPP) method for error rate calculations. For the radiation environment at the part, both made use of the Cosmic Ray LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectra calculated by Heinrich for various absorber Depths. A more detailed model for the space radiation environment within spacecraft was developed by Adams and co-workers. This model, together with a reformulation of the RPP method published by Pickel and Blandford, was used to create the CR ME (Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics) code. About the same time Shapiro wrote the CRUP (Cosmic Ray Upset Program) based on the RPP method published by Bradford. It was the first code to specifically take into account charge collection from outside the depletion region due to deformation of the electric field caused by the incident cosmic ray. Other early rate prediction methods and codes include the Single Event Figure of Merit, NOVICE, the Space Radiation code and the effective flux method of Binder which is the basis of the SEFA (Scott Effective Flux Approximation) model. By the early 1990s it was becoming clear that CREME and the other early models needed Revision. This revision, CREME96, was completed and released as a WWW-based tool, one of the first of its kind. The revisions in CREME96 included improved environmental models and improved models for calculating single event effects. The need for a revision of CREME also stimulated the development of the CHIME (CRRES/SPACERAD Heavy Ion Model of the Environment) and MACREE (Modeling and

  9. Amplitude of Accommodation and its Relation to Refractive Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lekha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the relationship between amplitude of accommodation and refractive errors in the peri-presbyopic age group. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen right eyes of 316 consecutive patients in the age group 35-50 years who attended our outpatient clinic were studied. Emmetropes, hypermetropes and myopes with best-corrected visual acuity of 6/6 J1 in both eyes were included. The amplitude of accommodation (AA was calculated by measuring the near point of accommodation (NPA. In patients with more than ± 2 diopter sphere correction for distance, the NPA was also measured using appropriate soft contact lenses. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in AA between myopes and hypermetropes ( P P P P P P >0.5. Conclusion: Our study showed higher amplitude of accommodation among myopes between 35 and 44 years compared to emmetropes and hypermetropes

  10. Running Records and First Grade English Learners: An Analysis of Language Related Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Allison; Klein, Adria F.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if first-grade English Learners made patterns of language related errors when reading, and if so, to identify those patterns and how teachers coded language related errors when analyzing English Learners' running records. Using research from the fields of both literacy and Second Language Acquisition, we…

  11. Evaluation of different set-up error corrections on dose-volume metrics in prostate IMRT using CBCT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yoshinori; Tomita, Tsuneyuki; Kitsuda, Kenji; Notogawa, Takuya; Miki, Katsuhito; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Nakamura, Kiyonao; Ishigaki, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different set-up error corrections on dose-volume metrics in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer under different planning target volume (PTV) margin settings using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. A total of 30 consecutive patients who underwent IMRT for prostate cancer were retrospectively analysed, and 7-14 CBCT datasets were acquired per patient. Interfractional variations in dose-volume metrics were evaluated under six different set-up error corrections, including tattoo, bony anatomy, and four different target matching groups. Set-up errors were incorporated into planning the isocenter position, and dose distributions were recalculated on CBCT images. These processes were repeated under two different PTV margin settings. In the on-line bony anatomy matching groups, systematic error (Σ) was 0.3 mm, 1.4 mm, and 0.3 mm in the left-right, anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior directions, respectively. Σ in three successive off-line target matchings was finally comparable with that in the on-line bony anatomy matching in the AP direction. Although doses to the rectum and bladder wall were reduced for a small PTV margin, averaged reductions in the volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose from planning were within 2.5% under all PTV margin settings for all correction groups, with the exception of the tattoo set-up error correction only (≥ 5.0%). Analysis of variance showed no significant difference between on-line bony anatomy matching and target matching. While variations between the planned and delivered doses were smallest when target matching was applied, the use of bony anatomy matching still ensured the planned doses. (author)

  12. Error-Related Activity and Correlates of Grammatical Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Doug J.; Indefrey, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive control involves not only the ability to manage competing task demands, but also the ability to adapt task performance during learning. This study investigated how violation-, response-, and feedback-related electrophysiological (EEG) activity changes over time during language learning. Twenty-two Dutch learners of German classified short prepositional phrases presented serially as text. The phrases were initially presented without feedback during a pre-test phase, and then with feedback in a training phase on two separate days spaced 1 week apart. The stimuli included grammatically correct phrases, as well as grammatical violations of gender and declension. Without feedback, participants’ classification was near chance and did not improve over trials. During training with feedback, behavioral classification improved and violation responses appeared to both types of violation in the form of a P600. Feedback-related negative and positive components were also present from the first day of training. The results show changes in the electrophysiological responses in concert with improving behavioral discrimination, suggesting that the activity is related to grammar learning. PMID:21960979

  13. [Event-related EEG potentials associated with error detection in psychiatric disorder: literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Lívia; Czobor, Pál

    2010-01-01

    Error-related bioelectric signals constitute a special subgroup of event-related potentials. Researchers have identified two evoked potential components to be closely related to error processing, namely error-related negativity (ERN) and error-positivity (Pe), and they linked these to specific cognitive functions. In our article first we give a brief description of these components, then based on the available literature, we review differences in error-related evoked potentials observed in patients across psychiatric disorders. The PubMed and Medline search engines were used in order to identify all relevant articles, published between 2000 and 2009. For the purpose of the current paper we reviewed publications summarizing results of clinical trials. Patients suffering from schizophrenia, anorexia nervosa or borderline personality disorder exhibited a decrease in the amplitude of error-negativity when compared with healthy controls, while in cases of depression and anxiety an increase in the amplitude has been observed. Some of the articles suggest specific personality variables, such as impulsivity, perfectionism, negative emotions or sensitivity to punishment to underlie these electrophysiological differences. Research in the field of error-related electric activity has come to the focus of psychiatry research only recently, thus the amount of available data is significantly limited. However, since this is a relatively new field of research, the results available at present are noteworthy and promising for future electrophysiological investigations in psychiatric disorders.

  14. Propagation of errors from a null balance terahertz reflectometer to a sample's relative water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjiloucas, S; Walker, G C; Bowen, J W; Zafiropoulos, A

    2009-01-01

    The THz water content index of a sample is defined and advantages in using such metric in estimating a sample's relative water content are discussed. The errors from reflectance measurements performed at two different THz frequencies using a quasi-optical null-balance reflectometer are propagated to the errors in estimating the sample water content index.

  15. Relating faults in diagnostic reasoning with diagnostic errors and patient harm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, L.; Thijs, A.; Wagner, C.; Wal, G. van der; Timmermans, D.R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The relationship between faults in diagnostic reasoning, diagnostic errors, and patient harm has hardly been studied. This study examined suboptimal cognitive acts (SCAs; i.e., faults in diagnostic reasoning), related them to the occurrence of diagnostic errors and patient harm, and studied

  16. The impact of work-related stress on medication errors in Eastern Region Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdul; Segal, David M; Abu-Helalah, Munir Ahmad; Gutierrez, Mary Lou; Joosub, Imran; Ahmed, Wasim; Bibi, Rubina; Clarke, Elizabeth; Qarni, Ali Ahmed Al

    2018-05-07

    To examine the relationship between overall level and source-specific work-related stressors on medication errors rate. A cross-sectional study examined the relationship between overall levels of stress, 25 source-specific work-related stressors and medication error rate based on documented incident reports in Saudi Arabia (SA) hospital, using secondary databases. King Abdulaziz Hospital in Al-Ahsa, Eastern Region, SA. Two hundred and sixty-nine healthcare professionals (HCPs). The odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for HCPs documented incident report medication errors and self-reported sources of Job Stress Survey. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified source-specific work-related stress as significantly associated with HCPs who made at least one medication error per month (P stress were two times more likely to make at least one medication error per month than non-stressed HCPs (OR: 1.95, P = 0.081). This is the first study to use documented incident reports for medication errors rather than self-report to evaluate the level of stress-related medication errors in SA HCPs. Job demands, such as social stressors (home life disruption, difficulties with colleagues), time pressures, structural determinants (compulsory night/weekend call duties) and higher income, were significantly associated with medication errors whereas overall stress revealed a 2-fold higher trend.

  17. Errores innatos del metabolismo de las purinas y otras enfermedades relacionadas Inborn purine metabolism errors and other related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiovanna Contreras Roura

    2012-06-01

    growth, recurrent infections, self-mutilation, immunodeficiencies, unexplainable haemolytic anemia, gout-related arthritis, family history, consanguinity and adverse reactions to those drugs that are analogous of purines. The study of these diseases generally begins by quantifying serum uric acid and uric acid present in the urine which is the final product of purine metabolism in human beings. Diet and drug consumption are among the pathological, physiological and clinical conditions capable of changing the level of this compound. This review was intended to disseminate information on the inborn purine metabolism errors as well as to facilitate the interpretation of the uric acid levels and other biochemical markers making the diagnosis of these diseases possible. The tables relating these diseases to the excretory levels of uric acid and other biochemical markers, the altered enzymes, the clinical symptoms, the model of inheritance, and in some cases, the suggested treatment. This paper allowed us to affirm that variations in the uric acid levels and the presence of other biochemical markers in urine are important tools in screening some inborn purine metabolism errors, and also other related pathological conditions.

  18. Making related errors facilitates learning, but learners do not know it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelser, Barbie J; Metcalfe, Janet

    2012-05-01

    Producing an error, so long as it is followed by corrective feedback, has been shown to result in better retention of the correct answers than does simply studying the correct answers from the outset. The reasons for this surprising finding, however, have not been investigated. Our hypothesis was that the effect might occur only when the errors produced were related to the targeted correct response. In Experiment 1, participants studied either related or unrelated word pairs, manipulated between participants. Participants either were given the cue and target to study for 5 or 10 s or generated an error in response to the cue for the first 5 s before receiving the correct answer for the final 5 s. When the cues and targets were related, error-generation led to the highest correct retention. However, consistent with the hypothesis, no benefit was derived from generating an error when the cue and target were unrelated. Latent semantic analysis revealed that the errors generated in the related condition were related to the target, whereas they were not related to the target in the unrelated condition. Experiment 2 replicated these findings in a within-participants design. We found, additionally, that people did not know that generating an error enhanced memory, even after they had just completed the task that produced substantial benefits.

  19. An individual differences approach to multiple-target visual search errors: How search errors relate to different characteristics of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Stephen H; Cain, Matthew S; Mitroff, Stephen R

    2017-12-01

    A persistent problem in visual search is that searchers are more likely to miss a target if they have already found another in the same display. This phenomenon, the Subsequent Search Miss (SSM) effect, has remained despite being a known issue for decades. Increasingly, evidence supports a resource depletion account of SSM errors-a previously detected target consumes attentional resources leaving fewer resources available for the processing of a second target. However, "attention" is broadly defined and is composed of many different characteristics, leaving considerable uncertainty about how attention affects second-target detection. The goal of the current study was to identify which attentional characteristics (i.e., selection, limited capacity, modulation, and vigilance) related to second-target misses. The current study compared second-target misses to an attentional blink task and a vigilance task, which both have established measures that were used to operationally define each of four attentional characteristics. Second-target misses in the multiple-target search were correlated with (1) a measure of the time it took for the second target to recovery from the blink in the attentional blink task (i.e., modulation), and (2) target sensitivity (d') in the vigilance task (i.e., vigilance). Participants with longer recovery and poorer vigilance had more second-target misses in the multiple-target visual search task. The results add further support to a resource depletion account of SSM errors and highlight that worse modulation and poor vigilance reflect a deficit in attentional resources that can account for SSM errors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of hand of error and stimulus orientation in the relationship between worry and error-related brain activity: Implications for theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanli; Moran, Tim P; Schroder, Hans S; Moser, Jason S

    2015-10-01

    Anxious apprehension/worry is associated with exaggerated error monitoring; however, the precise mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. The current study tested the hypothesis that the worry-error monitoring relationship involves left-lateralized linguistic brain activity by examining the relationship between worry and error monitoring, indexed by the error-related negativity (ERN), as a function of hand of error (Experiment 1) and stimulus orientation (Experiment 2). Results revealed that worry was exclusively related to the ERN on right-handed errors committed by the linguistically dominant left hemisphere. Moreover, the right-hand ERN-worry relationship emerged only when stimuli were presented horizontally (known to activate verbal processes) but not vertically. Together, these findings suggest that the worry-ERN relationship involves left hemisphere verbal processing, elucidating a potential mechanism to explain error monitoring abnormalities in anxiety. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. Research on Human-Error Factors of Civil Aircraft Pilots Based On Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yundong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In consideration of the situation that civil aviation accidents involve many human-error factors and show the features of typical grey systems, an index system of civil aviation accident human-error factors is built using human factor analysis and classification system model. With the data of accidents happened worldwide between 2008 and 2011, the correlation between human-error factors can be analyzed quantitatively using the method of grey relational analysis. Research results show that the order of main factors affecting pilot human-error factors is preconditions for unsafe acts, unsafe supervision, organization and unsafe acts. The factor related most closely with second-level indexes and pilot human-error factors is the physical/mental limitations of pilots, followed by supervisory violations. The relevancy between the first-level indexes and the corresponding second-level indexes and the relevancy between second-level indexes can also be analyzed quantitatively.

  2. Error identification in a high-volume clinical chemistry laboratory: Five-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Lena; Khan, Aysha Habib; Ghani, Farooq; Shakeel, Shahid; Raheem, Ahmed; Siddiqui, Imran

    2015-07-01

    Quality indicators for assessing the performance of a laboratory require a systematic and continuous approach in collecting and analyzing data. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of errors utilizing the quality indicators in a clinical chemistry laboratory and to convert errors to the Sigma scale. Five-year quality indicator data of a clinical chemistry laboratory was evaluated to describe the frequency of errors. An 'error' was defined as a defect during the entire testing process from the time requisition was raised and phlebotomy was done until the result dispatch. An indicator with a Sigma value of 4 was considered good but a process for which the Sigma value was 5 (i.e. 99.977% error-free) was considered well controlled. In the five-year period, a total of 6,792,020 specimens were received in the laboratory. Among a total of 17,631,834 analyses, 15.5% were from within hospital. Total error rate was 0.45% and of all the quality indicators used in this study the average Sigma level was 5.2. Three indicators - visible hemolysis, failure of proficiency testing and delay in stat tests - were below 5 on the Sigma scale and highlight the need to rigorously monitor these processes. Using Six Sigma metrics quality in a clinical laboratory can be monitored more effectively and it can set benchmarks for improving efficiency.

  3. Errors during MRT measurements of the left ventricular volume using a multi-slice technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitton, M.B.; Just, M.; Grebe, P.; Kreitner, K.F.; Erbel, R.; Thelen, M.

    1992-01-01

    A multi-slice technique for MRT measurements of the left ventricular volume is much faster than the use of single-slice methods and is therefore better tolerated, leaving time for additional measurements. The end-diastolic left ventricular volume can be reliably measured by this method (123.3±13.5 ml vs. 124.1±ml). The end-systolic volume is consistently overestimated by 23.7±18,3% compared with the reference value obtained by single slice measurements (47.9±8.9 ml vs 39.1±7.9 ml). Correspondingly, stroke volume and ejection fraction is underestimated on average by 10.6±9.7% and 10.6±7.6% respectively). (orig.) [de

  4. Error-related brain activity predicts cocaine use after treatment at 3-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhe, Reshmi; van de Wetering, Ben J M; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2013-04-15

    Relapse after treatment is one of the most important problems in drug dependency. Several studies suggest that lack of cognitive control is one of the causes of relapse. In this study, a relative new electrophysiologic index of cognitive control, the error-related negativity, is investigated to examine its suitability as a predictor of relapse. The error-related negativity was measured in 57 cocaine-dependent patients during their first week in detoxification treatment. Data from 49 participants were used to predict cocaine use at 3-month follow-up. Cocaine use at follow-up was measured by means of self-reported days of cocaine use in the last month verified by urine screening. A multiple hierarchical regression model was used to examine the predictive value of the error-related negativity while controlling for addiction severity and self-reported craving in the week before treatment. The error-related negativity was the only significant predictor in the model and added 7.4% of explained variance to the control variables, resulting in a total of 33.4% explained variance in the prediction of days of cocaine use at follow-up. A reduced error-related negativity measured during the first week of treatment was associated with more days of cocaine use at 3-month follow-up. Moreover, the error-related negativity was a stronger predictor of recent cocaine use than addiction severity and craving. These results suggest that underactive error-related brain activity might help to identify patients who are at risk of relapse as early as in the first week of detoxification treatment. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Error-Related Negativity and Tic History in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gregory L.; Carrasco, Melisa; Harbin, Shannon M.; Nienhuis, Jenna K.; LaRosa, Christina E.; Chen, Poyu; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Gehring, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential after an incorrect response, which is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relation of the ERN to comorbid tic disorders has not been examined in patients with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes…

  6. Effect of high and low ultrafiltration volume during hemodialysis on relative blood volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, JJ; de Jong, PE; Huisman, RM; Franssen, CFM

    2006-01-01

    Achieving an optimal posthemodialysis hydration status may be difficult because objective criteria for dry weight are lacking. Both relative blood volume changes (Delta RBV) at the end of hemodialysis and Delta RBV normalized for ultrafiltration volume (Delta RBV/UF ratio) have been reported to

  7. Relating Tropical Cyclone Track Forecast Error Distributions with Measurements of Forecast Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    CYCLONE TRACK FORECAST ERROR DISTRIBUTIONS WITH MEASUREMENTS OF FORECAST UNCERTAINTY by Nicholas M. Chisler March 2016 Thesis Advisor...March 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RELATING TROPICAL CYCLONE TRACK FORECAST ERROR DISTRIBUTIONS...WITH MEASUREMENTS OF FORECAST UNCERTAINTY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Nicholas M. Chisler 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  8. Event-Related Potentials for Post-Error and Post-Conflict Slowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Andrew; Chen, Chien-Chung; Li, Hsin-Hung; Li, Chiang-Shan R.

    2014-01-01

    In a reaction time task, people typically slow down following an error or conflict, each called post-error slowing (PES) and post-conflict slowing (PCS). Despite many studies of the cognitive mechanisms, the neural responses of PES and PCS continue to be debated. In this study, we combined high-density array EEG and a stop-signal task to examine event-related potentials of PES and PCS in sixteen young adult participants. The results showed that the amplitude of N2 is greater during PES but not PCS. In contrast, the peak latency of N2 is longer for PCS but not PES. Furthermore, error-positivity (Pe) but not error-related negativity (ERN) was greater in the stop error trials preceding PES than non-PES trials, suggesting that PES is related to participants' awareness of the error. Together, these findings extend earlier work of cognitive control by specifying the neural correlates of PES and PCS in the stop signal task. PMID:24932780

  9. Error analysis of the finite element and finite volume methods for some viscoelastic fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukáčová-Medviďová, M.; Mizerová, H.; She, B.; Stebel, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2016), s. 105-123 ISSN 1570-2820 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : error analysis * Oldroyd-B type models * viscoelastic fluids Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.405, year: 2016 http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jnma.2016.24.issue-2/jnma-2014-0057/jnma-2014-0057. xml

  10. Relative Error Evaluation to Typical Open Global dem Datasets in Shanxi Plateau of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, S.; Zhang, S.; Cheng, W.

    2018-04-01

    Produced by radar data or stereo remote sensing image pairs, global DEM datasets are one of the most important types for DEM data. Relative error relates to surface quality created by DEM data, so it relates to geomorphology and hydrologic applications using DEM data. Taking Shanxi Plateau of China as the study area, this research evaluated the relative error to typical open global DEM datasets including Shuttle Radar Terrain Mission (SRTM) data with 1 arc second resolution (SRTM1), SRTM data with 3 arc second resolution (SRTM3), ASTER global DEM data in the second version (GDEM-v2) and ALOS world 3D-30m (AW3D) data. Through process and selection, more than 300,000 ICESat/GLA14 points were used as the GCP data, and the vertical error was computed and compared among four typical global DEM datasets. Then, more than 2,600,000 ICESat/GLA14 point pairs were acquired using the distance threshold between 100 m and 500 m. Meanwhile, the horizontal distance between every point pair was computed, so the relative error was achieved using slope values based on vertical error difference and the horizontal distance of the point pairs. Finally, false slope ratio (FSR) index was computed through analyzing the difference between DEM and ICESat/GLA14 values for every point pair. Both relative error and FSR index were categorically compared for the four DEM datasets under different slope classes. Research results show: Overall, AW3D has the lowest relative error values in mean error, mean absolute error, root mean square error and standard deviation error; then the SRTM1 data, its values are a little higher than AW3D data; the SRTM3 and GDEM-v2 data have the highest relative error values, and the values for the two datasets are similar. Considering different slope conditions, all the four DEM data have better performance in flat areas but worse performance in sloping regions; AW3D has the best performance in all the slope classes, a litter better than SRTM1; with slope increasing

  11. Orbit-related sea level errors for TOPEX altimetry at seasonal to decadal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselborn, Saskia; Rudenko, Sergei; Schöne, Tilo

    2018-03-01

    Interannual to decadal sea level trends are indicators of climate variability and change. A major source of global and regional sea level data is satellite radar altimetry, which relies on precise knowledge of the satellite's orbit. Here, we assess the error budget of the radial orbit component for the TOPEX/Poseidon mission for the period 1993 to 2004 from a set of different orbit solutions. The errors for seasonal, interannual (5-year), and decadal periods are estimated on global and regional scales based on radial orbit differences from three state-of-the-art orbit solutions provided by different research teams: the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ), the Groupe de Recherche de Géodésie Spatiale (GRGS), and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The global mean sea level error related to orbit uncertainties is of the order of 1 mm (8 % of the global mean sea level variability) with negligible contributions on the annual and decadal timescales. In contrast, the orbit-related error of the interannual trend is 0.1 mm yr-1 (27 % of the corresponding sea level variability) and might hamper the estimation of an acceleration of the global mean sea level rise. For regional scales, the gridded orbit-related error is up to 11 mm, and for about half the ocean the orbit error accounts for at least 10 % of the observed sea level variability. The seasonal orbit error amounts to 10 % of the observed seasonal sea level signal in the Southern Ocean. At interannual and decadal timescales, the orbit-related trend uncertainties reach regionally more than 1 mm yr-1. The interannual trend errors account for 10 % of the observed sea level signal in the tropical Atlantic and the south-eastern Pacific. For decadal scales, the orbit-related trend errors are prominent in a several regions including the South Atlantic, western North Atlantic, central Pacific, South Australian Basin, and the Mediterranean Sea. Based on a set of test orbits calculated at GFZ, the sources of the

  12. Orbit-related sea level errors for TOPEX altimetry at seasonal to decadal timescales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Esselborn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Interannual to decadal sea level trends are indicators of climate variability and change. A major source of global and regional sea level data is satellite radar altimetry, which relies on precise knowledge of the satellite's orbit. Here, we assess the error budget of the radial orbit component for the TOPEX/Poseidon mission for the period 1993 to 2004 from a set of different orbit solutions. The errors for seasonal, interannual (5-year, and decadal periods are estimated on global and regional scales based on radial orbit differences from three state-of-the-art orbit solutions provided by different research teams: the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ, the Groupe de Recherche de Géodésie Spatiale (GRGS, and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC. The global mean sea level error related to orbit uncertainties is of the order of 1 mm (8 % of the global mean sea level variability with negligible contributions on the annual and decadal timescales. In contrast, the orbit-related error of the interannual trend is 0.1 mm yr−1 (27 % of the corresponding sea level variability and might hamper the estimation of an acceleration of the global mean sea level rise. For regional scales, the gridded orbit-related error is up to 11 mm, and for about half the ocean the orbit error accounts for at least 10 % of the observed sea level variability. The seasonal orbit error amounts to 10 % of the observed seasonal sea level signal in the Southern Ocean. At interannual and decadal timescales, the orbit-related trend uncertainties reach regionally more than 1 mm yr−1. The interannual trend errors account for 10 % of the observed sea level signal in the tropical Atlantic and the south-eastern Pacific. For decadal scales, the orbit-related trend errors are prominent in a several regions including the South Atlantic, western North Atlantic, central Pacific, South Australian Basin, and the Mediterranean Sea. Based on a set of test

  13. Intelligence and Neurophysiological Markers of Error Monitoring Relate to Children's Intellectual Humility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovitch, Judith H; Fisher, Megan; Schroder, Hans; Hambrick, David Z; Moser, Jason

    2017-09-18

    This study explored developmental and individual differences in intellectual humility (IH) among 127 children ages 6-8. IH was operationalized as children's assessment of their knowledge and willingness to delegate scientific questions to experts. Children completed measures of IH, theory of mind, motivational framework, and intelligence, and neurophysiological measures indexing early (error-related negativity [ERN]) and later (error positivity [Pe]) error-monitoring processes related to cognitive control. Children's knowledge self-assessment correlated with question delegation, and older children showed greater IH than younger children. Greater IH was associated with higher intelligence but not with social cognition or motivational framework. ERN related to self-assessment, whereas Pe related to question delegation. Thus, children show separable epistemic and social components of IH that may differentially contribute to metacognition and learning. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Masked and unmasked error-related potentials during continuous control and feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Dias, Catarina; Sburlea, Andreea I.; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.

    2018-06-01

    The detection of error-related potentials (ErrPs) in tasks with discrete feedback is well established in the brain–computer interface (BCI) field. However, the decoding of ErrPs in tasks with continuous feedback is still in its early stages. Objective. We developed a task in which subjects have continuous control of a cursor’s position by means of a joystick. The cursor’s position was shown to the participants in two different modalities of continuous feedback: normal and jittered. The jittered feedback was created to mimic the instability that could exist if participants controlled the trajectory directly with brain signals. Approach. This paper studies the electroencephalographic (EEG)—measurable signatures caused by a loss of control over the cursor’s trajectory, causing a target miss. Main results. In both feedback modalities, time-locked potentials revealed the typical frontal-central components of error-related potentials. Errors occurring during the jittered feedback (masked errors) were delayed in comparison to errors occurring during normal feedback (unmasked errors). Masked errors displayed lower peak amplitudes than unmasked errors. Time-locked classification analysis allowed a good distinction between correct and error classes (average Cohen-, average TPR  =  81.8% and average TNR  =  96.4%). Time-locked classification analysis between masked error and unmasked error classes revealed results at chance level (average Cohen-, average TPR  =  60.9% and average TNR  =  58.3%). Afterwards, we performed asynchronous detection of ErrPs, combining both masked and unmasked trials. The asynchronous detection of ErrPs in a simulated online scenario resulted in an average TNR of 84.0% and in an average TPR of 64.9%. Significance. The time-locked classification results suggest that the masked and unmasked errors were indistinguishable in terms of classification. The asynchronous classification results suggest that the

  15. Evaluation of localization errors for craniospinal axis irradiation delivery using volume modulated arc therapy and proposal of a technique to minimize such errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Pamela; Stathakis, Sotirios; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Esquivel, Carlos; Papanikolaou, Niko

    2013-01-01

    reduced by 11.7%, 8.5%, 12.4%, and 13.9% on average for the 1, 2, 5, and 10 mm shifted plans. Conclusions: Setup errors related to isocenter shifting should be minimized in order to provide the patient with the most dosimetrically accurate treatment possible. Errors of 1–2 mm can negatively affect the quality of the delivered treatment, most notably in the arc junction area, but the deterioration of the treatment plan accuracy is not as problematic as in the cases of larger errors such as 5–10 mm. By employing a new planning technique, the dose differences due to setup errors can be greatly reduced

  16. Parts of the Whole: Error Estimation for Science Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Wallace

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important for science students to understand not only how to estimate error sizes in measurement data, but also to see how these errors contribute to errors in conclusions they may make about the data. Relatively small errors in measurement, errors in assumptions, and roundoff errors in computation may result in large error bounds on computed quantities of interest. In this column, we look closely at a standard method for measuring the volume of cancer tumor xenografts to see how small errors in each of these three factors may contribute to relatively large observed errors in recorded tumor volumes.

  17. Electrophysiological Endophenotypes and the Error-Related Negativity (ERN) in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Family Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Ann; South, Mikle; Baldwin, Scott A.; Larson, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the error-related negativity (ERN) as an endophenotype of ASD by comparing the ERN in families of ASD probands to control families. We hypothesized that ASD probands and families would display reduced-amplitude ERN relative to controls. Participants included 148 individuals within 39 families consisting of a mother, father, sibling,…

  18. Senior High School Students' Errors on the Use of Relative Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Relative clause is one of the most important language points in College English Examination. Teachers have been attaching great importance to the teaching of relative clause, but the outcomes are not satisfactory. Based on Error Analysis theory, this article aims to explore the reasons why senior high school students find it difficult to choose…

  19. Dysfunctional error-related processing in incarcerated youth with elevated psychopathic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, J. Michael; Steele, Vaughn R.; Cope, Lora M.; Vincent, Gina M.; Stephen, Julia M.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2016-01-01

    Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP) components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing) in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n = 100) who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV). The ERN/Ne and Pe were analyzed with classic windowed ERP components and principal component analysis (PCA). Using linear regression analyses, PCL:YV scores were unrelated to the ERN/Ne, but were negatively related to Pe mean amplitude. Specifically, the PCL:YV Facet 4 subscale reflecting antisocial traits emerged as a significant predictor of reduced amplitude of a subcomponent underlying the Pe identified with PCA. This is the first evidence to suggest a negative relationship between adolescent psychopathy scores and Pe mean amplitude. PMID:26930170

  20. Formulation of uncertainty relation of error and disturbance in quantum measurement by using quantum estimation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Watanabe; Masahito Ueda

    2012-01-01

    Full text: When we try to obtain information about a quantum system, we need to perform measurement on the system. The measurement process causes unavoidable state change. Heisenberg discussed a thought experiment of the position measurement of a particle by using a gamma-ray microscope, and found a trade-off relation between the error of the measured position and the disturbance in the momentum caused by the measurement process. The trade-off relation epitomizes the complementarity in quantum measurements: we cannot perform a measurement of an observable without causing disturbance in its canonically conjugate observable. However, at the time Heisenberg found the complementarity, quantum measurement theory was not established yet, and Kennard and Robertson's inequality erroneously interpreted as a mathematical formulation of the complementarity. Kennard and Robertson's inequality actually implies the indeterminacy of the quantum state: non-commuting observables cannot have definite values simultaneously. However, Kennard and Robertson's inequality reflects the inherent nature of a quantum state alone, and does not concern any trade-off relation between the error and disturbance in the measurement process. In this talk, we report a resolution to the complementarity in quantum measurements. First, we find that it is necessary to involve the estimation process from the outcome of the measurement for quantifying the error and disturbance in the quantum measurement. We clarify the implicitly involved estimation process in Heisenberg's gamma-ray microscope and other measurement schemes, and formulate the error and disturbance for an arbitrary quantum measurement by using quantum estimation theory. The error and disturbance are defined in terms of the Fisher information, which gives the upper bound of the accuracy of the estimation. Second, we obtain uncertainty relations between the measurement errors of two observables [1], and between the error and disturbance in the

  1. Age-related changes in error processing in young children: A school-based investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie K. Grammer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Growth in executive functioning (EF skills play a role children's academic success, and the transition to elementary school is an important time for the development of these abilities. Despite this, evidence concerning the development of the ERP components linked to EF, including the error-related negativity (ERN and the error positivity (Pe, over this period is inconclusive. Data were recorded in a school setting from 3- to 7-year-old children (N = 96, mean age = 5 years 11 months as they performed a Go/No-Go task. Results revealed the presence of the ERN and Pe on error relative to correct trials at all age levels. Older children showed increased response inhibition as evidenced by faster, more accurate responses. Although developmental changes in the ERN were not identified, the Pe increased with age. In addition, girls made fewer mistakes and showed elevated Pe amplitudes relative to boys. Based on a representative school-based sample, findings indicate that the ERN is present in children as young as 3, and that development can be seen in the Pe between ages 3 and 7. Results varied as a function of gender, providing insight into the range of factors associated with developmental changes in the complex relations between behavioral and electrophysiological measures of error processing.

  2. Relative and Absolute Error Control in a Finite-Difference Method Solution of Poisson's Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, J. S. C.

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm for error control (absolute and relative) in the five-point finite-difference method applied to Poisson's equation is described. The algorithm is based on discretization of the domain of the problem by means of three rectilinear grids, each of different resolution. We discuss some hardware limitations associated with the algorithm,…

  3. Social Errors in Four Cultures: Evidence about Universal Forms of Social Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Alan Page

    1993-01-01

    To test the cross-cultural generality of relational-models theory, 4 studies with 70 adults examined social errors of substitution of persons for Bengali, Korean, Chinese, and Vai (Liberia and Sierra Leone) subjects. In all four cultures, people tend to substitute someone with whom they have the same basic relationship. (SLD)

  4. A new accuracy measure based on bounded relative error for time series forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Twycross, Jamie; Garibaldi, Jonathan M

    2017-01-01

    Many accuracy measures have been proposed in the past for time series forecasting comparisons. However, many of these measures suffer from one or more issues such as poor resistance to outliers and scale dependence. In this paper, while summarising commonly used accuracy measures, a special review is made on the symmetric mean absolute percentage error. Moreover, a new accuracy measure called the Unscaled Mean Bounded Relative Absolute Error (UMBRAE), which combines the best features of various alternative measures, is proposed to address the common issues of existing measures. A comparative evaluation on the proposed and related measures has been made with both synthetic and real-world data. The results indicate that the proposed measure, with user selectable benchmark, performs as well as or better than other measures on selected criteria. Though it has been commonly accepted that there is no single best accuracy measure, we suggest that UMBRAE could be a good choice to evaluate forecasting methods, especially for cases where measures based on geometric mean of relative errors, such as the geometric mean relative absolute error, are preferred.

  5. Error Analysis of Relative Calibration for RCS Measurement on Ground Plane Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Peng-fei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground plane range is a kind of outdoor Radar Cross Section (RCS test range used for static measurement of full-size or scaled targets. Starting from the characteristics of ground plane range, the impact of environments on targets and calibrators is analyzed during calibration in the RCS measurements. The error of relative calibration produced by the different illumination of target and calibrator is studied. The relative calibration technique used in ground plane range is to place the calibrator on a fixed and auxiliary pylon somewhere between the radar and the target under test. By considering the effect of ground reflection and antenna pattern, the relationship between the magnitude of echoes and the position of calibrator is discussed. According to the different distances between the calibrator and target, the difference between free space and ground plane range is studied and the error of relative calibration is calculated. Numerical simulation results are presented with useful conclusions. The relative calibration error varies with the position of calibrator, frequency and antenna beam width. In most case, set calibrator close to the target may keep the error under control.

  6. Error-related ERP components and individual differences in punishment and reward sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Tops, Mattie; Wester, Anne E.; Meijman, Theo F.; Lorist, Monique M.

    2006-01-01

    Although the focus of the discussion regarding the significance of the error related negatively (ERN/Ne) has been on the cognitive factors reflected in this component, there is now a growing body of research that describes influences of motivation, affective style and other factors of personality on

  7. 47 CFR 1.1167 - Error claims related to regulatory fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Challenges to determinations or an insufficient regulatory fee payment or delinquent fees should be made in writing. A challenge to a determination that a party is delinquent in paying a standard regulatory fee... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Error claims related to regulatory fees. 1.1167...

  8. SLIM-MAUD: an approach to assessing human error probabilities using structured expert judgment. Volume II. Detailed analysis of the technical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.; Humphreys, P.; Rosa, E.A.; Kirwan, B.; Rea, K.

    1984-07-01

    This two-volume report presents the procedures and analyses performed in developing an approach for structuring expert judgments to estimate human error probabilities. Volume I presents an overview of work performed in developing the approach: SLIM-MAUD (Success Likelihood Index Methodology, implemented through the use of an interactive computer program called MAUD-Multi-Attribute Utility Decomposition). Volume II provides a more detailed analysis of the technical issues underlying the approach

  9. Error signals in the subthalamic nucleus are related to post-error slowing in patients with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegert, S.; Herrojo Ruiz, M.; Brücke, C.; Hueble, J.; Schneider, H.G.; Ullsperger, M.; Kühn, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Error monitoring is essential for optimizing motor behavior. It has been linked to the medial frontal cortex, in particular to the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC). The aMCC subserves its performance-monitoring function in interaction with the basal ganglia (BG) circuits, as has been demonstrated

  10. Working memory capacity and task goals modulate error-related ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James R; Watson, Jason M; Strayer, David L

    2018-03-01

    The present study investigated individual differences in information processing following errant behavior. Participants were initially classified as high or as low working memory capacity using the Operation Span Task. In a subsequent session, they then performed a high congruency version of the flanker task under both speed and accuracy stress. We recorded ERPs and behavioral measures of accuracy and response time in the flanker task with a primary focus on processing following an error. The error-related negativity was larger for the high working memory capacity group than for the low working memory capacity group. The positivity following an error (Pe) was modulated to a greater extent by speed-accuracy instruction for the high working memory capacity group than for the low working memory capacity group. These data help to explicate the neural bases of individual differences in working memory capacity and cognitive control. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Classifying running-related injuries based upon etiology, with emphasis on volume and pace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Rasmussen, Sten

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Many researchers acknowledge the importance of "training errors" as the main cause of running-related injuries. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to present a theoretical framework for the assumption that some running-related injuries among rear-foot strikers...... of patellofemoral pain syndrome, iliotibial band syndrome, and patellar tendinopathy, while change in running pace may be associated with the development of achilles tendinopathy, gastrocnemius injuries, and plantar fasciitis. DISCUSSIONRELATION TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: If this assertion is correct, bias may...... develop due to rapidly changing running volume, while others develop due to rapidly changing running pace. DESCRIPTION OF TOPIC WITH RELATED EVIDENCE: Evidence from clinical and experimental studies is presented to support the assertion that rapid change in running volume may lead to the development...

  12. The modulating effect of personality traits on neural error monitoring: evidence from event-related FMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka; Ulrich, Martin; Ruchsow, Martin; Vasic, Nenad; Grön, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the association between traits of the Five Factor Model of Personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness for Experiences, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) and neural correlates of error monitoring obtained from a combined Eriksen-Flanker-Go/NoGo task during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in 27 healthy subjects. Individual expressions of personality traits were measured using the NEO-PI-R questionnaire. Conscientiousness correlated positively with error signaling in the left inferior frontal gyrus and adjacent anterior insula (IFG/aI). A second strong positive correlation was observed in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC). Neuroticism was negatively correlated with error signaling in the inferior frontal cortex possibly reflecting the negative inter-correlation between both scales observed on the behavioral level. Under present statistical thresholds no significant results were obtained for remaining scales. Aligning the personality trait of Conscientiousness with task accomplishment striving behavior the correlation in the left IFG/aI possibly reflects an inter-individually different involvement whenever task-set related memory representations are violated by the occurrence of errors. The strong correlations in the ACC may indicate that more conscientious subjects were stronger affected by these violations of a given task-set expressed by individually different, negatively valenced signals conveyed by the ACC upon occurrence of an error. Present results illustrate that for predicting individual responses to errors underlying personality traits should be taken into account and also lend external validity to the personality trait approach suggesting that personality constructs do reflect more than mere descriptive taxonomies.

  13. The modulating effect of personality traits on neural error monitoring: evidence from event-related FMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Sosic-Vasic

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the association between traits of the Five Factor Model of Personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness for Experiences, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and neural correlates of error monitoring obtained from a combined Eriksen-Flanker-Go/NoGo task during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging in 27 healthy subjects. Individual expressions of personality traits were measured using the NEO-PI-R questionnaire. Conscientiousness correlated positively with error signaling in the left inferior frontal gyrus and adjacent anterior insula (IFG/aI. A second strong positive correlation was observed in the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC. Neuroticism was negatively correlated with error signaling in the inferior frontal cortex possibly reflecting the negative inter-correlation between both scales observed on the behavioral level. Under present statistical thresholds no significant results were obtained for remaining scales. Aligning the personality trait of Conscientiousness with task accomplishment striving behavior the correlation in the left IFG/aI possibly reflects an inter-individually different involvement whenever task-set related memory representations are violated by the occurrence of errors. The strong correlations in the ACC may indicate that more conscientious subjects were stronger affected by these violations of a given task-set expressed by individually different, negatively valenced signals conveyed by the ACC upon occurrence of an error. Present results illustrate that for predicting individual responses to errors underlying personality traits should be taken into account and also lend external validity to the personality trait approach suggesting that personality constructs do reflect more than mere descriptive taxonomies.

  14. Error-related negativity and tic history in pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gregory L; Carrasco, Melisa; Harbin, Shannon M; Nienhuis, Jenna K; LaRosa, Christina E; Chen, Poyu; Fitzgerald, Kate D; Gehring, William J

    2012-09-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential after an incorrect response, which is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relation of the ERN to comorbid tic disorders has not been examined in patients with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes in patients with tic-related OCD, patients with non-tic-related OCD, and healthy controls. The ERN, correct response negativity, and error number were measured during an Eriksen flanker task to assess performance monitoring in 44 youth with a lifetime diagnosis of OCD and 44 matched healthy controls ranging in age from 10 to 19 years. Nine youth with OCD had a lifetime history of tics. ERN amplitude was significantly increased in patients with OCD compared with healthy controls. ERN amplitude was significantly larger in patients with non-tic-related OCD than in patients with tic-related OCD or controls. ERN amplitude had a significant negative correlation with age in healthy controls but not in patients with OCD. Instead, in patients with non-tic-related OCD, ERN amplitude had a significant positive correlation with age at onset of OCD symptoms. ERN amplitude in patients was unrelated to OCD symptom severity, current diagnostic status, or treatment effects. The results provide further evidence of increased error-related brain activity in pediatric OCD. The difference in the ERN between patients with tic-related and those with non-tic-related OCD provides preliminary evidence of a neurobiological difference between these two OCD subtypes. The results indicate the ERN is a trait-like measurement that may serve as a biomarker for non-tic-related OCD. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Task types and error types involved in the human-related unplanned reactor trip events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the contribution of task types and error types involved in the human-related unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred between 1986 and 2006 in Korean nuclear power plants are analysed in order to establish a strategy for reducing the human-related unplanned reactor trips. Classification systems for the task types, error modes, and cognitive functions are developed or adopted from the currently available taxonomies, and the relevant information is extracted from the event reports or judged on the basis of an event description. According to the analyses from this study, the contributions of the task types are as follows: corrective maintenance (25.7%), planned maintenance (22.8%), planned operation (19.8%), periodic preventive maintenance (14.9%), response to a transient (9.9%), and design/manufacturing/installation (6.9%). According to the analysis of the error modes, error modes such as control failure (22.2%), wrong object (18.5%), omission (14.8%), wrong action (11.1%), and inadequate (8.3%) take up about 75% of the total unplanned trip events. The analysis of the cognitive functions involved in the events indicated that the planning function had the highest contribution (46.7%) to the human actions leading to unplanned reactor trips. This analysis concludes that in order to significantly reduce human-induced or human-related unplanned reactor trips, an aide system (in support of maintenance personnel) for evaluating possible (negative) impacts of planned actions or erroneous actions as well as an appropriate human error prediction technique, should be developed

  16. Task types and error types involved in the human-related unplanned reactor trip events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, the contribution of task types and error types involved in the human-related unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred between 1986 and 2006 in Korean nuclear power plants are analysed in order to establish a strategy for reducing the human-related unplanned reactor trips. Classification systems for the task types, error modes, and cognitive functions are developed or adopted from the currently available taxonomies, and the relevant information is extracted from the event reports or judged on the basis of an event description. According to the analyses from this study, the contributions of the task types are as follows: corrective maintenance (25.7%), planned maintenance (22.8%), planned operation (19.8%), periodic preventive maintenance (14.9%), response to a transient (9.9%), and design/manufacturing/installation (6.9%). According to the analysis of the error modes, error modes such as control failure (22.2%), wrong object (18.5%), omission (14.8%), wrong action (11.1%), and inadequate (8.3%) take up about 75% of the total unplanned trip events. The analysis of the cognitive functions involved in the events indicated that the planning function had the highest contribution (46.7%) to the human actions leading to unplanned reactor trips. This analysis concludes that in order to significantly reduce human-induced or human-related unplanned reactor trips, an aide system (in support of maintenance personnel) for evaluating possible (negative) impacts of planned actions or erroneous actions as well as an appropriate human error prediction technique, should be developed.

  17. Error-Related Negativity and Tic History in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gregory L.; Carrasco, Melisa; Harbin, Shannon M.; Nienhuis, Jenna K.; LaRosa, Christina E.; Chen, Poyu; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Gehring, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential following an incorrect response, which is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relationship of the ERN to comorbid tic disorders has not been examined in patients with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes in patients with tic-related OCD, patients with non-tic-related OCD, and healthy controls. Method The ERN, correct response negativity, and error number were measured during an Eriksen flanker task to assess performance monitoring in 44 youth with a lifetime diagnosis of OCD and 44 matched healthy controls ranging in age from 10 to 19 years. Nine youth with OCD had a lifetime history of tics. Results ERN amplitudewas significantly increased in OCD patients compared to healthy controls. ERN amplitude was significantly larger in patients with non-tic-related OCD than either patients with tic-related OCD or controls. ERN amplitude had a significant negative correlation with age in healthy controls but not patients with OCD. Instead, in patients with non-tic-related OCD, ERN amplitude had a significant positive correlation with age at onset of OCD symptoms. ERN amplitude in patients was unrelated to OCD symptom severity, current diagnostic status, or treatment effects. Conclusions The results provide further evidence of increased error-related brain activity in pediatric OCD. The difference in the ERN between patients with tic-related and non-tic-related OCD provides preliminary evidence of a neurobiological difference between these two OCD subtypes. The results indicate the ERN is a trait-like measure that may serve as a biomarker for non-tic-related OCD. PMID:22917203

  18. Technology-related medication errors in a tertiary hospital: a 5-year analysis of reported medication incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, N R; Cheung, S T D; Chui, W C M; Cheung, B M Y

    2012-12-01

    Healthcare technology is meant to reduce medication errors. The objective of this study was to assess unintended errors related to technologies in the medication use process. Medication incidents reported from 2006 to 2010 in a main tertiary care hospital were analysed by a pharmacist and technology-related errors were identified. Technology-related errors were further classified as socio-technical errors and device errors. This analysis was conducted using data from medication incident reports which may represent only a small proportion of medication errors that actually takes place in a hospital. Hence, interpretation of results must be tentative. 1538 medication incidents were reported. 17.1% of all incidents were technology-related, of which only 1.9% were device errors, whereas most were socio-technical errors (98.1%). Of these, 61.2% were linked to computerised prescription order entry, 23.2% to bar-coded patient identification labels, 7.2% to infusion pumps, 6.8% to computer-aided dispensing label generation and 1.5% to other technologies. The immediate causes for technology-related errors included, poor interface between user and computer (68.1%), improper procedures or rule violations (22.1%), poor interface between user and infusion pump (4.9%), technical defects (1.9%) and others (3.0%). In 11.4% of the technology-related incidents, the error was detected after the drug had been administered. A considerable proportion of all incidents were technology-related. Most errors were due to socio-technical issues. Unintended and unanticipated errors may happen when using technologies. Therefore, when using technologies, system improvement, awareness, training and monitoring are needed to minimise medication errors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Religious Fundamentalism Modulates Neural Responses to Error-Related Words: The Role of Motivation Toward Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kossowska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Examining the relationship between brain activity and religious fundamentalism, this study explores whether fundamentalist religious beliefs increase responses to error-related words among participants intolerant to uncertainty (i.e., high in the need for closure in comparison to those who have a high degree of toleration for uncertainty (i.e., those who are low in the need for closure. We examine a negative-going event-related brain potentials occurring 400 ms after stimulus onset (the N400 due to its well-understood association with the reactions to emotional conflict. Religious fundamentalism and tolerance of uncertainty were measured on self-report measures, and electroencephalographic neural reactivity was recorded as participants were performing an emotional Stroop task. In this task, participants read neutral words and words related to uncertainty, errors, and pondering, while being asked to name the color of the ink with which the word is written. The results confirm that among people who are intolerant of uncertainty (i.e., those high in the need for closure, religious fundamentalism is associated with an increased N400 on error-related words compared with people who tolerate uncertainty well (i.e., those low in the need for closure.

  20. Religious Fundamentalism Modulates Neural Responses to Error-Related Words: The Role of Motivation Toward Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossowska, Małgorzata; Szwed, Paulina; Wyczesany, Miroslaw; Czarnek, Gabriela; Wronka, Eligiusz

    2018-01-01

    Examining the relationship between brain activity and religious fundamentalism, this study explores whether fundamentalist religious beliefs increase responses to error-related words among participants intolerant to uncertainty (i.e., high in the need for closure) in comparison to those who have a high degree of toleration for uncertainty (i.e., those who are low in the need for closure). We examine a negative-going event-related brain potentials occurring 400 ms after stimulus onset (the N400) due to its well-understood association with the reactions to emotional conflict. Religious fundamentalism and tolerance of uncertainty were measured on self-report measures, and electroencephalographic neural reactivity was recorded as participants were performing an emotional Stroop task. In this task, participants read neutral words and words related to uncertainty, errors, and pondering, while being asked to name the color of the ink with which the word is written. The results confirm that among people who are intolerant of uncertainty (i.e., those high in the need for closure), religious fundamentalism is associated with an increased N400 on error-related words compared with people who tolerate uncertainty well (i.e., those low in the need for closure).

  1. Religious Fundamentalism Modulates Neural Responses to Error-Related Words: The Role of Motivation Toward Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossowska, Małgorzata; Szwed, Paulina; Wyczesany, Miroslaw; Czarnek, Gabriela; Wronka, Eligiusz

    2018-01-01

    Examining the relationship between brain activity and religious fundamentalism, this study explores whether fundamentalist religious beliefs increase responses to error-related words among participants intolerant to uncertainty (i.e., high in the need for closure) in comparison to those who have a high degree of toleration for uncertainty (i.e., those who are low in the need for closure). We examine a negative-going event-related brain potentials occurring 400 ms after stimulus onset (the N400) due to its well-understood association with the reactions to emotional conflict. Religious fundamentalism and tolerance of uncertainty were measured on self-report measures, and electroencephalographic neural reactivity was recorded as participants were performing an emotional Stroop task. In this task, participants read neutral words and words related to uncertainty, errors, and pondering, while being asked to name the color of the ink with which the word is written. The results confirm that among people who are intolerant of uncertainty (i.e., those high in the need for closure), religious fundamentalism is associated with an increased N400 on error-related words compared with people who tolerate uncertainty well (i.e., those low in the need for closure). PMID:29636709

  2. Outlier Removal and the Relation with Reporting Errors and Quality of Psychological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Marjan; Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The removal of outliers to acquire a significant result is a questionable research practice that appears to be commonly used in psychology. In this study, we investigated whether the removal of outliers in psychology papers is related to weaker evidence (against the null hypothesis of no effect), a higher prevalence of reporting errors, and smaller sample sizes in these papers compared to papers in the same journals that did not report the exclusion of outliers from the analyses. Methods and Findings We retrieved a total of 2667 statistical results of null hypothesis significance tests from 153 articles in main psychology journals, and compared results from articles in which outliers were removed (N = 92) with results from articles that reported no exclusion of outliers (N = 61). We preregistered our hypotheses and methods and analyzed the data at the level of articles. Results show no significant difference between the two types of articles in median p value, sample sizes, or prevalence of all reporting errors, large reporting errors, and reporting errors that concerned the statistical significance. However, we did find a discrepancy between the reported degrees of freedom of t tests and the reported sample size in 41% of articles that did not report removal of any data values. This suggests common failure to report data exclusions (or missingness) in psychological articles. Conclusions We failed to find that the removal of outliers from the analysis in psychological articles was related to weaker evidence (against the null hypothesis of no effect), sample size, or the prevalence of errors. However, our control sample might be contaminated due to nondisclosure of excluded values in articles that did not report exclusion of outliers. Results therefore highlight the importance of more transparent reporting of statistical analyses. PMID:25072606

  3. Relative blood volume changes underestimate total blood volume changes during hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, Judith J.; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N.; Pruim, Jan; Nijnuis, Hugo; Wiersum, Anneke; de Jong, Paul E.; Huisman, Roel M.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    Background: Measurements of relative blood volume changes (ARBV) during hemodialysis (HD) are based on hemoconcentration and assume uniform mixing of erythrocytes and plasma throughout the circulation. However, whole-body hematocrit (Ht) is lower than systemic Ht. During HD, a change in the ratio

  4. Novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-11-01

    Ergodic capacity and average bit error rate have been widely used to compare the performance of different wireless communication systems. As such recent scientific research and studies revealed strong impact of designing and implementing wireless technologies based on these two performance indicators. However and to the best of our knowledge, the direct links between these two performance indicators have not been explicitly proposed in the literature so far. In this paper, we propose novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate of an overall communication system using binary modulation schemes for signaling with a limited bandwidth and operating over generalized fading channels. More specifically, we show that these two performance measures can be represented in terms of each other, without the need to know the exact end-to-end statistical characterization of the communication channel. We validate the correctness and accuracy of our newly proposed relations and illustrated their usefulness by considering some classical examples. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Software platform for managing the classification of error- related potentials of observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvestas, P.; Ventouras, E.-C.; Kostopoulos, S.; Sidiropoulos, K.; Korfiatis, V.; Korda, A.; Uzunolglu, A.; Karanasiou, I.; Kalatzis, I.; Matsopoulos, G.

    2015-09-01

    Human learning is partly based on observation. Electroencephalographic recordings of subjects who perform acts (actors) or observe actors (observers), contain a negative waveform in the Evoked Potentials (EPs) of the actors that commit errors and of observers who observe the error-committing actors. This waveform is called the Error-Related Negativity (ERN). Its detection has applications in the context of Brain-Computer Interfaces. The present work describes a software system developed for managing EPs of observers, with the aim of classifying them into observations of either correct or incorrect actions. It consists of an integrated platform for the storage, management, processing and classification of EPs recorded during error-observation experiments. The system was developed using C# and the following development tools and frameworks: MySQL, .NET Framework, Entity Framework and Emgu CV, for interfacing with the machine learning library of OpenCV. Up to six features can be computed per EP recording per electrode. The user can select among various feature selection algorithms and then proceed to train one of three types of classifiers: Artificial Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines, k-nearest neighbour. Next the classifier can be used for classifying any EP curve that has been inputted to the database.

  6. Relative Error Model Reduction via Time-Weighted Balanced Stochastic Singular Perturbation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahavori, Maryamsadat; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    A new mixed method for relative error model reduction of linear time invariant (LTI) systems is proposed in this paper. This order reduction technique is mainly based upon time-weighted balanced stochastic model reduction method and singular perturbation model reduction technique. Compared...... by using the concept and properties of the reciprocal systems. The results are further illustrated by two practical numerical examples: a model of CD player and a model of the atmospheric storm track....

  7. Error-related negativity varies with the activation of gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Shu, Liangchao; Wang, Xiaoyi; Dai, Shenyi; Che, Hongmin

    2008-09-19

    The error-related negativity (ERN) was suggested to reflect the response-performance monitoring process. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the activation of gender stereotypes influences the ERN. Twenty-eight male participants were asked to complete a tool or kitchenware identification task. The prime stimulus is a picture of a male or female face and the target stimulus is either a kitchen utensil or a hand tool. The ERN amplitude on male-kitchenware trials is significantly larger than that on female-kitchenware trials, which reveals the low-level, automatic activation of gender stereotypes. The ERN that was elicited in this task has two sources--operation errors and the conflict between the gender stereotype activation and the non-prejudice beliefs. And the gender stereotype activation may be the key factor leading to this difference of ERN. In other words, the stereotype activation in this experimental paradigm may be indexed by the ERN.

  8. Estimators of the Relations of Equivalence, Tolerance and Preference Based on Pairwise Comparisons with Random Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Klukowski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review of results of the author in the area of estimation of the relations of equivalence, tolerance and preference within a finite set based on multiple, independent (in a stochastic way pairwise comparisons with random errors, in binary and multivalent forms. These estimators require weaker assumptions than those used in the literature on the subject. Estimates of the relations are obtained based on solutions to problems from discrete optimization. They allow application of both types of comparisons - binary and multivalent (this fact relates to the tolerance and preference relations. The estimates can be verified in a statistical way; in particular, it is possible to verify the type of the relation. The estimates have been applied by the author to problems regarding forecasting, financial engineering and bio-cybernetics. (original abstract

  9. Classification of Error Related Brain Activity in an Auditory Identification Task with Conditions of Varying Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkos, I.; Gkiatis, K.; Bromis, K.; Asvestas, P. A.; Karanasiou, I. S.; Ventouras, E. M.; Matsopoulos, G. K.

    2017-11-01

    The detection of an error is the cognitive evaluation of an action outcome that is considered undesired or mismatches an expected response. Brain activity during monitoring of correct and incorrect responses elicits Event Related Potentials (ERPs) revealing complex cerebral responses to deviant sensory stimuli. Development of accurate error detection systems is of great importance both concerning practical applications and in investigating the complex neural mechanisms of decision making. In this study, data are used from an audio identification experiment that was implemented with two levels of complexity in order to investigate neurophysiological error processing mechanisms in actors and observers. To examine and analyse the variations of the processing of erroneous sensory information for each level of complexity we employ Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifiers with various learning methods and kernels using characteristic ERP time-windowed features. For dimensionality reduction and to remove redundant features we implement a feature selection framework based on Sequential Forward Selection (SFS). The proposed method provided high accuracy in identifying correct and incorrect responses both for actors and for observers with mean accuracy of 93% and 91% respectively. Additionally, computational time was reduced and the effects of the nesting problem usually occurring in SFS of large feature sets were alleviated.

  10. On nonstationarity-related errors in modal combination rules of the response spectrum method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Shashank; Gupta, Vinay K.

    2017-10-01

    Characterization of seismic hazard via (elastic) design spectra and the estimation of linear peak response of a given structure from this characterization continue to form the basis of earthquake-resistant design philosophy in various codes of practice all over the world. Since the direct use of design spectrum ordinates is a preferred option for the practicing engineers, modal combination rules play central role in the peak response estimation. Most of the available modal combination rules are however based on the assumption that nonstationarity affects the structural response alike at the modal and overall response levels. This study considers those situations where this assumption may cause significant errors in the peak response estimation, and preliminary models are proposed for the estimation of the extents to which nonstationarity affects the modal and total system responses, when the ground acceleration process is assumed to be a stationary process. It is shown through numerical examples in the context of complete-quadratic-combination (CQC) method that the nonstationarity-related errors in the estimation of peak base shear may be significant, when strong-motion duration of the excitation is too small compared to the period of the system and/or the response is distributed comparably in several modes. It is also shown that these errors are reduced marginally with the use of the proposed nonstationarity factor models.

  11. Effect of a health system's medical error disclosure program on gastroenterology-related claims rates and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Megan A; Elmunzer, B Joseph; Scheiman, James M

    2014-04-01

    In 2001, the University of Michigan Health System (UMHS) implemented a novel medical error disclosure program. This study analyzes the effect of this program on gastroenterology (GI)-related claims and costs. This was a review of claims in the UMHS Risk Management Database (1990-2010), naming a gastroenterologist. Claims were classified according to pre-determined categories. Claims data, including incident date, date of resolution, and total liability dollars, were reviewed. Mean total liability incurred per claim in the pre- and post-implementation eras was compared. Patient encounter data from the Division of Gastroenterology was also reviewed in order to benchmark claims data with changes in clinical volume. There were 238,911 GI encounters in the pre-implementation era and 411,944 in the post-implementation era. A total of 66 encounters resulted in claims: 38 in the pre-implementation era and 28 in the post-implementation era. Of the total number of claims, 15.2% alleged delay in diagnosis/misdiagnosis, 42.4% related to a procedure, and 42.4% involved improper management, treatment, or monitoring. The reduction in the proportion of encounters resulting in claims was statistically significant (P=0.001), as was the reduction in time to claim resolution (1,000 vs. 460 days) (P<0.0001). There was also a reduction in the mean total liability per claim ($167,309 pre vs. $81,107 post, 95% confidence interval: 33682.5-300936.2 pre vs. 1687.8-160526.7 post). Implementation of a novel medical error disclosure program, promoting transparency and quality improvement, not only decreased the number of GI-related claims per patient encounter, but also dramatically shortened the time to claim resolution.

  12. Sensitivity of volumetric modulated arc therapy patient specific QA results to multileaf collimator errors and correlation to dose volume histogram based metrics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, Linda

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates the impact of systematic multileaf collimator (MLC) positional errors on gamma analysis results used for quality assurance (QA) of Rapidarc treatments. In addition, this study evaluates the relationship of these gamma analysis results and clinical dose volume histogram metrics (DVH) for Rapidarc treatment plans.

  13. The estimation of differential counting measurements of possitive quantities with relatively large statistical errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    Bayes' principle is applied to the differential counting measurement of a positive quantity in which the statistical errors are not necessarily small in relation to the true value of the quantity. The methods of estimation derived are found to give consistent results and to avoid the anomalous negative estimates sometimes obtained by conventional methods. One of the methods given provides a simple means of deriving the required estimates from conventionally presented results and appears to have wide potential applications. Both methods provide the actual posterior probability distribution of the quantity to be measured. A particularly important potential application is the correction of counts on low radioacitvity samples for background. (orig.)

  14. SU-E-I-83: Error Analysis of Multi-Modality Image-Based Volumes of Rodent Solid Tumors Using a Preclinical Multi-Modality QA Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y [University of Kansas Hospital, Kansas City, KS (United States); Fullerton, G; Goins, B [University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: In our previous study a preclinical multi-modality quality assurance (QA) phantom that contains five tumor-simulating test objects with 2, 4, 7, 10 and 14 mm diameters was developed for accurate tumor size measurement by researchers during cancer drug development and testing. This study analyzed the errors during tumor volume measurement from preclinical magnetic resonance (MR), micro-computed tomography (micro- CT) and ultrasound (US) images acquired in a rodent tumor model using the preclinical multi-modality QA phantom. Methods: Using preclinical 7-Tesla MR, US and micro-CT scanners, images were acquired of subcutaneous SCC4 tumor xenografts in nude rats (3–4 rats per group; 5 groups) along with the QA phantom using the same imaging protocols. After tumors were excised, in-air micro-CT imaging was performed to determine reference tumor volume. Volumes measured for the rat tumors and phantom test objects were calculated using formula V = (π/6)*a*b*c where a, b and c are the maximum diameters in three perpendicular dimensions determined by the three imaging modalities. Then linear regression analysis was performed to compare image-based tumor volumes with the reference tumor volume and known test object volume for the rats and the phantom respectively. Results: The slopes of regression lines for in-vivo tumor volumes measured by three imaging modalities were 1.021, 1.101 and 0.862 for MRI, micro-CT and US respectively. For phantom, the slopes were 0.9485, 0.9971 and 0.9734 for MRI, micro-CT and US respectively. Conclusion: For both animal and phantom studies, random and systematic errors were observed. Random errors were observer-dependent and systematic errors were mainly due to selected imaging protocols and/or measurement method. In the animal study, there were additional systematic errors attributed to ellipsoidal assumption for tumor shape. The systematic errors measured using the QA phantom need to be taken into account to reduce measurement

  15. Method and apparatus for probing relative volume fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandrasits, Walter G.; Kikta, Thomas J.

    1998-01-01

    A relative volume fraction probe particularly for use in a multiphase fluid system includes two parallel conductive paths defining therebetween a sample zone within the system. A generating unit generates time varying electrical signals which are inserted into one of the two parallel conductive paths. A time domain reflectometer receives the time varying electrical signals returned by the second of the two parallel conductive paths and, responsive thereto, outputs a curve of impedance versus distance. An analysis unit then calculates the area under the curve, subtracts the calculated area from an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a first fluid phase, and divides this calculated difference by the difference between an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of the first fluid phase and an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a second fluid phase. The result is the volume fraction.

  16. Systematic errors in digital volume correlation due to the self-heating effect of a laboratory x-ray CT scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B; Pan, B; Tao, R; Lubineau, G

    2017-01-01

    The use of digital volume correlation (DVC) in combination with a laboratory x-ray computed tomography (CT) for full-field internal 3D deformation measurement of opaque materials has flourished in recent years. During x-ray tomographic imaging, the heat generated by the x-ray tube changes the imaging geometry of x-ray scanner, and further introduces noticeable errors in DVC measurements. In this work, to provide practical guidance high-accuracy DVC measurement, the errors in displacements and strains measured by DVC due to the self-heating for effect of a commercially available x-ray scanner were experimentally investigated. The errors were characterized by performing simple rescan tests with different scan durations. The results indicate that the maximum strain errors associated with the self-heating of the x-ray scanner exceed 400 µε . Possible approaches for minimizing or correcting these displacement and strain errors are discussed. Finally, a series of translation and uniaxial compression tests were performed, in which strain errors were detected and then removed using pre-established artificial dilatational strain-time curve. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy and accuracy of the proposed strain error correction approach. (paper)

  17. Systematic errors in digital volume correlation due to the self-heating effect of a laboratory x-ray CT scanner

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, B

    2017-02-15

    The use of digital volume correlation (DVC) in combination with a laboratory x-ray computed tomography (CT) for full-field internal 3D deformation measurement of opaque materials has flourished in recent years. During x-ray tomographic imaging, the heat generated by the x-ray tube changes the imaging geometry of x-ray scanner, and further introduces noticeable errors in DVC measurements. In this work, to provide practical guidance high-accuracy DVC measurement, the errors in displacements and strains measured by DVC due to the self-heating for effect of a commercially available x-ray scanner were experimentally investigated. The errors were characterized by performing simple rescan tests with different scan durations. The results indicate that the maximum strain errors associated with the self-heating of the x-ray scanner exceed 400 µε. Possible approaches for minimizing or correcting these displacement and strain errors are discussed. Finally, a series of translation and uniaxial compression tests were performed, in which strain errors were detected and then removed using pre-established artificial dilatational strain-time curve. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy and accuracy of the proposed strain error correction approach.

  18. An investigation of Saudi Arabian MR radiographers' knowledge and confidence in relation to MR image-quality-related errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsharif, W.; Davis, M.; McGee, A.; Rainford, L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate MR radiographers' current knowledge base and confidence level in relation to quality-related errors within MR images. Method: Thirty-five MR radiographers within 16 MRI departments in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) independently reviewed a prepared set of 25 MR images, naming the error, specifying the error-correction strategy, scoring how confident they were in recognising this error and suggesting a correction strategy by using a scale of 1–100. The datasets were obtained from MRI departments in the KSA to represent the range of images which depicted excellent, acceptable and poor image quality. Results: The findings demonstrated a low level of radiographer knowledge in identifying the type of quality errors and when suggesting an appropriate strategy to rectify those errors. The findings show that only (n = 7) 20% of the radiographers could correctly name what the quality errors were in 70% of the dataset, and none of the radiographers correctly specified the error-correction strategy in more than 68% of the MR datasets. The confidence level of radiography participants in their ability to state the type of image quality errors was significantly different (p < 0.001) for who work in different hospital types. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest there is a need to establish a national association for MR radiographers to monitor training and the development of postgraduate MRI education in Saudi Arabia to improve the current status of the MR radiographers' knowledge and direct high quality service delivery. - Highlights: • MR radiographers recognised the existence of the image quality related errors. • A few MR radiographers were able to correctly identify which image quality errors were being shown. • None of MR radiographers were able to correctly specify error-correction strategy of the image quality errors. • A low level of knowledge was demonstrated in identifying and rectify image quality errors.

  19. The relative impact of sizing errors on steam generator tube failure probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizelj, L.; Dvorsek, T.

    1998-01-01

    The Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) at tube support plates is currently the major degradation mechanism affecting the steam generator tubes made of Inconel 600. This caused development and licensing of degradation specific maintenance approaches, which addressed two main failure modes of the degraded piping: tube rupture; and excessive leakage through degraded tubes. A methodology aiming at assessing the efficiency of a given set of possible maintenance approaches has already been proposed by the authors. It pointed out better performance of the degradation specific over generic approaches in (1) lower probability of single and multiple steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), (2) lower estimated accidental leak rates and (3) less tubes plugged. A sensitivity analysis was also performed pointing out the relative contributions of uncertain input parameters to the tube rupture probabilities. The dominant contribution was assigned to the uncertainties inherent to the regression models used to correlate the defect size and tube burst pressure. The uncertainties, which can be estimated from the in-service inspections, are further analysed in this paper. The defect growth was found to have significant and to some extent unrealistic impact on the probability of single tube rupture. Since the defect growth estimates were based on the past inspection records they strongly depend on the sizing errors. Therefore, an attempt was made to filter out the sizing errors and to arrive at more realistic estimates of the defect growth. The impact of different assumptions regarding sizing errors on the tube rupture probability was studied using a realistic numerical example. The data used is obtained from a series of inspection results from Krsko NPP with 2 Westinghouse D-4 steam generators. The results obtained are considered useful in safety assessment and maintenance of affected steam generators. (author)

  20. The design of the run Clever randomized trial: running volume, -intensity and running-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik; Parner, Erik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2016-04-23

    Injury incidence and prevalence in running populations have been investigated and documented in several studies. However, knowledge about injury etiology and prevention is needed. Training errors in running are modifiable risk factors and people engaged in recreational running need evidence-based running schedules to minimize the risk of injury. The existing literature on running volume and running intensity and the development of injuries show conflicting results. This may be related to previously applied study designs, methods used to quantify the performed running and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The aim of the Run Clever trial is to investigate if a focus on running intensity compared with a focus on running volume in a running schedule influences the overall injury risk differently. The Run Clever trial is a randomized trial with a 24-week follow-up. Healthy recreational runners between 18 and 65 years and with an average of 1-3 running sessions per week the past 6 months are included. Participants are randomized into two intervention groups: Running schedule-I and Schedule-V. Schedule-I emphasizes a progression in running intensity by increasing the weekly volume of running at a hard pace, while Schedule-V emphasizes a progression in running volume, by increasing the weekly overall volume. Data on the running performed is collected by GPS. Participants who sustain running-related injuries are diagnosed by a diagnostic team of physiotherapists using standardized diagnostic criteria. The members of the diagnostic team are blinded. The study design, procedures and informed consent were approved by the Ethics Committee Northern Denmark Region (N-20140069). The Run Clever trial will provide insight into possible differences in injury risk between running schedules emphasizing either running intensity or running volume. The risk of sustaining volume- and intensity-related injuries will be compared in the two intervention groups using a competing

  1. Invariance and variability in interaction error-related potentials and their consequences for classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Alqumsan, Mohammad; Kapeller, Christoph; Hintermüller, Christoph; Guger, Christoph; Peer, Angelika

    2017-12-01

    Objective. This paper discusses the invariance and variability in interaction error-related potentials (ErrPs), where a special focus is laid upon the factors of (1) the human mental processing required to assess interface actions (2) time (3) subjects. Approach. Three different experiments were designed as to vary primarily with respect to the mental processes that are necessary to assess whether an interface error has occurred or not. The three experiments were carried out with 11 subjects in a repeated-measures experimental design. To study the effect of time, a subset of the recruited subjects additionally performed the same experiments on different days. Main results. The ErrP variability across the different experiments for the same subjects was found largely attributable to the different mental processing required to assess interface actions. Nonetheless, we found that interaction ErrPs are empirically invariant over time (for the same subject and same interface) and to a lesser extent across subjects (for the same interface). Significance. The obtained results may be used to explain across-study variability of ErrPs, as well as to define guidelines for approaches to the ErrP classifier transferability problem.

  2. Segmentation error and macular thickness measurements obtained with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography devices in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosang Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate frequency and severity of segmentation errors of two spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT devices and error effect on central macular thickness (CMT measurements. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven eyes of 25 patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration, examined using the Cirrus HD-OCT and Spectralis HRA + OCT, were retrospectively reviewed. Macular cube 512 × 128 and 5-line raster scans were performed with the Cirrus and 512 × 25 volume scans with the Spectralis. Frequency and severity of segmentation errors were compared between scans. Results: Segmentation error frequency was 47.4% (baseline, 40.7% (1 month, 40.7% (2 months, and 48.1% (6 months for the Cirrus, and 59.3%, 62.2%, 57.8%, and 63.7%, respectively, for the Spectralis, differing significantly between devices at all examinations (P < 0.05, except at baseline. Average error score was 1.21 ± 1.65 (baseline, 0.79 ± 1.18 (1 month, 0.74 ± 1.12 (2 months, and 0.96 ± 1.11 (6 months for the Cirrus, and 1.73 ± 1.50, 1.54 ± 1.35, 1.38 ± 1.40, and 1.49 ± 1.30, respectively, for the Spectralis, differing significantly at 1 month and 2 months (P < 0.02. Automated and manual CMT measurements by the Spectralis were larger than those by the Cirrus. Conclusions: The Cirrus HD-OCT had a lower frequency and severity of segmentation error than the Spectralis HRA + OCT. SD-OCT error should be considered when evaluating retinal thickness.

  3. Method for evaluation of risk due to seismic related design and construction errors based on past reactor experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Cuesta, M.; Okrent, D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for quantification of risk due to seismic related design and construction errors in nuclear power plants, based on information available on errors discovered in the past. For the purposes of this paper, an error is defined as any event that causes the seismic safety margins of a nuclear power plant to be smaller than implied by current regulatory requirements and industry common practice. Also, the actual reduction in the safety margins caused by the error will be called a deficiency. The method is based on a theoretical model of errors, called a deficiency logic diagram. First, an ultimate cause is present. This ultimate cause is consumated as a specific instance, called originating error. As originating errors may occur in actions to be applied a number of times, a deficiency generation system may be involved. Quality assurance activities will hopefully identify most of these deficiencies, requesting their disposition. However, the quality assurance program is not perfect and some operating plant deficiencies may persist, causing different levels of impact to the plant logic. The paper provides a way of extrapolating information about errors discovered in plants under construction in order to assess the risk due to errors that have not been discovered

  4. Differences among Job Positions Related to Communication Errors at Construction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akiko; Ishida, Toshiro

    In a previous study, we classified the communicatio n errors at construction sites as faulty intention and message pattern, inadequate channel pattern, and faulty comprehension pattern. This study seeks to evaluate the degree of risk of communication errors and to investigate differences among people in various job positions in perception of communication error risk . Questionnaires based on the previous study were a dministered to construction workers (n=811; 149 adminis trators, 208 foremen and 454 workers). Administrators evaluated all patterns of communication error risk equally. However, foremen and workers evaluated communication error risk differently in each pattern. The common contributing factors to all patterns wer e inadequate arrangements before work and inadequate confirmation. Some factors were common among patterns but other factors were particular to a specific pattern. To help prevent future accidents at construction sites, administrators should understand how people in various job positions perceive communication errors and propose human factors measures to prevent such errors.

  5. Relation of anthropometric measurements to ocular biometric changes and refractive error in children with thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkitkat, Rania S; El-Shazly, Amany A; Ebeid, Weam M; Deghedy, Marwa R

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate and correlate anthropometric, biometric, and refractive error changes in thalassemia major (TM). One hundred children with TM and another hundred healthy controls were recruited. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) were the anthropometric parameters recorded. Full ophthalmologic examination was performed, including best-corrected visual acuity, cycloplegic refraction, slit-lamp examination, Goldmann applanation tonometry, indirect ophthalmoscopy, keratometry (K readings), and ocular biometry. Compared to controls, children with TM were shorter and lighter, with a smaller BMI (pbiometric data, patients with thalassemia had steeper mean K readings (p = 0.03), shorter axial length (AXL) (p = 0.005), shorter vitreous chamber depth (pbiometric changes (steeper corneas and thicker lenses) to reach emmetropization, with an exaggerated response and subsequent myopic shift. However, growth retardation is not directly related to ocular growth changes, myopic shift, or variations in biometric parameters.

  6. Using brain potentials to understand prism adaptation: the error-related negativity and the P300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Joseph Maclean

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prism adaptation (PA is both a perceptual-motor learning task as well as a promising rehabilitation tool for visuo-spatial neglect (VSN – a spatial attention disorder often experienced after stroke resulting in slowed and/or inaccurate motor responses to contralesional targets. During PA, individuals are exposed to prism-induced shifts of the visual-field while performing a visuo-guided reaching task. After adaptation, with goggles removed, visuo-motor responding is shifted to the opposite direction of that initially induced by the prisms. This visuo-motor aftereffect has been used to study visuo-motor learning and adaptation and has been applied clinically to reduce VSN severity by improving motor responding to stimuli in contralesional (usually left-sided space. In order to optimize PA’s use for VSN patients, it is important to elucidate the neural and cognitive processes that alter visuomotor function during PA. In the present study, healthy young adults underwent PA while event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded at the termination of each reach (screen-touch, then binned according to accuracy (hit vs. miss and phase of exposure block (early, middle, late. Results show that two ERP components were evoked by screen-touch: an early error-related negativity (ERN, and a P300. The ERN was consistently evoked on miss trials during adaptation, while the P300 amplitude was largest during the early phase of adaptation for both hit and miss trials. This study provides evidence of two neural signals sensitive to visual feedback during PA that may sub-serve changes in visuomotor responding. Prior ERP research suggests that the ERN reflects an error processing system in medial-frontal cortex, while the P300 is suggested to reflect a system for context updating and learning. Future research is needed to elucidate the role of these ERP components in improving visuomotor responses among individuals with VSN.

  7. Using brain potentials to understand prism adaptation: the error-related negativity and the P300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Stephane J; Hassall, Cameron D; Ishigami, Yoko; Krigolson, Olav E; Eskes, Gail A

    2015-01-01

    Prism adaptation (PA) is both a perceptual-motor learning task as well as a promising rehabilitation tool for visuo-spatial neglect (VSN)-a spatial attention disorder often experienced after stroke resulting in slowed and/or inaccurate motor responses to contralesional targets. During PA, individuals are exposed to prism-induced shifts of the visual-field while performing a visuo-guided reaching task. After adaptation, with goggles removed, visuomotor responding is shifted to the opposite direction of that initially induced by the prisms. This visuomotor aftereffect has been used to study visuomotor learning and adaptation and has been applied clinically to reduce VSN severity by improving motor responding to stimuli in contralesional (usually left-sided) space. In order to optimize PA's use for VSN patients, it is important to elucidate the neural and cognitive processes that alter visuomotor function during PA. In the present study, healthy young adults underwent PA while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded at the termination of each reach (screen-touch), then binned according to accuracy (hit vs. miss) and phase of exposure block (early, middle, late). Results show that two ERP components were evoked by screen-touch: an error-related negativity (ERN), and a P300. The ERN was consistently evoked on miss trials during adaptation, while the P300 amplitude was largest during the early phase of adaptation for both hit and miss trials. This study provides evidence of two neural signals sensitive to visual feedback during PA that may sub-serve changes in visuomotor responding. Prior ERP research suggests that the ERN reflects an error processing system in medial-frontal cortex, while the P300 is suggested to reflect a system for context updating and learning. Future research is needed to elucidate the role of these ERP components in improving visuomotor responses among individuals with VSN.

  8. Practical Insights from Initial Studies Related to Human Error Analysis Project (HEAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follesoe, Knut; Kaarstad, Magnhild; Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir; Hollnagel, Erik; Kirwan; Barry

    1996-01-01

    This report presents practical insights made from an analysis of the three initial studies in the Human Error Analysis Project (HEAP), and the first study in the US NRC Staffing Project. These practical insights relate to our understanding of diagnosis in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) emergency scenarios and, in particular, the factors that influence whether a diagnosis will succeed or fail. The insights reported here focus on three inter-related areas: (1) the diagnostic strategies and styles that have been observed in single operator and team-based studies; (2) the qualitative aspects of the key operator support systems, namely VDU interfaces, alarms, training and procedures, that have affected the outcome of diagnosis; and (3) the overall success rates of diagnosis and the error types that have been observed in the various studies. With respect to diagnosis, certain patterns have emerged from the various studies, depending on whether operators were alone or in teams, and on their familiarity with the process. Some aspects of the interface and alarm systems were found to contribute to diagnostic failures while others supported performance and recovery. Similar results were found for training and experience. Furthermore, the availability of procedures did not preclude the need for some diagnosis. With respect to HRA and PSA, it was possible to record the failure types seen in the studies, and in some cases to give crude estimates of the failure likelihood for certain scenarios. Although these insights are interim in nature, they do show the type of information that can be derived from these studies. More importantly, they clarify aspects of our understanding of diagnosis in NPP emergencies, including implications for risk assessment, operator support systems development, and for research into diagnosis in a broader range of fields than the nuclear power industry. (author)

  9. Pregnancy-related anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with visuospatial working memory errors during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataja, E-L; Karlsson, L; Huizink, A C; Tolvanen, M; Parsons, C; Nolvi, S; Karlsson, H

    2017-08-15

    Cognitive deficits, especially in memory and concentration, are often reported during pregnancy. Similar cognitive dysfunctions can also occur in depression and anxiety. To date, few studies have investigated the associations between cognitive deficits and psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy. This field is of interest because maternal cognitive functioning, and particularly its higher-order aspects are related to maternal well-being and caregiving behavior, as well as later child development. Pregnant women (N =230), reporting low (n =87), moderate (n =97), or high (n =46) levels of depressive, general anxiety and/or pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms (assessed repeatedly with EPDS, SCL-90/anxiety subscale, PRAQ-R2, respectively) were tested in mid-pregnancy for their cognitive functions. A computerized neuropsychological test battery was used. Pregnant women with high or moderate level of psychiatric symptoms had significantly more errors in visuospatial working memory/executive functioning task than mothers with low symptom level. Depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy and concurrent pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms were significant predictors of the performance in the task. General anxiety symptoms were not related to visuospatial working memory. Cognitive functions were evaluated only at one time-point during pregnancy precluding causal conclusions. Maternal depressive symptoms and pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms were both associated with decrements in visuospatial working memory/executive functioning. Depressive symptoms seem to present more stable relationship with cognitive deficits, while pregnancy-related anxiety was associated only concurrently. Future studies could investigate, how stable these cognitive differences are, and whether they affect maternal ability to deal with demands of pregnancy and later parenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Harsh parenting and fearfulness in toddlerhood interact to predict amplitudes of preschool error-related negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Brooker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperamentally fearful children are at increased risk for the development of anxiety problems relative to less-fearful children. This risk is even greater when early environments include high levels of harsh parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which harsh parenting may impact fearful children's risk for anxiety problems are largely unknown. Recent neuroscience work has suggested that punishment is associated with exaggerated error-related negativity (ERN, an event-related potential linked to performance monitoring, even after the threat of punishment is removed. In the current study, we examined the possibility that harsh parenting interacts with fearfulness, impacting anxiety risk via neural processes of performance monitoring. We found that greater fearfulness and harsher parenting at 2 years of age predicted greater fearfulness and greater ERN amplitudes at age 4. Supporting the role of cognitive processes in this association, greater fearfulness and harsher parenting also predicted less efficient neural processing during preschool. This study provides initial evidence that performance monitoring may be a candidate process by which early parenting interacts with fearfulness to predict risk for anxiety problems.

  11. Harsh parenting and fearfulness in toddlerhood interact to predict amplitudes of preschool error-related negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J; Buss, Kristin A

    2014-07-01

    Temperamentally fearful children are at increased risk for the development of anxiety problems relative to less-fearful children. This risk is even greater when early environments include high levels of harsh parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which harsh parenting may impact fearful children's risk for anxiety problems are largely unknown. Recent neuroscience work has suggested that punishment is associated with exaggerated error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential linked to performance monitoring, even after the threat of punishment is removed. In the current study, we examined the possibility that harsh parenting interacts with fearfulness, impacting anxiety risk via neural processes of performance monitoring. We found that greater fearfulness and harsher parenting at 2 years of age predicted greater fearfulness and greater ERN amplitudes at age 4. Supporting the role of cognitive processes in this association, greater fearfulness and harsher parenting also predicted less efficient neural processing during preschool. This study provides initial evidence that performance monitoring may be a candidate process by which early parenting interacts with fearfulness to predict risk for anxiety problems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevention of prescription errors by computerized, on-line, individual patient related surveillance of drug order entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliven, A; Zalman, D; Shilankov, Y; Yeshurun, D; Odeh, M

    2002-01-01

    Computerized prescription of drugs is expected to reduce the number of many preventable drug ordering errors. In the present study we evaluated the usefullness of a computerized drug order entry (CDOE) system in reducing prescription errors. A department of internal medicine using a comprehensive CDOE, which included also patient-related drug-laboratory, drug-disease and drug-allergy on-line surveillance was compared to a similar department in which drug orders were handwritten. CDOE reduced prescription errors to 25-35%. The causes of errors remained similar, and most errors, on both departments, were associated with abnormal renal function and electrolyte balance. Residual errors remaining on the CDOE-using department were due to handwriting on the typed order, failure to feed patients' diseases, and system failures. The use of CDOE was associated with a significant reduction in mean hospital stay and in the number of changes performed in the prescription. The findings of this study both quantity the impact of comprehensive CDOE on prescription errors and delineate the causes for remaining errors.

  13. Molecular representation of molar domain (volume), evolution equations, and linear constitutive relations for volume transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2008-09-07

    In the traditional theories of irreversible thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, the specific volume and molar volume have been interchangeably used for pure fluids, but in this work we show that they should be distinguished from each other and given distinctive statistical mechanical representations. In this paper, we present a general formula for the statistical mechanical representation of molecular domain (volume or space) by using the Voronoi volume and its mean value that may be regarded as molar domain (volume) and also the statistical mechanical representation of volume flux. By using their statistical mechanical formulas, the evolution equations of volume transport are derived from the generalized Boltzmann equation of fluids. Approximate solutions of the evolution equations of volume transport provides kinetic theory formulas for the molecular domain, the constitutive equations for molar domain (volume) and volume flux, and the dissipation of energy associated with volume transport. Together with the constitutive equation for the mean velocity of the fluid obtained in a previous paper, the evolution equations for volume transport not only shed a fresh light on, and insight into, irreversible phenomena in fluids but also can be applied to study fluid flow problems in a manner hitherto unavailable in fluid dynamics and irreversible thermodynamics. Their roles in the generalized hydrodynamics will be considered in the sequel.

  14. Operator errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuefer; Lindauer

    1980-01-01

    Besides that at spectacular events a combination of component failure and human error is often found. Especially the Rasmussen-Report and the German Risk Assessment Study show for pressurised water reactors that human error must not be underestimated. Although operator errors as a form of human error can never be eliminated entirely, they can be minimized and their effects kept within acceptable limits if a thorough training of personnel is combined with an adequate design of the plant against accidents. Contrary to the investigation of engineering errors, the investigation of human errors has so far been carried out with relatively small budgets. Intensified investigations in this field appear to be a worthwhile effort. (orig.)

  15. Model parameter-related optimal perturbations and their contributions to El Niño prediction errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ling-Jiang; Gao, Chuan; Zhang, Rong-Hua

    2018-04-01

    Errors in initial conditions and model parameters (MPs) are the main sources that limit the accuracy of ENSO predictions. In addition to exploring the initial error-induced prediction errors, model errors are equally important in determining prediction performance. In this paper, the MP-related optimal errors that can cause prominent error growth in ENSO predictions are investigated using an intermediate coupled model (ICM) and a conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) approach. Two MPs related to the Bjerknes feedback are considered in the CNOP analysis: one involves the SST-surface wind coupling ({α _τ } ), and the other involves the thermocline effect on the SST ({α _{Te}} ). The MP-related optimal perturbations (denoted as CNOP-P) are found uniformly positive and restrained in a small region: the {α _τ } component is mainly concentrated in the central equatorial Pacific, and the {α _{Te}} component is mainly located in the eastern cold tongue region. This kind of CNOP-P enhances the strength of the Bjerknes feedback and induces an El Niño- or La Niña-like error evolution, resulting in an El Niño-like systematic bias in this model. The CNOP-P is also found to play a role in the spring predictability barrier (SPB) for ENSO predictions. Evidently, such error growth is primarily attributed to MP errors in small areas based on the localized distribution of CNOP-P. Further sensitivity experiments firmly indicate that ENSO simulations are sensitive to the representation of SST-surface wind coupling in the central Pacific and to the thermocline effect in the eastern Pacific in the ICM. These results provide guidance and theoretical support for the future improvement in numerical models to reduce the systematic bias and SPB phenomenon in ENSO predictions.

  16. Intrinsic interactive reinforcement learning - Using error-related potentials for real world human-robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Kyoung; Kirchner, Elsa Andrea; Stefes, Arne; Kirchner, Frank

    2017-12-14

    Reinforcement learning (RL) enables robots to learn its optimal behavioral strategy in dynamic environments based on feedback. Explicit human feedback during robot RL is advantageous, since an explicit reward function can be easily adapted. However, it is very demanding and tiresome for a human to continuously and explicitly generate feedback. Therefore, the development of implicit approaches is of high relevance. In this paper, we used an error-related potential (ErrP), an event-related activity in the human electroencephalogram (EEG), as an intrinsically generated implicit feedback (rewards) for RL. Initially we validated our approach with seven subjects in a simulated robot learning scenario. ErrPs were detected online in single trial with a balanced accuracy (bACC) of 91%, which was sufficient to learn to recognize gestures and the correct mapping between human gestures and robot actions in parallel. Finally, we validated our approach in a real robot scenario, in which seven subjects freely chose gestures and the real robot correctly learned the mapping between gestures and actions (ErrP detection (90% bACC)). In this paper, we demonstrated that intrinsically generated EEG-based human feedback in RL can successfully be used to implicitly improve gesture-based robot control during human-robot interaction. We call our approach intrinsic interactive RL.

  17. Einstein's error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterflood, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    In discussing Einstein's Special Relativity theory it is claimed that it violates the principle of relativity itself and that an anomalous sign in the mathematics is found in the factor which transforms one inertial observer's measurements into those of another inertial observer. The apparent source of this error is discussed. Having corrected the error a new theory, called Observational Kinematics, is introduced to replace Einstein's Special Relativity. (U.K.)

  18. Driving error and anxiety related to iPod mp3 player use in a simulated driving experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ashley R; Carden, Randy L

    2009-08-01

    Driver distraction due to cellular phone usage has repeatedly been shown to increase the risk of vehicular accidents; however, the literature regarding the use of other personal electronic devices while driving is relatively sparse. It was hypothesized that the usage of an mp3 player would result in an increase in not only driving error while operating a driving simulator, but driver anxiety scores as well. It was also hypothesized that anxiety scores would be positively related to driving errors when using an mp3 player. 32 participants drove through a set course in a driving simulator twice, once with and once without an iPod mp3 player, with the order counterbalanced. Number of driving errors per course, such as leaving the road, impacts with stationary objects, loss of vehicular control, etc., and anxiety were significantly higher when an iPod was in use. Anxiety scores were unrelated to number of driving errors.

  19. Prediction of human errors by maladaptive changes in event-related brain networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichele, T.; Debener, S.; Calhoun, V.D.; Specht, K.; Engel, A.K.; Hugdahl, K.; Cramon, D.Y. von; Ullsperger, M.

    2008-01-01

    Humans engaged in monotonous tasks are susceptible to occasional errors that may lead to serious consequences, but little is known about brain activity patterns preceding errors. Using functional Mill and applying independent component analysis followed by deconvolution of hemodynamic responses, we

  20. Reducing patient identification errors related to glucose point-of-care testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Alreja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patient identification (ID errors in point-of-care testing (POCT can cause test results to be transferred to the wrong patient′s chart or prevent results from being transmitted and reported. Despite the implementation of patient barcoding and ongoing operator training at our institution, patient ID errors still occur with glucose POCT. The aim of this study was to develop a solution to reduce identification errors with POCT. Materials and Methods: Glucose POCT was performed by approximately 2,400 clinical operators throughout our health system. Patients are identified by scanning in wristband barcodes or by manual data entry using portable glucose meters. Meters are docked to upload data to a database server which then transmits data to any medical record matching the financial number of the test result. With a new model, meters connect to an interface manager where the patient ID (a nine-digit account number is checked against patient registration data from admission, discharge, and transfer (ADT feeds and only matched results are transferred to the patient′s electronic medical record. With the new process, the patient ID is checked prior to testing, and testing is prevented until ID errors are resolved. Results: When averaged over a period of a month, ID errors were reduced to 3 errors/month (0.015% in comparison with 61.5 errors/month (0.319% before implementing the new meters. Conclusion: Patient ID errors may occur with glucose POCT despite patient barcoding. The verification of patient identification should ideally take place at the bedside before testing occurs so that the errors can be addressed in real time. The introduction of an ADT feed directly to glucose meters reduced patient ID errors in POCT.

  1. Estimation of error in maximal intensity projection-based internal target volume of lung tumors: a simulation and comparison study using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Read, Paul W; Baisden, Joseph M; Larner, James M; Benedict, Stanley H; Sheng, Ke

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the error in four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) maximal intensity projection (MIP)-based lung tumor internal target volume determination using a simulation method based on dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI). Eight healthy volunteers and six lung tumor patients underwent a 5-min MRI scan in the sagittal plane to acquire dynamic images of lung motion. A MATLAB program was written to generate re-sorted dMRI using 4D-CT acquisition methods (RedCAM) by segmenting and rebinning the MRI scans. The maximal intensity projection images were generated from RedCAM and dMRI, and the errors in the MIP-based internal target area (ITA) from RedCAM (epsilon), compared with those from dMRI, were determined and correlated with the subjects' respiratory variability (nu). Maximal intensity projection-based ITAs from RedCAM were comparatively smaller than those from dMRI in both phantom studies (epsilon = -21.64% +/- 8.23%) and lung tumor patient studies (epsilon = -20.31% +/- 11.36%). The errors in MIP-based ITA from RedCAM correlated linearly (epsilon = -5.13nu - 6.71, r(2) = 0.76) with the subjects' respiratory variability. Because of the low temporal resolution and retrospective re-sorting, 4D-CT might not accurately depict the excursion of a moving tumor. Using a 4D-CT MIP image to define the internal target volume might therefore cause underdosing and an increased risk of subsequent treatment failure. Patient-specific respiratory variability might also be a useful predictor of the 4D-CT-induced error in MIP-based internal target volume determination.

  2. Correcting a fundamental error in greenhouse gas accounting related to bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberl, Helmut; Sprinz, Detlef; Bonazountas, Marc; Cocco, Pierluigi; Desaubies, Yves; Henze, Mogens; Hertel, Ole; Johnson, Richard K.; Kastrup, Ulrike; Laconte, Pierre; Lange, Eckart; Novak, Peter; Paavola, Jouni; Reenberg, Anette; Hove, Sybille van den

    2012-01-01

    Many international policies encourage a switch from fossil fuels to bioenergy based on the premise that its use would not result in carbon accumulation in the atmosphere. Frequently cited bioenergy goals would at least double the present global human use of plant material, the production of which already requires the dedication of roughly 75% of vegetated lands and more than 70% of water withdrawals. However, burning biomass for energy provision increases the amount of carbon in the air just like burning coal, oil or gas if harvesting the biomass decreases the amount of carbon stored in plants and soils, or reduces carbon sequestration. Neglecting this fact results in an accounting error that could be corrected by considering that only the use of ‘additional biomass’ – biomass from additional plant growth or biomass that would decompose rapidly if not used for bioenergy – can reduce carbon emissions. Failure to correct this accounting flaw will likely have substantial adverse consequences. The article presents recommendations for correcting greenhouse gas accounts related to bioenergy.

  3. Correcting a fundamental error in greenhouse gas accounting related to bioenergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl, Helmut; Sprinz, Detlef; Bonazountas, Marc; Cocco, Pierluigi; Desaubies, Yves; Henze, Mogens; Hertel, Ole; Johnson, Richard K; Kastrup, Ulrike; Laconte, Pierre; Lange, Eckart; Novak, Peter; Paavola, Jouni; Reenberg, Anette; van den Hove, Sybille; Vermeire, Theo; Wadhams, Peter; Searchinger, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    Many international policies encourage a switch from fossil fuels to bioenergy based on the premise that its use would not result in carbon accumulation in the atmosphere. Frequently cited bioenergy goals would at least double the present global human use of plant material, the production of which already requires the dedication of roughly 75% of vegetated lands and more than 70% of water withdrawals. However, burning biomass for energy provision increases the amount of carbon in the air just like burning coal, oil or gas if harvesting the biomass decreases the amount of carbon stored in plants and soils, or reduces carbon sequestration. Neglecting this fact results in an accounting error that could be corrected by considering that only the use of 'additional biomass' - biomass from additional plant growth or biomass that would decompose rapidly if not used for bioenergy - can reduce carbon emissions. Failure to correct this accounting flaw will likely have substantial adverse consequences. The article presents recommendations for correcting greenhouse gas accounts related to bioenergy.

  4. Data on simulated interpersonal touch, individual differences and the error-related negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Tjew-A-Sin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dataset includes data from the electroencephalogram study reported in our paper: ‘Effects of simulated interpersonal touch and trait intrinsic motivation on the error-related negativity’ (doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2016.01.044 (Tjew-A-Sin et al., 2016 [1]. The data was collected at the psychology laboratories at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in 2012 among a Dutch-speaking student sample. The dataset consists of the measures described in the paper, as well as additional (exploratory measures including the Five-Factor Personality Inventory, the Connectedness to Nature Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and a scale measuring life stress. The data can be used for replication purposes, meta-analyses, and exploratory analyses, as well as cross-cultural comparisons of touch and/or ERN effects. The authors also welcome collaborative research based on re-analyses of the data. The data described is available at a data repository called the DANS archive: http://persistent-identifier.nl/?identifier=urn:nbn:nl:ui:13-tzbk-gg.

  5. The impact of a brief mindfulness meditation intervention on cognitive control and error-related performance monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Larson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Meditation is associated with positive health behaviors and improved cognitive control. One mechanism for the relationship between meditation and cognitive control is changes in activity of the anterior cingulate cortex-mediated neural pathways. The error-related negativity (ERN and error positivity (Pe components of the scalp-recorded event-related potential (ERP represent cingulate-mediated functions of performance monitoring that may be modulated by mindfulness meditation. We utilized a flanker task, an experimental design, and a brief mindfulness intervention in a sample of 55 healthy non-meditators (n = 28 randomly assigned to the mindfulness group and n = 27 randomly assigned to the control group to examine autonomic nervous system functions as measured by blood pressure and indices of cognitive control as measured by response times, error rates, post-error slowing, and the ERN and Pe components of the ERP. Systolic blood pressure significantly differentiated groups following the mindfulness intervention and following the flanker task. There were non-significant differences between the mindfulness and control groups for response times, post-error slowing, and error rates on the flanker task. Amplitude and latency of the ERN did not differ between groups; however, amplitude of the Pe was significantly smaller in individuals in the mindfulness group than in the control group. Findings suggest that a brief mindfulness intervention is associated with reduced autonomic arousal and decreased amplitude of the Pe, an ERP associated with error awareness, attention, and motivational salience, but does not alter amplitude of the ERN or behavioral performance. Implications for brief mindfulness interventions and state versus trait affect theories of the ERN are discussed. Future research examining graded levels of mindfulness and tracking error awareness will clarify relationship between mindfulness and performance monitoring.

  6. Analysis of error patterns in clinical radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macklis, Roger; Meier, Tim; Barrett, Patricia; Weinhous, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Until very recently, prescription errors and adverse treatment events have rarely been studied or reported systematically in oncology. We wished to understand the spectrum and severity of radiotherapy errors that take place on a day-to-day basis in a high-volume academic practice and to understand the resource needs and quality assurance challenges placed on a department by rapid upswings in contract-based clinical volumes requiring additional operating hours, procedures, and personnel. The goal was to define clinical benchmarks for operating safety and to detect error-prone treatment processes that might function as 'early warning' signs. Methods: A multi-tiered prospective and retrospective system for clinical error detection and classification was developed, with formal analysis of the antecedents and consequences of all deviations from prescribed treatment delivery, no matter how trivial. A department-wide record-and-verify system was operational during this period and was used as one method of treatment verification and error detection. Brachytherapy discrepancies were analyzed separately. Results: During the analysis year, over 2000 patients were treated with over 93,000 individual fields. A total of 59 errors affecting a total of 170 individual treated fields were reported or detected during this period. After review, all of these errors were classified as Level 1 (minor discrepancy with essentially no potential for negative clinical implications). This total treatment delivery error rate (170/93, 332 or 0.18%) is significantly better than corresponding error rates reported for other hospital and oncology treatment services, perhaps reflecting the relatively sophisticated error avoidance and detection procedures used in modern clinical radiation oncology. Error rates were independent of linac model and manufacturer, time of day (normal operating hours versus late evening or early morning) or clinical machine volumes. There was some relationship to

  7. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy: Human error and critical tasks in remote afterloading brachytherapy and approaches for improved system performance. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callan, J.R.; Kelly, R.T.; Quinn, M.L. [Pacific Science and Engineering Group, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Remote Afterloading Brachytherapy (RAB) is a medical process used in the treatment of cancer. RAB uses a computer-controlled device to remotely insert and remove radioactive sources close to a target (or tumor) in the body. Some RAB problems affecting the radiation dose to the patient have been reported and attributed to human error. To determine the root cause of human error in the RAB system, a human factors team visited 23 RAB treatment sites in the US The team observed RAB treatment planning and delivery, interviewed RAB personnel, and performed walk-throughs, during which staff demonstrated the procedures and practices used in performing RAB tasks. Factors leading to human error in the RAB system were identified. The impact of those factors on the performance of RAB was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance. Finally, the project identified and evaluated alternative approaches for resolving the safety significant problems related to human error.

  8. Human factors evaluation of remote afterloading brachytherapy: Human error and critical tasks in remote afterloading brachytherapy and approaches for improved system performance. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callan, J.R.; Kelly, R.T.; Quinn, M.L.

    1995-05-01

    Remote Afterloading Brachytherapy (RAB) is a medical process used in the treatment of cancer. RAB uses a computer-controlled device to remotely insert and remove radioactive sources close to a target (or tumor) in the body. Some RAB problems affecting the radiation dose to the patient have been reported and attributed to human error. To determine the root cause of human error in the RAB system, a human factors team visited 23 RAB treatment sites in the US The team observed RAB treatment planning and delivery, interviewed RAB personnel, and performed walk-throughs, during which staff demonstrated the procedures and practices used in performing RAB tasks. Factors leading to human error in the RAB system were identified. The impact of those factors on the performance of RAB was then evaluated and prioritized in terms of safety significance. Finally, the project identified and evaluated alternative approaches for resolving the safety significant problems related to human error

  9. Some aspects of the relation between the volume of prostate carcinoma and its interstitial BT volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivanovic, A; Babic, J; Erak, M.; Dabic, K.; Donat, D.; Kuzmanovic, Z.; Savic, D.

    1996-01-01

    It is a fact that the volume achieved by the interstitial procedure during the brachy treatment of prostate carcinoma is several times smaller than the one we get in, so called, external beam therapy. Furthermore, interstitial brachytherapy offers the possibility to apply large dose into the small volume. However, both dose and volume are at the same time the factors that limit the therapy and the main technical offenders in case of therapy failure. We tried, through a strong individual approach, to compare the volume obtained mathematically and the volume obtained by planning (TPS). By means of clinical examinations and CT scans we conceived a prostate as half of the volume of ellipsoid under one condition only: the magnification of the prostate has to be a symmetrical one. Finally, we applied the following formula: V prostate=(1(2)) ellipsoid=2.09·a/2·e/2·b where a=(1(2)) of sagittal diameter b=prostate height (from apex to base) c=(1(2)) of transversal diameter Each volume obtained in the this way has been taken into account during the application of interstitial needles which in their own way and in accordance to a routine planning, form an active therapeutic interstitial volume. The obtained data showed differences between these two types of volumes. From the statistical point of view, mathematically obtained volume of CV was 16.6% while interstitial volume was 14.9%. T-test was 3.9. On average, mathematical volume is lower and this balance is a desirable one because it means a smaller possibility for potential positive biopsy as a result of a 'rest' tumour. If on the other hand, positive biopsy is a result of the 'rest' tumour and our interpretation has been a contradictory one, precious time with disappointing results will be lost. At the end we achieved: a) double checked control of the embraced volumes, b) stronger fulcrum for the next step: dose-fraction balance

  10. Brain volumes in relatives of patients with schizophrenia - A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boos, Heleen B. M.; Aleman, Andre; Cahn, Wiepke; Pol, Hilleke Hulshoff; Kahn, Rene S.

    Context: Smaller brain volumes have consistently been found in patients with schizophrenia, particularly in gray matter and medial temporal lobe structures. Although several studies have investigated brain volumes in nonpsychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia, results have been

  11. Longitudinal Changes in Total Brain Volume in Schizophrenia: Relation to Symptom Severity, Cognition and Antipsychotic Medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijola, J.; Guo, J.Y.; Moilanen, J.S.; Jaaskelainen, E.; Miettunen, J.; Kyllonen, M.; Haapea, M.; Huhtaniska, S.; Alaraisanen, A.; Maki, P.; Kiviniemi, V.; Nikkinen, J.; Starck, T.; Remes, J.J.; Tanskanen, P.; Tervonen, O.; Wink, A.M.; Kehagia, A.; Suckling, J.; Kobayashi, H.; Barnett, J.H.; Barnes, A.; Koponen, H.J.; Jones, P.B.; Isohanni, M.; Murray, G.K.

    2014-01-01

    Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population

  12. Diagnostic errors related to acute abdominal pain in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford-Davis, Laura; Park, Elizabeth; Shlamovitz, Gil; Suliburk, James; Meyer, Ashley N D; Singh, Hardeep

    2016-04-01

    Diagnostic errors in the emergency department (ED) are harmful and costly. We reviewed a selected high-risk cohort of patients presenting to the ED with abdominal pain to evaluate for possible diagnostic errors and associated process breakdowns. We conducted a retrospective chart review of ED patients >18 years at an urban academic hospital. A computerised 'trigger' algorithm identified patients possibly at high risk for diagnostic errors to facilitate selective record reviews. The trigger determined patients to be at high risk because they: (1) presented to the ED with abdominal pain, and were discharged home and (2) had a return ED visit within 10 days that led to a hospitalisation. Diagnostic errors were defined as missed opportunities to make a correct or timely diagnosis based on the evidence available during the first ED visit, regardless of patient harm, and included errors that involved both ED and non-ED providers. Errors were determined by two independent record reviewers followed by team consensus in cases of disagreement. Diagnostic errors occurred in 35 of 100 high-risk cases. Over two-thirds had breakdowns involving the patient-provider encounter (most commonly history-taking or ordering additional tests) and/or follow-up and tracking of diagnostic information (most commonly follow-up of abnormal test results). The most frequently missed diagnoses were gallbladder pathology (n=10) and urinary infections (n=5). Diagnostic process breakdowns in ED patients with abdominal pain most commonly involved history-taking, ordering insufficient tests in the patient-provider encounter and problems with follow-up of abnormal test results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Motoneuron axon pathfinding errors in zebrafish: Differential effects related to concentration and timing of nicotine exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menelaou, Evdokia; Paul, Latoya T.; Perera, Surangi N.; Svoboda, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine exposure during embryonic stages of development can affect many neurodevelopmental processes. In the developing zebrafish, exposure to nicotine was reported to cause axonal pathfinding errors in the later born secondary motoneurons (SMNs). These alterations in SMN axon morphology coincided with muscle degeneration at high nicotine concentrations (15–30 μM). Previous work showed that the paralytic mutant zebrafish known as sofa potato exhibited nicotine-induced effects onto SMN axons at these high concentrations but in the absence of any muscle deficits, indicating that pathfinding errors could occur independent of muscle effects. In this study, we used varying concentrations of nicotine at different developmental windows of exposure to specifically isolate its effects onto subpopulations of motoneuron axons. We found that nicotine exposure can affect SMN axon morphology in a dose-dependent manner. At low concentrations of nicotine, SMN axons exhibited pathfinding errors, in the absence of any nicotine-induced muscle abnormalities. Moreover, the nicotine exposure paradigms used affected the 3 subpopulations of SMN axons differently, but the dorsal projecting SMN axons were primarily affected. We then identified morphologically distinct pathfinding errors that best described the nicotine-induced effects on dorsal projecting SMN axons. To test whether SMN pathfinding was potentially influenced by alterations in the early born primary motoneuron (PMN), we performed dual labeling studies, where both PMN and SMN axons were simultaneously labeled with antibodies. We show that only a subset of the SMN axon pathfinding errors coincided with abnormal PMN axonal targeting in nicotine-exposed zebrafish. We conclude that nicotine exposure can exert differential effects depending on the levels of nicotine and developmental exposure window. - Highlights: • Embryonic nicotine exposure can specifically affect secondary motoneuron axons in a dose-dependent manner.

  14. Motoneuron axon pathfinding errors in zebrafish: Differential effects related to concentration and timing of nicotine exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menelaou, Evdokia; Paul, Latoya T. [Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Perera, Surangi N. [Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin — Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53205 (United States); Svoboda, Kurt R., E-mail: svobodak@uwm.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Joseph J. Zilber School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin — Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53205 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Nicotine exposure during embryonic stages of development can affect many neurodevelopmental processes. In the developing zebrafish, exposure to nicotine was reported to cause axonal pathfinding errors in the later born secondary motoneurons (SMNs). These alterations in SMN axon morphology coincided with muscle degeneration at high nicotine concentrations (15–30 μM). Previous work showed that the paralytic mutant zebrafish known as sofa potato exhibited nicotine-induced effects onto SMN axons at these high concentrations but in the absence of any muscle deficits, indicating that pathfinding errors could occur independent of muscle effects. In this study, we used varying concentrations of nicotine at different developmental windows of exposure to specifically isolate its effects onto subpopulations of motoneuron axons. We found that nicotine exposure can affect SMN axon morphology in a dose-dependent manner. At low concentrations of nicotine, SMN axons exhibited pathfinding errors, in the absence of any nicotine-induced muscle abnormalities. Moreover, the nicotine exposure paradigms used affected the 3 subpopulations of SMN axons differently, but the dorsal projecting SMN axons were primarily affected. We then identified morphologically distinct pathfinding errors that best described the nicotine-induced effects on dorsal projecting SMN axons. To test whether SMN pathfinding was potentially influenced by alterations in the early born primary motoneuron (PMN), we performed dual labeling studies, where both PMN and SMN axons were simultaneously labeled with antibodies. We show that only a subset of the SMN axon pathfinding errors coincided with abnormal PMN axonal targeting in nicotine-exposed zebrafish. We conclude that nicotine exposure can exert differential effects depending on the levels of nicotine and developmental exposure window. - Highlights: • Embryonic nicotine exposure can specifically affect secondary motoneuron axons in a dose-dependent manner.

  15. Prediction beyond the borders: ERP indices of boundary extension-related error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czigler, István; Intraub, Helene; Stefanics, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Boundary extension (BE) is a rapidly occurring memory error in which participants incorrectly remember having seen beyond the boundaries of a view. However, behavioral data has provided no insight into how quickly after the onset of a test picture the effect is detected. To determine the time course of BE from neural responses we conducted a BE experiment while recording EEG. We exploited a diagnostic response asymmetry to mismatched views (a closer and wider view of the same scene) in which the same pair of views is rated as more similar when the closer item is shown first than vice versa. On each trial, a closer or wider view was presented for 250 ms followed by a 250-ms mask and either the identical view or a mismatched view. Boundary ratings replicated the typical asymmetry. We found a similar asymmetry in ERP responses in the 265-285 ms interval where the second member of the close-then-wide pairs evoked less negative responses at left parieto-temporal sites compared to the wide-then-close condition. We also found diagnostic ERP effects in the 500-560 ms range, where ERPs to wide-then-close pairs were more positive at centro-parietal sites than in the other three conditions, which is thought to be related to participants' confidence in their perceptual decision. The ERP effect in the 265-285 ms range suggests the falsely remembered region beyond the view-boundaries of S1 is rapidly available and impacts assessment of the test picture within the first 265 ms of viewing, suggesting that extrapolated scene structure may be computed rapidly enough to play a role in the integration of successive views during visual scanning.

  16. Drusen Volume and Retinal Pigment Epithelium Abnormal Thinning Volume Predict 2-Year Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgar, Francisco A; Yuan, Eric L; Sevilla, Monica B; Chiu, Stephanie J; Farsiu, Sina; Chew, Emily Y; Toth, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the value of novel measures of retinal pigment epithelium-drusen complex (RPEDC) volume to predict 2-year disease progression of intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Prospective, observational study. Three hundred forty-five AMD and 122 non-AMD participants enrolled in the Age Related Eye Disease Study 2 Ancillary Spectral-Domain (SD) Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) study. High-density SD OCT macular volumes were obtained at yearly study visits. The RPEDC abnormal thickening (henceforth, OCT drusen) and RPEDC abnormal thinning (RAT) volumes were generated by semiautomated segmentation of total RPEDC within a 5-mm-diameter macular field. Volume change and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for progression to advanced AMD with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) or central geographic atrophy (GA). Complete volumes were obtained in 265 and 266 AMD eyes and in 115 and 97 control eyes at baseline and at year 2, respectively. In AMD eyes, mean (standard deviation) OCT drusen volume increased from 0.08 mm(3) (0.16 mm(3)) to 0.10 mm(3) (0.23 mm(3); P < 0.001), and RAT volume increased from 8.3 × 10(-4) mm(3) (20.8 × 10(-4) mm(3)) to 18.4 × 10(-4) mm(3) (46.6 × 10(-4) mm(3); P < 0.001). Greater baseline OCT drusen volume was associated with 2-year progression to CNV (P = 0.002). Odds of developing CNV increased by 31% for every 0.1-mm(3) increase in baseline OCT drusen volume (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.06-1.63; P = 0.013). Greater baseline RAT volume was associated with significant 2-year increase in RAT volume (P < 0.001), noncentral GA (P < 0.001), and progression to central GA (P < 0.001). Odds of developing central GA increased by 32% for every 0.001-mm(3) increase in baseline RAT volume (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14-1.53; P < 0.001). In non-AMD eyes, all volumes were significantly lower than AMD eyes and showed no significant 2-year change. Macular OCT drusen and RAT volumes increased significantly in AMD eyes over 2 years

  17. ERESYE - a expert system for the evaluation of uncertainties related to systematic experimental errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinelli, T.; Panini, G.C.; Amoroso, A.

    1989-11-01

    Information about systematic errors are not given In EXFOR, the data base of nuclear experimental measurements: their assessment is committed to the ability of the evaluator. A tool Is needed which performs this task in a fully automatic way or, at least, gives a valuable aid. The expert system ERESYE has been implemented for investigating the feasibility of an automatic evaluation of the systematic errors in the experiments. The features of the project which led to the implementation of the system are presented. (author)

  18. Did I Do That? Expectancy Effects of Brain Stimulation on Error-related Negativity and Sense of Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogeveen, Suzanne; Schjoedt, Uffe; van Elk, Michiel

    2018-06-19

    This study examines the effects of expected transcranial stimulation on the error(-related) negativity (Ne or ERN) and the sense of agency in participants who perform a cognitive control task. Placebo transcranial direct current stimulation was used to elicit expectations of transcranially induced cognitive improvement or impairment. The improvement/impairment manipulation affected both the Ne/ERN and the sense of agency (i.e., whether participants attributed errors to oneself or the brain stimulation device): Expected improvement increased the ERN in response to errors compared with both impairment and control conditions. Expected impairment made participants falsely attribute errors to the transcranial stimulation. This decrease in sense of agency was correlated with a reduced ERN amplitude. These results show that expectations about transcranial stimulation impact users' neural response to self-generated errors and the attribution of responsibility-especially when actions lead to negative outcomes. We discuss our findings in relation to predictive processing theory according to which the effect of prior expectations on the ERN reflects the brain's attempt to generate predictive models of incoming information. By demonstrating that induced expectations about transcranial stimulation can have effects at a neural level, that is, beyond mere demand characteristics, our findings highlight the potential for placebo brain stimulation as a promising tool for research.

  19. Individual Differences in Working Memory Capacity Predict Action Monitoring and the Error-Related Negativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. Eve; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscience suggests that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is responsible for conflict monitoring and the detection of errors in cognitive tasks, thereby contributing to the implementation of attentional control. Though individual differences in frontally mediated goal maintenance have clearly been shown to influence outward behavior in…

  20. The content of lexical stimuli and self-reported physiological state modulate error-related negativity amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benau, Erik M; Moelter, Stephen T

    2016-09-01

    The Error-Related Negativity (ERN) and Correct-Response Negativity (CRN) are brief event-related potential (ERP) components-elicited after the commission of a response-associated with motivation, emotion, and affect. The Error Positivity (Pe) typically appears after the ERN, and corresponds to awareness of having committed an error. Although motivation has long been established as an important factor in the expression and morphology of the ERN, physiological state has rarely been explored as a variable in these investigations. In the present study, we investigated whether self-reported physiological state (SRPS; wakefulness, hunger, or thirst) corresponds with ERN amplitude and type of lexical stimuli. Participants completed a SRPS questionnaire and then completed a speeded Lexical Decision Task with words and pseudowords that were either food-related or neutral. Though similar in frequency and length, food-related stimuli elicited increased accuracy, faster errors, and generated a larger ERN and smaller CRN than neutral words. Self-reported thirst correlated with improved accuracy and smaller ERN and CRN amplitudes. The Pe and Pc (correct positivity) were not impacted by physiological state or by stimulus content. The results indicate that physiological state and manipulations of lexical content may serve as important avenues for future research. Future studies that apply more sensitive measures of physiological and motivational state (e.g., biomarkers for satiety) or direct manipulations of satiety may be a useful technique for future research into response monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Task engagement and the relationships between the error-related negativity, agreeableness, behavioral shame proneness and cortisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Wester, Anne E.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Meijman, Theo F.

    Previous results suggest that both cortisol. mobilization and the error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) reflect goal engagement, i.e. the mobilization and allocation of attentional and physiological resources. Personality measures of negative affectivity have been associated both to high cortisol levels

  2. SCIAMACHY WFM-DOAS XCO2: reduction of scattering related errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sussmann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Global observations of column-averaged dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (CO2, denoted by XCO2 , retrieved from SCIAMACHY on-board ENVISAT can provide important and missing global information on the distribution and magnitude of regional CO2 surface fluxes. This application has challenging precision and accuracy requirements. In a previous publication (Heymann et al., 2012, it has been shown by analysing seven years of SCIAMACHY WFM-DOAS XCO2 (WFMDv2.1 that unaccounted thin cirrus clouds can result in significant errors. In order to enhance the quality of the SCIAMACHY XCO2 data product, we have developed a new version of the retrieval algorithm (WFMDv2.2, which is described in this manuscript. It is based on an improved cloud filtering and correction method using the 1.4 μm strong water vapour absorption and 0.76 μm O2-A bands. The new algorithm has been used to generate a SCIAMACHY XCO2 data set covering the years 2003–2009. The new XCO2 data set has been validated using ground-based observations from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. The validation shows a significant improvement of the new product (v2.2 in comparison to the previous product (v2.1. For example, the standard deviation of the difference to TCCON at Darwin, Australia, has been reduced from 4 ppm to 2 ppm. The monthly regional-scale scatter of the data (defined as the mean intra-monthly standard deviation of all quality filtered XCO2 retrievals within a radius of 350 km around various locations has also been reduced, typically by a factor of about 1.5. Overall, the validation of the new WFMDv2.2 XCO2 data product can be summarised by a single measurement precision of 3.8 ppm, an estimated regional-scale (radius of 500 km precision of monthly averages of 1.6 ppm and an estimated regional-scale relative accuracy of 0.8 ppm. In addition to the comparison with the limited number of TCCON sites, we also present a comparison with NOAA's global CO2 modelling

  3. Track reconstruction method in a small volume self-shunted streamer chamber - analysis of the errors for low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parizet, M.J.; Augerat, J.; Avan, M.; Ballet, M.; Vialle, M.

    1977-01-01

    A programme has been worked out to reconstruct electron tracks of low energy (from 100 keV to 2 MeV) curved by a magnetic field in a small streamer chamber (size 10x11x51 cm 3 ). Before a study of the problems involved in the experimental set-up, the geometrical programme is described and the different errors are evaluated. Finally the accuracies on kinetic energies and angles which can be obtained for low energy elctron tracks are given. (Auth.)

  4. Carotid wall volume quantification from magnetic resonance images using deformable model fitting and learning-based correction of systematic errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameeteman, K; Niessen, W J; Klein, S; Van 't Klooster, R; Selwaness, M; Van der Lugt, A; Witteman, J C M

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for carotid vessel wall volume quantification from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The method combines lumen and outer wall segmentation based on deformable model fitting with a learning-based segmentation correction step. After selecting two initialization points, the vessel wall volume in a region around the bifurcation is automatically determined. The method was trained on eight datasets (16 carotids) from a population-based study in the elderly for which one observer manually annotated both the lumen and outer wall. An evaluation was carried out on a separate set of 19 datasets (38 carotids) from the same study for which two observers made annotations. Wall volume and normalized wall index measurements resulting from the manual annotations were compared to the automatic measurements. Our experiments show that the automatic method performs comparably to the manual measurements. All image data and annotations used in this study together with the measurements are made available through the website http://ergocar.bigr.nl. (paper)

  5. An error-related negativity potential investigation of response monitoring function in individuals with Internet addiction disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhe eZhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction disorder (IAD is an impulse disorder or at least related to impulse control disorder. Deficits in executive functioning, including response monitoring, have been proposed as a hallmark feature of impulse control disorders. The error-related negativity (ERN reflects individual’s ability to monitor behavior. Since IAD belongs to a compulsive-impulsive spectrum disorder, theoretically, it should present response monitoring functional deficit characteristics of some disorders, such as substance dependence, ADHD or alcohol abuse, testing with an Erikson flanker task. Up to now, no studies on response monitoring functional deficit in IAD were reported. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether IAD displays response monitoring functional deficit characteristics in a modified Erikson flanker task.23 subjects were recruited as IAD group. 23 matched age, gender and education healthy persons were recruited as control group. All participants completed the modified Erikson flanker task while measured with event-related potentials (ERPs. IAD group made more total error rates than did controls (P < 0.01; Reactive times for total error responses in IAD group were shorter than did controls (P < 0.01. The mean ERN amplitudes of total error response conditions at frontal electrode sites and at central electrode sites of IAD group were reduced compared with control group (all P < 0.01. These results revealed that IAD displays response monitoring functional deficit characteristics and shares ERN characteristics of compulsive-impulsive spectrum disorder.

  6. Low relative error in consumer-grade GPS units make them ideal for measuring small-scale animal movement patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg A. Breed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Consumer-grade GPS units are a staple of modern field ecology, but the relatively large error radii reported by manufacturers (up to 10 m ostensibly precludes their utility in measuring fine-scale movement of small animals such as insects. Here we demonstrate that for data collected at fine spatio-temporal scales, these devices can produce exceptionally accurate data on step-length and movement patterns of small animals. With an understanding of the properties of GPS error and how it arises, it is possible, using a simple field protocol, to use consumer grade GPS units to collect step-length data for the movement of small animals that introduces a median error as small as 11 cm. These small error rates were measured in controlled observations of real butterfly movement. Similar conclusions were reached using a ground-truth test track prepared with a field tape and compass and subsequently measured 20 times using the same methodology as the butterfly tracking. Median error in the ground-truth track was slightly higher than the field data, mostly between 20 and 30 cm, but even for the smallest ground-truth step (70 cm, this is still a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, and for steps of 3 m or more, the ratio is greater than 10:1. Such small errors relative to the movements being measured make these inexpensive units useful for measuring insect and other small animal movements on small to intermediate scales with budgets orders of magnitude lower than survey-grade units used in past studies. As an additional advantage, these units are simpler to operate, and insect or other small animal trackways can be collected more quickly than either survey-grade units or more traditional ruler/gird approaches.

  7. Comparison of ETF´s performance related to the tracking error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Dorocáková

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the development of financial markets, there is also immediate expansion of fund industry, which is a representative issue of collective investment. The purpose of index funds is to replicate returns and risk of underling index to the largest possible extent, with tracking error being one of the most monitored performance indicator of these passively managed funds. The aim of this paper is to describe several perspectives concerning indexing, index funds and exchange-traded funds, to explain the issue of tracking error with its examination and subsequent comparison of such funds provided by leading investment management companies with regard to different methods used for its evaluation. Our research shows that the decisive factor for occurrence of copy deviation is fund size and fund´s stock consolidation. In addition, performance differences between exchange-traded fund and its benchmark tend to show the signs of seasonality in the sense of increasing in the last months of a year.

  8. Measurement error in a burrow index to monitor relative population size in the common vole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lisická, L.; Losík, J.; Zejda, Jan; Heroldová, Marta; Nesvadbová, Jiřina; Tkadlec, Emil

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2007), s. 169-176 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : bias * colonisation * dispersion * Microtus arvalis * precision * sampling error Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.376, year: 2007 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/56/2/169-176_MS1293.pdf

  9. The impact of cockpit automation on crew coordination and communication. Volume 1: Overview, LOFT evaluations, error severity, and questionnaire data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Earl L.; Chidester, Thomas R.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Palmer, Everett A.; Curry, Renwick E.; Gregorich, Steven E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to examine, jointly, cockpit automation and social processes. Automation was varied by the choice of two radically different versions of the DC-9 series aircraft, the traditional DC-9-30, and the glass cockpit derivative, the MD-88. Airline pilot volunteers flew a mission in the simulator for these aircraft. Results show that the performance differences between the crews of the two aircraft were generally small, but where there were differences, they favored the DC-9. There were no criteria on which the MD-88 crews performed better than the DC-9 crews. Furthermore, DC-9 crews rated their own workload as lower than did the MD-88 pilots. There were no significant differences between the two aircraft types with respect to the severity of errors committed during the Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) flight. The attitude questionnaires provided some interesting insights, but failed to distinguish between DC-9 and MD-88 crews.

  10. Unintentional Pharmaceutical-Related Medication Errors Caused by Laypersons Reported to the Toxicological Information Centre in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Michal; Leššo, Roman; Pelclová, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the article was to study unintentional pharmaceutical-related poisonings committed by laypersons that were reported to the Toxicological Information Centre in the Czech Republic. Identifying frequency, sources, reasons and consequences of the medication errors in laypersons could help to reduce the overall rate of medication errors. Records of medication error enquiries from 2013 to 2014 were extracted from the electronic database, and the following variables were reviewed: drug class, dosage form, dose, age of the subject, cause of the error, time interval from ingestion to the call, symptoms, prognosis at the time of the call and first aid recommended. Of the calls, 1354 met the inclusion criteria. Among them, central nervous system-affecting drugs (23.6%), respiratory drugs (18.5%) and alimentary drugs (16.2%) were the most common drug classes involved in the medication errors. The highest proportion of the patients was in the youngest age subgroup 0-5 year-old (46%). The reasons for the medication errors involved the leaflet misinterpretation and mistaken dose (53.6%), mixing up medications (19.2%), attempting to reduce pain with repeated doses (6.4%), erroneous routes of administration (2.2%), psychiatric/elderly patients (2.7%), others (9.0%) or unknown (6.9%). A high proportion of children among the patients may be due to the fact that children's dosages for many drugs vary by their weight, and more medications come in a variety of concentrations. Most overdoses could be prevented by safer labelling, proper cap closure systems for liquid products and medication reconciliation by both physicians and pharmacists. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  11. Sampling Error in Relation to Cyst Nematode Population Density Estimation in Small Field Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Župunski, Vesna; Jevtić, Radivoje; Jokić, Vesna Spasić; Župunski, Ljubica; Lalošević, Mirjana; Ćirić, Mihajlo; Ćurčić, Živko

    2017-06-01

    Cyst nematodes are serious plant-parasitic pests which could cause severe yield losses and extensive damage. Since there is still very little information about error of population density estimation in small field plots, this study contributes to the broad issue of population density assessment. It was shown that there was no significant difference between cyst counts of five or seven bulk samples taken per each 1-m 2 plot, if average cyst count per examined plot exceeds 75 cysts per 100 g of soil. Goodness of fit of data to probability distribution tested with χ 2 test confirmed a negative binomial distribution of cyst counts for 21 out of 23 plots. The recommended measure of sampling precision of 17% expressed through coefficient of variation ( cv ) was achieved if the plots of 1 m 2 contaminated with more than 90 cysts per 100 g of soil were sampled with 10-core bulk samples taken in five repetitions. If plots were contaminated with less than 75 cysts per 100 g of soil, 10-core bulk samples taken in seven repetitions gave cv higher than 23%. This study indicates that more attention should be paid on estimation of sampling error in experimental field plots to ensure more reliable estimation of population density of cyst nematodes.

  12. Influences of optical-spectrum errors on excess relative intensity noise in a fiber-optic gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Chunxi; Li, Lijing

    2018-03-01

    The excess relative intensity noise (RIN) generated from broadband sources degrades the angular-random-walk performance of a fiber-optic gyroscope dramatically. Many methods have been proposed and managed to suppress the excess RIN. However, the properties of the excess RIN under the influences of different optical errors in the fiber-optic gyroscope have not been systematically investigated. Therefore, it is difficult for the existing RIN-suppression methods to achieve the optimal results in practice. In this work, the influences of different optical-spectrum errors on the power spectral density of the excess RIN are theoretically analyzed. In particular, the properties of the excess RIN affected by the raised-cosine-type ripples in the optical spectrum are elaborately investigated. Experimental measurements of the excess RIN corresponding to different optical-spectrum errors are in good agreement with our theoretical analysis, demonstrating its validity. This work provides a comprehensive understanding of the properties of the excess RIN under the influences of different optical-spectrum errors. Potentially, it can be utilized to optimize the configurations of the existing RIN-suppression methods by accurately evaluating the power spectral density of the excess RIN.

  13. Exploring behavioural determinants relating to health professional reporting of medication errors: a qualitative study using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqubaisi, Mai; Tonna, Antonella; Strath, Alison; Stewart, Derek

    2016-07-01

    Effective and efficient medication reporting processes are essential in promoting patient safety. Few qualitative studies have explored reporting of medication errors by health professionals, and none have made reference to behavioural theories. The objective was to describe and understand the behavioural determinants of health professional reporting of medication errors in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This was a qualitative study comprising face-to-face, semi-structured interviews within three major medical/surgical hospitals of Abu Dhabi, the UAE. Health professionals were sampled purposively in strata of profession and years of experience. The semi-structured interview schedule focused on behavioural determinants around medication error reporting, facilitators, barriers and experiences. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF; a framework of theories of behaviour change) was used as a coding framework. Ethical approval was obtained from a UK university and all participating hospital ethics committees. Data saturation was achieved after interviewing ten nurses, ten pharmacists and nine physicians. Whilst it appeared that patient safety and organisational improvement goals and intentions were behavioural determinants which facilitated reporting, there were key determinants which deterred reporting. These included the beliefs of the consequences of reporting (lack of any feedback following reporting and impacting professional reputation, relationships and career progression), emotions (fear and worry) and issues related to the environmental context (time taken to report). These key behavioural determinants which negatively impact error reporting can facilitate the development of an intervention, centring on organisational safety and reporting culture, to enhance reporting effectiveness and efficiency.

  14. Correcting a fundamental error in greenhouse gas accounting related to bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Sprinz, Detlef; Bonazountas, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Many international policies encourage a switch from fossil fuels to bioenergy based on the premise that its use would not result in carbon accumulation in the atmosphere. Frequently cited bioenergy goals would at least double the present global human use of plant material, the production of which...... already requires the dedication of roughly 75% of vegetated lands and more than 70% of water withdrawals. However, burning biomass for energy provision increases the amount of carbon in the air just like burning coal, oil or gas if harvesting the biomass decreases the amount of carbon stored in plants...... and soils, or reduces carbon sequestration. Neglecting this fact results in an accounting error that could be corrected by considering that only the use of ‘additional biomass’ – biomass from additional plant growth or biomass that would decompose rapidly if not used for bioenergy – can reduce carbon...

  15. Reducing Individual Variation for fMRI Studies in Children by Minimizing Template Related Errors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Weng

    Full Text Available Spatial normalization is an essential process for group comparisons in functional MRI studies. In practice, there is a risk of normalization errors particularly in studies involving children, seniors or diseased populations and in regions with high individual variation. One way to minimize normalization errors is to create a study-specific template based on a large sample size. However, studies with a large sample size are not always feasible, particularly for children studies. The performance of templates with a small sample size has not been evaluated in fMRI studies in children. In the current study, this issue was encountered in a working memory task with 29 children in two groups. We compared the performance of different templates: a study-specific template created by the experimental population, a Chinese children template and the widely used adult MNI template. We observed distinct differences in the right orbitofrontal region among the three templates in between-group comparisons. The study-specific template and the Chinese children template were more sensitive for the detection of between-group differences in the orbitofrontal cortex than the MNI template. Proper templates could effectively reduce individual variation. Further analysis revealed a correlation between the BOLD contrast size and the norm index of the affine transformation matrix, i.e., the SFN, which characterizes the difference between a template and a native image and differs significantly across subjects. Thereby, we proposed and tested another method to reduce individual variation that included the SFN as a covariate in group-wise statistics. This correction exhibits outstanding performance in enhancing detection power in group-level tests. A training effect of abacus-based mental calculation was also demonstrated, with significantly elevated activation in the right orbitofrontal region that correlated with behavioral response time across subjects in the trained group.

  16. Effects of exposure estimation errors on estimated exposure-response relations for PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2018-07-01

    Associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure concentrations and a wide variety of undesirable outcomes, from autism and auto theft to elderly mortality, suicide, and violent crime, have been widely reported. Influential articles have argued that reducing National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 is desirable to reduce these outcomes. Yet, other studies have found that reducing black smoke and other particulate matter by as much as 70% and dozens of micrograms per cubic meter has not detectably affected all-cause mortality rates even after decades, despite strong, statistically significant positive exposure concentration-response (C-R) associations between them. This paper examines whether this disconnect between association and causation might be explained in part by ignored estimation errors in estimated exposure concentrations. We use EPA air quality monitor data from the Los Angeles area of California to examine the shapes of estimated C-R functions for PM2.5 when the true C-R functions are assumed to be step functions with well-defined response thresholds. The estimated C-R functions mistakenly show risk as smoothly increasing with concentrations even well below the response thresholds, thus incorrectly predicting substantial risk reductions from reductions in concentrations that do not affect health risks. We conclude that ignored estimation errors obscure the shapes of true C-R functions, including possible thresholds, possibly leading to unrealistic predictions of the changes in risk caused by changing exposures. Instead of estimating improvements in public health per unit reduction (e.g., per 10 µg/m 3 decrease) in average PM2.5 concentrations, it may be essential to consider how interventions change the distributions of exposure concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitation of regional cerebral blood flow corrected for partial volume effect using O-15 water and PET: I. Theory, error analysis, and stereologic comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lida, H; Law, I; Pakkenberg, B

    2000-01-01

    Limited spatial resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) can cause significant underestimation in the observed regional radioactivity concentration (so-called partial volume effect or PVE) resulting in systematic errors in estimating quantitative physiologic parameters. The authors have...... formulated four mathematical models that describe the dynamic behavior of a freely diffusible tracer (H215O) in a region of interest (ROI) incorporating estimates of regional tissue flow that are independent of PVE. The current study was intended to evaluate the feasibility of these models and to establish...... a methodology to accurately quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) corrected for PVE in cortical gray matter regions. Five monkeys were studied with PET after IV H2(15)O two times (n = 3) or three times (n = 2) in a row. Two ROIs were drawn on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and projected...

  18. Enhanced error related negativity amplitude in medication-naïve, comorbidity-free obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawani, Hema; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Basavaraju, Shrinivasa; Bose, Anushree; Mahavir Agarwal, Sri; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Janardhan Reddy, Y C

    2018-04-01

    Error monitoring and response inhibition is a key cognitive deficit in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Frontal midline regions such as the cingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area are considered critical brain substrates of this deficit. Electrophysiological equivalent of the above dysfunction is a fronto-central event related potential (ERP) which occurs after an error called the error related negativity (ERN). In this study, we sought to compare the ERN parameters between medication-naïve, comorbidity-free subjects with OCD and healthy controls (HC). Age, sex and handedness matched subjects with medication-naïve, comorbidity-free OCD (N = 16) and Healthy Controls (N = 17) performed a modified version of the flanker task while EEG was acquired for ERN. EEG signals were recorded from the electrodes FCz and Cz. Clinical severity of OCD was assessed using the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. The subjects with OCD had significantly greater ERN amplitude at Cz and FCz. There were no significant correlations between ERN measures and illness severity measures. Overactive performance monitoring as evidenced by enhanced ERN amplitude could be considered as a biomarker for OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The relative size of measurement error and attrition error in a panel survey. Comparing them with a new multi-trait multi-method model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugtig, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to simultaneously estimate both measurement and nonresponse errors for attitudinal and behavioural questions in a longitudinal survey. The method uses a Multi-Trait Multi-Method (MTMM) approach, which is commonly used to estimate the reliability and validity of survey

  20. Evidence for specificity of the impact of punishment on error-related brain activity in high versus low trait anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Alexandria; Gawlowska, Magda

    2017-10-01

    A previous study suggests that when participants were punished with a loud noise after committing errors, the error-related negativity (ERN) was enhanced in high trait anxious individuals. The current study sought to extend these findings by examining the ERN in conditions when punishment was related and unrelated to error commission as a function of individual differences in trait anxiety symptoms; further, the current study utilized an electric shock as an aversive unconditioned stimulus. Results confirmed that the ERN was increased when errors were punished among high trait anxious individuals compared to low anxious individuals; this effect was not observed when punishment was unrelated to errors. Findings suggest that the threat-value of errors may underlie the association between certain anxious traits and punishment-related increases in the ERN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of end-systolic pressure-volume relation by gated radionuclide angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Haruhiko; Sugihara, Horoki; Katsume, Hiroshi; Ijichi, Hamao; Miyanaga, Hajime

    1982-01-01

    Left ventricular end-systolic pressure-volume relation has been proved experimentally to b e an useful index of left ventricular contractility relatively independent of preload or afterload. But less clinical application has been reported because of its invasive nature, and we evaluated this relationship non-invasively using gated radionuclide angiocardiography as volume determination and cuff sphyngomanometer in the arm as pressure measurement. Gated equilibrium blood pool scintigrams were obtained at rest and during intravenous infusion of angiotensin or nitrate. Ventricular volumes were derived from ventricular activity and peripheral blood volume and activity. The peak systolic pressure (PSP) by cuff method to end-systolic volume index (ESVI) relations showed good linearity (r gt .930 in 84% of consecutive 50 cases) and were gentler in the groups with more impaired left ventricular function. Emax was related exponentially to ejection fraction (EF) and hyperbolically to end-diastolic volume index. The dead volume (VoI) was unfixed and fell into positive or negative value, and was not related to EF under control condition. PSP/ESVI in each loading condition was less variable with the alteration of blood pressure than EF. The linear relation was found between PSP/ESVI under control condition and Emax (PSP/ESVI = 0.651.Emax + 0.958, r = 0.841, p lt .001). Thus in measuring ventricular volume, gated radionuclide angiocardiography is a non-invasive method less affected by the geometry of the left ventricle. Non-invasive determination of end-systolic pressure-volume relation using the volume by radionuclide and the blood pressure by cuff method is clinically useful in the assessment of left ventricular contractility. (author)

  2. The influence of relatives on the efficiency and error rate of familial searching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rori V Rohlfs

    Full Text Available We investigate the consequences of adopting the criteria used by the state of California, as described by Myers et al. (2011, for conducting familial searches. We carried out a simulation study of randomly generated profiles of related and unrelated individuals with 13-locus CODIS genotypes and YFiler® Y-chromosome haplotypes, on which the Myers protocol for relative identification was carried out. For Y-chromosome sharing first degree relatives, the Myers protocol has a high probability (80~99% of identifying their relationship. For unrelated individuals, there is a low probability that an unrelated person in the database will be identified as a first-degree relative. For more distant Y-haplotype sharing relatives (half-siblings, first cousins, half-first cousins or second cousins there is a substantial probability that the more distant relative will be incorrectly identified as a first-degree relative. For example, there is a 3~18% probability that a first cousin will be identified as a full sibling, with the probability depending on the population background. Although the California familial search policy is likely to identify a first degree relative if his profile is in the database, and it poses little risk of falsely identifying an unrelated individual in a database as a first-degree relative, there is a substantial risk of falsely identifying a more distant Y-haplotype sharing relative in the database as a first-degree relative, with the consequence that their immediate family may become the target for further investigation. This risk falls disproportionately on those ethnic groups that are currently overrepresented in state and federal databases.

  3. Transport volume in regions of the Czech Republic in relation to the production of waste

    OpenAIRE

    Pojkarová, Kateřina; Hruška, Roman

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the transport volume in regions of the Czech Republic in relation to the production of waste. On the basis of waste statistics and transport statistics is researched the greatness of the relation between the transport volume and the production of waste in regions of the Czech Republic. The relation is illustrated graphically too. We have many kinds of waste which we can monitor. The most important kinds of waste are municipal waste, industrial waste, construction ...

  4. Part two: Error propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this chapter include a discussion of exact results as related to nuclear materials management and accounting in nuclear facilities; propagation of error for a single measured value; propagation of error for several measured values; error propagation for materials balances; and an application of error propagation to an example of uranium hexafluoride conversion process

  5. Highway Safety Program Manual: Volume 8: Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…

  6. Temporal dynamics of conflict monitoring and the effects of one or two conflict sources on error-(related) negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrecht, Anne-Simone; Wöhrmann, Anne; Gibbons, Henning; Stahl, Jutta

    2010-09-01

    The present electrophysiological study investigated the temporal development of response conflict and the effects of diverging conflict sources on error(-related) negativity (Ne). Eighteen participants performed a combined stop-signal flanker task, which was comprised of two different conflict sources: a left-right and a go-stop response conflict. It is assumed that the Ne reflects the activity of a conflict monitoring system and thus increases according to (i) the number of conflict sources and (ii) the temporal development of the conflict activity. No increase of the Ne amplitude after double errors (comprising two conflict sources) as compared to hand- and stop-errors (comprising one conflict source) was found, whereas a higher Ne amplitude was observed after a delayed stop-signal onset. The results suggest that the Ne is not sensitive to an increase in the number of conflict sources, but to the temporal dynamics of a go-stop response conflict. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    technologies based on these two performance indicators. However and to the best of our knowledge, the direct links between these two performance indicators have not been explicitly proposed in the literature so far. In this paper, we propose novel relations

  8. EEG-based decoding of error-related brain activity in a real-world driving task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Chavarriaga, R.; Khaliliardali, Z.; Gheorghe, L.; Iturrate, I.; Millán, J. d. R.

    2015-12-01

    Objectives. Recent studies have started to explore the implementation of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) as part of driving assistant systems. The current study presents an EEG-based BCI that decodes error-related brain activity. Such information can be used, e.g., to predict driver’s intended turning direction before reaching road intersections. Approach. We executed experiments in a car simulator (N = 22) and a real car (N = 8). While subject was driving, a directional cue was shown before reaching an intersection, and we classified the presence or not of an error-related potentials from EEG to infer whether the cued direction coincided with the subject’s intention. In this protocol, the directional cue can correspond to an estimation of the driving direction provided by a driving assistance system. We analyzed ERPs elicited during normal driving and evaluated the classification performance in both offline and online tests. Results. An average classification accuracy of 0.698 ± 0.065 was obtained in offline experiments in the car simulator, while tests in the real car yielded a performance of 0.682 ± 0.059. The results were significantly higher than chance level for all cases. Online experiments led to equivalent performances in both simulated and real car driving experiments. These results support the feasibility of decoding these signals to help estimating whether the driver’s intention coincides with the advice provided by the driving assistant in a real car. Significance. The study demonstrates a BCI system in real-world driving, extending the work from previous simulated studies. As far as we know, this is the first online study in real car decoding driver’s error-related brain activity. Given the encouraging results, the paradigm could be further improved by using more sophisticated machine learning approaches and possibly be combined with applications in intelligent vehicles.

  9. Comparison of uncertainties related to standardization of urine samples with volume and creatinine concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Ase Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    When measuring biomarkers in urine, volume (and time) or concentration of creatinine are both accepted methods of standardization for diuresis. Both types of standardization contribute uncertainty to the final result. The aim of the present paper was to compare the uncertainty introduced when usi...... increase in convenience for the participants, when collecting small volumes rather than complete 24 h samples....... the two types of standardization on 24 h samples from healthy individuals. Estimates of uncertainties were based on results from the literature supplemented with data from our own studies. Only the difference in uncertainty related to the two standardization methods was evaluated. It was found...... that the uncertainty associated with creatinine standardization (19-35%) was higher than the uncertainty related to volume standardization (up to 10%, when not correcting for deviations from 24 h) for 24 h urine samples. However, volume standardization introduced an average bias of 4% due to missed volumes...

  10. Larger amygdala volume in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Larger gray matter volume in healthy relatives of MDD patients point to a possible vulnerability mechanism in MDD etiology and therefore extend knowledge in the field of high-risk approaches in MDD.

  11. Lung volumes related to physical activity, physical fitness, aerobic capacity and body mass index in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced lung volumes were associated with lower aerobic fitness, lower physical fitness and lower amount of weekly physical activity. Healthier body mass index was associated with higher aerobic fitness (relative VO2max in both female and male.

  12. A Neuroeconomics Analysis of Investment Process with Money Flow Information: The Error-Related Negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuicui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is among the first ones to analyze the neural basis of an investment process with money flow information of financial market, using a simplified task where volunteers had to choose to buy or not to buy stocks based on the display of positive or negative money flow information. After choosing “to buy” or “not to buy,” participants were presented with feedback. At the same time, event-related potentials (ERPs were used to record investor’s brain activity and capture the event-related negativity (ERN and feedback-related negativity (FRN components. The results of ERN suggested that there might be a higher risk and more conflict when buying stocks with negative net money flow information than positive net money flow information, and the inverse was also true for the “not to buy” stocks option. The FRN component evoked by the bad outcome of a decision was more negative than that by the good outcome, which reflected the difference between the values of the actual and expected outcome. From the research, we could further understand how investors perceived money flow information of financial market and the neural cognitive effect in investment process.

  13. A Neuroeconomics Analysis of Investment Process with Money Flow Information: The Error-Related Negativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Vieito, João Paulo; Ma, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    This investigation is among the first ones to analyze the neural basis of an investment process with money flow information of financial market, using a simplified task where volunteers had to choose to buy or not to buy stocks based on the display of positive or negative money flow information. After choosing “to buy” or “not to buy,” participants were presented with feedback. At the same time, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to record investor's brain activity and capture the event-related negativity (ERN) and feedback-related negativity (FRN) components. The results of ERN suggested that there might be a higher risk and more conflict when buying stocks with negative net money flow information than positive net money flow information, and the inverse was also true for the “not to buy” stocks option. The FRN component evoked by the bad outcome of a decision was more negative than that by the good outcome, which reflected the difference between the values of the actual and expected outcome. From the research, we could further understand how investors perceived money flow information of financial market and the neural cognitive effect in investment process. PMID:26557139

  14. Real-time beam monitoring for error detection in IMRT plans and impact on dose-volume histograms. A multi-center study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrazzo, Livia; Arilli, Chiara; Casati, Marta [Careggi University Hospital, Medical Physic Unit, Florence (Italy); Pasler, Marlies [Lake Constance Radiation Oncology Center, Singen-Friedrichshafen (Germany); Kusters, Martijn; Canters, Richard [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Fedeli, Luca; Calusi, Silvia [University of Florence, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences ' ' Mario Serio' ' , Florence (Italy); Talamonti, Cinzia; Pallotta, Stefania [Careggi University Hospital, Medical Physic Unit, Florence (Italy); University of Florence, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences ' ' Mario Serio' ' , Florence (Italy); Simontacchi, Gabriele [Careggi University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Unit, Florence (Italy); Livi, Lorenzo [University of Florence, Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences ' ' Mario Serio' ' , Florence (Italy); Careggi University Hospital, Radiation Oncology Unit, Florence (Italy)

    2018-03-15

    This study aimed to test the sensitivity of a transmission detector for online dose monitoring of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for detecting small delivery errors. Furthermore, the correlation of changes in detector output induced by small delivery errors with other metrics commonly employed to quantify the deviations between calculated and delivered dose distributions was investigated. Transmission detector measurements were performed at three institutions. Seven types of errors were induced in nine clinical step-and-shoot (S and S) IMRT plans by modifying the number of monitor units (MU) and introducing small deviations in leaf positions. Signal reproducibility was investigated for short- and long-term stability. Calculated dose distributions were compared in terms of γ passing rates and dose-volume histogram (DVH) metrics (e.g., D{sub mean}, D{sub x%}, V{sub x%}). The correlation between detector signal variations, γ passing rates, and DVH parameters was investigated. Both short- and long-term reproducibility was within 1%. Dose variations down to 1 MU (∇signal 1.1 ± 0.4%) as well as changes in field size and positions down to 1 mm (∇signal 2.6 ± 1.0%) were detected, thus indicating high error-detection sensitivity. A moderate correlation of detector signal was observed with γ passing rates (R{sup 2} = 0.57-0.70), while a good correlation was observed with DVH metrics (R{sup 2} = 0.75-0.98). The detector is capable of detecting small delivery errors in MU and leaf positions, and is thus a highly sensitive dose monitoring device for S and S IMRT for clinical practice. The results of this study indicate a good correlation of detector signal with DVH metrics; therefore, clinical action levels can be defined based on the presented data. (orig.) [German] In dieser Arbeit wurde die Sensitivitaet bezueglich der Fehlererkennung eines Transmissionsdetektors fuer die Online-Dosisueberwachung von intensitaetsmodulierter Strahlentherapie (IMRT

  15. Increased error-related brain activity distinguishes generalized anxiety disorder with and without comorbid major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Anna; Klein, Daniel N; Hajcak, Greg

    2012-11-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are so frequently comorbid that some have suggested that the 2 should be collapsed into a single overarching "distress" disorder. Yet there is also increasing evidence that the 2 categories are not redundant. Neurobehavioral markers that differentiate GAD and MDD would be helpful in ongoing efforts to refine classification schemes based on neurobiological measures. The error-related negativity (ERN) may be one such marker. The ERN is an event-related potential component presenting as a negative deflection approximately 50 ms following an erroneous response and reflects activity of the anterior cingulate cortex. There is evidence for an enhanced ERN in individuals with GAD, but the literature in MDD is mixed. The present study measured the ERN in 26 GAD, 23 comorbid GAD and MDD, and 36 control participants, all of whom were female and medication-free. Consistent with previous research, the GAD group was characterized by a larger ERN and an increased difference between error and correct trials than controls. No such enhancement was evident in the comorbid group, suggesting comorbid depression may moderate the relationship between the ERN and anxiety. The present study further suggests that the ERN is a potentially useful neurobiological marker for future studies that consider the pathophysiology of multiple disorders in order to construct or refine neurobiologically based diagnostic phenotypes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Operator- and software-related post-experimental variability and source of error in 2-DE analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millioni, Renato; Puricelli, Lucia; Sbrignadello, Stefano; Iori, Elisabetta; Murphy, Ellen; Tessari, Paolo

    2012-05-01

    In the field of proteomics, several approaches have been developed for separating proteins and analyzing their differential relative abundance. One of the oldest, yet still widely used, is 2-DE. Despite the continuous advance of new methods, which are less demanding from a technical standpoint, 2-DE is still compelling and has a lot of potential for improvement. The overall variability which affects 2-DE includes biological, experimental, and post-experimental (software-related) variance. It is important to highlight how much of the total variability of this technique is due to post-experimental variability, which, so far, has been largely neglected. In this short review, we have focused on this topic and explained that post-experimental variability and source of error can be further divided into those which are software-dependent and those which are operator-dependent. We discuss these issues in detail, offering suggestions for reducing errors that may affect the quality of results, summarizing the advantages and drawbacks of each approach.

  17. Error Correcting Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. Error Correcting Codes - Reed Solomon Codes. Priti Shankar. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India ...

  18. Action errors, error management, and learning in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Michael; Keith, Nina

    2015-01-03

    Every organization is confronted with errors. Most errors are corrected easily, but some may lead to negative consequences. Organizations often focus on error prevention as a single strategy for dealing with errors. Our review suggests that error prevention needs to be supplemented by error management--an approach directed at effectively dealing with errors after they have occurred, with the goal of minimizing negative and maximizing positive error consequences (examples of the latter are learning and innovations). After defining errors and related concepts, we review research on error-related processes affected by error management (error detection, damage control). Empirical evidence on positive effects of error management in individuals and organizations is then discussed, along with emotional, motivational, cognitive, and behavioral pathways of these effects. Learning from errors is central, but like other positive consequences, learning occurs under certain circumstances--one being the development of a mind-set of acceptance of human error.

  19. The Argos-CLS Kalman Filter: Error Structures and State-Space Modelling Relative to Fastloc GPS Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Lowther

    Full Text Available Understanding how an animal utilises its surroundings requires its movements through space to be described accurately. Satellite telemetry is the only means of acquiring movement data for many species however data are prone to varying amounts of spatial error; the recent application of state-space models (SSMs to the location estimation problem have provided a means to incorporate spatial errors when characterising animal movements. The predominant platform for collecting satellite telemetry data on free-ranging animals, Service Argos, recently provided an alternative Doppler location estimation algorithm that is purported to be more accurate and generate a greater number of locations that its predecessor. We provide a comprehensive assessment of this new estimation process performance on data from free-ranging animals relative to concurrently collected Fastloc GPS data. Additionally, we test the efficacy of three readily-available SSM in predicting the movement of two focal animals. Raw Argos location estimates generated by the new algorithm were greatly improved compared to the old system. Approximately twice as many Argos locations were derived compared to GPS on the devices used. Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE for each optimal SSM were less than 4.25 km with some producing RMSE of less than 2.50 km. Differences in the biological plausibility of the tracks between the two focal animals used to investigate the utility of SSM highlights the importance of considering animal behaviour in movement studies. The ability to reprocess Argos data collected since 2008 with the new algorithm should permit questions of animal movement to be revisited at a finer resolution.

  20. Perceived Stress Is Differentially Related to Hippocampal Subfield Volumes among Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly E Zimmerman

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to stress has been shown to impact a wide range of health-related outcomes in older adults. Despite extensive animal literature revealing deleterious effects of biological markers of stress on the dentate gyrus subfield of the hippocampus, links between hippocampal subfields and psychological stress have not been studied in humans. This study examined the relationship between perceived stress and hippocampal subfield volumes among racially/ethnically diverse older adults.Between July 2011 and March 2014, 116 nondemented participants were consecutively drawn from the Einstein Aging Study, an ongoing community-based sample of individuals over the age of 70 residing in Bronx, New York. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and underwent 3.0 T MRI. FreeSurfer was used to derive total hippocampal volume, hippocampal subfield volumes (CA1, CA2/CA3, CA4/Dentate Gyrus (CA4/DG, and subiculum, entorhinal cortex volume, whole brain volume, and total intracranial volume.Linear regression analyses revealed that higher levels of perceived stress were associated with smaller total hippocampal volume (β = -0.20, t = -2.40, p = 0.02, smaller CA2/CA3 volumes (β = -0.18, t = -2.24, p = 0.03 and smaller CA4/DG volumes (β = -0.19, t = -2.28, p = 0.03 after controlling for total intracranial volume, age, gender, and race. These findings remained unchanged after removal of individuals with clinically significant symptoms of depression.Our findings provide evidence of a relationship between a direct indicator of psychological stress and specific hippocampal subfield volumes in elderly individuals. These results highlight the importance of clinical screening for chronic stress in otherwise healthy older adults.

  1. Error related negativity and multi-source interference task in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Huerta-Albarrán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare performance of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders-combined (ADHD-C type with control children in multi-source interference task (MSIT evaluated by means of error related negativity (ERN. Method We studied 12 children with ADHD-C type with a median age of 7 years, control children were age- and gender-matched. Children performed MSIT and simultaneous recording of ERN. Results We found no differences in MSIT parameters among groups. We found no differences in ERN variables between groups. We found a significant association of ERN amplitude with MSIT in children with ADHD-C type. Some correlation went in positive direction (frequency of hits and MSIT amplitude, and others in negative direction (frequency of errors and RT in MSIT. Conclusion Children with ADHD-C type exhibited a significant association between ERN amplitude with MSIT. These results underline participation of a cingulo-fronto-parietal network and could help in the comprehension of pathophysiological mechanisms of ADHD.

  2. Avoiding Systematic Errors in Isometric Squat-Related Studies without Pre-Familiarization by Using Sufficient Numbers of Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekünlü Ekim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is no scientific evidence in the literature indicating that maximal isometric strength measures can be assessed within 3 trials. We questioned whether the results of isometric squat-related studies in which maximal isometric squat strength (MISS testing was performed using limited numbers of trials without pre-familiarization might have included systematic errors, especially those resulting from acute learning effects. Forty resistance-trained male participants performed 8 isometric squat trials without pre-familiarization. The highest measures in the first “n” trials (3 ≤ n ≤ 8 of these 8 squats were regarded as MISS obtained using 6 different MISS test methods featuring different numbers of trials (The Best of n Trials Method [BnT]. When B3T and B8T were paired with other methods, high reliability was found between the paired methods in terms of intraclass correlation coefficients (0.93-0.98 and coefficients of variation (3.4-7.0%. The Wilcoxon’s signed rank test indicated that MISS obtained using B3T and B8T were lower (p < 0.001 and higher (p < 0.001, respectively, than those obtained using other methods. The Bland- Altman method revealed a lack of agreement between any of the paired methods. Simulation studies illustrated that increasing the number of trials to 9-10 using a relatively large sample size (i.e., ≥ 24 could be an effective means of obtaining the actual MISS values of the participants. The common use of a limited number of trials in MISS tests without pre-familiarization appears to have no solid scientific base. Our findings suggest that the number of trials should be increased in commonly used MISS tests to avoid learning effect-related systematic errors

  3. Image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer: bladder volume variation and its relation to margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muren, Ludvig; Redpath, Anthony Thomas; Lord, Hannah

    2007-01-01

    : The correlation between the relative bladder volume (RBV, defined as repeat scan volume/planning scan volume) and the margins required to account for internal motion was first studied using a series of 20 bladder cancer patients with weekly repeat CT scanning during treatment. Both conformal RT (CRT) and IGRT......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To control and account for bladder motion is a major challenge in radiotherapy (RT) of bladder cancer. This study investigates the relation between bladder volume variation and margins in conformal and image-guided RT (IGRT) for this disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS...... these patients were given fluid intake restrictions on alternating weeks during treatment. RESULTS: IGRT gave the strongest correlation between the RBV and margin size (R(2)=0.75; p10mm were required in only 1% of the situations when the RBV1, whereas isotropic margins >10...

  4. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... not been determined separately we assessed PBV and pulmonary transit time (PTT) in relation to lung function in patients with cirrhosis and in controls. METHODS: Pulmonary and cardiac haemodynamics and transit times were determined by radionuclide techniques in 22 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis......, in the controls, Pvolume...

  5. An ancient relation between units of length and volume based on a sphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zapassky

    Full Text Available The modern metric system defines units of volume based on the cube. We propose that the ancient Egyptian system of measuring capacity employed a similar concept, but used the sphere instead. When considered in ancient Egyptian units, the volume of a sphere, whose circumference is one royal cubit, equals half a hekat. Using the measurements of large sets of ancient containers as a database, the article demonstrates that this formula was characteristic of Egyptian and Egyptian-related pottery vessels but not of the ceramics of Mesopotamia, which had a different system of measuring length and volume units.

  6. Hippocampal volume in relation to clinical and cognitive outcome after electroconvulsive therapy in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanskog, P; Larsson, M R; Larsson, E-M; Johanson, A

    2014-04-01

    In a previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, we found a significant increase in hippocampal volume immediately after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients with depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate hippocampal volume up to 1 year after ECT and investigate its possible relation to clinical and cognitive outcome. Clinical and cognitive outcome in 12 in-patients with depression receiving antidepressive pharmacological treatment referred for ECT were investigated with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and a broad neuropsychological test battery within 1 week before and after ECT. The assessments were repeated 6 and 12 months after baseline in 10 and seven of these patients, respectively. Hippocampal volumes were measured on all four occasions with 3 Tesla MRI. Hippocampal volume returned to baseline during the follow-up period of 6 months. Neither the significant antidepressant effect nor the significant transient decrease in executive and verbal episodic memory tests after ECT could be related to changes in hippocampal volume. No persistent cognitive side effects were observed 1 year after ECT. The immediate increase in hippocampal volume after ECT is reversible and is not related to clinical or cognitive outcome. © 2013 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Variation in orbitofrontal cortex volume: relation to sex, emotion regulation and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welborn, B Locke; Papademetris, Xenophon; Reis, Deidre L; Rajeevan, Nallakkandi; Bloise, Suzanne M; Gray, Jeremy R

    2009-12-01

    Sex differences in brain structure have been examined extensively but are not completely understood, especially in relation to possible functional correlates. Our two aims in this study were to investigate sex differences in brain structure, and to investigate a possible relation between orbitofrontal cortex subregions and affective individual differences. We used tensor-based morphometry to estimate local brain volume from MPRAGE images in 117 healthy right-handed adults (58 female), age 18-40 years. We entered estimates of local brain volume as the dependent variable in a GLM, controlling for age, intelligence and whole-brain volume. Men had larger left planum temporale. Women had larger ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), right lateral orbitofrontal (rlOFC), cerebellum, and bilateral basal ganglia and nearby white matter. vmPFC but not rlOFC volume covaried with self-reported emotion regulation strategies (reappraisal, suppression), expressivity of positive emotions (but not of negative), strength of emotional impulses, and cognitive but not somatic anxiety. vmPFC volume statistically mediated sex differences in emotion suppression. The results confirm prior reports of sex differences in orbitofrontal cortex structure, and are the first to show that normal variation in vmPFC volume is systematically related to emotion regulation and affective individual differences.

  8. Longitudinal changes in total brain volume in schizophrenia: relation to symptom severity, cognition and antipsychotic medication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Veijola

    Full Text Available Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population based birth cohort sample in a relatively long follow-up period of almost a decade. All members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with any psychotic disorder and a random sample not having psychosis were invited for a MRI brain scan, and clinical and cognitive assessment during 1999-2001 at the age of 33-35 years. A follow-up was conducted 9 years later during 2008-2010. Brain scans at both time points were obtained from 33 participants with schizophrenia and 71 control participants. Regression models were used to examine whether brain volume changes predicted clinical and cognitive changes over time, and whether antipsychotic medication predicted brain volume changes. The mean annual whole brain volume reduction was 0.69% in schizophrenia, and 0.49% in controls (p = 0.003, adjusted for gender, educational level, alcohol use and weight gain. The brain volume reduction in schizophrenia patients was found especially in the temporal lobe and periventricular area. Symptom severity, functioning level, and decline in cognition were not associated with brain volume reduction in schizophrenia. The amount of antipsychotic medication (dose years of equivalent to 100 mg daily chlorpromazine over the follow-up period predicted brain volume loss (p = 0.003 adjusted for symptom level, alcohol use and weight gain. In this population based sample, brain volume reduction continues in schizophrenia patients after the onset of illness, and antipsychotic medications may contribute to these reductions.

  9. Data quality and practical challenges of thyroid volume assessment by ultrasound under field conditions - observer errors may affect prevalence estimates of goitre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torheim Liv E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ultrasonographic estimation of thyroid size has been advocated as being more precise than palpation to diagnose goitre. However, ultrasound also requires technical proficiency. This study was conducted among Saharawi refugees, where goitre is highly prevalent. The objectives were to assess the overall data quality of ultrasound measurements of thyroid volume (Tvol, including the intra- and inter-observer agreement, under field conditions, and to describe some of the practical challenges encountered. Methods In 2007 a cross-sectional study of 419 children (6-14 years old and 405 women (15-45 years old was performed on a population of Saharawi refugees with prevalent goitre, who reside in the Algerian desert. Tvol was measured by two trained fieldworkers using portable ultrasound equipment (examiner 1 measured 406 individuals, and examiner 2, 418 individuals. Intra- and inter-observer agreement was estimated in 12 children selected from the study population but not part of the main study. In the main study, an observer error was found in one examiner whose ultrasound images were corrected by linear regression after printing and remeasuring a sample of 272 images. Results The intra-observer agreement in Tvol was higher in examiner 1, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.99 compared to 0.86 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.96 in examiner 2. The ICC for inter-observer agreement in Tvol was 0.38 (95% CI: -0.20, 0.77. Linear regression coefficients indicated a significant scaling bias in the original measurements of the AP and ML diameter and a systematic underestimation of Tvol (a product of AP, ML, CC and a constant. The agreement between re-measured and original Tvol measured by ICC (95% CI was 0.76 (0.71, 0.81. The agreement between re-measured and corrected Tvol measured by ICC (95% CI was 0.97 (0.96, 0.97. Conclusions An important challenge when using ultrasound to assess thyroid volume under field

  10. MRI-Based Measurement of Hippocampal Volume in Patients With Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Douglas; Randall, Penny; Scott, Tammy M.; Bronen, Richard A.; Seibyl, John P.; Southwick, Steven M.; Delaney, Richard C.; McCarthy, Gregory; Charney, Dennis S.; Innis, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Studies in nonhuman primates suggest that high levels of cortisol associated with stress have neurotoxic effects on the hippocampus, a brain structure involved in memory. The authors previously showed that patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) had deficits in short-term memory. The purpose of this study was to compare the hippocampal volume of patients with PTSD to that of subjects without psychiatric disorder. Method Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the volume of the hippocampus in 26 Vietnam combat veterans with PTSD and 22 comparison subjects selected to be similar to the patients in age, sex, race, years of education, socioeconomic status, body size, and years of alcohol abuse. Results The PTSD patients had a statistically significant 8% smaller right hippocampal volume relative to that of the comparison subjects, but there was no difference in the volume of other brain regions (caudate and temporal lobe). Deficits in short-term verbal memory as measured with the Wechsler Memory Scale were associated with smaller right hippocampal volume in the PTSD patients only. Conclusions These findings are consistent with a smaller right hippocampal volume in PTSD that is associated with functional deficits in verbal memory. PMID:7793467

  11. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation

  12. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  13. Asset price and trade volume relation in artificial market impacted by value investors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangmongkollert, K.; Suwanna, S.

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between return and trade volume has been of great interests in a financial market. The appearance of asymmetry in the price-volume relation in the bull and bear market is still unsettled. We present a model of the value investor traders (VIs) in the double auction system, in which agents make trading decision based on the pseudo fundamental price modelled by sawtooth oscillations. We investigate the system by two different time series for the asset fundamental price: one corresponds to the fundamental price in a growing phase; and the other corresponds to that in a declining phase. The simulation results show that the trade volume is proportional to the difference between the market price and the fundamental price, and that there is asymmetry between the buying and selling phases. Furthermore, the selling phase has more significant impact of price on the trade volume than the buying phase.

  14. Processing of action- but not stimulus-related prediction errors differs between active and observational feedback learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Stefan; Bellebaum, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations is driven by outcome prediction errors (PEs). Previous studies have shown larger PE-dependent activity in the striatum for learning from own as compared to observed actions and the following outcomes despite comparable learning rates. We hypothesised that this finding relates primarily to a stronger integration of action and outcome information in active learners. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated brain activations related to action-dependent PEs, reflecting the deviation between action values and obtained outcomes, and action-independent PEs, reflecting the deviation between subjective values of response-preceding cues and obtained outcomes. To this end, 16 active and 15 observational learners engaged in a probabilistic learning card-guessing paradigm. On each trial, active learners saw one out of five cues and pressed either a left or right response button to receive feedback (monetary win or loss). Each observational learner observed exactly those cues, responses and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance was assessed in active test trials without feedback and did not differ between groups. For both types of PEs, activations were found in the globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, and insula in active learners. However, only for action-dependent PEs, activations in these structures and the anterior cingulate were increased in active relative to observational learners. Thus, PE-related activity in the reward system is not generally enhanced in active relative to observational learning but only for action-dependent PEs. For the cerebellum, additional activations were found across groups for cue-related uncertainty, thereby emphasising the cerebellum's role in stimulus-outcome learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Information Management System Development for the Characterization and Analysis of Human Error in Naval Aviation Maintenance Related Mishaps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wood, Brian

    2000-01-01

    .... The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System-Maintenance Extension taxonomy, an effective framework for classifying and analyzing the presence of maintenance errors that lead to mishaps...

  16. Field error lottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C.J.; McVey, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Quimby, D.C. (Spectra Technology, Inc., Bellevue, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The level of field errors in an FEL is an important determinant of its performance. We have computed 3D performance of a large laser subsystem subjected to field errors of various types. These calculations have been guided by simple models such as SWOOP. The technique of choice is utilization of the FELEX free electron laser code that now possesses extensive engineering capabilities. Modeling includes the ability to establish tolerances of various types: fast and slow scale field bowing, field error level, beam position monitor error level, gap errors, defocusing errors, energy slew, displacement and pointing errors. Many effects of these errors on relative gain and relative power extraction are displayed and are the essential elements of determining an error budget. The random errors also depend on the particular random number seed used in the calculation. The simultaneous display of the performance versus error level of cases with multiple seeds illustrates the variations attributable to stochasticity of this model. All these errors are evaluated numerically for comprehensive engineering of the system. In particular, gap errors are found to place requirements beyond mechanical tolerances of {plus minus}25{mu}m, and amelioration of these may occur by a procedure utilizing direct measurement of the magnetic fields at assembly time. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  17. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... in cirrhosis. The relation between PBV and PTT and the low diffusing capacity suggests the pulmonary vascular compartment as an important element in the pathophysiology of the lung dysfunction in cirrhosis....... not been determined separately we assessed PBV and pulmonary transit time (PTT) in relation to lung function in patients with cirrhosis and in controls. METHODS: Pulmonary and cardiac haemodynamics and transit times were determined by radionuclide techniques in 22 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis...

  18. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mínguez-alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorgee; Mendiola, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    , and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone......, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free...... testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest...

  19. The orthopaedic error index: development and application of a novel national indicator for assessing the relative safety of hospital care using a cross-sectional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Carson-Stevens, Andrew; Javad, Sundas; Patel, Bhavesh; Parry, Gareth; Donaldson, Liam J; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-11-21

    The Orthopaedic Error Index for hospitals aims to provide the first national assessment of the relative safety of provision of orthopaedic surgery. Cross-sectional study (retrospective analysis of records in a database). The National Reporting and Learning System is the largest national repository of patient-safety incidents in the world with over eight million error reports. It offers a unique opportunity to develop novel approaches to enhancing patient safety, including investigating the relative safety of different healthcare providers and specialties. We extracted all orthopaedic error reports from the system over 1 year (2009-2010). The Orthopaedic Error Index was calculated as a sum of the error propensity and severity. All relevant hospitals offering orthopaedic surgery in England were then ranked by this metric to identify possible outliers that warrant further attention. 155 hospitals reported 48 971 orthopaedic-related patient-safety incidents. The mean Orthopaedic Error Index was 7.09/year (SD 2.72); five hospitals were identified as outliers. Three of these units were specialist tertiary hospitals carrying out complex surgery; the remaining two outlier hospitals had unusually high Orthopaedic Error Indexes: mean 14.46 (SD 0.29) and 15.29 (SD 0.51), respectively. The Orthopaedic Error Index has enabled identification of hospitals that may be putting patients at disproportionate risk of orthopaedic-related iatrogenic harm and which therefore warrant further investigation. It provides the prototype of a summary index of harm to enable surveillance of unsafe care over time across institutions. Further validation and scrutiny of the method will be required to assess its potential to be extended to other hospital specialties in the UK and also internationally to other health systems that have comparable national databases of patient-safety incidents.

  20. Error Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.; Li, Z.

    2001-01-01

    In coding theory the problem of decoding focuses on error vectors. In the simplest situation code words are $(0,1)$-vectors, as are the received messages and the error vectors. Comparison of a received word with the code words yields a set of error vectors. In deciding on the original code word,

  1. MACULAR CHOROIDAL VOLUME CHANGES AFTER INTRAVITREAL BEVACIZUMAB FOR EXUDATIVE AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovits, Stefan; Seidel, Gerald; Pertl, Laura; Malle, Eva M; Hausberger, Silke; Makk, Johanna; Singer, Christoph; Osterholt, Julia; Herzog, Sereina A; Haas, Anton; Weger, Martin

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on the macular choroidal volume and the subfoveal choroidal thickness in treatment naïve eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration. The macular choroidal volume and the subfoveal choroidal thickness were measured using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. After a screening examination, each patient received 3 monthly intravitreal injections of 1.25 mg bevacizumab. One month after the third injection was a final assessment. Forty-seven patients with a mean age of 80 ± 6.4 years were included. The macular choroidal volume decreased significantly from median 4.1 mm (interquartile range 3.4-5.9) to median 3.9 mm (interquartile range 3.1-5.6) between the baseline and final examination (difference -0.46 mm, 95% confidence interval: -0.57 to 0.35, P macular choroidal volume at baseline and subfoveal choroidal thickness at baseline were not associated with the response to treatment. The macular choroidal volume and the subfoveal choroidal thickness decreased significantly after 3 monthly bevacizumab injections for exudative age-related macular degeneration.

  2. BDNF val(66)met affects hippocampal volume and emotion-related hippocampal memory activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molendijk, M. L.; van Tol, M-J; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; van der Wee, N. J. A.; Aleman, A.; Veltman, D. J.; Spinhoven, P.; Elzinga, B. M.

    2012-01-01

    The val(66)met polymorphism on the BDNF gene has been reported to explain individual differences in hippocampal volume and memory-related activity. These findings, however, have not been replicated consistently and no studies to date controlled for the potentially confounding impact of early life

  3. Reduced anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal volumes in child abuse-related complex PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomaes, K.; Dorrepaal, E.; Draijer, P.J.; de Ruiter, M.B.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Smit, J.H.; Veltman, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Classic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with smaller hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes. We investigated whether child abuse-related complex PTSD - a severe form of PTSD with affect dysregulation and high comorbidity-showed similar brain

  4. Reduced Anterior Cingulate and Orbitofrontal Volumes in Child Abuse-Related Complex PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomaes, Kathleen; Dorrepaal, Ethy; Draijer, Nel; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; van Balkom, Anton J.; Smit, Johannes H.; Veltman, Dick J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Classic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with smaller hippocampus, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes. We investigated whether child abuse-related complex PTSD a severe form of PTSD with affect dysregulation and high comorbidity-showed similar brain

  5. Dose-volume correlation in radiation-related late small-bowel complication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letschert, J.G.J.; Lebesque, J.V.; Boer, R.W. de; hart, A.A.M.; Barteling, H.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of the volume of irradiated small bowel on late small-bowel tolerance was studied, taking into account the equivalent total dose ant type of pre-irradiation surgical procedure. A method was developed to estimate small-bowel volumes in the high-bowel volumes were measured for three-field and AP-PA pelvic treatments (165 cm 3 and 400 cm 3 , respectively), extended AP-PA treatment of para-aortic and iliac nodes (1000 cm 3 ). In a retrospective study of 111 patientst irradiated after surgery for rectal or recto-sigmoid cancer to a dose of 45-50 Gy in 5 weeks, extended AP-PA pelvic treatment (n = 27) resulted in a high incidence of severe small-bowel complications (37%), whereas for limited (three-field) pelvic treatment (n = 84) the complication rate was 6%. These complication data together with data from the literature on postoperative radiation-related small-bowel complications were analysed using the maximum likelihood method to fit the data to the logistic form of the dose-response relation, taking the volume effect into account by a power law. The analysis indicated that the incidence of radiation-related small-bowel compllications was higher after rectal surgery than after other types of surgery, which might be explained by the development of more adhesions. For both types of surgery a volume exponent of the power-law of 0.26 ± 0.05 was established. This means that if the small-bowel volume is increased by a factor of 2, the total dose has to be reduced by 17% for the same incidence of small-bowel complications. (author). 45 refs.; 6 figs.; 4 tabs

  6. Self-Reported and Observed Punitive Parenting Prospectively Predicts Increased Error-Related Brain Activity in Six-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Alexandria; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Bufferd, Sara J; Kujawa, Autumn J; Laptook, Rebecca S; Torpey, Dana C; Klein, Daniel N

    2015-07-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential (ERP) occurring approximately 50 ms after error commission at fronto-central electrode sites and is thought to reflect the activation of a generic error monitoring system. Several studies have reported an increased ERN in clinically anxious children, and suggest that anxious children are more sensitive to error commission--although the mechanisms underlying this association are not clear. We have previously found that punishing errors results in a larger ERN, an effect that persists after punishment ends. It is possible that learning-related experiences that impact sensitivity to errors may lead to an increased ERN. In particular, punitive parenting might sensitize children to errors and increase their ERN. We tested this possibility in the current study by prospectively examining the relationship between parenting style during early childhood and children's ERN approximately 3 years later. Initially, 295 parents and children (approximately 3 years old) participated in a structured observational measure of parenting behavior, and parents completed a self-report measure of parenting style. At a follow-up assessment approximately 3 years later, the ERN was elicited during a Go/No-Go task, and diagnostic interviews were completed with parents to assess child psychopathology. Results suggested that both observational measures of hostile parenting and self-report measures of authoritarian parenting style uniquely predicted a larger ERN in children 3 years later. We previously reported that children in this sample with anxiety disorders were characterized by an increased ERN. A mediation analysis indicated that ERN magnitude mediated the relationship between harsh parenting and child anxiety disorder. Results suggest that parenting may shape children's error processing through environmental conditioning and thereby risk for anxiety, although future work is needed to confirm this

  7. Self-reported and observed punitive parenting prospectively predicts increased error-related brain activity in six-year-old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Alexandria; Proudfit, Greg Hajcak; Bufferd, Sara J.; Kujawa, Autumn J.; Laptook, Rebecca S.; Torpey, Dana C.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2017-01-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential (ERP) occurring approximately 50 ms after error commission at fronto-central electrode sites and is thought to reflect the activation of a generic error monitoring system. Several studies have reported an increased ERN in clinically anxious children, and suggest that anxious children are more sensitive to error commission—although the mechanisms underlying this association are not clear. We have previously found that punishing errors results in a larger ERN, an effect that persists after punishment ends. It is possible that learning-related experiences that impact sensitivity to errors may lead to an increased ERN. In particular, punitive parenting might sensitize children to errors and increase their ERN. We tested this possibility in the current study by prospectively examining the relationship between parenting style during early childhood and children’s ERN approximately three years later. Initially, 295 parents and children (approximately 3 years old) participated in a structured observational measure of parenting behavior, and parents completed a self-report measure of parenting style. At a follow-up assessment approximately three years later, the ERN was elicited during a Go/No-Go task, and diagnostic interviews were completed with parents to assess child psychopathology. Results suggested that both observational measures of hostile parenting and self-report measures of authoritarian parenting style uniquely predicted a larger ERN in children 3 years later. We previously reported that children in this sample with anxiety disorders were characterized by an increased ERN. A mediation analysis indicated that ERN magnitude mediated the relationship between harsh parenting and child anxiety disorder. Results suggest that parenting may shape children’s error processing through environmental conditioning and thereby risk for anxiety, although future work is needed to

  8. The Relative Importance of Random Error and Observation Frequency in Detecting Trends in Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Vermeesch, Kevin C.; Oman, Luke D.; Weatherhead, Elizabeth C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent published work assessed the amount of time to detect trends in atmospheric water vapor over the coming century. We address the same question and conclude that under the most optimistic scenarios and assuming perfect data (i.e., observations with no measurement uncertainty) the time to detect trends will be at least 12 years at approximately 200 hPa in the upper troposphere. Our times to detect trends are therefore shorter than those recently reported and this difference is affected by data sources used, method of processing the data, geographic location and pressure level in the atmosphere where the analyses were performed. We then consider the question of how instrumental uncertainty plays into the assessment of time to detect trends. We conclude that due to the high natural variability in atmospheric water vapor, the amount of time to detect trends in the upper troposphere is relatively insensitive to instrumental random uncertainty and that it is much more important to increase the frequency of measurement than to decrease the random error in the measurement. This is put in the context of international networks such as the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN) and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) that are tasked with developing time series of climate quality water vapor data.

  9. CORRELATION OF FUNDUS CHANGES IN RELATION TO REFRACTIVE ERROR IN PATIENTS WITH MYOPIA- A CLINICAL PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian M. Manickavelu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Retina is unique among the complex element of the central nervous system and the special senses. It may be readily viewed during life and it is sufficiently transparent, so that alterations within and adjacent to it may be observed in vivo. The peripheral retina owing to its thinness comparing to that of the central part, poorly-developed retinal cells, absence of large blood vessels, relatively insensitive to light, less resistance to traction, forms a seat for various lesions, which are potentially dangerous for the vision. It is in myopia that we meet the most frequent and the most obvious anomalies in the fundus changes, which bear some relation to the degree of myopia and appeal to be concerned with it either as a cause or effect or perhaps both. The aim of our study is to correlate fundus changes in relation to refractive error in patients with myopia. MATERIALS AND METHODS In our study, 100 cases of myopic (-6D:50 cases patients were selected. Detailed evaluation done. History of refractive error includes duration, age at which spectacles were worn for the first time. Time of last change of spectacles, family history of myopia, history of other symptoms like progressive loss of vision, defective vision related to day or night, sudden loss of vision, flashes and floaters. Anterior segment was examined followed by the recording of initial visual acuity and the best corrected visual acuity was noted. IOP was measured for all the cases using Schiotz tonometry. Axial length was measured in all the cases. Fundus examined with direct ophthalmoscope, indirect ophthalmoscope, 3 mirror and 90D lens. Bscan was done in few cases. The media, disc, vessels, macula and the surrounding retina were examined. The periphery was examined with indentation method. The various fundus features and pathological lesions in different degrees of myopia were noted. RESULTS Females were comparatively more affected. Highest incidence was seen in the younger

  10. Patient safety incident reports related to traditional Japanese Kampo medicines: medication errors and adverse drug events in a university hospital for a ten-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yutaka; Fujimoto, Makoto; Nogami, Tatsuya; Watari, Hidetoshi; Kitahara, Hideyuki; Misawa, Hiroki; Kimbara, Yoshiyuki

    2017-12-21

    Kampo medicine is traditional Japanese medicine, which originated in ancient traditional Chinese medicine, but was introduced and developed uniquely in Japan. Today, Kampo medicines are integrated into the Japanese national health care system. Incident reporting systems are currently being widely used to collect information about patient safety incidents that occur in hospitals. However, no investigations have been conducted regarding patient safety incident reports related to Kampo medicines. The aim of this study was to survey and analyse incident reports related to Kampo medicines in a Japanese university hospital to improve future patient safety. We selected incident reports related to Kampo medicines filed in Toyama University Hospital from May 2007 to April 2017, and investigated them in terms of medication errors and adverse drug events. Out of 21,324 total incident reports filed in the 10-year survey period, we discovered 108 Kampo medicine-related incident reports. However, five cases were redundantly reported; thus, the number of actual incidents was 103. Of those, 99 incidents were classified as medication errors (77 administration errors, 15 dispensing errors, and 7 prescribing errors), and four were adverse drug events, namely Kampo medicine-induced interstitial pneumonia. The Kampo medicine (crude drug) that was thought to induce interstitial pneumonia in all four cases was Scutellariae Radix, which is consistent with past reports. According to the incident severity classification system recommended by the National University Hospital Council of Japan, of the 99 medication errors, 10 incidents were classified as level 0 (an error occurred, but the patient was not affected) and 89 incidents were level 1 (an error occurred that affected the patient, but did not cause harm). Of the four adverse drug events, two incidents were classified as level 2 (patient was transiently harmed, but required no treatment), and two incidents were level 3b (patient was

  11. SOME EMPIRICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TRAVEL SPEED, TRAFFIC VOLUME AND TRAFFIC COMPOSITION IN URBAN ARTERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni I. VLAHOGIANNI, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traffic mix (the percentage of cars, trucks, buses and so on are of particular interest in the speed-volume relationship in urban signalized arterials under various geometric and control characteristics. The paper presents some empirical observations on the relation between travel speed, traffic volume and traffic composition in urban signalized arterials. A methodology based on emerging self-organizing structures of neural networks to identify regions in the speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition and Bayesian networks to evaluate the effect of different types of motorized vehicles on prevailing traffic conditions is proposed. Results based on data from a large urban network indicate that the variability in traffic conditions can be described by eight regions in speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition. Further evaluation of the effect of motorized vehicles in each region separately indicates that the effect of traffic composition decreases with the onset of congestion. Moreover, taxis and motorcycles are the primary affecting parameter of the form of the speed-volume relationship in urban arterials.

  12. Performance monitoring in the anterior cingulate is not all error related: expectancy deviation and the representation of action-outcome associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Flavio T P; McDonald, John J; Goodman, David

    2007-12-01

    Several converging lines of evidence suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is selectively involved in error detection or evaluation of poor performance. Here we challenge this notion by presenting event-related potential (ERP) evidence that the feedback-elicited error-related negativity, an ERP component attributed to the ACC, can be elicited by positive feedback when a person is expecting negative feedback and vice versa. These results suggest that performance monitoring in the ACC is not limited to error processing. We propose that the ACC acts as part of a more general performance-monitoring system that is activated by violations in expectancy. Further, we propose that the common observation of increased ACC activity elicited by negative events could be explained by an overoptimistic bias in generating expectations of performance. These results could shed light into neurobehavioral disorders, such as depression and mania, associated with alterations in performance monitoring and also in judgments of self-related events.

  13. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón; Jorge E Chavarro; Jaime Mendiola; Manuela Roca; Cigdem Tanrikut; Jesús Vioque; Niels Jørgensen; Alberto M Torres-Cantero

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may inlfuence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this ifeld has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross‑sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega‑6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (Ptrend=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The intake of omega‑3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega‑6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may inlfuence testicular function.

  14. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may influence testicular function.

  15. A hidden variable in shear transformation zone volume versus Poisson's ratio relation in metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. Y.; Oh, H. S.; Park, E. S.

    2017-10-01

    Herein, we elucidate a hidden variable in a shear transformation zone (STZ) volume (Ω) versus Poisson's ratio (ν) relation and clarify the correlation between STZ characteristics and the plasticity of metallic glasses (MGs). On the basis of cooperative shear model and atomic stress theories, we carefully formulate Ω as a function of molar volume (Vm) and ν. The twofold trend in Ω and ν is attributed to a relatively large variation of Vm as compared to that of ν as well as an inverse relation between Vm and ν. Indeed, the derived equation reveals that the number of atoms in an STZ instead of Ω is a microstructural characteristic which has a close relationship with plasticity since it reflects the preference of atomistic behaviors between cooperative shearing and the generation of volume strain fluctuation under stress. The results would deepen our understanding of the correlation between microscopic behaviors (STZ activation) and macroscopic properties (plasticity) in MGs and enable a quantitative approach in associating various STZ-related macroscopic behaviors with intrinsic properties of MGs.

  16. Lower subcortical gray matter volume in both younger smokers and established smokers relative to non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Colleen A.; Owens, Max M.; Joseph, Jane E.; Zhu, Xun; George, Mark S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Hartwell, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    Although established adult smokers with long histories of nicotine dependence have lower neural tissue volume than non-smokers, it is not clear if lower regional brain volume is also observed in younger, less established smokers. The primary goal of this study was to investigate neural tissue volume in a large group of smokers and non-smokers, with a secondary goal of measuring the impact of age on these effects. We used voxel-based morphometry to compare regional gray matter volume in 118 individuals (59 smokers, 59 age- and gender-matched non-smokers). Younger smokers had significantly lower gray matter volume in the left thalamus and the left amygdala than their non-smoking peers (family-wise error-corrected clusters, P smokers. Established smokers had significantly lower gray matter volume than age-matched non-smokers in the insula, parahippocampal gyrus and pallidum. Medial prefrontal cortex gray matter volume was negatively correlated with pack-years of smoking among the established smokers, but not the younger smokers. These data reveal that regional tissue volume differences are not limited exclusively to established smokers. Deficits in young adults indicate that cigarette smoking may either be deleterious to the thalamus and amygdala at an earlier age than previously reported, or that pre-existing differences in these areas may predispose individuals to the development of nicotine dependence. PMID:25125263

  17. Case-related factors affecting cutting errors of the proximal tibia in total knee arthroplasty assessed by computer navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukeoka, Tadashi; Tsuneizumi, Yoshikazu; Yoshino, Kensuke; Suzuki, Mashiko

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine factors that contribute to bone cutting errors of conventional instrumentation for tibial resection in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) as assessed by an image-free navigation system. The hypothesis is that preoperative varus alignment is a significant contributory factor to tibial bone cutting errors. This was a prospective study of a consecutive series of 72 TKAs. The amount of the tibial first-cut errors with reference to the planned cutting plane in both coronal and sagittal planes was measured by an image-free computer navigation system. Multiple regression models were developed with the amount of tibial cutting error in the coronal and sagittal planes as dependent variables and sex, age, disease, height, body mass index, preoperative alignment, patellar height (Insall-Salvati ratio) and preoperative flexion angle as independent variables. Multiple regression analysis showed that sex (male gender) (R = 0.25 p = 0.047) and preoperative varus alignment (R = 0.42, p = 0.001) were positively associated with varus tibial cutting errors in the coronal plane. In the sagittal plane, none of the independent variables was significant. When performing TKA in varus deformity, careful confirmation of the bone cutting surface should be performed to avoid varus alignment. The results of this study suggest technical considerations that can help a surgeon achieve more accurate component placement. IV.

  18. Error in the delivery of radiation therapy: Results of a quality assurance review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Grace; Medlam, Gaylene; Lee, Justin; Billingsley, Susan; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Ringash, Jolie; Kane, Gabrielle; Hodgson, David C.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine error rates in the delivery of radiation therapy (RT), technical factors associated with RT errors, and the influence of a quality improvement intervention on the RT error rate. Methods and materials: We undertook a review of all RT errors that occurred at the Princess Margaret Hospital (Toronto) from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2002. Errors were identified according to incident report forms that were completed at the time the error occurred. Error rates were calculated per patient, per treated volume (≥1 volume per patient), and per fraction delivered. The association between tumor site and error was analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between technical factors and the risk of error. Results: Over the study interval, there were 555 errors among 28,136 patient treatments delivered (error rate per patient = 1.97%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81-2.14%) and among 43,302 treated volumes (error rate per volume = 1.28%, 95% CI, 1.18-1.39%). The proportion of fractions with errors from July 1, 2000, to December 31, 2002, was 0.29% (95% CI, 0.27-0.32%). Patients with sarcoma or head-and-neck tumors experienced error rates significantly higher than average (5.54% and 4.58%, respectively); however, when the number of treated volumes was taken into account, the head-and-neck error rate was no longer higher than average (1.43%). The use of accessories was associated with an increased risk of error, and internal wedges were more likely to be associated with an error than external wedges (relative risk = 2.04; 95% CI, 1.11-3.77%). Eighty-seven errors (15.6%) were directly attributed to incorrect programming of the 'record and verify' system. Changes to planning and treatment processes aimed at reducing errors within the head-and-neck site group produced a substantial reduction in the error rate. Conclusions: Errors in the delivery of RT are uncommon and usually of little clinical significance. Patient subgroups and

  19. Relations between various measures of iodine intake and thyroid volume, thyroid nodularity, and serum thyroglobulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.

    2002-01-01

    sought to identify, if possible, groups at risk of thyroid disease because of their food choices. Design: This cohort study included 4649 randomly selected subjects with mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency; the subjects lived in 2 cities in Denmark. Iodine intake was estimated by using a food...... some measures of iodine intake were significantly related to the prevalence of thyroid nodules. Conclusions: Even in a geographic area where mild iodine deficiency is common, a significant relation between iodine intake and thyroid volume was found. All measures of iodine intake, except iodine......Background: Iodine intake can be measured in various ways, and each method may have advantages and disadvantages. Objective: We sought to investigate the potential associations of various measures of iodine intake with thyroid volume, prevalence of thyroid nodules, and serum thyroglobulin. We also...

  20. Effect of Bcl-2 rs956572 polymorphism on age-related gray matter volume changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-En Liu

    Full Text Available The anti-apoptotic protein B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 gene is a major regulator of neural plasticity and cellular resilience. Recently, the Bcl-2 rs956572 single nucleotide polymorphism was proposed to be a functional allelic variant that modulates cellular vulnerability to apoptosis. Our cross-sectional study investigated the genetic effect of this Bcl-2 polymorphism on age-related decreases in gray matter (GM volume across the adult lifespan. Our sample comprised 330 healthy volunteers (191 male, 139 female with a mean age of 56.2±22.0 years (range: 21-92. Magnetic resonance imaging and genotyping of the Bcl-2 rs956572 were performed for each participant. The differences in regional GM volumes between G homozygotes and A-allele carriers were tested using optimized voxel-based morphometry. The association between the Bcl-2 rs956572 polymorphism and age was a predictor of regional GM volumes in the right cerebellum, bilateral lingual gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, and right parahippocampal gyrus. We found that the volume of these five regions decreased with increasing age (all P<.001. Moreover, the downward slope was steeper among the Bcl-2 rs956572 A-allele carriers than in the G-homozygous participants. Our data provide convergent evidence for the genetic effect of the Bcl-2 functional allelic variant in brain aging. The rs956572 G-allele, which is associated with significantly higher Bcl-2 protein expression and diminished cellular sensitivity to stress-induced apoptosis, conferred a protective effect against age-related changes in brain GM volume, particularly in the cerebellum.

  1. Characteristics of patients making serious inhaler errors with a dry powder inhaler and association with asthma-related events in a primary care setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerik, Janine A. M.; Carter, Victoria; Chrystyn, Henry; Burden, Anne; Thompson, Samantha L.; Ryan, Dermot; Gruffydd-Jones, Kevin; Haughney, John; Roche, Nicolas; Lavorini, Federico; Papi, Alberto; Infantino, Antonio; Roman-Rodriguez, Miguel; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Lisspers, Karin; Ställberg, Björn; Henrichsen, Svein Høegh; van der Molen, Thys; Hutton, Catherine; Price, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Correct inhaler technique is central to effective delivery of asthma therapy. The study aim was to identify factors associated with serious inhaler technique errors and their prevalence among primary care patients with asthma using the Diskus dry powder inhaler (DPI). Methods: This was a historical, multinational, cross-sectional study (2011–2013) using the iHARP database, an international initiative that includes patient- and healthcare provider-reported questionnaires from eight countries. Patients with asthma were observed for serious inhaler errors by trained healthcare providers as predefined by the iHARP steering committee. Multivariable logistic regression, stepwise reduced, was used to identify clinical characteristics and asthma-related outcomes associated with ≥1 serious errors. Results: Of 3681 patients with asthma, 623 (17%) were using a Diskus (mean [SD] age, 51 [14]; 61% women). A total of 341 (55%) patients made ≥1 serious errors. The most common errors were the failure to exhale before inhalation, insufficient breath-hold at the end of inhalation, and inhalation that was not forceful from the start. Factors significantly associated with ≥1 serious errors included asthma-related hospitalization the previous year (odds ratio [OR] 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26–3.40); obesity (OR 1.75; 1.17–2.63); poor asthma control the previous 4 weeks (OR 1.57; 1.04–2.36); female sex (OR 1.51; 1.08–2.10); and no inhaler technique review during the previous year (OR 1.45; 1.04–2.02). Conclusions: Patients with evidence of poor asthma control should be targeted for a review of their inhaler technique even when using a device thought to have a low error rate. PMID:26810934

  2. On superactivation of one-shot quantum zero-error capacity and the related property of quantum measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirokov, M. E.; Shulman, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    We give a detailed description of a low-dimensional quantum channel (input dimension 4, Choi rank 3) demonstrating the symmetric form of superactivation of one-shot quantum zero-error capacity. This property means appearance of a noiseless (perfectly reversible) subchannel in the tensor square...... of a channel having no noiseless subchannels. Then we describe a quantum channel with an arbitrary given level of symmetric superactivation (including the infinite value). We also show that superactivation of one-shot quantum zero-error capacity of a channel can be reformulated in terms of quantum measurement...

  3. FORMALIZING PRODUCT COST DISTORTION: The Impact of Volume-Related Allocation Bases on Cost Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Jermias

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose o f this study is to formally analyze product cost distortions resulting from the process of allocating costs to products based on Activity-Based Costing (ABC and the conventional product costing systems. The model developed in this paper rigorously shows the impact of treating costs that are not volume related as if they are. The model demonstrates that the source of product cost distortion is the difference between the proportion of driver used by each product in ABC and the proportion of the base used by the same product in the conventional costing systems. The difference arises because the conventional costing systems ignore the existence of batch-related and product-related costs. The model predicts a positive association between volume and size diversity with product cost distortions. When interaction between volume and size diversity exists, the distortion is either mitigated or exacerbated. The magnitude of the distortion is jointly determined by the size of the differences and the size of the total indirect costs.

  4. Attention in spina bifida myelomeningocele: Relations with brain volume and integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina A. Kulesz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relations of tectal volume and superior parietal cortex, as well as alterations in tectocortical white matter connectivity, with the orienting and executive control attention networks in individuals with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM. Probabilistic diffusion tractography and quantification of tectal and superior parietal cortical volume were performed on 74 individuals aged 8–29 with SBM and a history of hydrocephalus. Behavioral assessments measured posterior (covert orienting and anterior (conflict resolution, attentional control attention network functions. Reduced tectal volume was associated with slower covert orienting; reduced superior parietal cortical volume was associated with slower conflict resolution; and increased axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity along both frontal and parietal tectocortical pathways were associated with reduced attentional control. Results suggest that components of both the orienting and executive control attention networks are impaired in SBM. Neuroanatomical disruption to the orienting network appears more robust and a direct consequence of characteristic midbrain dysmorphology; whereas, executive control difficulties may emerge from parietal cortical anomalies and reduced frontal and parietal cortical–subcortical white matter pathways susceptible to the pathophysiological effects of congenital hydrocephalus.

  5. Relative strengths of the calf muscles based on MRI volume measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Clifford L; Thawait, Gaurav K; Kwon, John Y; Machado, Antonio; Boyle, James W; Campbell, John; Carrino, John A

    2012-05-01

    In 1985, Silver et al. published a cadaver study which determined the relative order of strength of the muscles in the calf. Muscle strength, which is proportional to volume, was obtained by dissecting out the individual muscles, weighing them, and then multiplying by the specific gravity. No similar studies have been performed using {\\it in vivo} measurements of muscle volume. Ten normal subjects underwent 3-Tesla MRI's of both lower extremities using non-fat-saturated T2 SPACE sequences. The volume for each muscle was determined by tracing the muscle contour on sequential axial images and then interpolating the volume using imaging software. The results from this study differ from Silver's original article. The lateral head of the gastrocnemius was found to be stronger than the tibialis anterior muscle. The FHL and EDL muscles were both stronger than the peroneus longus. There was no significant difference in strength between the peroneus longus and brevis muscles. This revised order of muscle strengths in the calf based on in vivo MRI findings may assist surgeons in determining the optimal tendons to transfer in order to address muscle weakness and deformity.

  6. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1978. Volume 1. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The FY 1978 Federal Inventory is a compilation of 3225 federally funded energy-related environmental and safety reserch projects. It consists of three volumes: an executive summary providing an overview of the data (Volume I), a catalog listing each Inventory project followed by series of indexes (Volume II), and an interactive terminal guide giving instructions for on-line data retrieval (Volume III). Volume I reviews the inventory data as a whole and also within each of three major categories: biomedical and environmental research, environmental control technology research, and operational safety research

  7. Evolution of brain region volumes during artificial selection for relative brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Zeng, Hong-Li; van der Bijl, Wouter; Öhman-Mägi, Caroline; Kotrschal, Kurt; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-12-01

    The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here, we test the evolutionary response of brain regions to directional selection on brain size in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) selected for large and small relative brain size. In these animals, artificial selection led to a fast response in relative brain size, while body size remained unchanged. We use microcomputer tomography to investigate how the volumes of 11 main brain regions respond to selection for larger versus smaller brains. We found no differences in relative brain region volumes between large- and small-brained animals and only minor sex-specific variation. Also, selection did not change allometric scaling between brain and brain region sizes. Our results suggest that brain regions respond similarly to strong directional selection on relative brain size, which indicates that brain anatomy variation in contemporary species most likely stem from direct selection on key regions. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. The minimum knowledge base for predicting organ-at-risk dose-volume levels and plan-related complications in IMRT planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hao H; D'Souza, Warren D; Meyer, Robert R; Shi Leyuan

    2010-01-01

    IMRT treatment planning requires consideration of two competing objectives: achieving the required amount of radiation for the planning target volume and minimizing the amount of radiation delivered to all other tissues. It is important for planners to understand the tradeoff between competing factors so that the time-consuming human interaction loop (plan-evaluate-modify) can be eliminated. Treatment-plan-surface models have been proposed as a decision support tool to aid treatment planners and clinicians in choosing between rival treatment plans in a multi-plan environment. In this paper, an empirical approach is introduced to determine the minimum number of treatment plans (minimum knowledge base) required to build accurate representations of the IMRT plan surface in order to predict organ-at-risk (OAR) dose-volume (DV) levels and complications as a function of input DV constraint settings corresponding to all involved OARs in the plan. We have tested our approach on five head and neck patients and five whole pelvis/prostate patients. Our results suggest that approximately 30 plans were sufficient to predict DV levels with less than 3% relative error in both head and neck and whole pelvis/prostate cases. In addition, approximately 30-60 plans were sufficient to predict saliva flow rate with less than 2% relative error and to classify rectal bleeding with an accuracy of 90%.

  9. On-ward participation of a hospital pharmacist in a Dutch intensive care unit reduces prescribing errors and related patient harm: an intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopotowska, J.E.; Kuiper, R.; van Kan, H.J.; de Pont, A.C.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Lie-A-Huen, L.; Vroom, M.B.; Smorenburg, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) are at high risk for prescribing errors and related adverse drug events (ADEs). An effective intervention to decrease this risk, based on studies conducted mainly in North America, is on-ward participation of a clinical pharmacist in an

  10. On-ward participation of a hospital pharmacist in a Dutch intensive care unit reduces prescribing errors and related patient harm: an intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopotowska, Joanna E.; Kuiper, Rob; van Kan, Hendrikus J.; de Pont, Anne-Cornelie; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; Lie-A-Huen, Loraine; Vroom, Margreeth B.; Smorenburg, Susanne M.

    2010-01-01

    Patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) are at high risk for prescribing errors and related adverse drug events (ADEs). An effective intervention to decrease this risk, based on studies conducted mainly in North America, is on-ward participation of a clinical pharmacist in an ICU team. As

  11. Less Daily Computer Use is Related to Smaller Hippocampal Volumes in Cognitively Intact Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, Lisa C; Dodge, Hiroko H; Lahna, David; Promjunyakul, Nutta-On; Austin, Daniel; Mattek, Nora; Erten-Lyons, Deniz; Kaye, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Computer use is becoming a common activity in the daily life of older individuals and declines over time in those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The relationship between daily computer use (DCU) and imaging markers of neurodegeneration is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between average DCU and volumetric markers of neurodegeneration on brain MRI. Cognitively intact volunteers enrolled in the Intelligent Systems for Assessing Aging Change study underwent MRI. Total in-home computer use per day was calculated using mouse movement detection and averaged over a one-month period surrounding the MRI. Spearman's rank order correlation (univariate analysis) and linear regression models (multivariate analysis) examined hippocampal, gray matter (GM), white matter hyperintensity (WMH), and ventricular cerebral spinal fluid (vCSF) volumes in relation to DCU. A voxel-based morphometry analysis identified relationships between regional GM density and DCU. Twenty-seven cognitively intact participants used their computer for 51.3 minutes per day on average. Less DCU was associated with smaller hippocampal volumes (r = 0.48, p = 0.01), but not total GM, WMH, or vCSF volumes. After adjusting for age, education, and gender, less DCU remained associated with smaller hippocampal volume (p = 0.01). Voxel-wise analysis demonstrated that less daily computer use was associated with decreased GM density in the bilateral hippocampi and temporal lobes. Less daily computer use is associated with smaller brain volume in regions that are integral to memory function and known to be involved early with Alzheimer's pathology and conversion to dementia. Continuous monitoring of daily computer use may detect signs of preclinical neurodegeneration in older individuals at risk for dementia.

  12. Imagery of Errors in Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Martina; Martinez, Fanny; Wenke, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    Using a typing task we investigated whether insufficient imagination of errors and error corrections is related to duration differences between execution and imagination. In Experiment 1 spontaneous error imagination was investigated, whereas in Experiment 2 participants were specifically instructed to imagine errors. Further, in Experiment 2 we…

  13. Significance of breast boost volume changes during radiotherapy in relation to current clinical interobserver variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, Coen; Admiraal, Marjan; Sangen, Maurice van der; Dijkmans, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Nowadays, many departments introduce CT images for breast irradiation techniques, aiming to obtain a better accuracy in the definition of the relevant target volumes. However, the definition of the breast boost volume based on CT images requires further investigation, because it may not only vary between observers, but it may also change during the course of treatment. This study aims to quantify the variability of the CT based visible boost volume (VBV) during the course of treatment in relation to the variability between observers. Materials and methods: Ten patients with stage T1-2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast conservative surgery and post surgical radiotherapy were included in this study. In addition to the regular planning CT which is obtained several days prior to radiotherapy, three additional CT scans were acquired 3, 5 and 7 weeks after the planning CT scan. Four radiation oncologists delineated the VBV in all scans. Conformity of the delineations was analysed both between observers, and between scans taken at different periods of the radiotherapy treatment. Results: The VBV averaged over all patients decreased during the course of the treatment from an initial 40 cm 3 to 28 cm 3 , 27 cm 3 and 25 cm 3 after 3, 5 and 7 weeks, respectively. Assuming the VBV to be spherical, this corresponds to a reduction in diameter of 5-6 mm. More detailed analysis revealed that this reduction was more pronounced when radiotherapy started within 30 days after surgery. These boost volume changes over time were found to be significant (p = 0.02) even in the presence of interobserver variations. Moreover, the conformity index (CI) for the volume changes was of the same magnitude as the conformity index for the interobserver variation (0.25 and 0.31, respectively). Conclusions: Breast boost volume variations during a course of radiotherapy are significant in relation to current clinical interobserver variations. This is an important

  14. Online adaptation of a c-VEP Brain-computer Interface(BCI) based on error-related potentials and unsupervised learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spüler, Martin; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Bogdan, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The goal of a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is to control a computer by pure brain activity. Recently, BCIs based on code-modulated visual evoked potentials (c-VEPs) have shown great potential to establish high-performance communication. In this paper we present a c-VEP BCI that uses online adaptation of the classifier to reduce calibration time and increase performance. We compare two different approaches for online adaptation of the system: an unsupervised method and a method that uses the detection of error-related potentials. Both approaches were tested in an online study, in which an average accuracy of 96% was achieved with adaptation based on error-related potentials. This accuracy corresponds to an average information transfer rate of 144 bit/min, which is the highest bitrate reported so far for a non-invasive BCI. In a free-spelling mode, the subjects were able to write with an average of 21.3 error-free letters per minute, which shows the feasibility of the BCI system in a normal-use scenario. In addition we show that a calibration of the BCI system solely based on the detection of error-related potentials is possible, without knowing the true class labels.

  15. A reaction-diffusion model for market fluctuations - A relation between price change and traded volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvan, Steven; Bier, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Two decades ago Bak et al. (1997) [3] proposed a reaction-diffusion model to describe market fluctuations. In the model buyers and sellers diffuse from opposite ends of a 1D interval that represents a price range. Trades occur when buyers and sellers meet. We show analytically and numerically that the model well reproduces the square-root relation between traded volumes and price changes that is observed in real-life markets. The result is remarkable as this relation has commonly been explained in terms of more elaborate trader strategies. We furthermore explain why the square-root relation is robust under model modifications and we show how real-life bond market data exhibit the square-root relation.

  16. Optimal threshold of error decision related to non-uniform phase distribution QAM signals generated from MZM based on OCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xifeng; Zhou, Wen

    2018-03-01

    Optical vector radio-frequency (RF) signal generation based on optical carrier suppression (OCS) in one Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) can realize frequency-doubling. In order to match the phase or amplitude of the recovered quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal, phase or amplitude pre-coding is necessary in the transmitter side. The detected QAM signals usually have one non-uniform phase distribution after square-law detection at the photodiode because of the imperfect characteristics of the optical and electrical devices. We propose to use optimal threshold of error decision for non-uniform phase contribution to reduce the bit error rate (BER). By employing this scheme, the BER of 16 Gbaud (32 Gbit/s) quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) millimeter wave signal at 36 GHz is improved from 1 × 10-3 to 1 × 10-4 at - 4 . 6 dBm input power into the photodiode.

  17. Team errors: definition and taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou, Kunihide; Reason, James

    1999-01-01

    In error analysis or error management, the focus is usually upon individuals who have made errors. In large complex systems, however, most people work in teams or groups. Considering this working environment, insufficient emphasis has been given to 'team errors'. This paper discusses the definition of team errors and its taxonomy. These notions are also applied to events that have occurred in the nuclear power industry, aviation industry and shipping industry. The paper also discusses the relations between team errors and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs). As a result, the proposed definition and taxonomy are found to be useful in categorizing team errors. The analysis also reveals that deficiencies in communication, resource/task management, excessive authority gradient, excessive professional courtesy will cause team errors. Handling human errors as team errors provides an opportunity to reduce human errors

  18. Timing of ectocranial suture activity in Gorilla gorilla as related to cranial volume and dental eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, James; Cooper, Gregory M; Mooney, Mark P; Siegel, Michael I

    2011-05-01

    Research has shown that Pan and Homo have similar ectocranial suture synostosis patterns and a similar suture ontogeny (relative timing of suture fusion during the species ontogeny). This ontogeny includes patency during and after neurocranial expansion with a delayed bony response associated with adaptation to biomechanical forces generated by mastication. Here we investigate these relationships for Gorilla by examining the association among ectocranial suture morphology, cranial volume (as a proxy for neurocranial expansion) and dental development (as a proxy for the length of time that it has been masticating hard foods and exerting such strains on the cranial vault) in a large sample of Gorilla gorilla skulls. Two-hundred and fifty-five Gorilla gorilla skulls were examined for ectocranial suture closure status, cranial volume and dental eruption. Regression models were calculated for cranial volumes by suture activity, and Kendall's tau (a non-parametric measure of association) was calculated for dental eruption status by suture activity. Results suggest that, as reported for Pan and Homo, neurocranial expansion precedes suture synostosis activity. Here, Gorilla was shown to have a strong relationship between dental development and suture activity (synostosis). These data are suggestive of suture fusion extending further into ontogeny than brain expansion, similar to Homo and Pan. This finding allows for the possibility that masticatory forces influence ectocranial suture morphology. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  19. Impact of patient-specific factors, irradiated left ventricular volume, and treatment set-up errors on the development of myocardial perfusion defects after radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Elizabeth S.; Prosnitz, Robert G.; Yu Xiaoli; Zhou Sumin; Hollis, Donna R.; Wong, Terence Z.; Light, Kim L.; Hardenbergh, Patricia H.; Blazing, Michael A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of patient-specific factors, left ventricle (LV) volume, and treatment set-up errors on the rate of perfusion defects 6 to 60 months post-radiation therapy (RT) in patients receiving tangential RT for left-sided breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2005, a total of 153 patients were enrolled onto an institutional review board-approved prospective study and had pre- and serial post-RT (6-60 months) cardiac perfusion scans to assess for perfusion defects. Of the patients, 108 had normal pre-RT perfusion scans and available follow-up data. The impact of patient-specific factors on the rate of perfusion defects was assessed at various time points using univariate and multivariate analysis. The impact of set-up errors on the rate of perfusion defects was also analyzed using a one-tailed Fisher's Exact test. Results: Consistent with our prior results, the volume of LV in the RT field was the most significant predictor of perfusion defects on both univariate (p = 0.0005 to 0.0058) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.0026 to 0.0029). Body mass index (BMI) was the only significant patient-specific factor on both univariate (p = 0.0005 to 0.022) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.0091 to 0.05). In patients with very small volumes of LV in the planned RT fields, the rate of perfusion defects was significantly higher when the fields set-up 'too deep' (83% vs. 30%, p = 0.059). The frequency of deep set-up errors was significantly higher among patients with BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 compared with patients of normal weight (47% vs. 28%, p = 0.068). Conclusions: BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 may be a significant risk factor for cardiac toxicity after RT for left-sided breast cancer, possibly because of more frequent deep set-up errors resulting in the inclusion of additional heart in the RT fields. Further study is necessary to better understand the impact of patient-specific factors and set-up errors on the development of RT

  20. Systematic errors in digital volume correlation due to the self-heating effect of a laboratory x-ray CT scanner

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, B; Pan, B; Tao, Ran; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    The use of digital volume correlation (DVC) in combination with a laboratory x-ray computed tomography (CT) for full-field internal 3D deformation measurement of opaque materials has flourished in recent years. During x-ray tomographic imaging

  1. Frequency Distribution of Second Solid Cancer Locations in Relation to the Irradiated Volume Among 115 Patients Treated for Childhood Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diallo, Ibrahima; Haddy, Nadia; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Samand, Akhtar; Quiniou, Eric; Chavaudra, Jean; Alziar, Iannis; Perret, Nathalie; Guerin, Sylvie; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Vathaire, Florent de

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To provide better estimates of the frequency distribution of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) sites in relation to previous irradiated volumes, and better estimates of the doses delivered to these sites during radiotherapy (RT) of the first malignant neoplasm (FMN). Methods and Materials: The study focused on 115 patients who developed a solid SMN among a cohort of 4581 individuals. The homemade software package Dos E G was used to estimate the radiation doses delivered to SMN sites during RT of the FMN. Three-dimensional geometry was used to evaluate the distances between the irradiated volume, for RT delivered to each FMN, and the site of the subsequent SMN. Results: The spatial distribution of SMN relative to the irradiated volumes in our cohort was as follows: 12% in the central area of the irradiated volume, which corresponds to the planning target volume (PTV), 66% in the beam-bordering region (i.e., the area surrounding the PTV), and 22% in regions located more than 5 cm from the irradiated volume. At the SMN site, all dose levels ranging from almost zero to >75 Gy were represented. A peak SMN frequency of approximately 31% was identified in volumes that received <2.5 Gy. Conclusion: A greater volume of tissues receives low or intermediate doses in regions bordering the irradiated volume with modern multiple-beam RT arrangements. These results should be considered for risk-benefit evaluations of RT.

  2. General volumes in the Orlicz-Brunn-Minkowski theory and a related Minkowski Problem I

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Richard J.; Hug, Daniel; Weil, Wolfgang; Xing, Sudan; Ye, Deping

    2018-01-01

    The general volume of a star body, a notion that includes the usual volume, the $q$th dual volumes, and many previous types of dual mixed volumes, is introduced. A corresponding new general dual Orlicz curvature measure is defined that specializes to the $(p,q)$-dual curvature measures introduced recently by Lutwak, Yang, and Zhang. General variational formulas are established for the general volume of two types of Orlicz linear combinations. One of these is applied to the Minkowski problem f...

  3. Diagnostic errors in pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, George A.; Voss, Stephan D.; Melvin, Patrice R.; Graham, Dionne A.

    2011-01-01

    Little information is known about the frequency, types and causes of diagnostic errors in imaging children. Our goals were to describe the patterns and potential etiologies of diagnostic error in our subspecialty. We reviewed 265 cases with clinically significant diagnostic errors identified during a 10-year period. Errors were defined as a diagnosis that was delayed, wrong or missed; they were classified as perceptual, cognitive, system-related or unavoidable; and they were evaluated by imaging modality and level of training of the physician involved. We identified 484 specific errors in the 265 cases reviewed (mean:1.8 errors/case). Most discrepancies involved staff (45.5%). Two hundred fifty-eight individual cognitive errors were identified in 151 cases (mean = 1.7 errors/case). Of these, 83 cases (55%) had additional perceptual or system-related errors. One hundred sixty-five perceptual errors were identified in 165 cases. Of these, 68 cases (41%) also had cognitive or system-related errors. Fifty-four system-related errors were identified in 46 cases (mean = 1.2 errors/case) of which all were multi-factorial. Seven cases were unavoidable. Our study defines a taxonomy of diagnostic errors in a large academic pediatric radiology practice and suggests that most are multi-factorial in etiology. Further study is needed to define effective strategies for improvement. (orig.)

  4. Dissociated roles of the anterior cingulate cortex in reward and conflict processing as revealed by the feedback error-related negativity and N200.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Travis E; Holroyd, Clay B

    2011-04-01

    The reinforcement learning theory of the error-related negativity (ERN) holds that the impact of reward signals carried by the midbrain dopamine system modulates activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), alternatively disinhibiting and inhibiting the ACC following unpredicted error and reward events, respectively. According to a recent formulation of the theory, activity that is intrinsic to the ACC produces a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) called the N200, and following unpredicted rewards, the N200 is suppressed by extrinsically applied positive dopamine reward signals, resulting in an ERP component called the feedback-ERN (fERN). Here we demonstrate that, despite extensive spatial and temporal overlap between the two ERP components, the functional processes indexed by the N200 (conflict) and the fERN (reward) are dissociable. These results point toward avenues for future investigation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Insight and Lessons Learned on Organizational Factors and Safety Culture from the Review of Human Error-related Events of NPPs in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Tae; Lee, Dhong Hoon; Choi, Young Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Event investigation is one of the key means of enhancing nuclear safety deriving effective measures and preventing recurrences. However, it is difficult to analyze organizational factors and safety culture. This paper tries to review human error-related events from perspectives of organizational factors and safety culture, and to derive insights and lessons learned in developing the regulatory infrastructure of plant oversight on safety culture.

  6. Moderation of the Relationship Between Reward Expectancy and Prediction Error-Related Ventral Striatal Reactivity by Anhedonia in Unmedicated Major Depressive Disorder: Findings From the EMBARC Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Tsafrir; Chase, Henry W.; Almeida, Jorge R.; Stiffler, Richelle; Zevallos, Carlos R.; Aslam, Haris A.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Weyandt, Sarah; Cooper, Crystal; Toups, Marisa; Carmody, Thomas; Kurian, Benji; Peltier, Scott; Adams, Phillip; McInnis, Melvin G.; Oquendo, Maria A.; McGrath, Patrick J.; Fava, Maurizio; Weissman, Myrna; Parsey, Ramin; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Anhedonia, disrupted reward processing, is a core symptom of major depressive disorder. Recent findings demonstrate altered reward-related ventral striatal reactivity in depressed individuals, but the extent to which this is specific to anhedonia remains poorly understood. The authors examined the effect of anhedonia on reward expectancy (expected outcome value) and prediction error-(discrepancy between expected and actual outcome) related ventral striatal reactivity, as well as the relationship between these measures. Method A total of 148 unmedicated individuals with major depressive disorder and 31 healthy comparison individuals recruited for the multisite EMBARC (Establishing Moderators and Biosignatures of Antidepressant Response in Clinical Care) study underwent functional MRI during a well-validated reward task. Region of interest and whole-brain data were examined in the first- (N=78) and second- (N=70) recruited cohorts, as well as the total sample, of depressed individuals, and in healthy individuals. Results Healthy, but not depressed, individuals showed a significant inverse relationship between reward expectancy and prediction error-related right ventral striatal reactivity. Across all participants, and in depressed individuals only, greater anhedonia severity was associated with a reduced reward expectancy-prediction error inverse relationship, even after controlling for other symptoms. Conclusions The normal reward expectancy and prediction error-related ventral striatal reactivity inverse relationship concords with conditioning models, predicting a shift in ventral striatal responding from reward outcomes to reward cues. This study shows, for the first time, an absence of this relationship in two cohorts of unmedicated depressed individuals and a moderation of this relationship by anhedonia, suggesting reduced reward-contingency learning with greater anhedonia. These findings help elucidate neural mechanisms of anhedonia, as a step toward

  7. Insight and Lessons Learned on Organizational Factors and Safety Culture from the Review of Human Error-related Events of NPPs in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Tae; Lee, Dhong Hoon; Choi, Young Sung

    2014-01-01

    Event investigation is one of the key means of enhancing nuclear safety deriving effective measures and preventing recurrences. However, it is difficult to analyze organizational factors and safety culture. This paper tries to review human error-related events from perspectives of organizational factors and safety culture, and to derive insights and lessons learned in developing the regulatory infrastructure of plant oversight on safety culture

  8. Moderation of the Relationship Between Reward Expectancy and Prediction Error-Related Ventral Striatal Reactivity by Anhedonia in Unmedicated Major Depressive Disorder: Findings From the EMBARC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Tsafrir; Chase, Henry W; Almeida, Jorge R; Stiffler, Richelle; Zevallos, Carlos R; Aslam, Haris A; Deckersbach, Thilo; Weyandt, Sarah; Cooper, Crystal; Toups, Marisa; Carmody, Thomas; Kurian, Benji; Peltier, Scott; Adams, Phillip; McInnis, Melvin G; Oquendo, Maria A; McGrath, Patrick J; Fava, Maurizio; Weissman, Myrna; Parsey, Ramin; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Phillips, Mary L

    2015-09-01

    Anhedonia, disrupted reward processing, is a core symptom of major depressive disorder. Recent findings demonstrate altered reward-related ventral striatal reactivity in depressed individuals, but the extent to which this is specific to anhedonia remains poorly understood. The authors examined the effect of anhedonia on reward expectancy (expected outcome value) and prediction error- (discrepancy between expected and actual outcome) related ventral striatal reactivity, as well as the relationship between these measures. A total of 148 unmedicated individuals with major depressive disorder and 31 healthy comparison individuals recruited for the multisite EMBARC (Establishing Moderators and Biosignatures of Antidepressant Response in Clinical Care) study underwent functional MRI during a well-validated reward task. Region of interest and whole-brain data were examined in the first- (N=78) and second- (N=70) recruited cohorts, as well as the total sample, of depressed individuals, and in healthy individuals. Healthy, but not depressed, individuals showed a significant inverse relationship between reward expectancy and prediction error-related right ventral striatal reactivity. Across all participants, and in depressed individuals only, greater anhedonia severity was associated with a reduced reward expectancy-prediction error inverse relationship, even after controlling for other symptoms. The normal reward expectancy and prediction error-related ventral striatal reactivity inverse relationship concords with conditioning models, predicting a shift in ventral striatal responding from reward outcomes to reward cues. This study shows, for the first time, an absence of this relationship in two cohorts of unmedicated depressed individuals and a moderation of this relationship by anhedonia, suggesting reduced reward-contingency learning with greater anhedonia. These findings help elucidate neural mechanisms of anhedonia, as a step toward identifying potential biosignatures

  9. Thermodynamics of volume-collapse transitions in cerium and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustingorry, S.; Jagla, E.A.; Lorenzana, J.

    2005-01-01

    We present a non-linear elastic model of a coherent transition with discontinuous volume change in an isotropic solid. The model reproduces the anomalous thermodynamics typical of coherent equilibrium including intrinsic hysteresis (for a pressure driven experiment) and a negative bulk modulus. The novelty of the model is that the statistical mechanics solution can be easily worked out. We find that coherency leads to an infinite-range density-density interaction, which drives classical critical behavior. The pressure width of the hysteresis loop shrinks with increasing temperature, ending at a critical point at a temperature related to the shear modulus. The bulk modulus softens with a 1/2 exponent at the transition even far from the critical point. Many well known features of the phase diagram of Ce and related systems are explained by the model

  10. Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR): Data manual. Part 2: Human error probability (HEP) data; Volume 5, Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, W.J.; Gilbert, B.G.; Richards, R.E. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-09-01

    This data manual contains a hard copy of the information in the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) Version 3.5 database, which is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUCLARR was designed as a tool for risk analysis. Many of the nuclear reactors in the US and several outside the US are represented in the NUCLARR database. NUCLARR includes both human error probability estimates for workers at the plants and hardware failure data for nuclear reactor equipment. Aggregations of these data yield valuable reliability estimates for probabilistic risk assessments and human reliability analyses. The data manual is organized to permit manual searches of the information if the computerized version is not available. Originally, the manual was published in three parts. In this revision the introductory material located in the original Part 1 has been incorporated into the text of Parts 2 and 3. The user can now find introductory material either in the original Part 1, or in Parts 2 and 3 as revised. Part 2 contains the human error probability data, and Part 3, the hardware component reliability data.

  11. Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR): Data manual. Part 2: Human error probability (HEP) data; Volume 5, Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, W.J.; Gilbert, B.G.; Richards, R.E.

    1994-09-01

    This data manual contains a hard copy of the information in the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) Version 3.5 database, which is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUCLARR was designed as a tool for risk analysis. Many of the nuclear reactors in the US and several outside the US are represented in the NUCLARR database. NUCLARR includes both human error probability estimates for workers at the plants and hardware failure data for nuclear reactor equipment. Aggregations of these data yield valuable reliability estimates for probabilistic risk assessments and human reliability analyses. The data manual is organized to permit manual searches of the information if the computerized version is not available. Originally, the manual was published in three parts. In this revision the introductory material located in the original Part 1 has been incorporated into the text of Parts 2 and 3. The user can now find introductory material either in the original Part 1, or in Parts 2 and 3 as revised. Part 2 contains the human error probability data, and Part 3, the hardware component reliability data

  12. Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR): Data manual, Part 2: Human Error Probability (HEP) Data. Volume 5, Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, W.J.; Gilbert, B.G.; Richards, R.E.

    1994-09-01

    This data manual contains a hard copy of the information in the Nuclear Computerized Library for Assessing Reactor Reliability (NUCLARR) Version 3.5 database, which is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUCLARR was designed as a tool for risk analysis. Many of the nuclear reactors in the US and several outside the US are represented in the NUCLARR database. NUCLARR includes both human error probability estimates for workers at the plants and hardware failure data for nuclear reactor equipment. Aggregations of these data yield valuable reliability estimates for probabilistic risk assessments and human reliability analyses. The data manual is organized to permit manual searches of the information if the computerized version is not available. Originally, the manual was published in three parts. In this revision the introductory material located in the original Part 1 has been incorporated into the text of Parts 2 and 3. The user can now find introductory material either in the original Part 1, or in Parts 2 and 3 as revised. Part 2 contains the human error probability data, and Part 3, the hardware component reliability data

  13. Development of vicarious trial-and-error behavior in odor discrimination learning in the rat: relation to hippocampal function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, D; Griesbach, G; Amsel, A

    1997-06-01

    Previous work from our laboratory has suggested that hippocampal electrolytic lesions result in a deficit in simultaneous, black-white discrimination learning and reduce the frequency of vicarious trial-and-error (VTE) at a choice-point. VTE is a term Tolman used to describe the rat's conflict-like behavior, moving its head from one stimulus to the other at a choice point, and has been proposed as a major nonspatial feature of hippocampal function in both visual and olfactory discrimination learning. Simultaneous odor discrimination and VTE behavior were examined at three different ages. The results were that 16-day-old pups made fewer VTEs and learned much more slowly than 30- and 60-day-olds, a finding in accord with levels of hippocampal maturity in the rat.

  14. Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC): An Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Reports Concerning PDC Related Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalyo, Michael L.; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Airlines operating in the United States are required to operate under instrument flight rules (EFR). Typically, a clearance is issued via voice transmission from clearance delivery at the departing airport. In 1990, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) began deployment of the Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC) system at 30 U.S. airports. The PDC system utilizes aeronautical datalink and Aircraft Communication and Reporting System (ACARS) to transmit departure clearances directly to the pilot. An objective of the PDC system is to provide an immediate reduction in voice congestion over the clearance delivery frequency. Participating airports report that this objective has been met. However, preliminary analysis of 42 Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports has revealed problems in PDC procedures and formatting which have caused errors in the proper execution of the clearance. It must be acknowledged that this technology, along with other advancements on the flightdeck, is adding more responsibility to the crew and increasing the opportunity for error. The present study uses these findings as a basis for further coding and analysis of an additional 82 reports obtained from an ASRS database search. These reports indicate that clearances are often amended or exceptions are added in order to accommodate local ATC facilities. However, the onboard ACARS is limited in its ability to emphasize or highlight these changes which has resulted in altitude and heading deviations along with increases in ATC workload. Furthermore, few participating airports require any type of PDC receipt confirmation. In fact, 35% of all ASRS reports dealing with PDC's include failure to acquire the PDC at all. Consequently, this study examines pilots' suggestions contained in ASRS reports in order to develop recommendations to airlines and ATC facilities to help reduce the amount of incidents that occur.

  15. Scaling relations between trabecular bone volume fraction and microstructure at different skeletal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räth, Christoph; Baum, Thomas; Monetti, Roberto; Sidorenko, Irina; Wolf, Petra; Eckstein, Felix; Matsuura, Maiko; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Zysset, Philippe K; Rummeny, Ernst J; Link, Thomas M; Bauer, Jan S

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the scaling relations between trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and parameters of the trabecular microstructure at different skeletal sites. Cylindrical bone samples with a diameter of 8mm were harvested from different skeletal sites of 154 human donors in vitro: 87 from the distal radius, 59/69 from the thoracic/lumbar spine, 51 from the femoral neck, and 83 from the greater trochanter. μCT images were obtained with an isotropic spatial resolution of 26μm. BV/TV and trabecular microstructure parameters (TbN, TbTh, TbSp, scaling indices ( and σ of α and αz), and Minkowski Functionals (Surface, Curvature, Euler)) were computed for each sample. The regression coefficient β was determined for each skeletal site as the slope of a linear fit in the double-logarithmic representations of the correlations of BV/TV versus the respective microstructure parameter. Statistically significant correlation coefficients ranging from r=0.36 to r=0.97 were observed for BV/TV versus microstructure parameters, except for Curvature and Euler. The regression coefficients β were 0.19 to 0.23 (TbN), 0.21 to 0.30 (TbTh), -0.28 to -0.24 (TbSp), 0.58 to 0.71 (Surface) and 0.12 to 0.16 (), 0.07 to 0.11 (), -0.44 to -0.30 (σ(α)), and -0.39 to -0.14 (σ(αz)) at the different skeletal sites. The 95% confidence intervals of β overlapped for almost all microstructure parameters at the different skeletal sites. The scaling relations were independent of vertebral fracture status and similar for subjects aged 60-69, 70-79, and >79years. In conclusion, the bone volume fraction-microstructure scaling relations showed a rather universal character. © 2013.

  16. Patient-stated preferences regarding volume-related risk mitigation strategies for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flythe, Jennifer E; Mangione, Thomas W; Brunelli, Steven M; Curhan, Gary C

    2014-08-07

    Larger weight gain and higher ultrafiltration rates have been associated with poorer outcomes among patients on dialysis. Dietary restrictions reduce fluid-related risk; however, adherence is challenging. Alternative fluid mitigation strategies include treatment time extension, more frequent dialysis, adjunct peritoneal dialysis, and wearable ultrafiltration devices. No data regarding patient preferences for fluid management exist. A survey was designed, tested, and administered to assess patient-stated preferences regarding fluid mitigation. A written survey concerning fluid-related symptoms, patient and treatment characteristics, and fluid management preferences was developed. The cross-sectional survey was completed by 600 patients on hemodialysis at 18 geographically diverse ambulatory facilities. Comparisons of patient willingness to engage in volume mitigation strategies across fluid symptom burden, dietary restriction experience, and patient characteristics were performed. Final analyses included 588 surveys. Overall, if allowed to liberalize fluid intake, 44.6% of patients were willing to extend treatment time by 15 minutes. Willingness to extend treatment time was incrementally less for longer treatment extensions; 12.2% of patients were willing to add a fourth weekly treatment session, and 13.5% of patients were willing to participate in nocturnal dialysis three nights per week. Patients more bothered by their fluid restrictions (versus less bothered) were more willing to engage in fluid mitigation strategies. Demographic characteristics and symptoms, such as cramping and dyspnea, were not consistently associated with willingness to engage in the proposed strategies. More than 25% of patients were unsure of their dry weights and typical interdialytic weight gains. Patients were generally averse to treatment time extension>15 minutes. Patients more bothered (versus less bothered) by their prescribed fluid restrictions were more willing to engage in volume

  17. Aerobic fitness relates to learning on a virtual morris water task and hippocampal volume in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2012-01-01

    In rodents, exercise increases hippocampal neurogenesis and allows for better learning and memory performance on water maze tasks. While exercise has also been shown to be beneficial for the brain and behavior in humans, no study has examined how exercise impacts spatial learning using a directly translational water maze task, or if these relationships exist during adolescence – a developmental period which the animal literature has shown to be especially vulnerable to exercise effects. In this study, we investigated the influence of aerobic fitness on hippocampal size and subsequent learning and memory, including visuospatial memory using a human analogue of the Morris Water Task, in 34 adolescents. Results showed that higher aerobic fitness predicted better learning on the virtual Morris Water Task and larger hippocampal volumes. No relationship between virtual Morris Water Task memory recall and aerobic fitness was detected. Aerobic fitness, however, did not relate to global brain volume, or verbal learning, which might suggest some specificity of the influence of aerobic fitness on the adolescent brain. This study provides a direct translational approach to the existing animal literature on exercise, as well as adds to the sparse research that exists on how aerobic exercise impacts the developing human brain and memory. PMID:22610054

  18. Aerobic fitness relates to learning on a virtual Morris Water Task and hippocampal volume in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herting, Megan M; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2012-08-01

    In rodents, exercise increases hippocampal neurogenesis and allows for better learning and memory performance on water maze tasks. While exercise has also been shown to be beneficial for the brain and behavior in humans, no study has examined how exercise impacts spatial learning using a directly translational water maze task, or if these relationships exist during adolescence--a developmental period which the animal literature has shown to be especially vulnerable to exercise effects. In this study, we investigated the influence of aerobic fitness on hippocampal size and subsequent learning and memory, including visuospatial memory using a human analogue of the Morris Water Task, in 34 adolescents. Results showed that higher aerobic fitness predicted better learning on the virtual Morris Water Task and larger hippocampal volumes. No relationship between virtual Morris Water Task memory recall and aerobic fitness was detected. Aerobic fitness, however, did not relate to global brain volume or verbal learning, which might suggest some specificity of the influence of aerobic fitness on the adolescent brain. This study provides a direct translational approach to the existing animal literature on exercise, as well as adds to the sparse research that exists on how aerobic exercise impacts the developing human brain and memory. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. The error-related negativity (ERN is an electrophysiological marker of motor impulsiveness on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11 during adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine B. Taylor

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Previous studies have postulated that the error-related negativity (ERN may reflect individual differences in impulsivity; however, none have used a longitudinal framework or evaluated impulsivity as a multidimensional construct. The current study evaluated whether ERN amplitude, measured in childhood and adolescence, is predictive of impulsiveness during adolescence. Methods: Seventy-five children participated in this study, initially at ages 7–9 years and again at 12–18 years. The interval between testing sessions ranged from 5 to 9 years. The ERN was extracted in response to behavioural errors produced during a modified visual flanker task at both time points (i.e. childhood and adolescence. Participants also completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale − a measure that considers impulsiveness to comprise three core sub-traits − during adolescence. Results: At adolescence, the ERN amplitude was significantly larger than during childhood. Additionally, ERN amplitude during adolescence significantly predicted motor impulsiveness at that time point, after controlling for age, gender, and the number of trials included in the ERN. In contrast, ERN amplitude during childhood did not uniquely predict impulsiveness during adolescence. Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary evidence that ERN amplitude is an electrophysiological marker of self-reported motor impulsiveness (i.e. acting without thinking during adolescence. Keywords: Error-related negativity, ERN, Impulsivity, BIS, Development, Adolescence

  20. Accommodation: The role of the external muscles of the eye: A consideration of refractive errors in relation to extraocular malfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, B K

    2014-11-01

    Speculation as to optical malfunction has led to dissatisfaction with the theory that the lens is the sole agent in accommodation and to the suggestion that other parts of the eye are also conjointly involved. Around half-a-century ago, Robert Brooks Simpkins suggested that the mechanical features of the human eye were precisely such as to allow for a lengthening of the globe when the eye accommodated. Simpkins was not an optical man but his theory is both imaginative and comprehensive and deserves consideration. It is submitted here that accommodation is in fact a twofold process, and that although involving the lens, is achieved primarily by means of a give - and - take interplay between adducting and abducting external muscles, whereby an elongation of the eyeball is brought about by a stretching of the delicate elastic fibres immediately behind the cornea. The three muscles responsible for convergence (superior, internal and inferior recti) all pull from in front backwards, while of the three abductors (external rectus and the two obliques) the obliques pull from behind forwards, allowing for an easy elongation as the eye turns inwards and a return to its original length as the abducting muscles regain their former tension, returning the eye to distance vision. In refractive errors, the altered length of the eyeball disturbs the harmonious give - and - take relationship between adductors and abductors. Such stresses are likely to be perpetuated and the error exacerbated. Speculation is not directed towards a search for a possible cause of the muscular imbalance, since none is suspected. Muscles not used rapidly lose tone, as evidenced after removal of a limb from plaster. Early attention to the need for restorative exercise is essential and results usually impressive. If flexibility of the external muscles of the eyes is essential for continuing good sight, presbyopia can be avoided and with it the supposed necessity of glasses in middle life. Early attention

  1. Are urine flow-volume nomograms developed on Caucasian men optimally applicable for Indian men? Need for appraisal of flow-volume relations in local population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank M Agarwal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Flow-volume nomograms and volume-corrected flow-rates (cQ are tools to correct uroflow rates (Q with varied voided volumes (VV of urine. We investigated the applicability of the available nomograms in our local population. Materials and Methods : Raw data of our previous study on variation in Q with voiding position (standing, sitting, and squatting in healthy adult men was reanalyzed. Additionally, the departmental urodynamic database of the last four years was searched for uroflow data of men with voiding symptoms (International Prostatic Symptom Score (IPSS > 7 and global quality of life score >2. These results were projected on the Liverpool and Siroky nomograms for men. The Q-VV relations were statistically analyzed using curve-estimation regression method to examine the current definition of corrected maximum flow rate (Qmax. Results : We found a cubic relation between Q and VV; based on this we developed novel equation for cQ [cQ=Q/(VV 1/3 ] and novel confidence-limit flow-volume nomograms. The imaginary 16 th percentile line of Liverpool nomogram, -1 standard-deviation line of Siroky nomogram and lower 68% confidence-limit line of our nomogram had sensitivity of 96.2%, 100% and 89.3%, and specificity of 75.3% 69.3% and 86.0%, respectively for Qmax-VV relations. Corresponding values for average flow rate (Qave-volume relations were 96.2%, 100% and 94.6%, and 75.2%, 50.4% and 86.0%, respectively. The area under curve of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve for cQmax and cQave was 0.954 and 0.965, respectively, suggesting significantly higher discriminatory power than chance (P = 0.0001. Conclusion : Flow-volume nomograms developed on Caucasian population may not be optimally applicable to the Indian population. We introduce flow-volume nomograms and cQ, which have high sensitivity and specificity.

  2. Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreepada, Sastry R.; Rippel, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.

  3. Preoperative evaluation of liver volume parameters in living related donors by spiral computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalak, M.; Pacho, R.; Pruszynski, B.; Paluszkiewicz, R.; Hevelke, P.; Krawczyk, M.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study is to assess the use of spiral computed tomography in the evaluation of the volume of the liver, its lobes, and selected segments in the preoperative period and to validate the used measurements. Thirty five potential donors (15 women and 20 men) aged 21-65 years were included. Based on the CT liver findings in the venous-portal phase and segment division of the liver according Couinaud the liver volume was calculated manually be a planimetric method, after making outlines of all liver sections. The volumes of lobes and selected segments were assessed by the same technique. The volumes of the resected liver segments calculated based on the CT findings were compared with appropriate measurements made during the operation. The total liver volume ranged between 804 and 1842 cm 3 (mean - 1456 cm 3 , standard deviation [SD] - 247). The volume of the right liver lobe including caudate lobe was 555 cm 3 to 1382 cm 3 (mean - 1024, SD - 186) that is in average 70.4% of the total liver volume. The volume of the left liver lobe ranged between 156 and 778 cm 3 (mean - 431, SD - 123) that is in average 29.6% of the total liver volume. The volume of segments 2+3 was 72 to 426 cm 3 (mean - 237 cm 3 , SD - 79) that is in average 16.2% of the total liver volume. The volume of the segment 4 ranged between 84 and 366 cm 3 (mean - 196, SD - 70) that is in average 13.4% of the total liver volume. CT makes possible to assess the volume of the liver, of its lobes and selected segments and it is an important modality for the classification of method of operation (segmentectomy, left hepatectomy, right hepatectomy). This method is accurate and reproducible. The liver part volumes calculated preoperatively in the majority of cases revealed to be smaller than in reality in average of 12.1%. (author)

  4. Relative range error evaluation of terrestrial laser scanners using a plate, a sphere, and a novel dual-sphere-plate target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishnan, Bala; Rachakonda, Prem; Lee, Vincent; Shilling, Meghan; Sawyer, Daniel; Cheok, Geraldine; Cournoyer, Luc

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) are a class of 3D imaging systems that produce a 3D point cloud by measuring the range and two angles to a point. The fundamental measurement of a TLS is range. Relative range error is one component of the overall range error of TLS and its estimation is therefore an important aspect in establishing metrological traceability of measurements performed using these systems. Target geometry is an important aspect to consider when realizing the relative range tests. The recently published ASTM E2938-15 mandates the use of a plate target for the relative range tests. While a plate target may reasonably be expected to produce distortion free data even at far distances, the target itself needs careful alignment at each of the relative range test positions. In this paper, we discuss relative range experiments performed using a plate target and then address the advantages and limitations of using a sphere target. We then present a novel dual-sphere-plate target that draws from the advantages of the sphere and the plate without the associated limitations. The spheres in the dual-sphere-plate target are used simply as fiducials to identify a point on the surface of the plate that is common to both the scanner and the reference instrument, thus overcoming the need to carefully align the target.

  5. Work in progress Tim Radford on research that aims to find a tiny error in Einstein's theory of special relativity

    CERN Multimedia

    Radford, T

    2004-01-01

    "Ben Varcoe wants to find a relatively small mistake in Einstein's theory of special relativity. To do this, he will slow light down from 300,000 km per second to 10 metres per second - about the speed of Darren Campbell - and see how it behaves" (1 page)

  6. Volume and Tissue Composition Changes Measured with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry in Melanoma-Related Limb Lymphedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjorup, Caroline A; Hendel, Helle W; Zerahn, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Abstracts Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the volume, fat mass, and lean mass in both upper and lower limbs measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in melanoma patients with melanoma-related limb lymphedema. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four hundred thirty...... lymphedema was diagnosed on the basis of history and characteristic physical findings on the clinical examination. The inter-limb differences in volume, fat mass, and lean mass measured with DXA were categorized as none/mild, moderate, or severe according to reference values (taking handedness into account......, and the majority of lymphedemas were categorized as mild. The increase in the volume of limbs with lymphedema was primarily due to an increase in fat mass. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of melanoma-related limb lymphedema. The increase in volume in the limb with lymphedema is primarily due to an increase...

  7. Human errors and work performance in a nuclear power plant control room: associations with work-related factors and behavioral coping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecklund, Lena Jacobsson; Svenson, Ola

    1997-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between the operator's appraisal of his own work situation and the quality of his own work performance as well as self-reported errors in a nuclear power plant control room. In all, 98 control room operators from two nuclear power units filled out a questionnaire and several diaries during two operational conditions, annual outage and normal operation. As expected, the operators reported higher work demands in annual outage as compared to normal operation. In response to the increased demands, the operators reported that they used coping strategies such as increased effort, decreased aspiration level for work performance quality and increased use of delegation of tasks to others. This way of coping does not reflect less positive motivation for the work during the outage period. Instead, the operators maintain the same positive motivation for their work, and succeed in being more alert during morning and night shifts. However, the operators feel less satisfied with their work result. The operators also perceive the risk of making minor errors as increasing during outage. The decreased level of satisfaction with work result during outage is a fact despite the lowering of aspiration level for work performance quality during outage. In order to decrease relative frequencies for minor errors, special attention should be given to reduce work demands, such as time pressure and memory demands. In order to decrease misinterpretation errors special attention should be given to organizational factors such as planning and shift turnovers in addition to training. In summary, the outage period seems to be a significantly more vulnerable window in the management of a nuclear power plant than the normal power production state. Thus, an increased focus on the outage period and human factors issues, addressing the synergetic effects or work demands, organizational factors and coping resources is an important area for improvement of

  8. Olfactory disfunction and its relation olfactory bulb volume in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinayar, S; Oner, S; Can, S; Kizilay, A; Kamisli, S; Sarac, K

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is the most frequently seen non-motor symptom of Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). The aim of this study is to analyze selective olfactory dysfunction, and olfactory bulb volume (OBV) in subtypes of IPD, and compare them with those of the healthy controls. Our study included 41 patients with IPD and age and gender matched 19 healthy controls. IPD patients were either tremor dominant (65.9%; TDPD) or non-tremor dominant (34.1%; NTDPD) type. All patients underwent neurological, ear, nose, and throat examinations, and orthonasal olfaction testing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique was used to measure the volume of the olfactory bulb. A significant decrease in olfactory identification scores was found in the patient group. The patients had difficulty in discriminating between odors of mothballs, chocolate, Turkish coffee and soap. OBV did not differ between the patient, and the control groups. In the TDPD group, odor identification ability was decreased when compared to the control group. However, odor test results of NTDPD, control and TDPD groups were similar. OBV estimates of the TDPD group were not different from those of the control group, while in the NTDPD group OBVs were found to be decreased. In all patients with Parkinson's disease OBV values did not vary with age of the patients, duration of the disease, age at onset of the disease, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores (UPDRS-m). Olfactory function is a complex process involving olfactory, and cortical structures as well. In Idiopathic Parkinson's disease, changes in OBV do not seem to be directly related to olfactory dysfunction.

  9. Maximal oxygen consumption, respiratory volume and some related factors in fire-fighting personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touraj Khazraee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Firefighters for difficult activities and rescue of damaged people must be in appropriate physical ability. Maximal oxygen capacity is an indicator for diagnosis of physical ability of workers. This study aimed to assess the cardiorespiratory system and its related factors in firefighters. Methods: This study was conducted on 110 firefighters from various stations. An self-administered questionnaire (respiratory disorders questionnaire, Tuxworth-Shahnavaz step test, and pulmonary function test was used to collection of required data. Average of humidity and temperature was 52% and 17°C, respectively. Background average noise levels were between 55 and 65 dB. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 19. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 32 ± 6.2 years. The means of forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, and FEV1/FVC were 92% ±9.4%, 87% ±9.2%, and 80% ±6.1%, respectively. The participants' mean VO2-max was 2.79 ± 0.29 L/min or 37.34 ± 4.27 ml/kg body weight per minute. The results revealed that weight has a direct association with vital capacity (VC, FVC, and peak expiratory flow. In addition, height was directly associated with VC, FVC, and VO2-max (P < 0.05. However, there was an inverse and significant association between height and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.23,P< 0.05. Height, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference were directly associated with VO2-max. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that the amount of maximum oxygen consumption is close with the proposed range of this parameter among firefighters in other studies. Furthermore, the results of the study revealed that individuals had normal amounts of lung volume index. This issue can be attributed to the appropriate usage of respiratory masks.

  10. ASSOCIATION OF DRUSEN VOLUME WITH CHOROIDAL PARAMETERS IN NONNEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Siva; Lei, Jianqin; Nittala, Muneeswar G; Velaga, Swetha B; Haines, Jonathan; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Stambolian, Dwight; Sadda, SriniVas R

    2017-10-01

    The choroid is thought to be relevant to the pathogenesis of nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration, but its role has not yet been fully defined. In this study, we evaluate the relationship between the extent of macular drusen and specific choroidal parameters, including thickness and intensity. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography images were collected from two distinct, independent cohorts with nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration: Amish (53 eyes of 34 subjects) and non-Amish (40 eyes from 26 subjects). All spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans were obtained using the Cirrus HD-OCT with a 512 × 128 macular cube (6 × 6 mm) protocol. The Cirrus advanced retinal pigment epithelium analysis tool was used to automatically compute drusen volume within 3 mm (DV3) and 5 mm (DV5) circles centered on the fovea. The inner and outer borders of the choroid were manually segmented, and the mean choroidal thickness and choroidal intensity (i.e., brightness) were calculated. The choroidal intensity was normalized against the vitreous and nerve fiber layer reflectivity. The correlation between DV and these choroidal parameters was assessed using Pearson and linear regression analysis. A significant positive correlation was observed between normalized choroidal intensity and DV5 in the Amish (r = 0.42, P = 0.002) and non-Amish (r = 0.33, P = 0.03) cohorts. Also, DV3 showed a significant positive correlation with normalized choroidal intensity in both the groups (Amish: r = 0.30, P = 0.02; non-Amish: r = 0.32, P = 0.04). Choroidal thickness was negatively correlated with normalized choroidal intensity in both Amish (r = -0.71, P = 0.001) and non-Amish (r = -0.43, P = 0.01) groups. Normalized choroidal intensity was the most significant constant predictor of DV in both the Amish and non-Amish groups. Choroidal intensity, but not choroidal thickness, seems to be associated with drusen volume in Amish and non-Amish populations. These

  11. Age-related changes in volumes of the ventricles, sulci and periventricular hyperintensity area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kenji; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Ono, Shuichi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Matsui, Hiroshige; Yamada, Susumu; Hishinuma, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    Brain atrophy in 47 subjects without neurologic disturbances, ranging in age from 46 to 82 years, was studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Moreover, the association of the periventricular hyperintensity area (PVH) recognized with MRI, was also investigated. The volume percentages of the brain, the ventricles and sulci to cranial cavity were calculated as indicators of brain atrophy. The brain volume index decreased and the indeces of the ventricles and sulci linearly increased with age, significantly. The volume ratio of the ventricles to sulci significantly increased with increasing age (p < 0.01) and the correlation coefficient was 0.38. This ratio showed negative correlation to the brain volume index. The volume percentage of PVH to the cranial cavity started to increase in the sixties and negatively correlated with the brain volume index. There was positive correlation between the ratio of the ventricles to sulci and the index of PVH. (author)

  12. Rounding errors in weighing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeach, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    When rounding error is large relative to weighing error, it cannot be ignored when estimating scale precision and bias from calibration data. Further, if the data grouping is coarse, rounding error is correlated with weighing error and may also have a mean quite different from zero. These facts are taken into account in a moment estimation method. A copy of the program listing for the MERDA program that provides moment estimates is available from the author. Experience suggests that if the data fall into four or more cells or groups, it is not necessary to apply the moment estimation method. Rather, the estimate given by equation (3) is valid in this instance. 5 tables

  13. Selective attention and error processing in an illusory conjunction task - An event-related brain potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, AA; Boksem, MAS

    2005-01-01

    We recorded event-related potentials in an illusory conjunction task, in which subjects were cued on each trial to search for a particular colored letter in a subsequently presented test array, consisting of three different letters in three different colors. In a proportion of trials the target

  14. Medication Errors - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay BC; Nikhitha MK; Patel Sunil B

    2015-01-01

    In this present review article, regarding medication errors its definition, medication error problem, types of medication errors, common causes of medication errors, monitoring medication errors, consequences of medication errors, prevention of medication error and managing medication errors have been explained neatly and legibly with proper tables which is easy to understand.

  15. Respiratory muscle activity related to flow and lung volume in preterm infants compared with term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutten, Gerard J.; van Eykern, Leo A.; Latzin, Philipp; Thamrin, Cindy; van Aalderen, Wim M.; Frey, Urs

    2010-01-01

    Infants with chronic lung disease (CLD) have a capacity to maintain functional lung volume despite alterations to their lung mechanics. We hypothesize that they achieve this by altering breathing patterns and dynamic elevation of lung volume, leading to differences in the relationship between

  16. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, R.O.; Juul, Martin Serup

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  17. Weekly running volume and risk of running-related injuries among marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Haugaard; Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Juul, Martin Serup

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race.......PURPOSEBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate if the risk of injury declines with increasing weekly running volume before a marathon race....

  18. Predicting Structure-Function Relations and Survival following Surgical and Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction Treatment of Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondoñedo, Jarred R; Suki, Béla

    2017-02-01

    Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (bLVR) are palliative treatments aimed at reducing hyperinflation in advanced emphysema. Previous work has evaluated functional improvements and survival advantage for these techniques, although their effects on the micromechanical environment in the lung have yet to be determined. Here, we introduce a computational model to simulate a force-based destruction of elastic networks representing emphysema progression, which we use to track the response to lung volume reduction via LVRS and bLVR. We find that (1) LVRS efficacy can be predicted based on pre-surgical network structure; (2) macroscopic functional improvements following bLVR are related to microscopic changes in mechanical force heterogeneity; and (3) both techniques improve aspects of survival and quality of life influenced by lung compliance, albeit while accelerating disease progression. Our model predictions yield unique insights into the microscopic origins underlying emphysema progression before and after lung volume reduction.

  19. Severe and fatal obstetric injury claims in relation to labor unit volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milland, Maria; Mikkelsen, Kim L; Christoffersen, Jens K

    2015-01-01

    with decreasing annual delivery volume. Face value incidence rate ratios of approved severe injuries increased with decreasing labor unit volume, but the association did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: High volume labor units appear associated with fewer approved and fewer fatal injury claims...... in labor units in 1995-2012. METHODS: Exposure information regarding the annual number of deliveries per labor unit was retrieved from the Danish National Birth Register. Outcome information was retrieved from the Danish Patient Compensation Association. Exposure was categorized in delivery volume...... quintiles as annual volume per labor unit: (10-1377), (1378-2016), (2017-2801), (2802-3861), (3862-6659). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five primary measures of outcome were used. Incidence rate ratios of (A) Submitted claims, (B) Approved claims, (C) Approved severe injury claims (120% degree of disability), (D...

  20. Assessment of three-dimensional setup errors in image-guided pelvic radiotherapy for uterine and cervical cancer using kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography and its effect on planning target volume margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patni, Nidhi; Burela, Nagarjuna; Pasricha, Rajesh; Goyal, Jaishree; Soni, Tej Prakash; Kumar, T Senthil; Natarajan, T

    2017-01-01

    To achieve the best possible therapeutic ratio using high-precision techniques (image-guided radiation therapy/volumetric modulated arc therapy [IGRT/VMAT]) of external beam radiation therapy in cases of carcinoma cervix using kilovoltage cone-beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT). One hundred and five patients of gynecological malignancies who were treated with IGRT (IGRT/VMAT) were included in the study. CBCT was done once a week for intensity-modulated radiation therapy and daily in IGRT/VMAT. These images were registered with the planning CT scan images and translational errors were applied and recorded. In all, 2078 CBCT images were studied. The margins of planning target volume were calculated from the variations in the setup. The setup variation was 5.8, 10.3, and 5.6 mm in anteroposterior, superoinferior, and mediolateral direction. This allowed adequate dose delivery to the clinical target volume and the sparing of organ at risks. Daily kV-CBCT is a satisfactory method of accurate patient positioning in treating gynecological cancers with high-precision techniques. This resulted in avoiding geographic miss.

  1. The role of errors in the measurements performed at the reprocessing plant head-end for material accountancy purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foggi, C.; Liebetrau, A.M.; Petraglia, E.

    1999-01-01

    One of the most common procedures used in determining the amount of nuclear material contained in solutions consists of first measuring the volume and the density of the solution, and then determining the concentrations of this material. This presentation will focus on errors generated at the process lime in the measurement of volume and density. These errors and their associated uncertainties can be grouped into distinct categories depending on their origin: those attributable to measuring instruments; those attributable to operational procedures; variability in measurement conditions; errors in the analysis and interpretation of results. Possible errors sources, their relative magnitudes, and an error propagation rationale are discussed, with emphasis placed on bases and errors of the last three types called systematic errors [ru

  2. A comparative study on component volumes from outer to inner dental enamel in relation to enamel tufts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setally Azevedo Macena, Marcus; de Alencar e Silva Leite, Maria Luísa; de Lima Gouveia, Cíntia; de Lima, Tamires Alcoforado Sena; Athayde, Priscilla Alves Aguiar; de Sousa, Frederico Barbosa

    2014-06-01

    Dental enamel presents marked mechanical properties gradients from outer to inner enamel, a region lacking component volumes profiles. Tufts, structures of inner enamel, have been shown to play a role in enamel resilience. We aimed at comparing component volumes from inner to outer enamel in relation to enamel tufts. Transversal ground sections from the cervical half of unerupted human third molars (n=10) were prepared and histological points were selected along transversal lines (extending from innermost to outer enamel) traced across tufts and adjacent control areas without tufts. Component volumes were measured at each histological point. Component volumes ranges were: 70.6-98.5% (mineral), 0.02-20.78% (organic), 3.8-9.8% (total water), 3-9% (firmly bound water), and 0.02-3.3% (loosely bound water). Inner enamel presented the lowest mineral volumes and the highest non-mineral volumes. Mineral, water and organic contents differed as a function of the distance from innermost enamel but not between the tuft and control lines. Tufts presented opaqueness in polarizing microscopy (feature of fracture lines). Organic volume gradient correlated with a relatively flat profile of loosely bound water. Inner, but not outer enamel, rehydrated after air-dried enamel was heated to 50°C and re-exposed to room conditions, as predicted by the organic/water gradient profiles. Component volumes vary markedly from outer to inner enamel, but not between areas with or without tufts (that behave like fracture lines under polarizing microscopy). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of immersion on lung capacities and volumes: implications for the densitometric estimation of relative body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, R T; Hamdorf, P A

    1989-01-01

    Immersion of 18 male subjects in water caused a 20.4% (787 ml) increase (P less than 0.05) in the mean inspiratory capacity (IC) whereas there were no changes (P greater than 0.05) in tidal volume (VT) and the frequency of respiration. All the means for the other pulmonary variables decreased (P less than 0.05) by varying amounts: total lung capacity (TLC) = 8.4% (599 ml), vital capacity (VC) = 5.5% (308 ml), functional residual capacity (FRC) = 42.6% (1386 ml), expiratory reserve volume (ERV) = 61.9% (1095 ml) and residual volume (RV) = 19.7% (292 ml). Variation of only the RV in the body density (BD) formula from which the percentage body fat (%BF) is estimated resulted in a significantly (P less than 0.05) lower mean of 15.2% BF for the RV in air (means = 1482 ml) compared with that of 17.1% BF for the RV in water (means = 1190 ml). All but one of the subjects exhibited a smaller RV in water than in air; the six largest differences were equivalent to 2.4-5.1% BF. These results indicate that the net effect of the hydrostatic pressure (decreases RV), pulmonary vascular engorgement (decreases RV) and diminished compliance (increases RV) is to reduce the ventilated RV. It is therefore advisable to measure the RV when the subject is immersed in order to minimize error in the determination of BD and hence the estimation of % BF.

  4. SU-G-BRA-04: Simulation of Errors in Maximal Intensity Projection (MIP)-Based Lung Tumor Internal Target Volumes (ITV) Using Real-Time 2D MRI and Deformable Image Registration Based Lung Tumor Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D; Kishan, A; Santhanam, A; Min, Y; O’Connell, D; Lamb, J; Cao, M; Agazaryan, N; Yang, Y; Lee, P; Low, D [University of California, Los Angeles, Ca (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of inter- and intra-fractional tumor motion on the error in four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) maximal intensity projection (MIP)–based lung tumor internal target volumes (ITV), using deformable image registration of real-time 2D-sagital cine-mode MRI acquired during lung SBRT treatments. Methods: Five lung tumor patients underwent free breathing SBRT treatment on the ViewRay, with dose prescribed to PTV (4DCT MIP-based ITV+3–6mm margin). Sagittal slice cine-MR images (3.5×3.5mm pixels) were acquired through the center of the tumor at 4 frames per second throughout the treatments (3–4 fractions of 21–32 minutes duration). Tumor GTVs were contoured on the first frame of the cine and tracked throughout the treatment using off-line optical-flow based deformable registration implemented on a GPU cluster. Pseudo-4DCT MIP-based ITVs were generated from MIPs of the deformed GTV contours limited to short segments of image data. All possible pseudo-4DCT MIP-based ITV volumes were generated with 1s resolution and compared to the ITV volume of the entire treatment course. Varying pseudo-4DCT durations from 10-50s were analyzed. Results: Tumors were covered in their entirety by PTV in the patients analysed here. However, pseudo-4DCT based ITV volumes were observed that were as small as 29% of the entire treatment-ITV, depending on breathing irregularity and the duration of pseudo-4DCT. With an increase in duration of pseudo-4DCT from 10–50s the minimum volume acquired from 95% of all pseudo-4DCTs increased from 62%–81% of the treatment ITV. Conclusion: A 4DCT MIP-based ITV offers a ‘snap-shot’ of breathing motion for the brief period of time the tumor is imaged on a specific day. Real time MRI over prolonged periods of time and over multiple treatment fractions shows that the accuracy of this snap-shot varies according to inter- and intra-fractional tumor motion. Further work is required to investigate the dosimetric

  5. SU-G-BRA-04: Simulation of Errors in Maximal Intensity Projection (MIP)-Based Lung Tumor Internal Target Volumes (ITV) Using Real-Time 2D MRI and Deformable Image Registration Based Lung Tumor Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D; Kishan, A; Santhanam, A; Min, Y; O’Connell, D; Lamb, J; Cao, M; Agazaryan, N; Yang, Y; Lee, P; Low, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of inter- and intra-fractional tumor motion on the error in four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) maximal intensity projection (MIP)–based lung tumor internal target volumes (ITV), using deformable image registration of real-time 2D-sagital cine-mode MRI acquired during lung SBRT treatments. Methods: Five lung tumor patients underwent free breathing SBRT treatment on the ViewRay, with dose prescribed to PTV (4DCT MIP-based ITV+3–6mm margin). Sagittal slice cine-MR images (3.5×3.5mm pixels) were acquired through the center of the tumor at 4 frames per second throughout the treatments (3–4 fractions of 21–32 minutes duration). Tumor GTVs were contoured on the first frame of the cine and tracked throughout the treatment using off-line optical-flow based deformable registration implemented on a GPU cluster. Pseudo-4DCT MIP-based ITVs were generated from MIPs of the deformed GTV contours limited to short segments of image data. All possible pseudo-4DCT MIP-based ITV volumes were generated with 1s resolution and compared to the ITV volume of the entire treatment course. Varying pseudo-4DCT durations from 10-50s were analyzed. Results: Tumors were covered in their entirety by PTV in the patients analysed here. However, pseudo-4DCT based ITV volumes were observed that were as small as 29% of the entire treatment-ITV, depending on breathing irregularity and the duration of pseudo-4DCT. With an increase in duration of pseudo-4DCT from 10–50s the minimum volume acquired from 95% of all pseudo-4DCTs increased from 62%–81% of the treatment ITV. Conclusion: A 4DCT MIP-based ITV offers a ‘snap-shot’ of breathing motion for the brief period of time the tumor is imaged on a specific day. Real time MRI over prolonged periods of time and over multiple treatment fractions shows that the accuracy of this snap-shot varies according to inter- and intra-fractional tumor motion. Further work is required to investigate the dosimetric

  6. Apologies and Medical Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    One way in which physicians can respond to a medical error is to apologize. Apologies—statements that acknowledge an error and its consequences, take responsibility, and communicate regret for having caused harm—can decrease blame, decrease anger, increase trust, and improve relationships. Importantly, apologies also have the potential to decrease the risk of a medical malpractice lawsuit and can help settle claims by patients. Patients indicate they want and expect explanations and apologies after medical errors and physicians indicate they want to apologize. However, in practice, physicians tend to provide minimal information to patients after medical errors and infrequently offer complete apologies. Although fears about potential litigation are the most commonly cited barrier to apologizing after medical error, the link between litigation risk and the practice of disclosure and apology is tenuous. Other barriers might include the culture of medicine and the inherent psychological difficulties in facing one’s mistakes and apologizing for them. Despite these barriers, incorporating apology into conversations between physicians and patients can address the needs of both parties and can play a role in the effective resolution of disputes related to medical error. PMID:18972177

  7. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhar RB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Riya B Luhar,1,2 Kayle S Sawyer,1,2 Zoe Gravitz,1,2 Susan Mosher Ruiz,1,2 Marlene Oscar-Berman1–3 1US Department of Veterans Affairs, Boston Healthcare System, 2Boston University School of Medicine, 3Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Background: Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods: Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers, and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers. The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results: Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current

  8. Cumulative error models for the tank calibration problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.; Anderson, L.G.; Weber, J.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of a tank calibration equation is to obtain an estimate of the liquid volume that corresponds to a liquid level measurement. Calibration experimental errors occur in both liquid level and liquid volume measurements. If one of the errors is relatively small, the calibration equation can be determined from wellknown regression and calibration methods. If both variables are assumed to be in error, then for linear cases a prototype model should be considered. Many investigators are not familiar with this model or do not have computing facilities capable of obtaining numerical solutions. This paper discusses and compares three linear models that approximate the prototype model and have the advantage of much simpler computations. Comparisons among the four models and recommendations of suitability are made from simulations and from analyses of six sets of experimental data

  9. On the relation between orbital-localization and self-interaction errors in the density functional theory treatment of organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körzdörfer, T

    2011-03-07

    It is commonly argued that the self-interaction error (SIE) inherent in semilocal density functionals is related to the degree of the electronic localization. Yet at the same time there exists a latent ambiguity in the definitions of the terms "localization" and "self-interaction," which ultimately prevents a clear and readily accessible quantification of this relationship. This problem is particularly pressing for organic semiconductor molecules, in which delocalized molecular orbitals typically alternate with localized ones, thus leading to major distortions in the eigenvalue spectra. This paper discusses the relation between localization and SIEs in organic semiconductors in detail. Its findings provide further insights into the SIE in the orbital energies and yield a new perspective on the failure of self-interaction corrections that identify delocalized orbital densities with electrons. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  10. ZNF804A risk allele is associated with relatively intact gray matter volume in patients with schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Gary

    2011-02-01

    ZNF804A rs1344706 is the first genetic risk variant to achieve genome wide significance for psychosis. Following earlier evidence that patients carrying the ZNF804A risk allele had relatively spared memory function compared to patient non-carriers, we investigated whether ZNF804A was also associated with variation in brain volume. In a sample of 70 patients and 38 healthy participants we used voxel based morphometry to compare homozygous (AA) carriers of the ZNF804A risk allele to heterozygous and homozygous (AC\\/CC) non-carriers for both whole brain volume and specific regions implicated in earlier ZNF804A studies-the dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala. For patients, but not for controls, we found that homozygous \\'AA\\' risk carriers had relatively larger gray matter volumes than heterozygous\\/homozygous non-carriers (AC\\/CC), particularly for hippocampal volumes. These data are consistent with our earlier behavioral data and suggest that ZNF804A is delineating a schizophrenia subtype characterized by relatively intact brain volume. Establishing if this represents a discrete molecular pathogenesis with consequences for nosology and treatment will be an important next step in understanding ZNF084A\\'s role in illness risk.

  11. Relations between brain volumes, neuropsychological assessment and parental questionnaire in prematurely born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Annika; Haataja, Leena; Rautava, Liisi; Väliaho, Anniina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Parkkola, Riitta; Korkman, Marit

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between brain volumes at term equivalent age and neuropsychological functions at 5 years of age in very low birth weight (VLBW) children, and to compare the results from a neuropsychological assessment and a parental questionnaire at 5 years of age. The study group included a regional cohort of 97 VLBW children and a control group of 161 children born at term. At term equivalent age, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on the VLBW children, and analysed for total and regional brain volumes. At 5 years of age, a psychologist assessed the neuropsychological performance with NEPSY II, and parents completed the Five to fifteen (FTF) questionnaire on development and behaviour. The results of the control group were used to give the age-specific reference values. No significant associations were found between the brain volumes and the NEPSY II domains. As for the FTF, significant associations were found between a smaller total brain tissue volume and poorer executive functions, between a smaller cerebellar volume and both poorer executive functions and motor skills, and, surprisingly, between a larger volume of brainstem and poorer language functions. Even after adjustment for total brain tissue volume, the two associations between the cerebellar volume and the FTF domains remained borderline significant (P = 0.05). The NEPSY II domains Executive Functioning, Language and Motor Skills were significantly associated with the corresponding FTF domains. In conclusion, altered brain volumes at term equivalent age appear to affect development still at 5 years of age. The FTF seems to be a good instrument when used in combination with other neuropsychological assessment.

  12. Relation Between the Cell Volume and the Cell Cycle Dynamics in Mammalian cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magno, A.C.G.; Oliveira, I.L.; Hauck, J.V.S.

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to add and analyze an equation that represents the volume in a dynamical model of the mammalian cell cycle proposed by Gérard and Goldbeter (2011) [1]. The cell division occurs when the cyclinB/Cdkl complex is totally degraded (Tyson and Novak, 2011)[2] and it reaches a minimum value. At this point, the cell is divided into two newborn daughter cells and each one will contain the half of the cytoplasmic content of the mother cell. The equations of our base model are only valid if the cell volume, where the reactions occur, is constant. Whether the cell volume is not constant, that is, the rate of change of its volume with respect to time is explicitly taken into account in the mathematical model, then the equations of the original model are no longer valid. Therefore, every equations were modified from the mass conservation principle for considering a volume that changes with time. Through this approach, the cell volume affects all model variables. Two different dynamic simulation methods were accomplished: deterministic and stochastic. In the stochastic simulation, the volume affects every model's parameters which have molar unit, whereas in the deterministic one, it is incorporated into the differential equations. In deterministic simulation, the biochemical species may be in concentration units, while in stochastic simulation such species must be converted to number of molecules which are directly proportional to the cell volume. In an effort to understand the influence of the new equation a stability analysis was performed. This elucidates how the growth factor impacts the stability of the model's limit cycles. In conclusion, a more precise model, in comparison to the base model, was created for the cell cycle as it now takes into consideration the cell volume variation (paper)

  13. Error Budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinyard, Natalia Sergeevna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Theodore Sonne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-04

    We calculate opacity from k (hn)=-ln[T(hv)]/pL, where T(hv) is the transmission for photon energy hv, p is sample density, and L is path length through the sample. The density and path length are measured together by Rutherford backscatter. Δk = $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial T$ ΔT + $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial (pL)$. We can re-write this in terms of fractional error as Δk/k = Δ1n(T)/T + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission itself is calculated from T=(U-E)/(V-E)=B/B0, where B is transmitted backlighter (BL) signal and B0 is unattenuated backlighter signal. Then ΔT/T=Δln(T)=ΔB/B+ΔB0/B0, and consequently Δk/k = 1/T (ΔB/B + ΔB$_0$/B$_0$ + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission is measured in the range of 0.2

  14. Evidence that UV-inducible error-prone repair is absent in Haemophilus influenzae Rd, with a discussion of the relation to error-prone repair of alkylating-agent damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimball, R.F.; Boling, M.E.; Perdue, S.W.

    1977-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae Rd and its derivatives are mutated either not at all or to only a very small extent by ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, methyl methanesulfonate, and nitrogen mustard, though they are readily mutated by such agents as N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, ethyl methanesulfonate, and nitrosocarbaryl (NC). In these respects H. influenzae Rd resembles the lexA mutants of Escherichia coli that lack the SOS or reclex UV-inducible error-prone repair system. This similarity is further brought out by the observation that chloramphenicol has little or no effect on post-replication repair after UV irradiation. In E. coli, chloramphenicol has been reported to considerably inhibit post-replication repair in the wild type but not in the lexA mutant. Earlier work has suggested that most or all the mutations induced in H. influenzae by NC result from error-prone repair. Combined treatment with NC and either X-rays or UV shows that the NC error-prone repair system does not produce mutations from the lesions induced by these radiations even while it is producing them from its own lesions. It is concluded that the NC error-prone repair system or systems and the reclex error-prone system are different

  15. Relationship between relative cerebral blood flow, relative cerebral blood volume, and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in the preterm neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourhashemi, Mina; Kongolo, Guy; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahdi; Goudjil, Sabrina; Wallois, Fabrice

    2017-04-01

    The mechanisms responsible for coupling between relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([Formula: see text]), an important function of the microcirculation in preterm infants, remain unclear. Identification of a causal relationship between rCBF-rCBV and [Formula: see text] in preterms may, therefore, help to elucidate the principles of cortical hemodynamics during development. We simultaneously recorded rCBF and rCBV and estimated [Formula: see text] by two independent acquisition systems: diffuse correlation spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively, in 10 preterms aged between 28 and 35 weeks of gestational age. Transfer entropy was calculated in order to determine the directionality between rCBF-rCBV and [Formula: see text]. The surrogate method was applied to determine statistical significance. The results show that rCBV and [Formula: see text] have a predominant driving influence on rCBF at the resting state in the preterm neonatal brain. Statistical analysis robustly detected the correct directionality of rCBV on rCBF and [Formula: see text] on rCBF. This study helps to clarify the early organization of the rCBV-rCBF and [Formula: see text] inter-relationship in the immature cortex.

  16. Relative blood volume monitoring during hemodialysis in end stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion Titapiccolo, Jasmine; Ferrario, Manuela; Garzotto, Francesco; Cruz, Dinna; Moissl, Ulrich; Tetta, Ciro; Ronco, Claudio; Signorini, Maria G; Cerutti, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    A crucial point in the haemodialysis (HD) treatment is the reliable assessment of hydration status. An inadequate removed volume may lead to chronic fluid overload which can lead to hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. Therefore, the estimation of the hydration state and the management of a well-tolerated water removal is an important challenge. This exploratory study aims at identifying new parameters obtained from continuous Blood Volume Monitoring (BVM) allowing a qualitative evaluation of hydration status for verifying the adequacy of HD setting parameters (e.g UFR, target dry weight). The percentage of blood volume reduction (BVR%) during HD was compared against a gold standard method for hydration status assessment. The slope of the first 30 minute of blood volume reduction (BVR) was proposed as a useful parameter to identify overhydrated patients.

  17. Early Life Stress-Related Elevations in Reaction Time Variability Are Associated with Brain Volume Reductions in HIV+ Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uraina S. Clark

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is burgeoning evidence that, among HIV+ adults, exposure to high levels of early life stress (ELS is associated with increased cognitive impairment as well as brain volume abnormalities and elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Currently, we have a limited understanding of the degree to which cognitive difficulties observed in HIV+ High-ELS samples reflect underlying neural abnormalities rather than increases in neuropsychiatric symptoms. Here, we utilized a behavioral marker of cognitive function, reaction time intra-individual variability (RT-IIV, which is sensitive to both brain volume reductions and neuropsychiatric symptoms, to elucidate the unique contributions of brain volume abnormalities and neuropsychiatric symptoms to cognitive difficulties in HIV+ High-ELS adults. We assessed the relation of RT-IIV to neuropsychiatric symptom levels and total gray and white matter volumes in 44 HIV+ adults (26 with high ELS. RT-IIV was examined during a working memory task. Self-report measures assessed current neuropsychiatric symptoms (depression, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify total gray and white matter volumes. Compared to Low-ELS participants, High-ELS participants exhibited elevated RT-IIV, elevated neuropsychiatric symptoms, and reduced gray and white matter volumes. Across the entire sample, RT-IIV was significantly associated with gray and white matter volumes, whereas significant associations with neuropsychiatric symptoms were not observed. In the High-ELS group, despite the presence of elevated neuropsychiatric symptom levels, brain volume reductions explained more than 13% of the variance in RT-IIV, whereas neuropsychiatric symptoms explained less than 1%. Collectively, these data provide evidence that, in HIV+ High-ELS adults, ELS-related cognitive difficulties (as indexed by RT-IIV exhibit strong associations with global brain volumes, whereas ELS-related elevations in

  18. Supercompactor force effectiveness as related to dry active waste volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.C.; Phillips, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    The first U.S. permanently installed supercompactor is now in operation at the Babcock and Wilcox volume reduction center, Parks Township, Pennsylvania. Tests with various DAW (dry active waste) material have been conducted, recording press force versus drum height as one means of estimating volume reduction capability of this machine at various compaction forces. The results of these tests, as well as other factors, are presented herein

  19. Relation of exercise capacity with lung volumes before and after 6-minute walk test in subjects with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibmer, Thomas; Rüdiger, Stefan; Kropf-Sanchen, Cornelia; Stoiber, Kathrin M; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Schumann, Christian

    2014-11-01

    There is growing evidence that exercise-induced variation in lung volumes is an important source of ventilatory limitation and is linked to exercise intolerance in COPD. The aim of this study was to compare the correlations of walk distance and lung volumes measured before and after a 6-min walk test (6MWT) in subjects with COPD. Forty-five subjects with stable COPD (mean pre-bronchodilator FEV1: 47 ± 18% predicted) underwent a 6MWT. Body plethysmography was performed immediately pre- and post-6MWT. Correlations were generally stronger between 6-min walk distance and post-6MWT lung volumes than between 6-min walk distance and pre-6MWT lung volumes, except for FEV1. These differences in Pearson correlation coefficients were significant for residual volume expressed as percent of total lung capacity (-0.67 vs -0.58, P = .043), percent of predicted residual volume expressed as percent of total lung capacity (-0.68 vs -0.59, P = .026), inspiratory vital capacity (0.65 vs 0.54, P = .019), percent of predicted inspiratory vital capacity (0.49 vs 0.38, P = .037), and percent of predicted functional residual capacity (-0.62 vs -0.47, P = .023). In subjects with stable COPD, lung volumes measured immediately after 6MWT are more closely related to exercise limitation than baseline lung volumes measured before 6MWT, except for FEV1. Therefore, pulmonary function testing immediately after exercise should be included in future studies on COPD for the assessment of exercise-induced ventilatory constraints to physical performance that cannot be adequately assessed from baseline pulmonary function testing at rest. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  20. Impact of catheter reconstruction error on dose distribution in high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy and evaluation of OAR doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaper, Deepak; Shukla, Arvind; Rathore, Narendra; Oinam, Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    In high dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-B), current catheter reconstruction protocols are relatively slow and error prone. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of catheter reconstruction error on dose distribution in CT based intracavitary brachytherapy planning and evaluation of its effect on organ at risk (OAR) like bladder, rectum and sigmoid and target volume High risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV)

  1. The disk averaged star formation relation for Local Volume dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Lagos, C. D. P.; Young, T.; Jerjen, H.

    2018-05-01

    Spatially resolved H I studies of dwarf galaxies have provided a wealth of precision data. However these high-quality, resolved observations are only possible for handful of dwarf galaxies in the Local Volume. Future H I surveys are unlikely to improve the current situation. We therefore explore a method for estimating the surface density of the atomic gas from global H I parameters, which are conversely widely available. We perform empirical tests using galaxies with resolved H I maps, and find that our approximation produces values for the surface density of atomic hydrogen within typically 0.5 dex of the true value. We apply this method to a sample of 147 galaxies drawn from modern near-infrared stellar photometric surveys. With this sample we confirm a strict correlation between the atomic gas surface density and the star formation rate surface density, that is vertically offset from the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation by a factor of 10 - 30, and significantly steeper than the classical N = 1.4 of Kennicutt (1998). We further infer the molecular fraction in the sample of low surface brightness, predominantly dwarf galaxies by assuming that the star formation relationship with molecular gas observed for spiral galaxies also holds in these galaxies, finding a molecular-to-atomic gas mass fraction within the range of 5-15%. Comparison of the data to available models shows that a model in which the thermal pressure balances the vertical gravitational field captures better the shape of the ΣSFR-Σgas relationship. However, such models fail to reproduce the data completely, suggesting that thermal pressure plays an important role in the disks of dwarf galaxies.

  2. Age-related grey matter volume correlates of response inhibition and shifting in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McAlonan, G. M.; Cheung, V.; Chua, S. E.; Oosterlaan, J.; Hung, S.; Tang, C.; Lee, C.; Kwong, S.; Ho, T.; Cheung, C.; Suckling, J.; Leung, P. W. L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have difficulties with executive function and impulse control which may improve with age. Aims To map the brain correlates of executive function in ADHD and determine age-related changes in reaction times and brain volumes.

  3. Exploring the relation between process design and efficiency in high-volume cataract pathways from a lean thinking perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Ellen J.; Bredenhoff, E.; Bredenhoff, Eelco; Sermeus, Walter; Kop, Lucas M.; Sol, Johannes C.A.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare process designs of three high-volume cataract pathways in a lean thinking framework and to explore how efficiency in terms of lead times, hospital visits and costs is related to process design. Design: International retrospective comparative benchmark study with a mixed-method

  4. EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, EPA's Reanalysis of Key Issues Related to Dioxin Toxicity and Response to NAS Comments (Volume 1), that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the Relative volume measured with magnetic resonance imaging is an articular collapse predictor in hematological pediatric patients with femoral head osteonecrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Davide; Masetto, Alessandro; Talei Franzesi, Cammillo; Bonaffini, Pietro A; Casiraghi, Alessandra; Sironi, Sandro

    2016-08-28

    To assess the potential value of femoral head (FH) volume measurements to predict joint collapse, as compared to articular surface involvement, in post-treatment osteonecrosis (ON) in pediatric patients affected by lymphoproliferative diseases. Considering 114 young patients with lymphoproliferative diseases undergone a lower-limbs magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination between November 2006 and August 2012 for a suspected post-treatment ON, we finally considered a total of 13 cases (7 males, mean age 15.2 ± 4.8 years), which developed a FH ON lesions (n = 23). The MRI protocol included coronal short tau inversion recovery and T1-weighted sequences, from the hips to the ankles. During the follow-up (elapsed time: 9.2 ± 2 mo), 13/23 FH articular surface (FHS) developed articular deformity. The first MRI studies with diagnosis of ON were retrospectively analyzed, measuring FH volume (FHV), FHS, ON volume (ONV) and the articular surface involved by ON (ONS). The relative involvement of FHS, in terms of volume [relative volume (RV): ONV/FHV] and articular surface [relative surface (RS): ONS/FHS], was then calculated. By using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (threshold of 23% of volume involvement), RV predicted articular deformity in 13/13 FHS [sensitivity 100%, specificity 90%, accuracy 95%, positive predictive value (PPV) 93%, negative predictive value (NPV) 100%]. Considering a threshold of 50% of articular involvement, RS predicted articular deformity in 10/13 femoral heads (sensitivity 77%, specificity 100%, accuracy 87%, PPV 100%, NPV 77%). RV might be a more reliable parameter than RS in predicting FH deformity and could represent a potential complementary diagnostic tool in the follow-up of femoral heads ON lesions.

  5. Relation of mean platelet volume and red blood cell distribution width with epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemal, Ozgur; Müderris, Togay; Sevil, Ergün; Kutlar, Gökhan

    2015-04-01

    Mean platelet volume is the measurement of the average size of platelets in the blood, and red blood cell distribution width is the variability of the size of red blood cells in circulation. This study aimed to investigate if there was any relationship between mean platelet volume, red blood cell distribution, and epistaxis. Prospective controlled trial. The study included 90 patients admitted to Ankara Atatürk Hospital and Samsun Medicana Hospital with complaints of recurrent epistaxis, and a control group of 90 healthy subjects. Blood samples were taken from all patients and control group subjects. Mean platelet volume and red blood cell distribution parameters were examined and compared between the two groups. The mean platelet volume levels were determined as 8.86 ± 0.1 in the control group and 8.36 ± 0.1 in the patient group. The difference between the two groups with respect to mean platelet volume was statistically significant (P epistaxis. These findings could be beneficial in new investigations into epistaxis mechanisms. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Allometric relations of total volumes of prolactin cells and corticotropic cells to body length in the annual cyprinodont Cynolebias whitei: effects of environmental salinity, stress and ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, J. M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S. E.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the allometric relations of the total volumes occupied by prolactin (PRL) and corticotropic (ACTH) cells (PRL volume and ACTH volume, respectively) to body length and a study of the immunocytochemical staining intensity of PRL and ACTH cells were used to determine the differences in

  7. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1977. Volume IV. Indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    This volume contains indexes useful for accessing projects contained in the FY 1977 Federal Inventory. The indexing has been greatly broadened this year to provide hard copy users with greater flexibility in locating projects. The Inventory projects are printed sequentially by log number. An inventory log number is a unique number assigned to each project from a block of numbers set aside for each agency. The association of agencies with blocks of log numbers is found in the table of contents of the Index (Volume III).

  8. An investigation of the relation between the 30 meter running time and the femoral volume fraction in the thigh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MY Tasmektepligil

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Leg components are thought to be a related to speed. Only a limited number of studies have, however, examined the interaction between speed and bone size. In this study, we examined the relationship between the time taken by football players to run thirty meters and the fraction which the femur forms compared to the entire thigh region. Data collected from thirty male football players of average age 17.3 (between 16-19 years old were analyzed. First we detected the thirty meter running times and then we estimated the volume fraction of the femur to the entire thigh region using stereological methods on magnetic resonance images. Our data showed that there was a highly negative relationship between the 30 meter running times and the volume fraction of the bone to the thigh region. Thus, 30 meter running time decreases as the fraction of the bone to the thigh region increases. In other words, speed increases as the fraction of bone volume increases. Our data indicate that selecting sportsman whose femoral volume fractions are high will provide a significant benefit to enhancing performance in those branches of sports which require speed. Moreover, we concluded that training which can increase the bone volume fraction should be practiced when an increase in speed is desired and that the changes in the fraction of thigh region components should be monitored during these trainings.

  9. Planck/SDSS Cluster Mass and Gas Scaling Relations for a Volume-Complete redMaPPer Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno, Pablo; Diego, Jose M.; Broadhurst, Tom; De Martino, I.; Lazkoz, Ruth

    2018-04-01

    Using Planck satellite data, we construct Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) gas pressure profiles for a large, volume-complete sample of optically selected clusters. We have defined a sample of over 8,000 redMaPPer clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), within the volume-complete redshift region 0.100 trend towards larger break radius with increasing cluster mass. Our SZ-based masses fall ˜16% below the mass-richness relations from weak lensing, in a similar fashion as the "hydrostatic bias" related with X-ray derived masses. Finally, we derive a tight Y500-M500 relation over a wide range of cluster mass, with a power law slope equal to 1.70 ± 0.07, that agrees well with the independent slope obtained by the Planck team with an SZ-selected cluster sample, but extends to lower masses with higher precision.

  10. An alternative to the balance error scoring system: using a low-cost balance board to improve the validity/reliability of sports-related concussion balance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jasper O; Levy, Susan S; Seay, Seth W; Goble, Daniel J

    2014-05-01

    Recent guidelines advocate sports medicine professionals to use balance tests to assess sensorimotor status in the management of concussions. The present study sought to determine whether a low-cost balance board could provide a valid, reliable, and objective means of performing this balance testing. Criterion validity testing relative to a gold standard and 7 day test-retest reliability. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty healthy young adults. Balance ability was assessed on 2 days separated by 1 week using (1) a gold standard measure (ie, scientific grade force plate), (2) a low-cost Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB), and (3) the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Validity of the WBB center of pressure path length and BESS scores were determined relative to the force plate data. Test-retest reliability was established based on intraclass correlation coefficients. Composite scores for the WBB had excellent validity (r = 0.99) and test-retest reliability (R = 0.88). Both the validity (r = 0.10-0.52) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.61-0.78) were lower for the BESS. These findings demonstrate that a low-cost balance board can provide improved balance testing accuracy/reliability compared with the BESS. This approach provides a potentially more valid/reliable, yet affordable, means of assessing sports-related concussion compared with current methods.

  11. Relation between injected volume and optical parameters in refilled isolated porcine lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, SA; Terwee, T; Haitjema, HJ; Deuring, H; van Aarle, S; Kooijman, AC

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to elucidate the correlation between added lens refill material and enhanced lens power as well as the correlation between lens refilling volume and accommodative amplitude as determined by equatorial stretching of ex vivo refilled pigs' lenses. Methods: Nine

  12. Developmental Differences in Relations between Episodic Memory and Hippocampal Subregion Volume during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, Tracy; Blankenship, Sarah L.; Mulligan, Elizabeth; Rice, Katherine; Redcay, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory shows striking improvement during early childhood. However, neural contributions to these behavioral changes are not well understood. This study examined associations between episodic memory and volume of subregions (head, body, and tail) of the hippocampus--a structure known to support episodic memory in school-aged children and…

  13. The influences of the physical-chemical factors on the free-volume relations in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, J.; Kristiak, J.; Kristiakova, K.; Sausa, O.; Bandzuch, P.

    1995-01-01

    The positron annihilation spectroscopy was used to the study of different physical-chemical factors on the free-volume microstructure of the model polymeric systems [amorphous 1,4-cis-poly(butadiene), amorphous a-tactic and semi-crystal iso-tactic poly(propylene), polycarbonate

  14. Sex Differences in Brain Volume Are Related to Specific Skills, Not to General Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgaleta, Miguel; Head, Kevin; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Martinez, Kenia; Escorial, Sergio; Haier, Richard; Colom, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that males would show higher mean scores than females in general intelligence ("g") because (1) men have, on average, larger brains than women, and (2) brain volume correlates with "g." Here we report a failure to support the conclusion derived from these premises. High resolution MRIs were acquired in a sample of one hundred…

  15. Breast cancer management: is volume related to quality? Clinical Advisory Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M; Bell, J; Campbell, S; Basnett, I; Pollock, A; Taylor, I

    1997-01-01

    A method of carrying out region-wide audit for breast cancer was developed by collaboration between the cancer registry, providers and purchasers as part of work to fulfill the 'Calman-Hine' recommendations. In order to test the audit method, a retrospective audit in North Thames East compared practice in 1992 against current guidelines. The analysis compared care in specialist and non-specialist centres. A stratified random sample comprising 28% of all breast cancer patients diagnosed in 1992 was selected from the population-based Thames Cancer Registry. The data for 309 patients with stage I-III tumours were analysed by hospital type using local guidelines. No difference between specialist (high volume) and non-specialist centres was detected for factors important in survival. Pathological staging was good with over 70% reporting tumour size and grade. A small number of patients were undertreated; after conservative surgery, 10% (19) of women did not receive radiotherapy, and 15% (8) of node-positive premenopausal women did not receive chemotherapy or ovarian ablation. In contrast, a significant trend with hospital volume was found for several quality of life factors. These included access to a specialist breast surgeon and specialist breast nurses, availability of fine-needle aspiration (FNA), which ranged from 84% in high-volume to 42% in low-volume centres, and quality of surgery (axillary clearance rates ranged from 51% to 8% and sampling of less than three nodes from 3% to 25% for high- and very low-volume centres respectively). Confidential feedback of results to surgeons was welcomed and initiated change. The summary information gave purchasers information relevant to the evaluation of cancer services. While the audit applied present standards to past practice, it provided the impetus for prospective audit of current practice (now being implemented in North Thames).

  16. Identification of Hypertension Management-related Errors in a Personal Digital Assistant-based Clinical Log for Nurses in Advanced Practice Nurse Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam-Ju Lee, DNSc, RN

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion: The Hypertension Diagnosis and Management Error Taxonomy was useful for identifying errors based on documentation in a clinical log. The results provide an initial understanding of the nature of errors associated with hypertension diagnosis and management of nurses in APN training. The information gained from this study can contribute to educational interventions that promote APN competencies in identification and management of hypertension as well as overall patient safety and informatics competencies.

  17. Corpus callosum thickness on mid-sagittal MRI as a marker of brain volume: a pilot study in children with HIV-related brain disease and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronikou, Savvas; Ackermann, Christelle; Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark; Tomazos, Nicollette; Spottiswoode, Bruce; Mauff, Katya; Pettifor, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Corpus callosum thickness measurement on mid-sagittal MRI may be a surrogate marker of brain volume. This is important for evaluation of diseases causing brain volume gain or loss, such as HIV-related brain disease and HIV encephalopathy. To determine if thickness of the corpus callosum on mid-sagittal MRI is a surrogate marker of brain volume in children with HIV-related brain disease and in controls without HIV. A retrospective MRI analysis in children (<5 years old) with HIV-related brain disease and controls used a custom-developed semi-automated tool, which divided the midline corpus callosum and measured its thickness in multiple locations. Brain volume was determined using volumetric analysis. Overall corpus callosum thickness and thickness of segments of the corpus callosum were correlated with overall and segmented (grey and white matter) brain volume. Forty-four children (33 HIV-infected patients and 11 controls) were included. Significant correlations included overall corpus callosum (mean) and total brain volume (P = 0.05); prefrontal corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02); premotor corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.04) and white matter volume (P = 0.02), premotor corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02) and sensory corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.02). Corpus callosum thickness correlates with brain volume both in HIV-infected patients and controls. (orig.)

  18. Corpus callosum thickness on mid-sagittal MRI as a marker of brain volume: a pilot study in children with HIV-related brain disease and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, Savvas [University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Ackermann, Christelle [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Laughton, Barbara; Cotton, Mark [Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Children' s Hospital, Children' s Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Tomazos, Nicollette [University of Cape Town, Faculty of Commerce, Department of Management Studies, Cape Town (South Africa); Spottiswoode, Bruce [University of Cape Town, MRC/UCT Medical Imaging Research Unit, Department of Human Biology, Cape Town (South Africa); Mauff, Katya [University of Cape Town, Department of Statistical Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Pettifor, John M. [University of the Witwatersrand, MRC/Wits Developmental Pathways for Health Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Witwatersrand (South Africa)

    2015-07-15

    Corpus callosum thickness measurement on mid-sagittal MRI may be a surrogate marker of brain volume. This is important for evaluation of diseases causing brain volume gain or loss, such as HIV-related brain disease and HIV encephalopathy. To determine if thickness of the corpus callosum on mid-sagittal MRI is a surrogate marker of brain volume in children with HIV-related brain disease and in controls without HIV. A retrospective MRI analysis in children (<5 years old) with HIV-related brain disease and controls used a custom-developed semi-automated tool, which divided the midline corpus callosum and measured its thickness in multiple locations. Brain volume was determined using volumetric analysis. Overall corpus callosum thickness and thickness of segments of the corpus callosum were correlated with overall and segmented (grey and white matter) brain volume. Forty-four children (33 HIV-infected patients and 11 controls) were included. Significant correlations included overall corpus callosum (mean) and total brain volume (P = 0.05); prefrontal corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02); premotor corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.04) and white matter volume (P = 0.02), premotor corpus callosum maximum with white matter volume (P = 0.02) and sensory corpus callosum mean with total brain volume (P = 0.02). Corpus callosum thickness correlates with brain volume both in HIV-infected patients and controls. (orig.)

  19. Quantifying behavioural determinants relating to health professional reporting of medication errors: a cross-sectional survey using the Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqubaisi, Mai; Tonna, Antonella; Strath, Alison; Stewart, Derek

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were to quantify the behavioural determinants of health professional reporting of medication errors in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and to explore any differences between respondents. A cross-sectional survey of patient-facing doctors, nurses and pharmacists within three major hospitals of Abu Dhabi, the UAE. An online questionnaire was developed based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF, a framework of behaviour change theories). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify components and internal reliability determined. Ethical approval was obtained from a UK university and all hospital ethics committees. Two hundred and ninety-four responses were received. Questionnaire items clustered into six components of knowledge and skills, feedback and support, action and impact, motivation, effort and emotions. Respondents generally gave positive responses for knowledge and skills, feedback and support and action and impact components. Responses were more neutral for the motivation and effort components. In terms of emotions, the component with the most negative scores, there were significant differences in terms of years registered as health professional (those registered longest most positive, p = 0.002) and age (older most positive, p Theoretical Domains Framework to quantify the behavioural determinants of health professional reporting of medication errors. • Questionnaire items relating to emotions surrounding reporting generated the most negative responses with significant differences in terms of years registered as health professional (those registered longest most positive) and age (older most positive) with no differences for gender and health profession. • Interventions based on behaviour change techniques mapped to emotions should be prioritised for development.

  1. Consideration of measurement errors in the analysis of the risk related to the exposure to ionising radiation in an occupational cohort: application to the French cohort of uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allodji, Rodrigue Setcheou

    2011-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, measurement errors in exposure can substantially bias the estimation of the risk associated to exposure. A broad variety of methods for measurement error correction has been developed, but they have been rarely applied in practice, probably because their ability to correct measurement error effects and their implementation are poorly understood. Another important reason is that many of the proposed correction methods require to know measurement errors characteristics (size, nature, structure and distribution). The aim of this thesis is to take into account measurement error in the analysis of risk of lung cancer death associated to radon exposure based on the French cohort of uranium miners. The mains stages were (1) to assess the characteristics (size, nature, structure and distribution) of measurement error in the French uranium miners cohort, (2) to investigate the impact of measurement error in radon exposure on the estimated excess relative risk (ERR) of lung cancer death associated to radon exposure, and (3) to compare the performance of methods for correction of these measurement error effects. The French cohort of uranium miners includes more than 5000 miners chronically exposed to radon with a follow-up duration of 30 years. Measurement errors have been characterized taking into account the evolution of uranium extraction methods and of radiation protection measures over time. A simulation study based on the French cohort of uranium miners has been carried out to investigate the effects of these measurement errors on the estimated ERR and to assess the performance of different methods for correcting these effects. Measurement error associated to radon exposure decreased over time, from more than 45% in the early 70's to about 10% in the late 80's. Its nature also changed over time from mostly Berkson to classical type from 1983. Simulation results showed that measurement error leads to an attenuation of the ERR towards the null

  2. Drusen volume development over time and its relevance to the course of age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlanitz, Ferdinand G; Baumann, Bernhard; Kundi, Michael; Sacu, Stefan; Baratsits, Magdalena; Scheschy, Ulrike; Shahlaee, Abtin; Mittermüller, Tamara J; Montuoro, Alessio; Roberts, Philipp; Pircher, Michael; Hitzenberger, Christoph K; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2017-02-01

    To quantify the change in drusen volume over time and identify its prognostic value for individual risk assessment. A prospective observational study over a minimum of 3 years and maximum of 5 years and follow-up examination every 3 months was conducted at the ophthalmology department of the Medical University of Vienna. 109 patients presenting early and intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were included, of which 30 patients concluded a regular follow-up for at least 3 years. 50 eyes of 30 patients were imaged every 3 months using spectral-domain and polarisation-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT). Drusen volume was measured using an automated algorithm. Data of a 6-month follow-up were segmented manually by expert graders. Gradings from 24 000 individual B-scans showed solid correlation between manual and automated segmentation with an initial mean drusen volume of 0.17 mm 3 . The increase in drusen volume was shown to be comparable among all eyes, and a model for long-term drusen volume development could be fitted as a cubic polynomial function and an R 2 =0.955. Spontaneous drusen regression was observed in 22 of 50 eyes. In this group, four eyes developed choroidal neovascularisation and three geographic atrophy. Drusen volume increase over time can be described by a cubic function. Spontaneous regression appears to precede conversion to advanced AMD. OCT might be a promising tool for predicting the individual risk of progression of AMD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Effects of parental emotional warmth on the relationship between regional gray matter volume and depression-related personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Yin, Ping; Wei, Dongtao; Wang, Kangcheng; Li, Yongmei; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-06-01

    The depression-related personality trait is associated with the severity of patients' current depressive symptoms and with the vulnerability to depression within the nonclinical groups. However, little is known about the anatomical structure associated with the depression-related personality traits within the nonclinical sample. Parenting behavior is associated with the depression symptoms; however, whether or not parenting behavior influence the neural basis of the depression-related personality traits is unclear. Thus in current study, first, we used voxel-based morphometry to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in depression-related personality traits, as measured by the revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory, in a large sample of young healthy adults. Second, we use mediation analysis to investigate the relationship between parenting behavior and neural basis of depression-related personality traits. The results revealed that depression-related personality traits were positively correlated with gray matter volume mainly in medial frontal gyrus (MFG) that is implicated in the self-referential processing and emotional regulation. Furthermore, parental emotional warmth acted as a mediational mechanism underlying the association between the MFG volume and the depression-related personality trait. Together, our findings suggested that the family environment might play an important role in the acquisition and process of the depression-related personality traits.

  4. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Striatal Reward Responses Relate to Approach-Avoidance Learning and Encoding of Positive-Negative Prediction Errors in Dopaminergic Midbrain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Kristoffer Carl; Doell, Kimberly C; Schwartz, Sophie

    2015-10-28

    Some individuals are better at learning about rewarding situations, whereas others are inclined to avoid punishments (i.e., enhanced approach or avoidance learning, respectively). In reinforcement learning, action values are increased when outcomes are better than predicted (positive prediction errors [PEs]) and decreased for worse than predicted outcomes (negative PEs). Because actions with high and low values are approached and avoided, respectively, individual differences in the neural encoding of PEs may influence the balance between approach-avoidance learning. Recent correlational approaches also indicate that biases in approach-avoidance learning involve hemispheric asymmetries in dopamine function. However, the computational and neural mechanisms underpinning such learning biases remain unknown. Here we assessed hemispheric reward asymmetry in striatal activity in 34 human participants who performed a task involving rewards and punishments. We show that the relative difference in reward response between hemispheres relates to individual biases in approach-avoidance learning. Moreover, using a computational modeling approach, we demonstrate that better encoding of positive (vs negative) PEs in dopaminergic midbrain regions is associated with better approach (vs avoidance) learning, specifically in participants with larger reward responses in the left (vs right) ventral striatum. Thus, individual dispositions or traits may be determined by neural processes acting to constrain learning about specific aspects of the world. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3514491-10$15.00/0.

  5. IQ subgroups in relation to neurocognitive profiles, psychopathology and brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Høj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Rostrup, Egill

    . low) using the healthy controls as reference. The IQ subgroups were compared using psychopathology ratings (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale), neuropsychological assessments (Brief Assessment of Cognition in schizophrenia and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and a combined 3T......Background and Aim: Approximately half of patients with schizophrenia experience a deterioration in IQ before or around illness onset and recent studies have found apositive association between IQ and brain volume in first episode schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the combined...... impact of estimated IQ trajectory and IQ level at illness onset on psychopathology, neurocognitive profiles and brain volume. Materials and methods: The design is a cross-sectional, case-control study of 60 first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 60 matched healthy controls...

  6. Relation between the characteristic molecular volume and hydrophobicity of nonpolar molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedov, Igor A., E-mail: igor_sedov@inbox.ru; Solomonov, Boris N., E-mail: boris.solomonov@ksu.r

    2010-09-15

    Experimental values of the Gibbs free energies of hydration for a set of nonpolar or very slightly polar compounds are analyzed in order to investigate how does the hydrophobic effect depend on molecular structure and shape. The contribution due to the hydrophobic effect is evaluated using a method we suggested previously. A number of values of the Gibbs free energies of solvation in dimethyl sulfoxide and in hexadecane, which are required for calculation, were determined by gas chromatographic headspace analysis. It is found that the Gibbs hydrophobic effect energy is linearly dependent on characteristic molecular volume for a large variety of solutes with branched and unbranched carbon chains, different functional groups and atomic composition. Molecular structure and shape do not significantly affect the hydrophobicity of chemical species, and molecular volume is a main factor determining it.

  7. Errors in abdominal computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, S.; Marting, I.; Dixon, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Sixty-nine patients are presented in whom a substantial error was made on the initial abdominal computed tomography report. Certain features of these errors have been analysed. In 30 (43.5%) a lesion was simply not recognised (error of observation); in 39 (56.5%) the wrong conclusions were drawn about the nature of normal or abnormal structures (error of interpretation). The 39 errors of interpretation were more complex; in 7 patients an abnormal structure was noted but interpreted as normal, whereas in four a normal structure was thought to represent a lesion. Other interpretive errors included those where the wrong cause for a lesion had been ascribed (24 patients), and those where the abnormality was substantially under-reported (4 patients). Various features of these errors are presented and discussed. Errors were made just as often in relation to small and large lesions. Consultants made as many errors as senior registrar radiologists. It is like that dual reporting is the best method of avoiding such errors and, indeed, this is widely practised in our unit. (Author). 9 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  8. Contribution to the relation between volume activity of soil and indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojzes, A.

    1999-01-01

    There were carried out some repeated manual measurements of volume activity of radon-222 (VAR) in both soil air of subsoil and also indoor air of buildings in two different areas in Bratislava. All measurements were done with a portable scintillation detector based on exchangeable Lucas cells. The measurements were repeated in different day and year intervals. There were repeated 259 measurements of volume activity of radon-222 in soil air with the average valuer 11.95 kBq/m 3 and the standard deviation 1.53 kBq/m 3 in the subsoil of the one-story house and 597 measurements of VAR in soil air of the subsoil of the second study building with the average 9.44 kBq/m 3 and the standard deviation 3.08 kBq/m 3 . Presented results of measurement of radon-222 volume activity in both soil and indoor air demonstrate that also in case of low radon concentrations in soil air of geological basement the level of radon in indoor air could be considerably high. It depends mainly on used technology of laying building foundations, on the distance from subsoil and on regime of ventilation. In case of older buildings the ventilation is very effective way to reduce the presence of radon in indoor air. (author)

  9. Alexithymia is related to differences in gray matter volume: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihme, Klas; Dannlowski, Udo; Lichev, Vladimir; Stuhrmann, Anja; Grotegerd, Dominik; Rosenberg, Nicole; Kugel, Harald; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2013-01-23

    Alexithymia has been characterized as the inability to identify and describe feelings. Functional imaging studies have revealed that alexithymia is linked to reactivity changes in emotion- and face-processing-relevant brain areas. In this respect, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), amygdala, anterior insula and fusiform gyrus (FFG) have been consistently reported. However, it remains to be clarified whether alexithymia is also associated with structural differences. Voxel-based morphometry on T1-weighted magnetic resonance images was used to investigate gray matter volume in 17 high alexithymics (HA) and 17 gender-matched low alexithymics (LA), which were selected from a sample of 161 healthy volunteers on basis of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Data were analyzed as statistic parametric maps for the comparisons LA>HA and HA>LA in a priori determined regions of interests (ROIs), i.e., ACC, amygdala, anterior insula and FFG. Moreover, an exploratory whole brain analysis was accomplished. For the contrast LA>HA, significant clusters were detected in the ACC, left amygdala and left anterior insula. Additionally, the whole brain analysis revealed volume differences in the left middle temporal gyrus. No significant differences were found for the comparison HA>LA. Our findings suggest that high compared to low alexithymics show less gray matter volume in several emotion-relevant brain areas. These structural differences might contribute to the functional alterations found in previous imaging studies in alexithymia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1978. Volume II. Project listings and indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    This volume contains summaries of FY-1978 government-sponsored environment and safety research related to energy. Project summaries were collected by Aerospace Corporation under contract with the Department of Energy, Office of Program Coordination, under the Assistant Secretary for Environment. Summaries are arranged by log number, which groups the projects by reporting agency. The log number is a unique number assigned to each project from a block of numbers set aside for each agency. Information about the projects is included in the summary listings. This includes the project title, principal investigators, research organization, project number, contract number, supporting organization, funding level if known, related energy sources with numbers indicating percentages of effort devoted to each, and R and D categories. A brief description of each project is given, and this is followed by subject index terms that were assigned for computer searching and for generating the printed subject index in Volume IV.

  11. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1979. Volume II. Project listings and indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    This volume contains summaries of FY 1979 government-sponsored environment and safety research related to energy arranged by log number, which groups the projects by reporting agency. The log number is a unique number assigned to each project from a block of numbers set aside for each contributing agency. Information elements included in the summary listings are project title, principal investigators, research organization, project number, contract number, supporting organization, funding level, related energy sources with numbers indicating percentages of effort devoted to each, and R and D categories. A brief description of each project is given, and this is followed by subject index terms that were assigned for computer searching and for generating the printed subject index in the back of this volume.

  12. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1978. Volume II. Project listings and indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This volume contains summaries of FY-1978 government-sponsored environment and safety research related to energy. Project summaries were collected by Aerospace Corporation under contract with the Department of Energy, Office of Program Coordination, under the Assistant Secretary for Environment. Summaries are arranged by log number, which groups the projects by reporting agency. The log number is a unique number assigned to each project from a block of numbers set aside for each agency. Information about the projects is included in the summary listings. This includes the project title, principal investigators, research organization, project number, contract number, supporting organization, funding level if known, related energy sources with numbers indicating percentages of effort devoted to each, and R and D categories. A brief description of each project is given, and this is followed by subject index terms that were assigned for computer searching and for generating the printed subject index in Volume IV

  13. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1979. Volume II. Project listings and indexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This volume contains summaries of FY 1979 government-sponsored environment and safety research related to energy arranged by log number, which groups the projects by reporting agency. The log number is a unique number assigned to each project from a block of numbers set aside for each contributing agency. Information elements included in the summary listings are project title, principal investigators, research organization, project number, contract number, supporting organization, funding level, related energy sources with numbers indicating percentages of effort devoted to each, and R and D categories. A brief description of each project is given, and this is followed by subject index terms that were assigned for computer searching and for generating the printed subject index in the back of this volume

  14. Self-identification and empathy modulate error-related brain activity during the observation of penalty shots between friend and foe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Shanti; van Schie, Hein T.; De Bruijn, Ellen R. A.; Bekkering, Harold

    2009-01-01

    The ability to detect and process errors made by others plays an important role is many social contexts. The capacity to process errors is typically found to rely on sites in the medial frontal cortex. However, it remains to be determined whether responses at these sites are driven primarily by action errors themselves or by the affective consequences normally associated with their commission. Using an experimental paradigm that disentangles action errors and the valence of their affective consequences, we demonstrate that sites in the medial frontal cortex (MFC), including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), respond to action errors independent of the valence of their consequences. The strength of this response was negatively correlated with the empathic concern subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. We also demonstrate a main effect of self-identification by showing that errors committed by friends and foes elicited significantly different BOLD responses in a separate region of the middle anterior cingulate cortex (mACC). These results suggest that the way we look at others plays a critical role in determining patterns of brain activation during error observation. These findings may have important implications for general theories of error processing. PMID:19015079

  15. Modeling coherent errors in quantum error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of quantum error correcting codes is typically done using a stochastic, Pauli channel error model for describing the noise on physical qubits. However, it was recently found that coherent errors (systematic rotations) on physical data qubits result in both physical and logical error rates that differ significantly from those predicted by a Pauli model. Here we examine the accuracy of the Pauli approximation for noise containing coherent errors (characterized by a rotation angle ɛ) under the repetition code. We derive an analytic expression for the logical error channel as a function of arbitrary code distance d and concatenation level n, in the small error limit. We find that coherent physical errors result in logical errors that are partially coherent and therefore non-Pauli. However, the coherent part of the logical error is negligible at fewer than {ε }-({dn-1)} error correction cycles when the decoder is optimized for independent Pauli errors, thus providing a regime of validity for the Pauli approximation. Above this number of correction cycles, the persistent coherent logical error will cause logical failure more quickly than the Pauli model would predict, and this may need to be combated with coherent suppression methods at the physical level or larger codes.

  16. Associations of hypoosmotic swelling test, relative sperm volume shift, aquaporin7 mRNA abundance and bull fertility estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R K; Kasimanickam, V R; Arangasamy, A; Kastelic, J P

    2017-02-01

    Mammalian sperm are exposed to a natural hypoosmotic environment during male-to-female reproductive tract transition; although this activates sperm motility in vivo, excessive swelling can harm sperm structure and function. Aquaporins (AQPs) is a family of membrane-channel proteins implicated in sperm osmoregulation. The objective was to determine associations among relative sperm volume shift, hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST), sperm aquaporin (AQP) 7 mRNA abundances, and sire conception rate (SCR; fertility estimate) in Holstein bulls at a commercial artificial insemination center. Three or four sires for each full point SCR score from -4 to +4 were included. Each SCR estimate for study bulls (N = 30) was based on > 500 services (mean ± SEM) of 725 ± 13 services/sire). Sperm from a single collection day (two ejaculates) from these commercial Holstein bulls were used. Relative mRNA expression of AQP7 in sperm was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Mean relative sperm volume shift and percentage of sperm reacted in a HOST (% HOST) were determined (400 sperm per bull) after incubating in isoosmotic (300 mOsm/kg) and hypoosmotic (100 mOsm/kg) solutions for 30 min. There was no correlation between %HOST and SCR (r = 0.28 P > 0.1). However, there was a positive correlation between relative sperm volume shift and SCR (r = 0.65, P 2) fertility sire groups. In conclusion, bulls with higher SCR had significantly greater AQP7 mRNA abundance in frozen-thawed sperm. This plausibly contributed to greater regulation of sperm volume shift, which apparently conferred protection from detrimental swelling and impaired functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Regional Gray Matter Volumes Are Related to Concern About Falling in Older People: A Voxel-Based Morphometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuerk, Carola; Zhang, Haobo; Sachdev, Perminder; Lord, Stephen R; Brodaty, Henry; Wen, Wei; Delbaere, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Concern about falling is common in older people. Various related psychological constructs as well as poor balance and slow gait have been associated with decreased gray matter (GM) volume in old age. The current study investigates the association between concern about falling and voxel-wise GM volumes. A total of 281 community-dwelling older people aged 70-90 years underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Concern about falling was assessed using Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I). For each participant, voxel-wise GM volumes were generated with voxel-based morphometry and regressed on raw FES-I scores (p fall risk did not alter these associations. After adjustment for anxiety, only left cerebellum and bilateral inferior occipital gyrus remained negatively associated with FES-I scores (voxels-in-cluster = 2,426; p falling is negatively associated with brain volumes in areas important for emotional control and for motor control, executive functions and visual processing in a large sample of older men and women. Regression analyses suggest that these relationships were primarily accounted for by psychological factors (generalized anxiety and neuroticism) and not by physical fall risk or vision. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Error and uncertainty in scientific practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Hon, G.; Petersen, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of error and uncertainty is a vital component of both natural and social science. Empirical research involves dealing with all kinds of errors and uncertainties, yet there is significant variance in how such results are dealt with. Contributors to this volume present case studies of

  19. Does Categorization Method Matter in Exploring Volume-Outcome Relation? A Multiple Categorization Methods Comparison in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Surgical Site Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Tung, Yu-Chi; Chung, Kuo-Piao

    2015-08-01

    Volume-infection relation studies have been published for high-risk surgical procedures, although the conclusions remain controversial. Inconsistent results may be caused by inconsistent categorization methods, the definitions of service volume, and different statistical approaches. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a relation exists between provider volume and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgical site infection (SSI) using different categorization methods. A population-based cross-sectional multi-level study was conducted. A total of 10,405 patients who received CABG surgery between 2006 and 2008 in Taiwan were recruited. The outcome of interest was surgical site infection for CABG surgery. The associations among several patient, surgeon, and hospital characteristics was examined. The definition of surgeons' and hospitals' service volume was the cumulative CABG service volumes in the previous year for each CABG operation and categorized by three types of approaches: Continuous, quartile, and k-means clustering. The results of multi-level mixed effects modeling showed that hospital volume had no association with SSI. Although the relation between surgeon volume and surgical site infection was negative, it was inconsistent among the different categorization methods. Categorization of service volume is an important issue in volume-infection study. The findings of the current study suggest that different categorization methods might influence the relation between volume and SSI. The selection of an optimal cutoff point should be taken into account for future research.

  20. Errors in clinical laboratories or errors in laboratory medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory testing is a highly complex process and, although laboratory services are relatively safe, they are not as safe as they could or should be. Clinical laboratories have long focused their attention on quality control methods and quality assessment programs dealing with analytical aspects of testing. However, a growing body of evidence accumulated in recent decades demonstrates that quality in clinical laboratories cannot be assured by merely focusing on purely analytical aspects. The more recent surveys on errors in laboratory medicine conclude that in the delivery of laboratory testing, mistakes occur more frequently before (pre-analytical) and after (post-analytical) the test has been performed. Most errors are due to pre-analytical factors (46-68.2% of total errors), while a high error rate (18.5-47% of total errors) has also been found in the post-analytical phase. Errors due to analytical problems have been significantly reduced over time, but there is evidence that, particularly for immunoassays, interference may have a serious impact on patients. A description of the most frequent and risky pre-, intra- and post-analytical errors and advice on practical steps for measuring and reducing the risk of errors is therefore given in the present paper. Many mistakes in the Total Testing Process are called "laboratory errors", although these may be due to poor communication, action taken by others involved in the testing process (e.g., physicians, nurses and phlebotomists), or poorly designed processes, all of which are beyond the laboratory's control. Likewise, there is evidence that laboratory information is only partially utilized. A recent document from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommends a new, broader definition of the term "laboratory error" and a classification of errors according to different criteria. In a modern approach to total quality, centered on patients' needs and satisfaction, the risk of errors and mistakes

  1. Relative nephroprotection during Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections: association with intravenous volume expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ake, Julie A; Jelacic, Srdjan; Ciol, Marcia A; Watkins, Sandra L; Murray, Karen F; Christie, Dennis L; Klein, Eileen J; Tarr, Phillip I

    2005-06-01

    The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) consists of hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure. HUS is often precipitated by gastrointestinal infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and is characterized by a variety of prothrombotic host abnormalities. In much of the world, E coli O157:H7 is the major cause of HUS. HUS can be categorized as either oligoanuric (which probably signifies acute tubular necrosis) or nonoligoanuric. Children with oligoanuric renal failure during HUS generally require dialysis, have more complicated courses, and are probably at increased risk for chronic sequelae than are children who experience nonoligoanuric HUS. Oligoanuric HUS should be avoided, if possible. The presentation to medical care of a child with definite or possible E coli O157:H7 infections but before HUS ensues affords a potential opportunity to ameliorate the course of the subsequent renal failure. However, it is not known whether events that occur early in E coli O157:H7 infections, particularly measures to expand circulating volume, affect the likelihood of experiencing oligoanuric HUS if renal failure develops. We attempted to assess whether pre-HUS interventions and events, especially the volume and sodium content of intravenous fluids administered early in illness, affect the risk for developing oligoanuric HUS after E coli O157:H7 infections. We performed a prospective cohort study of 29 children with HUS that was confirmed microbiologically to be caused by E coli O157:H7. Infected children were enrolled when they presented with acute bloody diarrhea or as contacts of patients who were known to be infected with E coli O157:H7, or if they had culture-confirmed infection, or if they presented with HUS. HUS was defined as hemolytic anemia (hematocrit parenteral fluid administered, were recorded and entered into analysis. Estimates of odds ratios were adjusted for possible confounding effects using logistic regression analysis. Twenty-nine children

  2. [The approaches to factors which cause medication error--from the analyses of many near-miss cases related to intravenous medication which nurses experienced].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, H

    2001-03-01

    Given the complexity of the intravenous medication process, systematic thinking is essential to reduce medication errors. Two thousand eight hundred cases of 'Hiyari-Hatto' were analyzed. Eight important factors which cause intravenous medication error were clarified as a result. In the following I summarize the systematic approach for each factor. 1. Failed communication of information: illegible handwritten orders, and inaccurate verbal orders and copying cause medication error. Rules must be established to prevent miscommunication. 2. Error-prone design of the hardware: Look-alike packaging and labeling of drugs and the poor design of infusion pumps cause errors. The human-hardware interface should be improved by error-resistant design by manufacturers. 3. Patient names similar to simultaneously operating surgical procedures and interventions: This factor causes patient misidentification. Automated identification devices should be introduced into health care settings. 4. Interruption in the middle of tasks: The efficient assignment of medical work and business work should be made. 5. Inaccurate mixing procedure and insufficient mixing space: Mixing procedures must be standardized and the layout of the working space must be examined. 6. Time pressure: Mismatch between workload and manpower should be improved by reconsidering the work to be done. 7. Lack of information about high alert medications: The pharmacist should play a greater role in the medication process overall. 8. Poor knowledge and skill of recent graduates: Training methods and tools to prevent medication errors must be developed.

  3. Monitoring Heavy Metal Contents with Sphagnum Junghuhnianum Moss Bags in Relation to Traffic Volume in Wuxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite its small size, a moss bag can reveal the different temporal and spatial deposition patterns of pollutants at a particular site; therefore, researchers can use moss bags to determine pollution sources and to put forward strategies for pollution control. Although the use of moss bags to monitor atmospheric pollution has been widely reported in Europe, there are few such empirical studies in China. Thus, in this study, bags containing the moss Sphagnum junghuhnianum were used to assess the concentrations of heavy metals (chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, vanadium (V, and zinc (Zn at five sampling sites (four roads and a forest park during the summer and winter of 2012. According to the relative accumulation factor (RAF and contamination factor (CF results, pollution in winter was heavier than that in summer, and Cr was found to be the most contaminating, having the highest mean CF. There was a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05 between traffic volume and concentration for three heavy metals (Cr, Cu, and V in winter, whereas a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05 was observed between traffic volume and concentrations for four heavy metal elements (Cr, Pb, V, and Zn in summer, indicating a close relationship between heavy metal contents and traffic volume. Although there was substantial variation in the concentrations of the five heavy metals in the moss bags, significant correlations between heavy metals suggested that the contaminants originated from a common source, namely vehicle emissions. The results demonstrated that the four roads were subject to different degrees of pollution depending on the volume of traffic using each road. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that traffic volume is a major reason for heavy metal pollution.

  4. Dose Distribution in Bladder and Surrounding Normal Tissues in Relation to Bladder Volume in Conformal Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majewski, Wojciech; Wesolowska, Iwona; Urbanczyk, Hubert; Hawrylewicz, Leszek; Schwierczok, Barbara; Miszczyk, Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate bladder movements and changes in dose distribution in the bladder and surrounding tissues associated with changes in bladder filling and to estimate the internal treatment margins. Methods and Materials: A total of 16 patients with bladder cancer underwent planning computed tomography scans with 80- and 150-mL bladder volumes. The bladder displacements associated with the change in volume were measured. Each patient had treatment plans constructed for a 'partially empty' (80 mL) and a 'partially full' (150 mL) bladder. An additional plan was constructed for tumor irradiation alone. A subsequent 9 patients underwent sequential weekly computed tomography scanning during radiotherapy to verify the bladder movements and estimate the internal margins. Results: Bladder movements were mainly observed cranially, and the estimated internal margins were nonuniform and largest (>2 cm) anteriorly and cranially. The dose distribution in the bladder worsened if the bladder increased in volume: 70% of patients (11 of 16) would have had bladder underdosed to 70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 23%, 20%, and 15% for the rectum and 162, 144, 123 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively) than with a 'partially full' bladder (volume that received >70%, 80%, and 90% of the prescribed dose was 28%, 24%, and 18% for the rectum and 180, 158, 136 cm 3 for the intestines, respectively). The change in bladder filling during RT was significant for the dose distribution in the intestines. Tumor irradiation alone was significantly better than whole bladder irradiation in terms of organ sparing. Conclusion: The displacements of the bladder due to volume changes were mainly related to the upper wall. The internal margins should be nonuniform, with the largest margins cranially and anteriorly. The changes in bladder filling during RT could influence the dose distribution in the bladder and intestines. The dose distribution in the rectum and bowel was slightly better with

  5. The thickness and volume of LLETZ specimens can predict the relative risk of pregnancy-related morbidity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalid, S

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the individual physical characteristics of the extirpated transformation zone after large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) might predict the relative risk of adverse obstetric outcome, specifically preterm labour (PTL).

  6. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume I, introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This guide consists of seven volumes which describe records useful for conducting health-related research at the DOE`s Rocky Flats Plant. Volume I is an introduction, and the remaining six volumes are arranged by the following categories: administrative and general, facilities and equipment, production and materials handling, waste management, workplace and environmental monitoring, and employee occupational exposure and health. Volume I briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Project and provides information on the methodology used to inventory and describe the records series contained in subsequent volumes. Volume II describes records concerning administrative functions and general information. Volume III describes records series relating to the construction and routine maintenance of plant buildings and the purchase and installation of equipment. Volume IV describes records pertaining to the inventory and production of nuclear materials and weapon components. Records series include materials inventories, manufacturing specifications, engineering orders, transfer and shipment records, and War Reserve Bomb Books. Volume V describes records series pertaining to the storage, handling, treatment, and disposal of radioactive, chemical, or mixed materials produced or used at Rocky Flats. Volume VI describes records series pertaining to monitoring of the workplace and of the environment outside of buildings onsite and offsite. Volume VII describes records series pertaining to the health and occupational exposures of employees and visitors.

  7. Non-calcified coronary plaque volume inversely related to CD4 count in HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Horacio; Matta, Jatin R.; Muldoon, Nancy; Masur, Henry; Hadigan, Colleen; Gharib, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-calcified coronary artery plaque (NCAP) may be an important predictor of cardiovascular events, however, few studies have directly measured NCAP in HIV-infected individuals. Methods We completed a prospective cross-sectional evaluation of NCAP and coronary calcium scores using CT angiography in HIV-infected subjects (n=26) without known coronary artery disease (CAD), but who had one or more CAD risk factor and compared them to controls matched on age, race, sex, body mass index and Framingham risk score (n=26). Results There was no difference in coronary calcium scores (114 ± 218 vs. 124 ± 298 p=0.89) or NCAP volume (65 ± 86 mm3 vs. 63 ± 82 mm3, p=0.38) between HIV-infected subjects and controls, respectively. Among HIV-infected subjects, lower CD4 count was associated with increased NCAP volume (r=-0.52, p=0.006). CD4 count remained a significant predictor of NCAP in a multivariate analysis that adjusted for age and duration of antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion Plaque burden is similar between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals when matched on traditional CAD risk factors, however immune function may mediate the development of atherosclerosis in HIV infection. PMID:22293714

  8. Free volume from positron lifetime and pressure-volume-temperature experiments in relation to structural relaxation of van der Waals molecular glass-forming liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlubek, G; Shaikh, M Q; Rätzke, K; Paluch, M; Faupel, F

    2010-06-16

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is employed to characterize the temperature dependence of the free volume in two van der Waals liquids: 1, 1'-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexane (BMPC) and 1, 1'-di(4-methoxy-5-methylphenyl)cyclohexane (BMMPC). From the PALS spectra analysed with the routine LifeTime9.0, the size (volume) distribution of local free volumes (subnanometer size holes), its mean, [v(h)], and mean dispersion, σ(h), were calculated. A comparison with the macroscopic volume from pressure-volume-temperature (PV T) experiments delivered the hole density and the specific hole free volume and a complete characterization of the free volume microstructure in that sense. These data are used in correlation with structural (α) relaxation data from broad-band dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) in terms of the Cohen-Grest and Cohen-Turnbull free volume models. An extension of the latter model allows us to quantify deviations between experiments and theory and an attempt to systematize these in terms of T(g) or of the fragility. The experimental data for several fragile and less fragile glass formers are involved in the final discussion. It was concluded that, for large differences in the fragility of different glass formers, the positron lifetime mirrors clearly the different character of these materials. For small differences in the fragility, additional properties like the character of bonds and chemical structure of the material may affect size, distribution and thermal behaviour of the free volume.

  9. Free volume from positron lifetime and pressure-volume-temperature experiments in relation to structural relaxation of van der Waals molecular glass-forming liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlubek, G [ITA Institute for Innovative Technologies, Koethen/Halle, Wiesenring 4, D-06120 Lieskau (Germany); Shaikh, M Q; Raetzke, K; Faupel, F [Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Materials Science, Christian-Albrechts University of Kiel, Kaiserstrasse 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany); Paluch, M, E-mail: guenter.dlubek@gmx.d [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2010-06-16

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is employed to characterize the temperature dependence of the free volume in two van der Waals liquids: 1, 1'-bis(p-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexane (BMPC) and 1, 1'-di(4-methoxy-5-methylphenyl)cyclohexane (BMMPC). From the PALS spectra analysed with the routine LifeTime9.0, the size (volume) distribution of local free volumes (subnanometer size holes), its mean, (v{sub h}), and mean dispersion, {sigma}{sub h}, were calculated. A comparison with the macroscopic volume from pressure-volume-temperature (PV T) experiments delivered the hole density and the specific hole free volume and a complete characterization of the free volume microstructure in that sense. These data are used in correlation with structural ({alpha}) relaxation data from broad-band dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) in terms of the Cohen-Grest and Cohen-Turnbull free volume models. An extension of the latter model allows us to quantify deviations between experiments and theory and an attempt to systematize these in terms of T{sub g} or of the fragility. The experimental data for several fragile and less fragile glass formers are involved in the final discussion. It was concluded that, for large differences in the fragility of different glass formers, the positron lifetime mirrors clearly the different character of these materials. For small differences in the fragility, additional properties like the character of bonds and chemical structure of the material may affect size, distribution and thermal behaviour of the free volume.

  10. A Neural Circuit Mechanism for the Involvements of Dopamine in Effort-Related Choices: Decay of Learned Values, Secondary Effects of Depletion, and Calculation of Temporal Difference Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Dopamine has been suggested to be crucially involved in effort-related choices. Key findings are that dopamine depletion (i) changed preference for a high-cost, large-reward option to a low-cost, small-reward option, (ii) but not when the large-reward option was also low-cost or the small-reward option gave no reward, (iii) while increasing the latency in all the cases but only transiently, and (iv) that antagonism of either dopamine D1 or D2 receptors also specifically impaired selection of the high-cost, large-reward option. The underlying neural circuit mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that findings i–iii can be explained by the dopaminergic representation of temporal-difference reward-prediction error (TD-RPE), whose mechanisms have now become clarified, if (1) the synaptic strengths storing the values of actions mildly decay in time and (2) the obtained-reward-representing excitatory input to dopamine neurons increases after dopamine depletion. The former is potentially caused by background neural activity–induced weak synaptic plasticity, and the latter is assumed to occur through post-depletion increase of neural activity in the pedunculopontine nucleus, where neurons representing obtained reward exist and presumably send excitatory projections to dopamine neurons. We further show that finding iv, which is nontrivial given the suggested distinct functions of the D1 and D2 corticostriatal pathways, can also be explained if we additionally assume a proposed mechanism of TD-RPE calculation, in which the D1 and D2 pathways encode the values of actions with a temporal difference. These results suggest a possible circuit mechanism for the involvements of dopamine in effort-related choices and, simultaneously, provide implications for the mechanisms of TD-RPE calculation. PMID:29468191

  11. The impact of smoking on thyroid volume and function in relation to a shift towards iodine sufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejbjerg, Pernille; Knudsen, Nils; Perrild, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether the influence of smoking on thyroid volume and function changes in relation to a higher iodine intake in the population. The study comprised a total of 8,219 individuals each examined in one of two separate cross-sectional studies performed before (n...... = 4,649) and after (n = 3,570) a mandatory iodization of salt in year 2000 in two areas with established mild and moderate iodine deficiency. Participants answered questionnaires regarding life style factors and a thyroid ultrasonography was performed. Blood samples were analysed for serum thyroid...... of smoking on thyroid volume seems to be dependent on iodine intake, whereas the effect on function seems mainly to depend on other factors....

  12. Retro- and orthonasal olfactory function in relation to olfactory bulb volume in patients with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Murat; Kurt, Onuralp; Ay, Seyid Ahmet; Baskoy, Kamil; Altundag, Aytug; Saglam, Muzaffer; Deniz, Ferhat; Tekeli, Hakan; Yonem, Arif; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-08-24

    Idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (IHH) with an olfactory deficit is defined as Kallmann syndrome (KS) and is distinct from normosmic IHH. Because olfactory perception not only consists of orthonasally gained impressions but also involves retronasal olfactory function, in this study we decided to comprehensively evaluate both retronasal and orthonasal olfaction in patients with IHH. This case-control study included 31 controls and 45 IHH patients. All participants whose olfactory and taste functions were evaluated with orthonasal olfaction (discrimination, identification and threshold), retronasal olfaction, taste function and olfactory bulb volume (OBV) measurement. The patients were separated into three groups according to orthonasal olfaction: anosmic IHH (aIHH), hyposmic IHH (hIHH) and normosmic IHH (nIHH). Discrimination, identification and threshold scores of patients with KS were significantly lower than controls. Threshold scores of patients with nIHH were significantly lower than those of controls, but discrimination and identification scores were not significantly different. Retronasal olfaction was reduced only in the aIHH group compared to controls. Identification of bitter, sweet, sour, and salty tastes was not significantly different when compared between the anosmic, hyposmic, and normosmic IHH groups and controls. OBV was lower bilaterally in all patient groups when compared with controls. The OBV of both sides was found to be significantly correlated with TDI scores in IHH patients. 1) There were no significant differences in gustatory function between controls and IHH patients; 2) retronasal olfaction was reduced only in anosmic patients but not in orthonasally hyposmic participants, possibly indicating presence of effective compensatory mechanisms; 3) olfactory bulb volumes were highly correlated with olfaction scores in the HH group. The current results indicate a continuum from anosmia to normosmia in IHH patients. Copyright © 2017

  13. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    -body heating after intravascular volume expansion. Volume expansion was accomplished by administration of a combination of a synthetic colloid (HES 130/0.4, Voluven) and saline. Before LBNP, SV was not affected by heating (122 +/- 30 ml; mean +/- s.d.) compared to normothermia (110 +/- 20 ml; P = 0...

  14. Learning from prescribing errors

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, B

    2002-01-01

    

 The importance of learning from medical error has recently received increasing emphasis. This paper focuses on prescribing errors and argues that, while learning from prescribing errors is a laudable goal, there are currently barriers that can prevent this occurring. Learning from errors can take place on an individual level, at a team level, and across an organisation. Barriers to learning from prescribing errors include the non-discovery of many prescribing errors, lack of feedback to th...

  15. Effect of volume loading on the Frank-Starling relation during reductions in central blood volume in heat-stressed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Wilson, T E; Seifert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    During reductions in central blood volume while heat stressed, a greater decrease in stroke volume (SV) for a similar decrease in ventricular filling pressure, compared to normothermia, suggests that the heart is operating on a steeper portion of a Frank-Starling curve. If so, volume loading...... of heat-stressed individuals would shift the operating point to a flatter portion of the heat stress Frank-Starling curve thereby attenuating the reduction in SV during subsequent decreases in central blood volume. To investigate this hypothesis, right heart catheterization was performed in eight males...... from whom pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), central venous pressure and SV (via thermodilution) were obtained while central blood volume was reduced via lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) during normothermia, whole-body heating (increase in blood temperature 1 degrees C), and during whole...

  16. Introduction to modern theoretical physics. Volume I. Classical physics and relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E.G.

    1975-01-01

    The treatment covers vectors, tensors, and the structure of space, Newton's laws of motion and the law of gravitation, analytical mechanics, oscillatory motion, mechanics of a rigid body and of continuous media, classical fields, electromagnetic waves and radiation, the principle of relativity, relativistic electrodynamics and mechanics, general relativity theory and some of its consequences, and unified field theories and other modifications of the general theory of relativity

  17. Development of Automatic Visceral Fat Volume Calculation Software for CT Volume Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutaka Nemoto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To develop automatic visceral fat volume calculation software for computed tomography (CT volume data and to evaluate its feasibility. Methods. A total of 24 sets of whole-body CT volume data and anthropometric measurements were obtained, with three sets for each of four BMI categories (under 20, 20 to 25, 25 to 30, and over 30 in both sexes. True visceral fat volumes were defined on the basis of manual segmentation of the whole-body CT volume data by an experienced radiologist. Software to automatically calculate visceral fat volumes was developed using a region segmentation technique based on morphological analysis with CT value threshold. Automatically calculated visceral fat volumes were evaluated in terms of the correlation coefficient with the true volumes and the error relative to the true volume. Results. Automatic visceral fat volume calculation results of all 24 data sets were obtained successfully and the average calculation time was 252.7 seconds/case. The correlation coefficients between the true visceral fat volume and the automatically calculated visceral fat volume were over 0.999. Conclusions. The newly developed software is feasible for calculating visceral fat volumes in a reasonable time and was proved to have high accuracy.

  18. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1979. Volume 1. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The FY 1979 Federal Inventory contains information on 3506 federally funded energy-related environmental and safety research projects. The Inventory is published in two volumes: Volume I, an executive summary and overview of the data and Volume II, project listings, summaries, and indexes. Research and development (R and D) categories were reorganized into three main areas; environmental and safety control technology, technology impacts overview and assessments, and biological and environmental R and D and assessments. Federal offices submitting project data were: Council on Environmental Quality; Department of Agriculture; Department of Commerce; Department of Defense; Department of Energy; Department of Health, Education, and Welfare; Department of Housing and Urban Development; Department of the Interior; Department of Transportation; Environmental Protection Agency; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Nuclear Regulatory Commission; National Science Foundation; Office of Technology Assessment; and Tennessee Valley Authority. The inventory also breaks out research sponsored by various federal agencies and the amount of funding provided by each in various research categories. The format and index system allows efficient access to information compiled. Users are able to identify projects by log agency, performing organization, principal investigator and subject

  19. DINFOS: Bibliography of Theses and Reports Related to Military Information Activities; Volume V, May 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort Benjamin Harrison, IN. Defense Information School.

    This bibliography lists theses and research reports related to military information activities. The listings are grouped according to the following subject categories: journalism, public and internal information, mass communications, political science, international communications, sociology, history, education, public relations, leadership,…

  20. Relative cerebral blood volume as a marker of durable tissue-at-risk viability in hyperacute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo, Elisa; Calleja, Ana Isabel; García-Bermejo, Pablo; Mulero, Patricia; Pérez-Fernández, Santiago; Reyes, Javier; Muñoz, Ma Fe; Martínez-Galdámez, Mario; Arenillas, Juan Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Selection of best responders to reperfusion therapies could be aided by predicting the duration of tissue-at-risk viability, which may be dependant on collateral circulation status. We aimed to identify the best predictor of good collateral circulation among perfusion computed tomography (PCT) parameters in middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic stroke and to analyze how early MCA response to intravenous thrombolysis and PCT-derived markers of good collaterals interact to determine stroke outcome. We prospectively studied patients with acute MCA ischemic stroke treated with intravenous thrombolysis who underwent PCT before treatment showing a target mismatch profile. Collateral status was assessed using a PCT source image-based score. PCT maps were quantitatively analyzed. Cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow, and Tmax were calculated within the hypoperfused volume and in the equivalent region of unaffected hemisphere. Occluded MCAs were monitored by transcranial Duplex to assess early recanalization. Main outcome variables were brain hypodensity volume and modified Rankin scale score at day 90. One hundred patients with MCA ischemic stroke imaged by PCT received intravenous thrombolysis, and 68 met all inclusion criteria. A relative CBV (rCBV) >0.93 emerged as the only predictor of good collaterals (odds ratio, 12.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.9-55.9; P=0.001). Early MCA recanalization was associated with better long-term outcome and lower infarct volume in patients with rCBV<0.93, but not in patients with high rCBV. None of the patients with rCBV<0.93 achieved good outcome in absence of early recanalization. High rCBV was the strongest marker of good collaterals and may characterize durable tissue-at-risk viability in hyperacute MCA ischemic stroke.

  1. Analysis of Task Types and Error Types of the Human Actions Involved in the Human-related Unplanned Reactor Trip Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2008-02-01

    This report provides the task types and error types involved in the unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred during 1986 - 2006. The events that were caused by the secondary system of the nuclear power plants amount to 67 %, and the remaining 33 % was by the primary system. The contribution of the activities of the plant personnel was identified as the following order: corrective maintenance (25.7 %), planned maintenance (22.8 %), planned operation (19.8 %), periodic preventive maintenance (14.9 %), response to a transient (9.9 %), and design/manufacturing/installation (9.9%). According to the analysis of error modes, the error modes such as control failure (22.2 %), wrong object (18.5 %), omission (14.8 %), wrong action (11.1 %), and inadequate (8.3 %) take up about 75 % of all the unplanned trip events. The analysis of the cognitive functions involved showed that the planning function makes the highest contribution to the human actions leading to unplanned reactor trips, and it is followed by the observation function (23.4%), the execution function (17.8 %), and the interpretation function (10.3 %). The results of this report are to be used as important bases for development of the error reduction measures or development of the error mode prediction system for the test and maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants

  2. The Relation Between Inflation in Type-I and Type-II Error Rate and Population Divergence in Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Multi-Ethnic Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, E M; Zwinderman, A H; Gamazon, E R

    2017-05-01

    Population divergence impacts the degree of population stratification in Genome Wide Association Studies. We aim to: (i) investigate type-I error rate as a function of population divergence (F ST ) in multi-ethnic (admixed) populations; (ii) evaluate the statistical power and effect size estimates; and (iii) investigate the impact of population stratification on the results of gene-based analyses. Quantitative phenotypes were simulated. Type-I error rate was investigated for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) with varying levels of F ST between the ancestral European and African populations. Type-II error rate was investigated for a SNP characterized by a high value of F ST . In all tests, genomic MDS components were included to correct for population stratification. Type-I and type-II error rate was adequately controlled in a population that included two distinct ethnic populations but not in admixed samples. Statistical power was reduced in the admixed samples. Gene-based tests showed no residual inflation in type-I error rate.

  3. Analysis of Task Types and Error Types of the Human Actions Involved in the Human-related Unplanned Reactor Trip Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Whan; Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2008-02-15

    This report provides the task types and error types involved in the unplanned reactor trip events that have occurred during 1986 - 2006. The events that were caused by the secondary system of the nuclear power plants amount to 67 %, and the remaining 33 % was by the primary system. The contribution of the activities of the plant personnel was identified as the following order: corrective maintenance (25.7 %), planned maintenance (22.8 %), planned operation (19.8 %), periodic preventive maintenance (14.9 %), response to a transient (9.9 %), and design/manufacturing/installation (9.9%). According to the analysis of error modes, the error modes such as control failure (22.2 %), wrong object (18.5 %), omission (14.8 %), wrong action (11.1 %), and inadequate (8.3 %) take up about 75 % of all the unplanned trip events. The analysis of the cognitive functions involved showed that the planning function makes the highest contribution to the human actions leading to unplanned reactor trips, and it is followed by the observation function (23.4%), the execution function (17.8 %), and the interpretation function (10.3 %). The results of this report are to be used as important bases for development of the error reduction measures or development of the error mode prediction system for the test and maintenance tasks in nuclear power plants.

  4. Multi-isocenter stereotactic radiotherapy: implications for target dose distributions of systematic and random localization errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, M.A.; Zavgorodni, S.F.; Kendrick, L.A.; Weston, S.; Harper, C.S.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation examined the effect of alignment and localization errors on dose distributions in stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) with arced circular fields. In particular, it was desired to determine the effect of systematic and random localization errors on multi-isocenter treatments. Methods and Materials: A research version of the FastPlan system from Surgical Navigation Technologies was used to generate a series of SRT plans of varying complexity. These plans were used to examine the influence of random setup errors by recalculating dose distributions with successive setup errors convolved into the off-axis ratio data tables used in the dose calculation. The influence of systematic errors was investigated by displacing isocenters from their planned positions. Results: For single-isocenter plans, it is found that the influences of setup error are strongly dependent on the size of the target volume, with minimum doses decreasing most significantly with increasing random and systematic alignment error. For multi-isocenter plans, similar variations in target dose are encountered, with this result benefiting from the conventional method of prescribing to a lower isodose value for multi-isocenter treatments relative to single-isocenter treatments. Conclusions: It is recommended that the systematic errors associated with target localization in SRT be tracked via a thorough quality assurance program, and that random setup errors be minimized by use of a sufficiently robust relocation system. These errors should also be accounted for by incorporating corrections into the treatment planning algorithm or, alternatively, by inclusion of sufficient margins in target definition

  5. Errors in second moments estimated from monostatic Doppler sodar winds. II. Application to field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaynor, J. E.; Kristensen, Leif

    1986-01-01

    Observatory tower. The approximate magnitude of the error due to spatial and temporal pulse volume separation is presented as a function of mean wind angle relative to the sodar configuration and for several antenna pulsing orders. Sodar-derived standard deviations of the lateral wind component, before...

  6. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  7. Learning from Errors

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Legaz, Juan Enrique; Soubeyran, Antoine

    2003-01-01

    We present a model of learning in which agents learn from errors. If an action turns out to be an error, the agent rejects not only that action but also neighboring actions. We find that, keeping memory of his errors, under mild assumptions an acceptable solution is asymptotically reached. Moreover, one can take advantage of big errors for a faster learning.

  8. ERESYE - a expert system for the evaluation of uncertainties related to systematic experimental errors; ERESYE - un sistema esperto per la valutazione di incertezze correlate ad errori sperimentali sistematici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinelli, T; Panini, G C [ENEA - Dipartimento Tecnologie Intersettoriali di Base, Centro Ricerche Energia, Casaccia (Italy); Amoroso, A [Ricercatore Ospite (Italy)

    1989-11-15

    Information about systematic errors are not given In EXFOR, the data base of nuclear experimental measurements: their assessment is committed to the ability of the evaluator. A tool Is needed which performs this task in a fully automatic way or, at least, gives a valuable aid. The expert system ERESYE has been implemented for investigating the feasibility of an automatic evaluation of the systematic errors in the experiments. The features of the project which led to the implementation of the system are presented. (author)

  9. Effect of various methods for rectum delineation on relative and absolute dose-volume histograms for prostate IMRT treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusumoto, Chiaki [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Ohira, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Miyazaki, Masayoshi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita (Japan); Isono, Masaru [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima-te@mc.pref.osaka.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    Several reports have dealt with correlations of late rectal toxicity with rectal dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for high dose levels. There are 2 techniques to assess rectal volume for reception of a specific dose: relative-DVH (R-DVH, %) that indicates relative volume for a vertical axis, and absolute-DVH (A-DVH, cc) with its vertical axis showing absolute volume of the rectum. The parameters of DVH vary depending on the rectum delineation method, but the literature does not present any standardization of such methods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different delineation methods on rectal DVHs. The enrollment for this study comprised 28 patients with high-risk localized prostate cancer, who had undergone intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with the prescription dose of 78 Gy. The rectum was contoured with 4 different methods using 2 lengths, short (Sh) and long (Lg), and 2 cross sections, rectum (Rec) and rectal wall (Rw). Sh means the length from 1 cm above the seminal vesicles to 1 cm below the prostate and Lg the length from the rectosigmoid junction to the anus. Rec represents the entire rectal volume including the rectal contents and Rw the rectal volume of the area with a wall thickness of 4 mm. We compared dose-volume parameters by using 4 rectal contour methods for the same plan with the R-DVHs as well as the A-DVHs. For the high dose levels, the R-DVH parameters varied widely. The mean of V{sub 70} for Sh-Rw was the highest (19.4%) and nearly twice as high as that for Lg-Rec (10.4%). On the contrary, only small variations were observed in the A-DVH parameters (4.3, 4.3, 5.5, and 5.5 cc for Sh-Rw, Lg-Rw, Sh-Rec, and Lg-Rec, respectively). As for R-DVHs, the parameters of V{sub 70} varied depending on the rectal lengths (Sh-Rec vs Lg-Rec: R = 0.76; Sh-Rw vs Lg-Rw: R = 0.85) and cross sections (Sh-Rec vs Sh-Rw: R = 0.49; Lg-Rec vs Lg-Rw: R = 0.65). For A-DVHs, however, the parameters of Sh rectal A-DVHs hardly changed

  10. Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Grabe, Michael

    2010-01-01

    For the first time in 200 years Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus addresses a rigorous, complete and self-consistent revision of the Gaussian error calculus. Since experimentalists realized that measurements in general are burdened by unknown systematic errors, the classical, widespread used evaluation procedures scrutinizing the consequences of random errors alone turned out to be obsolete. As a matter of course, the error calculus to-be, treating random and unknown systematic errors side by side, should ensure the consistency and traceability of physical units, physical constants and physical quantities at large. The generalized Gaussian error calculus considers unknown systematic errors to spawn biased estimators. Beyond, random errors are asked to conform to the idea of what the author calls well-defined measuring conditions. The approach features the properties of a building kit: any overall uncertainty turns out to be the sum of a contribution due to random errors, to be taken from a confidence inter...

  11. Asymmetry of cerebral grey and white matter and structural volumes in relation to sex hormones and chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka eSavic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Whilst many studies show sex differences in cerebral asymmetry, their mechanisms are still unknown. This report describes the potential impact of sex hormones and sex chromosomes by comparing MR data from 39 male and 47 female controls and 33 men with an extra X-chromosome (47,XXY Methods: Regional asymmetry in grey and white matter volumes (GMV and WMV was calculated using voxel based moprhometry (SPM5, by contrasting the unflipped and flipped individual GMV and WMV images. In addition, structural volumes were calculated for the thalamus, caudate, putamen, amygdala, and hippocampus, using the FreeSurfer software. Effects of plasma testosterone and estrogen on the GMV and WMV, as well on the right/left ratios of the subcortical volumes were tested by multi-regression analysis.Results: All three groups showed a leftward asymmetry in the motor cortex and the planum temporale, and a rightward asymmetry of the middle occipital cortex. Both asymmetries were more pronounced in 46,XY males than 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and were positively correlated with testosterone levels. There was also a rightward asymmetry of the vermis and leftward asymmetry in the cerebellar hemispheres in all groups. Notably, cerebellar asymmetries were larger in 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, but were not related to sex hormone levels. No asymmetry differences between 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and no overall effects of brain size were detected.Conclusion: The asymmetry in the planum temporale area and the occipital cortex seem related to processes associated with testosterone, whereas the observed cerebellar asymmetries suggest a link with X-chromosome escapee genes. Sex differences in cerebral asymmetry are moderated by sex hormones and X-chromosome genes, in a regionally differentiated manner.

  12. Asymmetry of cerebral gray and white matter and structural volumes in relation to sex hormones and chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Ivanka

    2014-01-01

    Whilst many studies show sex differences in cerebral asymmetry, their mechanisms are still unknown. This report describes the potential impact of sex hormones and sex chromosomes by comparing MR data from 39 male and 47 female controls and 33 men with an extra X-chromosome (47,XXY). Regional asymmetry in gray and white matter volumes (GMV and WMV) was calculated using voxel based moprhometry (SPM5), by contrasting the unflipped and flipped individual GMV and WMV images. In addition, structural volumes were calculated for the thalamus, caudate, putamen, amygdala, and hippocampus, using the FreeSurfer software. Effects of plasma testosterone and estrogen on the GMV and WMV, as well on the right/left ratios of the subcortical volumes were tested by multi-regression analysis. All three groups showed a leftward asymmetry in the motor cortex and the planum temporale, and a rightward asymmetry of the middle occipital cortex. Both asymmetries were more pronounced in 46,XY males than 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and were positively correlated with testosterone levels. There was also a rightward asymmetry of the vermis and leftward GMV asymmetry in the cerebellar hemispheres in all groups. Notably, cerebellar asymmetries were larger in 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, but were not related to sex hormone levels. No asymmetry differences between 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and no overall effects of brain size were detected. The asymmetry in the planum temporale area and the occipital cortex seem related to processes associated with testosterone, whereas the observed cerebellar asymmetries suggest a link with X-chromosome escapee genes. Sex differences in cerebral asymmetry are moderated by sex hormones and X-chromosome genes, in a regionally differentiated manner.

  13. Radiation Therapy to the Plexus Brachialis in Breast Cancer Patients: Analysis of Paresthesia in Relation to Dose and Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstedt, Dan; Gustafsson, Magnus; Steineck, Gunnar; Sundberg, Agnetha; Wilderäng, Ulrica; Holmberg, Erik; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Karlsson, Per

    2015-06-01

    To identify volume and dose predictors of paresthesia after irradiation of the brachial plexus among women treated for breast cancer. The women had breast surgery with axillary dissection, followed by radiation therapy with (n=192) or without irradiation (n=509) of the supraclavicular lymph nodes (SCLNs). The breast area was treated to 50 Gy in 2.0-Gy fractions, and 192 of the women also had 46 to 50 Gy to the SCLNs. We delineated the brachial plexus on 3-dimensional dose-planning computerized tomography. Three to eight years after radiation therapy the women answered a questionnaire. Irradiated volumes and doses were calculated and related to the occurrence of paresthesia in the hand. After treatment with axillary dissection with radiation therapy to the SCLNs 20% of the women reported paresthesia, compared with 13% after axillary dissection without radiation therapy, resulting in a relative risk (RR) of 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.11). Paresthesia was reported by 25% after radiation therapy to the SCLNs with a V40 Gy ≥ 13.5 cm(3), compared with 13% without radiation therapy, RR 1.83 (95% CI 1.13-2.95). Women having a maximum dose to the brachial plexus of ≥55.0 Gy had a 25% occurrence of paresthesia, with RR 1.86 (95% CI 0.68-5.07, not significant). Our results indicate that there is a correlation between larger irradiated volumes of the brachial plexus and an increased risk of reported paresthesia among women treated for breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tabulations of Responses from the 2002 Status of the Armed Forces Survey- Workplace and Gender Relations: Volume 2, Gender Related Experiences in the Military and Gender Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenlees, James

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 Status of the Armed Forces Survey - Workplace and Gender Relations gathered information on demographics, workplace information, mentoring, readiness, and health and well-being, gender related...

  15. Human errors in NPP operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Jufang

    1993-01-01

    Based on the operational experiences of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the importance of studying human performance problems is described. Statistical analysis on the significance or frequency of various root-causes and error-modes from a large number of human-error-related events demonstrate that the defects in operation/maintenance procedures, working place factors, communication and training practices are primary root-causes, while omission, transposition, quantitative mistake are the most frequent among the error-modes. Recommendations about domestic research on human performance problem in NPPs are suggested

  16. YAdumper: extracting and translating large information volumes from relational databases to structured flat files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José M; Valencia, Alfonso

    2004-10-12

    Downloading the information stored in relational databases into XML and other flat formats is a common task in bioinformatics. This periodical dumping of information requires considerable CPU time, disk and memory resources. YAdumper has been developed as a purpose-specific tool to deal with the integral structured information download of relational databases. YAdumper is a Java application that organizes database extraction following an XML template based on an external Document Type Declaration. Compared with other non-native alternatives, YAdumper substantially reduces memory requirements and considerably improves writing performance.

  17. Medication errors: prescribing faults and prescription errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velo, Giampaolo P; Minuz, Pietro

    2009-06-01

    1. Medication errors are common in general practice and in hospitals. Both errors in the act of writing (prescription errors) and prescribing faults due to erroneous medical decisions can result in harm to patients. 2. Any step in the prescribing process can generate errors. Slips, lapses, or mistakes are sources of errors, as in unintended omissions in the transcription of drugs. Faults in dose selection, omitted transcription, and poor handwriting are common. 3. Inadequate knowledge or competence and incomplete information about clinical characteristics and previous treatment of individual patients can result in prescribing faults, including the use of potentially inappropriate medications. 4. An unsafe working environment, complex or undefined procedures, and inadequate communication among health-care personnel, particularly between doctors and nurses, have been identified as important underlying factors that contribute to prescription errors and prescribing faults. 5. Active interventions aimed at reducing prescription errors and prescribing faults are strongly recommended. These should be focused on the education and training of prescribers and the use of on-line aids. The complexity of the prescribing procedure should be reduced by introducing automated systems or uniform prescribing charts, in order to avoid transcription and omission errors. Feedback control systems and immediate review of prescriptions, which can be performed with the assistance of a hospital pharmacist, are also helpful. Audits should be performed periodically.

  18. Literature review of environmental qualification of safety-related electric cables: Literature analysis and appendices. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofaro, R.; Bowerman, B.; Carbonaro, J.

    1996-04-01

    In support of the US NRC Environmental Qualification (EQ) Research Program, a literature review was performed to identify past relevant work that could be used to help fully or partially resolve issues of interest related to the qualification of low-voltage electric cable. A summary of the literature reviewed is documented in Volume 1 of this report. In this, Volume 2 of the report, dossiers are presented which document the issues selected for investigation in this program, along with recommendations for future work to resolve the issues, when necessary. The dossiers are based on an analysis of the literature reviewed, as well as expert opinions. This analysis includes a critical review of the information available from past and ongoing work in thirteen specific areas related to EQ. The analysis for each area focuses on one or more questions which must be answered to consider a particular issue resolved. Results of the analysis are presented, along with recommendations for future work. The analysis is documented in the form of a dossier for each of the areas analyzed

  19. Home-School Relations. The Montessori Observer. Volume 30, Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Montessori Society (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "The Montessori Observer" is mailed four times each year, in March, May, September and November, to Society members throughout the world. The purpose is to provide news and information about the Society's work in Montessori education, and to extend awareness. This issue contains a feature article, "Home-School Relations," by…

  20. Prose memory impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients is related to hippocampus volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, J.; van Tol, M.J.; de Visser, M.; van der Kooi, A.J.; Majoie, C.B.; Van den Berg, L.H.; Schmand, B.; Veltman, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Thirty per cent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients have non-motor symptoms, including executive and memory deficits. The in vivo anatomical basis of memory deficits in ALS has not been elucidated. In this observational study, brain atrophy in relation to memory

  1. The volume conjecture, perturbative knot invariants, and recursion relations for topological strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, R.; Fuji, H.; Manabe, M.

    2011-01-01

    We study the relation between perturbative knot invariants and the free energies defined by topological string theory on the character variety of the knot. Such a correspondence between SL(2;C) Chern-Simons gauge theory and the topological open string theory was proposed earlier on the basis of the

  2. Prose memory impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients is related to hippocampus volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, J.; Tol, M.J. van; Visser, M de; Kooi, A.J. van der; Majoie, C.B.; Berg, L.H. van den; Schmand, B.; Veltman, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thirty per cent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients have non-motor symptoms, including executive and memory deficits. The in vivo anatomical basis of memory deficits in ALS has not been elucidated. In this observational study, brain atrophy in relation to memory

  3. Prose memory impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients is related to hippocampus volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, J.; van Tol, M. J.; de Visser, M.; van der Kooi, A. J.; Majoie, C. B.; van den Berg, L. H.; Schmand, B.; Veltman, D. J.

    Background and purposeThirty per cent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients have non-motor symptoms, including executive and memory deficits. The in vivo anatomical basis of memory deficits in ALS has not been elucidated. In this observational study, brain atrophy in relation to memory

  4. Prose memory impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients is related to hippocampus volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaphorst, J.; van Tol, M. J.; de Visser, M.; van der Kooi, A. J.; Majoie, C. B.; van den Berg, L. H.; Schmand, B.; Veltman, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Thirty per cent of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients have non-motor symptoms, including executive and memory deficits. The in vivo anatomical basis of memory deficits in ALS has not been elucidated. In this observational study, brain atrophy in relation to memory function was investigated

  5. Education Relative a l'Environnement: Regards, Recherches, Reflexions. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    This document takes a critical look at the relationship between environment, culture, and development from the perspective of education relative to the environment. Papers include: (1) "Education a l'environnement ou acculturation?" (Jean-Etienne Bidou); (2) "Environnement et developpement: La culture de la filiere ONU" (Lucie Sauve, Tom Berryman,…

  6. Amygdala Volume Differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder Are Related to Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, John D.; Maddox, Brenna B.; Kerns, Connor M.; Rump, Keiran; Worley, Julie A.; Bush, Jennifer C.; McVey, Alana J.; Schultz, Robert T.; Miller, Judith S.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that longstanding findings of abnormal amygdala morphology in ASD may be related to symptoms of anxiety. To test this hypothesis, fifty-three children with ASD (mean age = 11.9) underwent structural MRI and were divided into subgroups to compare those with at least one anxiety disorder diagnosis (n = 29) to those without (n…

  7. A DDC Bibliography on Microfiche, Microfilm and Related Equipment, Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    This bibliography contains abstracts of 40 unclassified-unlimited reports on microfiche, microfilm and related equipment acquired by the Defense Documentation Center since 1953. Citations are topically arranged in AD sequence, ascending order. The following computer produced indexes are provided: subject, corporate author, personal author,…

  8. The Impact of Short-Term Science Teacher Professional Development on the Evaluation of Student Understanding and Errors Related to Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschang, Rebecca Ellen

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a short-term professional development session. Forty volunteer high school biology teachers were randomly assigned to one of two professional development conditions: (a) developing deep content knowledge (i.e., control condition) or (b) evaluating student errors and understanding in writing samples (i.e.,…

  9. The Impact of Short-Term Science Teacher Professional Development on the Evaluation of Student Understanding and Errors Related to Natural Selection. CRESST Report 822

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschang, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a short-term professional development session. Forty volunteer high school biology teachers were randomly assigned to one of two professional development conditions: (a) developing deep content knowledge (i.e., control condition) or (b) evaluating student errors and understanding in writing samples (i.e.,…

  10. The spatial distribution of errors made by rats in Hebb-Williams type mazes in relation to the spatial properties of the blind alleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, S. de; Bohus, B.

    The various configurations in series of Hebb-Williams type of mazes, which are used to measure problem solving behaviour in rats, differ markedly in structure. The relationship between error behaviour and spatial maze structure in control rats tested in a number of pharmacological experiments is

  11. Developmental Aspects of Error and High-Conflict-Related Brain Activity in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A FMRI Study with a Flanker Task before and after CBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyser, Chaim; Veltman, Dick J.; Wolters, Lidewij H.; de Haan, Else; Boer, Frits

    2011-01-01

    Background: Heightened error and conflict monitoring are considered central mechanisms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and are associated with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function. Pediatric obsessive-compulsive patients provide an opportunity to investigate the development of this area and its associations with psychopathology.…

  12. Throughput Estimation Method in Burst ACK Scheme for Optimizing Frame Size and Burst Frame Number Appropriate to SNR-Related Error Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohteru, Shoko; Kishine, Keiji

    The Burst ACK scheme enhances effective throughput by reducing ACK overhead when a transmitter sends sequentially multiple data frames to a destination. IEEE 802.11e is one such example. The size of the data frame body and the number of burst data frames are important burst transmission parameters that affect throughput. The larger the burst transmission parameters are, the better the throughput under error-free conditions becomes. However, large data frame could reduce throughput under error-prone conditions caused by signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) deterioration. If the throughput can be calculated from the burst transmission parameters and error rate, the appropriate ranges of the burst transmission parameters could be narrowed down, and the necessary buffer size for storing transmit data or received data temporarily could be estimated. In this paper, we present a method that features a simple algorithm for estimating the effective throughput from the burst transmission parameters and error rate. The calculated throughput values agree well with the measured ones for actual wireless boards based on the IEEE 802.11-based original MAC protocol. We also calculate throughput values for larger values of the burst transmission parameters outside the assignable values of the wireless boards and find the appropriate values of the burst transmission parameters.

  13. The Relation Between Inflation in Type-I and Type-II Error Rate and Population Divergence in Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Multi-Ethnic Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, E. M.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Gamazon, E. R.

    2017-01-01

    Population divergence impacts the degree of population stratification in Genome Wide Association Studies. We aim to: (i) investigate type-I error rate as a function of population divergence (FST) in multi-ethnic (admixed) populations; (ii) evaluate the statistical power and effect size estimates;

  14. [Evaluation of administration errors of injectable drugs in neonatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, A; Sayadi, M; Ben Hmida, H; Ben Ameur, K; Mestiri, K

    2015-11-01

    Use of injectable drugs in newborns represents more than 90% of prescriptions and requires special precautions in order to ensure more safety and efficiency. The aim of this study is to gather errors relating to the administration of injectable drugs and to suggest corrective actions. This descriptive and transversal study has evaluated 300 injectable drug administrations in a neonatology unit. Two hundred and sixty-one administrations have contained an error. Data are collected by direct observations of administrative act. Errors observed are: an inappropriate mixture (2.6% of cases); an incorrect delivery rate (33.7% of cases); incorrect dilutions (26.7% of cases); error in calculation of the dose to be injected (16.7% of cases); error while sampling small volumes (6.3% of cases); error or omission of administration schedule (1% of cases). These data have enabled us to evaluate administration of injectable drugs in neonatology. Different types of errors observed could be a source of therapeutic inefficiency, extended lengths of stay or iatrogenic drug. Following these observations, corrective actions have been undertaken by pharmacists and consist of: organizing training sessions for nursing; developing an explanatory guide for dilution and administration of injectable medicines, which was made available to the clinical service. Collaborative strategies doctor-nurse-pharmacist can help to reduce errors in the medication process especially during his administration. It permits improvement of injectable drugs use, offering more security and better efficiency and contribute to guarantee ideal therapy for patients. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Interpreting the change detection error matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van P.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Two different matrices are commonly reported in assessment of change detection accuracy: (1) single date error matrices and (2) binary change/no change error matrices. The third, less common form of reporting, is the transition error matrix. This paper discuses the relation between these matrices.

  16. Human Error Mechanisms in Complex Work Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1988-01-01

    will account for most of the action errors observed. In addition, error mechanisms appear to be intimately related to the development of high skill and know-how in a complex work context. This relationship between errors and human adaptation is discussed in detail for individuals and organisations...

  17. Investigation of relation between visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat volumes and calcified aortic plaques via multislice computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Duran; Aygün, Fatih; Acar, Türker; Yildiz, Melda; Gemici, Kazım

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated effect of subcutaneous fat volume and abdominal visceral fat volume on aortic atherosclerosis via multislice computed tomography. The present study comprised 424 subjects who underwent non-contrast-enhanced abdominal CT in our clinic between June 2012 and June 2013. Using dedicated software visceral fat volume was calculated for each individual and then subcutaneous fat volume was calculated by subtracting visceral fat volume from total fat volume. By dividing visceral fat volume/subcutaneous fat volume participants were assigned to three groups according to their mean visceral fat volume/subcutaneous fat volume: Group 1 consisted of subjects with visceral fat volume/subcutaneous fat volume lower than 0.48 (Group 1 fat volume/subcutaneous fat volume equal to or higher than 0.48 and lower than 0.69 (0.48 ≤ Group 2 fat volume/subcutaneous fat volume equal to or higher than 0.69 (Group 3 ≥ 0.69). The mean abdominal aortic calcium scores according to Agatston scoring (au) were 136.8 ± 418.7 au in Group 1, 179.9 ± 463 au in Group 2 and 212.2 ± 486.9 in Group 3, respectively. We have demonstrated a significant correlation between visceral fat volume and abdominal aorta atherosclerosis, while there was absence of significant correlation between subcutaneous fat volume and abdominal atherosclerosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Identifying practice-related factors for high-volume prescribers of antibiotics in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Sandholdt, Håkon

    2017-01-01

    practice-related factors driving high antibiotic prescribing rates. Results: We included 98% of general practices in Denmark (n = 1962) and identified a 10% group of high prescribers who accounted for 15% of total antibiotic prescriptions and 18% of critically important antibiotic prescriptions. Once case...... prescriptions issued over the phone compared with all antibiotic prescriptions; and a high number of consultations per 1000 patients. We also found that a low number of consultations per 1000 patients was associated with a reduced likelihood of being a high prescriber of antibiotics. Conclusions: An apparent...

  19. Relativity, Symmetry, and the Structure of Quantum Theory, Volume 2; Point form relativistic quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, William H.; Schweiger, Wolfgang

    2018-03-01

    This book covers relativistic quantum theory from the point of view of a particle theory, based on the irreducible representations of the Poincaré group, the group that expresses the symmetry of Einstein relativity. There are several ways of formulating such a theory; this book develops what is called relativistic point form quantum mechanics, which, unlike quantum field theory, deals with a fixed number of particles in a relativistically invariant way. A chapter is devoted to applications of point form quantum mechanics to nuclear physics.

  20. Issues Related to Recruitment of Enlisted Personnel for the Reserve Components. Wave II. Technical Volume. Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    in the military; atti- tudes toward feminism ; and other attitudes related to the need to be with others and feelings of control/ stability. -29...to play team sports than individual sports . l( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 5( ) -41e. Our country is too militaristic. 1( ) 2( ) 3( ) 4( ) 5( )-4 f. A nation...U( 2( ) 3( ) 4( X ()-L9 d, It’s more fun to play team sports than individual sports . () 2() 3() 4() 5( )-2 e. Our country is too militaristic. 1( ) 2

  1. An Annotated Bibliography of Patents Related to Coastal Engineering. Volume III. 1974-1976. Appendix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    S.Int. C. F3b 1312 Claim U.S. Cl. X.R. 290-53 Devcloprig and changing kinc:ic energ\\ rmotion ) into -,otcntial dnamic e’crgy contnuousl’, and non...jets on a frame cut the trench. , - i .. The apparatus is motivated by a drive roller that is re- s$ientv urged against the pipellie. Forward guide rol...contacts the pipeine to provide a control on the position of the machine relative to the pipeline and is self motivated . 360 - ,. IA,¢ -’a -- A

  2. Monitoring Heavy Metal Contents with Sphagnum Junghuhnianum Moss Bags in Relation to Traffic Volume in Wuxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rong; Yan, Yun; Zhou, Xiaoli; Wang, Yanan; Fang, Yanming

    2018-02-22

    Despite its small size, a moss bag can reveal the different temporal and spatial deposition patterns of pollutants at a particular site; therefore, researchers can use moss bags to determine pollution sources and to put forward strategies for pollution control. Although the use of moss bags to monitor atmospheric pollution has been widely reported in Europe, there are few such empirical studies in China. Thus, in this study, bags containing the moss Sphagnum junghuhnianum were used to assess the concentrations of heavy metals (chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)) at five sampling sites (four roads and a forest park) during the summer and winter of 2012. According to the relative accumulation factor (RAF) and contamination factor (CF) results, pollution in winter was heavier than that in summer, and Cr was found to be the most contaminating, having the highest mean CF. There was a significant positive correlation ( p heavy metals (Cr, Cu, and V) in winter, whereas a significant positive correlation ( p heavy metal elements (Cr, Pb, V, and Zn) in summer, indicating a close relationship between heavy metal contents and traffic volume. Although there was substantial variation in the concentrations of the five heavy metals in the moss bags, significant correlations between heavy metals suggested that the contaminants originated from a common source, namely vehicle emissions. The results demonstrated that the four roads were subject to different degrees of pollution depending on the volume of traffic using each road. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that traffic volume is a major reason for heavy metal pollution.

  3. Errors, error detection, error correction and hippocampal-region damage: data and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W

    2013-11-01

    This review and perspective article outlines 15 observational constraints on theories of errors, error detection, and error correction, and their relation to hippocampal-region (HR) damage. The core observations come from 10 studies with H.M., an amnesic with cerebellar and HR damage but virtually no neocortical damage. Three studies examined the detection of errors planted in visual scenes (e.g., a bird flying in a fish bowl in a school classroom) and sentences (e.g., I helped themselves to the birthday cake). In all three experiments, H.M. detected reliably fewer errors than carefully matched memory-normal controls. Other studies examined the detection and correction of self-produced errors, with controls for comprehension of the instructions, impaired visual acuity, temporal factors, motoric slowing, forgetting, excessive memory load, lack of motivation, and deficits in visual scanning or attention. In these studies, H.M. corrected reliably fewer errors than memory-normal and cerebellar controls, and his uncorrected errors in speech, object naming, and reading aloud exhibited two consistent features: omission and anomaly. For example, in sentence production tasks, H.M. omitted one or more words in uncorrected encoding errors that rendered his sentences anomalous (incoherent, incomplete, or ungrammatical) reliably more often than controls. Besides explaining these core findings, the theoretical principles discussed here explain H.M.'s retrograde amnesia for once familiar episodic and semantic information; his anterograde amnesia for novel information; his deficits in visual cognition, sentence comprehension, sentence production, sentence reading, and object naming; and effects of aging on his ability to read isolated low frequency words aloud. These theoretical principles also explain a wide range of other data on error detection and correction and generate new predictions for future test. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mission definition study for Stanford relativity satellite. Volume 2: Engineering flight test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The need is examined for orbital flight tests of gyroscope, dewar, and other components, in order to reduce the technical and financial risk in performing the relativity experiment. A program is described that would generate engineering data to permit prediction of final performance. Two flight tests are recommended. The first flight would test a dewar smaller than that required for the final flight, but of size and form sufficient to allow extrapolation to the final design. The second flight would use the same dewar design to carry a set of three gyroscopes, which would be evaluated for spinup and drift characteristics for a period of a month or more. A proportional gas control system using boiloff helium gas from the dewar, and having the ability to prevent sloshing of liquid helium, would also be tested.

  5. Medical Isotopes Production Project: Molybdenum-99 and related isotopes: Environmental Impact Statement, Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) provides environmental and technical information concerning the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to establish a domestic source to produce molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) and related medical isotopes (iodine-131, xenon-133 and iodine-125). Mo-99, a radioactive isotope of the element molybdenum, decays to form metastable technetium-99 (Tc-99m), a radioactive isotope used thousands of times daily in medical diagnostic procedures in the U.S. Currently, all Mo-99 used in the U.S. is obtained from a single Canadian source. DOE is pursuing the Medical Isotopes Production Project in order to ensure that a reliable supply of Mo-99 is available to the U.S. medical community. Under DOE's preferred alternative, the Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Annular Core Research Reactor and Hot Cell Facility at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) would be used for production of the medical isotopes. In addition to the preferred alternative, three other reasonable alternatives and a no action alternative are analyzed in detail. The sites for the three reasonable alternatives are LANL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The analyses in this EIS indicate no significant difference in the potential environmental impacts among the alternatives. Each of the alternatives would use essentially the same technology for the production of the medical isotopes. Minor differences in environmental impacts among alternatives relate to the extent of activity necessary to modify and restart (as necessary) existing reactors and hot cell facilities at each of the sites, the quantities, of low-level radioactive waste generated, how such waste would be managed, and the length of time needed for initial and full production capacity

  6. A Methodology for Validating Safety Heuristics Using Clinical Simulations: Identifying and Preventing Possible Technology-Induced Errors Related to Using Health Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre; Carvalho, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, health information systems (HIS) safety has emerged as a significant concern for governments. Recently, research has emerged that has documented the ability of HIS to be implicated in the harm and death of patients. Researchers have attempted to develop methods that can be used to prevent or reduce technology-induced errors. Some researchers are developing methods that can be employed prior to systems release. These methods include the development of safety heuristics and clinical simulations. In this paper, we outline our methodology for developing safety heuristics specific to identifying the features or functions of a HIS user interface design that may lead to technology-induced errors. We follow this with a description of a methodological approach to validate these heuristics using clinical simulations. PMID:23606902

  7. Relative cerebral blood volume is associated with collateral status and infarct growth in stroke patients in SWIFT PRIME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, Juan F; Cortijo, Elisa; García-Bermejo, Pablo; Levy, Elad I; Jahan, Reza; Goyal, Mayank; Saver, Jeffrey L; Albers, Gregory W

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate how predefined candidate cerebral perfusion parameters correlate with collateral circulation status and to assess their capacity to predict infarct growth in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) eligible for endovascular therapy. Patients enrolled in the SWIFT PRIME trial with baseline computed tomography perfusion (CTP) scans were included. RAPID software was used to calculate mean relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in hypoperfused regions, and hypoperfusion index ratio (HIR). Blind assessments of collaterals were performed using CT angiography in the whole sample and cerebral angiogram in the endovascular group. Reperfusion was assessed on 27-h CTP; infarct volume was assessed on 27-h magnetic resonance imaging/CT scans. Logistic and rank linear regression models were conducted. We included 158 patients. High rCBV ( p = 0.03) and low HIR ( p = 0.03) were associated with good collaterals. A positive association was found between rCBV and better collateral grades on cerebral angiography ( p = 0.01). Baseline and 27-h follow-up CTP were available for 115 patients, of whom 74 (64%) achieved successful reperfusion. Lower rCBV predicted a higher infarct growth in successfully reperfused patients ( p = 0.038) and in the endovascular treatment group ( p = 0.049). Finally, rCBV and HIR may serve as markers of collateral circulation in AIS patients prior to endovascular therapy. Unique identifier: NCT0165746.

  8. The relation between media promotions and service volume for a statewide tobacco quitline and a web-based cessation program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schillo Barbara A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This observational study assessed the relation between mass media campaigns and service volume for a statewide tobacco cessation quitline and stand-alone web-based cessation program. Methods Multivariate regression analysis was used to identify how weekly calls to a cessation quitline and weekly registrations to a web-based cessation program are related to levels of broadcast media, media campaigns, and media types, controlling for the impact of external and earned media events. Results There was a positive relation between weekly broadcast targeted rating points and the number of weekly calls to a cessation quitline and the number of weekly registrations to a web-based cessation program. Additionally, print secondhand smoke ads and online cessation ads were positively related to weekly quitline calls. Television and radio cessation ads and radio smoke-free law ads were positively related to web program registration levels. There was a positive relation between the number of web registrations and the number of calls to the cessation quitline, with increases in registrations to the web in 1 week corresponding to increases in calls to the quitline in the subsequent week. Web program registration levels were more highly influenced by earned media and other external events than were quitline call volumes. Conclusion Overall, broadcast advertising had a greater impact on registrations for the web program than calls to the quitline. Furthermore, registrations for the web program influenced calls to the quitline. These two findings suggest the evolving roles of web-based cessation programs and Internet-use practices should be considered when creating cessation programs and media campaigns to promote them. Additionally, because different types of media and campaigns were positively associated with calls to the quitline and web registrations, developing mass media campaigns that offer a variety of messages and communicate through

  9. Prescription Errors in Psychiatry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    clinical pharmacists in detecting errors before they have a (sometimes serious) clinical impact should not be underestimated. Research on medication error in mental health care is limited. .... participation in ward rounds and adverse drug.

  10. Inventory of Federal Energy-Related Environment and Safety Research for FY 1978. Volume III, interactive terminal users guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, C. E.; Barker, Janice F.

    1979-12-01

    This users' guide was prepared to provide interested persons access to, via computer terminals, federally funded energy-related environmental and safety research projects for FY 1978. Although this information is also available in hardbound volumes, this on-line searching capability is expected to reduce the time required to answer ad hoc questions and, at the same time, produce meaningful reports. The data contained in this data base are not exhaustive and represent research reported by the following agencies: Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, Department of Defense, Department of Energy, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Department of the Interior, Department of Transportation, Federal Energy Administration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Tennessee Valley Authority, U.S. Coast Guard, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  11. Sensation seeking and error processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ya; Sheng, Wenbin; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-09-01

    Sensation seeking is defined by a strong need for varied, novel, complex, and intense stimulation, and a willingness to take risks for such experience. Several theories propose that the insensitivity to negative consequences incurred by risks is one of the hallmarks of sensation-seeking behaviors. In this study, we investigated the time course of error processing in sensation seeking by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) while high and low sensation seekers performed an Eriksen flanker task. Whereas there were no group differences in ERPs to correct trials, sensation seeking was associated with a blunted error-related negativity (ERN), which was female-specific. Further, different subdimensions of sensation seeking were related to ERN amplitude differently. These findings indicate that the relationship between sensation seeking and error processing is sex-specific. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Clinical errors and medical negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebode, Femi

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the definition, nature and origins of clinical errors including their prevention. The relationship between clinical errors and medical negligence is examined as are the characteristics of litigants and events that are the source of litigation. The pattern of malpractice claims in different specialties and settings is examined. Among hospitalized patients worldwide, 3-16% suffer injury as a result of medical intervention, the most common being the adverse effects of drugs. The frequency of adverse drug effects appears superficially to be higher in intensive care units and emergency departments but once rates have been corrected for volume of patients, comorbidity of conditions and number of drugs prescribed, the difference is not significant. It is concluded that probably no more than 1 in 7 adverse events in medicine result in a malpractice claim and the factors that predict that a patient will resort to litigation include a prior poor relationship with the clinician and the feeling that the patient is not being kept informed. Methods for preventing clinical errors are still in their infancy. The most promising include new technologies such as electronic prescribing systems, diagnostic and clinical decision-making aids and error-resistant systems. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Game Design Principles based on Human Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Zaffari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper displays the result of the authors’ research regarding to the incorporation of Human Error, through design principles, to video game design. In a general way, designers must consider Human Error factors throughout video game interface development; however, when related to its core design, adaptations are in need, since challenge is an important factor for fun and under the perspective of Human Error, challenge can be considered as a flaw in the system. The research utilized Human Error classifications, data triangulation via predictive human error analysis, and the expanded flow theory to allow the design of a set of principles in order to match the design of playful challenges with the principles of Human Error. From the results, it was possible to conclude that the application of Human Error in game design has a positive effect on player experience, allowing it to interact only with errors associated with the intended aesthetics of the game.

  14. Applying Intelligent Algorithms to Automate the Identification of Error Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haizhe; Qu, Qingxing; Munechika, Masahiko; Sano, Masataka; Kajihara, Chisato; Duffy, Vincent G; Chen, Han

    2018-05-03

    Medical errors are the manifestation of the defects occurring in medical processes. Extracting and identifying defects as medical error factors from these processes are an effective approach to prevent medical errors. However, it is a difficult and time-consuming task and requires an analyst with a professional medical background. The issues of identifying a method to extract medical error factors and reduce the extraction difficulty need to be resolved. In this research, a systematic methodology to extract and identify error factors in the medical administration process was proposed. The design of the error report, extraction of the error factors, and identification of the error factors were analyzed. Based on 624 medical error cases across four medical institutes in both Japan and China, 19 error-related items and their levels were extracted. After which, they were closely related to 12 error factors. The relational model between the error-related items and error factors was established based on a genetic algorithm (GA)-back-propagation neural network (BPNN) model. Additionally, compared to GA-BPNN, BPNN, partial least squares regression and support vector regression, GA-BPNN exhibited a higher overall prediction accuracy, being able to promptly identify the error factors from the error-related items. The combination of "error-related items, their different levels, and the GA-BPNN model" was proposed as an error-factor identification technology, which could automatically identify medical error factors.

  15. Calculating potential error in sodium MRI with respect to the analysis of small objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobbe, Robert W; Beaulieu, Christian

    2018-06-01

    To facilitate correct interpretation of sodium MRI measurements, calculation of error with respect to rapid signal decay is introduced and combined with that of spatially correlated noise to assess volume-of-interest (VOI) 23 Na signal measurement inaccuracies, particularly for small objects. Noise and signal decay-related error calculations were verified using twisted projection imaging and a specially designed phantom with different sized spheres of constant elevated sodium concentration. As a demonstration, lesion signal measurement variation (5 multiple sclerosis participants) was compared with that predicted from calculation. Both theory and phantom experiment showed that VOI signal measurement in a large 10-mL, 314-voxel sphere was 20% less than expected on account of point-spread-function smearing when the VOI was drawn to include the full sphere. Volume-of-interest contraction reduced this error but increased noise-related error. Errors were even greater for smaller spheres (40-60% less than expected for a 0.35-mL, 11-voxel sphere). Image-intensity VOI measurements varied and increased with multiple sclerosis lesion size in a manner similar to that predicted from theory. Correlation suggests large underestimation of 23 Na signal in small lesions. Acquisition-specific measurement error calculation aids 23 Na MRI data analysis and highlights the limitations of current low-resolution methodologies. Magn Reson Med 79:2968-2977, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Errors in otology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartush, J M

    1996-11-01

    Practicing medicine successfully requires that errors in diagnosis and treatment be minimized. Malpractice laws encourage litigators to ascribe all medical errors to incompetence and negligence. There are, however, many other causes of unintended outcomes. This article describes common causes of errors and suggests ways to minimize mistakes in otologic practice. Widespread dissemination of knowledge about common errors and their precursors can reduce the incidence of their occurrence. Consequently, laws should be passed to allow for a system of non-punitive, confidential reporting of errors and "near misses" that can be shared by physicians nationwide.

  17. Volume-Dependent Overestimation of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hematoma Volume by the ABC/2 Formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chih-Wei Wang; Chun-Jung Juan; Hsian-He Hsu; Hua-Shan Liu; Cheng-Yu Chen; Chun-Jen Hsueh; Hung-Wen Kao; Guo-Shu Huang; Yi-Jui Liu; Chung-Ping Lo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although the ABC/2 formula has been widely used to estimate the volume of intracerebral hematoma (ICH), the formula tends to overestimate hematoma volume. The volume-related imprecision of the ABC/2 formula has not been documented quantitatively. Purpose: To investigate the volume-dependent overestimation of the ABC/2 formula by comparing it with computer-assisted volumetric analysis (CAVA). Material and Methods: Forty patients who had suffered spontaneous ICH and who had undergone non-enhanced brain computed tomography scans were enrolled in this study. The ICH volume was estimated based on the ABC/2 formula and also calculated by CAVA. Based on the ICH volume calculated by the CAVA method, the patients were divided into three groups: group 1 consisted of 17 patients with an ICH volume of less than 20 ml; group 2 comprised 13 patients with an ICH volume of 20 to 40 ml; and group 3 was composed of 10 patients with an ICH volume larger than 40 ml. Results: The mean estimated hematoma volume was 43.6 ml when using the ABC/2 formula, compared with 33.8 ml when using the CAVA method. The mean estimated difference was 1.3 ml, 4.4 ml, and 31.4 ml for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, corresponding to an estimation error of 9.9%, 16.7%, and 37.1% by the ABC/2 formula (P<0.05). Conclusion: The ABC/2 formula significantly overestimates the volume of ICH. A positive association between the estimation error and the volume of ICH is demonstrated

  18. Eliminating US hospital medical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sameer; Steinebach, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare costs in the USA have continued to rise steadily since the 1980s. Medical errors are one of the major causes of deaths and injuries of thousands of patients every year, contributing to soaring healthcare costs. The purpose of this study is to examine what has been done to deal with the medical-error problem in the last two decades and present a closed-loop mistake-proof operation system for surgery processes that would likely eliminate preventable medical errors. The design method used is a combination of creating a service blueprint, implementing the six sigma DMAIC cycle, developing cause-and-effect diagrams as well as devising poka-yokes in order to develop a robust surgery operation process for a typical US hospital. In the improve phase of the six sigma DMAIC cycle, a number of poka-yoke techniques are introduced to prevent typical medical errors (identified through cause-and-effect diagrams) that may occur in surgery operation processes in US hospitals. It is the authors' assertion that implementing the new service blueprint along with the poka-yokes, will likely result in the current medical error rate to significantly improve to the six-sigma level. Additionally, designing as many redundancies as possible in the delivery of care will help reduce medical errors. Primary healthcare providers should strongly consider investing in adequate doctor and nurse staffing, and improving their education related to the quality of service delivery to minimize clinical errors. This will lead to an increase in higher fixed costs, especially in the shorter time frame. This paper focuses additional attention needed to make a sound technical and business case for implementing six sigma tools to eliminate medical errors that will enable hospital managers to increase their hospital's profitability in the long run and also ensure patient safety.

  19. Human errors and work performance in a nuclear power plant control room: associations with work-related factors and behavioral coping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecklund, L.J.; Svenson, O.

    1997-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between the operator's appraisal of his own work situation and the quality of his own work performance, as well as self-reported errors in a nuclear power plant control room. In all, 98 control room operators from two nuclear power units filled out a questionnaire and several diaries during two operational conditions, annual outage and normal operation. As expected, the operators reported higher work demands in annual outage as compared to normal operation. In response to the increased demands, the operators reported that they used coping strategies such as increased effort, decreased aspiration level for work performance quality, and increased use of delegation of tasks to others. This way of coping does not reflect less positive motivation for the work during the outage period. Instead, the operators maintain the same positive motivation for their work, and succeed in being more alert during morning and night shifts. However, the operators feel less satisfied with their work result. The operators also perceive the risk of making minor errors as increasing during outage. (Author)

  20. Inventory of Federal energy-related environment and safety research for FY 1977. Volume II. Project listings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    This volume contains Biomedical and Environmental Research, Environmental Control Technology Research, and Operational and Environmental Safety Research project listings. The projects are ordered numerically by log number.

  1. The error in total error reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witnauer, James E; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Miller, Ralph R

    2014-02-01

    Most models of human and animal learning assume that learning is proportional to the discrepancy between a delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by all cues present during that trial (i.e., total error across a stimulus compound). This total error reduction (TER) view has been implemented in connectionist and artificial neural network models to describe the conditions under which weights between units change. Electrophysiological work has revealed that the activity of dopamine neurons is correlated with the total error signal in models of reward learning. Similar neural mechanisms presumably support fear conditioning, human contingency learning, and other types of learning. Using a computational modeling approach, we compared several TER models of associative learning to an alternative model that rejects the TER assumption in favor of local error reduction (LER), which assumes that learning about each cue is proportional to the discrepancy between the delivered outcome and the outcome predicted by that specific cue on that trial. The LER model provided a better fit to the reviewed data than the TER models. Given the superiority of the LER model with the present data sets, acceptance of TER should be tempered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Observer variation in target volume delineation of lung cancer related to radiation oncologist-computer interaction: A 'Big Brother' evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenbakkers, Roel J.H.M.; Duppen, Joop C.; Fitton, Isabelle; Deurloo, Kirsten E.I.; Zijp, Lambert; Uitterhoeve, Apollonia L.J.; Rodrigus, Patrick T.R.; Kramer, Gijsbert W.P.; Bussink, Johan; Jaeger, Katrien De; Belderbos, Jose S.A.; Hart, Augustinus A.M.; Nowak, Peter J.C.M.; Herk, Marcel van; Rasch, Coen R.N.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the process of target volume delineation in lung cancer for optimization of imaging, delineation protocol and delineation software. Patients and methods: Eleven radiation oncologists (observers) from five different institutions delineated the Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) including positive lymph nodes of 22 lung cancer patients (stages I-IIIB) on CT only. All radiation oncologist-computer interactions were recorded with a tool called 'Big Brother'. For each radiation oncologist and patient the following issues were analyzed: delineation time, number of delineated points and corrections, zoom levels, level and window (L/W) settings, CT slice changes, use of side windows (coronal and sagittal) and software button use. Results: The mean delineation time per GTV was 16 min (SD 10 min). The mean delineation time for lymph node positive patients was on average 3 min larger (P=0.02) than for lymph node negative patients. Many corrections (55%) were due to L/W change (e.g. delineating in mediastinum L/W and then correcting in lung L/W). For the lymph node region, a relatively large number of corrections was found (3.7 corr/cm 2 ), indicating that it was difficult to delineate lymph nodes. For the tumor-atelectasis region, a relative small number of corrections was found (1.0 corr/cm 2 ), indicating that including or excluding atelectasis into the GTV was a clinical decision. Inappropriate use of L/W settings was frequently found (e.g. 46% of all delineated points in the tumor-lung region were delineated in mediastinum L/W settings). Despite a large observer variation in cranial and caudal direction of 0.72 cm (1 SD), the coronal and sagittal side windows were not used in 45 and 60% of the cases, respectively. For the more difficult cases, observer variation was smaller when the coronal and sagittal side windows were used. Conclusions: With the 'Big Brother' tool a method was developed to trace the delineation process. The differences between

  3. Errors in Neonatology

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Boldrini; Rosa T. Scaramuzzo; Armando Cuttano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Danger and errors are inherent in human activities. In medical practice errors can lean to adverse events for patients. Mass media echo the whole scenario. Methods: We reviewed recent published papers in PubMed database to focus on the evidence and management of errors in medical practice in general and in Neonatology in particular. We compared the results of the literature with our specific experience in Nina Simulation Centre (Pisa, Italy). Results: In Neonatology the main err...

  4. Glomerular filtration rate in relation to extracellular fluid volume: similarity between 99mTc-DTPA and inulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunasekera, R.D.; Allison, D.J.; Peters, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare 99m Tc-DTPA plasma clearance kinetics with those of inulin, injected simultaneously, with respect especially to α 2 , rapidity of equilibration within the distribution volume and the components and size of the distribution volume. (orig./MG)

  5. Systematic Procedural Error

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byrne, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    .... This problem has received surprisingly little attention from cognitive psychologists. The research summarized here examines such errors in some detail both empirically and through computational cognitive modeling...

  6. Human errors and mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1993-01-01

    Human errors have a major contribution to the risks for industrial accidents. Accidents have provided important lesson making it possible to build safer systems. In avoiding human errors it is necessary to adapt the systems to their operators. The complexity of modern industrial systems is however increasing the danger of system accidents. Models of the human operator have been proposed, but the models are not able to give accurate predictions of human performance. Human errors can never be eliminated, but their frequency can be decreased by systematic efforts. The paper gives a brief summary of research in human error and it concludes with suggestions for further work. (orig.)

  7. Searching for God: Illness-Related Mortality Threats and Religious Search Volume in Google in 16 Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelham, Brett W; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Arndt, Jamie; Carvallo, Mauricio; Solomon, Sheldon; Greenberg, Jeff

    2018-03-01

    We tested predictions about religiosity and terror management processes in 16 nations. Specifically, we examined weekly variation in Google search volume in each nation for 12 years (all weeks for which data were available). In all 16 nations, higher than usual weekly Google search volume for life-threatening illnesses (cancer, diabetes, and hypertension) predicted increases in search volume for religious content (e.g., God, Jesus, prayer) in the following week. This effect held up after controlling for (a) recent past and annual variation in religious search volume, (b) increases in search volume associated with religious holidays, and (c) variation in searches for a non-life-threatening illness ("sore throat"). Terror management threat reduction processes appear to occur across the globe. Furthermore, they may occur over much longer periods than those studied in the laboratory. Managing fears of death via religious belief regulation appears to be culturally pervasive.

  8. Correcting quantum errors with entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Todd; Devetak, Igor; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2006-10-20

    We show how entanglement shared between encoder and decoder can simplify the theory of quantum error correction. The entanglement-assisted quantum codes we describe do not require the dual-containing constraint necessary for standard quantum error-correcting codes, thus allowing us to "quantize" all of classical linear coding theory. In particular, efficient modern classical codes that attain the Shannon capacity can be made into entanglement-assisted quantum codes attaining the hashing bound (closely related to the quantum capacity). For systems without large amounts of shared entanglement, these codes can also be used as catalytic codes, in which a small amount of initial entanglement enables quantum communication.

  9. Large errors and severe conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, D L; Van Wormer, L A

    2002-01-01

    Physical parameters that can assume real-number values over a continuous range are generally represented by inherently positive random variables. However, if the uncertainties in these parameters are significant (large errors), conventional means of representing and manipulating the associated variables can lead to erroneous results. Instead, all analyses involving them must be conducted in a probabilistic framework. Several issues must be considered: First, non-linear functional relations between primary and derived variables may lead to significant 'error amplification' (severe conditions). Second, the commonly used normal (Gaussian) probability distribution must be replaced by a more appropriate function that avoids the occurrence of negative sampling results. Third, both primary random variables and those derived through well-defined functions must be dealt with entirely in terms of their probability distributions. Parameter 'values' and 'errors' should be interpreted as specific moments of these probabil...

  10. Learning from Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Although error avoidance during learning appears to be the rule in American classrooms, laboratory studies suggest that it may be a counterproductive strategy, at least for neurologically typical students. Experimental investigations indicate that errorful learning followed by corrective feedback is beneficial to learning. Interestingly, the…

  11. Reward positivity: Reward prediction error or salience prediction error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Sepideh; Holroyd, Clay B

    2016-08-01

    The reward positivity is a component of the human ERP elicited by feedback stimuli in trial-and-error learning and guessing tasks. A prominent theory holds that the reward positivity reflects a reward prediction error signal that is sensitive to outcome valence, being larger for unexpected positive events relative to unexpected negative events (Holroyd & Coles, 2002). Although the theory has found substantial empirical support, most of these studies have utilized either monetary or performance feedback to test the hypothesis. However, in apparent contradiction to the theory, a recent study found that unexpected physical punishments also elicit the reward positivity (Talmi, Atkinson, & El-Deredy, 2013). The authors of this report argued that the reward positivity reflects a salience prediction error rather than a reward prediction error. To investigate this finding further, in the present study participants navigated a virtual T maze and received feedback on each trial under two conditions. In a reward condition, the feedback indicated that they would either receive a monetary reward or not and in a punishment condition the feedback indicated that they would receive a small shock or not. We found that the feedback stimuli elicited a typical reward positivity in the reward condition and an apparently delayed reward positivity in the punishment condition. Importantly, this signal was more positive to the stimuli that predicted the omission of a possible punishment relative to stimuli that predicted a forthcoming punishment, which is inconsistent with the salience hypothesis. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  13. Testing for Nonlinear Granger Causality in the Price-Volume Relations of Taiwan's Stock and Foreign Exchange Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Shyh-Wei Chen; Chun-Wei Chen

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the price-volume relationships of Taiwan's stock and foreign exchange markets. We first adopt the traditional linear Granger causality test to achieve this goal. In addition, the nonlinearity feature is also taken into account. We employ the nonlinear Granger causality test, championed by Hiemstra and Jones (1994), to detect the nonlinear relationships among stock and foreign exchange markets. The empirical results show that there do exist nonlinear price-volume relati...

  14. ERF/ERFC, Calculation of Error Function, Complementary Error Function, Probability Integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ERF and ERFC are used to compute values of the error function and complementary error function for any real number. They may be used to compute other related functions such as the normal probability integrals. 4. Method of solution: The error function and complementary error function are approximated by rational functions. Three such rational approximations are used depending on whether - x .GE.4.0. In the first region the error function is computed directly and the complementary error function is computed via the identity erfc(x)=1.0-erf(x). In the other two regions the complementary error function is computed directly and the error function is computed from the identity erf(x)=1.0-erfc(x). The error function and complementary error function are real-valued functions of any real argument. The range of the error function is (-1,1). The range of the complementary error function is (0,2). 5. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The user is cautioned against using ERF to compute the complementary error function by using the identity erfc(x)=1.0-erf(x). This subtraction may cause partial or total loss of significance for certain values of x

  15. Uncorrected refractive errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin S; Jaggernath, Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC), were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR) Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship.

  16. Uncorrected refractive errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovin S Naidoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global estimates indicate that more than 2.3 billion people in the world suffer from poor vision due to refractive error; of which 670 million people are considered visually impaired because they do not have access to corrective treatment. Refractive errors, if uncorrected, results in an impaired quality of life for millions of people worldwide, irrespective of their age, sex and ethnicity. Over the past decade, a series of studies using a survey methodology, referred to as Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC, were performed in populations with different ethnic origins and cultural settings. These studies confirmed that the prevalence of uncorrected refractive errors is considerably high for children in low-and-middle-income countries. Furthermore, uncorrected refractive error has been noted to have extensive social and economic impacts, such as limiting educational and employment opportunities of economically active persons, healthy individuals and communities. The key public health challenges presented by uncorrected refractive errors, the leading cause of vision impairment across the world, require urgent attention. To address these issues, it is critical to focus on the development of human resources and sustainable methods of service delivery. This paper discusses three core pillars to addressing the challenges posed by uncorrected refractive errors: Human Resource (HR Development, Service Development and Social Entrepreneurship.

  17. Potential loss of revenue due to errors in clinical coding during the implementation of the Malaysia diagnosis related group (MY-DRG®) Casemix system in a teaching hospital in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafirah, S A; Nur, Amrizal Muhammad; Puteh, Sharifa Ezat Wan; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2018-01-25

    The accuracy of clinical coding is crucial in the assignment of Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) codes, especially if the hospital is using Casemix System as a tool for resource allocations and efficiency monitoring. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential loss of income due to an error in clinical coding during the implementation of the Malaysia Diagnosis Related Group (MY-DRG ® ) Casemix System in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. Four hundred and sixty-four (464) coded medical records were selected, re-examined and re-coded by an independent senior coder (ISC). This ISC re-examined and re-coded the error code that was originally entered by the hospital coders. The pre- and post-coding results were compared, and if there was any disagreement, the codes by the ISC were considered the accurate codes. The cases were then re-grouped using a MY-DRG ® grouper to assess and compare the changes in the DRG assignment and the hospital tariff assignment. The outcomes were then verified by a casemix expert. Coding errors were found in 89.4% (415/424) of the selected patient medical records. Coding errors in secondary diagnoses were the highest, at 81.3% (377/464), followed by secondary procedures at 58.2% (270/464), principal procedures of 50.9% (236/464) and primary diagnoses at 49.8% (231/464), respectively. The coding errors resulted in the assignment of different MY-DRG ® codes in 74.0% (307/415) of the cases. From this result, 52.1% (160/307) of the cases had a lower assigned hospital tariff. In total, the potential loss of income due to changes in the assignment of the MY-DRG ® code was RM654,303.91. The quality of coding is a crucial aspect in implementing casemix systems. Intensive re-training and the close monitoring of coder performance in the hospital should be performed to prevent the potential loss of hospital income.

  18. Error Analysis of Determining Airplane Location by Global Positioning System

    OpenAIRE

    Hajiyev, Chingiz; Burat, Alper

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies the error analysis of determining airplane location by global positioning system (GPS) using statistical testing method. The Newton Rhapson method positions the airplane at the intersection point of four spheres. Absolute errors, relative errors and standard deviation have been calculated The results show that the positioning error of the airplane varies with the coordinates of GPS satellite and the airplane.

  19. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  20. Order of the 15 July 2003 relative to accreditation conditions of organisms empowered to measure the radon volume activity in areas open to the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This order defines the compulsory conditions for organisms to be empowered to measure the radon volume activity in areas open to the public. It concerns general information, the internal organization, information relative to the equipment and the personnel competence. (A.L.B.)

  1. Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics in subjects with and without vocal training, related to gender, sound intensity, fundamental frequency, and age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, AM; Wit, HP

    1996-01-01

    Glottal volume velocity waveform characteristics of 224 subjects, categorized in four groups according to gender and vocal training, were determined, and their relations to sound-pressure level, fundamental frequency, intra-oral pressure, and age were analyzed. Subjects phonated at three intensity

  2. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  3. Errors and violations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reason, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is in three parts. The first part summarizes the human failures responsible for the Chernobyl disaster and argues that, in considering the human contribution to power plant emergencies, it is necessary to distinguish between: errors and violations; and active and latent failures. The second part presents empirical evidence, drawn from driver behavior, which suggest that errors and violations have different psychological origins. The concluding part outlines a resident pathogen view of accident causation, and seeks to identify the various system pathways along which errors and violations may be propagated

  4. Human error mechanisms in complex work environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.

    1988-01-01

    Human error taxonomies have been developed from analysis of industrial incident reports as well as from psychological experiments. In this paper the results of the two approaches are reviewed and compared. It is found, in both cases, that a fairly small number of basic psychological mechanisms will account for most of the action errors observed. In addition, error mechanisms appear to be intimately related to the development of high skill and know-how in a complex work context. This relationship between errors and human adaptation is discussed in detail for individuals and organisations. The implications for system safety and briefly mentioned, together with the implications for system design. (author)

  5. Human error mechanisms in complex work environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, Jens; Danmarks Tekniske Hoejskole, Copenhagen)

    1988-01-01

    Human error taxonomies have been developed from analysis of industrial incident reports as well as from psychological experiments. In this paper the results of the two approaches are reviewed and compared. It is found, in both cases, that a fairly small number of basic psychological mechanisms will account for most of the action errors observed. In addition, error mechanisms appear to be intimately related to the development of high skill and know-how in a complex work context. This relationship between errors and human adaptation is discussed in detail for individuals and organisations. The implications for system safety are briefly mentioned, together with the implications for system design. (author)

  6. Relation Between Pressure and Volume Unloading During Ramp Testing in Patients Supported with a Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Mette H; Hassager, Christian; Balling, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is the key to describing left ventricular (LV) unloading, however, the relation between pressure and the echocardiography-derived surrogate of LV volume (left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD)) as a function of pump speed (RPM) in continuous......-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) patients is unknown. In this study the pressure-volume relationship as a function of RPM during ramp testing was investigated by simultaneously measuring PCWP by Swan-Ganz catheter and LVEDD by echocardiography. The ramp protocol started at usual pump setting...

  7. Dosimetric Implications of Residual Tracking Errors During Robotic SBRT of Liver Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Mark; Grehn, Melanie; Cremers, Florian; Siebert, Frank-Andre; Wurster, Stefan; Huttenlocher, Stefan; Dunst, Jürgen; Hildebrandt, Guido; Schweikard, Achim; Rades, Dirk; Ernst, Floris

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Although the metric precision of robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy in the presence of breathing motion is widely known, we investigated the dosimetric implications of breathing phase–related residual tracking errors. Methods and Materials: In 24 patients (28 liver metastases) treated with the CyberKnife, we recorded the residual correlation, prediction, and rotational tracking errors from 90 fractions and binned them into 10 breathing phases. The average breathing phase errors were used to shift and rotate the clinical tumor volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) for each phase to calculate a pseudo 4-dimensional error dose distribution for comparison with the original planned dose distribution. Results: The median systematic directional correlation, prediction, and absolute aggregate rotation errors were 0.3 mm (range, 0.1-1.3 mm), 0.01 mm (range, 0.00-0.05 mm), and 1.5° (range, 0.4°-2.7°), respectively. Dosimetrically, 44%, 81%, and 92% of all voxels differed by less than 1%, 3%, and 5% of the planned local dose, respectively. The median coverage reduction for the PTV was 1.1% (range in coverage difference, −7.8% to +0.8%), significantly depending on correlation (P=.026) and rotational (P=.005) error. With a 3-mm PTV margin, the median coverage change for the CTV was 0.0% (range, −1.0% to +5.4%), not significantly depending on any investigated parameter. In 42% of patients, the 3-mm margin did not fully compensate for the residual tracking errors, resulting in a CTV coverage reduction of 0.1% to 1.0%. Conclusions: For liver tumors treated with robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy, a safety margin of 3 mm is not always sufficient to cover all residual tracking errors. Dosimetrically, this translates into only small CTV coverage reductions.

  8. Dosimetric Implications of Residual Tracking Errors During Robotic SBRT of Liver Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Mark [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Tuen Mun Hospital, Hong Kong (China); Grehn, Melanie [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck (Germany); Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Lübeck, Lübeck (Germany); Cremers, Florian [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck (Germany); Siebert, Frank-Andre [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Wurster, Stefan [Saphir Radiosurgery Center Northern Germany, Güstrow (Germany); Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Huttenlocher, Stefan [Saphir Radiosurgery Center Northern Germany, Güstrow (Germany); Dunst, Jürgen [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany); Department for Radiation Oncology, University Clinic Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Hildebrandt, Guido [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medicine Rostock, Rostock (Germany); Schweikard, Achim [Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Lübeck, Lübeck (Germany); Rades, Dirk [Department for Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck (Germany); Ernst, Floris [Institute for Robotics and Cognitive Systems, University of Lübeck, Lübeck (Germany); and others

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: Although the metric precision of robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy in the presence of breathing motion is widely known, we investigated the dosimetric implications of breathing phase–related residual tracking errors. Methods and Materials: In 24 patients (28 liver metastases) treated with the CyberKnife, we recorded the residual correlation, prediction, and rotational tracking errors from 90 fractions and binned them into 10 breathing phases. The average breathing phase errors were used to shift and rotate the clinical tumor volume (CTV) and planning target volume (PTV) for each phase to calculate a pseudo 4-dimensional error dose distribution for comparison with the original planned dose distribution. Results: The median systematic directional correlation, prediction, and absolute aggregate rotation errors were 0.3 mm (range, 0.1-1.3 mm), 0.01 mm (range, 0.00-0.05 mm), and 1.5° (range, 0.4°-2.7°), respectively. Dosimetrically, 44%, 81%, and 92% of all voxels differed by less than 1%, 3%, and 5% of the planned local dose, respectively. The median coverage reduction for the PTV was 1.1% (range in coverage difference, −7.8% to +0.8%), significantly depending on correlation (P=.026) and rotational (P=.005) error. With a 3-mm PTV margin, the median coverage change for the CTV was 0.0% (range, −1.0% to +5.4%), not significantly depending on any investigated parameter. In 42% of patients, the 3-mm margin did not fully compensate for the residual tracking errors, resulting in a CTV coverage reduction of 0.1% to 1.0%. Conclusions: For liver tumors treated with robotic stereotactic body radiation therapy, a safety margin of 3 mm is not always sufficient to cover all residual tracking errors. Dosimetrically, this translates into only small CTV coverage reductions.

  9. Help prevent hospital errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000618.htm Help prevent hospital errors To use the sharing features ... in the hospital. If You Are Having Surgery, Help Keep Yourself Safe Go to a hospital you ...

  10. Pedal Application Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This project examined the prevalence of pedal application errors and the driver, vehicle, roadway and/or environmental characteristics associated with pedal misapplication crashes based on a literature review, analysis of news media reports, a panel ...

  11. Spotting software errors sooner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, D.

    1989-01-01

    Static analysis is helping to identify software errors at an earlier stage and more cheaply than conventional methods of testing. RTP Software's MALPAS system also has the ability to check that a code conforms to its original specification. (author)

  12. Errors in energy bills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kop, L.

    2001-01-01

    On request, the Dutch Association for Energy, Environment and Water (VEMW) checks the energy bills for her customers. It appeared that in the year 2000 many small, but also big errors were discovered in the bills of 42 businesses

  13. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutter, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis...

  14. The surveillance error grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C; Lias, Courtney; Vigersky, Robert; Clarke, William; Parkes, Joan Lee; Sacks, David B; Kirkman, M Sue; Kovatchev, Boris

    2014-07-01

    Currently used error grids for assessing clinical accuracy of blood glucose monitors are based on out-of-date medical practices. Error grids have not been widely embraced by regulatory agencies for clearance of monitors, but this type of tool could be useful for surveillance of the performance of cleared products. Diabetes Technology Society together with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration, the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, and representatives of academia, industry, and government, have developed a new error grid, called the surveillance error grid (SEG) as a tool to assess the degree of clinical risk from inaccurate blood glucose (BG) monitors. A total of 206 diabetes clinicians were surveyed about the clinical risk of errors of measured BG levels by a monitor. The impact of such errors on 4 patient scenarios was surveyed. Each monitor/reference data pair was scored and color-coded on a graph per its average risk rating. Using modeled data representative of the accuracy of contemporary meters, the relationships between clinical risk and monitor error were calculated for the Clarke error grid (CEG), Parkes error grid (PEG), and SEG. SEG action boundaries were consistent across scenarios, regardless of whether the patient was type 1 or type 2 or using insulin or not. No significant differences were noted between responses of adult/pediatric or 4 types of clinicians. Although small specific differences in risk boundaries between US and non-US clinicians were noted, the panel felt they did not justify separate grids for these 2 types of clinicians. The data points of the SEG were classified in 15 zones according to their assigned level of risk, which allowed for comparisons with the classic CEG and PEG. Modeled glucose monitor data with realistic self-monitoring of blood glucose errors derived from meter testing experiments plotted on the SEG when compared to

  15. Collection of offshore human error probability data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basra, Gurpreet; Kirwan, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Accidents such as Piper Alpha have increased concern about the effects of human errors in complex systems. Such accidents can in theory be predicted and prevented by risk assessment, and in particular human reliability assessment (HRA), but HRA ideally requires qualitative and quantitative human error data. A research initiative at the University of Birmingham led to the development of CORE-DATA, a Computerised Human Error Data Base. This system currently contains a reasonably large number of human error data points, collected from a variety of mainly nuclear-power related sources. This article outlines a recent offshore data collection study, concerned with collecting lifeboat evacuation data. Data collection methods are outlined and a selection of human error probabilities generated as a result of the study are provided. These data give insights into the type of errors and human failure rates that could be utilised to support offshore risk analyses

  16. Design for Error Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1983-01-01

    An important aspect of the optimal design of computer-based operator support systems is the sensitivity of such systems to operator errors. The author discusses how a system might allow for human variability with the use of reversibility and observability.......An important aspect of the optimal design of computer-based operator support systems is the sensitivity of such systems to operator errors. The author discusses how a system might allow for human variability with the use of reversibility and observability....

  17. Thermodynamics of Error Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sartori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and work dissipated by the system during wrong incorporations. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics; hence, its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.

  18. The Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume 5: Waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This is the fifth in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume 5 is to describe record series pertaining to waste management activities at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE's Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI's role in the project, provides a history of waste management practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to waste management policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of this volume and the organization to contact for access to these records

  19. The relationships among work stress, strain and self-reported errors in UK community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S J; O'Connor, E M; Jacobs, S; Hassell, K; Ashcroft, D M

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the UK community pharmacy profession including new contractual frameworks, expansion of services, and increasing levels of workload have prompted concerns about rising levels of workplace stress and overload. This has implications for pharmacist health and well-being and the occurrence of errors that pose a risk to patient safety. Despite these concerns being voiced in the profession, few studies have explored work stress in the community pharmacy context. To investigate work-related stress among UK community pharmacists and to explore its relationships with pharmacists' psychological and physical well-being, and the occurrence of self-reported dispensing errors and detection of prescribing errors. A cross-sectional postal survey of a random sample of practicing community pharmacists (n = 903) used ASSET (A Shortened Stress Evaluation Tool) and questions relating to self-reported involvement in errors. Stress data were compared to general working population norms, and regressed on well-being and self-reported errors. Analysis of the data revealed that pharmacists reported significantly higher levels of workplace stressors than the general working population, with concerns about work-life balance, the nature of the job, and work relationships being the most influential on health and well-being. Despite this, pharmacists were not found to report worse health than the general working population. Self-reported error involvement was linked to both high dispensing volume and being troubled by perceived overload (dispensing errors), and resources and communication (detection of prescribing errors). This study contributes to the literature by benchmarking community pharmacists' health and well-being, and investigating sources of stress using a quantitative approach. A further important contribution to the literature is the identification of a quantitative link between high workload and self-reported dispensing errors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. A new methodological approach to assess cardiac work by pressure-volume and stress-length relations in patients with aortic valve stenosis and dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, P; Rupp, H; Rominger, M B; Klose, K J; Maisch, B

    2008-01-01

    In experimental animals, cardiac work is derived from pressure-volume area and analyzed further using stress-length relations. Lack of methods for determining accurately myocardial mass has until now prevented the use of stress-length relations in patients. We hypothesized, therefore, that not only pressure-volume loops but also stress-length diagrams can be derived from cardiac volume and cardiac mass as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and invasively measured pressure. Left ventricular (LV) volume and myocardial mass were assessed in seven patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS), eight with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and eight controls using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated CMR. LV pressure was measured invasively. Pressure-volume curves were calculated based on ECG triggering. Stroke work was assessed as area within the pressure-volume loop. LV wall stress was calculated using a thick-wall sphere model. Similarly, stress-length loops were calculated to quantify stress-length-based work. Taking the LV geometry into account, the normalization with regard to ventricular circumference resulted in "myocardial work." Patients with AS (valve area 0.73+/-0.18 cm(2)) exhibited an increased LV myocardial mass when compared with controls (Pwork of AS was unchanged when compared with controls (0.539+/-0.272 vs 0.621+/-0.138 Nm, not significant), whereas DCM exhibited a significant depression (0.367+/-0.157 Nm, Pwork was significantly reduced in both AS and DCM when compared with controls (129.8+/-69.6, 200.6+/-80.1, 332.2+/-89.6 Nm/m(2), Pmethodological approach of using CMR and invasive pressure measurement. Myocardial work was reduced in patients with DCM and noteworthy also in AS, while stroke work was reduced in DCM only. Most likely, deterioration of myocardial work is crucial for the prognosis. It is suggested to include these basic physiological procedures in the clinical assessment of the pump function of the heart.

  1. Wind speed errors for LIDARs and SODARs in complex terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, S

    2008-01-01

    All commercial LIDARs and SODARs are monostatic and hence sample distributed volumes to construct wind vector components. We use an analytic potential flow model to estimate errors arising for a range of LIDAR and SODAR configurations on hills and escarpments. Wind speed errors peak at a height relevant to wind turbines and can be typically 20%

  2. Wind speed errors for LIDARs and SODARs in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, S [Physics Department, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand) and School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, M5 4WT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.bradley@auckland.ac.nz

    2008-05-01

    All commercial LIDARs and SODARs are monostatic and hence sample distributed volumes to construct wind vector components. We use an analytic potential flow model to estimate errors arising for a range of LIDAR and SODAR configurations on hills and escarpments. Wind speed errors peak at a height relevant to wind turbines and can be typically 20%.

  3. Dose-volume histogram analysis of hepatic toxicity related to carbon ion radiation therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Shigeo; Kato, Hirotoshi; Tsujii, Hitohiko; Mizoe, Junetsu

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the correlation of hepatic toxicity with dose-volume factors of carbon ion radiotherapy in the liver. Forty-nine patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were treated with carbon ion radiotherapy delivered in 4 fractions over 4 to 7 days. Six patients received a total dose of 48 GyE and 43 received 52.8 GyE. The correlation of various blood biochemistry data with dose-volume histogram (DVH) data in non-cancerous liver were evaluated. The strongest significant correlation was seen between percent volume of non-cancerous liver with radiation dose more than 11 GyE (V 11 GyE ) and elevation of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) level as early adverse response after carbon ion beam radiation therapy (p=0.0003). In addition, significant correlation between DVH data and change of several other blood biochemistry data were also revealed in early phase. In late phase after carbon ion radiotherapy, the strongest significant correlation was seen between decrease of platelet count and V 26GyE (p=0.015). There was no significant correlation between other blood biochemistry data and DVH data in the late phase. It was suggested that dose-volume factors of carbon ion radiotherapy influenced only transient aggravation of liver function, which improved in the long term after irradiation. (author)

  4. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Mix, Michael; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo; Korsten-Reck, Ulrike; Mueller, Frank; Merk, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81±15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only LBM ). (orig.)

  5. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health-related research. Volume VII. Employee occupational exposure and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This is the seventh in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume VII is to describe record series pertaining to employee occupational exposure and health at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of occupational exposure monitoring and health practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to occupational exposure monitoring and health policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of the guide and the organization to contact for access to these records. Comprehensive introductory and background information is available in Volume 1. Other volumes in the guide pertain to administrative and general subjects, facilities and equipment, production and materials handling, environmental and workplace monitoring, and waste management. In addition, HAI has produced a subject-specific guide, titled The September 1957 Rocky Flats Fire: A Guide to Record Series of the Department of Energy and Its Contractors, which researchers should consult for further information about records related to this incident.

  6. Learning from Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Lendita Kryeziu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “Errare humanum est”, a well known and widespread Latin proverb which states that: to err is human, and that people make mistakes all the time. However, what counts is that people must learn from mistakes. On these grounds Steve Jobs stated: “Sometimes when you innovate, you make mistakes. It is best to admit them quickly, and get on with improving your other innovations.” Similarly, in learning new language, learners make mistakes, thus it is important to accept them, learn from them, discover the reason why they make them, improve and move on. The significance of studying errors is described by Corder as: “There have always been two justifications proposed for the study of learners' errors: the pedagogical justification, namely that a good understanding of the nature of error is necessary before a systematic means of eradicating them could be found, and the theoretical justification, which claims that a study of learners' errors is part of the systematic study of the learners' language which is itself necessary to an understanding of the process of second language acquisition” (Corder, 1982; 1. Thus the importance and the aim of this paper is analyzing errors in the process of second language acquisition and the way we teachers can benefit from mistakes to help students improve themselves while giving the proper feedback.

  7. Compact disk error measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, D.; Harriman, K.; Tehranchi, B.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this project are as follows: provide hardware and software that will perform simple, real-time, high resolution (single-byte) measurement of the error burst and good data gap statistics seen by a photoCD player read channel when recorded CD write-once discs of variable quality (i.e., condition) are being read; extend the above system to enable measurement of the hard decision (i.e., 1-bit error flags) and soft decision (i.e., 2-bit error flags) decoding information that is produced/used by the Cross Interleaved - Reed - Solomon - Code (CIRC) block decoder employed in the photoCD player read channel; construct a model that uses data obtained via the systems described above to produce meaningful estimates of output error rates (due to both uncorrected ECC words and misdecoded ECC words) when a CD disc having specific (measured) error statistics is read (completion date to be determined); and check the hypothesis that current adaptive CIRC block decoders are optimized for pressed (DAD/ROM) CD discs. If warranted, do a conceptual design of an adaptive CIRC decoder that is optimized for write-once CD discs.

  8. Errors in Neonatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Boldrini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Danger and errors are inherent in human activities. In medical practice errors can lean to adverse events for patients. Mass media echo the whole scenario. Methods: We reviewed recent published papers in PubMed database to focus on the evidence and management of errors in medical practice in general and in Neonatology in particular. We compared the results of the literature with our specific experience in Nina Simulation Centre (Pisa, Italy. Results: In Neonatology the main error domains are: medication and total parenteral nutrition, resuscitation and respiratory care, invasive procedures, nosocomial infections, patient identification, diagnostics. Risk factors include patients’ size, prematurity, vulnerability and underlying disease conditions but also multidisciplinary teams, working conditions providing fatigue, a large variety of treatment and investigative modalities needed. Discussion and Conclusions: In our opinion, it is hardly possible to change the human beings but it is likely possible to change the conditions under they work. Voluntary errors report systems can help in preventing adverse events. Education and re-training by means of simulation can be an effective strategy too. In Pisa (Italy Nina (ceNtro di FormazIone e SimulazioNe NeonAtale is a simulation center that offers the possibility of a continuous retraining for technical and non-technical skills to optimize neonatological care strategies. Furthermore, we have been working on a novel skill trainer for mechanical ventilation (MEchatronic REspiratory System SImulator for Neonatal Applications, MERESSINA. Finally, in our opinion national health policy indirectly influences risk for errors. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  9. Technical errors in MR arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodler, Juerg

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses potential technical problems of MR arthrography. It starts with contraindications, followed by problems relating to injection technique, contrast material and MR imaging technique. For some of the aspects discussed, there is only little published evidence. Therefore, the article is based on the personal experience of the author and on local standards of procedures. Such standards, as well as medico-legal considerations, may vary from country to country. Contraindications for MR arthrography include pre-existing infection, reflex sympathetic dystrophy and possibly bleeding disorders, avascular necrosis and known allergy to contrast media. Errors in injection technique may lead to extra-articular collection of contrast agent or to contrast agent leaking from the joint space, which may cause diagnostic difficulties. Incorrect concentrations of contrast material influence image quality and may also lead to non-diagnostic examinations. Errors relating to MR imaging include delays between injection and imaging and inadequate choice of sequences. Potential solutions to the various possible errors are presented. (orig.)

  10. Technical errors in MR arthrography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodler, Juerg [Orthopaedic University Hospital of Balgrist, Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-01-15

    This article discusses potential technical problems of MR arthrography. It starts with contraindications, followed by problems relating to injection technique, contrast material and MR imaging technique. For some of the aspects discussed, there is only little published evidence. Therefore, the article is based on the personal experience of the author and on local standards of procedures. Such standards, as well as medico-legal considerations, may vary from country to country. Contraindications for MR arthrography include pre-existing infection, reflex sympathetic dystrophy and possibly bleeding disorders, avascular necrosis and known allergy to contrast media. Errors in injection technique may lead to extra-articular collection of contrast agent or to contrast agent leaking from the joint space, which may cause diagnostic difficulties. Incorrect concentrations of contrast material influence image quality and may also lead to non-diagnostic examinations. Errors relating to MR imaging include delays between injection and imaging and inadequate choice of sequences. Potential solutions to the various possible errors are presented. (orig.)

  11. LIBERTARISMO & ERROR CATEGORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Patarroyo G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibilidad de la libertad humana no necesariamente puede ser acusado de incurrir en ellos.

  12. Libertarismo & Error Categorial

    OpenAIRE

    PATARROYO G, CARLOS G

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se ofrece una defensa del libertarismo frente a dos acusaciones según las cuales éste comete un error categorial. Para ello, se utiliza la filosofía de Gilbert Ryle como herramienta para explicar las razones que fundamentan estas acusaciones y para mostrar por qué, pese a que ciertas versiones del libertarismo que acuden a la causalidad de agentes o al dualismo cartesiano cometen estos errores, un libertarismo que busque en el indeterminismo fisicalista la base de la posibili...

  13. Error Free Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical theory for development of "higher order" software to catch computer mistakes resulted from a Johnson Space Center contract for Apollo spacecraft navigation. Two women who were involved in the project formed Higher Order Software, Inc. to develop and market the system of error analysis and correction. They designed software which is logically error-free, which, in one instance, was found to increase productivity by 600%. USE.IT defines its objectives using AXES -- a user can write in English and the system converts to computer languages. It is employed by several large corporations.

  14. Relation between heat of vaporization, ion transport, molar volume, and cation-anion binding energy for ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, Oleg

    2009-09-10

    A number of correlations between heat of vaporization (H(vap)), cation-anion binding energy (E(+/-)), molar volume (V(m)), self-diffusion coefficient (D), and ionic conductivity for 29 ionic liquids have been investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that employed accurate and validated many-body polarizable force fields. A significant correlation between D and H(vap) has been found, while the best correlation was found for -log(DV(m)) vs H(vap) + 0.28E(+/-). A combination of enthalpy of vaporization and a fraction of the cation-anion binding energy was suggested as a measure of the effective cohesive energy for ionic liquids. A deviation of some ILs from the reported master curve is explained based upon ion packing and proposed diffusion pathways. No general correlations were found between the ion diffusion coefficient and molecular volume or the diffusion coefficient and cation/anion binding energy.

  15. Food intake in relation to pouch volume, stoma diameter, and pouch emptying after gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1988-01-01

    associated with the change of solid foods consumed (by weight, p = 0.01; by energy content, p = 0.02). The change of pouch volume was negatively associated with the change of energy from beverages (p = 0.005). In conclusion, it seems impossible to tailor the reduction of food intake through adjustments...... of the surgical dimensions, at least within the ranges of our observations. Increased food consumption and decreased energy intake with beverages may be caused by late dilations, or vice versa.......This study investigated possible determinants of food intake change after gastroplastry. Preoperatively and 6 and 12 months postoperatively, 27 morbidly obese patients were prospectively examined with 7-day food registration and radiologic measurement of pouch volume and stoma diameter. Pouch...

  16. Food intake in relation to pouch volume, stoma diameter, and pouch emptying after gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated possible determinants of food intake change after gastroplastry. Preoperatively and 6 and 12 months postoperatively, 27 morbidly obese patients were prospectively examined with 7-day food registration and radiologic measurement of pouch volume and stoma diameter. Pouch...... associated with the change of solid foods consumed (by weight, p = 0.01; by energy content, p = 0.02). The change of pouch volume was negatively associated with the change of energy from beverages (p = 0.005). In conclusion, it seems impossible to tailor the reduction of food intake through adjustments...... emptying was determined as the mean transit time by a scintigraphic method. None of the measured variables was found to influence the change in food intake taking place during the first 6 months, when most of the weight loss was observed. Between 6 and 12 months, the change of stoma diameter was positively...

  17. Role of volume rendered 3-D computed tomography in conservative management of trauma-related thoracic injuries.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    OʼLeary, Donal Peter

    2012-09-01

    Pneumatic nail guns are a tool used commonly in the construction industry and are widely available. Accidental injuries from nail guns are common, and several cases of suicide using a nail gun have been reported. Computed tomographic (CT) imaging, together with echocardiography, has been shown to be the gold standard for investigation of these cases. We present a case of a 55-year-old man who presented to the accident and emergency unit of a community hospital following an accidental pneumatic nail gun injury to his thorax. Volume-rendered CT of the thorax allowed an accurate assessment of the thoracic injuries sustained by this patient. As there was no evidence of any acute life-threatening injury, a sternotomy was avoided and the patient was observed closely until discharge. In conclusion, volume-rendered 3-dimensional CT can greatly help in the decision to avoid an unnecessary sternotomy in patients with a thoracic nail gun injury.

  18. Estimating changes in lichen mat volume through time and related effects on barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickbeil, Gregory J M; Hermosilla, Txomin; Coops, Nicholas C; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    Lichens form a critical portion of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) diets, especially during winter months. Here, we assess lichen mat volume across five herd ranges in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada, using newly developed composite Landsat imagery. The lichen volume estimator (LVE) was adapted for use across 700 000 km2 of barren ground caribou habitat annually from 1984-2012. We subsequently assessed how LVE changed temporally throughout the time series for each pixel using Theil-Sen's slopes, and spatially by assessing whether slope values were centered in local clusters of similar values. Additionally, we assessed how LVE estimates resulted in changes in barren ground caribou movement rates using an extensive telemetry data set from 2006-2011. The Ahiak/Beverly herd had the largest overall increase in LVE (median = 0.033), while the more western herds had the least (median slopes below zero in all cases). LVE slope pixels were arranged in significant clusters across the study area, with the Cape Bathurst, Bathurst, and Bluenose East herds having the most significant clusters of negative slopes (more than 20% of vegetated land in each case). The Ahiak/Beverly and Bluenose West had the most significant positive clusters (16.3% and 18.5% of vegetated land respectively). Barren ground caribou displayed complex reactions to changing lichen conditions depending on season; the majority of detected associations with movement data agreed with current understanding of barren ground caribou foraging behavior (the exception was an increase in movement velocity at high lichen volume estimates in Fall). The temporal assessment of LVE identified areas where shifts in ecological conditions may have resulted in changing lichen mat conditions, while assessing the slope estimates for clustering identified zones beyond the pixel scale where forage conditions may be changing. Lichen volume estimates associated with barren ground caribou

  19. Estimating changes in lichen mat volume through time and related effects on barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Txomin; Coops, Nicholas C.; White, Joanne C.; Wulder, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Lichens form a critical portion of barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) diets, especially during winter months. Here, we assess lichen mat volume across five herd ranges in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, Canada, using newly developed composite Landsat imagery. The lichen volume estimator (LVE) was adapted for use across 700 000 km2 of barren ground caribou habitat annually from 1984–2012. We subsequently assessed how LVE changed temporally throughout the time series for each pixel using Theil-Sen’s slopes, and spatially by assessing whether slope values were centered in local clusters of similar values. Additionally, we assessed how LVE estimates resulted in changes in barren ground caribou movement rates using an extensive telemetry data set from 2006–2011. The Ahiak/Beverly herd had the largest overall increase in LVE (median = 0.033), while the more western herds had the least (median slopes below zero in all cases). LVE slope pixels were arranged in significant clusters across the study area, with the Cape Bathurst, Bathurst, and Bluenose East herds having the most significant clusters of negative slopes (more than 20% of vegetated land in each case). The Ahiak/Beverly and Bluenose West had the most significant positive clusters (16.3% and 18.5% of vegetated land respectively). Barren ground caribou displayed complex reactions to changing lichen conditions depending on season; the majority of detected associations with movement data agreed with current understanding of barren ground caribou foraging behavior (the exception was an increase in movement velocity at high lichen volume estimates in Fall). The temporal assessment of LVE identified areas where shifts in ecological conditions may have resulted in changing lichen mat conditions, while assessing the slope estimates for clustering identified zones beyond the pixel scale where forage conditions may be changing. Lichen volume estimates associated with barren ground caribou

  20. Grey matter volume in the cerebellum is related to the processing of grammatical rules in a second language: a structural voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliatsikas, Christos; Johnstone, Tom; Marinis, Theodoros

    2014-02-01

    The experience of learning and using a second language (L2) has been shown to affect the grey matter (GM) structure of the brain. Importantly, GM density in several cortical and subcortical areas has been shown to be related to performance in L2 tasks. Here, we show that bilingualism can lead to increased GM volume in the cerebellum, a structure that has been related to the processing of grammatical rules. Additionally, the cerebellar GM volume of highly proficient L2 speakers is correlated to their performance in a task tapping on grammatical processing in an L2, demonstrating the importance of the cerebellum for the establishment and use of grammatical rules in an L2.