The Relation Between Halo Shape, Velocity Dispersion and Formation Time
Ragone-Figueroa, C; Merchan, M; Gottlober, S; Yepes, G
2010-01-01
We use dark matter haloes identified in the MareNostrum Universe and galaxy groups identified in the Sloan Data Release 7 galaxy catalogue, to study the relation between halo shape and halo dynamics, parametrizing out the mass of the systems. A strong shape-dynamics, independent of mass, correlation is present in the simulation data, which we find it to be due to different halo formation times. Early formation time haloes are, at the present epoch, more spherical and have higher velocity dispersions than late forming-time haloes. The halo shape-dynamics correlation, albeit weaker, survives the projection in 2D (ie., among projected shape and 1-D velocity dispersion). A similar shape-dynamics correlation, independent of mass, is also found in the SDSS DR7 groups of galaxies and in order to investigate its cause we have tested and used, as a proxy of the group formation time, a concentration parameter. We have found, as in the case of the simulated haloes, that less concentrated groups, corresponding to late fo...
Age velocity dispersion relations and heating histories in disc galaxies
Aumer, Michael; Schönrich, Ralph
2016-01-01
We analyse the heating of stellar discs by non axisymmetric structures and giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in N-body simulations of growing disc galaxies. The analysis resolves long-standing discrepancies between models and data by demonstrating the importance of distinguishing between measured age-velocity dispersion relations (AVRs) and the heating histories of the stars that make up the AVR. We fit both AVRs and heating histories with formulae proportional to t^beta and determine the exponents beta_R and beta_z derived from in-plane and vertical AVRs and ~beta_R and ~beta_z from heating histories. Values of beta_z are in almost all simulations larger than values of ~beta_z, whereas values of beta_R are similar to or mildly larger than values of ~beta_R. Moreover, values of beta_z (~beta_z) are generally larger than values of beta_R (~beta_R). The dominant cause of these relations is the decline over the life of the disc in importance of GMCs as heating agents relative to spiral structure and the bar. We exam...
Stellar populations across the black hole mass - velocity dispersion relation
Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Bosch, Remco C E van den; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Forbes, Duncan A
2016-01-01
Coevolution between supermassive black holes (BHs) and their host galaxies is universally adopted in models for galaxy formation. In the absence of feedback from active galactic nuclei, simulated massive galaxies keep forming stars in the local Universe. From an observational point of view, however, such coevolution remains unclear. We present a stellar population analysis of galaxies with direct BH mass measurements and the BH mass-{\\sigma} relation as a working framework. We find that over-massive BH galaxies, i.e., galaxies lying above the best-fitting BH mass-{\\sigma} line, tend to be older and more {\\alpha}-element enhanced than under-massive BH galaxies. The scatter in the BH mass-{\\sigma}-[{\\alpha}/Fe] plane is significantly lower than in the standard BH mass-{\\sigma} relation. We interpret this trend as an imprint of active galactic nucleus feedback on the star formation histories of massive galaxies.
Fu, X.; Waters, T.; Gary, S. P.
2014-12-01
Collisionless space plasmas often deviate from Maxwellian-like velocity distributions. To study kinetic waves and instabilities in such plasmas, the dispersion relation, which depends on the velocity distribution, needs to be solved numerically. Most current dispersion solvers (e.g. WHAMP) take advantage of mathematical properties of the Gaussian (or generalized Lorentzian) function, and assume that the velocity distributions can be modeled by a combination of several drift-Maxwellian (or drift-Lorentzian) components. In this study we are developing a kinetic dispersion solver that admits nearly arbitrary non-relativistic parallel velocity distributions. A key part of any dispersion solver is the evaluation of a Hilbert transform of the velocity distribution function and its derivative along Landau contours. Our new solver builds upon a recent method to compute the Hilbert transform accurately and efficiently using the fast Fourier transform, while simultaneously treating the singularities arising from resonances analytically. We have benchmarked our new solver against other codes dealing with Maxwellian distributions. As an example usage of our code, we will show results for several instabilities that occur for electron velocity distributions observed in the solar wind.
Wilson, Susan; Rooney, Philip J; Caldwell, Caroline; Kay, Scott T; Collins, Chris A; McCarthy, Ian G; Romer, A Kathy; Bermeo-Hernandez, Alberto; Bernstein, Rebecca; da Costa, Luiz; Gifford, Daniel; Hollowood, Devon; Hoyle, Ben; Jeltema, Tesla; Liddle, Andrew R; Maia, Marcio A G; Mann, Robert G; Mayers, Julian A; Mehrtens, Nicola; Miller, Christopher J; Nichol, Robert C; Ogando, Ricardo; Sahlén, Martin; Stahl, Benjamin; Stott, John P; Thomas, Peter A; Viana, Pedro T P; Wilcox, Harry
2015-01-01
We measure the evolution of the velocity dispersion--temperature ($\\sigma_{\\rm v}$--$T_{\\rm X}$) relation up to $z = 1$ using a sample of 38 galaxy clusters drawn from the \\textit{XMM} Cluster Survey. This work improves upon previous studies by the use of a homogeneous cluster sample and in terms of the number of high redshift clusters included. We present here new redshift and velocity dispersion measurements for 12 $z > 0.5$ clusters observed with the GMOS instruments on the Gemini telescopes. Using an orthogonal regression method, we find that the slope of the relation is steeper than that expected if clusters were self-similar, and that the evolution of the normalisation is slightly negative, but not significantly different from zero ($\\sigma_{\\rm v} \\propto T^{0.86 \\pm 0.14} E(z)^{-0.37 \\pm 0.33}$). We verify our results by applying our methods to cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. The lack of evolution seen from the data suggests that the feedback does not significantly heat the gas, a result that...
Age-velocity dispersion relations and heating histories in disc galaxies
Aumer, Michael; Binney, James; Schönrich, Ralph
2016-10-01
We analyse the heating of stellar discs by non-axisymmetric structures and giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in N-body simulations of growing disc galaxies. The analysis resolves long-standing discrepancies between models and data by demonstrating the importance of distinguishing between measured age-velocity dispersion relations (AVRs) and the heating histories of the stars that make up the AVR. We fit both AVRs and heating histories with formulae ∝tβ and determine the exponents βR and βz derived from in-plane and vertical AVRs and tilde{β }_R and tilde{β }_z from heating histories. Values of βz are in almost all simulations larger than values of tilde{β }_z, whereas values of βR are similar to or mildly larger than values of tilde{β }_R. Moreover, values of βz (tilde{β }_z) are generally larger than values of βR (tilde{β }_R). The dominant cause of these relations is the decline over the life of the disc in importance of GMCs as heating agents relative to spiral structure and the bar. We examine how age errors and biases in solar neighbourhood surveys influence the measured AVR: they tend to decrease β values by smearing out ages and thus measured dispersions. We compare AVRs and velocity ellipsoid shapes σz/σR from simulations to solar neighbourhood data. We conclude that for the expected disc mass and dark halo structure, combined GMC and spiral/bar heating can explain the AVR of the Galactic thin disc. Strong departures of the disc mass or the dark halo structure from expectation spoil fits to the data.
Kang, Wol-Rang; Schulze, Andreas; Riechers, Dominik A; Kim, Sang Chul; Park, Daeseong; Smolcic, Vernesa
2013-01-01
To calibrate stellar velocity dispersion measurements from optical and near-IR stellar lines, and to improve the black hole mass (MBH)- stellar velocity dispersion (sigma) relation, we measure stellar velocity dispersions based on high quality H-band spectra for a sample of 31 nearby galaxies, for which dynamical MBH is available in the literature. By comparing velocity dispersions measured from stellar lines in the H-band with those measured from optical stellar lines, we find no significant difference, suggesting that optical and near-IR stellar lines represent the same kinematics and that dust effect is negligible for early-type galaxies. Based on the spatially-resolved rotation and velocity dispersion measurements along the major axis of each galaxy, we find that a rotating stellar disk is present for 80% of galaxies in the sample. For galaxies with a rotation component, velocity dispersions measured from a single aperture spectrum can vary by up to ~20%, depending on the size of the adopted extraction ap...
The Mean and Scatter of the Velocity Dispersion-Optical Richness Relation for MaxBCG Galaxy Clusters
Becker, M.R.; McKay, T.A.; /Michigan U.; Koester, B.; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Wechsler, R.H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Rozo, E.; /Ohio State U.; Evrard, A.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Johnston, D.; /Caltech, JPL; Sheldon, E.; /New York U.; Annis, J.; /Fermilab; Lau, E.; /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Nichol, R.; /Portsmouth U., ICG; Miller, C.; /Michigan U.
2007-06-05
The distribution of galaxies in position and velocity around the centers of galaxy clusters encodes important information about cluster mass and structure. Using the maxBCG galaxy cluster catalog identified from imaging data obtained in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we study the BCG--galaxy velocity correlation function. By modeling its non-Gaussianity, we measure the mean and scatter in velocity dispersion at fixed richness. The mean velocity dispersion increases from 202 {+-} 10 km s{sup -1} for small groups to more than 854 {+-} 102 km s{sup -1} for large clusters. We show the scatter to be at most 40.5{+-}3.5%, declining to 14.9{+-}9.4% in the richest bins. We test our methods in the C4 cluster catalog, a spectroscopic cluster catalog produced from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR2 spectroscopic sample, and in mock galaxy catalogs constructed from N-body simulations. Our methods are robust, measuring the scatter to well within one-sigma of the true value, and the mean to within 10%, in the mock catalogs. By convolving the scatter in velocity dispersion at fixed richness with the observed richness space density function, we measure the velocity dispersion function of the maxBCG galaxy clusters. Although velocity dispersion and richness do not form a true mass--observable relation, the relationship between velocity dispersion and mass is theoretically well characterized and has low scatter. Thus our results provide a key link between theory and observations up to the velocity bias between dark matter and galaxies.
Wilson, Susan; Rooney, Philip J; Caldwell, Caroline; Kay, Scott T; Collins, Chris A.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Romer, A. Kathy; Bermeo, Alberto; Bernstein, Rebecca; da Costa, Luiz; Gifford, Daniel; Hollowood, Devon; Hoyle, Ben; Jeltema, Tesla; Liddle, Andrew R.
2016-01-01
We measure the evolution of the velocity dispersion-temperature (sigma(v)-T-X) relation up to z = 1 using a sample of 38 galaxy clusters drawn from the XMM Cluster Survey. This work improves upon previous studies by the use of a homogeneous cluster sample and in terms of the number of high-redshift clusters included. We present here new redshift and velocity dispersion measurements for 12 z > 0.5 clusters observed with the Gemini Multi Object Spectographs instruments on the Gemini telescopes....
Munari, Emiliano; Borgani, Stefano; Murante, Giuseppe; Fabjan, Dunja
2013-01-01
[Abridged] We present an analysis of the relation between the masses of cluster- and group-sized halos, extracted from $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological N-body and hydrodynamic simulations, and their velocity dispersions, at different redshifts from $z=2$ to $z=0$. The main aim of this analysis is to understand how the implementation of baryonic physics in simulations affects such relation, i.e. to what extent the use of the velocity dispersion as a proxy for cluster mass determination is hampered by the imperfect knowledge of the baryonic physics. In our analysis we use several sets of simulations with different physics implemented. Velocity dispersions are determined using three different tracers, DM particles, subhalos, and galaxies. We confirm that DM particles trace a relation that is fully consistent with the theoretical expectations based on the virial theorem and with previous results presented in the literature. On the other hand, subhalos and galaxies trace steeper relations, and with larger values of the n...
Ibáñez-Mejía, Juan C.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Klessen, Ralf S.; Baczynski, Christian
2016-06-01
Molecular cloud (MC) observations show that clouds have non-thermal velocity dispersions that scale with the cloud size as σ ∝ R 1/2 at a constant surface density, and for varying surface density scale with both the cloud’s size and surface density, σ 2 ∝ RΣ. The energy source driving these chaotic motions remains poorly understood. We describe the velocity dispersions observed in a cloud population formed in a numerical simulation of a magnetized, stratified, supernova (SN)-driven, interstellar medium, including diffuse heating and radiative cooling, before and after we include the effects of the self-gravity of the gas. We compare the relationships between velocity dispersion, size, and surface density measured in the simulated cloud population to those found in observations of Galactic MCs. Our simulations prior to the onset of self-gravity suggest that external SN explosions alone do not drive turbulent motions of the observed magnitudes within dense clouds. On the other hand, self-gravity induces non-thermal motions as gravitationally bound clouds begin to collapse in our model, approaching the observed relations between velocity dispersion, size, and surface density. Energy conservation suggests that the observed behavior is consistent with the kinetic energy being proportional to the gravitational energy. However, the clouds in our model show no sign of reaching a stable equilibrium state at any time, even for strongly magnetized clouds. We conclude that gravitationally bound MCs are always in a state of gravitational contraction and their properties are a natural result of this chaotic collapse. In order to agree with observed star formation efficiencies, this process must be terminated by the early destruction of the clouds, presumably from internal stellar feedback.
Arabsalmani, Maryam; Fynbo, Johan P U; Christensen, Lise; Freudling, Wolfram; Savaglio, Sandra; Zafar, Tayyaba
2014-01-01
We analyze a sample of 16 absorption systems intrinsic to long duration GRB host galaxies at $z \\gtrsim 2$ for which the metallicities are known. We compare the relation between the metallicity and cold gas velocity width for this sample to that of the QSO-DLAs, and find complete agreement. We then compare the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity relation of our sample to that of QSO-DLAs and find that also GRB hosts favour a late onset of this evolution, around a redshift of $\\approx 2.6$. We compute predicted stellar masses for the GRB host galaxies using the prescription determined from QSO-DLA samples and compare the measured stellar masses for the four hosts where stellar masses have been determined from SED fits. We find excellent agreement and conclude that, on basis of all available data and tests, long duration GRB-DLA hosts and intervening QSO-DLAs are consistent with being drawn from the same underlying population. GRB host galaxies and QSO-DLAs are found to have different impact parameter di...
Wilson, Susan; Hilton, Matt; Rooney, Philip J.; Caldwell, Caroline; Kay, Scott T.; Collins, Chris A.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Romer, A. Kathy; Bermeo, Alberto; Bernstein, Rebecca; da Costa, Luiz; Gifford, Daniel; Hollowood, Devon; Hoyle, Ben; Jeltema, Tesla; Liddle, Andrew R.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Mann, Robert G.; Mayers, Julian A.; Mehrtens, Nicola; Miller, Christopher J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Ogando, Ricardo; Sahlén, Martin; Stahl, Benjamin; Stott, John P.; Thomas, Peter A.; Viana, Pedro T. P.; Wilcox, Harry
2016-11-01
We measure the evolution of the velocity dispersion-temperature (σv-TX) relation up to z = 1 using a sample of 38 galaxy clusters drawn from the XMM Cluster Survey. This work improves upon previous studies by the use of a homogeneous cluster sample and in terms of the number of high-redshift clusters included. We present here new redshift and velocity dispersion measurements for 12 z > 0.5 clusters observed with the Gemini Multi Object Spectographs instruments on the Gemini telescopes. Using an orthogonal regression method, we find that the slope of the relation is steeper than that expected if clusters were self-similar, and that the evolution of the normalization is slightly negative, but not significantly different from zero (σv ∝ T0.86±0.14E(z)-0.37±0.33). We verify our results by applying our methods to cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. The lack of evolution seen in our data is consistent with simulations that include both feedback and radiative cooling.
Signal velocity for anomalous dispersive waves
Mainardi, F. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))
1983-03-11
The concept of signal velocity for dispersive waves is usually identified with that of group velocity. When the dispersion is anomalous, this interpretation is not correct since the group velocity can assume nonphysical values. In this note, by using the steepest descent method first introduced by Brillouin, the phase velocity is shown to be the signal velocity when the dispersion is anomalous in the full range of frequencies.
Arabsalmani, Maryam; Møller, Palle; Fynbo, Johan P. U.;
2016-01-01
away from the metallicity in the centre of the galaxy, second the path of the sightline through different parts of the potential well of the dark matter halo will cause different velocity fields to be sampled. We report evidence suggesting that this second effect may have been detected....... the same underlying population. GRB host galaxies and QSO-DLAs are found to have different impact parameter distributions and we briefly discuss how this may affect statistical samples. The impact parameter distribution has two effects. First any metallicity gradient will shift the measured metallicity...
Ibáñez-Mejía, Juan C; Klessen, Ralf S; Baczynski, Christian
2015-01-01
Molecular cloud observations show that clouds have non-thermal velocity dispersions that scale with the cloud size as $\\sigma\\propto R^{1/2}$ at constant surface density, and for varying surface density scale with both the cloud`s size and surface density, $\\sigma^2 \\propto R \\Sigma$. The energy source driving these chaotic motions remains poorly understood. We describe the velocity dispersions observed in a cloud population formed in a kiloparsec-scale numerical simulation of a magnetized, supernova-driven, self-gravitating, interstellar medium, including diffuse heating and radiative cooling. We compare the relationships between velocity dispersion, size, and surface density measured in the simulated cloud population to those found in observations of Galactic molecular clouds. We find that external supernova explosions can not drive turbulent motions of the observed magnitudes within dense clouds. On the other hand, self-gravity also induces non-thermal motions as gravitationally bound clouds begin to colla...
Stellar Populations across the Black Hole Mass-Velocity Dispersion Relation
Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Brodie, Jean P.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Forbes, Duncan A.
2016-11-01
Coevolution between supermassive black holes (BH) and their host galaxies is universally adopted in models for galaxy formation. In the absence of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), simulated massive galaxies keep forming stars in the local universe. From an observational point of view, however, such coevolution remains unclear. We present a stellar population analysis of galaxies with direct BH mass measurements and the BH mass-σ relation as a working framework. We find that over-massive BH galaxies, i.e., galaxies lying above the best-fitting BH mass-σ line, tend to be older and more α-element-enhanced than under-massive BH galaxies. The scatter in the BH mass-σ-[α/Fe] plane is significantly lower than that in the standard BH mass-σ relation. We interpret this trend as an imprint of AGN feedback on the star formation histories of massive galaxies.
Larecki, Wieslaw; Banach, Zbigniew
2014-01-01
This paper analyzes the propagation of the waves of weak discontinuity in a phonon gas described by the four-moment maximum entropy phonon hydrodynamics involving a nonlinear isotropic phonon dispersion relation. For the considered hyperbolic equations of phonon gas hydrodynamics, the eigenvalue problem is analyzed and the condition of genuine nonlinearity is discussed. The speed of the wave front propagating into the region in thermal equilibrium is first determined in terms of the integral formula dependent on the phonon dispersion relation and subsequently explicitly calculated for the Dubey dispersion-relation model: |k|=ωc-1(1+bω2). The specification of the parameters c and b for sodium fluoride (NaF) and semimetallic bismuth (Bi) then makes it possible to compare the calculated dependence of the wave-front speed on the sample’s temperature with the empirical relations of Coleman and Newman (1988) describing for NaF and Bi the variation of the second-sound speed with temperature. It is demonstrated that the calculated temperature dependence of the wave-front speed resembles the empirical relation and that the parameters c and b obtained from fitting respectively the empirical relation and the original material parameters of Dubey (1973) are of the same order of magnitude, the difference being in the values of the numerical factors. It is also shown that the calculated temperature dependence is in good agreement with the predictions of Hardy and Jaswal’s theory (Hardy and Jaswal, 1971) on second-sound propagation. This suggests that the nonlinearity of a phonon dispersion relation should be taken into account in the theories aiming at the description of the wave-type phonon heat transport and that the Dubey nonlinear isotropic dispersion-relation model can be very useful for this purpose.
Velocity dispersion profile in dark matter halos
Hoeft, M; Gottlöber, S
2004-01-01
Numerous numerical studies indicate that dark matter halos show an almost universal radial density profile. The origin of the profile is still under debate. We investigate this topic and pay particular attention to the velocity dispersion profile. To this end we have performed high-resolution simulations with two independent codes, ART and {\\sc Gadget}. The radial velocity dispersion can be approximated as function of the potential by $\\sigma_r^2 = a (\\Phi / \\Phi_{\\rm{out}})^\\kappa (\\Phi_{\\rm{out}} - \\Phi)$, where $\\Phi_{\\rm{out}}$ is the outer potential of the halo. For the parameters $a$ and $\\kappa$ we find $a=0.29\\pm0.04$ and $\\kappa=0.41\\pm0.03$. We find that the power-law asymptote $\\sigma^2 \\propto \\Phi^\\kappa$ is valid out to much larger distances from the halo center than any power asymptote for the density profile $\\rho \\propto r^{-n}$. The asymptotic slope $n(r \\to 0)$ of the density profile is related to the exponent $\\kappa$ via $n=2\\kappa/(1+\\kappa)$. Thus the value obtained for $\\kappa$ from th...
Velocity dispersions and X-ray temperatures of galaxy clusters
Girardi, M; Giuricin, G; Mardirossian, F; Mezzetti, M; Biviano, A
1995-01-01
Using a large and well-controlled sample of clusters of galaxies, we investigate the relation between cluster velocity dispersions and X-ray temperatures of intra-cluster gas. In order to obtain a reliable estimate of the total velocity dispersion of a cluster, independent of the level of anisotropies in galaxy orbits, we analyze the integrated velocity dispersion profiles over increasing distances from the cluster centers. Distortions in the velocity fields, the effect of close clusters, the presence of substructures, and the presence of a population of (spiral) galaxies not in virial equilibrium with the cluster potential are taken into account. Using our final sample of 37 clusters, for which a reliable estimate of the velocity dispersion could be obtained, we derive a relation between the velocity dispersions and the X-ray temperatures, with a scatter reduced by more than 30 % with respect to previous works. A chi square fit to the temperature-velocity dispersion relation does not exclude the hypothesis t...
Shen, Yue; Ho, Luis C; Brandt, W N; Denney, Kelly D; Horne, Keith; Jiang, Linhua; Kochanek, Christopher S; McGreer, Ian D; Merloni, Andrea; Peterson, Bradley M; Petitjean, Patrick; Schneider, Donald P; Schulze, Andreas; Strauss, Michael A; Tao, Charling; Trump, Jonathan R; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry
2015-01-01
We present host stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of 88 broad-line quasars at 0.10.6) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Reverberation Mapping (SDSS-RM) project. High signal-to-noise ratio coadded spectra (average S/N~30 per 69 km/s pixel) from SDSS-RM allowed decomposition of the host and quasar spectra, and measurement of the host stellar velocity dispersions and black hole (BH) masses using the single-epoch (SE) virial method. The large sample size and dynamic range in luminosity (L5100=10^(43.2-44.7) erg/s) lead to the first clear detection of a correlation between SE virial BH mass and host stellar velocity dispersion far beyond the local universe. However, the observed correlation is significantly flatter than the local relation, suggesting that there are selection biases in high-z luminosity-threshold quasar samples for such studies. Our uniform sample and analysis enable an investigation of the redshift evolution of the M-sigma relation free of caveats by comparing different samples...
Bayliss, Matthew.B. [MIT, MKI; Zengo, Kyle [Colby Coll.; Ruel, Jonathan [Harvard U., Phys. Dept.; Benson, Bradford A. [Fermilab; Bleem, Lindsey E. [Argonne; Bocquet, Sebastian [Argonne; Bulbul, Esra [MIT, MKI; Brodwin, Mark [Missouri U., Kansas City; Capasso, Raffaella [Munich, Tech. U., Universe; Chiu, I-non [Taiwan, Natl. Tsing Hua U.; McDonald, Michael [MIT, MKI; Rapetti, David [NASA, Ames; Saro, Alex [Munich, Tech. U., Universe; Stalder, Brian [Inst. Astron., Honolulu; Stark, Antony A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Strazzullo, Veronica [Munich, Tech. U., Universe; Stubbs, Christopher W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Zenteno, Alfredo [Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.
2016-12-08
The velocity distribution of galaxies in clusters is not universal; rather, galaxies are segregated according to their spectral type and relative luminosity. We examine the velocity distributions of different populations of galaxies within 89 Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SZ) selected galaxy clusters spanning $ 0.28 < z < 1.08$. Our sample is primarily draw from the SPT-GMOS spectroscopic survey, supplemented by additional published spectroscopy, resulting in a final spectroscopic sample of 4148 galaxy spectra---2868 cluster members. The velocity dispersion of star-forming cluster galaxies is $17\\pm4$% greater than that of passive cluster galaxies, and the velocity dispersion of bright ($m < m^{*}-0.5$) cluster galaxies is $11\\pm4$% lower than the velocity dispersion of our total member population. We find good agreement with simulations regarding the shape of the relationship between the measured velocity dispersion and the fraction of passive vs. star-forming galaxies used to measure it, but we find a small offset between this relationship as measured in data and simulations in which suggests that our dispersions are systematically low by as much as 3\\% relative to simulations. We argue that this offset could be interpreted as a measurement of the effective velocity bias that describes the ratio of our observed velocity dispersions and the intrinsic velocity dispersion of dark matter particles in a published simulation result. Measuring velocity bias in this way suggests that large spectroscopic surveys can improve dispersion-based mass-observable scaling relations for cosmology even in the face of velocity biases, by quantifying and ultimately calibrating them out.
Bayliss, Matthew. B.; Zengo, Kyle; Ruel, Jonathan; Benson, Bradford A.; Bleem, Lindsey E.; Bocquet, Sebastian; Bulbul, Esra; Brodwin, Mark; Capasso, Raffaella; Chiu, I.-non; McDonald, Michael; Rapetti, David; Saro, Alex; Stalder, Brian; Stark, Antony A.; Strazzullo, Veronica; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Zenteno, Alfredo
2017-03-01
The velocity distribution of galaxies in clusters is not universal; rather, galaxies are segregated according to their spectral type and relative luminosity. We examine the velocity distributions of different populations of galaxies within 89 Sunyaev Zel’dovich (SZ) selected galaxy clusters spanning 0.28population. We find good agreement with simulations regarding the shape of the relationship between the measured velocity dispersion and the fraction of passive versus star-forming galaxies used to measure it, but we find a small offset between this relationship as measured in data and simulations, which suggests that our dispersions are systematically low by as much as 3% relative to simulations. We argue that this offset could be interpreted as a measurement of the effective velocity bias that describes the ratio of our observed velocity dispersions and the intrinsic velocity dispersion of dark matter particles in a published simulation result. Measuring velocity bias in this way suggests that large spectroscopic surveys can improve dispersion-based mass-observable scaling relations for cosmology even in the face of velocity biases, by quantifying and ultimately calibrating them out.
Velocity dispersion around ellipticals in MOND
Tiret, O; Angus, G W; Famaey, B; Zhao, H S
2007-01-01
We investigate how different models that have been proposed for solving the dark matter problem can fit the velocity dispersion observed around elliptical galaxies, on either a small scale (~ 20kpc) with stellar tracers, such as planetary nebulae, or large scale (~ 200kpc) with satellite galaxies as tracers. Predictions of Newtonian gravity, either containing pure baryonic matter, or embedded in massive cold dark matter (CDM) haloes, are compared with predictions of the modified gravity of MOND. The standard CDM model has problems on a small scale, and the Newtonian pure baryonic model has difficulties on a large scale, while a fit with MOND is possible on both scales.
Velocity Dispersion of Excited H2
Lacour, S; Hébrard, G; Oliveira, C; André, M K; Ferlet, R; Vidal-Madjar, A
2005-01-01
We present a study of the high rotational bands (J > 2) of H2 toward 4 early type galactic stars: HD 73882, HD 192639, HD 206267, and HD 207538. In each case, the velocity dispersion - characterized by the spectrum fitting parameter b - increases with the level of excitation, a phenomenon that has previously been detected by the Copernicus and IMAPS observatories. In particular, we show with 4 sigma confidence that for HD 192639 it is not possible to fit all J levels with a single b value, and that higher b values are needed for the higher levels. The amplitude of the line broadening, which can be as high as 10 km s^-1, makes explanations such as inhomogeneous spatial distribution unlikely. We investigate a mechanism in which the broadening is due to the molecules that are rotationally excited through the excess energy acquired after their formation on a grain (H2-formation pumping). We show that different dispersions would be a natural consequence of this mechanism. We note however that such process would re...
Ionized gas velocity dispersion and multiple supernova explosions
Vasiliev, Evgenii O; Shchekinov, Yuri A
2014-01-01
Using 3D numerical simulations we study the evolution of the H$\\alpha$ intensity and velocity dispersion for single and multiple supenova (SN) explosions. We find that the $I_{\\rm H\\alpha}-\\sigma$ diagram obtained for simulated gas flows is similar in shape to that observed in dwarf galaxies. We conclude that colliding SN shells with significant difference in age are resposible for high velocity dispersion that reaches values high as $\\simgt 100$kms$^{-1}$. Such a high velocity dispersion could be hardly got for a single SN remnant. Peaks of velocity dispersion on the $I_{\\rm H\\alpha}-\\sigma$ diagram may correspond to several stand-alone or merged SN remnants with moderately different ages. The procedure of the spatial resolution degrading in the H$\\alpha$ intensity and velocity dispersion maps makes the simulated $I_{\\rm H\\alpha}-\\sigma$ diagrams close to those observed in dwarf galaxies not only in shape, but also quantitatively.
Velocity dispersion of M87 using a population model
Angione, R. J.; Junkkarinen, V.; Talbert, F. D.; Brandt, J. C.
1980-01-01
The velocity dispersion of M 87 (NGC 4486) is determined using (1) a single star of class K0 III and (2) two different population models to represent the spectral region of the G-band. Although the models fit the overall spectrum better than the single-star, there is only a small difference in the derived velocity dispersion. This work revises the earlier velocity dispersion result of Brandt and Roosen (1969) down to 350 km/sec, in agreement with Faber and Jackson (1976) and Sargent et al. (1978).
Gaseous versus Stellar Velocity Dispersion in Emission-Line Galaxies
Xiao-Yan Chen; Cai-Na Hao; Jing Wang
2008-01-01
We compare the ionized gas velocity dispersion σgas with the stellar velocity dis-persion σ* in star-forming galaxies, composite galaxies, Low Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Regions (LINERs) and Seyfert 2s, compiled from a cross-identification of Sloan Digital Sky Survey Fourth Data Release (SDSS DR4) and Point Source Catalogue Redshift Survey (PSCz). We measure σgas from the FWHMs of emission lines (Hα, [NII]λλ6548, 6583 and [SII] λλ6716, 6731). A significant correlation between the gas and stellar velocity dispersion exists, despite substantial scatter. The mean value of the gas to stellar velocity dispersion ratio is close to unity. This suggests that gas velocity dispersion can substitute for the stellar veloc-ity dispersion as a tracer of the gravitational potential well for all the four types of galaxies,but the involved uncertainties are different from type to type. We also studied σgas/σ* as a function of the redshift and the axial ratio to test the effects of aperture and galaxy inclina-tion, and found that both effects are weak. Finally we checked the trend of σgas/σ* with the infrared luminosity and found no significant correlation.
Lagrangian Velocity Correlations and Absolute Dispersion in the Midlatitude Troposphere
Sukhatme, J
2004-01-01
Employing daily wind data from the ECMWF, we perform passive particle advection to estimate the Lagrangian velocity correlation functions (LVCF) associated with the midlatitude tropospheric flow. In particular we decompose the velocity field into time mean and transient (or eddy) components to better understand the nature of the LVCF's.A closely related quantity, the absolute dispersion (AD) is also examined. Given the anisotropy of the flow, meridional and zonal characteristics are considered separately. The zonal LVCF is seen to be non-exponential. In fact, for a broad set of intermediate timescales it is better described as a power law of the form $\\tau^{-\\alpha}$ with $ 0<\\alpha<1$. Indeed, the implied long time correlation in the zonal flow results in a superdiffusive zonal AD regime. On the other hand, the meridional LVCF decays rapidly to zero. Interestingly, before approaching to zero it shows a region of negative correlation. A physical argument based on the rotational inhibition of latitudinal...
Velocity dispersion: A tool for characterizing reservoir rocks
Brown, R.L.; Seifert, D.
1997-01-01
Apparent discrepancies between velocity measurements made with different frequencies in a formation at the Gypsy test site are explained in terms of elastic scattering and intrinsic attenuation. The elastic scattering component of the dispersion (38%) in a marine interval above the Gypsy sandstone is estimated via simple models constructed from well log information. Any dispersion above the predicted value for elastic scattering in this interval is assigned to intrinsic attenuation (62%). Using the vertical measurements in the well, the marine interval directly above the Gypsy sandstone has an estimated intrinsic Q1 = 51 and an effective Q because of the scattering of Qsc = 85. The total Q of the combined mechanisms is 32. The dispersion of the vertical measurements through the heterogeneous sands and shales of the Gypsy formation can be explained using an intrinsic QI = 30 and neglecting the effects of scattering. The horizontal observations require a more detailed modeling effort to unravel the relative roles of path and volume effects, elastic scattering, attenuation, and intrinsic anisotropy. Thin layers barely resolvable on the sonic logs play a significant role in modifying the crosswell response. Potentially, the dispersion can be a key to mapping reservoir properties using crosswell and surface seismic data.
Dispersion analysis of velocity and attenuation in Berea sandstone
Winkler, Kenneth W.
1985-07-01
Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements were made on dry, brine- and oil-saturated Berea sandstone and fused glass beads. The results for fused glass beads are consistent with the predictions of Biot theory. They indicate that as predicted, the Biot absorption/dispersion mechanism shifts to higher frequencies as the fluid viscosity increases. Similar data for Berea sandstone are not consistent with Biot theory, since observed velocities are generally higher than predicted. Using the Biot theory, we calculate low- and high-frequency velocities for the liquid-saturated samples. "Biot dispersion" is then defined as the percent difference between the low- and high-frequency limits. "Apparent dispersion" is defined as the percent difference between the measured ultrasonic velocity and the low-frequency Biot limit. Comparison of these two measures of dispersion gives insight into the presence of a non-Biot absorption/dispersion mechanism. Whenever the apparent dispersion is larger than the Biot dispersion, the extra dispersion is interpreted as being caused by a local flow relaxation. To be consistent with attenuation data, this relaxation must be distributed over at least five to six decades in frequency.
Calibrating the Planck Cluster Mass Scale with Cluster Velocity Dispersions
Amodeo, Stefania; Mei, Simona; Stanford, Spencer A.; Bartlett, James G.; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Lawrence, Charles R.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Shim, Hyunjin; Marleau, Francine; Stern, Daniel
2017-08-01
We measure the Planck cluster mass bias using dynamical mass measurements based on velocity dispersions of a subsample of 17 Planck-detected clusters. The velocity dispersions were calculated using redshifts determined from spectra that were obtained at the Gemini observatory with the GMOS multi-object spectrograph. We correct our estimates for effects due to finite aperture, Eddington bias, and correlated scatter between velocity dispersion and the Planck mass proxy. The result for the mass bias parameter, (1-b), depends on the value of the galaxy velocity bias, {b}{{v}}, adopted from simulations: (1-b)=(0.51+/- 0.09){b}{{v}}3. Using a velocity bias of {b}{{v}}=1.08 from Munari et al., we obtain (1-b)=0.64+/- 0.11, i.e., an error of 17% on the mass bias measurement with 17 clusters. This mass bias value is consistent with most previous weak-lensing determinations. It lies within 1σ of the value that is needed to reconcile the Planck cluster counts with the Planck primary cosmic microwave background constraints. We emphasize that uncertainty in the velocity bias severely hampers the precision of the measurements of the mass bias using velocity dispersions. On the other hand, when we fix the Planck mass bias using the constraints from Penna-Lima et al., based on weak-lensing measurements, we obtain a positive velocity bias of {b}{{v}}≳ 0.9 at 3σ .
Optical spectroscopy and velocity dispersions of galaxy clusters from the SPT-SZ survey
Ruel, J.; Bayliss, M. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bazin, G.; Bocquet, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, 81679 München (Germany); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Foley, R. J.; Stalder, B.; Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Armstrong, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Bautz, M. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A., E-mail: mbayliss@cfa.harvard.edu [Instituto de Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica (Chile); and others
2014-09-01
We present optical spectroscopy of galaxies in clusters detected through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect with the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We report our own measurements of 61 spectroscopic cluster redshifts, and 48 velocity dispersions each calculated with more than 15 member galaxies. This catalog also includes 19 dispersions of SPT-observed clusters previously reported in the literature. The majority of the clusters in this paper are SPT-discovered; of these, most have been previously reported in other SPT cluster catalogs, and five are reported here as SPT discoveries for the first time. By performing a resampling analysis of galaxy velocities, we find that unbiased velocity dispersions can be obtained from a relatively small number of member galaxies (≲ 30), but with increased systematic scatter. We use this analysis to determine statistical confidence intervals that include the effect of membership selection. We fit scaling relations between the observed cluster velocity dispersions and mass estimates from SZ and X-ray observables. In both cases, the results are consistent with the scaling relation between velocity dispersion and mass expected from dark-matter simulations. We measure a ∼30% log-normal scatter in dispersion at fixed mass, and a ∼10% offset in the normalization of the dispersion-mass relation when compared to the expectation from simulations, which is within the expected level of systematic uncertainty.
Angular velocity response of nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystal
Huang, Pin-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin
2013-06-01
A hybrid material of nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystal changed capacitance after spinning beyond threshold angular velocity. Once the centrifugal force of nanoparticles overcomes the attractive force between liquid crystals, the nanoparticles begin to move. The order of highly viscous liquid crystals is disturbed by the nanoparticles' penetrative movement, and the dielectric constant of the liquid crystal cell changes as a result. We found that the angular velocity response of nanoparticles dispersed in liquid crystal with higher working temperature and nanoparticles' density provided higher sensitivity. The obtained results are important for the continuous improvement of liquid-crystal-based inertial sensors or nano-viscometers.
Optical Spectroscopy and Velocity Dispersions of Galaxy Clusters from the SPT-SZ Survey
Ruel, J; Bayliss, M; Brodwin, M; Foley, R J; Stalder, B; Aird, K A; Armstrong, R; Ashby, M L N; Bautz, M; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Bocquet, S; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chapman, S C; Cho, H M; Clocchiatti, A; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Desai, S; Dobbs, M A; Dudley, J P; Forman, W R; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Halverson, N W; Harrington, N L; High, F W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Jones, C; Joy, M; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Liu, J; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Mantz, A; Marrone, D P; McDonald, M; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Murray, S S; Natoli, T; Nurgaliev, D; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Saro, A; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Shirokoff, E; Song, J; Šuhada, R; Spieler, H G; Stanford, S A; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Stubbs, C W; van Engelen, A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vikhlinin, A; Williamson, R; Zahn, O; Zenteno, A
2013-01-01
We present optical spectroscopy of galaxies in clusters detected through the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect with the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We report our own measurements of $61$ spectroscopic cluster redshifts, and $48$ velocity dispersions each calculated with more than $15$ member galaxies. This catalog also includes $19$ dispersions of SPT-observed clusters previously reported in the literature. The majority of the clusters in this paper are SPT-discovered; of these, most have been previously reported in other SPT cluster catalogs, and five are reported here as SPT discoveries for the first time. By performing a resampling analysis of galaxy velocities, we find that unbiased velocity dispersions can be obtained from a relatively small number of member galaxies ($\\lesssim 30$), but with increased systematic scatter. We use this analysis to determine statistical confidence intervals that include the effect of membership selection. We fit scaling relations between the observed cluster velocity dispersio...
Seismic wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in UAE carbonates
Ogunsami, Abdulwaheed Remi
Interpreting the seismic property of fluids in hydrocarbon reservoirs at low frequency scale has been a cherished goal of petroleum geophysics research for decades. Lately, there has been tremendous interest in understanding attenuation as a result of fluid flow in porous media. Although interesting, the emerging experimental and theoretical information still remain ambiguous and are practically not utilized for reasons not too obscure. Attenuation is frequency dependent and hard to measure in the laboratory at low frequency. This thesis describes and reports the results of an experimental study of low frequency attenuation and velocity dispersion on a selected carbonate reservoir samples in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). For the low frequency measurements, stress-strain method was used to measure the moduli from which the velocity is derived. Attenuation was measured as the phase difference between the applied stress and the strain. For the ultrasonic component, the pulse propagation method was employed. To study the fluid effect especially at reservoir in situ conditions, the measurements were made dry and saturated with liquid butane and brine at differential pressures of up to 5000 psi with pore pressure held constant at 500 psi. Similarly to what has been documented in the literatures for sandstone, attenuation of the bulk compressibility mode dominates the losses in these dry and somewhat partially saturated carbonate samples with butane and brine. Overall, the observed attenuation cannot be simply said to be frequency dependent within this low seismic band. While attenuation seems to be practically constant in the low frequency band for sample 3H, such conclusion cannot be made for sample 7H. For the velocities, significant dispersion is observed and Gassmann generally fails to match the measured velocities. Only the squirt model fairly fits the velocities, but not at all pressures. Although the observed dispersion is larger than Biot's prediction, the fact
Dwarf Galaxies in the Coma Cluster: I. Velocity Dispersion Measurements
Kourkchi, E; Carter, D; Karick, A M; Mármol-Queraltó, E; Chiboucas, K; Tully, R B; Mobasher, B; Guzmán, R; Matković, A; Gruel, N
2011-01-01
We present the study of a large sample of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Coma cluster observed with DEIMOS on the Keck II to determine their internal velocity dispersion. We focus on a subsample of 41 member dwarf elliptical galaxies for which the velocity dispersion can be reliably measured, 26 of which were studied for the first time. The magnitude range of our sample is $-21
van Uitert, Edo; Franx, Marijn; Gilbank, David G; Gladders, Michael D; Yee, H K C
2012-01-01
We present the results of a weak gravitational lensing analysis to determine whether the stellar mass or the velocity dispersion is more closely related to the amplitude of the lensing signal around galaxies - and hence to the projected distribution of dark matter. The lensing signal on scales smaller than the virial radius corresponds most closely to the lensing velocity dispersion in the case of a singular isothermal profile, but is on larger scales also sensitive to the clustering of the haloes. We select over 4000 lens galaxies at a redshift z<0.2 with concentrated (or bulge-dominated) surface brightness profiles from the ~300 square degree overlap between the Red-sequence Cluster Survey 2 (RCS2) and the data release 7 (DR7) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We consider both the spectroscopic velocity dispersion and a model velocity dispersion (a combination of the stellar mass, the size and the Sersic index of a galaxy). Comparing the model and spectroscopic velocity dispersion we find that they...
The vertical velocity dispersion profile of the Galactic thick disk
Bidin, C Moni; Carraro, G; Méndez, R A; Van Altena, W F; Korchagin, V I; Casetti-Dinescu, D I
2007-01-01
We present the results of radial velocity measurements of 770 thick disk red giants toward the South Galactic Pole, vertically distributed from 0.5 kpc to 5 kpc with respect to the Galactic plane. We find a small gradient in the vertical velocity dispersion (sigma_W) of 3.8+/-0.8 km/s kpc. Even more noteworthy, our values of $\\sigma_W$ are small compared to literature values: in the middle of the vertical height range we find sigma_W(z=2kpc)=30 km/s. We found no possible explanation for this small value of sigma_W in terms of sample contamination by thin disk stars, nor by wrong assumptions regarding the metallicity distribution and the derived distances.
THE VERTICAL VELOCITY DISPERSION PROFILE OF THE GALACTIC THICK DISK
C. Moni Bidin
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We present the results of radial velocity measurements of 770 thick disk red giants toward the South Galactic Pole, vertically distributed from 0.5 kpc to 5 kpc with respect to the Galactic plane. We nd a small gradient in the vertical velocity dispersion (W of 3.8 0.8 km s-1 kpc-1. Even more noteworthy, our values of W are small compared to literature values: in the middle of the vertical height range we nd W;z=2kpc=30 km s-1. We found no possible explanation for this small value oW in terms of sample contamination by thin disk stars, nor by wrong assumptions regarding the metallicity distribution and the derived distances.
Application of Vectors to Relative Velocity
Tin-Lam, Toh
2004-01-01
The topic 'relative velocity' has recently been introduced into the Cambridge Ordinary Level Additional Mathematics syllabus under the application of Vectors. In this note, the results of relative velocity and the 'reduction to rest' technique of teaching relative velocity are derived mathematically from vector algebra, in the hope of providing…
Analysis of Wave Nonlinear Dispersion Relation
LI Rui-jie; TAO Jian-fu
2005-01-01
The nonlinear dispersion relations and modified relations proposed by Kirby and Hedges have the limitation of intermediate minimum value. To overcome the shortcoming, a new nonlinear dispersion relation is proposed. Based on the summarization and comparison of existing nonlinear dispersion relations, it can be found that the new nonlinear dispersion relation not only keeps the advantages of other nonlinear dispersion relations, but also significantly reduces the relative errors of the nonlinear dispersion relations for a range of the relative water depth of 1＜kh＜1.5 and has sufficient accuracy for practical purposes.
Functional crossover in the dispersion relations of magnons and phonons
Hoser, A.; Köbler, U.
2016-09-01
Experimental data are presented showing that the dispersion relations of magnons and acoustic phonons can consist of two sections with different functions of wave vector. In the low wave vector range a power function of wave vector often holds over a finite q-range while dispersions for larger wave vector values better approach the atomistic model predictions. In the magnon spectra ∼⃒qx power functions with exponents x=1.25, 1.5 and 2 are identified. The dispersion of the acoustic phonons can be a linear function of wave vector over a surprisingly large range of energy. Since the slope of the linear section agrees with the known sound velocities it can be concluded that the dispersion of the acoustic phonons has got attracted by the linear dispersion of the mass less Debye bosons (sound waves). Due to the different (translational) symmetries of bosons and atomistic excitations (magnons, phonons) the associated dispersions can attract each other. In the same way the different ∼⃒qx power functions in the magnon dispersions indicate that magnon dispersions are attracted by the dispersion of the bosons of the magnetic continuum (Goldstone bosons). This allows evaluation of the otherwise difficult to obtain dispersions of the Goldstone bosons from the known magnon dispersions. Interestingly, the dispersions of Goldstone bosons (Debye bosons) attract magnon dispersions (phonon dispersions) and not vice versa.
Weakly nonlinear density-velocity relation
Chodorowski, M J; Chodorowski, Michal J; Lokas, Ewa L
1996-01-01
We rigorously derive weakly nonlinear relation between cosmic density and velocity fields up to third order in perturbation theory. The density field is described by the mass density contrast, \\de. The velocity field is described by the variable \\te proportional to the velocity divergence, \\te = - f(\\Omega)^{-1} H_0^{-1} \
Zahid, Jabran; Fabricant, Daniel; Hwang, Ho Seong
2016-01-01
We examine the relation between stellar mass and central stellar velocity dispersion-the M-sigma relation-for massive quiescent galaxies at z85%) and we consistently measure the stellar mass and velocity dispersion for the two samples. The M-sigma relation and its scatter are independent of redshift with sigma ~ M^0.3 for M > 10^10.3 solar masses. The measured slope of the M-sigma relation is the same as the scaling between the total halo mass and the dark matter halo velocity dispersion obtained by N-body simulations. This consistency suggests that massive quiescent galaxies are virialized systems where the central dark matter concentration is either a constant or negligible fraction of the stellar mass. The relation between the total galaxy mass (stellar + dark matter) and the central stellar velocity dispersion is consistent with the observed relation between the total mass of a galaxy cluster and the velocity dispersion of the cluster members. This result suggests that the central stellar velocity dispers...
Phonons in slow motion: dispersion relations in ultrathin Si membranes.
Cuffe, John; Chávez, Emigdio; Shchepetov, Andrey; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; El Boudouti, El Houssaine; Alzina, Francesc; Kehoe, Timothy; Gomis-Bresco, Jordi; Dudek, Damian; Pennec, Yan; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram; Prunnila, Mika; Ahopelto, Jouni; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M
2012-07-11
We report the changes in dispersion relations of hypersonic acoustic phonons in free-standing silicon membranes as thin as ∼8 nm. We observe a reduction of the phase and group velocities of the fundamental flexural mode by more than 1 order of magnitude compared to bulk values. The modification of the dispersion relation in nanostructures has important consequences for noise control in nano- and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) as well as opto-mechanical devices.
Dispersion relations for unphysical particles
Siringo, Fabio
2017-03-01
Generalized dispersion relations are discussed for unphysical particles, e.g. confined degrees of freedom that are not present in the physical spectra but can give rise to observable bound states. While in general the propagator of the unphysical particles can have complex poles and cannot be reconstructed from the knowledge of the imaginary part, under reasonable assumptions the missing piece of information is shown to be in the rational function that contains the poles and must be added to the integral representation. For pure Yang-Mills theory, the rational part and the spectral term are identified in the explicit analytical expressions provided by the massive expansion of the gluon propagator. The multi particle spectral term turns out to be very small and the simple rational part provides, from first principles, an approximate propagator that is equivalent to the tree-level result of simple phenomenological models like the refined Gribov-Zwanziger model.
Non-axisymmetric vertical velocity dispersion distributions produced by bars
Du, Min; Debattista, Victor P
2016-01-01
In barred galaxies, the contours of stellar velocity dispersions ($\\sigma$) are generally expected to be oval and aligned with the orientation of bars. However, many double-barred (S2B) galaxies exhibit distinct $\\sigma$ peaks on the minor axis of inner bar, which we termed "$\\sigma$-humps," while two local $\\sigma$ minima are present close to the ends of inner bars, i.e., "$\\sigma$-hollows." Analysis of numerical simulations shows that $\\sigma_z$-humps or hollows should play an important role in generating the observed $\\sigma$-humps+hollows in low-inclination galaxies. In order to systematically investigate the properties of $\\sigma_z$ in barred galaxies, we apply the vertical Jeans equation to a group of well-designed three-dimensional bar+disk(+bulge) models. A vertically thin bar can lower $\\sigma_z$ along the bar and enhance it perpendicular to the bar, thus generating $\\sigma_z$-humps+hollows. Such a result suggests that $\\sigma_z$-humps+hollows can be generated by the purely dynamical response of star...
The Dependence of the Pairwise Velocity Dispersion on Galaxy Properties
Li, C; Kauffmann, G; Börner, G; White, S D M; Cheng, F Z; Li, Cheng; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Boerner, Gerhard; White, Simon D.M.
2006-01-01
(abridged) We present measurements of the pairwise velocity dispersion (PVD) for different classes of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. For a sample of about 200,000 galaxies, we study the dependence of the PVD on galaxy properties such as luminosity, stellar mass (M_*), colour (g-r), 4000A break strength (D4000), concentration index (C), and stellar surface mass density (\\mu_*). The luminosity dependence of the PVD is in good agreement with the results of Jing & B\\"orner (2004) for the 2dFGRS catalog. The value of \\sigma_{12} measured at k=1 h/Mpc decreases as a function of increasing galaxy luminosity for galaxies fainter than L*, before increasing again for the most luminous galaxies in our sample. This behaviour is not reproduced using standard halo occupation distribution (HOD) models. Each of the galaxy subsamples selected according to luminosity or stellar mass is divided into two further subsamples according to colour, D4000, C and \\mu_*. We find that galaxies with redder colours and highe...
Predicting the Velocity Dispersions of the Dwarf Satellite Galaxies of Andromeda
McGaugh, Stacy S.
2016-05-01
Dwarf Spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group are the faintest and most diffuse stellar systems known. They exhibit large mass discrepancies, making them popular laboratories for studying the missing mass problem. The PANDAS survey of M31 revealed dozens of new examples of such dwarfs. As these systems were discovered, it was possible to use the observed photometric properties to predict their stellar velocity dispersions with the modified gravity theory MOND. These predictions, made in advance of the observations, have since been largely confirmed. A unique feature of MOND is that a structurally identical dwarf will behave differently when it is or is not subject to the external field of a massive host like Andromeda. The role of this "external field effect" is critical in correctly predicting the velocity dispersions of dwarfs that deviate from empirical scaling relations. With continued improvement in the observational data, these systems could provide a test of the strong equivalence principle.
Orthogonal Vertical Velocity Dispersion Distributions Produced by Bars
Du, Min; Shen, Juntai; Debattista, Victor P.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, Adriana
2017-02-01
In barred galaxies, the contours of stellar velocity dispersions (σ) are generally expected to be oval and aligned with the orientation of bars. However, many double-barred (S2B) galaxies exhibit distinct σ peaks on the minor axis of the inner bar, which we termed “σ-humps,” while two local σ minima are present close to the ends of inner bars, i.e., “σ-hollows.” Analysis of numerical simulations shows that {σ }z-humps or hollows should play an important role in generating the observed σ-humps+hollows in low-inclination galaxies. In order to systematically investigate the properties of {σ }z in barred galaxies, we apply the vertical Jeans equation to a group of well-designed three-dimensional bar+disk(+bulge) models. A vertically thin bar can lower {σ }z along the bar and enhance it perpendicular to the bar, thus generating {σ }z-humps+hollows. Such a result suggests that {σ }z-humps+hollows can be generated by the purely dynamical response of stars in the presence of a sufficiently massive, vertically thin bar, even without an outer bar. Using self-consistent N-body simulations, we verify the existence of vertically thin bars in the nuclear-barred and S2B models that generate prominent σ-humps+hollows. Thus, the ubiquitous presence of σ-humps+hollows in S2Bs implies that inner bars are vertically thin. The addition of a bulge makes the {σ }z-humps more ambiguous and thus tends to somewhat hide the {σ }z-humps+hollows. We show that {σ }z may be used as a kinematic diagnostic of stellar components that have different thicknesses, providing a direct perspective on the morphology and thickness of nearly face-on bars and bulges with integral field unit spectroscopy.
Mandal, Prantik
2017-02-01
In the past three years, a semi-permanent network of fifteen 3-component broadband seismographs has become operational in the eastern Indian shield region occupying the Archean (∼2.5-3.6 Ga) Singhbhum-Odisha craton (SOC) and the Proterozoic (∼1.0-2.5 Ga) Chotanagpur Granitic Gneissic terrane (CGGT). The reliable and accurate broadband data for the recent 2015 Nepal earthquake sequence from 10 broadband stations of this network enabled us to estimate the group velocity dispersion characteristics and one-dimensional regional shear velocity structure of the region. First, we measure fundamental mode Rayleigh- and Love-wave group velocity dispersion curves in the period range of 7-70 s and then invert these curves to estimate the crustal and upper mantle structure below the eastern Indian craton (EIC). We observe that group velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves in SOC are relatively high in comparison to those of CGGT. This could be attributed to a relatively mafic-rich crust-mantle structure in SOC resulting from two episodes of magmatism associated with the 1.6 Ga Dalma and ∼117 Ma Rajmahal volcanisms. The best model for the EIC from the present study is found to be a two-layered crust, with a 14-km thick upper-crust (UC) of average shear velocity (Vs) of 3.0 km/s and a 26-km thick lower-crust (LC) of average Vs of 3.6 km/s. The present study detects a sharp drop in Vs (∼-2 to 3%) at 120-260 km depths, underlying the EIC, representing the probable seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) at 120 km depth. Such sharp fall in Vs below the LAB indicates a partially molten layer. Further, a geothermal gradient extrapolated from the surface heat flow shows that such a gradient would intercept the wet basalt solidus at 88-103 km depths, suggesting a 88-103 km thick thermal lithosphere below the EIC. This could also signal the presence of small amounts of partial melts. Thus, this 2-3% drop in Vs could be attributed to the presence of partial melts in the
Dittenber, Benjamin; Valluri, Monica
2017-01-01
For the past decade researchers have focused on accurately measuring the masses of supermassive black holes in different types of galaxies. Relatively less effort has been devoted to possible systematic errors in the measurement of the central velocity dispersion of stars, sigma_*, with which the masses of supermassive black holes are known to be well correlated. In barred galaxies the measurement of sigma_* depends quite sensitively on the method used to calculate it and the kind of spectroscopic data (long-slit or IFU) and the orientation of the bar to the line-of-sight and inclination of the disk. We used simulations of barred disk galaxies with adiabatically grown SMBHs to generate mock kinematical data from which sigma_* is derived and compared with the true 3D velocity dispersion of stars in the simulations. By comparing simulations with real IFU data we aim to correct the measured sigma_* for aperture size /shape, disk inclination and bar position angle, to obtain the intrinsic central velocity dispersion of stars.
A WEAKLY NONLINEAR WATER WAVE MODEL TAKING INTO ACCOUNT DISPERSION OF WAVE PHASE VELOCITY
李瑞杰; 李东永
2002-01-01
This paper presents a weakly nonlinear water wave model using a mild slope equation and a new explicit formulation which takes into account dispersion of wave phase velocity, approximates Hedges' (1987) nonlinear dispersion relationship, and accords well with the original empirical formula. Comparison of the calculating results with those obtained from the experimental data and those obtained from linear wave theory showed that the present water wave model considering the dispersion of phase velocity is rational and in good agreement with experiment data.
Wilson, C D; Irwin, J; Knapen, J H; Israel, F P; Serjeant, S; Attewell, D; Bendo, G J; Brinks, E; Butner, H M; Clements, D L; Leech, J; Matthews, H E; Muehle, S; Mortier, A M J; Parkin, T J; Petitpas, G; Tan, B K; Tilanus, R P J; Usero, A; Vaccari, M; van der Werf, P; Wiegert, T; Zhu, M
2010-01-01
An analysis of large-area CO J=3-2 maps from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope for 12 nearby spiral galaxies reveals low velocity dispersions in the molecular component of the interstellar medium. The three lowest luminosity galaxies show a relatively flat velocity dispersion as a function of radius while the remaining nine galaxies show a central peak with a radial fall-off within 0.2-0.4 r(25). Correcting for the average contribution due to the internal velocitydispersions of a population of giant molecular clouds, the average cloud-cloud velocity dispersion across the galactic disks is 6.1 +/- 1.0 km/s (standard deviation 2.9 km/s), in reasonable agreement with previous measurements for the Galaxy andM33. The cloud-cloud velocity dispersion derived from the CO data is on average two times smaller than the HI velocity dispersion measured in the same galaxies. The low cloud-cloudvelocity dispersion implies that the molecular gas is the critical component determining the stability of the galactic disk against...
Din, Ghiyas Ud [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Isotope Applications Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: fac192@pieas.edu.pk; Chughtai, Imran Rafiq; Inayat, Mansoor Hameed [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Khan, Iqbal Hussain [Isotope Applications Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2008-12-15
Axial dispersion, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase have been investigated for a range of dispersed and continuous phase superficial velocities in a pulsed sieve plate extraction column using radiotracer residence time distribution (RTD) analysis. Axial dispersion model (ADM) was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of the system. It has been observed that increase in dispersed phase superficial velocity results in a decrease in its axial dispersion and increase in its slip velocity while its holdup increases till a maximum asymptotic value is achieved. An increase in superficial velocity of continuous phase increases the axial dispersion and holdup of dispersed phase until a maximum value is obtained, while slip velocity of dispersed phase is found to decrease in the beginning and then it increases with increase in superficial velocity of continuous phase.
Understanding the relative role of dispersion mechanisms across basin scales
Di Lazzaro, M.; Zarlenga, A.; Volpi, E.
2016-05-01
Different mechanisms are understood to represent the primary sources of the variance of travel time distribution in natural catchments. To quantify the fraction of variance introduced by each component, dispersion coefficients have been earlier defined in the framework of geomorphology-based rainfall-runoff models. In this paper we compare over a wide range of basin sizes and for a variety of runoff conditions the relative role of geomorphological dispersion, related to the heterogeneity of path lengths, and hillslope kinematic dispersion, generated by flow processes within the hillslopes. Unlike previous works, our approach does not focus on a specific study case; instead, we try to generalize results already obtained in previous literature stemming from the definition of a few significant parameters related to the metrics of the catchment and flow dynamics. We further extend this conceptual framework considering the effects of two additional variance-producing processes: the first covers the random variability of hillslope velocities (i.e. of travel times over hillslopes); the second deals with non-uniform production of runoff over the basin (specifically related to drainage density). Results are useful to clarify the role of hillslope kinematic dispersion and define under which conditions it counteracts or reinforces geomorphological dispersion. We show how its sign is ruled by the specific spatial distribution of hillslope lengths within the basin, as well as by flow conditions. Interestingly, while negative in a wide range of cases, kinematic dispersion is expected to become invariantly positive when the variability of hillslope velocity is large.
Flat rotation curves and low velocity dispersions in KMOS star-forming galaxies at z ~ 1
Di Teodoro, E. M.; Fraternali, F.; Miller, S. H.
2016-10-01
The study of the evolution of star-forming galaxies requires the determination of accurate kinematics and scaling relations out to high redshift. In this paper we select a sample of 18 galaxies at z ~ 1, observed in the Hα emission line with KMOS, to derive accurate kinematics using a novel 3D analysis technique. We use the new code 3DBarolo, which models the galaxy emission directly in 3D observational space, without the need to extract kinematic maps. This major advantage of this technique is that it is not affected by beam smearing and thus it enables the determination of rotation velocity and intrinsic velocity dispersion, even at low spatial resolution. We find that (1) the rotation curves of these z ~ 1 galaxies rise very steeply within few kiloparsecs and remain flat out to the outermost radius and (2) the Hα velocity dispersions are low, ranging from 15 to 40 km s-1, which leads to V/σ = 3-10. These characteristics are similar to those of disc galaxies in the local Universe. Finally, we also report no significant evolution of the stellar-mass Tully-Fisher relation. Our results show that disc galaxies are kinematically mature and rotation-dominated at z ~ 1 already. The reduced datacubes as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/594/A77
Pulse propagation near zero group-velocity dispersion in a femtosecond dye laser.
Salin, F; Grangier, P; Georges, P; Brun, A
1990-12-01
The propagation of femtosecond pulses in a colliding-pulse mode-locked dye laser near zero group-velocity dispersion is studied. The pulse spectrum is shown to exhibit a double-peak structure. This structure and its dependence on the intracavity dispersion can be explained by nonlinear pulse propagation near zero dispersion. A value for the third-order dispersion of the laser cavity is deduced and is found to be predominant for pulses shorter than 50 fsec.
Travel Times, Streamflow Velocities, and Dispersion Rates in the Yellowstone River, Montana
McCarthy, Peter M.
2009-01-01
dispersion rates of the dye plume for this study ranged from 0.06 ft/s for the subreach upstream from Forsyth Bridge to 2.25 ft/s for the subreach upstream from Calyspo Bridge for subreaches where the dye was completely laterally mixed. A relation was determined between travel time of the peak concentration and time for the dye plume to pass a site (duration). This relation can be used to estimate when the receding concentration of a potential contaminant reaches 10 percent of its peak concentration for accidental spills into the Yellowstone River. Data from this dye-tracer study were used to evaluate velocity and concentration estimates from a transport model developed as part of an earlier USGS study. Comparison of the estimated and calculated velocities for the study reach indicate that the transport model estimates the velocities of the Yellowstone River between Huntley Bridge and Glendive Bridge with reasonable accuracy. Velocities of the peak concentration of the dye plume calculated for this study averaged 10 percent faster than the most probable velocities and averaged 12 percent slower than the maximum probable velocities estimated from the transport model. Peak Rhodamine WT dye concentrations were consistently lower than the transport model estimates except for the most upstream subreach of each dye injection. The most upstream subreach of each dye injection is expected to have a higher concentration because of incomplete lateral mixing. Lower measured peak concentrations for all other sites were expected because Rhodamine WT dye deteriorates when exposed to sunlight and will sorb onto the streambanks and stream bottom. Velocity-streamflow relations developed by using routine streamflow measurements at USGS gaging stations and the transport model can be used to estimate mean streamflow velocities throughout a range of streamflows. The variation in these velocity-streamflow relations emphasizes the uncertainty in estimating the mean streamflow veloc
Batiste, Merida; Bentz, Misty C.; Manne-Nicholas, Emily R.; Onken, Christopher A.; Bershady, Matthew A.
2017-02-01
We present new bulge stellar velocity dispersion measurements for 10 active galaxies with secure MBH determinations from reverberation mapping. These new velocity dispersion measurements are based on spatially resolved kinematics from integral-field (IFU) spectroscopy. In all but one case, the field of view of the IFU extends beyond the effective radius of the galaxy, and in the case of Mrk 79 it extends to almost one half the effective radius. This combination of spatial resolution and field of view allows for secure determinations of stellar velocity dispersion within the effective radius for all 10 target galaxies. Spatially resolved maps of the first (V) and second (σ⋆) moments of the line of sight velocity distribution indicate the presence of kinematic substructure in most cases. In future projects we plan to explore methods of correcting for the effects of kinematic substructure in the derived bulge stellar velocity dispersion measurements.
Can gravitational infall energy lead to the observed velocity dispersion in DLAs?
Razoumov, Alexei O; Prochaska, Jason X; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper; Wolfe, Arthur M; Yang, Yi-Jung
2007-01-01
The median observed velocity width v_90 of low-ionization species in damped Ly-alpha systems is close to 90 km/s, with approximately 10% of all systems showing v_90 > 210 km/s at z=3. We show that a relative shortage of such high-velocity neutral gas absorbers in state-of-the-art galaxy formation models is a fundamental problem, present both in grid-based and particle-based numerical simulations. Using a series of numerical simulations of varying resolution and box size to cover a wide range of halo masses, we demonstrate that energy from gravitational infall alone is insufficient to produce the velocity dispersion observed in damped Ly-alpha systems, nor does this dispersion arise from an implementation of star formation and feedback in our highest resolution (~ 45 pc) models, if we do not put any galactic winds into our models by hand. We argue that these numerical experiments highlight the need to separate dynamics of different components of the multiphase interstellar medium at z=3.
1982-11-01
IN FRESH AND SEAWATER(I) (3)Product Mean Minimum Dispersant-to-Oil Ratio Name on Venezuelan Lago Medio Crude Oil (4) 0C in Fresh Water in Salt Water...higher terminal velocity, adding to the mixing energy. Orienting the nozzles aft can be expected to reduce the relative velocity of the drops, and result
Haïat, G; Naili, S
2011-02-01
Speed of sound measurements are used clinically to assess bone strength. Trabecular bone is an attenuating composite material in which negative values of velocity dispersion have been measured; this behavior remaining poorly explained physically. The aim of this work is to describe the ultrasonic propagation in trabecular bone modeled by infinite cylinders immersed in a saturating matrix and to derive the physical determinants of velocity dispersion. An original homogenization model accounting for the coupling of independent scattering and absorption phenomena allows the computation of phase velocity and of dispersion while varying bone properties. The first step of the model consists in the computation of the attenuation coefficient at all frequencies. The second step of the model corresponds to the application of the general Kramers-Krönig relationship to derive the frequency dependence of phase velocity. The model predicts negative values of velocity dispersion in agreement with experimental results obtained in phantoms mimicking trabecular bone. In trabecular bone, only negative values of velocity dispersion are predicted by the model, which span within the range of values measured experimentally. However, the comparison of the present results with results obtained in Haiat et al. (J Acoust Soc Am 124:4047-4058, 2008) assuming multiple scattering indicates that accounting for multiple scattering phenomena leads to a better prediction of velocity dispersion in trabecular bone.
Velocity, acceleration and gravity in Einstein's relativity
Abramowicz, Marek A
2016-01-01
Einstein's relativity theory demands that all meaningful physical objects should be defined covariantly, i.e. in a coordinate independent way. Concepts of relative velocity, acceleration, gravity acceleration and gravity potential are fundamental in Newton's theory and they are imprinted in everyone's physical intuition. Unfortunately, relativistic definitions of them are not commonly known or appreciated. Every now and then some confused authors use wrong, non-covariant, definitions of velocity, acceleration and gravity, based on their vague Newtonian intuitions and hidden in a superficial, often purely semantic, relativistic disguise. A recent example of such a confusion (Gorkavyi & Vasilkov, 2016) is discussed at the end of this Note.
McCoy, M.G.
1975-11-01
The problem of the numerical simulation of turbulent diffusion is studied. The two-dimensional velocity fields are assumed to be incompressible, homogeneous and stationary, and they are represented as stochastic processes. A technique is offered which creates velocity fields accurately representing the input statistics once a two point correlation function or an energy spectrum is given. Various complicated energy spectra may be represented utilizing this model. The program is then used to extract information concerning Gaussian diffusion processes. Various theories of other workers are tested including Taylor's classical representation of dispersion for times long compared with the Lagrangian correlation time. Also, a study is made of the relation between the Lagrangian and the Eulerian correlation function and a hypothesis is advanced and successfully tested. Questions concerning the relation between small eddies and the energy spectrum are considered. A criterion is advanced and successfully tested to decide whether small scale flow can be detected within the large eddies for any given spectrum. A method is developed to determine whether this small scale motion is in any sense periodic. Finally, the relation between two particle dispersion and the energy spectrum is studied anew and various theories are tested. (auth)
Stellar Velocity Dispersion in Mergers: The Effects of Dust and Star Formation
Stickley, Nathaniel R
2016-01-01
We investigate the effects of stellar evolution and dust on measurements of stellar velocity dispersion in mergers of disk galaxies. $N$-body simulations and radiative transfer analysis software are used to obtain mass-weighted and flux-weighted measurements of stellar velocity dispersion. We find that the distribution of dust with respect to the distribution of young stars in such systems is more important than the total degree of attenuation. The presence of dust typically causes flux-weighted measurements of stellar velocity dispersion to be elevated with respect to mass-weighted measurements because dust preferentially obscures young stars, which tend to be dynamically cooler than older stellar populations in such systems. In exceptional situations, in which young stars are not preferentially obscured by dust, flux-weighted velocity dispersion measurements tend to be negatively offset with respect to mass-weighted measurements because the dynamically cool young stellar populations are more luminous, per u...
Phonon dispersion relation of liquid metals
P B Thakor; P N Gajjar; A R Jani
2009-06-01
The phonon dispersion curves of some liquid metals, viz. Na ( = 1), Mg ( = 2), Al ( = 3) and Pb ( = 4), have been computed using our model potential. The charged hard sphere (CHS) reference system is applied to describe the structural information. Our model potential along with CHS reference system is capable of explaining the phonon dispersion relation for monovalent, divalent, trivalent and tetravalent liquid metals.
Guiglion, G; de Laverny, P; Kordopatis, G; Hill, V; Mikolaitis, Š; Minchev, I; Chiappini, C; Wyse, R F G; Gilmore, G; Randich, S; Feltzing, S; Bensby, T; Flaccomio, E; Koposov, S E; Pancino, E; Bayo, A; Costado, M T; Franciosini, E; Hourihane, A; Jofré, P; Lardo, C; Lewis, J; Lind, K; Magrini, L; Morbidelli, L; Sacco, G G; Ruchti, G; Worley, C C; Zaggia, S
2015-01-01
Understanding the history and the evolution of the Milky Way disc is one of the main goals of modern astrophysics. We study the velocity dispersion behaviour of Galactic disc stars as a function of the [Mg/Fe] ratio, which can be used as a proxy of relative age. This key relation is essential to constrain the formation mechanisms of the disc stellar populations as well as the cooling processes. We used the recommended parameters and chemical abundances of 7800 FGK Milky Way field stars from the second internal data release of the Gaia-ESO Survey. These stars were observed with the GIRAFFE spectrograph, and cover a large spatial volume (6+0.2dex. First, the velocity dispersion increases with [Mg/Fe] at all [Fe/H] ratios for the thin-disc stars, and then it decreases for the thick-disc at the highest [Mg/Fe] abundances. Similar trends are observed within the errors for the azimuthal velocity dispersion, while a continuous increase with [Mg/Fe] is observed for the vertical velocity dispersion. The velocity dispe...
Calculation of Velocity Dispersion of the Nearby Galaxies Using Different Stellar Template Libraries
Lalovic, A.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available We present the central velocity dispersion measurements of the nearby galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS. Using the sample from the paper by Ho et al. 2009, we have selected 23 galaxies for which we calculate the velocity dispersion. We have used the Penalized Pixel-Fitting code(Cappellari and Emsellem2004 to measure the velocity dispersion throughout the four chosen spectral regions: (3800,4568{AA}, (4568,5336{AA}, (5336,6104and (6104,6872{AA}. In all these regions, we have separately calculated dispersions and corresponding errors. We found that the measured values may vary with the change of spectral region, but, if weighted properly with the measure of the goodness of the fit, the final results will be shifted coloser to those for the best fitting regions. We have also tested how the use of different spectral libraries (Miles, Valdes and Elodie databases influences measurements and we showed that they do not affect measurements much. However, Elodie stellar library introduces the smallest errors in the velocity dispersion and it is the most stable throughout all four spectral regions. For these reasons it should be used preferentially when dealing with the SDSS spectra. We compare the results with the above mentioned paper and find a reasonable agreement. The agreement with the dispersions available in the HyperLeda database is very poor. The best agreement is obtained with SDSS measurements. We believe that our measurements are useful since SDSS velocity dispersions measurements are not available for many galaxies and the method of calculation of the velocity dispersion outlined in this work enables calculation of velocity dispersion for any galaxy. Of course, spectra with signal-to-noise ratio below 20 should be taken with caution.
Numerical Analysis of Velocity Dispersion in Multi-Phase Fluid-Saturated Porous Rocks
Chen, Xuehua; Zhong, Wenli; Gao, Gang; Zou, Wen; He, Zhenhua
2017-03-01
Seismic waves are subject to velocity dispersion when they propagate in fluid-saturated porous media. In this work, we explore the velocity dispersion behavior of P- and SV-waves in multi-phase fluid-saturated porous reservoirs while taking into account the effects of multi-phase pore fluids on the effective viscosities that control the wave-induced fluid flow. The effective viscosities associated with the hydrocarbon saturation of a synthetic sandstone reservoir saturated with different pore fluid mixtures are calculated using the Refutas model. We then analyze the frequency-dependent velocity, dispersion variation rate and characteristic frequency for different fluid saturation cases by employing Chapman's dynamic equivalent-medium theory. The results demonstrate that the hydrocarbon proportions and types in multi-phase mixed pore fluids significantly affect the magnitude and characteristic frequencies of velocity dispersion features for both the P- and S-waves. The dispersion anomalies of SV-waves are in general larger than those of the P-waves. This indicates that the velocity dispersion anomalies of SV-waves are equally sensitive to fluid saturation as the P-waves and should not be neglected. The velocities at lower frequencies (e.g., 10 and 100 Hz) within the seismic frequency range show a more remarkable decrease with increasing hydrocarbon proportion than those at higher frequency (1000 Hz). The numerical examples help to improve the understanding of the frequency-dependent AVO inversion from seismic reflection data.
Numerical Analysis of Velocity Dispersion in Multi-Phase Fluid-Saturated Porous Rocks
Chen, Xuehua; Zhong, Wenli; Gao, Gang; Zou, Wen; He, Zhenhua
2016-12-01
Seismic waves are subject to velocity dispersion when they propagate in fluid-saturated porous media. In this work, we explore the velocity dispersion behavior of P- and SV-waves in multi-phase fluid-saturated porous reservoirs while taking into account the effects of multi-phase pore fluids on the effective viscosities that control the wave-induced fluid flow. The effective viscosities associated with the hydrocarbon saturation of a synthetic sandstone reservoir saturated with different pore fluid mixtures are calculated using the Refutas model. We then analyze the frequency-dependent velocity, dispersion variation rate and characteristic frequency for different fluid saturation cases by employing Chapman's dynamic equivalent-medium theory. The results demonstrate that the hydrocarbon proportions and types in multi-phase mixed pore fluids significantly affect the magnitude and characteristic frequencies of velocity dispersion features for both the P- and S-waves. The dispersion anomalies of SV-waves are in general larger than those of the P-waves. This indicates that the velocity dispersion anomalies of SV-waves are equally sensitive to fluid saturation as the P-waves and should not be neglected. The velocities at lower frequencies (e.g., 10 and 100 Hz) within the seismic frequency range show a more remarkable decrease with increasing hydrocarbon proportion than those at higher frequency (1000 Hz). The numerical examples help to improve the understanding of the frequency-dependent AVO inversion from seismic reflection data.
Nonlinear Dispersion Relation in Wave Transformation
李瑞杰; 严以新; 曹宏生
2003-01-01
A nonlinear dispersion relation is presented to model the nonlinear dispersion of waves over the whole range of possible water depths. It reduces the phase speed over-prediction of both Hedges′ modified relation and Kirby and Dalrymple′s modified relation in the region of 1＜kh＜1.5 for small wave steepness and maintains the monotonicity in phase speed variation for large wave steepness. And it has a simple form. By use of the new nonlinear dispersion relation along with the mild slope equation taking into account weak nonlinearity, a mathematical model of wave transformation is developed and applied to laboratory data. The results show that the model with the new dispersion relation can predict wave transformation over complicated bathymetry satisfactorily.
Hadjoub, Zahia; Touati, Ibtissem; Doghmane, Malika; Doghmane, Abdellaziz
2008-10-01
This work concerns the investigation of loading layers/substrate structures in order to determine the critical thickness at which Rayleigh wave characteristics of layers can be completely distinguished from those of the substrates. To do so, we first calculate Rayleigh velocity dispersion curves of several thin film materials (about thirty) deposited on different slow and fast substrates (Be, Al 2O 3, AlN, Si, SiO 2, Mg, SiC, TiN, WC and Pyrex). Then, from the beginning of curve saturation (corresponding to the onset of intrinsic layer characteristics) we deduced normalized thickness transition for all layers/substrates combinations. Thus, we were able to deduce an analytical linear expression relating the critical thickness to combined effects of densities and velocities of both layers and substrates. Such a simple relation can be used, as an alternative method, to predict the transition critical thickness for any layer/substrate combination without the usual lengthy calculation of dispersion curves. To cite this article: Z. Hadjoub et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).
The observational distribution of internal velocity dispersions in nearby galaxy clusters
Fadda, D; Giuricin, G; Mardirossian, F; Mezzetti, M; Fadda, Dario; Girardi, Marisa; Giuricin, Giuliano; Mardirossian, Fabio; Mezzetti, Marino
1996-01-01
We analyze the internal velocity dispersions of a sample of 172 nearby galaxy clusters (z 800 km/s). We estimate that our distributions is complete for at least a dispersion greater than 650 km/s. In this completeness range a power law fit is in fair agreement with results coming from the X-ray temperature distributions.
Hyperbolic shock waves of the optical self-focusing with normal group-velocity dispersion
Bergé, L.; Germaschewski, K.; Grauer, R.
2002-01-01
The theory of focusing light pulses in Kerr media with normal group-velocity dispersion in (2+1) and (3+1) dimensions is revisited. It is shown that pulse splitting introduced by this dispersion follows from shock fronts that develop along hyperbolas separating the region of transverse self...
Subluminal group velocity and dispersion of Laguerre Gauss beams in free space.
Bareza, Nestor D; Hermosa, Nathaniel
2016-05-27
That the speed of light in free space c is constant has been a pillar of modern physics since the derivation of Maxwell and in Einstein's postulate in special relativity. This has been a basic assumption in light's various applications. However, a physical beam of light has a finite extent such that even in free space it is by nature dispersive. The field confinement changes its wavevector, hence, altering the light's group velocity vg. Here, we report the subluminal vg and consequently the dispersion in free space of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) beam, a beam known to carry orbital angular momentum. The vg of LG beam, calculated in the paraxial regime, is observed to be inversely proportional to the beam's divergence θ0, the orbital order ℓ and the radial order p. LG beams of higher orders travel relatively slower than that of lower orders. As a consequence, LG beams of different orders separate in the temporal domain along propagation. This is an added effect to the dispersion due to field confinement. Our results are useful for treating information embedded in LG beams from astronomical sources and/or data transmission in free space.
Shen, Chao; Xu, Yixian; Pan, Yudi; Wang, Ao; Gao, Lingli
2016-12-01
High-velocity-layer (HVL) and low-velocity-layer (LVL) models are two kinds of the most common irregular layered models in near-surface geophysical applications. When calculating dispersion curves of some extreme irregular models, current algorithms (e.g., Knopoff transfer matrix algorithm) should be modified. We computed the correct dispersion curves and analyzed their sensitivities due to several synthetic HVL and LVL models. The results show that phase-velocity dispersion curves of both Rayleigh and Love waves are sensitive to variations in S-wave velocity of an LVL, but insensitive to that of an HVL. In addition, they are both insensitive to those of layers beneath the HVL or LVL. With an increase in velocity contrast between the irregular layer and its neighboring layers, the sensitivity effects (high sensitivity for the LVL and low sensitivity for the HVL) will amplify. These characteristics may significantly influence the inversion stability, leading to an inverted result with a low level of confidence. To invert surface-wave phase velocities for a more accurate S-wave model with an HVL or LVL, priori knowledge may be required and an inversion algorithm should be treated with extra caution.
Spiral shocks, triggering of star formation and the velocity dispersion in Giant Molecular Clouds
Bonnell, I A; Robitaille, T R; Pringle, J E
2006-01-01
We present numerical simulations of the passage of clumpy gas through a galactic spiral shock and the subsequent formation of giant molecular clouds (GMCs). The spiral shock forms dense clouds while dissipating kinetic energy, producing regions that are locally gravitationally bound and collapse to form stars. The effect of the clumpiness of gas as it passes through the shock is to generate chaotic internal motions in the gas. The kinematics of these motions are found to agree with the observed velocity-dispersion/size relation found in star-forming regions. In contrast to the standard picture where continuously driven turbulence generates the density inhomogeneities in star-forming clouds, we find here that it is the clumpiness of the interstellar gas that produces the chaotic motions as it passes through the spiral shock and initiates the star formation process. The velocity dispersion can be understood as being due to the random mass loading of clumps as they converge in the spiral shock. In this model the...
Satellite Galaxy Velocity Dispersions in the SDSS and Modified Gravity Models
John W. Moffat
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS provides data on several hundred thousand galaxies. The precise location of these galaxies in the sky, along with information about their luminosities and line-of-sight (Doppler velocities, allows one to construct a three-dimensional map of their location and estimate their line-of-sight velocity dispersion. This information, in principle, allows one to test dynamical gravity models, specifically models of satellite galaxy velocity dispersions near massive hosts. A key difficulty is the separation of true satellites from interlopers. We sidestep this problem by not attempting to derive satellite galaxy velocity dispersions from the data, but instead incorporate an interloper background into the mathematical models and compare the result to the actual data. We find that due to the presence of interlopers, it is not possible to exclude several gravitational theories on the basis of the SDSS data.
Fluorescence photobleaching to evaluate flow velocity and hydrodynamic dispersion in nanoslits.
Cuenca, Amandine; Bodiguel, Hugues
2012-05-01
Velocity measurement is a key issue when studying flows below the micron scale, due to the lack of sensitivity of conventional detection techniques. We present an approach based on fluorescence photobleaching to evaluate flow velocity at the nanoscale by direct visualization. Solutions containing a fluorescent dye are injected into nanoslits. A photobleached line, created through laser beam illumination, moves through the channel due to the fluid flow. The velocity and effective diffusion coefficient are calculated from the temporal data of the line position and width respectively. The measurable velocity range is only limited by the diffusion rate of the fluorescent dye for low velocities and by the apparition of Taylor dispersion for high velocities. By controlling the pressure drop and measuring the velocity, we determine the fluid viscosity. The photobleached line spreads in time due to molecular diffusion and Taylor hydrodynamic dispersion. By taking into account the finite spatial and temporal extensions of the bleaching under flow, we determine the effective diffusion coefficient, which we find to be in good agreement with the expression of the two dimensional Taylor-Aris dispersion coefficient. Finally we analyze and discuss the role of the finite width of the rectangular slit on hydrodynamic dispersion.
Ryan, Russell E., Jr.; Thorman, Paul A.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Cohen, Seth H.; Hathi, Nimish P.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Lunine, Jonathan I.; Pirzkal, Nor; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Young, Erick
2017-09-01
We present a Monte Carlo simulation designed to predict the vertical velocity dispersion of brown dwarfs in the Milky Way. We show that since these stars are constantly cooling, the velocity dispersion has a noticeable trend with the spectral type. With realistic assumptions for the initial mass function, star formation history, and the cooling models, we show that the velocity dispersion is roughly consistent with what is observed for M dwarfs, decreases to cooler spectral types, and increases again for the coolest types in our study (∼T9). We predict a minimum in the velocity dispersions for L/T transition objects, however, the detailed properties of the minimum predominately depend on the star formation history. Since this trend is due to brown dwarf cooling, we expect that the velocity dispersion as a function of spectral type should deviate from the constancy around the hydrogen-burning limit. We convert from velocity dispersion to vertical scale height using standard disk models and present similar trends in disk thickness as a function of spectral type. We suggest that future, wide-field photometric and/or spectroscopic missions may collect sizable samples of distant (∼ 1 kpc) dwarfs that span the hydrogen-burning limit. As such, we speculate that such observations may provide a unique way of constraining the average spectral type of hydrogen burning. Support for program #13266 was provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under the NASA contract NAS 5-26555.
Velocity Dispersion of Correlated Energy Spread Electron Beams in the Free Electron Laser
Campbell, L T
2016-01-01
The effects of a correlated linear energy/velocity chirp in the electron beam in the FEL, and how to compensate for its effects by using an appropriate taper (or reverse-taper) of the undulator magnetic field, is well known. The theory, as described thus far, ignores velocity dispersion from the chirp in the undulator, taking the limit of a `small' chirp. In the following, the physics of compensating for chirp in the beam is revisited, including the effects of velocity dispersion, or beam compression or decompression, in the undulator. It is found that the limit of negligible velocity dispersion in the undulator is different from that previously identified as the small chirp limit, and is more significant than previously considered. The velocity dispersion requires a taper which is non-linear to properly compensate for the effects of the detuning, and also results in a varying peak current (end thus a varying gain length) over the length of the undulator. The results may be especially significant for plasma d...
Velocity dispersion of correlated energy spread electron beams in the free electron laser
Campbell, L. T.; Maier, A. R.
2017-03-01
The effects of a correlated linear energy/velocity chirp in the electron beam in the free electron laser (FEL), and how to compensate for its effects by using an appropriate taper (or reverse-taper) of the undulator magnetic field, is well known. The theory, as described thus far, ignores velocity dispersion from the chirp in the undulator, taking the limit of a ‘small’ chirp. In the following, the physics of compensating for chirp in the beam is revisited, including the effects of velocity dispersion, or beam compression or decompression, in the undulator. It is found that the limit of negligible velocity dispersion in the undulator is different from that previously identified as the small chirp limit, and is more significant than previously considered. The velocity dispersion requires a taper which is nonlinear to properly compensate for the effects of the detuning, and also results in a varying peak current (end thus a varying gain length) over the length of the undulator. The results may be especially significant for plasma driven FELs and low energy linac driven FEL test facilities.
Analysis of group-velocity dispersion of high-frequency Rayleigh waves for near-surface applications
Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Xu, Y.; Zeng, C.
2011-01-01
The Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method is an efficient tool to obtain the vertical shear (S)-wave velocity profile using the dispersive characteristic of Rayleigh waves. Most MASW researchers mainly apply Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity dispersion for S-wave velocity estimation with a few exceptions applying Rayleigh-wave group-velocity dispersion. Herein, we first compare sensitivities of fundamental surface-wave phase velocities with group velocities with three four-layer models including a low-velocity layer or a high-velocity layer. Then synthetic data are simulated by a finite difference method. Images of group-velocity dispersive energy of the synthetic data are generated using the Multiple Filter Analysis (MFA) method. Finally we invert a high-frequency surface-wave group-velocity dispersion curve of a real-world example. Results demonstrate that (1) the sensitivities of group velocities are higher than those of phase velocities and usable frequency ranges are wider than that of phase velocities, which is very helpful in improving inversion stability because for a stable inversion system, small changes in phase velocities do not result in a large fluctuation in inverted S-wave velocities; (2) group-velocity dispersive energy can be measured using single-trace data if Rayleigh-wave fundamental-mode energy is dominant, which suggests that the number of shots required in data acquisition can be dramatically reduced and the horizontal resolution can be greatly improved using analysis of group-velocity dispersion; and (3) the suspension logging results of the real-world example demonstrate that inversion of group velocities generated by the MFA method can successfully estimate near-surface S-wave velocities. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Dispersion relations in heavily-doped nanostructures
Ghatak, Kamakhya Prasad
2016-01-01
This book presents the dispersion relation in heavily doped nano-structures. The materials considered are III-V, II-VI, IV-VI, GaP, Ge, Platinum Antimonide, stressed, GaSb, Te, II-V, HgTe/CdTe superlattices and Bismuth Telluride semiconductors. The dispersion relation is discussed under magnetic quantization and on the basis of carrier energy spectra. The influences of magnetic field, magneto inversion, and magneto nipi structures on nano-structures is analyzed. The band structure of optoelectronic materials changes with photo-excitation in a fundamental way according to newly formulated electron dispersion laws. They control the quantum effect in optoelectronic devices in the presence of light. The measurement of band gaps in optoelectronic materials in the presence of external photo-excitation is displayed. The influences of magnetic quantization, crossed electric and quantizing fields, intense electric fields on the on the dispersion relation in heavily doped semiconductors and super-lattices are also disc...
HI Velocity Dispersions and Flaring : Disk Masses and the Shape of Dark Matter Halos
van der Kruit, P. C.; O'Brien, J. C.; Freeman, K. C.; Debattista, VP; Popescu, CC
2010-01-01
I briefly review the use of measurements of the HI velocity dispersion and gas layer flaring in galaxy disks to determine the baryonic mass of the disks. I compare that to results from stellar dynamics. In systems with low-mass disks, flaring can also provide information on the flattening of the
Sharma, Prabhakar; Poulsen, Tjalfe G
2010-07-01
Gas-phase dispersion in granular biofilter materials with a wide range of particle sizes was investigated using atmospheric air and nitrogen as tracer gases. Two types of materials were used: (1) light extended clay aggregates (LECA), consisting of highly porous particles, and (2) gravel, consisting of solid particles. LECA is a commercial material that is used for insulation, as a soil conditioner, and as a carrier material in biofilters for air cleaning. These two materials were selected to have approximately the same particle shape. Column gas transport experiments were conducted for both materials using different mean particle diameters, different particle size ranges, and different gas flow velocities. Measured breakthrough curves were modeled using the advection-dispersion equation modified for mass transfer between mobile and immobile gas phases. The results showed that gas dispersivity increased with increasing mean particle diameter for LECA but was independent of mean particle diameter for gravel. Gas dispersivity also increased with increasing particle size range for both media. Dispersivities in LECA were generally higher than for gravel. The mobile gas content in both materials increased with increasing gas flow velocity but it did not show any strong dependency on mean particle diameter or particle size range. The relative fraction of mobile gas compared with total porosity was highest for gravel and lowest for LECA likely because of its high internal porosity.
The Henry problem: New semianalytical solution for velocity-dependent dispersion
Fahs, Marwan; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Younes, Anis; Simmons, Craig T.; Ackerer, Philippe
2016-09-01
A new semianalytical solution is developed for the velocity-dependent dispersion Henry problem using the Fourier-Galerkin method (FG). The integral arising from the velocity-dependent dispersion term is evaluated numerically using an accurate technique based on an adaptive scheme. Numerical integration and nonlinear dependence of the dispersion on the velocity render the semianalytical solution impractical. To alleviate this issue and to obtain the solution at affordable computational cost, a robust implementation for solving the nonlinear system arising from the FG method is developed. It allows for reducing the number of attempts of the iterative procedure and the computational cost by iteration. The accuracy of the semianalytical solution is assessed in terms of the truncation orders of the Fourier series. An appropriate algorithm based on the sensitivity of the solution to the number of Fourier modes is used to obtain the required truncation levels. The resulting Fourier series are used to analytically evaluate the position of the principal isochlors and metrics characterizing the saltwater wedge. They are also used to calculate longitudinal and transverse dispersive fluxes and to provide physical insight into the dispersion mechanisms within the mixing zone. The developed semianalytical solutions are compared against numerical solutions obtained using an in house code based on variant techniques for both space and time discretization. The comparison provides better confidence on the accuracy of both numerical and semianalytical results. It shows that the new solutions are highly sensitive to the approximation techniques used in the numerical code which highlights their benefits for code benchmarking.
Laboratory study of fluid viscosity induced ultrasonic velocity dispersion in reservoir sandstones
He, Tao; Zou, Chang-Chun; Pei, Fa-Gen; Ren, Ke-Ying; Kong, Fan-Da; Shi, Ge
2010-06-01
Ultrasonic velocities of a set of saturated sandstone samples were measured at simulated in-situ pressures in the laboratory. The samples were obtained from the W formation of the WXS Depression and covered low to nearly high porosity and permeability ranges. The brine and four different density oils were used as pore fluids, which provided a good chance to investigate fluid viscosity-induced velocity dispersion. The analysis of experimental observations of velocity dispersion indicates that (1) the Biot model can explain most of the small discrepancy (about 2-3%) between ultrasonic measurements and zero frequency Gassmann predictions for high porosity and permeability samples saturated by all the fluids used in this experiment and is also valid for medium porosity and permeability samples saturated with low viscosity fluids (less than approximately 3 mP·S) and (2) the squirt flow mechanism dominates the low to medium porosity and permeability samples when fluid viscosity increases and produces large velocity dispersions as high as about 8%. The microfracture aspect ratios were also estimated for the reservoir sandstones and applied to calculate the characteristic frequency of the squirt flow model, above which the Gassmann’ s assumptions are violated and the measured high frequency velocities cannot be directly used for Gassmann’s fluid replacement at the exploration seismic frequency band for W formation sandstones.
Clues to the nature of ultradiffuse galaxies from estimated galaxy velocity dispersions
Zaritsky, Dennis
2017-01-01
We describe how to estimate the velocity dispersions of ultradiffuse galaxies (UDGs) using a previously defined galaxy scaling relationship. The method is accurate for the two UDGs with spectroscopically measured dispersions, as well as for ultracompact galaxies, ultrafaint galaxies, and stellar systems with little or no dark matter. This universality means that the relationship can be applied without further knowledge or prejudice regarding the structure of a galaxy. We then estimate the velocity dispersions of UDGs drawn from two published samples and examine the distribution of total masses. We find, in agreement with the previous studies of two individual UDGs, that these systems are dark matter dominated systems, and that they span a range of at least 1010 light ratios, for subsequent spectroscopic study.
Large scale galactic turbulence: can self-gravity drive the observed HI velocity dispersions?
Agertz, Oscar; Teyssier, Romain; Moore, Ben; Mayer, Lucio; Romeo, Alessandro B
2008-01-01
Observations of turbulent velocity dispersions in the HI component of galactic disks show a characteristic floor in galaxies with low star formation rates and within individual galaxies the dispersion profiles decline with radius. We carry out several high resolution adaptive mesh simulations of gaseous disks embedded within dark matter haloes to explore the roles of cooling, star-formation, feedback, shearing motions and baryon fraction in driving turbulent motions. In all simulations the disk slowly cools until gravitational and thermal instabilities give rise to a multi-phase medium in which a large population of dense self-gravitating cold clouds are embedded within a warm gaseous phase that forms through shock heating. The diffuse gas is highly turbulent and is an outcome of large scale driving of global non-axisymmetric modes as well as cloud-cloud tidal interactions and merging. At low star-formation rates these processes alone can explain the observed HI velocity dispersion profiles and the characteri...
Dispersion relation and surface gravity of universal horizons
Ding, Chikun
2016-01-01
In Einstein-aether theory, violating Lorentz invariance permits some super-luminal communications, and the universal horizon can trap excitations traveling at arbitrarily high velocities. To better understand the nature of these universal horizons, we use ray tracing method to study their surface gravity in charged Einstein-aether black hole spacetime. Instead of the previous result in Ref. [Phys. Rev. D 89, 064061], our results show that the surface gravity of the universal horizon is dependent on the specific dispersion relation, $\\kappa_{UH}=2(z-1)\\kappa_{uh}/z$, where $z$ denotes the power of the leading term in the superluminal dispersion relation, characterizing different species of particles. And the associated Hawking temperatures also are different with $z$. These findings, which coincide with those in Ref. [arXiv: 1512.01900] derived by the tunneling method, provide a full understanding of black hole thermodynamics in Lorentz-violating theories.
Dispersion relation and surface gravity of universal horizons
Ding, ChiKun; Liu, ChangQing
2017-05-01
In Einstein-aether theory, violating Lorentz invariance permits some super-luminal communications, and the universal horizon can trap excitations traveling at arbitrarily high velocities. To better understand the nature of these universal horizons, we first modify the ray tracing method, and then use it to study their surface gravity in charged Einstein-aether black hole spacetime. Instead of the previous result by Cropp et al., our results show that the surface gravity of the universal horizon is dependent on the specific dispersion relation, K UH = 2( z - 1) K uh/ z, where z denotes the power of the leading term in the superluminal dispersion relation, characterizing different species of particles. And the associated Hawking temperatures also are different with z. These findings, which coincide with those derived by the tunneling method, provide some full understanding of black hole thermodynamics in Lorentz-violating theories.
Near Scale Invariance with Modified Dispersion Relations
Armendariz-Picon, C
2006-01-01
We describe a novel mechanism to seed a nearly scale invariant spectrum of adiabatic perturbations during a non-inflationary stage. It relies on a modified dispersion relation that contains higher powers of the spatial momentum of matter perturbations. We implement this idea in the context of a massless scalar field in an otherwise perfectly homogeneous universe. The couplings of the field to background scalars and tensors give rise to the required modification of its dispersion relation, and the couplings of the scalar to matter result in an adiabatic primordial spectrum. This work is meant to explicitly illustrate that it is possible to seed nearly scale invariant primordial spectra without inflation, within a conventional expansion history.
Meyer, M.; Yin, S.; Lupoi, R.
2017-01-01
Cold spray (CS) is attracting interest of research and industry due to its rapid, solid-state particle deposition process and respective advantages over conventional deposition technologies. The acceleration of the particles is critical to the efficiency of CS, and previous investigations rarely consider the particle feed rate. However, because higher particle loadings are typically used in the process, the effect of this cannot be assumed negligible. This study therefore investigates the particle velocities in the supersonic jet of an advanced CS system at low- and high pressure levels and varying particle feed rates using particle image velocimetry. The particle dispersion and velocity evolution along the jet axis were investigated for several feedstock materials. It was found that the average particle velocity noticeably decreases with increasing particulate loading in all cases. The velocity distribution and particle dispersion were also observed to be influenced by the feed rate. Effects are driven by both mass loading and volume fraction, depending on the feedstock's particle velocity parameter. Increased particle feed rates hence affect the magnitude and distribution of impact velocity and consequently the efficiency of CS. In particular, numerical models neglecting this interconnection are required to be further improved, based on these experimental studies.
Clues to the nature of ultra diffuse galaxies from estimated galaxy velocity dispersions
Zaritsky, Dennis
2016-01-01
We describe how to estimate the velocity dispersions of ultra diffuse galaxies, UDGs, using a previously defined galaxy scaling relationship. The method is accurate for the two UDGs with spectroscopically measured dispersions, as well as for ultra compact galaxies, ultra faint galaxies, and stellar systems with little or no dark matter. This universality means that the relationship can be applied without further knowledge or prejudice regarding the structure of a galaxy. We then estimate the velocity dispersions of UDGs drawn from two published samples and examine the distribution of total masses. We find, in agreement with the previous studies of two individual UDGs, that these systems are dark matter dominated systems, and that they span a range of at least $10^{10} < M_{200}/M_\\odot < 10^{12} $. These galaxies are not, as an entire class, either all dwarfs or all failed $L_*$ galaxies. Estimates of the velocity dispersions can also help identify interesting subsets of UDGs, such as those that are lik...
A re-evaluation of the central velocity-dispersion profile in NGC 6388
Lützgendorf, Nora; Baumgardt, Holger; Noyola, Eva; Neumayer, Nadine; Kissler-Patig, Markus; de Zeeuw, Tim
2015-01-01
Recently, two independent groups found very different results when measuring the central velocity dispersion of the galactic globular cluster NGC 6388 with different methods. While L\\"utzgendorf et al. (2011) found a rising profile and a high central velocity dispersion (23.3 km/s), measurements obtained by Lanzoni et al. (2013) showed a value 40% lower. The value of the central velocity dispersion has a serious impact on the mass and possible presence of an intermediate-mass black hole at the center of NGC 6388. We use a photometric catalog of NGC 6388 to create a simulated SINFONI and ARGUS dataset. The construction of the IFU data cube is done with different observing conditions reproducing the conditions reported for the original observations as closely as possible. In addition, we produce an N-body realization of a 10^6 M_SUN stellar cluster with the same photometric properties as NGC 6388 to account for unresolved stars. We find that the individual radial velocities, i.e. the measurements from the simul...
Suto, Y; Suto, Yasushi; Jing, Yi-Peng
1996-01-01
We discuss the effect of the finite size of galaxies on estimating small-scale relative pairwise peculiar velocity dispersions from the cosmic virial theorem (CVT). Specifically we evaluate the effect by incorporating the finite core radius $r_c$ in the two-point correlation function of mass, i.e. softening $r_s$ on small scales. We analytically obtain the lowest-order correction term for $\\gamma 2$. Compared with the idealistic point-mass approximation ($r_s=r_c=0$), the finite size effect can significantly reduce the small-scale velocity dispersions of galaxies at scales much larger than $r_s$ and $r_c$. Even without considering the finite size of galaxies, nonzero values for $r_c$ are generally expected, for instance, for cold dark matter (CDM) models with a scale-invariant primordial spectrum. For these CDM models, a reasonable force softening $r_s\\le 100 \\hikpc$ would have rather tiny effect. We present the CVT predictions for the small-scale pairwise velocity dispersion in the CDM models normalized by t...
The dispersion relations of dispersive Alfvén waves in superthermal plasmas
Gaelzer, Rudi; Ziebell, Luiz F.
2014-12-01
The effects of velocity distribution functions (VDFs) that exhibit a power law dependence on the high-energy tail have been the subject of intense research by the space plasma community. Such functions, known as superthermal or kappa distributions, have been found to provide a better fitting to the VDF measured by several spacecraft in the plasma environment of the solar wind. In the literature, the general treatment for waves excited by (bi-)Maxwellian plasmas is well established. However, for kappa distributions, either isotropic or anisotropic, the wave characteristics have been studied mostly for the limiting cases of purely parallel or perpendicular propagation. Contributions for the general case of obliquely propagating waves have been scarcely reported so far. In this work we introduce a mathematical formalism that provides expressions for the dielectric tensor components and subsequent dispersion relations for oblique propagating dispersive Alfvén waves (DAWs) resulting from a kappa VDF. We employ an isotropic distribution, but the methods used here can be easily applied to more general anisotropic distributions, such as the bi-kappa or product-bi-kappa. The effect of the kappa index and thermal corrections on the dispersion relations of DAW is discussed.
Velocity Dispersions of CNOC Clusters and the Evolution of the Cluster Abundance
Borgani, S; Carlberg, R G; Yee, H K C; Ellingson, E
1999-01-01
We present the results of the analysis of the internal velocity dispersions, interlopers removal algorithm, which is different from that originally applied by Carlberg et al. (1996, C96). We find that the resulting \\sigma_v values are consistent within <10% with the original C96 estimates. This result points in favor of a substantial robustness of currently applied methods for optical studies of the internal cluster dynamics. The resulting distribution of velocity dispersions is used to trace the redshift evolution of the cluster abundance with the aim of constraining the matter density parameter, Ømega_m. We find that constraints on Ømega_m are very sensitive to the adopted value of from 0.5 to 0.6 (for Omega_m=1), the best fitting Omega_m varies in the range 0.3-1.0.
Microscale Controls on Ultrasonic Velocity Dispersion in Near-Surface Marine Sediments
Gettemy, G. L.
2006-05-01
This effort demonstrates a technique to measure poroelastic and petrophysical parameters that can be monitored over time to document diagenetic and consolidation alterations in the shallow biogeosphere. The signatures of these process effects are revealed largely through scale-dependent estimates of porosity, permeability, and the effective framework moduli that describe particle-particle mechanical interactions. Near- surface marine sediments of the Peru margin (ODP Leg 201) provide a unique dataset with which to study such near-surface processes, especially those associated with depositional, tectonic, and biogeochemical dynamics. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image analysis and broadband (100-1000 kHz) ultrasonic compressional wave experiments are combined to interpret the microscale parameters revealed through velocity dispersion analysis. In particular, (i) back-scattered electron (BSE) images are processed to estimate the local porosity, tortuosity, and resultant permeability of the characteristic topology of each sample; and (ii) bounds for complex-valued grain and frame moduli, following an amended Biot formulation, are estimated by using the microscale imaging parameters and observed velocity dispersion. Several key results are highlighted, with regard to BSE imaging and velocity dispersion analysis, beyond the imaging and Biot parameter inversion. For example, microscale permeabilities are typically an order-of- magnitude larger than core (~2 cm) measurements. This discrepancy is critical to understanding spatial and temporal scale differences between, for example, diffusion and advection of nutrients supplying microbial communities versus tectonic dewatering and the resulting transient meter-scale pore pressure modulation. Broadband velocity dispersion analysis proves to be a powerful tool for detecting sub-wavelength sedimentological heterogeneity. Negative velocity dispersion, for example, can be used to estimate scatterer dimensions, consistent
Yang Xuefeng; Cui Jian; Zhang Yuan [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu Yue [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
2012-07-15
The dispersion relations of the externally and thermally (naturally) excited dust lattice modes (both longitudinal and transverse) in two-dimensional Debye-Yukawa complex plasma crystals are investigated. The dispersion relations are calculated numerically by taking the neutral gas damping effects into account and the numerical results are in agreement with the experimental data given by Nunomura et al.[Phys. Rev. E 65, 066402 (2002)]. It is found that for the mode excited by an external disturbance with a real frequency, the dispersion properties are changed at a critical frequency near where the group velocity of the mode goes to zero. Therefore, the high frequency branch with negative dispersion cannot be reached. In contrast, for the thermally excited mode, the dispersion curve can extend all the way to the negative dispersion region, while a 'cut-off' wave number exists at the long wavelength end of the dispersion in the transverse mode.
Is there structure in the velocity dispersion maps of turbulent disks?
Oliva-Altamirano, P.; Fisher, D.; Glazebrook, K.
2016-06-01
Galaxies at z > 1 have shown to be different from galaxies at local redshifts. They have irregular morphologies with prominent star-forming clumps. However, due to the limited resolution of high-redshift observations, it is difficult to disentangle the physical processes that create and destroy star-forming clumps. Leaving many open questions in the study of galaxy evolution. The DYnamics of Newly Assembled Massive Objects (DYNAMO) survey aims to observe local galaxies (z poster presents the near infrared spectra of 3 DYNAMO objects taken with the OSIRIS integral-field spectrograph on the Keck telescope. The high spatial and spectral resolution of OSIRIS allows us to obtain detailed kinematic maps. We are able to resolve the velocity dispersion of individual star-forming clumps down to sizes of ~300 pc. We find that after removing the systematics there is a significant structure in the velocity dispersion. However, whether there is a correlation between velocity dispersion and star formation, remains an open question. This work aims to disentangle the role of turbulence in the life and dead of star-forming clumps.
Cosmology with velocity dispersion counts: an alternative to measuring cluster halo masses
Caldwell, C. E.; McCarthy, I. G.; Baldry, I. K.; Collins, C. A.; Schaye, J.; Bird, S.
2016-11-01
The evolution of galaxy cluster counts is a powerful probe of several fundamental cosmological parameters. A number of recent studies using this probe have claimed tension with the cosmology preferred by the analysis of the Planck primary cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, in the sense that there are fewer clusters observed than predicted based on the primary CMB cosmology. One possible resolution to this problem is systematic errors in the absolute halo mass calibration in cluster studies, which is required to convert the standard theoretical prediction (the halo mass function) into counts as a function of the observable (e.g. X-ray luminosity, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux, and optical richness). Here we propose an alternative strategy, which is to directly compare predicted and observed cluster counts as a function of the one-dimensional velocity dispersion of the cluster galaxies. We argue that the velocity dispersion of groups/clusters can be theoretically predicted as robustly as mass but, unlike mass, it can also be directly observed, thus circumventing the main systematic bias in traditional cluster counts studies. With the aid of the BAHAMAS suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, we demonstrate the potential of the velocity dispersion counts for discriminating even similar Λ cold dark matter models. These predictions can be compared with the results from existing redshift surveys such as the highly complete Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey, and upcoming wide-field spectroscopic surveys such as the Wide Area Vista Extragalactic Survey and the Dark Energy Survey Instrument.
A high stellar velocity dispersion for a compact massive galaxy at redshift z = 2.186.
van Dokkum, Pieter G; Kriek, Mariska; Franx, Marijn
2009-08-06
Recent studies have found that the oldest and most luminous galaxies in the early Universe are surprisingly compact, having stellar masses similar to present-day elliptical galaxies but much smaller sizes. This finding has attracted considerable attention, as it suggests that massive galaxies have grown in size by a factor of about five over the past ten billion years (10 Gyr). A key test of these results is a determination of the stellar kinematics of one of the compact galaxies: if the sizes of these objects are as extreme as has been claimed, their stars are expected to have much higher velocities than those in present-day galaxies of the same mass. Here we report a measurement of the stellar velocity dispersion of a massive compact galaxy at redshift z = 2.186, corresponding to a look-back time of 10.7 Gyr. The velocity dispersion is very high at km s(-1), consistent with the mass and compactness of the galaxy inferred from photometric data. This would indicate significant recent structural and dynamical evolution of massive galaxies over the past 10 Gyr. The uncertainty in the dispersion was determined from simulations that include the effects of noise and template mismatch. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that some subtle systematic effect may have influenced the analysis, given the low signal-to-noise ratio of our spectrum.
Supersonic Relative Velocity Effect on the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation Measurements
Yoo, Jaiyul; Seljak, Uros
2011-01-01
We investigate the effect of supersonic relative velocities between baryons and dark matter, recently shown to arise generically at high redshift, on baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements at low redshift. The amplitude of the relative velocity effect at low redshift is model-dependent, but can be parameterized by using an unknown bias. We find that if unaccounted, the relative velocity effect can shift the BAO peak position and bias estimates of the dark energy equation-of-state due to its non-smooth, out-of-phase oscillation structure around the BAO scale. Fortunately, the relative velocity effect can be easily modeled in constraining cosmological parameters without substantially inflating the error budget. We also demonstrate that the presence of the relative velocity effect gives rise to a unique signature in the galaxy bispectrum, which can be utilized to isolate this effect. Future dark energy surveys can accurately measure the relative velocity effect and subtract it from the power spectrum a...
Inflationary cosmology with nonlinear dispersion relations
Zhu, Tao; Cleaver, Gerald; Kirsten, Klaus; Sheng, Qin
2013-01-01
We present a technique, {\\em the uniform asymptotic approximation}, to construct accurate analytical solutions of the linear perturbations of inflation after quantum effects of the early universe are taken into account, for which the dispersion relations generically become nonlinear. We construct explicitly the error bounds associated with the approximations and then study them in detail. With the understanding of the errors and the proper choice of the Liouville transformations of the differential equations of the perturbations, we show that the analytical solutions describe the exact evolution of the linear perturbations extremely well even only to the first-order approximations. As a simple application of the approximate analytical solutions, we calculate the power spectra and indices of scalar and tensor perturbations in the de Sitter background, and find that the amplitudes of the power spectra get modified due to the quantum effects, while the power spectrum indices remain the same as in the linear case...
Marchuk, A. A.; Sotnikova, N. Y.
2017-03-01
We present a modification of the method for reconstructing the stellar velocity ellipsoid (SVE) in disc galaxies. Our version does not need any parametrization of the velocity dispersion profiles and uses only one assumption that the ratio σz/σR remains constant along the profile or along several pieces of the profile. The method was tested on two galaxies from the sample of other authors and for the first time applied to three lenticular galaxies NGC 1167, NGC 3245 and NGC 4150, as well as to one Sab galaxy NGC 338. We found that for galaxies with a high inclination (i >55° - 60°) it is difficult or rather impossible to extract the information about SVE, while for galaxies at an intermediate inclination the procedure of extracting is successful. For NGC 1167 we managed to reconstruct SVE, provided that the value of σz/σR is piecewise constant. We found σz/σR = 0.7 for the inner parts of the disc and σz/σR = 0.3 for the outskirts. We also obtained a rigid constraint on the value of the radial velocity dispersion σR for highly inclined galaxies, and tested the result using the asymmetric-drift equation, provided that the gas rotation curve is available.
A clear age-velocity dispersion correlation in Andromeda's stellar disk
Dorman, Claire E; Seth, Anil C; Weisz, Daniel R; Bell, Eric F; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Gilbert, Karoline M; Hamren, Katherine M; Lewis, Alexia R; Skillman, Evan D; Toloba, Elisa; Williams, Benjamin F
2015-01-01
The stellar kinematics of galactic disks are key to constraining disk formation and evolution processes. In this paper, for the first time, we measure the stellar age-velocity dispersion correlation in the inner 20 kpc (3.5 disk scale lengths) of M31 and show that it is dramatically different from that in the Milky Way. We use optical Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry of 5800 individual stars from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey and Keck/DEIMOS radial velocity measurements of the same stars from the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo (SPLASH) survey. We show that the average line-of-sight velocity dispersion is a steadily increasing function of stellar age exterior to R=10 kpc, increasing from 30 km/s for the young upper main sequence stars to 90 km/s for the old red giant branch stars. This monotonic increase implies that a continuous or recurring process contributed to the evolution of the disk. Both the slope and normaliz...
An improved car-following model considering relative velocity fluctuation
Yu, Shaowei; Shi, Zhongke
2016-07-01
To explore and evaluate the impacts of relative velocity fluctuation on the dynamic characteristics and fuel consumptions of traffic flow, we present an improved car-following model considering relative velocity fluctuation based on the full velocity difference model, then we carry out several numerical simulations to determine the optimal time window length and to explore how relative velocity fluctuation affects cars' velocity and its fluctuation as well as fuel consumptions. It can be found that the improved car-following model can describe the phase transition of traffic flow and estimate the evolution of traffic congestion, and that taking relative velocity fluctuation into account in designing the advanced adaptive cruise control strategy can improve the traffic flow stability and reduce fuel consumptions.
Renormalization of the graphene dispersion velocity determined from scanning tunneling spectroscopy.
Chae, Jungseok; Jung, Suyong; Young, Andrea F; Dean, Cory R; Wang, Lei; Gao, Yuanda; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Hone, James; Shepard, Kenneth L; Kim, Phillip; Zhitenev, Nikolai B; Stroscio, Joseph A
2012-09-14
In graphene, as in most metals, electron-electron interactions renormalize the properties of electrons but leave them behaving like noninteracting quasiparticles. Many measurements probe the renormalized properties of electrons right at the Fermi energy. Uniquely for graphene, the accessibility of the electrons at the surface offers the opportunity to use scanned probe techniques to examine the effect of interactions at energies away from the Fermi energy, over a broad range of densities, and on a local scale. Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we show that electron interactions leave the graphene energy dispersion linear as a function of excitation energy for energies within ±200 meV of the Fermi energy. However, the measured dispersion velocity depends on density and increases strongly as the density approaches zero near the charge neutrality point, revealing a squeezing of the Dirac cone due to interactions.
A clear age-velocity dispersion correlation in Andromeda's stellar disk
Dorman, Claire E.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Seth, Anil C; Weisz, Daniel R.; Bell, Eric F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Hamren, Katherine M.; Lewis, Alexia R.; Skillman, Evan D.; Toloba, Elisa; Williams, Benjamin F.
2015-01-01
The stellar kinematics of galactic disks are key to constraining disk formation and evolution processes. In this paper, for the first time, we measure the stellar age-velocity dispersion correlation in the inner 20 kpc (3.5 disk scale lengths) of M31 and show that it is dramatically different from that in the Milky Way. We use optical Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry of 5800 individual stars from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey and Keck/DE...
Measurement of the Group Velocity Dispersion of air using a femtosecond comb
Al salamah, Reem
In this thesis, the Group Velocity Dispersion (GVD) of air has been measured by using a femtosecond frequency comb at 1.5 microm. By comparing the spectra from a balanced and unbalanced Mach - Zehnder interferometer, the need for vacuum tube is eliminated. The method employs the Fast Fourier Transform of both auto- and cross correlation to find the spectral and their differences. The GVD of air is then calculated from these spectral phase differences. With twenty-five independent measurements, the GVD of air was found to be 0.0120 fs2/mm, with a standard deviation of 0.0075 fs2/mm.
Measurement of group-velocity dispersion of Bloch modes in photonic-crystal-fiber rocking filters.
Wong, G K L; Zang, L; Kang, M S; Russell, P St J
2010-12-01
We use low-coherence interferometry to measure the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) of the fast and slow Bloch modes of structural rocking filters, produced by twisting a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber to and fro while scanning a focused CO(2) laser beam along it. The GVD curves in the vicinity of the resonant wavelength differ dramatically from those of the unperturbed fiber, suggesting that rocking filters could be used in the optimization of, e.g., four-wave mixing and supercontinuum generation. Excellent agreement is obtained between theory and experiment.
Unresolved wind-driven shells and the supersonic velocity dispersion in giant HII regions
Tenorio-Tagle, G; Fernandes, R C; Fernandes, R Cid
1995-01-01
The presence of giant shells or loops in giant HII regions are clear witness of the mechanical energy input from massive stars. Here we evaluate the impact that winds may have on the structure of giant nebulae and on their supersonic velocity dispersion. We follow the suggestion from Chu \\& Kennicutt (1994) to see if a combination of a large number of unresolved wind-driven shells caused by massive stars could produce the integrated broad Gaussian profiles typical of giant HII regions. The results, accounting for a wide range of energies, densities and velocity or age of the expanding shells, show that supersonic Gaussian profiles may arise only from a collection of unresolved wind-driven shells if the shells present a peculiar velocity distribution which implies a strongly peaked age distribution leading to an awkward star formation history. On the other hand, a uniform distribution of ages originates profiles with a flat-topped core defined by the terminal shell velocity and a steep decay as v^{-6} up t...
Grier, C J; Watson, L C; Peterson, B M; Bentz, M C; Dasyra, K M; Dietrich, M; Ferrarese, L; Pogge, R W; Zu, Y
2013-01-01
We present new stellar velocity dispersion measurements for four luminous quasars with the NIFS instrument and the ALTAIR laser guide star adaptive optics system on the Gemini North 8-m telescope. Stellar velocity dispersion measurements and measurements of the supermassive black hole masses in luminous quasars are necessary to investigate the coevolution of black holes and galaxies, trace the details of accretion, and probe the nature of feedback. We find that higher-luminosity quasars with higher-mass black holes are not offset with respect to the MBH-sigma relation exhibited by lower-luminosity AGNs with lower-mass black holes, nor do we see correlations with galaxy morphology. As part of this analysis, we have recalculated the virial products for the entire sample of reverberation-mapped AGNs and used these data to redetermine the mean virial factor hfi that places the reverberation data on the quiescent M_BH-sigma relation. With our updated measurements and new additions to the AGN sample, we obtain = 4...
Grier, C. J.; Martini, P.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Zu, Y. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Watson, L. C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Dasyra, K. M. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA (CNRS:UMR8112), 61 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014, Paris (France); Dietrich, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45601 (United States); Ferrarese, L. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria BV V9E 2E7 (Canada)
2013-08-20
We present new stellar velocity dispersion measurements for four luminous quasars with the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer instrument and the ALTAIR laser guide star adaptive optics system on the Gemini North 8 m telescope. Stellar velocity dispersion measurements and measurements of the supermassive black hole (BH) masses in luminous quasars are necessary to investigate the coevolution of BHs and galaxies, trace the details of accretion, and probe the nature of feedback. We find that higher-luminosity quasars with higher-mass BHs are not offset with respect to the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation exhibited by lower-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with lower-mass BHs, nor do we see correlations with galaxy morphology. As part of this analysis, we have recalculated the virial products for the entire sample of reverberation-mapped AGNs and used these data to redetermine the mean virial factor (f) that places the reverberation data on the quiescent M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation. With our updated measurements and new additions to the AGN sample, we obtain (f) = 4.31 {+-} 1.05, which is slightly lower than, but consistent with, most previous determinations.
Lorentz invariant relative velocity and relativistic binary collisions
Cannoni, Mirco
2017-01-01
This paper reviews the concept of Lorentz invariant relative velocity that is often misunderstood or unknown in high energy physics literature. The properties of the relative velocity allow to formulate the invariant flux and cross-section without recurring to nonphysical velocities or any assumption about the reference frame. Applications such as the luminosity of a collider, the use as kinematic variable, and the statistical theory of collisions in a relativistic classical gas are reviewed. It is emphasized how the hyperbolic properties of the velocity space explain the peculiarities of relativistic scattering.
Lorentz invariant relative velocity and relativistic binary collisions
Cannoni, Mirco
2016-01-01
This article reviews the concept of Lorentz invariant relative velocity that is often misunderstood or unknown in high energy physics literature. The properties of the relative velocity allow to formulate the invariant flux and cross section without recurring to non--physical velocities or any assumption about the reference frame. Applications such as the luminosity of a collider, the use as kinematic variable, and the statistical theory of collisions in a relativistic classical gas are reviewed. It is emphasized how the hyperbolic properties of the velocity space explain the peculiarities of relativistic scattering.
Cosmology with velocity dispersion counts: an alternative to measuring cluster halo masses
Caldwell, C E; Baldry, I K; Collins, C A; Schaye, J; Bird, S
2016-01-01
The evolution of galaxy cluster counts is a powerful probe of several fundamental cosmological parameters. A number of recent studies using this probe have claimed tension with the cosmology preferred by the analysis of the Planck primary CMB data, in the sense that there are fewer clusters observed than predicted based on the primary CMB cosmology. One possible resolution to this problem is systematic errors in the absolute halo mass calibration in cluster studies, which is required to convert the standard theoretical prediction (the halo mass function) into counts as a function of the observable (e.g., X-ray luminosity, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux, optical richness). Here we propose an alternative strategy, which is to directly compare predicted and observed cluster counts as a function of the one-dimensional velocity dispersion of the cluster galaxies. We argue that the velocity dispersion of groups/clusters can be theoretically predicted as robustly as mass but, unlike mass, it can also be directly observed, ...
Márquez, I; Durret, F; González-Delgado, R M; Moles, M; Maza, J; Pérez, E; Roth, M
2003-01-01
We analyze the kinematics of the central regions of five isolated Seyfert spiral galaxies from the DEGAS sample (four with new data presented in this paper, IC184, UGC3223, NGC2639, NGC6814, and NGC6951 from our previous data), by using long slit spectroscopy in the CaII triplet range (at ~ 8600 A) obtained with a 4m-class telescope. A drop of the velocity dispersions in the innermost 1-3 arcsec is observed in four of them, and hinted in the remaining galaxy (NGC6814). The available HST images for our sample together with another nine galaxies with reported velocity dispersion drops, are also used to investigate the presence of morphological inner structures at the scales of the kinematical drops. Evidence for disk-like shapes is found in 12 out of the 14 cases. The only exceptions are NGC6814 and NGC6951. Existing N-body simulations including stars, gas and star formation predict that such a drop is most probably due to a young stellar population born from dynamically cold gas accreted in a circumnuclear dis...
Constraints on $H_0$ from the Central Velocity Dispersions of Lens Galaxies
Romanowsky, A J; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Kochanek, Christopher S
1999-01-01
We employ Schwarzschild's method of orbit modeling to constrain the mass profiles of the central lens galaxies in 0957+561 and PG 1115+080. We combine the measured central projected stellar velocity dispersions of these galaxies with the self-similar radial profiles of the rms velocity and of the Gauss-Hermite moment h_4 observed in nearby galaxies for 0 < R < 2 R_eff. For 0957+561, we find a 15% uncertainty in the galaxy mass, and in combination with weak lensing studies of the system, we find formal 2-sigma limits on the Hubble constant of H_0 = (66 +13/-20) km/s/Mpc. For PG 1115+080, we find that the central dispersion is consistent with the singular isothermal lens model, for which H_0 = (44 +/- 4) km/s/Mpc, and formally inconsistent with the constant mass-to-light ratio model, for which H_0 = (65 +/- 5) km/s/Mpc, at the 1.5-sigma confidence level.
de Arriba, L Peralta; Trujillo, I; Falcón-Barroso, J; Tapia, T; Cardiel, N; Gallego, J; Guzmán, R; Hempel, A; Martín-Navarro, I; Pérez-González, P G; Sánchez-Bláquez, P
2015-01-01
Several authors have reported that the dynamical masses of massive compact galaxies (M_star > 10^11 M_sun, r_e ~ 1 kpc), computed as M_dyn = 5.0 sigma_e^2 r_e / G, are lower than their stellar masses M_star. In a previous study from our group, the discrepancy is interpreted as a breakdown of the assumptions of virial equilibrium and homology that underlie the M_dyn determinations. Here we present new spectroscopy of six redshift z~1.0 massive compact ellipticals from the Extended Groth Strip, obtained with the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We obtain velocity dispersions in the range 161 to 340 km s^-1. As found by previous studies of massive compact galaxies, our velocity dispersions are lower than the virial expectation, and all of our galaxies show M_dyn < M_star. Adding data from the literature, we build a sample covering a range of stellar masses and compactness in a narrow redshift range z~1.0. This allows us to exclude systematic effects on the data and evolutionary effects on the galaxy populatio...
Meyer, Daniel W.; Tchelepi, Hamdi A.; Jenny, Patrick
2010-05-01
In risk analysis applications involving heterogeneous formations, the knowledge of the solute concentration probability density function (PDF) at different spatial locations and times is crucial. We propose a new joint velocity-concentration PDF method applicable for highly heterogeneous porous media that accounts for advective transport, pore-scale dispersion and molecular diffusion. Unlike in low order approximation (LOA) methods that are valid for low conductivity variances ?Y 2 and where the one-point velocity PDF is typically assumed to be a Gaussian, the proposed joint PDF method honors the increasingly non-Gaussian velocity one-point PDF and the long-term velocity correlations that were reported in different Monte Carlo (MC) studies for ?Y 2 > 0.5 [e.g., Salandin, P. and V. Fiorotto, WRR, 1998. 34(5) and Trefry, M.G., F.P. Ruan, and D. McLaughlin, WRR, 2003. 39(3)]. Furthermore, the new joint PDF method does not involve any a-priori assumption about the shape of the resulting marginal concentration PDF. LOA methods that provide information on the concentration mean and variance [Fiori, A. and G. Dagan, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 2000. 45(1-2)] on the other hand are typically complemented by assuming that the concentration PDF has a β-PDF shape [Bellin, A. and D. Tonina, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 2007. 94(1-2)]. The Eulerian joint velocity-concentration PDF transport equation in our model is numerically solved with a computationally efficient particle method. The suggested joint PDF method is validated by comparison with MC data reported by Caroni and Fiorotto for Péclet numbers ranging from 10 to 104 and ?Y 2 = 1 and 2 [Caroni, E. and V. Fiorotto, Transport in Porous Media, 2005. 59(1)].
Zhou, Luwenjia; Federrath, Christoph; Yuan, Tiantian; Bian, Fuyan; Medling, Anne M.; Shi, Yong; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bryant, Julia J.; Brough, Sarah; Catinella, Barbara; Croom, Scott M.; Goodwin, Michael; Goldstein, Gregory; Green, Andrew W.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel N.; Sanchez, Sebastian F.
2017-10-01
We investigate the energy sources of random turbulent motions of ionized gas from H α emission in eight local star-forming galaxies from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey. These galaxies satisfy strict pure star-forming selection criteria to avoid contamination from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) or strong shocks/outflows. Using the relatively high spatial and spectral resolution of SAMI, we find that - on sub-kpc scales, our galaxies display a flat distribution of ionized gas velocity dispersion as a function of star formation rate (SFR) surface density. A major fraction of our SAMI galaxies shows higher velocity dispersion than predictions by feedback-driven models, especially at the low SFR surface density end. Our results suggest that additional sources beyond star formation feedback contribute to driving random motions of the interstellar medium in star-forming galaxies. We speculate that gravity, galactic shear and/or magnetorotational instability may be additional driving sources of turbulence in these galaxies.
无
2010-01-01
The slow light propagation in a line waveguide in the two-dimensional triangular photonic crystal has been numerically studied, based on which a wideband photonic crystal waveguide with low group-velocity and low dispersion is proposed. The numerical simulation analysis shows that it is possible to maximize the group index and minimize the group-velocity dispersion in wide bandwidth by increasing the radius of the basic air hole and changing the position of the first two rows of air holes in photonic crystal waveguides. Such a photonic crystal waveguide exhibits low group velocity and low group-velocity dispersion over a broad wavelength range. A larger group index-bandwidth product is achieved in this type of waveguide structure. The numerically computed results present the normalized bandwidth as 0.32%, 0.48% and 0.642% corresponding to the group index of 85, 58 and 45, respectively.
Whiteman, Aroscott
2012-01-01
In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality, initiated a dye-tracer study to determine travel times, streamflow velocities, and longitudinal dispersion rates for the Missouri River upstream from Canyon Ferry Lake. For this study, rhodamine WT (RWT) dye was injected at two locations, Missouri River Headwaters State Park in early September and Broadwater-Missouri Dam (Broadwater Dam) in late August 2010. Dye concentrations were measured at three sites downstream from each dye-injection location. The study area was a 41.2-mile reach of the Missouri River from Trident, Montana, at the confluence of the Jefferson, Madison, and Gallatin Rivers (Missouri River Headwaters) at river mile 2,319.40 downstream to the U.S. Route 12 Bridge (Townsend Bridge), river mile 2,278.23, near Townsend, Montana. Streamflows were reasonably steady and ranged from 3,070 to 3,700 cubic feet per second. Mean velocities were calculated for each subreach between measurement sites for the leading edge, peak concentration, centroid, and trailing edge at 10 percent of the peak concentration of the dye plume. Calculated velocities for the centroid of the dye plume ranged from 0.80 to 3.02 feet per second within the study reach from Missouri River Headwaters to Townsend Bridge, near Townsend. The mean velocity of the dye plume for the entire study reach, excluding the subreach between the abandoned Milwaukee Railroad bridge at Lombard, Montana (Milwaukee Bridge) and Broadwater-Missouri Dam (Broadwater Dam), was 2.87 feet per second. The velocity of the centroid of the dye plume for the subreach between Milwaukee Bridge and Broadwater Dam (Toston Reservoir) was 0.80 feet per second. The residence time for Toston Reservoir was 8.2 hours during this study. Estimated longitudinal dispersion rates of the dye plume for this study ranged from 0.72 feet per second for the subreach from Milwaukee Bridge to Broadwater Dam to 2.26 feet per second for
Moving Schwarzschild Black Hole and Modified Dispersion Relations
Hinojosa, Cristian Barrera
2015-01-01
We study the thermodynamics of a moving Schwarzschild black hole, identifying the temperature and entropy in a relativistic scenario. Furthermore, we set arguments in a framework relating invariant geometrical quantities under global spacetime transformations and the dispersion relation of the system. We then extended these arguments in order to consider more general dispersion relations, and identify criteria to rule them out.
Moving Schwarzschild black hole and modified dispersion relations
Cristian Barrera Hinojosa
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We study the thermodynamics of a moving Schwarzschild black hole, identifying the temperature and entropy in a relativistic scenario. Furthermore, we set arguments in a framework relating invariant geometrical quantities under global spacetime transformations and the dispersion relation of the system. We then extended these arguments in order to consider more general dispersion relations, and identify criteria to rule them out.
Dispersion relations for 1D high-gain FELs
Webb, S.D.; Litvinenko, V.N.
2010-08-23
We present analytical results for the one-dimensional dispersion relation for high-gain FELs. Using kappa-n distributions, we obtain analytical relations between the dispersion relations for various order kappa distributions. Since an exact solution exists for the kappa-1 (Lorentzian) distribution, this provides some insight into the number of modes on the way to the Gaussian distribution.
MOND Prediction for the Velocity Dispersion of the `Feeble Giant' Crater II
McGaugh, Stacy S
2016-01-01
Crater II is an unusual object among the dwarf satellite galaxies of the Local Group in that it has a very large size for its small luminosity. This provides a strong test of MOND, as Crater II should be in the deep MOND regime ($g_{in} \\approx 34\\;\\mathrm{km}^2\\,\\mathrm{s}^{-2}\\,\\mathrm{kpc}^{-1} \\ll a_0 = 3700\\;\\mathrm{km}^2\\,\\mathrm{s}^{-2}\\,\\mathrm{kpc}^{-1}$). Despite its great distance ($\\approx 120$ kpc) from the Milky Way, the external field of the host ($g_{ex} \\approx 282\\; \\mathrm{km}^2\\,\\mathrm{s}^{-2}\\,\\mathrm{kpc}^{-1}$) comfortably exceeds the internal field. Consequently, Crater II should be subject to the external field effect, a feature unique to MOND. This leads to the prediction of a very low velocity dispersion: $\\sigma_{efe} = 2.1^{+0.9}_{-0.6}\\;\\mathrm{km}\\,\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$.
Apparent Attenuation and Dispersion Arising in Seismic Body-Wave Velocity Retrieval
Wirgin, Armand
2016-07-01
The fact that seismologists often make measurements, using natural seismic solicitations, of properties of the Earth on rather large scales (laterally and in terms of depth) has led to interrogations as to whether attenuation of body waves is dispersive and even significant. The present study, whose aim is to clarify these complicated issues, via a controlled thought measurement, concerns the retrieval of a single, real body wave velocity of a simple geophysical configuration (involving two homogeneous, isotropic, non-dissipative media, one occupying the layer, the other the substratum), from its simulated response to pulsed plane wave probe radiation. This inverse problem is solved, at all frequencies within the bandwidth of the pulse. Due to discordance between the models associated with the assumed and trial responses, the imaginary part of the retrieved velocity turns out to be non-nil even when both the layer and substratum are non-lossy, and, in fact, to be all the greater, the larger is the discordance. The reason for this cannot be due to intrinsic attenuation, scattering, or geometrical spreading since these phenomena are absent in the chosen thought experiment, but rather to uncertainty in the measurement model.
Flux-Velocity Relation for H2 Outflows
Salas, Luis; Cruz-González, Irene
2002-06-01
We present an analysis of velocity-resolved near-IR molecular hydrogen observations of a variety of protostellar outflows with very different energetics, degrees of collimation, and morphologies. Observations in the 2.12 μm line of H2 were obtained using an IR Fabry-Pérot interferometer with a spectral resolution of 23 km s-1. The integrated flux-velocity diagrams for each outflow show a flat spectrum for low velocities followed by a decreasing power law dF/dv~vγ, with γ between -1.8 and -2.6, for velocities higher than a clearly defined break velocity at 2-17 km s-1. Contrary to shock model predictions, it is shown that the H2 intensity is constant with velocity. We argue that the flux-velocity relation can then be interpreted as a mass-velocity relation, in striking similarity to the power-law mass spectra observed in CO outflows. By comparing H2 and CO mass-velocity spectra, it is shown that there is a velocity regime in which both molecules coexist and produce similar γ-values. Evolution effects in outflows appear as a correlation between outflow length and γ as outflows age, the spectra becomes steeper. Our results support a common physical origin for both CO and H2 emission and a strong association between the molecular outflows traced in each molecule. Based on observations obtained at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir, Mexico.
Hernandez, X; Cervantes-Sodi, B; Ibarra-Medel, H J; Lopez-Cruz, O
2015-01-01
For any MONDian extended theory of gravity where the rotation curves of spiral galaxies are explained through a change in physics rather than the hypothesis of dark matter, a generic dynamical behaviour is expected for pressure supported systems: an outer flattening of the velocity dispersion profile occurring at a characteristic radius, where both the amplitude of this flat velocity dispersion and the radius at which it appears are predicted to show distinct scalings with the total mass of the system. By carefully analysing dynamics of globular clusters, elliptical galaxies and galaxy clusters, we are able to significantly extend the astronomical scales over which MONDian gravity has been tested, from those of spiral galaxies, to the much larger range covered by pressure supported systems. We show that a universal projected velocity dispersion profile accurately describes various classes of pressure supported systems, and further, that the expectations of extended gravity are met, across twelve orders of mag...
Dutta, Soumyo; Way, David W.
2017-01-01
Mars 2020, the next planned U.S. rover mission to land on Mars, is based on the design of the successful 2012 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Mars 2020 retains most of the entry, descent, and landing (EDL) sequences of MSL, including the closed-loop entry guidance scheme based on the Apollo guidance algorithm. However, unlike MSL, Mars 2020 will trigger the parachute deployment and descent sequence on range trigger rather than the previously used velocity trigger. This difference will greatly reduce the landing ellipse sizes. Additionally, the relative contribution of each models to the total ellipse sizes have changed greatly due to the switch to range trigger. This paper considers the effect on trajectory dispersions due to changing the trigger schemes and the contributions of these various models to trajectory and EDL performance.
Dispersion relations for circular single and double dusty plasma chains
Tkachenko, D V; Misko, V R
2011-01-01
We derive dispersion relations for a system of identical particles confined in a two-dimensional annular harmonic well and which interact through a Yukawa potential, e.g., a dusty plasma ring. When the particles are in a single chain (i.e., a one-dimensional ring) we find a longitudinal acoustic mode and a transverse optical mode which show approximate agreement with the dispersion relation for a straight configuration for large radii of the ring. When the radius decreases, the dispersion relations modify: there appears an anticrossing of the modes near the crossing point resulting in a frequency gap between the lower and upper branches of the modified dispersion relations. For the double chain (i.e., a two-dimensional zigzag configuration) the dispersion relation has four branches: longitudinal acoustic and optical and transverse acoustic and optical.
The Effect of the Relative Velocity on Traffic Flow
XUE Yu; DONG Li-Yun; YUAN Yi-Wu; DAI Shi-Qiang
2002-01-01
The optimal velocity model of traffc is extended to take the relative velocity into account. The traffcbehavior is investigated numerically and analytically with this model. It is shown that the car interaction with therelative velocity can effect the stability of the traffic flow and raise critical density. The jamming transition between thefreely moving and jamming phases is investigated with the linear stability analysis and nonlinear perturbation methods.The traffic jam is described by the kink solution of the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. The theoretical result isin good agreement with the simulation.
Bragg, Andrew D
2016-01-01
In this paper, we use our recently developed theory for the backward-in-time (BIT) relative dispersion of inertial particles in turbulence (Bragg \\emph{et al.}, Phys. Fluids 28, 013305, 2016) to develop the theoretical model by Pan \\& Padoan (J. Fluid Mech. 661 73, 2010) for inertial particle relative velocities in isotropic turbulence. We focus on the most difficult regime to model, the dissipation range, and find that the modified Pan \\& Padoan model (that uses the BIT dispersion theory) can lead to significantly improved predictions for the relative velocities, when compared with Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data. However, when the particle separation distance, $r$, is less than the Kolmogorov length scale, $\\eta$, the modified model overpredicts the DNS data. We explain how these overpredictions arise from two assumptions in the BIT dispersion theory, that are in general not satisfied when the final separation of the BIT dispersing particles is $<\\eta$. We then demonstrate the failure of b...
Statistics of particle pair relative velocity in the homogeneous shear flow
Gualtieri, P.; Picano, F.; Sardina, G.; Casciola, C. M.
2012-02-01
Small scale clustering of inertial particles and relative velocity of particle pairs have been fully characterized for statistically steady homogeneous isotropic flows. Depending on the particle Stokes relaxation time, the spatial distribution of the disperse phase results in a multi-scale manifold characterized by local particle concentration and voids and, because of finite inertia, the two nearby particles have high probability to exhibit large relative velocities. Both effects might explain the speed-up of particle collision rate in turbulent flows. Recently it has been shown that the large scale geometry of the flow plays a crucial role in organizing small scale particle clusters. For instance, a mean shear preferentially orients particle patterns. In this case, depending on the Stokes time, anisotropic clustering may occur even in the inertial range of scales where the turbulent fluctuations which drive the particles have already recovered isotropy. Here we consider the statistics of particle pair relative velocity in the homogeneous shear flow, the prototypical flow which manifests anisotropic clustering at small scales. We show that the mean shear, by imprinting anisotropy on the large scale velocity fluctuations, dramatically affects the particle relative velocity distribution even in the range of small scales where the anisotropic mechanisms of turbulent kinetic energy production are sub-dominant with respect to the inertial energy transfer which drives the carrier fluid velocity towards isotropy. We find that the particles’ populations which manifest strong anisotropy in their relative velocities are the same which exhibit small scale clustering. In contrast to any Kolmogorov-like picture of turbulent transport these phenomena may persist even below the smallest dissipative scales where the residual level of anisotropy may eventually blow-up. The observed anisotropy of particle relative velocity and spatial configuration is suggested to influence the
Kessels, W.; Wuttke, M. W.
2007-05-01
A single well technique to determine groundwater flow values and transport parameters is presented. Multielectrode arrays are placed at the filtered casing depth by an inflatable packer or are installed on the borehole wall behind the casing.Tracer water with a higher or lower specific electrical conductivity (salinity) which is injected between the electrodes. This tracer plume then moves into the natural groundwater flow field. The observation of this movement by geoelectric logging enables the determination of the groundwater velocity and salinity. The transport parameters "effective porosity" and "dispersion length" can also be derived. The geoelectric logging uses n borehole electrodes and two grounding electrodes. Thus, either n independent two point measurements or n*(n-1)/2 pole-to-pole measurements can be conducted to obtain a full set of geoelectric measurements. This set is used to derive all electrode combinations by applying the law of superposition and reciprocity. The tracer distribution around the borehole during and after injection depends on the hydraulic and transport parameters of the aquifer and the filter sand. The transport parameter "porosity" plus the total injected tracer volume determines the tracer distribution around the borehole. The transport parameter "dispersivity" determines the abruptness of the tracer front. The method was tested by undertaking measurements in a lab aquifer filled with sand. The results are discussed and the limitations of the method are shown. Multielectrode installations behind casing were tested in situ in the two scientific boreholes CAT-LUD-1 and CAT- LUD-1A drilled in the northern part of Germany. A multielectrode packer system was designed, built and tested in these boreholes. The results are compared with colloid observations in the borehole and hydraulic triangulation in surrounded observation wells. Here, the interpretation of these in situ measurements is mainly restricted to two point geoelectric
Dispersion relations for stationary light in one-dimensional atomic ensembles
Iakoupov, Ivan; Ott, Johan R.; Chang, Darrick E.; Sørensen, Anders S.
2016-11-01
We investigate the dispersion relations for light coupled to one-dimensional ensembles of atoms with different level schemes. The unifying feature of all the considered setups is that the forward and backward propagating quantum fields are coupled by the applied classical drives such that the group velocity can vanish in an effect known as "stationary light." We derive the dispersion relations for all the considered schemes, highlighting the important differences between them. Furthermore, we show that additional control of stationary light can be obtained by treating atoms as discrete scatterers and placing them at well-defined positions. For the latter purpose, a multimode transfer matrix theory for light is developed.
Characterization of thin films using generalized lamb wave dispersion relations
Richard, P; Behrend, O.; Gremaud, G.; Kulik, A.
1993-01-01
We used the Continuous Wave Scanning Acoustic Microscope to characterize thin film materials. The measurement of the dispersion curve of surface waves and the inversion of this dispersion equation relation, allow to determine the elastic constants, the density or the thickness of a thin layer on a substrate. Besides, it is possible to have qualitative information on the adhesion properties of the layer.
Suppression Impact of Group-Velocity Dispersion on the Cell of Pulse Cleaning
LI Jing; DENG Ying; WANG Jian-Jun; LI Ming-Zhong; XU Dang-Peng; LIN Hong-Huan; ZHU Na; WANG Rui; JING Feng
2011-01-01
In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of an all-fiber front-end system for high-energy pete-watt (PW) laser devices, we propose a method to restrain the noise by optical Kerr effect. In terms of analytical calculation,it is found that the signal-to-noise ratio can be increased by three orders of magnitude with the cell of pulse cleaning for the pulses, with the full width at half maximum TFWHM larger than 1OOps. However, numerical calculation indicates that the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) may have a marked effect on the pulses with TFWHM smaller than 1OOps but larger than 5ps, with the help of self-phase modulation (SPM). This would debase the performance of the cell of pulse cleaning. Meanwhile, we study the methods of restraining the distortion for the pulses with different peak powers to improve the performance of an all-fiber front-end system for high-energy PW laser devices, These results are of benefit to the experiments and the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio for high-energy PW laser devices.%@@ In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of an all-fiber front-end system for high-energy pete-wattilW)laser devices, we propose a method to restrain the noise by optical Kerr effect.In terms of analytical calculation,it is found that the signal-to-noise ratio can be increased by three orders of magnitude with the cell of pulse cleaning for the pulses, with the full width at half maximum TFWHM larger than 100ps.However, numerical calculation indicates that the group-velocity dispersion(GVD)may have a marked effect on the pulses with TFWHM smaller than 100 ps but larger than 5ps, with the help of self-phase modulation(SPM).This would debase the performance of the cell of pulse cleaning.Meanwhile, we study the methods of restraining the distortion for the pulses with different peak powers to improve the performance of an all-fiber front-end system for high-energy PW laser devices, These results are of benefit to the experiments and the improvement
Kormendy, John; 10.1088/0004-637X/691/2/L142
2009-01-01
High-dynamic-range surface photometry in a companion paper makes possible accurate measurement of the stellar light deficits L_def and mass deficits M_def associated with the cores of elliptical galaxies. We show that L_def correlates with the velocity dispersion sigma of the host galaxy bulge averaged outside the central region that may be affected by a supermassive black hole (BH). We confirm that L_def correlates with BH mass MBH. Also, the fractional light deficit L_def/L correlates with MBH/M, the ratio of BH mass to the galaxy stellar mass. All three correlations have scatter similar to or smaller than the scatter in the well known correlation between MBH and sigma. The new correlations are remarkable in view of the dichotomy between ellipticals with cores and those with central extra light. Core light deficit correlates closely with MBH and sigma, but extra light does not. This supports the suggestion that extra light Es are made in wet mergers with starbursts whereas core Es are made in dry mergers. A...
Scalar potential model of galaxy central mass and central velocity dispersion
Hodge, J C
2006-01-01
The galaxy central mass $M_\\mathrm{c}$ and central velocity dispersion $\\sigma_\\mathrm{c}$ have been found to correlate with large scale galaxy parameters for samples of galaxies with a limited range of characteristics. A scalar potential model (SPM) that derived from considerations of galaxy clusters, of redshift, of discrete redshift, of H{\\scriptsize{I}} rotation curves (RCs) of spiral galaxies and of RC asymmetry is applied to central region parameters. The $\\sigma_\\mathrm{c}$ and $ M_\\mathrm{c}$ are found to correlate to the host galaxy's and neighboring galaxy's B band luminosity. The sample included galaxies with rising, flat and declining RCs; galaxies with a wide range of characteristics; and galaxies excluded from samples of other studies of $\\sigma_\\mathrm{c}$ relationships. The equations have the same form as the SPM equations for the parameters of the H{\\scriptsize{I}} RCs. Because the SPM is consistent with $M_\\mathrm{c}$ and $\\sigma_\\mathrm{c}$ observations of the sample galaxies, the Sources a...
The pair-wise velocity dispersion of galaxies effects of non radial motions
Popolo, A D
2001-01-01
I discuss the effect of non-radial motions on the small-scale pairwise peculiar velocity dispersions of galaxies (PVD) in a CDM model. I calculate the PVD for the SCDM model by means of the refined cosmic virial theorem (CVT) (Suto & Jing 1997) and taking account of non-radial motions by means of Del Popolo & Gambera (1998) model. I compare the results of the present model with the data from Davis & Peebles (1983), the IRAS value at 1 h{-1} Mpc of Fisher et al. (1993) and Marzke et al. (1995). I show that while the SCDM model disagrees with the observed values, as pointed out by several authors (Peebles 1976, 1980; Davis & Peebles 1983; Mo et. al 1993; Jing et al. 1998), taking account of non-radial motions produce smaller values for the PVD. At r <=1 h^{-1} Mpc the result is in agreement with Bartlett & Blanchard (1996) (hereafter BB96). At the light of this last paper, the result may be also read as a strong dependence of the CVT prediction on the model chosen to describe the mass dis...
van Dokkum, Pieter; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Danieli, Shany; Merritt, Allison; Mowla, Lamiya; Romanowsky, Aaron; Zhang, Jielai
2016-01-01
Recently a population of large, very low surface brightness, spheroidal galaxies was identified in the Coma cluster. The apparent survival of these Ultra Diffuse Galaxies (UDGs) in a rich cluster suggests that they have very high masses. Here we present the stellar kinematics of Dragonfly 44, one of the largest Coma UDGs, using a 33.5 hr integration with DEIMOS on the Keck II telescope. We find a velocity dispersion of 47 km/s, which implies a dynamical mass of M_dyn=0.7x10^10 M_sun within its deprojected half-light radius of r_1/2=4.6 kpc. The mass-to-light ratio is M/L=48 M_sun/L_sun, and the dark matter fraction is 98 percent within the half-light radius. The high mass of Dragonfly 44 is accompanied by a large globular cluster population. From deep Gemini imaging taken in 0.4" seeing we infer that Dragonfly 44 has 94 globular clusters, similar to the counts for other galaxies in this mass range. Our results add to other recent evidence that many UDGs are "failed" galaxies, with the sizes, dark matter conte...
Transplanckian dispersion relation and entanglement entropy of blackhole
Chang, D. [Department of Physics, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsin-Chu (Taiwan); Chu, C.S.; Lin, F.L. [Physics Division, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Tsing-Hua University, Hsin-Chu (Taiwan)
2004-06-01
The quantum correction to the entanglement entropy of the event horizon is plagued by the UV divergence due to the infinitely blue-shifted near horizon modes. The resolution of this UV divergence provides an excellent window to a better understanding and control of the quantum gravity effects. We claim that the key to resolve this UV puzzle is the transplanckian dispersion relation. We calculate the entanglement entropy using a very general type of transplanckian dispersion relation such that high energy modes above a certain scale are cutoff, and show that the entropy is rendered UV finite. We argue that modified dispersion relation is a generic feature of string theory, and this boundedness nature of the dispersion relation is a general consequence of the existence of a minimal distance in string theory. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Bocquet, S; Mohr, J J; Aird, K A; Ashby, M L N; Bautz, M; Bayliss, M; Bazin, G; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chiu, I; Cho, H M; Clocchiatti, A; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Desai, S; de Haan, T; Dietrich, J P; Dobbs, M A; Foley, R J; Forman, W R; Gangkofner, D; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Halverson, N W; Hennig, C; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Jones, C; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Liu, J; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Marrone, D P; McDonald, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L; Murray, S S; Padin, S; Pryke, C; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Stalder, B; Stanford, S A; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Stubbs, C W; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vikhlinin, A; Williamson, R; Zahn, O; Zenteno, A
2014-01-01
We present a velocity dispersion-based mass calibration of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect survey (SPT-SZ) galaxy cluster sample. Using a homogeneously selected sample of 100 cluster candidates from 720 deg2 of the survey along with 63 velocity dispersion ($\\sigma_v$) and 16 X-ray Yx measurements of sample clusters, we simultaneously calibrate the mass-observable relation and constrain cosmological parameters. The calibrations using $\\sigma_v$ and Yx are consistent at the $0.6\\sigma$ level, with the $\\sigma_v$ calibration preferring ~16% higher masses. We use the full cluster dataset to measure $\\sigma_8(\\Omega_ m/0.27)^{0.3}=0.809\\pm0.036$. The SPT cluster abundance is lower than preferred by either the WMAP9 or Planck+WMAP9 polarization (WP) data, but assuming the sum of the neutrino masses is $\\sum m_\
Dispersion relation of excitation mode in strongly interacting fermions matter
Wang Yan-Ping; Chen Ji-Sheng
2008-01-01
This paper analyses the dispersion relation of the excitation mode in non-relativistic interacting fermion matter.The polarization tensor is calculated with the random phase approximation in terms of finite temperature field theory.With the polarization tensor, the influences of temperature, particle number density and interaction strength on the dispersion relation are discussed in detail. It finds that the collective effects are qualitatively more important in the unitary fermions than those in the finite contact interaction matter.
A brief Introduction to Dispersion Relations and Analyticity
Zwicky, Roman
2016-01-01
In these lectures we provide a basic introduction into the topic of dispersion relation and analyticity. The properties of 2-point functions are discussed in some detail from the viewpoint of the K\\"all\\'en-Lehmann and general dispersion relations. The Weinberg sum rules figure as an application. The analytic structure of higher point functions in perturbation theory are analysed through the Landau equations and the Cutkosky rules.
Concepts about Relations among Time, Distance and Velocity In Children.
Matsuda, F.; And Others
Almost all experimental investigations on concepts of time (T), distance (D) and velocity (V) since 1946 have been based on the Piagetian theory. However, there are several controversial points in Piaget's investigations. In the experiment described in this paper, developmental changes of concepts concerning relation of T, D, and V were examined…
Fang, Xue-Qian; Liu, Yue; Liu, Xiang-Lin; Liu, Jin-Xi
2015-02-01
Interface between the constituents plays an important role in the non-destructive detection of smart piezoelectric/piezomagnetic devices. The propagation of SH waves in nano-sized cylindrically multiferroic composites consisting of a piezoelectric layer and a piezomagnetic central cylinder is investigated, and the size-dependent dispersion relation with interface effect is derived. The general solutions of decoupled governing equation in different regions are expressed by using Bessel functions, and the unknown coefficients are determined by satisfying the boundary conditions at the inner interface with negligible thickness and the outer surface of the structure. Through the numerical examples of dispersion relation, it is found that the interface around the nano-cylinder may remarkably reduce the phase velocity, depending on the combination of the value of thickness ratio and the surface condition. The interface shows different effect on the first and second modes of dispersion relation.
2016-01-01
We measure the evolution of the velocity dispersion--temperature ($\\sigma_{\\rm v}$--$T_{\\rm X}$) relation up to $z = 1$ using a sample of 38 galaxy clusters drawn from the \\textit{XMM} Cluster Survey. This work improves upon previous studies by the use of a homogeneous cluster sample and in terms of the number of high redshift clusters included. We present here new redshift and velocity dispersion measurements for 12 $z > 0.5$ clusters observed with the GMOS instruments on the Gemini telescop...
Porosity and Velocity Relations of Grosmont Formation, Alberta, Canada
Keehm, Y.; Hu, D.
2010-12-01
We present results on porosty-velocity relations of Grosmont formation, Alberta, Canada, which is one of largest bitumen carbonate reservoirs. Grosmont formation is divided into four units: LG; UG-1; UG-2; and UG-3 from the bottom. Two lower units are mainly imestone, while upper units are mostly dolomite with vuggy porosity and fractures, which makes the upper units be a good reservoir. Rock physics modeling was then performed to quantify porosity-velocity relations for the four units, which enables us to predict porosity from seismic data. To incorporate the pore-scale details in the modeling, we used DEM (differential effective medium) models. Two lower units are very similar in velocity-porosity domain, thus the relations can be represented by one velocity-porosity model, which is used as our reference model. For the UG-2 unit, we found that one model cannot represent the unit since the degree of fracturing are heterogeneous from location to location. We thus suggested three different DEM models for the UG-2 unit: vuggy-dominant; mildly-fractured; and heavily-fractured. The UG-3 units can be modeled with vuggy porosity, and fractures were not very noticeable. We also investigated the spatial variation of the UG-2 unit, and found that the degree of fracturing is generally proportional to the proximity to the unconformity boundary, where the fresh water invasion can be dominant. In conclusion, we proposed velocity-porosity relations for the four units in Grosmont formation, and believe that these models can help to characterize the reservoir quality. In addition, since the proximity of reservoir to the unconformity boundary highly affects the degree of fracturing, a careful analysis of spatial variation would be essential for the successful characterization of Grosmont formation. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government
A Hectochelle Radial Velocity Survey of Cep OB3b: An ONC like cluster at late gas dispersal phase
Karnath, Nicole; Allen, Thomas; Prchlik, Jakub; Gutermuth, Robert A.; Megeath, Samuel Thomas; Pipher, Judith; Wolk, Scott J.
2016-01-01
Cep OB3b is a young (~3-5 Myr), late gas dispersal cluster of roughly 3000 members broken into two sub-clusters (Eastern and Western) at a distance of 700pc; it is a rare example of nearby cluster in the late stages of gas dispersal and appears to be a more evolved analog to the Orion Nebular Cluster. As part of an ongoing multi wavelength study, we focus on Hectochelle data from the MMT to measure the radial velocities of 499 stars. After removing binaries, outliers, and imposing a minimum R value to the cross correlation, we obtain radial velocities of 57 previously identified members, with an average error of 1.7 km/s. There is no observed variation in radial velocity across the cluster in right ascension or declination. The preferred mechanism for this type of kinematic evolution is that any initial kinematic structure from formation may have been erased and that minimal or no rotation is present in the cluster. However, the Eastern sub-cluster, containing the most massive star in the field, an O7 star, has a higher velocity dispersion than the Western sub-cluster, which contains several B stars. We will compare these results to CO maps of the residual gas in the cluster and discuss possible reasons for this difference. Finally, we will assess whether the cluster is bound or in a state of expansion.
The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. VII. A low velocity dispersion for the young massive cluster R136
Hénault-Brunet, V; Sana, H; Gieles, M; Bastian, N; Apellániz, J Maíz; Markova, N; Taylor, W D; Bressert, E; Crowther, P A; van Loon, J Th
2012-01-01
Detailed studies of resolved young massive star clusters are necessary to determine their dynamical state and evaluate the importance of gas expulsion and early cluster evolution. In an effort to gain insight into the dynamical state of the young massive cluster R136 and obtain the first measurement of its velocity dispersion, we analyse multi-epoch spectroscopic data of the inner regions of 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) obtained as part of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey. Following a quantitative assessment of the variability, we use the radial velocities of non-variable sources to place an upper limit of 6 km/s on the line-of-sight velocity dispersion of stars within a projected distance of 5 pc from the centre of the cluster. After accounting for the contributions of undetected binaries and measurement errors through Monte Carlo simulations, we conclude that the true velocity dispersion is likely between 4 and 5 km/s given a range of standard assumptions about the binary distribution. This...
Dispersion relations and the spin polarizabilities of the nucleon
Drechsel, D; Hanstein, O
1998-01-01
A forward dispersion calculation is implemented for the spin polarizabilities are related to the spin structure of the nucleon at low energies and are structure-constants of the Compton scattering amplitude at ${\\cal O}(\\omega^3)$. In the absence of a direct experimental measurement of these quantities, a dispersion calculation serves the purpose of constraining the model building, and of comparing with recent calculations in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory.
Could the photon dispersion relation be non-linear ?
2008-01-01
The free photon dispersion relation is a reference quantity for high precision tests of Lorentz Invariance. We first outline theoretical approaches to a conceivable Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV). Next we address phenomenological tests based on the propagation of cosmic rays, in particular in Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs). As a specific concept, which could imply LIV, we then focus on field theory in a non-commutative (NC) space, and we present non-perturbative results for the dispersion relati...
Purcell, C. C.; Mur, A. J.; Delany, D.; Haljasmaa, I. V.; Soong, Y.; Harbert, W.
2011-12-01
2, have been measured for the limestone and sandstone samples. These measurements are compared to the various equations in order to assess their accuracy for different rock types and pore filling phases. 1. F. Gassmann, Elastic Waves Through a Packing of Spheres. Geophysics 1951; 673. 2. G. Mavko, and D. Jizba, Estimating grain-scale fluid effects on velocity dispersion in rocks. Geophysics 1991; 1940-1949. 3. B. Gurevich, D. Makarynska, and M.. Pervukhina, Ultrasonic moduli for fluid-saturated rocks: Mavko-Jizba relations rederived and generalized. Geophysics 2009; Vol. 74; N25-N30.
Hamilton geometry: Phase space geometry from modified dispersion relations
Barcaroli, Leonardo; Gubitosi, Giulia; Loret, Niccoló; Pfeifer, Christian
2015-01-01
We describe the Hamilton geometry of the phase space of particles whose motion is characterised by general dispersion relations. In this framework spacetime and momentum space are naturally curved and intertwined, allowing for a simultaneous description of both spacetime curvature and non-trivial momentum space geometry. We consider as explicit examples two models for Planck-scale modified dispersion relations, inspired from the $q$-de Sitter and $\\kappa$-Poincar\\'e quantum groups. In the first case we find the expressions for the momentum and position dependent curvature of spacetime and momentum space, while for the second case the manifold is flat and only the momentum space possesses a nonzero, momentum dependent curvature. In contrast, for a dispersion relation that is induced by a spacetime metric, as in General Relativity, the Hamilton geometry yields a flat momentum space and the usual curved spacetime geometry with only position dependent geometric objects.
The weakly non-linear density-velocity relation
Chodorowski, Michal J.; Lokas, Ewa L.
1997-05-01
We rigorously derive up to third order in perturbation theory the weakly non-linear relation between the cosmic density and velocity fields. The density field is described by the mass density contrast, delta. The velocity field is described by the variable theta proportional to the velocity divergence, theta=-f (Omega)^-1H ^-1_0∇. v, where f (Omega)~=Omega^0.6, Omega is the cosmological density parameter and H_0 is the Hubble constant. Our calculations show that mean delta given theta is a third-order polynomial in theta, --_theta=a _1theta+a_2(theta ^2-sigma^2_theta)+ a_3theta^3. This result constitutes an extension of the formula --_theta=theta+a _2(theta^2-sigma^2 _theta) found by Bernardeau which involved second-order perturbative solutions. Third-order perturbative corrections introduce the cubic term. They also, however, cause the coefficient a_1 to depart from unity, in contrast with the linear theory prediction. We compute the values of the coefficients a_p for scale-free power spectra, as well as for standard cold dark matter (CDM), for Gaussian smoothing. The coefficients obey a hierarchy a_3Ganon et al. The results provide a method for breaking the Omega-bias degeneracy in comparisons of cosmic density and velocity fields such as IRAS-potent.
Velocity kinematic relations in decaying turbulent flow past a grid
Gurka, R.; Kopp, G.; Liberzon, A.; Sarathi, P.; Tsinober, A.
Three recent publications1-3 stressed out that some kinematic relations of velocity increments Δ u_i = u_i (x + r) - u_i (x) comprise a manifestation of nonlocal effects, e.g. large and small scale quantities are correlated. This feature invalidates the so-called random sweeping hypothesis that large and small scales are statistically independent. It is noteworthy that, pure kinematic relations that emphasize the non-local effects thereby become dynamically significant. Some kinematic relations could be used for the validation of experimental results.
Velocity kinematic relations in a turbulent flow past a grid
Liberzon, Alex; Gurka, Roi; Kopp, Gregory; Sarathi, Partha; Tsinober, Arkady
2009-11-01
We present velocity kinematic relations, involving average and difference of the longitudinal velocity component of the two points at distance r: u+= u(x+r) + u(x) and u-= u(x+r)-u(x), obtained using PIV measurements in a turbulent flow of water past a grid. The present study follows recent numerical and experimental studies, that demonstrated analytical and empirical evidence of the relations, their validity and it emphasizes the physical meaning of the relations. The relations that contain both the large (u+) and small (u-) scale quantities emphasize the non-local aspects of turbulent flows. For example, the pure kinematic relation of Hosokawa in conjunction with the the Kolmogorov 4/5 law leading to the = r/30 shows that the that the large and small scale quantities are correlated contrary to what is suggested by the commonly used sweeping decorrelation hypothesis. Some relations are purely kinematic and some are dynamic, i.e. involving , like the Kolmogorov 4/5 law. The most important aspect is that pure kinematic relations that emphasize the non-local effects, become dynamically significant. Furthermore, we suggest that many of these relations could be used for validation of experimental results.
Hu, L H; Peng, W; Huo, R
2008-01-15
In case of a tunnel fire, toxic gas and smoke particles released are the most fatal contaminations. It is important to supply fresh air from the upwind side to provide a clean and safe environment upstream from the fire source for people evacuation. Thus, the critical longitudinal wind velocity for arresting fire induced upwind gas and smoke dispersion is a key criteria for tunnel safety design. Former studies and thus, the models built for estimating the critical wind velocity are all arbitrarily assuming that the fire takes place at the centre of the tunnel. However, in many real cases in road tunnels, the fire originates near the sidewall. The critical velocity of a near-wall fire should be different with that of a free-standing central fire due to their different plume entrainment process. Theoretical analysis and CFD simulation were performed in this paper to estimate the critical velocity for the fire near the sidewall. Results showed that when fire originates near the sidewall, it needs larger critical velocity to arrest the upwind gas and smoke dispersion than when fire at the centre. The ratio of critical velocity of a near-wall fire to that of a central fire was ideally estimated to be 1.26 by theoretical analysis. Results by CFD modelling showed that the ratio decreased with the increase of the fire size till near to unity. The ratio by CFD modelling was about 1.18 for a 500kW small fire, being near to and a bit lower than the theoretically estimated value of 1.26. However, the former models, including those of Thomas (1958, 1968), Dangizer and Kenndey (1982), Oka and Atkinson (1995), Wu and Barker (2000) and Kunsch (1999, 2002), underestimated the critical velocity needed for a fire near the tunnel sidewall.
Durazo, R.; Hernandez, X.; Cervantes Sodi, B.; Sánchez, S. F.
2017-03-01
For any MONDian extended theory of gravity where the rotation curves of spiral galaxies are explained through a change in physics rather than the hypothesis of dark matter, a generic dynamical behavior is expected for pressure supported systems: an outer flattening of the velocity dispersion profile occurring at a characteristic radius, where both the amplitude of this flat velocity dispersion and the radius at which it appears are predicted to show distinct scalings with the total mass of the system. By carefully analyzing the dynamics of globular clusters and elliptical galaxies, we are able to significantly extend the astronomical diversity of objects in which MONDian gravity has been tested, from spiral galaxies to the much larger mass range covered by pressure supported systems. We show that a universal projected velocity dispersion profile accurately describes various classes of pressure supported systems, and further, that the expectations of extended gravity are met across seven orders of magnitude in mass. These observed scalings are not expected under dark matter cosmology, and would require particular explanations tuned at the scales of each distinct astrophysical system.
Shear velocity structure of the Tyrrhenian region in relation to volcanism and tectonics
Paulssen, H.; Greve, S.
2012-12-01
We present a detailed 3D shear velocity model of the Tyrrhenian Sea and surrounding onshore areas down to about 160 km depth. The high resolution of the model is achieved through the measurement of interstation Rayleigh wave dispersion curves in a small regional setting with dense station coverage. The most noticeable structure is a pronounced, nearly ringshaped low velocity region at about 80 km depth surrounding the Tyrrhenian Sea: from Corsica to the western part of the Italian mainland, continuing to the western part of Sicily and Sardinia. The thickness of this low velocity region is constrained to a maximum of 40 km, and it is independent of the chosen inversion parameters or the background model. The low values of the shear velocity suggest the presence of fluids or melt. The lateral extent of the low velocity region beneath the Italian mainland is well correlated with the locations of subduction-related volcanism, but there is also a striking continuation of the anomalous low-velocity region along the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea towards (and beneath) the island of Corsica. The recent (volcanism along the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea. Our seismic results now suggest that the anomalous mantle is still present beneath Corsica and the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, although it does not produce any active volcanism anymore. The picture for the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea is different. Intriguingly, the sublithospheric low velocity anomaly does not continue to southeasternmost part of the Tyrrhenian Sea where the volcanism of the Aeolian arc is related to subduction of the steep, active Ionian slab. Instead, the seismic anomaly crosses the Tyrrhenian Sea from Vesuvius on the Italian mainland to the western part of Sicily, continuing to the southeast of Sardinia: a pattern which correlates with the locations of past subduction-related volcanism. It is striking that the Vavilov Basin in the central Tyrrhenian Sea, characterized by MORB-type volcanism, is a region of relatively normal
Planck-scale-modified dispersion relations in FRW spacetime
Rosati, Giacomo; Marciano, Antonino; Matassa, Marco
2015-01-01
In recent years Planck-scale modifications of the dispersion relation have been attracting increasing interest also from the viewpoint of possible applications in astrophysics and cosmology, where spacetime curvature cannot be neglected. Nonetheless the interplay between Planck-scale effects and spacetime curvature is still poorly understood, particularly in cases where curvature is not constant. These challenges have been so far postponed by relying on an ansatz, first introduced by Jacob and Piran. We here propose a general strategy of analysis of the effects of modifications of dispersion relation in FRW spacetimes, applicable both to cases where the relativistic equivalence of frames is spoiled ("preferred-frame scenarios") and to the alternative possibility of "DSR-relativistic theories", theories that are fully relativistic but with relativistic laws deformed so that the modified dispersion relation is observer independent. We show that the Jacob-Piran ansatz implicitly assumes that spacetime translatio...
Numerical calculation of dispersion relation for linear internal waves
无
2007-01-01
With the horizontal Coriolis terms included in motion equations and the influence of compressibility of seawater on Brunt-V(a)is(a)l(a) frequency considered, a numerical method of calculating the dispersion relation for linear internal waves, which is an improvement of Cai and Gan (1995), and hence Fliegel and Hunkins (1975), had been set up. For different models (Pacific model, Atlantic model and Arctic model), simulations using the three different methods were compared and the following conclusions were reached: (1) the influence of horizontal Coriolis terms on dispersion relation cannot be neglected and is connected with the direction of the wave celerity, the latitude, and the modes of the wave;(2) the effect of compressibility of seawater in stratification is not an important factor for the dispersion relation of linear internal wave, at least for those three models. With the improved method, the wavefunction curves for the Pacific model had also been built.
Stellar Velocity Dispersion for a Strongly-Lensed, Intermediate-Mass Quiescent Galaxy at z=2.8
Hill, Allison R; Franx, Marijn; van de Sande, Jesse
2016-01-01
Measuring stellar velocity dispersions of quiescent galaxies beyond $z\\sim2$ is observationally challenging. Such measurements require near-infrared spectra with a continuum detection of at least moderate signal-to-noise, often necessitating long integrations. In this paper, we present deep X-Shooter spectroscopy of one of only two known gravitationally-lensed massive quiescent galaxies at $z>2$. This galaxy is quadruply imaged, with the brightest images magnified by a factor of $\\sim5$. The total exposure time of our data is 9.8 hours on-source; however the magnification, and the slit placement encompassing 2 images, provides a total equivalent exposure time of 215 hours. From this deep spectrum we measure a redshift ($z_{\\mathrm{spec}}=2.756\\pm0.001$), making this one of the highest redshift quiescent galaxies that is spectroscopically confirmed. We simultaneously fit both the spectroscopic and photometric data to determine stellar population parameters and conclude this galaxy is relatively young, intermed...
Wear, Keith A
2009-02-01
Frequency-dependent phase velocity was measured in eight cancellous-bone-mimicking phantoms consisting of suspensions of randomly oriented nylon filaments (simulating trabeculae) in a soft-tissue-mimicking medium (simulating marrow). Trabecular thicknesses ranged from 152 to 356 mum. Volume fractions of nylon filament material ranged from 0% to 10%. Phase velocity varied approximately linearly with frequency over the range from 300 to 700 kHz. The increase in phase velocity (compared with phase velocity in a phantom containing no filaments) at 500 kHz was approximately proportional to volume fraction occupied by nylon filaments. The derivative of phase velocity with respect to frequency was negative and exhibited nonlinear, monotonically decreasing dependence on volume fraction. The dependencies of phase velocity and its derivative on volume fraction in these phantoms were similar to those reported in previous studies on (1) human cancellous bone and (2) phantoms consisting of parallel nylon wires immersed in water.
Special relativity with an arbitrary limiting velocity of particle
Parvan, A S
2012-01-01
It is shown that a generalized special theory of relativity (GSTR) with an arbitrary limiting velocity of particle different or equal to the speed of light in vacuum can be constructed from the canonical equation of the 4-dimensional hyperboloid of revolution. In particular, when the limiting velocity equals the speed of light, the special theory of relativity (STR), which corresponds to the equation of the equilateral hyperboloid of revolution, is recovered. The (generalized) Lorentz transformations were obtained. It was established that the rest mass of a space-like particle is real. Our results strongly suggest that the muon neutrino in the OPERA experiment is most likely a time-like or a light-like superluminal particle, whose limiting velocity may exceed the speed of light in vacuum, rather than a superluminal space-like particle (tachyon) with a speed limit equal to speed of light for which the rest mass $mc^{2}=117.1^{+11.0}_{-10.5}$ MeV.
Further Analysis of ππ Scattering Dispersion Relations
Xiao, Zhi-Guang; Zheng, Han-Qing
2003-03-01
The naive use of higher-order perturbation theory leads to the left-hand cut integrals in pipi dispersion relations [Phys. Lett. B 536 (2002) 59; B 549 (2002) 362; Nucl. Phys. A 695 (2001) 273] to be divergent. This problem is discussed and solved. We point out that the Adler zero condition imposes three constraints on the dispersion relations. The sigma pole position is determined using the improved method, Msigma = 483±13 MeV, Gammasigma = 705±50 MeV. The scattering length parameter is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental result.
Geometrical origin of the energy-momentum dispersion relation
Watcharangkool, Apimook
2016-01-01
We investigate a link between the energy-momentum dispersion relation and the spectral distance in the context of a Lorentzian almost-commutative spectral geometry, defined by the product of Minkowski spacetime and an internal discrete noncommutative space. Using the causal structure, the almost-commutative manifold can be identified with a pair of four-dimensional Minkowski spacetimes embedded in a five-dimensional Minkowski geometry. Considering fermions travelling within the light cone of the ambient five-dimensional spacetime, we then derive the energy-momentum dispersion relation.
Noncommutative geometrical origin of the energy-momentum dispersion relation
Watcharangkool, A.; Sakellariadou, M.
2017-01-01
We investigate a link between the energy-momentum dispersion relation and the spectral distance in the context of a Lorentzian almost-commutative spectral geometry, defined by the product of Minkowski spacetime and an internal discrete noncommutative space. Using the causal structure, the almost-commutative manifold can be identified with a pair of four-dimensional Minkowski spacetimes embedded in a five-dimensional Minkowski geometry. Considering fermions traveling within the light cone of the ambient five-dimensional spacetime, we then derive the energy-momentum dispersion relation.
A linearized dispersion relation for orthorhombic pseudo-acoustic modeling
Song, Xiaolei
2012-11-04
Wavefield extrapolation in acoustic orthorhombic anisotropic media suffers from wave-mode coupling and stability limitations in the parameter range. We introduce a linearized form of the dispersion relation for acoustic orthorhombic media to model acoustic wavefields. We apply the lowrank approximation approach to handle the corresponding space-wavenumber mixed-domain operator. Numerical experiments show that the proposed wavefield extrapolator is accurate and practically free of dispersions. Further, there is no coupling of qSv and qP waves, because we use the analytical dispersion relation. No constraints on Thomsen\\'s parameters are required for stability. The linearized expression may provide useful application for parameter estimation in orthorhombic media.
Dispersion relations of strained as well as complex Lieb lattices
Zhang, Yiqi; Zhong, Weiping; Li, Changbiao; Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Yanpeng
2015-01-01
We investigate the dispersion relations of strained as well as complex Lieb lattices systematically based on the tight-binding method when the nearest-neighbor approximation is adopted. We find that edge states will no appear for strained Lieb lattices and $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetry Lieb lattice cannot be obtained.
Engineering plasmon dispersion relations : hybrid nanoparticle chain - substrate plasmon polaritons
Compaijen, Paul J.; Malyshev, Victor A.; Knoester, Jasper
2015-01-01
We consider the dispersion relations of the optical excitations in a chain of silver nanoparticles situated above a metal substrate and show that they are hybrid plasmon polaritons, composed of localized surface plasmons and surface plasmon polaritons. We demonstrate a strong dependence of the syste
Gaddale Suresh
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Through inversion of fundamental mode group velocities of Love and Rayleigh waves, we study the crustal and subcrustal structure across the central Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP, which is one of the world’s largest terrestrial flood basalts. Our analysis is based on broadband seismograms recorded at seismological station Bhopal (BHPL in the central India from earthquakes located near west coast of India, with an average epicentral distance about 768 km. The recording station and epicentral zone are situated respectively on the northern and southern edges of DVP with wave paths across central DVP. The period of group velocity data ranges from 5 to 60 s for Rayleigh waves and 5 to 45 s for Love waves. Using the genetic algorithm, the observed data have been inverted to obtain the crust and subcrustal velocity structure along the wavepaths. Using this procedure, a similar velocity structure was also obtained earlier for the northwestern DVP, which is in the west of the present study region. Comparison of results show that the crustal thickness decreases westward from central DVP (39.6 km to northwestern DVP (37.8 km along with the decrease of thickness of upper crust; while the thickness of lower crust remains nearly same. From east to west S-wave velocity in the upper crust decreases by 2 to 3 per cent, while P-wave velocity in the whole crust and subcrust decreases by 3 to 6 per cent. The P- and S-wave velocities are positively correlated with crustal thickness and negatively correlated with earth’s heat flow. It appears that the elevated crustal and subcrustal temperature in the western side is the main factor for low velocities on this side.
Watson, Linda C; Dasyra, Kalliopi M; Bentz, Misty C; Ferrarese, Laura; Peterson, Bradley M; Pogge, Richard W; Tacconi, Linda J
2008-01-01
We present the first use of the Gemini North laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS AO) system and an integral field unit (IFU) to measure the stellar velocity dispersion of the host of a luminous quasar. The quasar PG1426+015 (z=0.086) was observed with the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS) on the 8m Gemini North telescope in the H-band as part of the Science Verification phase of the new ALTAIR LGS AO system. The NIFS IFU and LGS AO are well suited for host studies of luminous quasars because one can achieve a large ratio of host to quasar light. We have measured the stellar velocity dispersion of PG1426+015 from 0.1'' to 1'' (0.16 kpc to 1.6 kpc) to be 217+/-15 km/s based on high signal-to-noise ratio measurements of Si I, Mg I, and several CO bandheads. This new measurement is a factor of four more precise than a previous measurement obtained with long-slit spectroscopy and good, natural seeing, yet was obtained with a shorter net integration time. We find that PG1426+015 has a velocity disp...
Dispersion Relations for Electroweak Observables in Composite Higgs Models
Contino, Roberto
2015-01-01
We derive dispersion relations for the electroweak oblique observables measured at LEP in the context of $SO(5)/SO(4)$ composite Higgs models. It is shown how these relations can be used and must be modified when modeling the spectral functions through a low-energy effective description of the strong dynamics. The dispersion relation for the parameter $\\epsilon_3$ is then used to estimate the contribution from spin-1 resonances at the 1-loop level. Finally, it is shown that the sign of the contribution to the $\\hat S$ parameter from the lowest-lying spin-1 states is not necessarily positive definite, but depends on the energy scale at which the asymptotic behavior of current correlators is attained.
Ashkan Ghanbari
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In the present study, we investigate the evolution of the super continuum generation (SCG through the triangular photonic crystal fiber (PCF at 1310nm by using both full-vector multi pole method (M.P.M and novel concrete algorithms: Symmetric Split-step Fourier (SSF and fourth order Runge Kutta(RK4 which is an accurate method to solve the general nonlinear Schrodinger equation (GNLSE. We propose an ideal solid-core PCF structure featuring a minimum anomalous group velocity dispersion (GVD, small higher order dispersions (HODs and enhanced nonlinearity for appropriate super continuum generation with low input pulse energies over discrete distances of the PCF. We also investigate the impact of the linear and nonlinear effects on the super continuum spectra in detail and compare the results with different status.
The Use of Dispersion Relations For The Geomagnetic Transfer Functions
Marcuello, A.; Queralt, P.; Ledo, J. J.
The magnetotelluric responses are complex magnitudes, where real and imaginary parts contain the same information on the geoelectrical structure. It seems possible, from very general hypotheses on the geoelectrical models (causality, stability and passivity), to apply the Kramers-Krönig dispersion relations to the magnetotelluric responses (impedance, geomagnetic transfer functions,...). In particular, the applica- bility of these relations to the impedance is a current point of discussion, but there are not many examples of their application to the geomagnetic transfer functions (tipper). The aim of this paper is to study how the relations of dispersion are applied to the real and imaginary part of the geomagnetic transfer functions, and to check its validity. For this reason, we have considered data (or responses) from two- and three-dimensional structures, and for these data, we have taken two situations: 1.- Responses that have been synthetically generated from numerical modelling, that allows us to control the quality of the data. 2.- Responses obtained from fieldwork, that are affected by exper- imental error. Additionally, we have also explored the use of these relations to extrap- olate the geomagnetic transfer functions outside the interval of measured frequencies, in order to obtain constrains on the values of these extrapolated data. The results have shown that the dispersion relations are accomplished for the geomag- netic transfer functions, and they can offer information about how these responses are behaved outside (but near) the range of measured frequencies.
Del Bello, E.; Taddeucci, J.; De'Michieli Vitturi, M.; Scarlato, P.; Andronico, D.; Scollo, S.; Kueppers, U.
2015-12-01
We present the first report of experimental measurements of the enhanced settling velocity of volcanic particles as function of particle volume fraction. In order to investigate the differences in the aerodynamic behavior of ash particles when settling individually or in mass, we performed systematic large-scale ash settling experiments using natural basaltic and phonolitic ash. By releasing ash particles at different, controlled volumetric flow rates, in an unconstrained open space and at minimal air movement, we measured their terminal velocity, size, and particle volume fraction with a high-speed camera at 2000 fps. Enhanced settling velocities of individual particles increase with increasing particle volume fraction. This suggests that particle clustering during fallout may be one reason explaining larger than theoretical depletion rates of fine particles from volcanic ash clouds. We provide a quantitative empirical model that allows to calculate, from a given particle size and density, the enhanced velocity resulting from a given particle volume fraction. The proposed model has the potential to serve as a simple tool for the prediction of the terminal velocity of ash of an hypothetical distribution of ash of known particle size and volume fraction. This is of particular importance for advection-diffusion transport model of ash where generally a one-way coupling is adopted, considering only the flow effects on particles. To better quantify the importance of the enhanced settling velocity in ash dispersal, we finally introduced the new formulation in a Lagrangian model calculating for realistic eruptive conditions the resulting ash concentration in the atmosphere and on the ground.
The velocity-density relation in the spherical model
Bilicki, Maciej
2008-01-01
We study the cosmic velocity-density relation using the spherical collapse model (SCM) as a proxy to non-linear dynamics. Although the dependence of this relation on cosmological parameters is known to be weak, we retain the density parameter Omega_m in SCM equations, in order to study the limit Omega_m -> 0. We show that in this regime the considered relation is strictly linear, for arbitrary values of the density contrast, on the contrary to some claims in the literature. On the other hand, we confirm that for realistic values of Omega_m the exact relation in the SCM is well approximated by the classic formula of Bernardeau (1992), both for voids (delta<0) and for overdensities up to delta ~ 3. Inspired by this fact, we find further analytic approximations to the relation for the whole range delta from -1 to infinity. Our formula for voids accounts for the weak Omega_m-dependence of their maximal rate of expansion, which for Omega_m < 1 is slightly smaller that 3/2. For positive density contrasts, we ...
Modified dispersion relations, inflation and scale-invariance
Bianco, Stefano; Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2016-01-01
For a certain type of modified dispersion relations, the vacuum quantum state for very short wavelength cosmological perturbations is scale-invariant and it has been suggested that this may be the source of the scale-invariance observed in the temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. We point out that for this scenario to be possible, it is necessary to red-shift these short wavelength modes to cosmological scales in such a way that the scale-invariance is not lost. This can be done by inflation with a sufficiently large Hubble rate, without any requirement for slow roll. We also show that in the case of slow-roll inflation, modes that start in their vacuum quantum state will become nearly scale-invariant when they exit the Hubble radius for any power law modified dispersion relation.
Representation of Integral Dispersion Relations by Local Forms
Ferreira, Erasmo
2007-01-01
The representation of the usual integral dispersion relations (IDR) of scattering theory through series of derivatives of the amplitudes is discussed, extended, simplified, and confirmed as mathematical identities. Forms of derivative dispersion relations (DDR) valid for the whole energy interval, recently obtained and presented as double infinite series, are simplified through the use of new sum rules of the incomplete $\\Gamma$ functions, being reduced to single summations, where the usual convergence criteria are easily applied. For the forms of the imaginary amplitude used in phenomenology of hadronic scattering, we show that expressions for the DDR can represent, with absolute accuracy, the IDR of scattering theory, as true mathematical identities. Besides the fact that the algebraic manipulation can be easily understood, numerical tests prove the accuracy of these representations up to the maximum available machine precision. As consequence of our analytical and numerical work, it is concluded that the s...
Pionic dispersion relations in presence of weak magnetic field
Adhya, Souvik Priyam; Biswas, Subhrajyoti; Roy, Pradip K
2016-01-01
In this work, dispersion relations of $\\pi^0$ and $\\pi^{\\pm}$ have been studied in vacuum in the limit of weak external magnetic field using a phenomenological pion-nucleon $(\\pi N)$ Lagrangian. For our purpose, we have calculated the results up to one loop order in self energy diagrams with the pseudoscalar $(PS)$ and pseudovector $(PV)$ pion-nucleon interactions. By assuming weak external magnetic field it is seen that the effective mass of pion gets explicit magnetic field dependence and it is modified significantly for the case of PS coupling. However, for the PV coupling, only a modest increase in the effective mass is observed. These modified dispersion relations due to the presence of the external field can have substantial influence in the phenomenological aspect of the mesons both in the context of neutron stars as well as relativistic heavy ion collisions.
Vacuum fluctuations in theories with deformed dispersion relations
Arzano, Michele; Magueijo, Joao; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni
2015-01-01
We examine vacuum fluctuations in theories with modified dispersion relations which represent dimensional reduction at high energies. By changing units of energy and momentum we can obtain a description rendering the dispersion relations undeformed and transferring all the non-trivial effects to the integration measure in momentum space. Using this description we propose a general quantization procedure, which should be applicable whether or not the theory explicitly introduces a preferred frame. Based on this scheme we evaluate the power spectrum of quantum vacuum fluctuations. We find that in {\\it all} theories which run to 2 dimensions in the ultraviolet the vacuum fluctuations, in the ultraviolet regime, are scale-invariant. This is true in flat space but also for "inside the horizon" modes in an expanding universe. We spell out the conditions upon the gravity theory for this scale-invariance to be preserved as the modes are frozen-in outside the horizon. We also digress on the meaning of dimensionality (...
The Force-Velocity Relation for Growing Biopolymers
Carlsson, A E
2000-01-01
The process of force generation by the growth of biopolymers is simulated via a Langevin-dynamics approach. The interaction forces are taken to have simple forms that favor the growth of straight fibers from solution. The force-velocity relation is obtained from the simulations for two versions of the monomer-monomer force field. It is found that the growth rate drops off more rapidly with applied force than expected from the simplest theories based on thermal motion of the obstacle. The discrepancies amount to a factor of three or more when the applied force exceeds 2.5kT/a, where a is the step size for the polymer growth. These results are explained on the basis of restricted diffusion of monomers near the fiber tip. It is also found that the mobility of the obstacle has little effect on the growth rate, over a broad range.
The San Andreas fault experiment. [gross tectonic plates relative velocity
Smith, D. E.; Vonbun, F. O.
1973-01-01
A plan was developed during 1971 to determine gross tectonic plate motions along the San Andreas Fault System in California. Knowledge of the gross motion along the total fault system is an essential component in the construction of realistic deformation models of fault regions. Such mathematical models will be used in the future for studies which will eventually lead to prediction of major earthquakes. The main purpose of the experiment described is the determination of the relative velocity of the North American and the Pacific Plates. This motion being so extremely small, cannot be measured directly but can be deduced from distance measurements between points on opposite sites of the plate boundary taken over a number of years.
Comment on "Dispersion relation for MHD waves in homogeneous plasma"
Chandra, Suresh; Kumthekar, B K; Sharma, Monika
2009-01-01
Pandey & Dwivedi (2007) again tried to claim that the dispersion relation for the given set of equations must be a sixth degree polynomial. Through a series of papers, they are unnecessarily creating confusion. In the present communication, we have shown how Pandey & Dwivedi (2007) are introducing an additional root, which is insignificant. Moreover, five roots of both the polynomials are common and they are sufficient for the discussion of propagation of slow-mode and fast-mode waves.
General characteristics of relative dispersion in the ocean
Corrado, Raffaele; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Palatella, Luigi; Santoleri, Rosalia; Zambianchi, Enrico
2017-04-01
The multi-scale and nonlinear nature of the ocean dynamics dramatically affects the spreading of matter, like pollutants, marine litter, etc., of physical and chemical seawater properties, and the biological connectivity inside and among different basins. Based on the Finite-Scale Lyapunov Exponent analysis of the largest available near-surface Lagrangian data set from the Global Drifter Program, our results show that, despite the large variety of flow features, relative dispersion can ultimately be described by a few parameters common to all ocean sub-basins, at least in terms of order of magnitude. This provides valuable information to undertake Lagrangian dispersion studies by means of models and/or of observational data. Moreover, our results show that the relative dispersion rates measured at submesoscale are significantly higher than for large-scale dynamics. Auxiliary analysis of high resolution GPS-tracked drifter hourly data as well as of the drogued/undrogued status of the buoys is provided in support of our conclusions. A possible application of our study, concerning reverse drifter motion and error growth analysis, is proposed relatively to the case of the missing Malaysia Airlines MH370 aircraft.
Clobert, J.; Danchin, E.; Dhondt, A.A.; Nichols, J.D.
2001-01-01
The ability of species to migrate and disperse is a trait that has interested ecologists for many years. Now that so many species and ecosystems face major environmental threats from habitat fragmentation and global climate change, the ability of species to adapt to these changes by dispersing, migrating, or moving between patches of habitat can be crucial to ensuring their survival. This book provides a timely and wide-ranging overview of the study of dispersal and incorporates much of the latest research. The causes, mechanisms, and consequences of dispersal at the individual, population, species and community levels are considered. The potential of new techniques and models for studying dispersal, drawn from molecular biology and demography, is also explored. Perspectives and insights are offered from the fields of evolution, conservation biology and genetics. Throughout the book, theoretical approaches are combined with empirical data, and care has been taken to include examples from as wide a range of species as possible.
Dark Matter Halos: Velocity Anisotropy -- Density Slope Relation
Zait, Amir; Shlosman, Isaac
2007-01-01
Dark matter (DM) halos formed in CDM cosmologies seem to be characterized by a power law phase-space density profile. The density of the DM halos is often fitted by the NFW profile but a better fit is provided by the Sersic fitting formula. These relations are empirically derived from cosmological simulations of structure formation but have not yet been explained on a first principle basis. Here we solve the Jeans equation under the assumption of a spherical DM halo in dynamical equilibrium, that obeys a power law phase space density and either the NFW-like or the Sersic density profile. We then calculate the velocity anisotropy, beta(r), analytically. Our main result is that for the NFW-like profile the beta - gamma relation is not a linear one (where gamma is the logarithmic derivative of the density rho[r]). The shape of beta(r) depends mostly on the ratio of the gravitational to kinetic energy within the NFW scale radius R_s. For the Sersic profile a linear beta - gamma relation is recovered, and in parti...
Fast Pairwise Conversion of Supernova Neutrinos: A Dispersion Relation Approach
Izaguirre, Ignacio; Raffelt, Georg; Tamborra, Irene
2017-01-01
Collective pair conversion νeν¯ e↔νxν¯ x by forward scattering, where x =μ or τ , may be generic for supernova neutrino transport. Depending on the local angular intensity of the electron lepton number carried by neutrinos, the conversion rate can be "fast," i.e., of the order of √{2 }GF(nνe-nν¯e)≫Δ matm2/2 E . We present a novel approach to understand these phenomena: a dispersion relation for the frequency and wave number (Ω ,K ) of disturbances in the mean field of νeνx flavor coherence. Runaway solutions occur in "dispersion gaps," i.e., in "forbidden" intervals of Ω and/or K where propagating plane waves do not exist. We stress that the actual solutions also depend on the initial and/or boundary conditions, which need to be further investigated.
Dispersion Relation of Linear Waves in Quantum Magnetoplasmas
Zhu, Jun
2016-07-01
The quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model is applied in investigating the propagation of linear waves in quantum magnetoplasmas. Using the QMHD model, the dispersion equation for quantum magnetoplasmas and the dispersion relations of linear waves are deduced. Results show that quantum effects affect the propagation of electron plasma waves and extraordinary waves (X waves). When we select the plasma parameters of the laser-based plasma compression (LBPC) schemes for calculation, the quantum correction cannot be neglected. Meanwhile, the corrections produced by the Fermi degeneracy pressure and Bohm potential are compared under different plasma parameter conditions. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11447125) and the Research Training Program for Undergraduates of Shanxi University of China (Nos. 2014012167, 2015013182)
Ganguly, Avijit K
2016-01-01
Dimension-five photon $(\\gamma )$ scalar $(\\phi)$ interaction terms usually appear in the bosonic sector of unified theories of electromagnetism and gravity. In these theories the three propagation eigenstates are different from the three field eigenstates. The dispersion relation in an external magnetic field shows that, for a non- zero energy $(\\omega)$, out of the three propagating eigenstates one has superluminal phase velocity $v_p$. During propagation, another eigenstate undergoes amplification or attenuation, showing signs of an unstable system. The remaining one maintains causality. In this paper, using techniques from optics as well as gravity, we identify the energy $(\\omega)$ interval outside which $v_p \\le c$ for the field eigenstates $|\\gamma_{\\parallel} > $ and $ |\\phi > $, and stability of the system is restored. The behavior of group velocity $v_g$ is also explored in the same context. We conclude by pointing out its possible astrophysical implications.
Montero-Dorta, Antonio D; Shu, Yiping
2016-01-01
We report the first direct spectroscopic measurement of the velocity dispersion function (VDF) for the high-mass red sequence (RS) galaxy population at redshift $z \\sim 0.55$. We achieve high precision by using a sample of 600,000 massive galaxies with spectra from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the third Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III), covering stellar masses $M_* \\gtrsim 10^{11} M_{\\odot}$. We determine the VDF by projecting the joint probability-density function (PDF) of luminosity $L$ and velocity dispersion $\\sigma$, i.e. $p(L, \\sigma)$, defined by our previous measurements of the RS luminosity function (LF) and $L-\\sigma$ relation for this sample. These measurements were corrected from red--blue galaxy population confusion, photometric blurring, incompleteness and selection effects within a forward-modeling framework that furthermore correctly accommodates the low spectroscopic signal-to-noise ratio of the individual BOSS spectra. The $z\\sim0.55$ RS VDF is in agreement with t...
Li, Yong-Dong; Liu, Shi-Lun; Jin, Ying; Wei, Hong-Xing; Guan, Yong
2017-09-01
Irregular interfaces may be formed between the neighboring ferromagnetic and ferroelectric layers of multiferroic composites during the hot-pressing process. They undoubtedly affects the mechanical behavior of multiferroic composites and this is a scientific problem deserving studying. In addition, phase velocity will be a function of coordinate if the interface is irregular, and this makes the governing equation so complicated that direct analytical solution is unobtainable. The present article proposes an approximate approach for analyzing SH waves in a cylindrical multiferroic composite with interfacial irregularity. The dispersion equation is analytically derived and numerically solved. After the validity range of the approximate treatment is clarified, parametric studies reveals that interfacial corrugations can give rise to an oscillatory distribution of phase velocity along the propagation direction. Because such oscillation can lead to unstable signal transmission, it should be avoided in engineering. Further discussion suggests three possible ways for suppressing the oscillation of phase velocity. The research results can provide references for optimizing the design, manufacture and application of multiferroic devices.
Dispersion relations for stationary light in one-dimensional atomic ensembles
Lakoupov, Ivan; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Chang, Darrick E
2016-01-01
We investigate the dispersion relations for light coupled to one-dimensional ensembles of atoms with different level schemes. The unifying feature of all the considered setups is that the forward and backward propagating quantum fields are coupled by the applied classical drives such that the gro...... and placing them at well-defined positions. For the latter purpose, a multimode transfer matrix theory for light is developed.......We investigate the dispersion relations for light coupled to one-dimensional ensembles of atoms with different level schemes. The unifying feature of all the considered setups is that the forward and backward propagating quantum fields are coupled by the applied classical drives such that the group...... velocity can vanish in an effect known as “stationary light.” We derive the dispersion relations for all the considered schemes, highlighting the important differences between them. Furthermore, we show that additional control of stationary light can be obtained by treating atoms as discrete scatterers...
Relative ion expansion velocity in laser-produced plasmas
Goldsmith, S.; Moreno, J. C.; Griem, H. R.; Cohen, Leonard; Richardson, M. C.
1988-01-01
The spectra of highly ionized titanium, Ti XIII through Ti XXI, and C VI Lyman lines were excited in laser-produced plasmas. The plasma was produced by uniformly irradiating spherical glass microballoons coated with thin layers of titanium and parylene. The 24-beam Omega laser system produced short, 0.6 ns, and high-intensity, 4 x 10 to the 14th W/sq cm, laser pulses at a wavelength of 351 nm. The measured wavelength for the 2p-3s Ti XIII resonance lines had an average shift of + 0.023 A relative to the C VI and Ti XX spectral lines. No shift was found between the C VI, Ti XIX, and Ti XX lines. The shift is attributed to a Doppler effect, resulting from a difference of (2.6 + or - 0.2) x 10 to the 7th cm/s in the expansion velocities of Ti XIX and Ti XX ions compared to Ti XIII ions.
The modulation effect for supersymmetric dark matter detection with asymmetric velocity dispersion
Vergados, J D
2000-01-01
The detection of the theoretically expected dark matter is central to particle physics cosmology. Current fashionable supersymmetric models provide a natural dark matter candidate which is the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP). Such models combined with fairly well understood physics like the quark substructure of the nucleon and the nuclear form factor and the spin response function of the nucleus, permit the evaluation of the event rate for LSP-nucleus elastic scattering. The thus obtained event rates are, however, very low or even undetectable. So it is imperative to exploit the modulation effect, i.e. the dependence of the event rate on the earth's annual motion. In this review we study such a modulation effect in directional and undirectional experiments. We calculate both the differential and the total rates using symmetric as well as asymmetric velocity distributions. We find that in the symmetric case the modulation amplitude is small, less than 0.07. There exist, however, regions of the phase sp...
Dispersion Relation for the Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors
Furuichi, Susumu; Watanbe, Keiji
2010-01-01
Elastic electromagnetic form factors of nucleons are investigated both for the time-like and the space-like momentums by using the unsubtracted dispersion relation with QCD constraints. It is shown that the calculated form factors reproduce the experimental data reasonably well; they agree with recent experimental data for the neutron magnetic form factors for the space-like data obtained by the CLAS collaboration and are compatible with the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors for the time-like momentum obtained by the BABAR collaboration.
Local stability of a gravitating filament: a dispersion relation
Freundlich, Jonathan; Combes, Françoise
2014-01-01
Filamentary structures are ubiquitous in astrophysics and are observed at various scales. On a cosmological scale, matter is usually distributed along filaments, and filaments are also typical features of the interstellar medium. Within a cosmic filament, matter can contract and form galaxies, whereas an interstellar gas filament can clump into a series of bead-like structures which can then turn into stars. To investigate the growth of such instabilities, we derive a local dispersion relation for an idealized self-gravitating filament, and study some of its properties. Our idealized picture consists of an infinite self-gravitating and rotating cylinder with pressure and density related by a polytropic equation of state. We assume no specific density distribution, treat matter as a fluid, and use hydrodynamics to derive the linearized equations that govern the local perturbations. We obtain a dispersion relation for axisymmetric perturbations and study its properties in the (k_R, k_z) phase space, where k_R a...
Mediavilla, E; Munoz, J A; Battaner, E
2016-01-01
We propose to use the flux variability of lensed quasar images induced by gravitational microlensing to measure the transverse peculiar velocity of lens galaxies over a wide range of redshift. Microlensing variability is caused by the motions of the observer, the lens galaxy (including the motion of the stars within the galaxy), and the source; hence, its frequency is directly related to the galaxy's transverse peculiar velocity. The idea is to count time-event rates (e.g., peak or caustic crossing rates) in the observed microlensing light curves of lensed quasars that can be compared with model predictions for different values of the transverse peculiar velocity. To compensate for the large time-scale of microlensing variability we propose to count and model the number of events in an ensemble of gravitational lenses. We develop the methodology to achieve this goal and apply it to an ensemble of 17 lensed quasar systems. In spite of the shortcomings of the available data, we have obtained tentative estimates...
Wide Dispersion and Diversity of Clonally Related Inhibitory Interneurons.
Harwell, Corey C; Fuentealba, Luis C; Gonzalez-Cerrillo, Adrian; Parker, Phillip R L; Gertz, Caitlyn C; Mazzola, Emanuele; Garcia, Miguel Turrero; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo; Cepko, Constance L; Kriegstein, Arnold R
2015-09-02
The mammalian neocortex is composed of two major neuronal cell types with distinct origins: excitatory pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons, generated in dorsal and ventral progenitor zones of the embryonic telencephalon, respectively. Thus, inhibitory neurons migrate relatively long distances to reach their destination in the developing forebrain. The role of lineage in the organization and circuitry of interneurons is still not well understood. Utilizing a combination of genetics, retroviral fate mapping, and lineage-specific retroviral barcode labeling, we find that clonally related interneurons can be widely dispersed while unrelated interneurons can be closely clustered. These data suggest that migratory mechanisms related to the clustering of interneurons occur largely independent of their clonal origin.
Gargiulo, A; Tamburri, S; Lonoce, I; Ciocca, F
2016-01-01
In this paper we investigate the mass assembly history of ultramassive (Mstar > 10^11Msun) dense (Sigma = Mstar/(2*pi*Re^2) > 2500 Msun/pc^2) early-type galaxies (ETGs) over the last 9 Gyr. We have traced the evolution of the number density rho of ultramassive dense ETGs and have compared their structural (effective radius Re and stellar mass Mstar) and dynamical (velocity dispersion sigma_e) parameters over the redshift range 0 = 1.4, or that, if a significant fraction of them evolves in size, new ultramassive dense ETGs must form at z < 1.5 to maintain their number density almost constant. The difficulty into identify good progenitors for these new dense ETGs at z < 1.5, and the stellar populations properties of local ultramassive dense ETGs point toward the first hypothesis.
Touati, I.; Hadjoub, Z.; Touati-Tilba, L.; Doghmane, A.
2009-11-01
In this work, we present a quantitative investigation of dispersion curves of Rayleigh velocity, V R, in several loading layers/(Si, Mg) substrates. For every layer/substrate system, it is shown that as the thickness, h, increases the curves decrease with different slopes then saturate at variable transition normalized thickness, (h/λTL)tr. To quantify the transition phenomenon, we introduced a parameter, χ, depending on V R and densities, ρ, of both layers and substrates. Hence, it was possible to deduce analytical expressions of the form: (h/λTL)tr.=1.16+0.16χ for layers/Si systems and (h/λTL)tr.=0.37+0.65χ for layers/Mg combinations.
Is Fish Response related to Velocity and Turbulence Magnitudes? (Invited)
Wilson, C. A.; Hockley, F. A.; Cable, J.
2013-12-01
Riverine fish are subject to heterogeneous velocities and turbulence, and may use this to their advantage by selecting regions which balance energy expenditure for station holding whilst maximising energy gain through feeding opportunities. This study investigated microhabitat selection by guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in terms of the three-dimensional velocity structure generated by idealised boulders in an experimental flume. Velocity and turbulence influenced intra-species variation in swimming behaviour with respect to size, sex and parasite intensity. With increasing body length, fish swam further and more frequently between boulder regions. Larger guppies spent more time in the high velocity and low turbulence region, whereas smaller guppies preferred the low velocity and high shear stress region directly behind the boulders. Male guppies selected the region of low velocity, indicating a possible reduced swimming ability due to hydrodynamic drag imposed by their fins. With increasing parasite (Gyrodactylus turnbulli) burden, fish preferentially selected the region of moderate velocity which had the lowest bulk measure of turbulence of all regions and was also the most spatially homogeneous velocity and turbulence region. Overall the least amount of time was spent in the recirculation zone which had the highest magnitude of shear stresses and mean vertical turbulent length scale to fish length ratio. Shear stresses were a factor of two greater than in the most frequented moderate velocity region, while mean vertical turbulent length scale to fish length ratio were six times greater. Indeed the mean longitudinal turbulent scale was 2-6 times greater than the fish length in all regions. While it is impossible to discriminate between these two turbulence parameters (shear stress and turbulent length to fish length ratio) in influencing the fish preference, our study infers that there is a bias towards fish spending more time in a region where both the bulk
Dispersion relations in quantum electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space
Zahn, J.W.
2006-12-15
We study field theories on the noncommutative Minkowski space with noncommuting time. The focus lies on dispersion relations in quantized interacting models in the Yang-Feldman formalism. In particular, we compute the two-point correlation function of the field strength in noncommutative quantum electrodynamics to second order. At this, we take into account the covariant coordinates that allow the construction of local gauge invariant quantities (observables). It turns out that this does not remove the well-known severe infrared problem, as one might have hoped. Instead, things become worse, since nonlocal divergences appear. We also show that these cancel in a supersymmetric version of the theory if the covariant coordinates are adjusted accordingly. Furthermore, we study the {phi}{sup 3} and the Wess-Zumino model and show that the distortion of the dispersion relations is moderate for parameters typical for the Higgs field. We also discuss the formulation of gauge theories on noncommutative spaces and study classical electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space using covariant coordinates. In particular, we compute the change of the speed of light due to nonlinear effects in the presence of a background field. Finally, we examine the so-called twist approach to quantum field theory on the noncommutative Minkowski space and point out some conceptual problems of this approach. (orig.)
Significance of relative velocity in drag force or drag power estimation for a tethered float
Vethamony, P.; Sastry, J.S.
There is difference in opinion regarding the use of relative velocity instead of particle velocity alone in the estimation of drag force or power. In the present study, a tethered spherical float which undergoes oscillatory motion in regular waves...
Relative toxicity of oil dispersants to Mytilus viridis and Macrobrachium idella
DeSilva, C.; Row, A.
There was a great variation in the relative toxicity of different oil dispersants. Dispersant IB 2/80 was most toxic and dispersant IB 11/80 was not lethal at the highest concentration tested. The ranking order of the emulsions (oil dispersant...
Riffel, Rogemar A; Mason, Rachel; Rodriguez-Ardila, Alberto; Martins, Lucimara; Riffel, Rogerio; Diaz, Ruben; Colina, Luis; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Flohic, Helene; Martin, Omaira Gonzalez; Lira, Paulina; McDermid, Richard; Almeida, Cristina Ramos; Schiavon, Ricardo; Thanjavur, Karun; Dutra, Daniel Ruschel; Winge, Claudia; Perlman, Eric
2014-01-01
We examine the stellar velocity dispersions (sigma) of a sample of 48 galaxies, 35 of which are spirals, from the Palomar nearby galaxy survey. It is known that for ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) and merger remnants thesigma derived from the near-infrared CO band-heads is smaller than that measured from optical lines, while no discrepancy between these measurements is found for early-type galaxies. No such studies are available for spiral galaxies - the subject of this paper. We used cross-dispersed spectroscopic data obtained with the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS), with spectral coverage from 0.85 to 2.5um, to obtain sigma measurements from the 2.29 $\\mu$m CO band-heads (sigma_{CO}), and the 0.85 um calcium triplet (sigma_{CaT}). For the spiral galaxies in the sample, we found that sigma_{CO} is smaller than sigma_{CaT}, with a mean fractional difference of 14.3%. The best fit to the data is given by sigma_{opt} = (46.0+/-18.1) + (0.85+/-0.12)sigma_{CO}. This "sigma discrepancy" may be...
The GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey. IV. Baryonic Mass-Velocity-Size Relations of Massive Galaxies
Catinella, Barbara; Schiminovich, David; Lemonias, Jenna; Scannapieco, Cecilia; Wang, Jing; Fabello, Silvia; Hummels, Cameron; Moran, Sean M; Wu, Ronin; Cooper, Andrew P; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P; Heckman, Timothy M; Saintonge, Amélie
2011-01-01
We present dynamical scaling relations for a homogeneous and representative sample of ~500 massive galaxies, selected only by stellar mass (>10^10 Msun) and redshift (0.025
Thermal fermionic dispersion relations in a magnetic field
Elmfors, P; Skagerstam, B S; Elmfors, Per; Persson, David; Skagerstam, Bo Sture
1996-01-01
The thermal self-energy of an electron in a static uniform magnetic field B is calculated to first order in the fine structure constant \\alpha and to all orders in eB. We use two methods, one based on the Furry picture and another based on Schwinger's proper-time method. As external states we consider relativistic Landau levels with special emphasis on the lowest Landau level. In the high-temperature limit we derive self-consistent dispersion relations for particle and hole excitations, showing the chiral asymmetry caused by the external field. For weak fields, earlier results on the ground- state energy and the anomalous magnetic moment are discussed and compared with the present analysis. In the strong-field limit the appearance of a field-independent imaginary part of the self-energy, related to Landau damping in the e^{+}e^{-} plasma, is pointed out.
Metabolic responses at various intensities relative to critical swimming velocity.
Toubekis, Argyris G; Tokmakidis, Savvas P
2013-06-01
To avoid any improper training load, the speed of endurance training needs to be regularly adjusted. Both the lactate threshold (LT) velocity and the velocity corresponding to the maximum lactate steady state (MLSS) are valid and reliable indices of swimming aerobic endurance and commonly used for evaluation and training pace adjustment. Alternatively, critical velocity (CV), defined as the velocity that can be maintained without exhaustion and assessed from swimming performance of various distances, is a valid, reliable, and practical index of swimming endurance, although the selection of the proper distances is a determinant factor. Critical velocity may be 3-6 and 8-11% faster compared with MLSS and LT, respectively. Interval swimming at CV will probably show steady-lactate concentration when the CV has been calculated by distances of 3- to 15-minute duration, and this is more evident in adult swimmers, whereas increasing or decreasing lactate concentration may appear in young and children swimmers. Therefore, appropriate corrections should be made to use CV for training pace adjustment. Findings in young and national level adult swimmers suggest that repetitions of distances of 100-400 m, and velocities corresponding to a CV range of 98-102% may be used for pacing aerobic training, training at the MLSS, and possibly training for improvement of VO2max. Calculation of CV from distances of 200-400, 50-100-200-400, or 100-800 m is an easy and practical method to assess aerobic endurance. This review intends to study the physiological responses and the feasibility of using CV for aerobic endurance evaluation and training pace adjustment, to help coaches to prescribe training sets for different age-group swimmers.
Fast Pairwise Conversion of Supernova Neutrinos: A Dispersion Relation Approach.
Izaguirre, Ignacio; Raffelt, Georg; Tamborra, Irene
2017-01-13
Collective pair conversion ν_{e}ν[over ¯]_{e}↔ν_{x}ν[over ¯]_{x} by forward scattering, where x=μ or τ, may be generic for supernova neutrino transport. Depending on the local angular intensity of the electron lepton number carried by neutrinos, the conversion rate can be "fast," i.e., of the order of sqrt[2]G_{F}(n_{ν_{e}}-n_{ν[over ¯]_{e}})≫Δm_{atm}^{2}/2E. We present a novel approach to understand these phenomena: a dispersion relation for the frequency and wave number (Ω,K) of disturbances in the mean field of ν_{e}ν_{x} flavor coherence. Runaway solutions occur in "dispersion gaps," i.e., in "forbidden" intervals of Ω and/or K where propagating plane waves do not exist. We stress that the actual solutions also depend on the initial and/or boundary conditions, which need to be further investigated.
Onken, Christopher A.; Ferrarese, Laura; Merritt, David
2004-01-01
We calibrate reverberation-based black hole masses in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by using the correlation between black hole mass, M, and bulge/spheroid stellar velocity dispersion, sigma. We use new measurements of sigma for 6 AGNs and published velocity dispersions for 10 others......, in conjunction with improved reverberation mapping results, to determine the scaling factor required to bring reverberation-based black hole masses into agreement with the quiescent galaxy M-sigma relationship. The scatter in the AGN black hole masses is found to be less than a factor of 3. The current...
无
2000-01-01
Based on short period Rayleigh wave data recorded by Beijing Seismic Telemetered Network, the dispersion curves of Raleigh wave phase velocity, with period from 2 s to 18 s, are calculated by means of two-station method, for 5 paths across the earthquake zone located in the Beijing graben and the Hebei plain. According to the dispersion features, the upper and middle crustal S wave velocity structures are respectively obtained for the northern segment of Beijing graben and the northern part of Hebei plain. The results show that there is an obvious interface at the depth of 9 km in the Beijing graben, the velocity varies little with depth in the middle crust, and there is a low-velocity-zone, with a thickness of 5 km and a buried depth of 14.6 km, in the middle crust of the Hebei plain.
Threshold singularities, dispersion relations and fixed-order perturbative calculations
Beneke, Martin
2016-01-01
We show how to correctly treat threshold singularities in fixed-order perturbative calculations of the electron anomalous magnetic moment and hadronic pair production processes such as top pair production. With respect to the former, we demonstrate the equivalence of the "non-perturbative", resummed treatment of the vacuum polarization contribution, whose spectral function exhibits bound state poles, with the fixed-order calculation by identifying a threshold localized term in the four-loop spectral function. In general, we find that a modification of the dispersion relation by threshold subtractions is required to make fixed-order calculations well-defined and provide the subtraction term. We then solve the apparent problem of a divergent convolution of the partonic cross section with the parton luminosity in the computation of the top pair production cross section starting from the fourth-order correction. We find that when the computation is performed in the usual way as an integral of real and virtual cor...
Some Modal Relations and Generalized Velocity Method in State Space
无
2000-01-01
Real mode theory in configuration space has shown that the mode acceleration method converges faster than the mode displacement method. This paper demonstrates a similar conclusion in the state space. Some new expressions on modal parameter matrices were set up first. A generalized velocity method (GVM) is then demonstrated in a systematic way. This method is the so-called complex mode velocity method, but the expressions and schemes are given in terms of parametric matrices in configuration space. Theoretical comparison of this GVM with the traditional complex mode method shows some interesting conclusions. The latter approach is actually a generalized displacement method (GDM). Without mode reduction, the displacement responses of the concerned system resulting from both approaches are identical. On the other hand, both approaches have to adopt mode reduction to become practical. Under this situation, GVM has advantages because it compensates for the contribution of the omitted high-order modes to the displacement responses.
Counterintuitive dispersion violating Kramers-Kronig relations in gain slabs.
Wang, Li-Gang; Wang, Lin; Al-Amri, M; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zubairy, M Suhail
2014-06-13
We demonstrate the counterintuitive dispersion effect that the peaks (dips) in the gain spectrum correspond to abnormal (normal) dispersion, contrary to the usual Kramers-Kronig point of view. This effect may also lead to two unique features: a broadband abnormal dispersion region and an observable Hartman effect. These results are explained in terms of interference and boundary effects. Finally, two experiments are proposed for the potential experimental verification.
Riffel, Rogério; Ferrari, Fabricio; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa
2011-01-01
We have used the Gemini Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) to map the age distribution of the stellar population in the inner 400 pc of the Seyfert 2 galaxy Mrk 1157 (NGC 591), at a spatial resolution of 35 pc. We have performed wavelet and principal component analysis in the data in order to remove instrumental signatures. An old stellar population component (age > 5 Gyr) is dominant within the inner ~ 130 pc which we attribute to the galaxy bulge. Beyond this region, up to the borders of the observation field, young to intermediate age components (0.1--0.7 Gyr) dominate. As for Mrk 1066, previously studied by us, we find a spatial correlation between this intermediate age component and a partial ring of low stellar velocity dispersions (sigma*). Low-sigma* nuclear rings have been observed in other active galaxies and our results for Mrk 1157 and Mrk 1066 reveal that they are formed by intermediate age stars. Such age is consistent with a scenario in which the origin of the low-sigma* rings is ...
Davidge, T J; McGregor, P J
2010-01-01
The identification of individual stars in crowded environments using photometric information alone is confounded by source confusion. However, with the addition of spectroscopic information it is possible to distinguish between blends and areas where the light is dominated by a single star using the widths of absorption features. We describe a procedure for identifying locations in kinematically hot environments where the light is dominated by a single star, and apply this method to spectra with 0.1 arcsec angular resolution covering the 2.1 - 2.3 micron interval in the central regions of M32. Targets for detailed investigation are selected as areas of localized brightness enhancement. Three locations where at least 60% of the K-band light comes from a single bright star, and another with light that is dominated by two stars with very different velocities, are identified. The dominant stars are evolving near the tip of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB), and have M5 III spectral type. The lack of a dispersion ...
Sound velocity and related properties of seafloor sediments in the Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea
MENG Xiangmei; LI Guanbao; HAN Guozhong; KAN Guangming
2015-01-01
The Bering Sea shelf and Chukchi Sea shelf are believed to hold enormous oil and gas reserves which have attracted a lot of geophysical surveys. For the interpretation of acoustic geophysical survey results, sediment sound velocity is one of the main parameters. On seven sediment cores collected from the Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea during the 5th Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition, sound velocity measurements were made at 35, 50, 100, 135, 150, 174, 200, and 250 kHz using eight separate pairs of ultrasonic transducers. The measured sound velocities range from 1 425.1 m/s to 1 606.4 m/s and are dispersive with the degrees of dispersion from 2.2% to 4.0% over a frequency range of 35–250 kHz. After the sound velocity measurements, the measurements of selected geotechnical properties and the Scanning Electron Microscopic observation of microstructure were also made on the sediment cores. The results show that the seafloor sediments are composed of silty sand, sandy silt, coarse silt, clayey silt, sand-silt-clay and silty clay. Aggregate and diatom debris is found in the seafloor sediments. Through comparative analysis of microphotographs and geotechnical properties, it is assumed that the large pore spaces between aggregates and the intraparticulate porosity of diatom debris increase the porosity of the seafloor sediments, and affect other geotechnical properties. The correlation analysis of sound velocity and geotechnical properties shows that the correlation of sound velocity with porosity and wet bulk density is extreme significant, while the correlation of sound velocity with clay content, mean grain size and organic content is not significant. The regression equations between porosity, wet bulk density and sound velocity based on best-fit polynomial are given.
Effect of magnetic field on the wave dispersion relation in three-dimensional dusty plasma crystals
Yang Xuefeng [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang Zhengxiong [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
2012-07-15
Three-dimensional plasma crystals under microgravity condition are investigated by taking into account an external magnetic field. The wave dispersion relations of dust lattice modes in the body centered cubic (bcc) and the face centered cubic (fcc) plasma crystals are obtained explicitly when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the wave motion. The wave dispersion relations of dust lattice modes in the bcc and fcc plasma crystals are calculated numerically when the magnetic field is in an arbitrary direction. The numerical results show that one longitudinal mode and two transverse modes are coupled due to the Lorentz force in the magnetic field. Moreover, three wave modes, i.e., the high frequency phonon mode, the low frequency phonon mode, and the optical mode, are obtained. The optical mode and at least one phonon mode are hybrid modes. When the magnetic field is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the primitive wave motion, all the three wave modes are hybrid modes and do not have any intersection points. It is also found that with increasing the magnetic field strength, the frequency of the optical mode increases and has a cutoff at the cyclotron frequency of the dust particles in the limit of long wavelength, and the mode mixings for both the optical mode and the high frequency phonon mode increase. The acoustic velocity of the low frequency phonon mode is zero. In addition, the acoustic velocity of the high frequency phonon mode depends on the angle of the magnetic field and the wave motion but does not depend on the magnetic field strength.
Günther Zeck
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual stimuli elicit action potentials in tens of different retinal ganglion cells. Each ganglion cell type responds with a different latency to a given stimulus, thus transforming the high-dimensional input into a temporal neural code. The timing of the first spikes between different retinal projection neurons cells may further change along axonal transmission. The purpose of this study is to investigate if intraretinal conduction velocity leads to a synchronization or dispersion of the population signal leaving the eye. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We 'imaged' the initiation and transmission of light-evoked action potentials along individual axons in the rabbit retina at micron-scale resolution using a high-density multi-transistor array. We measured unimodal conduction velocity distributions (1.3±0.3 m/sec, mean ± SD for axonal populations at all retinal eccentricities with the exception of the central part that contains myelinated axons. The velocity variance within each piece of retina is caused by ganglion cell types that show narrower and slightly different average velocity tuning. Ganglion cells of the same type respond with similar latency to spatially homogenous stimuli and conduct with similar velocity. For ganglion cells of different type intraretinal conduction velocity and response latency to flashed stimuli are negatively correlated, indicating that differences in first spike timing increase (up to 10 msec. Similarly, the analysis of pair-wise correlated activity in response to white-noise stimuli reveals that conduction velocity and response latency are negatively correlated. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Intraretinal conduction does not change the relative spike timing between ganglion cells of the same type but increases spike timing differences among ganglion cells of different type. The fastest retinal ganglion cells therefore act as indicators of new stimuli for postsynaptic neurons. The intraretinal dispersion
Threshold singularities, dispersion relations and fixed-order perturbative calculations
Beneke, M.; Ruiz-Femenía, P. [Physik Department T31, Technische Universität München,James-Franck-Straße, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2016-08-24
We show how to correctly treat threshold singularities in fixed-order perturbative calculations of the electron anomalous magnetic moment and hadronic pair production processes such as top pair production. With respect to the former, we demonstrate the equivalence of the “non-perturbative”, resummed treatment of the vacuum polarization contribution, whose spectral function exhibits bound state poles, with the fixed-order calculation by identifying a threshold localized term in the four-loop spectral function. In general, we find that a modification of the dispersion relation by threshold subtractions is required to make fixed-order calculations well-defined and provide the subtraction term. We then solve the apparent problem of a divergent convolution of the partonic cross section with the parton luminosity in the computation of the top pair production cross section starting from the fourth-order correction. We find that when the computation is performed in the usual way as an integral of real and virtual corrections over phase space at a given order in the expansion in the strong coupling, an additional contribution has to be added at N3LO.
On the Klein-Gordon equation using the dispersion relation of Doubly Special Relativity
Felipe, Yese J.
2017-01-01
The theory of Doubly Special Relativity or Deformed Special Relativity (DSR), proposes that there is a maximum energy scale and a minimum length scale that is invariant for all observers. These maximum energy and minimum length correspond to the Planck energy and the Planck length, respectively. As a consequence, the dispersion relation is modified to be E2 =p2c2 +m2c4 + λE3 + ... Previous work has been done to express Quantum Mechanics using the dispersion relation of DSR. Solutions of the free particle, the harmonic oscillator, and the Hydrogen atom have been obtained from the DSR Schrodinger equation. We explore how the DSR Klein-Gordon equation can be consistently approximated in the non-relativistic limit in order to derive the DSR Schrodinger equation.
Ghiyas Ud Din [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences -PIEAS, P.O Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Isotope Application Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology - PINSTECH, P.O Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: fac192@pieas.edu.pk; Imran Rafiq Chughtai; Mansoor Hameed Inayat [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences - PIEAS, P.O Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Iqbal Hussain Khan [Isotope Application Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology - PINSTECH, P.O Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2009-07-15
Axial mixing, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase which are parameters of fundamental importance in the design and operation of liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate columns have been investigated. Experiments for residence time distribution (RTD) analysis have been carried out for a range of pulsation frequency and amplitude in a liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate column with water as dispersed and kerosene as continuous phase using radiotracer technique. The column was operated in emulsion region and {sup 99m}Tc in the form of sodium pertechnetate eluted from a {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc generator was used to trace the dispersed phase. Axial dispersed plug flow model with open-open boundary condition and two points measurement method was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of dispersed phase. It has been observed that the axial mixing and holdup of dispersed phase increases with increase in pulsation frequency and amplitude until a maximum value is achieved while slip velocity decreases with increase in pulsation frequency and amplitude until it approaches a minimum value. Short lived and low energy radiotracer {sup 99m}Tc in the form of sodium pertechnetate was found to be a good water tracer to study the hydrodynamics of a liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate column operating with two immiscible liquids, water and kerosene. Axial dispersed plug flow model with open-open boundary condition was found to be a suitable model to describe the hydrodynamics of dispersed phase in the pulsed sieve plate extraction column.
Gargiulo, A.; Saracco, P.; Tamburri, S.; Lonoce, I.; Ciocca, F.
2016-08-01
Aims: We investigate the stellar mass assembly history of ultramassive (M⋆ ≳ 1011M⊙) dense (Σ = M⋆/2πRe2> 2500M⊙ pc-2) early-type galaxies (ETGs, elliptical and spheroidal galaxies) selected on basis of visual classification over the last 9 Gyr. Methods: We traced the evolution of the comoving number density ρ of ultramassive dense ETGs and compared their structural (effective radius Re and stellar mass M⋆) and dynamical (velocity dispersion σe) parameters over the redshift range 0 advantage of the COSMOS spectroscopic survey to probe the intermediate redshift range [0.2-1.0]. We derived the number density of ultramassive dense local ETGs from the SDSS sample taking all of the selection bias affecting the spectroscopic sample into account. To compare the dynamical and structural parameters, we collected a sample of 11 ultramassive dense ETGs at 1.2 measurements are available. For four of these ETGs (plus one at z = 1.91), we present previously unpublished estimates of velocity dispersion, based on optical VLT-FORS2 spectra. We probe the intermediate redshift range (0.2 ≲ z ≲ 0.9) and the local Universe with different ETGs samples. Results: We find that the comoving number density of ultramassive dense ETGs evolves with z as ρ(z) ∝ (1 + z)0.3 ± 0.8 implying a decrease of ~25% of the population of ultramassive dense ETGs since z = 1.6. By comparing the structural and dynamical properties of high-z ultramassive dense ETGs over the range 0 ≲ z < 1.6 in the [Re, M⋆, σe] plane, we find that all of the ETGs of the high-z sample have counterparts with similar properties in the local Universe. This implies either that the majority (~70%) of ultramassive dense ETGs already completed the assembly and shaping at ⟨ z ⟩ = 1.4, or that, if a significant portion of dense ETGs evolves in size, new ultramassive dense ETGs must form at z < 1.5 to maintain their number density at almost constant. The difficulty in identify good progenitors for these
Once and twice subtracted dispersion relations in the analysis of pi pi amplitudes
Kaminski, R; Peláez, J R; Ynduráin, F J
2009-01-01
Once and twice subtracted crossing symmetric dispersion relations applied to $\\pi\\pi \\to \\pi\\pi$ scattering data are analyzed and compared. Both sets of dispersion relations can be used to test the $\\pi\\pi$ amplitudes in low partial waves up to about 1 GeV. We show how once subtracted dispersion relations can provide stronger constraints for $\\pi\\pi$ amplitudes than twice subtracted ones in the 400 to 1100 MeV range, given the same experimental input.
Three-particle physics and dispersion relation theory
Anisovich, A V; Matveev, M A; Nikonov, V A; Nyiri, J; Sarantsev, A V
2013-01-01
The necessity of describing three-nucleon and three-quark systems have led to a constant interest in the problem of three particles. The question of including relativistic effects appeared together with the consideration of the decay amplitude in the framework of the dispersion technique. The relativistic dispersion description of amplitudes always takes into account processes connected with the investigated reaction by the unitarity condition or by virtual transitions; in the case of three-particle processes they are, as a rule, those where other many-particle states and resonances are produced. The description of these interconnected reactions and ways of handling them is the main subject of the book.
Cottaar, Michiel; Meyer, Michael R. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Covey, Kevin R. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Foster, Jonathan B. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Tan, Jonathan C.; Rio, Nicola da [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Nidever, David L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Chojnowski, S. Drew; Majewski, Steve; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Wilson, John C.; Zasowski, Gail [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Flaherty, Kevin M. [Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Frinchaboy, Peter M., E-mail: MichielCottaar@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, TX 76129 (United States)
2015-07-01
Most field stars will have encountered the highest stellar density and hence the largest number of interactions in their birth environment. Yet the stellar dynamics during this crucial phase are poorly understood. Here we analyze the radial velocities measured for 152 out of 380 observed stars in the 2–6 Myr old star cluster IC 348 as part of the SDSS-III APOGEE. The radial velocity distribution of these stars is fitted with one or two Gaussians, convolved with the measurement uncertainties including binary orbital motions. Including a second Gaussian improves the fit; the high-velocity outliers that are best fit by this second component may either (1) be contaminants from the nearby Perseus OB2 association, (2) be a halo of ejected or dispersing stars from IC 348, or (3) reflect that IC 348 has not relaxed to a Gaussian velocity distribution. We measure a velocity dispersion for IC 348 of 0.72 ± 0.07 km s{sup −1} (or 0.64 ± 0.08 km s{sup −1} if two Gaussians are fitted), which implies a supervirial state, unless the gas contributes more to the gravitational potential than expected. No evidence is found for a dependence of this velocity dispersion on distance from the cluster center or stellar mass. We also find that stars with lower extinction (in the front of the cloud) tend to be redshifted compared with stars with somewhat higher extinction (toward the back of the cloud). This data suggest that the stars in IC 348 are converging along the line of sight. We show that this correlation between radial velocity and extinction is unlikely to be spuriously caused by the small cluster rotation of 0.024 ± 0.013 km s{sup −1} arcmin{sup −1} or by correlations between the radial velocities of neighboring stars. This signature, if confirmed, will be the first detection of line of sight convergence in a star cluster. Possible scenarios for reconciling this convergence with IC 348's observed supervirial state include: (a) the cluster is fluctuating around a
Skewness of cloud droplet spectrum and an improved estimation for its relative dispersion
Liu, Yu; Lu, Chunsong; Li, Weiliang
2017-02-01
The relative dispersion of the cloud droplet spectrum is a very important parameter in describing and modeling cloud microphysical processes. Based on the definition of skewness as well as theoretical and data analyses, a linear fitting relationship ( α = 2.91 ɛ-0.59) between skewness ( α) and relative dispersion ( ɛ) is established and a new method is developed to estimate the relative dispersion of the cloud droplet spectrum. The new method does not depend on any assumption of a particular distribution for the cloud droplet spectrum and has broader applicability than the previous methods. Comparisons of the three methods for the relative dispersion with the observed data supported the following conclusions. (1) The skewness of the cloud droplet spectrum is asymmetrically distributed. An assumption of zero skewness in quantifying the relative dispersion inevitably results in relatively large deviations from the observations. Errors of the estimated relative dispersion due to the omission of the skewness term are not solely related to the skewness, but rather to the product of the skewness and relative dispersion. (2) The use of the assumption that the cloud droplet spectrum takes a gamma distribution is similar to the assumption that the skewness is twice the relative dispersion. This leads to a better accuracy in estimating the relative dispersion than that with zero skewness assumption. (3) Comparisons with observations show that the new method is more accurate than the one under gamma distribution assumption and is the best among all the three methods. (4) It is believed that finding a better correlation between the skewness and the relative dispersion would further reduce the deviations for the estimated relative dispersion.
Dispersion relation for hadronic light-by-light scattering
Procura Massimiliano
2016-01-01
Our dispersive approach defines unambiguously the pion-pole and the pion-box contribution to the HLbL tensor. Using Mandelstam’s double-spectral representation, we have proven that the pion-box contribution coincides exactly with the one-loop scalar QED amplitude, multiplied by the appropriate pion vector form factors.
Liu Yongjun
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this thesis, the influence of complete Coriolis force (the model includes both the vertical and horizontal components of Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field are studied, it is important to the study of ocean internal waves in density-stratified ocean. We start from the control equation of sea water movement in the background of the non-traditional approximation, and the vertical velocity solution is derived where buoyancy frequency N(z gradually varies with the ocean depth z. The results show that the influence of complete Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field is obvious, and these results provide strong evidence for the understanding of dynamic process of density stratified ocean internal waves.
Comparison of Forward Dispersion Relations with Experiments around 10 GeV
Lautrup, B.; Møller-Nielsen, Peter; Olesen, P.
1965-01-01
Using the recent experimental data on the real part of the forward π±-p amplitude around 10 GeV, we have carried out a comparison of forward dispersion relations with experiments in the high-energy region. In this work we propose a new method for testing forward dispersion relations which involves...... no assumptions whatsoever about the unknown cross sections above 20 GeV. On account of the large systematic errors in the measured real parts, no definite conclusion can be drawn as to the validity of forward dispersion relations. In estimating the standard deviations in the dispersion integrals, a Monte Carlo...... method has been used....
Relative seismic velocity variations correlate with deformation at Kīlauea volcano.
Donaldson, Clare; Caudron, Corentin; Green, Robert G; Thelen, Weston A; White, Robert S
2017-06-01
Seismic noise interferometry allows the continuous and real-time measurement of relative seismic velocity through a volcanic edifice. Because seismic velocity is sensitive to the pressurization state of the system, this method is an exciting new monitoring tool at active volcanoes. Despite the potential of this tool, no studies have yet comprehensively compared velocity to other geophysical observables on a short-term time scale at a volcano over a significant length of time. We use volcanic tremor (~0.3 to 1.0 Hz) at Kīlauea as a passive source for interferometry to measure relative velocity changes with time. By cross-correlating the vertical component of day-long seismic records between ~230 station pairs, we extract coherent and temporally consistent coda wave signals with time lags of up to 120 s. Our resulting time series of relative velocity shows a remarkable correlation between relative velocity and the radial tilt record measured at Kīlauea summit, consistently correlating on a time scale of days to weeks for almost the entire study period (June 2011 to November 2015). As the summit continually deforms in deflation-inflation events, the velocity decreases and increases, respectively. Modeling of strain at Kīlauea suggests that, during inflation of the shallow magma reservoir (1 to 2 km below the surface), most of the edifice is dominated by compression-hence closing cracks and producing faster velocities-and vice versa. The excellent correlation between relative velocity and deformation in this study provides an opportunity to understand better the mechanisms causing seismic velocity changes at volcanoes, and therefore realize the potential of passive interferometry as a monitoring tool.
Kapoyko, Yury A.; Drozdov, Arkadiy A.; Kozlov, Sergei A.; Zhang, Xi-Cheng
2016-09-01
Simple arithmetic dependencies of the velocity of the mass center motion and the root-mean-square duration of initially single-cycle, two-cycle, and Gaussian pulses with a random number of oscillations under the pulse envelope are derived depending on their center frequency, initial duration, and peak field amplitude, as well as on dispersive and nonlinear characteristics of homogeneous isotropic dielectric media. In media with normal group dispersion, it is shown that due to nonresonant dispersion the square of the few-cycle pulse duration increases with distance inversely proportional to the fourth power of the number of input pulse cycles. In media with normal group dispersion, the square of the pulse duration is inversely proportional to the number of input pulse cycles due to cubic nonlinearity. In media with anomalous group dispersion, it is shown that due to cubic nonlinearity, few-cycle pulse self-compression decreases with the reduction of the number of cycles in the initial pulse. This pulse self-compression effect has a threshold nature and terminates at a fixed number of cycles of the input pulse. Such a number of cycles is determined by the input intensity and the central frequency of the pulse, as well as by the dispersive and nonlinear characteristics of the medium.
Warren, Wayne H., Jr.
1989-01-01
The machine readable version of the compilation, as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center, is described. The catalog contains redshifts and velocity dispersions for all Abell clusters for which these data had been published up to 1986 July. Also included are 1950 equatorial coordinates for the centers of the listed clusters, numbers of observations used to determine the redshifts, and bibliographical references citing the data sources.
Dispersion relations of the acoustic modes in divalent liquid metals
Inui Masanori
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Collective dynamics in liquid Ca and liquid Cd was studied by inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS. Using our experimental technique to prepare proper sample cells and high performance of an IXS beamline (BL35XU at SPring-8 in Japan, the dynamic structure factor with reasonable statistics was obtained for these divalent liquid metals. For both liquids, the dynamic structure factor at low Q exhibits a central peak with a shoulder or small hump clearly visible on each side, and the inelastic excitation energy determined using the model function composed of Lorentzian and the damped harmonic oscillator function disperses with increasing Q. The dispersion curves of these liquids were compared with that of the longitudinal acoustic phonon in each crystalline phase. From these results, clear difference in the interatomic interaction be- tween liquid Ca and liquid Cd was inferred.
Barro, G; Dekel, A; Pacifici, C; Perez-Gonzalez, P G; Toloba, E; Koo, D C; Trump, J R; Inoue, S; Guo, Y; Liu, F; Primack, J R; Koekemoer, A M; Brammer, G; Cava, A; Cardiel, N; Ceverino, D; Eliche, C M; Fang, J J; Finkelstein, S L; Kocevski, D D; Livermore, R C; McGrath, E
2015-01-01
We present Keck-I MOSFIRE spectroscopy in the Y and H bands of GDN-8231, a massive, compact, star-forming galaxy (SFG) at a redshift $z\\sim1.7$. Its spectrum reveals both H$_{\\alpha}$ and [NII] emission lines and strong Balmer absorption lines. The H$_{\\alpha}$ and Spitzer MIPS 24 $\\mu$m fluxes are both weak, thus indicating a low star formation rate of SFR $\\lesssim5-10$ M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$. This, added to a relatively young age of $\\sim700$ Myr measured from the absorption lines, provides the first direct evidence for a distant galaxy being caught in the act of rapidly shutting down its star formation. Such quenching allows GDN-8231 to become a compact, quiescent galaxy, similar to 3 other galaxies in our sample, by $z\\sim1.5$. Moreover, the color profile of GDN-8231 shows a bluer center, consistent with the predictions of recent simulations for an early phase of inside-out quenching. Its line-of-sight velocity dispersion for the gas, $\\sigma^{\\rm{gas}}_{\\!_{\\rm LOS}}=127\\pm32$ km s$^{-1}$, is nearly 40% ...
Barro, G; Koo, D C; Dekel, A; Kassin, S A; Kocevski, D D; Faber, S M; van der Wel, A; Guo, Y; Perez-Gonzalez, P G; Toloba, E; Fang, J J; Pacifici, C; Simons, R; Campbell, R D; Ceverino, D; Finkelstein, S L; Goodrich, B; Kassis, M; Koekemoer, A M; Konidaris, N P; Livermore, R C; Lyke, J E; Mobasher, B; Nayyeri, H; Peth, M; Primack, J R; Rizzi, L; Somerville, R S; Wirth, G D; Zolotov, A
2014-01-01
We present Keck-I MOSFIRE near-infrared spectroscopy for a sample of 13 compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at redshift $2\\leq z \\leq2.5$ with star formation rates of SFR$\\sim$100M$_{\\odot}$ y$^{-1}$ and masses of log(M/M$_{\\odot}$)$\\sim10.8$. Their high integrated gas velocity dispersions of $\\sigma_{\\rm{int}}$=230$^{+40}_{-30}$ km s$^{-1}$, as measured from emission lines of H$_{\\alpha}$ and [OIII], and the resultant M$_{\\star}-\\sigma_{\\rm{int}}$ relation and M$_{\\star}$$-$M$_{\\rm{dyn}}$ all match well to those of compact quiescent galaxies at $z\\sim2$, as measured from stellar absorption lines. Since log(M$_{\\star}$/M$_{\\rm{dyn}}$)$=-0.06\\pm0.2$ dex, these compact SFGs appear to be dynamically relaxed and more evolved, i.e., more depleted in gas and dark matter ($<$13$^{+17}_{-13}$\\%) than their non-compact SFG counterparts at the same epoch. Without infusion of external gas, depletion timescales are short, less than $\\sim$300 Myr. This discovery adds another link to our new dynamical chain of evidence...
Barro, Guillermo; Koo, David C.; Faber, Sandra M.; Guo, Yicheng; Toloba, Elisa; Fang, Jerome J. [University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Trump, Jonathan R. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, PA 16802 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Kassin, Susan A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kocevski, Dale D. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pérez-González, Pablo G. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. de Sneca, 2 Ciudad Universitaria, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Pacifici, Camilla [Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University 50, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Simons, Raymond [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2683 (United States); Campbell, Randy D.; Goodrich, Bob; Kassis, Marc [W. M. Keck Observatory, California Association for Research in Astronomy, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Highway, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Ceverino, Daniel [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Finkelstein, Steven L. [The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); and others
2014-11-10
We present Keck-I MOSFIRE near-infrared spectroscopy for a sample of 13 compact star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at redshift 2 ≤ z ≤ 2.5 with star formation rates of SFR ∼ 100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and masses of log(M/M {sub ☉}) ∼10.8. Their high integrated gas velocity dispersions of σ{sub int} =230{sub −30}{sup +40} km s{sup –1}, as measured from emission lines of Hα and [O III], and the resultant M {sub *}-σ{sub int} relation and M {sub *}-M {sub dyn} all match well to those of compact quiescent galaxies at z ∼ 2, as measured from stellar absorption lines. Since log(M {sub *}/M {sub dyn}) =–0.06 ± 0.2 dex, these compact SFGs appear to be dynamically relaxed and evolved, i.e., depleted in gas and dark matter (<13{sub −13}{sup +17}%), and present larger σ{sub int} than their non-compact SFG counterparts at the same epoch. Without infusion of external gas, depletion timescales are short, less than ∼300 Myr. This discovery adds another link to our new dynamical chain of evidence that compact SFGs at z ≳ 2 are already losing gas to become the immediate progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies by z ∼ 2.
DISPERSION RELATION OF A MAGNETIZED PLASMA-FILLED BACKWARD WAVE OSCILLATOR
GAO HONG; LIU SHENG-GANG
2000-01-01
A linear theory and a more general dispersion relation of electromagnetic radiation from a magnetized plasma-filled backward wave oscillator with sinusoidally corrugated slow-wave structure driven by a solid intense relativistic electron beam have been given. The comparisons show good agreement with the previous works when B0 → ∞ and ωb = 0 from this dispersion relation.
Milvang-Jensen, B.; Noll, S.; Halliday, C.; Poggianti, B. M.; Jablonka, P.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Saglia, R. P.; Nowak, N.; von der Linden, A.; De Lucia, G.; Pelló, R.; Moustakas, J.; Poirier, S.; Bamford, S. P.; Clowe, D. I.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Rudnick, G. H.; Simard, L.; White, S. D. M.; Zaritsky, D.
2008-05-01
Aims: We present spectroscopic observations of galaxies in 15 survey fields as part of the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS). We determine the redshifts and velocity dispersions of the galaxy clusters located in these fields, and we test for possible substructure in the clusters. Methods: We obtained multi-object mask spectroscopy using the FORS2 instrument at the VLT. We reduced the data with particular attention to the sky subtraction. We implemented the method of Kelson for performing sky subtraction prior to any rebinning/interpolation of the data. From the measured galaxy redshifts, we determine cluster velocity dispersions using the biweight estimator and test for possible substructure in the clusters using the Dressler-Shectman test. Results: The method of subtracting the sky prior to any rebinning/interpolation of the data delivers photon-noise-limited results, whereas the traditional method of subtracting the sky after the data have been rebinned/interpolated results in substantially larger noise for spectra from tilted slits. Redshifts for individual galaxies are presented and redshifts and velocity dispersions are presented for 21 galaxy clusters. For the 9 clusters with at least 20 spectroscopically confirmed members, we present the statistical significance of the presence of substructure obtained from the Dressler-Shectman test, and substructure is detected in two of the clusters. Conclusions: Together with data from our previous paper, spectroscopy and spectroscopic velocity dispersions are now available for 26 EDisCS clusters with redshifts in the range 0.40-0.96 and velocity dispersions in the range 166 km s-1-1080 km s-1. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, as part of large programme 166.A-0162 (the ESO Distant Cluster Survey). Full Table 4 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/482/419
Fukui, M.; So, V. C.-Y.; Stegeman, G. I.
1980-07-01
The recent experiments of DeMartini, Colocci, Kohn, and Shen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1223 (1977)] on the nonlinear generation of C1- (n=1 in the series) surface exciton polaritons in spatially dispersive ZnO are analyzed. It is shown for a prism-air-sample geometry that the air-gap thickness plays an important role in determining the polariton attenuation, and to a lesser degree the polariton energy. Reasonably good agreement with the experimental dispersion relations of DeMartini and co-workers is obtained by including spatial dispersion via the additional boundary condition (ABC) ∂P→ex/∂z=0 for the excitonic polarization P→ex at the surface: The ABC P→ex=0 does not yield a good fit. The theory of the nonlinear generation of surface exciton polaritons in isotropic, spatially dispersive media is developed and applied to angle- and frequency-scanning experimental geometries. Numerical estimates of both the power radiated out via the prism (in the absence of surface roughness) and the line shape were also found to be in reasonable agreement with experiment for the ABC ∂P→ex/∂x=0, but not for P→ex=0.
James, S. R.; Knox, H. A.; Cole, C. J.; Abbott, R. E.; Screaton, E.
2016-12-01
Seasonal freeze and thaw of the active layer above permafrost results in dramatic changes in seismic velocity. We used daily cross correlations of ambient seismic noise recorded at Poker Flat Research Range in central Alaska to create a nearly continuous 2-year record of relative velocity changes. This analysis required that we modify the Moving Window Cross-spectral Analysis technique used in the Python package MSNoise to reduce the occurrence of cycle skipping. Results show relative velocity variations follow a seasonal pattern, where velocities decrease in late spring through the summer months and increase through the fall and winter months. This timing is consistent with active layer freeze and thaw in this region. These results were compared to a suite of ground- and satellite-based measurements to identify relationships. A decrease in relative velocities in late spring closely follows the timing of snow melt recorded in nearby ground temperatures and snow-depth logs. This transition also aligns with a decrease in the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI) derived from multi-temporal Landsat 8 satellite imagery collected over the study site. A gradual increase in relative velocity through the fall months occurs when temperatures below ground surface remain near zero. We suggest this is due to latent heat feedbacks that keep temperatures constant while active layer velocities increase from continued ice formation. This highlights the value in velocity variations for capturing details on the freezing process. In addition, spatial variations in the magnitude of velocity changes are consistent with thaw probe surveys. Exploring relationships with remote sensing may allow indirect measurements of thaw over larger areas and further surface wave analysis may allow for thickness evolution measurements. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for
The complex dispersion relation of surface plasmon polaritons at gold/para-hexaphenylene interfaces
Lemke, Christoph; Leißner, Till; Klick, Alwin;
2014-01-01
Two-photon photoemission electron microscopy (2P-PEEM) is used to measure the real and imaginary part of the dispersion relation of surface plasmon polaritons at different interface systems. A comparison of calculated and measured dispersion data for a gold/vacuum interface demonstrates the capab......Two-photon photoemission electron microscopy (2P-PEEM) is used to measure the real and imaginary part of the dispersion relation of surface plasmon polaritons at different interface systems. A comparison of calculated and measured dispersion data for a gold/vacuum interface demonstrates...... the capability of the presented experimental approach. A systematic 2P-PEEM study on the dispersion relation of dielectric-loaded gold surfaces shows how effective the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons at a gold/para-hexaphenylene interface can be tuned by adjustment of the dielectric film thickness...
Proof of Concept: Model Based Bionic Muscle with Hyperbolic Force-Velocity Relation
D. F. B. Haeufle
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from basic physical components. It was shown that a contractile element CE consisting of a mechanical energy source (active element AE, a parallel damper element (PDE, and a serial element (SE exhibits operating points with hyperbolic force-velocity dependency. In this paper, a technical proof of this concept was presented. AE and PDE were implemented as electric motors, SE as a mechanical spring. The force-velocity relation of this artificial CE was determined in quick release experiments. The CE exhibited hyperbolic force-velocity dependency. This proof of concept can be seen as a well-founded starting point for the development of Hill-type artificial muscles.
Planck-scale-modified dispersion relations in homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes
Barcaroli, Leonardo; Brunkhorst, Lukas K.; Gubitosi, Giulia; Loret, Niccoló; Pfeifer, Christian
2017-01-01
The covariant understanding of dispersion relations as level sets of Hamilton functions on phase space enables us to derive the most general dispersion relation compatible with homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes. We use this concept to present a Planck-scale deformation of the Hamiltonian of a particle in Friedman-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry that is locally identical to the κ -Poincaré dispersion relation, in the same way as the dispersion relation of point particles in general relativity is locally identical to the one valid in special relativity. Studying the motion of particles subject to such a Hamiltonian, we derive the redshift and lateshift as observable consequences of the Planck-scale deformed FLRW universe.
Dhakal, Y. P.; Kunugi, T.; Suzuki, W.; Aoi, S.
2014-12-01
Many of the empirical ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) also known as attenuation relations have been developed for absolute acceleration or pseudo relative velocity response spectra. For a small damping, pseudo and absolute acceleration response spectra are nearly identical and hence interchangeable. It is generally known that the relative and pseudo relative velocity response spectra differ considerably at very short or very long periods, and the two are often considered similar at intermediate periods. However, observations show that the period range at which the two spectra become comparable is different from site to site. Also, the relationship of the above two types of velocity response spectra with absolute velocity response spectra are not discussed well in literature. The absolute velocity response spectra are the peak values of time histories obtained by adding the ground velocities to relative velocity response time histories at individual natural periods. There exists many tall buildings on huge and deep sedimentary basins such as the Kanto basin, and the number of such buildings is growing. Recently, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) has proposed four classes of long-period ground motion intensity (http://www.data.jma.go.jp/svd/eew/data/ltpgm/) based on absolute velocity response spectra, which correlate to the difficulty of movement of people in tall buildings. As the researchers are using various types of response spectra for long-period ground motions, it is important to understand the relationships between them to take appropriate measures for disaster prevention applications. In this paper, we, therefore, obtain and discuss the empirical attenuation relationships using the same functional forms for the three types of velocity response spectra computed from observed strong motion records from moderate to large earthquakes in relation to JMA magnitude, hypocentral distance, sediment depths, and AVS30 as predictor variables at periods between
On a time-domain representation of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations
Waters; Hughes; Brandenburger; Miller
2000-11-01
The development of Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations is typically carried out in the frequency domain. An alternative approach known as the time-causal theory develops dispersion relations for media with attenuation obeying a frequency power law through analysis in the time domain [T. L. Szabo, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 491-500 (1994)]. Although both approaches predict identical dispersion relations, it is perceived that these two approaches are distinct from each other. It is shown, however, that the time-causal theory is in essence a time-domain formulation of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations for the special case of media with attenuation obeying a frequency power law. Additionally, it is shown that time-domain representations of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations are available for a broader class of media than simply those with power law attenuation. The time-causal theory and the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations can be viewed as two complementary, yet equivalent, approaches to the study of dispersion.
New dispersion relations in the description of $\\pi\\pi$ scattering amplitudes
Kaminski, R; Grynkiewicz, P; Peláez, J R; Ynduráin, F J
2009-01-01
We present a set of once subtracted dispersion relations which implement crossing symmetry conditions for the $\\pi\\pi$ scattering amplitudes below 1 GeV. We compare and discuss the results obtained for the once and twice subtracted dispersion relations, known as Roy's equations, for three $\\pi\\pi$ partial JI waves, S0, P and S2. We also show that once subtracted dispersion relations provide a stringent test of crossing and analyticity for $\\pi\\pi$ partial wave amplitudes, remarkably precise in the 400 to 1.1 GeV region, where the resulting uncertainties are significantly smaller than those coming from standard Roy's equations, given the same input.
Bennington, Ninfa; Haney, Matt; De Angelis, Silvio; Thurber, Clifford; Freymueller, Jeff
2015-01-01
Okmok is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc. In an effort to improve our ability to detect precursory activity leading to eruption at Okmok, we monitor a recent, and possibly ongoing, GPS-inferred rapid inflation event at the volcano using ambient noise interferometry (ANI). Applying this method, we identify changes in seismic velocity outside of Okmok’s caldera, which are related to the hydrologic cycle. Within the caldera, we observe decreases in seismic velocity that are associated with the GPS-inferred rapid inflation event. We also determine temporal changes in waveform decorrelation and show a continual increase in decorrelation rate over the time associated with the rapid inflation event. Themagnitude of relative velocity decreases and decorrelation rate increases are comparable to previous studies at Piton de la Fournaise that associate such changes with increased production of volatiles and/ormagmatic intrusion within the magma reservoir and associated opening of fractures and/or fissures. Notably, the largest decrease in relative velocity occurs along the intrastation path passing nearest to the center of the caldera. This observation, along with equal amplitude relative velocity decreases revealed via analysis of intracaldera autocorrelations, suggests that the inflation sourcemay be located approximately within the center of the caldera and represent recharge of shallow magma storage in this location. Importantly, there is a relative absence of seismicity associated with this and previous rapid inflation events at Okmok. Thus, these ANI results are the first seismic evidence of such rapid inflation at the volcano.
A new dispersion-relation preserving method for integrating the classical Boussinesq equation
Jang, T. S.
2017-02-01
In this paper, a dispersion-relation preserving method is proposed for nonlinear dispersive waves, starting from the oldest weakly nonlinear dispersive wave mathematical model in shallow water waves, i.e., the classical Boussinesq equation. It is a semi-analytic procedure, however, which preserves, as a distinctive feature, the dispersion-relation imbedded in the model equation without adding (unwelcome) numerical effects, i.e., the proposed method has the same dispersion-relation as the original classical Boussinesq equation. This remarkable (dispersion-relation) preserving property is proved mathematically for small wave motion in present study. The property is also numerically examined by observing both the local wave number and the local frequency of a slowly varying water-wave group. The dispersion-relation preserving method proposed here is powerful as well for observing nonlinear wave phenomena such as solitary waves and their collision. In fact, the main features of nonlinear wave characteristics are clearly seen through not only a single propagating solitary wave but counter-propagating (head-on) solitary wave collisions. They are compared with known (exact) nonlinear solutions, the results of which represent a major improvement over existing solution formulations in the literature.
On the relative contributions of wind vs. animals to seed dispersal of four Sierra Nevada pines.
Vander Wall, Stephen B
2008-07-01
Selective pressures that influence the form of seed dispersal syndromes are poorly understood. Morphology of plant propagules is often used to infer the means of dispersal, but morphology can be misleading. Several species of pines, for example, have winged seeds adapted for wind dispersal but owe much of their establishment to scatter-hoarding animals. Here the relative importance of wind vs. animal dispersal is assessed for four species of pines of the eastern Sierra Nevada that have winged seeds but differed in seed size: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta murrayana, 8 mg); ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa ponderosa, 56 mg); Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi, 160 mg); and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana, 231 mg). Pre-dispersal seed mortality eliminated much of the ponderosa pine seed crop (66%), but had much less effect on Jeffrey pine (32% of seeds destroyed), lodgepole pine (29%), and sugar pine (7%). When cones opened most filled seeds were dispersed by wind. Animals removed > 99% of wind-dispersed Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds from the ground within 60 days, but animals gathered only 93% of lodgepole pine seeds and 38% of ponderosa pine seeds during the same period. Animals gathered and scatter hoarded radioactively labeled ponderosa, Jeffrey, and sugar pine seeds, making a total of 2103 caches over three years of study. Only three lodgepole pine caches were found. Caches typically contained 1-4 seeds buried 5-20 mm deep, depths suitable for seedling emergence. Although Jeffrey and sugar pine seeds are initially wind dispersed, nearly all seedlings arise from animal caches. Lodgepole pine is almost exclusively wind dispersed, with animals acting as seed predators. Animals treated ponderosa pine in an intermediate fashion. Two-phased dispersal of large, winged pine seeds appears adaptive; initial wind dispersal helps to minimize pre-dispersal seed mortality whereas scatter hoarding by animals places seeds in sites with a higher probability of seedling establishment.
Fracture statistics of torsion and dispersion relations in round bars
Díaz, G.
1990-09-01
Full Text Available This paper has adopted a theoretical viewpoint for studying Fracture Statistics in round bars subjected to torsion, and for determining the cumulative probabilities of fracture using Weibull's specific-risk function for materials that exhibit volume and surface brittleness. The use of the defined-functions method has allowed to get the specific-risk-of-fracture function and, in addition, to carry out a separation between volume part and surface part concerning materials presenting both brittlenesses at the same time. Dispersion of the parameters are determined resorting to Fisher's information matrix.
Se estudió desde un punto de vista teórico la estadística de fractura de barras de sección circular sometidas a torsión y se determinó las probabilidades acumulativas de fractura usando la función riesgo específico de Weibull para materiales con fragilidades volumétrica y superficial. Mediante el método de las funciones definidas se obtuvo la función riesgo específico de fractura, además se separó la parte volumétrica de la parte superficial para materiales que poseen ambas fragilidades. La dispersión de los parámetros se determinó con la matriz de información de Fisher.
Gousseau, P; Blocken, B; van Heijst, G J F
2012-08-01
Pollutant transport due to the turbulent wind flow around buildings is a complex phenomenon which is challenging to reproduce with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In the present study we use Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) to investigate the turbulent mass transport mechanism in the case of gas dispersion around an isolated cubical building. Close agreement is found between wind-tunnel measurements and the computed average and standard deviation of concentration in the wake of the building. Since the turbulent mass flux is equal to the covariance of velocity and concentration, we perform a detailed statistical analysis of these variables to gain insight into the dispersion process. In particular, the fact that turbulent mass flux in the streamwise direction is directed from the low to high levels of mean concentration (counter-gradient mechanism) is explained. The large vortical structures developing around the building are shown to play an essential role in turbulent mass transport.
Barro, Guillermo; Faber, Sandra M.; Dekel, Avishai; Pacifici, Camilla; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Toloba, Elisa; Koo, David C.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Inoue, Shigeki; Guo, Yicheng; Liu, Fengshan; Primack, Joel R.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Brammer, Gabriel; Cava, Antonio; Cardiel, Nicolas; Ceverino, Daniel; Eliche, Carmen; Fang, Jerome J.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Kocevski, Dale D.; Livermore, Rachael C.; McGrath, Elizabeth
2016-04-01
We present Keck I MOSFIRE spectroscopy in the Y and H bands of GDN-8231, a massive, compact, star-forming galaxy at a redshift of z ˜ 1.7. Its spectrum reveals both Hα and [N ii] emission lines and strong Balmer absorption lines. The Hα and Spitzer MIPS 24 μm fluxes are both weak, thus indicating a low star-formation rate of SFR ≲ 5{--}10 {M}⊙ yr-1. This, added to a relatively young age of ˜700 Myr measured from the absorption lines, provides the first direct evidence for a distant galaxy being caught in the act of rapidly shutting down its star formation. Such quenching allows GDN-8231 to become a compact, quiescent galaxy, similar to three other galaxies in our sample, by z ˜ 1.5. Moreover, the color profile of GDN-8231 shows a bluer center, consistent with the predictions of recent simulations for an early phase of inside-out quenching. Its line-of-sight velocity dispersion for the gas, {σ }{{{LOS}}}{{gas}} = 127 ± 32 km s-1, is nearly 40% smaller than that of its stars, {σ }{{{LOS}}}\\star = 215 ± 35 km s-1. High-resolution hydro-simulations of galaxies explain such apparently colder gas kinematics of up to a factor of ˜1.5 with rotating disks being viewed at different inclinations and/or centrally concentrated star-forming regions. A clear prediction is that their compact, quiescent descendants preserve some remnant rotation from their star-forming progenitors.
Jiang, Shi-xiao W.; Lu, Hai-hao; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David
2014-09-01
We study the nonlinear dispersive characteristics in β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) chains in both thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium steady state. By applying a multiple scale analysis to the FPU chain, we analyze the contribution of the trivial and nontrivial resonance to the renormalization of the dispersion relation. Our results show that the contribution of the nontrivial resonance remains significant to the renormalization, in particular, in strongly nonlinear regimes. We contrast our results with the dispersion relations obtained from the Zwanzig-Mori formalism and random phase approximation to further illustrate the role of resonances. Surprisingly, these theoretical dispersion relations can be generalized to describe dispersive characteristics well at the nonequilibrium steady state of the FPU chain with driving-damping in real space. Through numerical simulation, we confirm that the theoretical renormalized dispersion relations are valid for a wide range of nonlinearities in thermal equilibrium as well as in nonequilibrium steady state. We further show that the dispersive characteristics persist in nonequilibrium steady state driven-damped in Fourier space.
Jiang, Shi-xiao W; Lu, Hai-hao; Zhou, Douglas; Cai, David
2014-09-01
We study the nonlinear dispersive characteristics in β-Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) chains in both thermal equilibrium and nonequilibrium steady state. By applying a multiple scale analysis to the FPU chain, we analyze the contribution of the trivial and nontrivial resonance to the renormalization of the dispersion relation. Our results show that the contribution of the nontrivial resonance remains significant to the renormalization, in particular, in strongly nonlinear regimes. We contrast our results with the dispersion relations obtained from the Zwanzig-Mori formalism and random phase approximation to further illustrate the role of resonances. Surprisingly, these theoretical dispersion relations can be generalized to describe dispersive characteristics well at the nonequilibrium steady state of the FPU chain with driving-damping in real space. Through numerical simulation, we confirm that the theoretical renormalized dispersion relations are valid for a wide range of nonlinearities in thermal equilibrium as well as in nonequilibrium steady state. We further show that the dispersive characteristics persist in nonequilibrium steady state driven-damped in Fourier space.
A linear dispersion relation for the hybrid kinetic-ion/fluid-electron model of plasma physics
Told, Daniel; Astfalk, Patrick; Jenko, Frank
2016-01-01
A dispersion relation for a commonly used hybrid model of plasma physics is developed, which combines fully kinetic ions and a massless-electron fluid description. Although this model and variations of it have been used to describe plasma phenomena for about 40 years, to date there exists no general dispersion relation to describe the linear wave physics contained in the model. Previous efforts along these lines are extended here to retain arbitrary wave propagation angles, temperature anisotropy effects, as well as additional terms in the generalized Ohm's law which determines the electric field. A numerical solver for the dispersion relation is developed, and linear wave physics is benchmarked against solutions of a full Vlasov-Maxwell dispersion relation solver. This work opens the door to a more accurate interpretation of existing and future wave and turbulence simulations using this type of hybrid model.
Precise analysis of pion-pion scattering data from Roy equations and forward dispersion relations
Peláez, J R; Kaminski, R; Ynduráin, F J
2008-01-01
We review our recent analysis of pion-pion scattering data in terms of Roy equations and Forward Dispersion Relations, and present some preliminary results in terms of a new set of once-subtracted coupled equations for partial waves. The first analysis consists of independent fits to the different pion-pion channels that satisfies rather well the dispersive representation. In the second analysis we constrain the fit with the dispersion relations. The latter provides a very precise and model independent description of data using just analyticity, causality and crossing.
Significance of face velocity fluctuation in relation to laboratory fume hood performance.
Tseng, Li-Ching; Huang, Rong Fung; Chen, Chih-Chieh
2010-01-01
In order to recognize the problems associated with the transport mechanism of containment during the ventilation process of a laboratory fume hood, a transparent, full scale chemical fume hood is constructed for experimental studies. Distributions of mean velocity and velocity fluctuation in the sash plane are measured using a thermal anemometer. Flow patterns and tracer-gas concentration leakages are respectively diagnosed via the laser-assisted flow visualization method and the EN 14175-3 test protocol. The magnitudes of measured velocity fluctuations exhibit a sharp peak along the perimeter of the sash opening. The results of flow visualization verify that the elevated turbulence fluctuations are induced by the boundary-layer separation when the flow passes over the edges of sash perimeter. The tracer gas experiment shows that the regions where high degree containment leakages detected are located along the perimeter of hood aperture. Eleven commercial hoods which are claimed with fine aerodynamic design are further tested for confirmation of these observations. The results show similar correlations. Conclusions thus are made that large-scale vortex structures occurring around the perimeters of hood aperture due to the boundary-layer separation could induce strong turbulence, and therefore enhance dispersion of the hood containment.
Integral and derivative dispersion relations for pp and $\\overline{p}p$ amplitudes
Alkin, A
2010-01-01
The methods of integral dispersion relations (IDR) and derivative dispersion relations (DDR) are applied for analysis of the data on pp and ¯pp total cross sections and ratios of real to imaginary part of elastic forward scattering amplitude. The models of pomeron behaving as triple, double and simple pole (with intercept larger than one) in the angular momentum plane are considered. Predictions of the models are given for the TOTEM measurements at 7 and 14 TeV.
Nacir, Diana López
2009-01-01
We review our recent results on the renormalization procedure for a free quantum scalar field with modified dispersion relations in curved spacetimes. For dispersion relations containing up to $2s$ powers of the spatial momentum, the subtraction necessary to renormalize $$ and $$ depends on $s$. We first describe our previous analysis for spatially flat Friedman-Robertson-Walker and Bianchi type I metrics. Then we present a new power counting analysis for general background metrics in the weak field approximation.
Cosmological special relativity the large scale structure of space, time and velocity
Carmeli, Moshe
2002-01-01
This book presents Einstein's theory of space and time in detail, and describes the large-scale structure of space, time and velocity as a new cosmological special relativity. A cosmological Lorentz-like transformation, which relates events at different cosmic times, is derived and applied. A new law of addition of cosmic times is obtained, and the inflation of the space at the early universe is derived, both from the cosmological transformation. The relationship between cosmic velocity, acceleration and distances is given. In the appendices gravitation is added in the form of a cosmological g
Riehl, Christina; Stern, Caitlin A
2015-12-01
Cooperative breeding in birds typically occurs when offspring - usually males - delay dispersal from their natal group, remaining with the family to help rear younger kin. Sex-biased dispersal is thought to have evolved in order to reduce the risk of inbreeding, resulting in low relatedness between mates and the loss of indirect fitness benefits for the dispersing sex. In this review, we discuss several recent studies showing that dispersal patterns are more variable than previously thought, often leading to complex genetic structure within cooperative avian societies. These empirical findings accord with recent theoretical models suggesting that sex- biased dispersal is neither necessary, nor always sufficient, to prevent inbreeding. The ability to recognize relatives, primarily by learning individual or group-specific vocalizations, may play a more important role in incest avoidance than currently appreciated.
Turbulence-Induced Relative Velocity of Dust Particles II: The Bidisperse Case
Pan, Liubin; Scalo, John
2014-01-01
We investigate the relative velocity of inertial particles induced by turbulent motions, extending our earlier work on equal-size particles to the bidisperse case for different particles of arbitrary sizes. The model of Pan & Padoan (PP10) shows that the relative velocity between different particles has two contributions, named the generalized shear and acceleration terms, respectively. The generalized shear term represents the particles' memory of the spatial flow velocity difference across the particle distance at given times in the past, while the acceleration term is associated with the temporal flow velocity difference on individual particle trajectories. The latter vanishes for equal-size particles. Using a simulation, we compute the root-mean-square (rms) relative velocity, ^1/2, as a function of the particle friction times, tau_p1 and tau_p2, and show that the prediction of the PP10 model is in satisfactory agreement with the data, confirming the validity of its physical picture. For a given tau_p...
A study of relative velocity statistics in Lagrangian perturbation theory with PINOCCHIO
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Schäfer, Björn Malte; Bartelmann, Matthias
2011-10-01
Subject of this paper is a detailed analysis of the PINpointing Orbit-Crossing Collapsed HIerarchical Object (PINOCCHIO) algorithm for studying the relative velocity statistics of merging haloes in Lagrangian perturbation theory. Given a cosmological background model, a power spectrum of fluctuations as well as a Gaussian linear density contrast field δl is generated on a cubic grid, which is then smoothed repeatedly with Gaussian filters. For each Lagrangian particle at position q and each smoothing radius R, the collapse time, the velocities and ellipsoidal truncation are computed using Lagrangian perturbation theory. The collapsed medium is then fragmented into isolated objects by an algorithm designed to mimic the accretion and merger events of hierarchical collapse. Directly after the fragmentation process the mass function, merger histories of haloes and the statistics of the relative velocities at merging are evaluated. We reimplemented the algorithm in C++, recovered the mass function and optimized the construction of halo merging histories. When compared with the output of the Millennium Simulation our results suggest that the PINOCCHIO is well suited for studying relative velocities of merging haloes and is able to reproduce the pairwise velocity distribution.
Bocquet, S.; Saro, A.; Mohr, J. J.; Bazin, G.; Chiu, I.; Desai, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Bautz, M. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Benson, B. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510-0500 (United States); Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrosifica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica (Chile); De Haan, T., E-mail: bocquet@usm.lmu.de [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); and others
2015-02-01
We present a velocity-dispersion-based mass calibration of the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect survey (SPT-SZ) galaxy cluster sample. Using a homogeneously selected sample of 100 cluster candidates from 720 deg{sup 2} of the survey along with 63 velocity dispersion (σ {sub v}) and 16 X-ray Y {sub X} measurements of sample clusters, we simultaneously calibrate the mass-observable relation and constrain cosmological parameters. Our method accounts for cluster selection, cosmological sensitivity, and uncertainties in the mass calibrators. The calibrations using σ {sub v} and Y {sub X} are consistent at the 0.6σ level, with the σ {sub v} calibration preferring ∼16% higher masses. We use the full SPT{sub CL} data set (SZ clusters+σ {sub v}+Y {sub X}) to measure σ{sub 8}(Ω{sub m}/0.27){sup 0.3} = 0.809 ± 0.036 within a flat ΛCDM model. The SPT cluster abundance is lower than preferred by either the WMAP9 or Planck+WMAP9 polarization (WP) data, but assuming that the sum of the neutrino masses is ∑m {sub ν} = 0.06 eV, we find the data sets to be consistent at the 1.0σ level for WMAP9 and 1.5σ for Planck+WP. Allowing for larger ∑m {sub ν} further reconciles the results. When we combine the SPT{sub CL} and Planck+WP data sets with information from baryon acoustic oscillations and Type Ia supernovae, the preferred cluster masses are 1.9σ higher than the Y {sub X} calibration and 0.8σ higher than the σ {sub v} calibration. Given the scale of these shifts (∼44% and ∼23% in mass, respectively), we execute a goodness-of-fit test; it reveals no tension, indicating that the best-fit model provides an adequate description of the data. Using the multi-probe data set, we measure Ω{sub m} = 0.299 ± 0.009 and σ{sub 8} = 0.829 ± 0.011. Within a νCDM model we find ∑m {sub ν} = 0.148 ± 0.081 eV. We present a consistency test of the cosmic growth rate using SPT clusters. Allowing both the growth index γ and the dark energy equation
岩石中波传播速度频散与衰减%Velocity dispersion and attenuation of seismic wave propagation in rocks
王海洋; 孙赞东; Mark CHAPMAN
2012-01-01
速度频散与衰减是地震岩石物理领域一个前沿性问题,它不仅是开展频率域储层及流体预测的关键理论基础,同时也是解决不同地球物理测量方法(地面地震、VSP、测井、超声波岩心观测等)之间数据匹配困难的重要手段.笔者在阐述速度频散和衰减现象基本特征的基础上,详细回顾了Biot模型、喷射流模型、BISQ模型、双孔模型、裂缝-孔隙微结构模型和斑块饱和模型等6种主要速度频散与衰减理论模型的研究进程、原理和限制性,利用示意图直观地描述了这些模型的机制,并给出了它们各自的高低频极限、特征频率和适用条件.同时系统回顾并分析了国内外半个多世纪来速度频散与衰减实验测量技术的发展进程和应用现状,并在实验测量数据的基础上给出了自己对地球物理测量手段、岩石物理模型与频率相关性方面的思考和认识,即有必要将单频带的岩石物理模型拓展到全频带,并基于此将不同频带地球物理手段的测量数据联系起来,实现在同一尺度下的综合应用.%A velocity dispersion and attenuation phenomenon is a frontier subject in seismic rock physics. It is not only a key theoretical fundament for reservoir and fluid prediction in the frequency domain but also a crucial technique to solve the data-matching problem of different geophysical measurements, such as surface seismic method, vertical seismic profiling (VSP), well logging, laboratory ultrasonic core observation etc. Based on elaborating characteristics of this phenomenon, we reviewed in detail the progress in development, principles and limitations of six typical velocity dispersion and attenuation models including Biot, Squirt-flow, Biot-Squirt (BISQ), double-porosity, crack-pore microstructure and patchy saturation models, visually depicted mechanisms of these models u-sing schematic diagrams, and at the same time deduced their respective high- and
Verschuur, Gerrit L
2007-01-01
Interstellar neutral hydrogen (HI) emission spectra manifest several families of linewidths whose numerical values (34, 13 & 6 km/s) appear to be related to the critical ionization velocities (CIVs) of the most abundant interstellar atomic species. Extended new analysis of HI emission profiles shows that the 34 km/s wide component, probably corresponding to the CIV for helium, is pervasive. The 34 km/s wide linewidth family is found in low-velocity (local) neutral hydrogen (HI) profiles as well as in the so-called high-velocity clouds. In addition, published studies of HI linewidths found in the Magellanic Stream, Very-High-Velocity Clouds, and Compact High-Velocity Clouds, all of which are believed to be intergalactic, have noted that typical values are of the same order. If the critical ionization velocity effect does play a role in interstellar space it may be expected to produce locally enhanced electron densities where rapidly moving neutral gas masses interact with surrounding plasma. Evidence is pr...
A study of relative velocity statistics in Lagrangian perturbation theory with PINOCCHIO
Heisenberg, Lavinia; Bartelmann, Matthias
2010-01-01
Subject of this paper is a careful and detailed analysis of the PINOCCHIO algorithm for studying the relative velocity statistics of merging haloes in Lagrangian perturbation theory. Given a cosmological background model, a power spectrum of fluctuations as well as a Gaussian linear density contrast field $\\delta_{\\rm l}$ is generated on a cubic grid, which is then smoothed repeatedly with Gaussian filters. For each Lagrangian particle at position $\\bmath{q}$ and each smoothing radius $R$, the collapse time, the velocities and ellipsoidal truncation are computed using Lagrangian Perturbation Theory. The collapsed medium is then fragmented into isolated objects by an algorithm designed to mimic the accretion and merger events of hierarchical collapse. Directly after the fragmentation process the mass function, merger histories of haloes and the statistics of the relative velocities at merging are evaluated. We reimplemented the algorithm in C++ and optimised the construction of halo merging histories. Comparin...
a Dynamical Model with Next-Nearest Interaction in Relative Velocity
Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Yuncai; Liu, Fuqiang
By introducing the velocity difference between the preceding car and the car before the preceding one into the optimal velocity model (OVM), we present an extended dynamical model which takes into account the next-nearest-neighbor interaction in relative velocity. The stability condition of this model is derived by considering a small perturbation around the uniform flow solution and the validity of our theoretical analysis is also confirmed by direct simulations. The analytic and simulation results indicate that traffic congestion is suppressed efficiently by incorporating the effect of new consideration. Moreover, the effect of the new consideration is investigated by numerical simulation. In particular, the jamming flow, the current-density relation, and the propagation speed of small disturbance are examined in detail by varying various values of the parameter.
Bateson, Colin; Aliseda, Alberto
2015-11-01
We present results from wind tunnel experiments on the evolution of small inertial (d ~ 10 - 200 μm) water droplets in homogeneous, isotropic, slowly decaying grid turbulence. High-speed imaging and a Particle Tracking algorithm are used to calculate relative velocity distributions. We analyze the preferential concentration, via the 2D Radial Distribution Function, and enhanced relative velocity of droplets resulting from their inertial interactions with the underlying turbulence. The two-dimensional particle velocities, measured from multi-image tracks along a streamwise plane, are conditionally analyzed with respect to the distance from the nearest particle. We focus on the non-normality of the statistics for the particle-particle separation velocity component to examine the influence of the inertial interaction with the turbulence on the dynamics of the droplets. We observe a negative bias (in the mean and mode) in the separation velocity of particles for short separations, signaling a tendency of particles to collide more frequently than a random agitation by turbulence would predict. The tails of the distribution are interpreted in terms of the collision/coalescence process and the probability of collisions that do not lead to coalescence.
Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Halliday, Claire; Poggianti, Bianca M; Jablonka, Pascale; Aragon-Salamanca, Alfonso; Saglia, Roberto P; Nowak, Nina; von der Linden, Anja; De Lucia, Gabriella; Pello, Roser; Moustakas, John; Poirier, Sebastien; Bamford, Steven P; Clowe, Douglas I; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Rudnick, Gregory H; Simard, Luc; White, Simon D M; Zaritsky, Dennis
2008-01-01
AIMS. We present spectroscopic observations of galaxies in 15 survey fields as part of the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS). We determine the redshifts and velocity dispersions of the galaxy clusters located in these fields, and we test for possible substructure in the clusters. METHODS. We obtained multi-object mask spectroscopy using the FORS2 instrument at the VLT. We reduced the data with particular attention to the sky subtraction. We implemented the method of Kelson for performing sky subtraction prior to any rebinning/interpolation of the data. From the measured galaxy redshifts, we determine cluster velocity dispersions using the biweight estimator and test for possible substructure in the clusters using the Dressler-Shectman test. RESULTS. The method of subtracting the sky prior to any rebinning/interpolation of the data delivers photon-noise-limited results, whereas the traditional method of subtracting the sky after the data have been rebinned/interpolated results in substantially larger noise f...
Persaud, Patricia; Di Luccio, Francesca; Clayton, Robert W.
2015-03-01
Rayleigh wave tomography provides images of the shallow mantle shear wave velocity structure beneath the Gulf of California. Low-velocity zones (LVZs) are found on axis between 26 and 50 km depth beneath the Guaymas Basin but mostly off axis under the other rift basins, with the largest feature underlying the Ballenas Transform Fault. We interpret the broadly distributed LVZs as regions of partial melting in a solid mantle matrix. The pathway for melt migration and focusing is more complex than an axis-centered source aligned above a deeper region of mantle melt and likely reflects the magmatic evolution of rift segments. We also consider the existence of solid lower continental crust in the Gulf north of the Guaymas Basin, where the association of the LVZs with asthenospheric upwelling suggests lateral flow assisted by a heat source. These results provide key constraints for numerical models of mantle upwelling and melt focusing in this young oblique rift.
A general numerical solution of dispersion relations for the nuclear optical model
Capote, R; Quesada, J M; Capote, Roberto; Molina, Alberto; Quesada, Jose Manuel
2001-01-01
A general numerical solution of the dispersion integral relation between the real and the imaginary parts of the nuclear optical potential is presented. Fast convergence is achieved by means of the Gauss-Legendre integration method, which offers accuracy, easiness of implementation and generality for dispersive optical model calculations. The use of this numerical integration method in the optical-model parameter search codes allows for a fast and accurate dispersive analysis. PACS number(s): 11.55.Fv, 24.10.Ht, 02.60.Jh
Relative shortening velocity in locomotor muscles: turkey ankle extensors operate at low V/V(max).
Gabaldón, Annette M; Nelson, Frank E; Roberts, Thomas J
2008-01-01
The force-velocity properties of skeletal muscle have an important influence on locomotor performance. All skeletal muscles produce less force the faster they shorten and typically develop maximal power at velocities of approximately 30% of maximum shortening velocity (V(max)). We used direct measurements of muscle mechanical function in two ankle extensor muscles of wild turkeys to test the hypothesis that during level running muscles operate at velocities that favor force rather than power. Sonomicrometer measurements of muscle length, tendon strain-gauge measurements of muscle force, and bipolar electromyographs were taken as animals ran over a range of speeds and inclines. These measurements were integrated with previously measured values of muscle V(max) for these muscles to calculate relative shortening velocity (V/V(max)). At all speeds for level running the V/V(max) values of the lateral gastrocnemius and the peroneus longus were low (muscles were capable of producing 90% of peak isometric force but only 35% of peak isotonic power. V/V(max) increased in response to the demand for mechanical power with increases in running incline and decreased to negative values to absorb energy during downhill running. Measurements of integrated electromyograph activity indicated that the volume of muscle required to produce a given force increased from level to uphill running. This observation is consistent with the idea that V/V(max) is an important determinant of locomotor cost because it affects the volume of muscle that must be recruited to support body weight.
Turbulence-Induced Relative Velocity of Dust Particles I: Identical Particles
Pan, Liubin
2013-01-01
We study the relative velocity of inertial particles suspended in turbulent flows and discuss implications for dust particle collisions in protoplanetay disks. We simulate a weakly compressible turbulent flow at 512^3 and evolve 14 species of particles with different friction timescales, tau_p. The Stoke number, St, of the smallest particles is ~0.1, where St is the ratio of tau_p to the Kolmorgorov timescale, while the largest particles have tau_p =54T_L, where T_L is the flow Lagrangian correlation timescale. We find that the model by Pan & Padoan (PP10) gives satisfactory predictions for the rms relative velocity between identical particles. The model shows that the relative velocity of two same-size particles is determined by the particle memory of the flow velocity difference along their trajectories, and thus depends on the particle pair separation backward in time. We compute the collision kernel accounting for the effect of turbulent clustering. The kernel per unit cross section shows an abrupt ri...
Brocher, T.M.
2008-01-01
This article presents new empirical compressional and shear-wave velocity (Vp and Vs) versus depth relationships for the most common rock types in northern California. Vp versus depth relations were developed from borehole, laboratory, seismic refraction and tomography, and density measurements, and were converted to Vs versus depth relations using new empirical relations between Vp and Vs. The relations proposed here account for increasing overburden pressure but not for variations in other factors that can influence velocity over short distance scales, such as lithology, consolidation, induration, porosity, and stratigraphic age. Standard deviations of the misfits predicted by these relations thus provide a measure of the importance of the variability in Vp and Vs caused by these other factors. Because gabbros, greenstones, basalts, and other mafic rocks have a different Vp and Vs relationship than sedimentary and granitic rocks, the differences in Vs between these rock types at depths below 6 or 7 km are generally small. The new relations were used to derive the 2005 U.S. Geological Survey seismic velocity model for northern California employed in the broadband strong motion simulations of the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1906 San Francisco earthquakes; initial tests of the model indicate that the Vp model generally compares favorably to regional seismic tomography models but that the Vp and Vs values proposed for the Franciscan Complex may be about 5% too high.
Mobley, Joel; Mack, Richard A; Gladden, Joseph R; Mantena, P Raju
2009-07-01
Using a broadband through-transmission technique, the attenuation coefficient and phase velocity spectra have been measured for a set of multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-nylon composites (from pure nylon to 20% MWCNT by weight) in the ultrasonic frequency band from 4 to 14 MHz. The samples were found to be effectively homogeneous on spatial scales from the low end of ultrasonic wavelengths investigated and up (>0.2 mm). Using Kramers-Kronig relations, the attenuation and dispersion data were found to be consistent with a power-law attenuation model with a range of exponents from y=1.12 to y=1.19 over the measurement bandwidth. The attenuation coefficients of the respective samples are found to decrease with increasing MWCNT content and a similar trend holds also for the dispersion. In contrast, the mean phase velocities for the samples rise with increasing MWCNT content indicating an increase in the mechanical moduli.
Bâki Iz, H.; Shum, C. K.; Zhang, C.; Kuo, C. Y.
2017-02-01
This study demonstrates that relative sea level trends calculated from long-term tide gauge records can be used to estimate relative vertical crustal velocities in a region with high accuracy. A comparison of the weighted averages of the relative sea level trends estimated at six tide gauge stations in two clusters along the Eastern coast of United States, in Florida and in Maryland, reveals a statistically significant regional vertical crustal motion of Maryland with respect to Florida with a subsidence rate of -1.15±0.15 mm/yr identified predominantly due to the ongoing glacial isostatic adjustment process. The estimate is a consilience value to validate vertical crustal velocities calculated from GPS time series as well as towards constraining predictive GIA models in these regions.
Wei Wang; Lantian Hou; Zhaolun Liu; Guiyao Zhou
2009-01-01
When using normalized dispersion method for the dispersion design of photonic crystal fibers(PCFs),it is vital that the group velocity dispersion of PCF can be seen as the sum of geometrical dispersion and material dispersion.However,the error induced by this way of calculation will deteriorate the final results.Taking 5 ps/(km·nm)and 5% as absolute error and relative error limits,respectively,the structure parameter boundaries of PCFs about when separating total dispersion into geometrical and material components is valid are provided for wavelength shorter than 1700 nm.By using these two criteria together,it is adequate to evaluate the simulatcd dispersion of PCFs when normalized dispersion method is employed.
Dias, Fabio; Zahradník, Jiří; Assumpção, Marcelo
2016-11-01
Centroid moment tensor (CMT) determination in intraplate regions like Brazil can be very difficult, because earthquakes are often recorded just at few and distant stations. This paper introduces a methodology for datasets like that. The methodology is based on waveform inversion in which each source-station path has its own velocity model. The 1-D path-specific velocity models are derived from the Rayleigh- and Love-wave dispersion curves. The waveform inversion is accompanied by posterior check of numerous P-wave first-motion polarities. An important innovation is the use of so-called frequency range test. The test basically consists in calculating CMT's for many different frequency ranges to assess the stability and uncertainty of the solution. The method is validated on two Brazilian earthquakes and a well-known Greek event. An offshore event (mb 5.2) in SE Brazil is inverted with four stations, at epicentral distances 300-400 km. The other Brazilian earthquake (mb 4.8 in Central Brazil) is even more challenging - only two broadband stations at 800-1300 km are at disposal for waveform inversion. The paper unambiguously demonstrates that the path-specific velocity models significantly increase the reliability of the CMT's. While standard models (e.g. IASP91) typically allow waveform modeling up to epicentral distances of the order of a few (∼10) minimum shear wavelengths (MSW), using the path-specific velocity models we successfully inverted waveforms up to > 20 MSW. Single-station waveform inversions are thoroughly tested, but multi-station joint inversions are shown to be preferable. The new methodology of this paper, providing a reasonable estimate of focal mechanisms and their uncertainties in case of highly limited waveform data, may find broad applicability in Brazil and elsewhere.
The relation of motion sickness to the spatial-temporal properties of velocity storage
Dai, Mingjia; Kunin, Mikhail; Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard; Young, L. R. (Principal Investigator)
2003-01-01
Tilting the head in roll to or from the upright while rotating at a constant velocity (roll while rotating, RWR) alters the position of the semicircular canals relative to the axis of rotation. This produces vertical and horizontal nystagmus, disorientation, vertigo, and nausea. With recurrent exposure, subjects habituate and can make more head movements before experiencing overpowering motion sickness. We questioned whether promethazine lessened the vertigo or delayed the habituation, whether habituation of the vertigo was related to the central vestibular time constant, i.e., to the time constant of velocity storage, and whether the severity of the motion sickness was related to deviation of the axis of eye velocity from gravity. Sixteen subjects received promethazine and placebo in a double-blind, crossover study in two consecutive 4-day test series 1 month apart, termed series I and II. Horizontal and vertical eye movements were recorded with video-oculography while subjects performed roll head movements of approx. 45 degrees over 2 s to and from the upright position while being rotated at 138 degrees /s around a vertical axis. Motion sickness was scaled from 1 (no sickness) to an endpoint of 20, at which time the subject was too sick to continue or was about to vomit. Habituation was determined by the number of head movements that subjects made before reaching the maximum motion sickness score of 20. Head movements increased steadily in each session with repeated testing, and there was no difference between the number of head movements made by the promethazine and placebo groups. Horizontal and vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) time constants declined in each test, with the declines being closely correlated to the increase in the number of head movements. The strength of vertiginous sensation was associated with the amount of deviation of the axis of eye velocity from gravity; the larger the deviation of the eye velocity axis from gravity, the
Rainbows without unicorns: Metric structures in theories with Modified Dispersion Relations
Lobo, Iarley P; Nettel, Francisco
2016-01-01
"Rainbow" metrics are a widely used approach to metric formalism for theories with Modified Dispersion Relations. They have had a huge success in the Quantum Gravity Phenomenology literature, since they allow to introduce momentum-dependent spacetime metrics into the description of systems with Modified Dispersion Relation. This approach, however, presents some compatibility issues with a relativistic description, even in the case of introducing deformed spacetime symmetries to keep the theory's modified dispersion relation invariant. In this paper we would like to introduce the readers to this issue and to describe how the relativistic properties of the theory can be recovered taking into account a more complex (but also complete) momentum-space curvature framework. We also introduce a new metric structure from a Polyakov-like description of the action.
In-medium dispersion relations of charmonia studied by the maximum entropy method
Ikeda, Atsuro; Asakawa, Masayuki; Kitazawa, Masakiyo
2017-01-01
We study in-medium spectral properties of charmonia in the vector and pseudoscalar channels at nonzero momenta on quenched lattices, especially focusing on their dispersion relation and the weight of the peak. We measure the lattice Euclidean correlation functions with nonzero momenta on the anisotropic quenched lattices and study the spectral functions with the maximum entropy method. The dispersion relations of charmonia and the momentum dependence of the weight of the peak are analyzed with the maximum entropy method together with the errors estimated probabilistically in this method. We find a significant increase of the masses of charmonia in medium. We also find that the functional form of the charmonium dispersion relations is not changed from that in the vacuum within the error even at T ≃1.6 Tc for all the channels we analyze.
In-medium dispersion relations of charmonia studied by maximum entropy method
Ikeda, Atsuro; Kitazawa, Masakiyo
2016-01-01
We study in-medium spectral properties of charmonia in the vector and pseudoscalar channels at nonzero momenta on quenched lattices, especially focusing on their dispersion relation and weight of the peak. We measure the lattice Euclidean correlation functions with nonzero momenta on the anisotropic quenched lattices and study the spectral functions with the maximum entropy method. The dispersion relations of charmonia and the momentum dependence of the weight of the peak are analyzed with the maximum entropy method together with the errors estimated probabilistically in this method. We find significant increase of the masses of charmonia in medium. It is also found that the functional form of the charmonium dispersion relations is not changed from that in the vacuum within the error even at $T\\simeq1.6T_c$ for all the channels we analyzed.
Dispersion relations with crossing symmetry for pipi D and F wave amplitudes
Kaminski, R
2011-01-01
A set of once subtracted dispersion relations with imposed crossing symmetry condition for the pipi D- and F-wave amplitudes is derived and analyzed. An example of numerical calculations in the effective two pion mass range from the threshold to 1.1 GeV is presented. It is shown that these new dispersion relations impose quite strong constraints on the analyzed pipi interactions and are very useful tools to test the pipi amplitudes. One of the goals of this work is to provide a complete set of equations required for easy use. Full analytical expressions are presented. Along with the well known dispersion relations successful in testing the pipi S- and P-wave amplitudes, those presented here for the D and F waves give a complete set of tools for analyzes of the pipi interactions.
,
2012-01-01
During previous numerical experiments on isotropic turbulence of surface gravity waves we observed formation of the long wave background (condensate). It was shown (Korotkevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. vol. 101 (7), 074504 (2008)), that presence of the condensate changes a spectrum of direct cascade, corresponding to the flux of energy to the small scales from pumping region (large scales). Recent experiments show that the inverse cascade spectrum is also affected by the condensate. In this case mechanism proposed as a cause for the change of direct cascade spectrum cannot work. But inverse cascade is directly influenced by the linear dispersion relation for waves, as a result direct measurement of the dispersion relation in the presence of condensate is necessary. We performed the measurement of this dispersion relation from the direct numerical experiment. The results demonstrate that in the region of inverse cascade influence of the condensate cannot be neglected.
Dispersion relations at finite temperature and density for nucleons and pions
Hurtado, R; Quimbay, C; Hurtado, Rafael; Morales, John; Quimbay, Carlos
2000-01-01
We calculate the nucleonic and pionic dispersion relations at finite temperature T and non-vanishing chemical potentials $(\\mu_f)$ in the context of an effective chiral theory that describes the strong and electromagnetic interactions for nucleons and pions. The dispersion relations are calculated in the broken chiral symmetry phase, where the nucleons are massive and pions are taken as massless. The calculation is performed at lowest order in the energy expansion, working in the framework of the real time formalism of thermal field theory in the Feynman gauge. These one-loop dispersion relations are obtained at leading order with respect to T and $\\mu_f$. We also evaluate the effective masses of the quasi-nucleon and quasi-pion excitations in thermal and chemical conditions as the ones of a neutron star.
Lim, C. W.; Wu, B. S.; He, L. H.
2001-12-01
A novel approach is presented for obtaining approximate analytical expressions for the dispersion relation of periodic wavetrains in the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation with even potential function. By coupling linearization of the governing equation with the method of harmonic balance, we establish two general analytical approximate formulas for the dispersion relation, which depends on the amplitude of the periodic wavetrain. These formulas are valid for small as well as large amplitude of the wavetrain. They are also applicable to the large amplitude regime, which the conventional perturbation method fails to provide any solution, of the nonlinear system under study. Three examples are demonstrated to illustrate the excellent approximate solutions of the proposed formulas with respect to the exact solutions of the dispersion relation. (c) 2001 American Institute of Physics.
Marini, Lorenzo; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Heikkinen, Risto
2012-01-01
Aim Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss but it is insufficiently known how much its effects vary among species with different life-history traits; especially in plant communities, the understanding of the role of traits related to species persistence and dispersal...... in determining dynamics of species communities in fragmented landscapes is still limited. The primary aim of this study was to test how plant traits related to persistence and dispersal and their interactions modify plant species vulnerability to decreasing habitat area and increasing isolation. Location Five...... of habitat loss on plant species richness was pervasive across different regions, whereas the effect of habitat isolation on species richness was not evident. This area effect was, however, not equal for all the species, and life-history traits related to both species persistence and dispersal modified plant...
The proportionality between relative plate velocity and seismicity in subduction zones
Ide, S.
2013-12-01
Seismic activity differs among subduction zones due to various factors such as relative plate velocity, temperature, stress, and subducting materials. Relative plate velocity has a direct control on tectonic deformation and an overall correlation with seismicity has been suggested, as a global average or for large regions. Here I show a positive correlation between relative plate velocity and seismicity by estimating the background seismicity rate for 117 sections of subduction zones worldwide using the epidemic type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model. The background rate is stably estimated even for the period following M9-class earthquakes in Chile and Japan. A prominent proportional relationship is evident in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. Given that M9-class earthquakes occur independently of one another, the lack of M9 earthquakes in the southwestern Pacific Ocean over the last century is difficult to explain by chance. On the other hand, some subduction zones have extremely low background seismicity, and have experienced very large earthquakes. Slow earthquakes have been discovered in many of these quiet zones. Thus, this proportionality relation may be useful in assessing the seismic risk in subduction zones worldwide between two apparently confusing end members: 'active and moderate' and 'quiet and extreme'.
The general dispersion relation of induced streaming instabilities in quantum outflow systems
Mehdian, H., E-mail: mehdian@khu.ac.ir; Hajisharifi, K.; Hasanbeigi, A. [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Kharazmi University, 49 Dr Mofatteh Avenue, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-11-15
In this manuscript the dispersion relations of streaming instabilities, by using the unique property (neutralized in charge and current by default) of plasma shells colliding, have been generalized and studied. This interesting property for interpenetrating beams enables one to find the general dispersion relations without any restrictions used in the previous works in this area. In our previous work [H. Mehdian et al., ApJ. 801, 89 (2015)], employing the plasma shell concept and boost frame method, the general dispersion relation for filamentation instability has been derived in the relativistic classical regime. But in this paper, using the above mentioned concepts, the general dispersion relations (for each of streaming instabilities, filamentation, two-stream and multi-stream) in the non-relativistic quantum regime have been derived by employing the quantum fluid equations together with Maxwell equations. The derived dispersion relations enable to describe any arbitrary system of interacting two and three beams, justified neutralization condition, by choosing the inertial reference frame embedded on the one of the beams. Furthermore, by the numerical and analytical study of these dispersion relations, many new features of streaming instabilities (E.g. their cut-off wave numbers and growth rates) in terms of all involved parameters have been illustrated. The obtained results in this paper can be used to describe many astrophysical systems and laboratory astrophysics setting, such as collision of non-parallel plasma shells over a background plasma or the collision of three neutralized plasma slabs, and justifying the many plasma phenomena such as particle accelerations and induced fields.
The Effects of Relative Humidity on the Flowability and Dispersion Performance of Lactose Mixtures.
Lu, Xiang-Yun; Chen, Lan; Wu, Chuan-Yu; Chan, Hak-Kim; Freeman, Tim
2017-05-29
The flowability and dispersion behavior are two important physicochemical properties of pharmaceutical formulations for dry powder inhalers (DPIs). They are usually affected by the environmental conditions, such as temperature and relative humidity (RH). However, very few studies have been focused on the relationship between the two properties and their dependence on RH during storage. In this research, model pharmaceutical formulations were prepared using mixtures of coarse and fine lactose. The fractions of fines in the mixtures were 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20%, respectively. These blends were stored at four different RH levels, 0%, 30%, 58%, and 85%, for 48 h. The FT4 Powder Rheometer was used to evaluate the powder flowability, and the Malvern Spraytec(®) laser diffraction system was employed to assess the powder dispersion performance. The results indicated that both the flow and dispersion properties of lactose blends deteriorate after being stored at 85% RH, but improved after being conditioned at 58% RH. The fine particle fractions (FPFs) of the blends with 5% and 10% fine fractions and the as-received coarse lactose decreased when they were conditioned at 30% RH. For the blend with 20% fine fraction, a high RH during storage (i.e., 85% RH) affected the dispersion property, but had a limited influence on its flowability, while, for the coarse lactose powder, the different RH conditions affected its flowability, but not the dispersion results. A strong correlation between the powder flowability and its dispersion performance was found.
Relative velocity of sliding of microtubules by the action of Kinesin-5
Roy, Sthitadhi
2011-01-01
Kinesin-5, also known as Eg5 in vertebrates is a processive motor with 4 heads, which moves on filamentous tracks called microtubules. The basic function of Kinesin-5 is to slide apart two anti-parallel microtubules by simultaneously walking on both the microtubules. We develop an analytical expression for the steady-state relative velocity of this sliding in terms of the rates of attachments and detachments of motor heads with the ATPase sites on the microtubules. We first analyse the motion of one pair of motor heads on one microtubule and then couple it to the motion of the other pair of motor heads of the same motor on the second microtubule to get the relative velocity of sliding.
Car-following model with relative-velocity effect and its experimental verification
Shamoto, Daisuke; Tomoeda, Akiyasu; Nishi, Ryosuke; Nishinari, Katsuhiro
2011-04-01
In driving a vehicle, drivers respond to the changes of both the headway and the relative velocity to the vehicle in front. In this paper a new car-following model including these maneuvers is proposed. The acceleration of the model becomes infinite (has a singularity) when the distance between two vehicles is zero, and the asymmetry between the acceleration and the deceleration is incorporated in a nonlinear way. The model is simple but contains enough features of driving for reproducing real vehicle traffic. From the linear stability analysis, we confirm that the model shows the metastable homogeneous flow around the critical density, beyond which a traffic jam emerges. Moreover, we perform experiments to verify this model. From the data it is shown that the acceleration of a vehicle has a positive correlation with the relative velocity.
Non-zero density-velocity consistency relations for large scale structures
Rizzo, Luca Alberto; Valageas, Patrick
2016-01-01
We present exact kinematic consistency relations for cosmological structures that do not vanish at equal times and can thus be measured in surveys. These rely on cross-correlations between the density and velocity, or momentum, fields. Indeed, the uniform transport of small-scale structures by long wavelength modes, which cannot be detected at equal times by looking at density correlations only, gives rise to a shift in the amplitude of the velocity field that could be measured. These consistency relations only rely on the weak equivalence principle and Gaussian initial conditions. They remain valid in the non-linear regime and for biased galaxy fields. They can be used to constrain non-standard cosmological scenarios or the large-scale galaxy bias.
RELATIONS BETWEEN DAIRY FOOD INTAKE AND ARTERIAL STIFFNESS: PULSE WAVE VELOCITY AND PULSE PRESSURE
Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrrill F.; Dore, Gregory A.; Abhayaratna, Walter P.; Robbins, Michael A.
2012-01-01
Modifiable risk factors, such as diet, are becomingly increasingly important in the management of cardiovascular disease, one of the greatest major causes of death and disease burden. Few studies have examined the role of diet as a possible means of reducing arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity, an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with measures of arterial stiffness including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. A cross-sectional analysis of a subset of the Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study sample was performed. A linear decrease in pulse wave velocity was observed across increasing intakes of dairy food consumption (ranging from never/rarely to daily dairy food intake). The negative linear relationship between pulse wave velocity and intake of dairy food was independent of demographic variables, other cardiovascular disease risk factors and nutrition variables. The pattern of results was very similar for pulse pressure, while no association between dairy food intake and lipid levels was found. Further intervention studies are needed to ascertain whether dairy food intake may be an appropriate dietary intervention for the attenuation of age-related arterial stiffening and reduction of cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:22431583
Surface plasmon polariton dispersion relation at organic/dielectric/metal interfaces
Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Kawalec, Tomasz;
2014-01-01
The dispersion relation of a hybrid photonic–plasmonic system consisting of a light emitting thin organic para-Hexaphenylene (p-6P) layer separated by a dielectric gap from a plasmonic silver film is investigated using leakage radiation spectroscopy. Experimental studies are complemented by numer......The dispersion relation of a hybrid photonic–plasmonic system consisting of a light emitting thin organic para-Hexaphenylene (p-6P) layer separated by a dielectric gap from a plasmonic silver film is investigated using leakage radiation spectroscopy. Experimental studies are complemented...
Forward dispersion relations for pion-kaon scattering and the K*0(800) resonance
Rodas, A
2016-01-01
We review our recent analysis of $\\pi K$ scattering data in terms of forward dispersion relations, and also present the parameters of the strange resonances. This work consists of fits to the data that are constrained to satisfy analyticity requirements. The method yields a set of simple and consistent parameterizations that are compatible with forward dispersion relations up to 1.6 GeV while still describing the data. We also obtain the pole parameters of the $K^*_0(800)$ and the $K^*(892)$ resonances.
Dispersion relations with crossing symmetry for pipi D and F wave amplitudes
Kaminski, R.
2011-01-01
A set of once subtracted dispersion relations with imposed crossing symmetry condition for the pipi D- and F-wave amplitudes is derived and analyzed. An example of numerical calculations in the effective two pion mass range from the threshold to 1.1 GeV is presented. It is shown that these new dispersion relations impose quite strong constraints on the analyzed pipi interactions and are very useful tools to test the pipi amplitudes. One of the goals of this work is to provide a complete set o...
SHU Wei-Xing; LUO Hai-Lu; LI Fei; REN Zhong-Zhou
2006-01-01
@@ We investigate the propagation of electromagnetic waves at the interface between an isotropic material and the anisotropic medium with a unique dispersion relation. We show that the refraction behaviour of E-polarized waves is opposite to that of H-polarized waves, though the dispersion relations for E- and H-polarized waves are the same. It is found that waves exhibit different propagation properties in anisotropic media with different sign combinations of the permittivity and permeability tensors. Some interesting properties of propagation are also found in the special anisotropic media, leading to potential applications.
Cosmological special relativity the large scale structure of space, time and velocity
Carmeli, Moshe
1997-01-01
This book deals with special relativity theory and its application to cosmology. It presents Einstein's theory of space and time in detail, and describes the large scale structure of space, time and velocity as a new cosmological special relativity. A cosmological Lorentz-like transformation, which relates events at different cosmic times, is derived and applied. A new law of addition of cosmic times is obtained, and the inflation of the space at the early universe is derived, both from the cosmological transformation. The book will be of interest to cosmologists, astrophysicists, theoretical
Turbulence-Induced Relative Velocity of Dust Particles III: The Probability Distribution
Pan, Liubin; Scalo, John
2014-01-01
Motivated by its important role in the collisional growth of dust particles in protoplanetary disks, we investigate the probability distribution function (PDF) of the relative velocity of inertial particles suspended in turbulent flows. Using the simulation from our previous work, we compute the relative velocity PDF as a function of the friction timescales, tau_p1 and tau_p2, of two particles of arbitrary sizes. The friction time of particles included in the simulation ranges from 0.1 tau_eta to 54T_L, with tau_eta and T_L the Kolmogorov time and the Lagrangian correlation time of the flow, respectively. The relative velocity PDF is generically non-Gaussian, exhibiting fat tails. For a fixed value of tau_p1, the PDF is the fattest for equal-size particles (tau_p2~tau_p1), and becomes thinner at both tau_p2tau_p1. Defining f as the friction time ratio of the smaller particle to the larger one, we find that, at a given f in 1/2>T_L). These features are successfully explained by the Pan & Padoan model. Usin...
Constain Aragon, A.; Lemos Ruiz, R.
2011-07-01
It is very well known the basic equation of hydraulics discovered by Antoine de Chezy in 1769, which relates in a quadratic from the mean velocity of flow with the slope of energy line and the hydraulic radius, in a uniform regime. This equation has been the central axis of development of hydro metrics as science that faces the huge challenges of penetrating the knowledge of earths streams every time more contaminated. In virtue of that, its mathematical structure and the relationship with other related formulas have been carefully examined, despite the limitation due to constancy of velocity. Starting from chemical considerations rather than dynamic ones as was used to obtain chezys relationship it is possible to establish a second equation for mean velocity of fluid in a non uniform regime that corresponds to averaged movement of a solute poured to steam. This equation will go to relate in an accurate way several aspects hydraulics and mass transport, sight as a single thing, allowing a vital tool for a depth study of water contaminations. to arrive this equation it was reviewed the foundations of mass transport theory in flows, stating a time dependent nature for coefficient currently used in describing dispersion phenomena allowing to interpret properly certain inconsistencies detected long time ago in this theory. It is presented the detailed results of application of this new approach to a small steam and a larger river in Colombia. (Author) 23 refs.
Gyro-viscosity and linear dispersion relations in pair-ion magnetized plasmas
Kono, M
2015-01-01
A fluid theory has been developed by taking account of gyro-viscosity to study wave propagation characteristics in a homogeneous pair-ion magnetized plasma with a cylindrical symmetry. The exact dispersion relations derived by the Hankel-Fourier transformation are shown comparable with those observed in the experiment by Oohara and co-workers. The gyro-viscosity is responsible for the change in propagation characteristics of the ion cyclotron wave from forward to backward by suppressing the effect of the thermal pressure which normally causes the forward nature of dispersion. Although the experiment has been already explained by a kinetic theory by the present authors, the kinetic derivations are so involved because of exact particle orbits in phase space, finite Larmor radius effects, and higher order ion cyclotron resonances. The present fluid theory provides a simple and transparent structure to the dispersion relations since the gyro-viscosity is renormalized into the ion cyclotron frequency which itself ...
Black Hole Radiation with Modified Dispersion Relation in Tunneling Paradigm: Static Frame
Wang, Peng
2015-01-01
Due to the exponential high gravitational red shift near the event horizon of a black hole, it might appears that the Hawking radiation would be highly sensitive to some unknown high energy physics. To study possible deviations from the Hawking's prediction, the dispersive field theory models have been proposed, following the Unruh's hydrodynamic analogue of a black hole radiation. In the dispersive field theory models, the dispersion relations of matter fields are modified at high energies, which leads to modifications of equations of motion. In this paper, we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to investigate the dispersive field theory models. The preferred frame is the static frame of the black hole. The dispersion relation adopted agrees with the relativistic one at low energies but is modified near the Planck mass $m_{p}$. We calculate the corrections to the Hawking temperature for massive and charged particles to $\\mathcal{O}\\left(m_{p}^{-2}\\right) $ and massless and neutral particles to all orders. Our res...
Pugliese, Lorenzo; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Straface, Salvatore
2013-01-01
data. This paper evaluates the possibility for estimating solute dispersion based on gas dispersion measurements. Breakthrough measurements were carried out at different fluid velocities (covering the same range in Reynolds number), using O2 and NaCl as gas and solute tracers, respectively. Three...... different, granular porous materials were used: (1) crushed granite (very angular particles), (2) gravel (particles of intermediate roundness) and (3) Leca® (almost spherical particles). For each material, 21 different particle size fractions were used. Gas and solute dispersion coefficients were determined...
Veale, Melanie; Ma, Chung-Pei; Thomas, Jens; Greene, Jenny E.; McConnell, Nicholas J.; Walsh, Jonelle; Ito, Jennifer; Blakeslee, John P.; Janish, Ryan
2016-09-01
We present spatially-resolved two-dimensional stellar kinematics for the 41 most massive early-type galaxies (MK ≲ -25.7 mag, stellar mass M★ ≳ 1011.8 M⊙) of the volume-limited (D angular momentum (λ and fast or slow rotator status), velocity dispersion (σ), and higher-order non-Gaussian velocity features (Gauss-Hermite moments h3 to h6). Our sample contains a high fraction (˜80%) of slow and non-rotators with λ ≲ 0.2. When combined with the lower-mass ETGs in the ATLAS3D survey, we find the fraction of slow-rotators to increase dramatically with galaxy mass, reaching ˜50% at MK ˜ -25.5 mag and ˜90% at MK ≲ -26 mag. All of our fast rotators show a clear anti-correlation between h3 and V/σ, and the slope of the anti-correlation is steeper in more round galaxies. The radial profiles of σ show a clear luminosity and environmental dependence: the 12 most luminous galaxies in our sample (MK ≲ -26 mag) are all brightest cluster/group galaxies (except NGC 4874) and all have rising or nearly flat σ profiles, whereas five of the seven "isolated" galaxies are all fainter than MK = -25.8 mag and have falling σ. All of our galaxies have positive average h4; the most luminous galaxies have average h4 ˜ 0.05 while less luminous galaxies have a range of values between 0 and 0.05. Most of our galaxies show positive radial gradients in h4, and those galaxies also tend to have rising σ profiles. We discuss the implications for the relationship among dynamical mass, σ, h4, and velocity anisotropy for these massive galaxies.
Magnon dispersion relation and exchange interactions in MnF2
Nikotin, O.; Lindgård, Per-Anker; Dietrich, O. W.
1969-01-01
The magnon dispersion relation for MnF2 at 4·2 °K has been measured by means of the triple-axis neutron scattering technique along the symmetry lines in the (010) plane of the Brillouin zone. Using an exact dipole model, the three nearest-neighbour exchange constants were found to be J1 = 0·028 ±...
The Quantum Yang Baxter conditions and the dispersion relations for the Nambu-Goldstone bosons
Arraut, Ivan
2016-01-01
We demonstrate that the extensions of the spontaneous symmetry breaking condition, when applied to the non-relativistic systems, have a correspondence with the Yang-Baxter conditions. This correspondence guarantees the appropriate dispersion relation and the appropriate counting for the Nambu-Goldstones bosons.
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis in the presence of sterile neutrinos with altered dispersion relations
Aeikens, Elke; Pakvasa, Sandip; Weiler, Thomas J
2016-01-01
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis imposes stringent bounds on light sterile neutrinos mixing with the active flavors. Here we discuss how altered dispersion relations can weaken such bounds and allow compatibility of new sterile neutrino degrees of freedom with a successful generation of the light elements in the early Universe.
Phonon Dispersion Relation for Copper Measured by Triple Axis Spectrometer at CARR
MA; Xiao-bai; HAO; Li-jie; GAO; Jian-bo; LI; Yu-qing; LIU; Xin-zhi; WU; Li-qi
2013-01-01
In 2013,the triple axis spectrometer at China Advanced Research Reactor has been put into operation successfully.After spectrometer commissioning,including modification of the scan programs and determination of the zero point of the spectrometer angles,the frequency/wave-vector dispersion relation in copper at room temperature has been measured.The results are shown in Fig.1.As the
The Dispersion Relation for the 1/sinh(exp 2) Potential in the Classical Limit
Campbell, Joel
2009-01-01
The dispersion relation for the inverse hyperbolic potential is calculated in the classical limit. This is shown for both the low amplitude phonon branch and the high amplitude soliton branch. It is shown these results qualitatively follow that previously found for the inverse squared potential where explicit analytic solutions are known.
Dispersion relation for electromagnetic wave propagation in a strongly magnetized plasma
Marklund, G B M; Shukla, P K
2006-01-01
A dispersion relation for electromagnetic wave propagation in a strongly magnetized cold plasma is deduced, taking photon-photon scattering into account. It is shown that the combined plasma and quantum electrodynamic effect is important for understanding the mode-structures in magnetar and pulsar atmospheres. The implications of our results are discussed.
Morphological Tuning of the Plasmon Dispersion Relation in Dielectric-Loaded Nanofiber Waveguides
Leißner, Till; Lemke, Christoph; Fiutowski, Jacek;
2013-01-01
Understanding the impact of lateral mode confinement in plasmonic waveguides is of fundamental interest regarding potential applications in plasmonic devices. The knowledge of the frequency-wave vector dispersion relation provides the full information on electromagnetic field propagation in a wav...
Backwards and forwards relative dispersion in turbulent flow: An experimental investigation
Berg, J.; Lüthi, B.; Mann, J.;
2006-01-01
From particle tracking velocimetry we present an experimental measure of the ratio between backwards and forwards relative dispersion in an intermediate Reynolds number turbulent flow. Lack of time-reversal symmetry implies that their ratio may be different from 1. From a stochastic model, this has...
Surface plasmon polariton dispersion relation at organic/dielectric/metal interfaces
Kostiučenko, Oksana; Fiutowski, Jacek; Kawalec, Tomasz
2014-01-01
The dispersion relation of a hybrid photonic–plasmonic system consisting of a light emitting thin organic para-Hexaphenylene (p-6P) layer separated by a dielectric gap from a plasmonic silver film is investigated using leakage radiation spectroscopy. Experimental studies are complemented...... by numerical simulations for the same structure but in the complementary, inverted configuration. The numerical simulations use as input ellipsometric measurements providing optical constants of p-6P in a wide spectral range. From a comparison between calculated and measured dispersion curves it is concluded...
Morikawa, Y.; Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Nakayama, T. [Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe (Japan)
1996-11-01
We developed a new laser surface acoustic wave (SAW) system and applied this to estimate the mechanical properties of the wear-resistant Ni-P layer electroplated on a stainless steel. The velocity dispersions of Rayleigh wave of the as -plated and heat-treated Ni-P layer were obtained by the one point time domain signal processing. The Ni-P layers with excellent wear resistance produced by the heated treatment higher than 725K were found to show higher Rayleigh velocities than that of the substrate steel, while the Ni-P layer with poor wear resistance showed lower velocities. Young`s moduli of the Ni-P layer, estimated so as the computed velocity dispersion agreed with the measured one, increased with the increase of wear resistance. 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.
Liu Bing-Can; Yu Li; Lu Zhi-Xin
2011-01-01
The analytic surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) dispersion relation is studied in a system consisting of a thin metallic film bounded by two sides media of nonlinear dielectric of arbitrary nonlinearity is studied by applying a generalised first integral approach. We consider both asymmetric and symmetric structures. Especially, in the symmetric system, two possible modes can exist: the odd mode and the even mode. The dispersion relations of the two modes are obtained. Due to the nonlinear dielectric, the magnitude of the electric field at the interface appears and alters the dispersion relations. The changes in SPPs dispersion relations depending on film thicknesses and nonlinearity are studied.
Pressure-velocity relations in reservoir rocks: Modified MacBeth's equation
Grana, Dario
2016-09-01
The knowledge of the saturation and pressure effects on elastic properties is a key factor in reservoir monitoring. The relation between saturation changes and velocity variations is well known in rock physics and at seismic frequency it can be satisfactorily described by Gassmann's equations. The pressure effect still requires deeper investigations in order to be included in rock physics models for 4D studies. Theoretical models of velocity-pressure relations often do not match lab measurements, or contain empirical constants or theoretical parameters that are difficult to calibrate or do not have a precise physical meaning. In this work, I present a new model to describe the pressure sensitivity of elastic moduli for clastic rocks. The proposed model is an extension of MacBeth's relations. These equations are then integrated within a complete rock physics model to describe the relation between rock properties (porosity and clay content), dynamic attributes (saturation and pressure) and elastic properties. The proposed model is calibrated with laboratory measurements of dry samples over a wide range of pressure variations and then applied to well data to simulate different production scenarios. The complete rock physics model can then be used in time-lapse inversion to predict the distribution of dynamic property changes in the reservoir within an inversion workflow for reservoir monitoring.
Dalton, David R.; Slawinski, Michael A.; Stachura, Piotr; Stanoev, Theodore
2016-01-01
We examine two types of guided waves: the Love and the quasi-Rayleigh waves. Both waves propagate in the same model of an elastic isotropic layer above an elastic isotropic halfspace. From their dispersion relations, we calculate their speeds as functions of the elasticity parameters, mass densities, frequency and layer thickness. We examine the sensitivity of these relations to the model and wave properties.
Study on Dispersion Properties of Photonic Crystal Fiber by Effective-Index Model
无
2003-01-01
The group-velocity-dispersion properties of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) were investigated by effective-index model. The relationship between waveguide dispersion and structure parameters: the pitch A and the relative hole size/was studied.
Study on Dispersion Properties of Photonic Crystal Fiber by Effective-Index Model
Ren Guobin; Wang Zhi; Lou Shuqin; Jian Shuisheng
2003-01-01
The group-velocity-dispersion properties of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) were investigated by effective-index model. The relationship between waveguide dispersion and structure parameters: the pitch and the relative hole size f was studied.
Dispersion Models to Forecast Traffic-related Emissions in Urban Areas
Davide Scannapieco
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Down the centuries, a direct link had been developed between increase in mobility and increase in wealth. On the other hand, air emission of greenhouse gases (GHG due to vehicles equipped with internal combustion engines can be regarded as a negative pressure over the environment. In the coming decades, road transport is likely to remain a significant contributor to air pollution in cities. Many urban trips cover distances of less than 6 km. Since the effectiveness of catalytic converters in the initial minutes of engine operation is small, the average emission per distance driven is very high in urban areas. Also, poorly maintained vehicles that lack exhaust aftertreatment systems are responsible for a major part of pollutant emissions. Therefore in urban areas, where higher concentrations of vehicles can be easily found, air pollution represents a critical issue, being it related with both environment and human health protection: in truth, research in recent decades consistently indicates the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on human health, and the evidence points to air pollution stemming from transport as an important contributor to these effects. Several institutions (EEA, USEPA, etc. focused their interest in dispersion models because of their potential effectiveness to forecast atmospheric pollution. Furthermore, air micropollutants such as Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAH and Metallic Trace Elements (MTE are traffic-related and although very low concentrations their dispersion is a serious issue. However, dispersion models are usefully implemented to better manage this estimation problem. Nonetheless, policy makers and land managers have to deal with model selection, taking into account that several dispersion models are available, each one of them focused on specific goals (e.g., wind transport of pollutants, land morphology implementation, evaluation of micropollutants transport, etc.; a further aspect to be considered is
Haschenburger, J. K.
2010-12-01
Sediment transfers in gravel-bed rivers involve the three-dimensional dispersion of mixed size sediment. From a kinematics standpoint, few studies are available to inform on the streamwise and vertical rates of sediment dispersion in natural channels. This research uses a gravel tracing program to quantify dispersion rates over 19 flood seasons. Empirical observations come from Carnation Creek, a small gravel-bed river with large woody debris located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada. Frequent floods and the relatively limited armor layer facilitate streambed activity and relatively high bedload transport rates, typically under partial sediment transport conditions. Over 2500 magnetically tagged stones, ranging in size from 16 to 180 mm, were deployed on the bed surface between 1989 and 1992 in four generations. To quantify gravel dispersion over distances up to 2.6 km, observations are taken from 11 recoveries. Over 280 floods capable of moving bedload occurred during this period, with five exceeding the estimated bankfull discharge. Streamwise dispersion is quantified by virtual velocity, while dispersion into the streambed is quantified by a vertical burial rate. The temporal trend in streamwise dispersion rates is described by a power function. Initial virtual velocities decline rapidly from around 1.4 m/hr to approach an asymptote value of about 0.2 m/hr. The rapid change corresponds to a significant increase in the proportion of buried tracers due to vertical mixing. Initial burial rates reflect the magnitude of the first flood after tracer deployment and range from 0.07 to 0.46 cm/hr depending on tracer generation. Burial rates converge to about 0.06 cm/hr after the fourth flood season and then gradually decline to about 0.01 cm/hr. Thus, the rate of streamwise dispersion exceeds that of vertical dispersion by three orders of magnitude when the movement of sediment routinely activated by floods is considered.
Gyro-viscosity and linear dispersion relations in pair-ion magnetized plasmas
Kono, M. [Faculty of Policy Studies, Chuo University, Tokyo 192-0393 (Japan); Vranjes, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Tenerife E38205 (Spain); Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife E38205 (Spain)
2015-11-15
A fluid theory has been developed by taking account of gyro-viscosity to study wave propagation characteristics in a homogeneous pair-ion magnetized plasma with a cylindrical symmetry. The exact dispersion relations derived by the Hankel-Fourier transformation are shown comparable with those observed in the experiment by Oohara and co-workers. The gyro-viscosity is responsible for the change in propagation characteristics of the ion cyclotron wave from forward to backward by suppressing the effect of the thermal pressure which normally causes the forward nature of dispersion. Although the experiment has been already explained by a kinetic theory by the present authors, the kinetic derivations are so involved because of exact particle orbits in phase space, finite Lamor radius effects, and higher order ion cyclotron resonances. The present fluid theory provides a simple and transparent structure to the dispersion relations since the gyro-viscosity is renormalized into the ion cyclotron frequency which itself indicates the backward nature of dispersion. The usual disadvantage of a fluid theory, which treats only fundamental modes of eigen-waves excited in a system and is not able to describe higher harmonics that a kinetic theory does, is compensated by simple derivations and clear picture based on the renormalization of the gyro-viscosity.
Peonim, Vichan; Srisont, Smith; Udnoon, Jitta; Wongwichai, Sompong; Thapon, Arisa; Worasuwannarak, Wisarn
2016-11-01
Fatal mass casualties by high velocity bullets (HVBs) are rare events in peaceful countries. This study presents 27 forensic autopsy cases with 32 shots fired by 5.56×45mm. HVB (M-16 rifle bullets) during the dispersing the mass rally in Bangkok Thailand, May 2010. It was found that twenty-three (71.88%) typical entrance HVB wounds had round sizes less than the bullet diameters. Most entrance wounds had microtears but no collar abrasion since a HVB has a small streamlined spitzer tip and full metal jacket. For exit wounds, there were various sizes and shapes depending on which section of wound ballistics presented when the bullet exited the body. If a bullet exited in the section of temporally cavity formation, there would be a large size exit wound in accordance with the degree of bullet yaw. This is different from civilian bullets whereby the shape looks like a cylindrical round nose and at low velocity that causes entrance wounds with a similar size to the bullet diameter and is usually round or oval shape with collar abrasion. The temporary cavity is not as large as in a HVB so exit wounds are not quite as large and present a ragged border compared to a HVB. We also reported 9 out of 32 shots (28.13%) of atypical entrance wounds that had various characteristics depending on site of injury and destabilization of bullets. These findings may be helpful to forensic pathologists and to give physicians, who need to diagnose HVB wounds, more confidence.
Development of a laser speckle imaging system for measuring relative blood flow velocity
Smith, Michael S. D.; Packulak, Ernie F.; Sowa, Michael G.
2006-09-01
Determining the viability of damaged or surgically reconstructed tissue is critical in most plastic and reconstructive surgery procedures. Information about tissue blood flow in the region in question can make this determination much easier. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is one technique that could potentially aid in making this determination. LSI is a non-contact full-field imaging technique with simultaneous high spatial and temporal resolution. Tissue is illuminated with diffuse red laser light and the spatial and/or temporal statistics of the resulting speckle pattern can be used to calculate relative flow velocities. We have developed a LSI system that produces relative velocity blood flow images. Bench tests of the system indicate that it may be used to distinguish between normal, decreased, and increased blood flow states of a human finger. The system has also been used to take some initial laboratory measurements using an animal model - an epigastric free flap on a rat. Preliminary results indicate that the method may be used to distinguish states of venous or arterial occlusion from unoccluded states of the skin flap. While further experimentation is necessary, these initial results indicate that LSI could be a useful aid to the plastic surgeon for assessing tissue viability.
Non-linear hydrodynamics of axion dark matter: relative velocity effects and "quantum forces"
Marsh, David J E
2015-01-01
The non-linear hydrodynamic equations for axion/scalar field dark matter (DM) in the non-relativistic Madelung-Shcr\\"{o}dinger form are derived in a simple manner, including the effects of universal expansion and Hubble drag. The hydrodynamic equations are used to investigate the relative velocity between axion DM and baryons, and the moving-background perturbation theory (MBPT) derived. Axions massive enough to be all of the DM do not affect the coherence length of the relative velocity, but the MBPT equations are modified by the inclusion of the axion effective sound speed. These MBPT equations are necessary for accurately modelling the effects of axion DM on the formation of the first cosmic structures, and suggest that the 21cm power spectrum could improve constraints on axion mass by up to four orders of magnitude with respect to the current best constraints. A further application of these results uses the "quantum force" analogy to model scalar field gradient energy in a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics ...
Boehm, Asmus
2015-01-01
Galaxy scaling relations such as the Tully-Fisher relation (between maximum rotation velocity Vmax and luminosity) and the velocity-size relation (between Vmax and disk scale length) are powerful tools to quantify the evolution of disk galaxies with cosmic time. We took spatially resolved slit spectra of 261 field disk galaxies at redshifts up to z~1 using the FORS instruments of the ESO Very Large Telescope. The targets were selected from the FORS Deep Field and William Herschel Deep Field. Our spectroscopy was complemented with HST/ACS imaging in the F814W filter. We analyzed the ionized gas kinematics by extracting rotation curves from the 2-D spectra. Taking into account all geometrical, observational and instrumental effects, these rotation curves were used to derive the intrinsic Vmax. Neglecting galaxies with disturbed kinematics or insufficient spatial rotation curve extent, Vmax could be determined for 137 galaxies covering redshifts 0.05
Israelsen, Stine Møller; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Rottwitt, Karsten
2017-01-01
By knowing the electric field distribution of a guided mode in an optical fiber, we are able to evaluate the group velocity dispersion in a weakly guiding step-index fiber for a pure mode in the LP0X, LP1X, and LP2X mode groups independently of the fiber length. We demonstrate the method...
Touil, B.; Bendib, A.; Bendib-Kalache, K.
2017-02-01
The longitudinal dielectric function is derived analytically from the relativistic Vlasov equation for arbitrary values of the relevant parameters z = m c 2 / T , where m is the rest electron mass, c is the speed of light, and T is the electron temperature in energy units. A new analytical approach based on the Legendre polynomial expansion and continued fractions was used. Analytical expression of the electron distribution function was derived. The real part of the dispersion relation and the damping rate of electron plasma waves are calculated both analytically and numerically in the whole range of the parameter z . The results obtained improve significantly the previous results reported in the literature. For practical purposes, explicit expressions of the real part of the dispersion relation and the damping rate in the range z > 30 and strongly relativistic regime are also proposed.
Correction of Cardy–Verlinde formula for Fermions and Bosons with modified dispersion relation
Sadatian, S. Davood, E-mail: sd-sadatian@um.ac.ir; Dareyni, H.
2017-05-15
Cardy–Verlinde formula links the entropy of conformal symmetry field to the total energy and its Casimir energy in a D-dimensional space. To correct black hole thermodynamics, modified dispersion relation can be used which is proposed as a general feature of quantum gravity approaches. In this paper, the thermodynamics of Schwarzschild four-dimensional black hole is corrected using the modified dispersion relation for Fermions and Bosons. Finally, using modified thermodynamics of Schwarzschild four-dimensional black hole, generalization for Cardy–Verlinde formula is obtained. - Highlights: • The modified Cardy–Verlinde formula obtained using MDR for Fermions and Bosons. • The modified entropy of the black hole used to correct the Cardy–Verlinde formula. • The modified entropy of the CFT has been obtained.
Dispersion Relation of σ Meson and Pion at Finite Nuclear Density in Chiral σ Model
DONG Dong-Qiao; CHEN Wei; WEN De-Hua; LIU Liang-Gang; Masahiro Nakano
2004-01-01
The propagators of pion and sigma meson at a finite nuclear density and zero temperature are studied in chiral σ model. Their dispersion relations are calculated numerically in one-loop approximation. In order to avoid the so-called tachyon pole appearing in the one-loop propagators of pion and sigma meson, we regard the mass of sigma meson mσ as a free parameter and adjust it to fit the nuclear saturation properties. For mσ equal to 3075 MeV, the tachyonpole does not appear at the normal nuclear density. Thus the dispersion relation can be calculated in chiral σ model in one-loop level for the first time.
Dispersion relations and entropy of scalar fields in Rindler and de Sitter spaces
Lenz, F; Yazaki, K
2014-01-01
Properties of scalar fields in Rindler and de Sitter spaces are the subject of this work. Using the "brick wall model'' the dispersion relations are determined and the remarkable properties common to both spaces as well as their differences are discussed. Equipped with these tools the horizon induced thermodynamics is revisited and shown to be dominated by a single mode propagating perpendicular to the horizon. Explicit expressions for the partition function, entropy and heat capacity for massless and massive fields are presented.
Sharma, Prashant; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta
2015-07-01
The current study concerns the detailed microstructural characterization and investigation of wear behavior of nano-boride dispersed coating developed on AISI 304 stainless steel by high velocity oxy-fuel spray deposition of nickel-based alloy and subsequent laser melting. There is a significant refinement and homogenization of microstructure with improvement in microhardness due to laser surface melting (1200 VHN as compared to 945 VHN of as-sprayed and 250 VHN of as-received substrate). The high temperature phase stability of the as-coated and laser melted surface has been studied by differential scanning calorimeter followed by detailed phase analysis at room and elevated temperature. There is a significant improvement in wear resistance of laser melted surface as compared to as-sprayed and the as-received one due to increased hardness and reduced coefficient of friction. The mechanism of wear has been investigated in details. Corrosion resistance of the coating in a 3.56 wt pct NaCl solution is significantly improved (4.43 E-2 mm/year as compared to 5 E-1 mm/year of as-sprayed and 1.66 mm/year of as-received substrate) due to laser surface melting as compared to as-sprayed surface.
Lowell, C. E.; Deadmore, D. L.; Whittenberger, J. D.
1982-01-01
Several oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys have been tested for cyclic, long-term, high gas-velocity resistance to oxidation at 1100 C and hot corrosion at 900 C. Both nominally Ni-16Cr-4Al and Fe-20Cr-4.5Al ODS alloys were subjected up to about 2500 cycles, where each cycle consisted of 1 hr in a hot, Mach 0.3 combusted gas stream followed by a 3-min quench in an ambient temperature, Mach 0.3 air blast. For comparison to existing technology, a coated superalloy was simultaneously tested. The ODS iron alloy exhibited clearly superior behavior, surviving 3800 oxidation and 2300 hot corrosion cycles essentially unscathed. While the ODS nickel alloys exhibited adequate oxidation resistance, the long-term hot corrosion resistance could be marginal, since the best life for such alloys under these conditions was only about 1100 cycles. However, the hot corrosion resistance of the ODS Ni-base alloys is excellent in comparison to that of traditional superalloys.
Black hole radiation with modified dispersion relation in tunneling paradigm: Static frame
Tao, Jun; Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang
2017-09-01
To study possible deviations from the Hawking's prediction, we assume that the dispersion relations of matter fields are modified at high energies and use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to investigate the corresponding effects on the Hawking radiation in this paper. The preferred frame is the static frame of the black hole. The dispersion relation adopted agrees with the relativistic one at low energies but is modified near the Planck mass mp. We calculate the corrections to the Hawking temperature for massive and charged particles to O (mp-2) and massless and neutral particles to all orders. Our results suggest that the thermal spectrum of radiations near horizon is robust, e.g. corrections to the Hawking temperature are suppressed by mp. After the spectrum of radiations near the horizon is obtained, we use the brick wall model to compute the thermal entropy of a massless scalar field near the horizon of a 4D spherically symmetric black hole. We find that the subleading logarithmic term of the entropy does not depend on how the dispersion relations of matter fields are modified. Finally, the luminosities of black holes are computed by using the geometric optics approximation.
Black hole radiation with modified dispersion relation in tunneling paradigm: Static frame
Jun Tao
2017-09-01
Full Text Available To study possible deviations from the Hawking's prediction, we assume that the dispersion relations of matter fields are modified at high energies and use the Hamilton–Jacobi method to investigate the corresponding effects on the Hawking radiation in this paper. The preferred frame is the static frame of the black hole. The dispersion relation adopted agrees with the relativistic one at low energies but is modified near the Planck mass mp. We calculate the corrections to the Hawking temperature for massive and charged particles to O(mp−2 and massless and neutral particles to all orders. Our results suggest that the thermal spectrum of radiations near horizon is robust, e.g. corrections to the Hawking temperature are suppressed by mp. After the spectrum of radiations near the horizon is obtained, we use the brick wall model to compute the thermal entropy of a massless scalar field near the horizon of a 4D spherically symmetric black hole. We find that the subleading logarithmic term of the entropy does not depend on how the dispersion relations of matter fields are modified. Finally, the luminosities of black holes are computed by using the geometric optics approximation.
Neutrino Dispersion Relations at Finite Temperature and Density in the Left-Right Symmetric Model
Villalba-Pardo, F D
2010-01-01
In the framework of the Left-Right Symmetric Model, where left-handed neutrinos are massive via the see-saw mechanism, we determine the effects of temperature and density in the dispersion relations for neutrinos, considering that there exists an excess of leptons over antileptons in the plasma. To achieve this we first calculate the dispersion relations at finite temperature and density, computing the neutrino self-energy at one loop order in perturbation theory, obtaining a fully analytic expression for this self-energy even in the fully broken symmetry case by using the Mellin summation technique. From the dispersion relation found from the self energy we obtain the thermal effective mass for neutrinos at high temperature limit. This result allow us to establish the effect of finite temperature and density for neutrino oscillations in thermal and dense media for this framework. We can do it if we take into account that the oscillation patterns depend explicitly on neutrino masses. As a result, a generaliza...
de Waal, C; Rodger, J G; Anderson, B; Ellis, A G
2014-05-01
Dispersal and breeding system traits are thought to affect colonization success. As species have attained their present distribution ranges through colonization, these traits may vary geographically. Although several theories predict associations between dispersal ability, selfing ability and the relative position of a population within its geographic range, there is little theoretical or empirical consensus on exactly how these three variables are related. We investigated relationships between dispersal ability, selfing ability and range position across 28 populations of 13 annual, wind-dispersed Asteraceae species from the Namaqualand region of South Africa. Controlling for phylogeny, relative dispersal ability--assessed from vertical fall time of fruits--was positively related to an index of autofertility--determined from hand-pollination experiments. These findings support the existence of two discrete syndromes: high selfing ability associated with good dispersal and obligate outcrossing associated with lower dispersal ability. This is consistent with the hypothesis that selection for colonization success drives the evolution of an association between these traits. However, no general effect of range position on dispersal or breeding system traits was evident. This suggests selection on both breeding system and dispersal traits acts consistently across distribution ranges. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Milgrom Relation Models for Spiral Galaxies from Two-Dimensional Velocity Maps
Barnes, E I; Sellwood, J A; Barnes, Eric I.; Kosowsky, Arthur; Sellwood, Jerry A.
2007-01-01
Using two-dimensional velocity maps and I-band photometry, we have created mass models of 40 spiral galaxies using the Milgrom relation (the basis of modified Newtonian dynamics, or MOND) to complement previous work. A Bayesian technique is employed to compare several different dark matter halo models to Milgrom and Newtonian models. Pseudo-isothermal dark matter halos provide the best statistical fits to the data in a majority of cases, while the Milgrom relation generally provides good fits as well. We also find that Milgrom models give mass-to-light ratios that roughly correlate with galaxy color, as predicted by stellar population models. A subsample of galaxies in the Hydra cluster follow a tight relation between mass-to-light and color, but one that is significantly different from relations found in previous studies. Ruling out the Milgrom relation with rotational kinematics is difficult due to systematic uncertainties in the observations as well as underlying model assumptions. We discuss in detail two...
Experimental Determination of Whistler Wave Dispersion Relation in the Solar Wind
Stansby, D.; Horbury, T. S.; Chen, C. H. K.; Matteini, L.
2016-09-01
The origins and properties of large-amplitude whistler wavepackets in the solar wind are still unclear. In this Letter, we utilize single spacecraft electric and magnetic field waveform measurements from the ARTEMIS mission to calculate the plasma frame frequency and wavevector of individual wavepackets over multiple intervals. This allows direct comparison of experimental measurements with theoretical dispersion relations to identify the observed waves as whistler waves. The whistlers are right-hand circularly polarized, travel anti-sunward, and are aligned with the background magnetic field. Their dispersion is strongly affected by the local electron parallel beta in agreement with linear theory. The properties measured are consistent with the electron heat flux instability acting in the solar wind to generate these waves.
Measurement of average density and relative volumes in a dispersed two-phase fluid
Sreepada, Sastry R.; Rippel, Robert R.
1992-01-01
An apparatus and a method are disclosed for measuring the average density and relative volumes in an essentially transparent, dispersed two-phase fluid. A laser beam with a diameter no greater than 1% of the diameter of the bubbles, droplets, or particles of the dispersed phase is directed onto a diffraction grating. A single-order component of the diffracted beam is directed through the two-phase fluid and its refraction is measured. Preferably, the refracted beam exiting the fluid is incident upon a optical filter with linearly varing optical density and the intensity of the filtered beam is measured. The invention can be combined with other laser-based measurement systems, e.g., laser doppler anemometry.
Measurements of Finite Dust Temperature Effects in the Dispersion Relation of the Dust Acoustic Wave
Snipes, Erica; Williams, Jeremiah
2009-04-01
A dusty plasma is a four-component system composed of ions, electrons, neutral particles and charged microparticles. The presence of these charged microparticles gives rise to new plasma wave modes, including the dust acoustic wave. Recent measurements [1, 2] of the dispersion relationship for the dust acoustic wave in a glow discharge have shown that finite temperature effects are observed at higher values of neutral pressure. Other work [3] has shown that these effects are not observed at lower values of neutral pressure. We present the results of ongoing work examining finite temperature effects in the dispersion relation as a function of neutral pressure. [4pt] [1] E. Thomas, Jr., R. Fisher, and R. L. Merlino, Phys. Plasmas 14, 123701 (2007). [0pt] [2] J. D. Williams, E. Thomas Jr., and L. Marcus, Phys. Plasmas 15, 043704 (2008). [0pt] [3] T. Trottenberg, D. Block, and A. Piel, Phys. Plasmas 13, 042105 (2006).
Experimental determination of whistler wave dispersion relation in the solar wind
Stansby, D; Chen, C H K; Matteini, L
2016-01-01
The origins and properties of large amplitude whistler wave packets in the solar wind are still unclear. In this Letter we utilise single spacecraft electric and magnetic field waveform measurements from the ARTEMIS mission to calculate the plasma frame frequency and wavevector of individual wave packets over multiple intervals. This allows direct comparison of experimental measurements with theoretical dispersion relations to identify the observed waves as whistler waves. The whistlers are right-hand circularly polarised, travel anti-sunward and are aligned with the background magnetic field. Their dispersion is strongly affected by the local electron parallel beta in agreement with linear theory. The properties measured are consistent with the electron heat flux instability acting in the solar wind to generate these waves.
Du, Yigang; Fan, Rui; Li, Yong
2016-01-01
An ultrasound imaging framework modeled with the first order nonlinear pressure–velocity relations (NPVR) based simulation and implemented by a half-time staggered solution and pseudospectral method is presented in this paper. The framework is capable of simulating linear and nonlinear ultrasound...... propagation and reflections in a heterogeneous medium with different sound speeds and densities. It can be initialized with arbitrary focus, excitation and apodization for multiple individual channels in both 2D and 3D spatial fields. The simulated channel data can be generated using this framework......, and ultrasound image can be obtained by beamforming the simulated channel data. Various results simulated by different algorithms are illustrated for comparisons. The root mean square (RMS) errors for each compared pulses are calculated. The linear propagation is validated by an angular spectrum approach (ASA...
Hartmann, Peter
2015-10-01
The design of high-quality imaging lenses continues to strive for the best color trueness over wider and wider wavelength ranges such as for multiwavelength fluorescence microscopy or hyperspectral imaging. Glasses suitable for sharp images at more than two wavelengths must differ in their dispersion from the classical crown and flint glass types, which gather along a straight line in a plot of the relative partial dispersion against the Abbe number. Glasses suitable for multicolor correction can be recognized by a considerable deviation of their relative partial dispersion from this normal line. Originally, the normal lines for different relative partial dispersions were defined by using the SCHOTT glass types K7 and F2. Today's data sheets of all glass manufacturers contain numerical values for deviations of relative partial dispersions from the normal lines. A comparison of almost identical glasses shows differences between these deviations being too large, obviously coming from different versions of K7 and F2 dispersion curves used. For preselection in designs and for direct comparison of glass types, it is necessary to agree on common dispersion curves each for K7 and for F2 in order to obtain really comparable values for deviations of the relative partial dispersion from the normal line.
Böhm, Asmus; Ziegler, Bodo L.
2016-07-01
Aims: Galaxy scaling relations such as the Tully-Fisher relation (between the maximum rotation velocity Vmax and luminosity) and the velocity-size relation (between Vmax and the disk scale length) are powerful tools to quantify the evolution of disk galaxies with cosmic time. Methods: We took spatially resolved slit spectra of 261 field disk galaxies at redshifts up to z ≈ 1 using the FORS instruments of the ESO Very Large Telescope. The targets were selected from the FORS Deep Field and William Herschel Deep Field. Our spectroscopy was complemented with HST/ACS imaging in the F814W filter. We analyzed the ionized gas kinematics by extracting rotation curves from the two-dimensional spectra. Taking into account all geometrical, observational, and instrumental effects, these rotation curves were used to derive the intrinsic Vmax. Results: Neglecting galaxies with disturbed kinematics or insufficient spatial rotation curve extent, Vmax was reliably determined for 124 galaxies covering redshifts 0.05 gas and/or small satellites. From scrutinizing the combined evolution in luminosity and size, we find that the galaxies that show the strongest evolution toward smaller sizes at z ≈ 1 are not those that feature the strongest evolution in luminosity, and vice versa. Based on observations with the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope (ESO-VLT), observing run IDs 65.O-0049, 66.A-0547, 68.A-0013, 69.B-0278B, 70.B-0251A and 081.B-0107A.The full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/592/A64
Loredana TANASIE
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper the zeros of some dispersion relations apperaring in sound attenuation problems in circular lined ducts, carrying a gas flow, are investigated numerically. To find the values of frequencies for which the dispersion relations vanish is not easy at all. That is beacause these relations contain the solution of an initial value problem which depends on the unknown frequency and can not be found explicitly. In order to overcome this difficulty we consider approximate dispersion relations, obtained by replacing in the shear flow the solution of the initial value problem by its Taylor’s polynomial approximate. For numerical computations typical aeronautical examples are considered.
Diffusion related isotopic fractionation effects with one-dimensional advective–dispersive transport
Xu, Bruce S. [Civil Engineering Department, University of Toronto, 35 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A4 (Canada); Lollar, Barbara Sherwood [Earth Sciences Department, University of Toronto, 22 Russell Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3B1 (Canada); Passeport, Elodie [Civil Engineering Department, University of Toronto, 35 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A4 (Canada); Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry Department, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3E5 (Canada); Sleep, Brent E., E-mail: sleep@ecf.utoronto.ca [Civil Engineering Department, University of Toronto, 35 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 1A4 (Canada)
2016-04-15
Aqueous phase diffusion-related isotope fractionation (DRIF) for carbon isotopes was investigated for common groundwater contaminants in systems in which transport could be considered to be one-dimensional. This paper focuses not only on theoretically observable DRIF effects in these systems but introduces the important concept of constraining “observable” DRIF based on constraints imposed by the scale of measurements in the field, and on standard limits of detection and analytical uncertainty. Specifically, constraints for the detection of DRIF were determined in terms of the diffusive fractionation factor, the initial concentration of contaminants (C{sub 0}), the method detection limit (MDL) for isotopic analysis, the transport time, and the ratio of the longitudinal mechanical dispersion coefficient to effective molecular diffusion coefficient (D{sub mech}/D{sub eff}). The results allow a determination of field conditions under which DRIF may be an important factor in the use of stable carbon isotope measurements for evaluation of contaminant transport and transformation for one-dimensional advective–dispersive transport. This study demonstrates that for diffusion-dominated transport of BTEX, MTBE, and chlorinated ethenes, DRIF effects are only detectable for the smaller molar mass compounds such as vinyl chloride for C{sub 0}/MDL ratios of 50 or higher. Much larger C{sub 0}/MDL ratios, corresponding to higher source concentrations or lower detection limits, are necessary for DRIF to be detectable for the higher molar mass compounds. The distance over which DRIF is observable for VC is small (less than 1 m) for a relatively young diffusive plume (< 100 years), and DRIF will not easily be detected by using the conventional sampling approach with “typical” well spacing (at least several meters). With contaminant transport by advection, mechanical dispersion, and molecular diffusion this study suggests that in field sites where D{sub mech}/D{sub eff} is
Richter, Tom; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Kind, Rainer; Asch, Günter
2014-06-01
We report on earthquake and temperature-related velocity changes in high-frequency autocorrelations of ambient noise data from seismic stations of the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile project in northern Chile. Daily autocorrelation functions are analyzed over a period of 5 years with passive image interferometry. A short-term velocity drop recovering after several days to weeks is observed for the Mw 7.7 Tocopilla earthquake at most stations. At the two stations PB05 and PATCX, we observe a long-term velocity decrease recovering over the course of around 2 years. While station PB05 is located in the rupture area of the Tocopilla earthquake, this is not the case for station PATCX. Station PATCX is situated in an area influenced by salt sediment in the vicinity of Salar Grande and presents a superior sensitivity to ground acceleration and periodic surface-induced changes. Due to this high sensitivity, we observe a velocity response of several regional earthquakes at PATCX, and we can show for the first time a linear relationship between the amplitude of velocity drops and peak ground acceleration for data from a single station. This relationship does not hold true when comparing different stations due to the different sensitivity of the station environments. Furthermore, we observe periodic annual velocity changes at PATCX. Analyzing data at a temporal resolution below 1 day, we are able to identify changes with a period of 24 h, too. The characteristics of the seismic velocity with annual and daily periods indicate an atmospheric origin of the velocity changes that we confirm with a model based on thermally induced stress. This comprehensive model explains the lag time dependence of the temperature-related seismic velocity changes involving the distribution of temperature fluctuations, the relationship between temperature, stress and velocity change, plus autocorrelation sensitivity kernels.
Dispersion relation for hadronic light-by-light scattering: theoretical foundations
Colangelo, Gilberto; Procura, Massimiliano; Stoffer, Peter
2015-01-01
In this paper we make a further step towards a dispersive description of the hadronic light-by-light (HLbL) tensor, which should ultimately lead to a data-driven evaluation of its contribution to $(g-2)_\\mu$. We first provide a Lorentz decomposition of the HLbL tensor performed according to the general recipe by Bardeen, Tung, and Tarrach, generalizing and extending our previous approach, which was constructed in terms of a basis of helicity amplitudes. Such a tensor decomposition has several advantages: the role of gauge invariance and crossing symmetry becomes fully transparent; the scalar coefficient functions are free of kinematic singularities and zeros, and thus fulfill a Mandelstam double-dispersive representation; and the explicit relation for the HLbL contribution to $(g-2)_\\mu$ in terms of the coefficient functions simplifies substantially. We demonstrate explicitly that the dispersive approach defines both the pion-pole and the pion-loop contribution unambiguously and in a model-independent way. Th...
Black Hole Radiation with Modified Dispersion Relation in Tunneling Paradigm: Free-fall Frame
Wang, Peng; Ying, Shuxuan
2015-01-01
Due to the exponential high gravitational red shift near the event horizon of a black hole, it might appear that the Hawking radiation would be highly sensitive to some unknown high energy physics. To study effects of any unknown physics at the Planck scale on the Hawking radiation, the dispersive field theory models have been proposed, which are variations of Unruh's sonic black hole analogy. In this paper, we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to investigate the dispersive field theory models. The preferred frame is the free-fall frame of the black hole. The dispersion relation adopted agrees with the relativistic one at low energy but is modified near the Planck mass $m_{p}$. The corrections to the Hawking temperature are calculated for massive and charged particles to $\\mathcal{O}\\left( m_{p}^{-2}\\right) $ and neutral and massless particles with $\\lambda=0$ to all orders. The Hawking temperature of radiation agrees with the standard one at the leading order. After the spectrum of radiation near the horizon is...
Black hole radiation with modified dispersion relation in tunneling paradigm: free-fall frame
Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang; Ying, Shuxuan [Sichuan University, Center for Theoretical Physics, College of Physical Science and Technology, Chengdu (China)
2016-01-15
Due to the exponential high gravitational red shift near the event horizon of a black hole, it might appear that the Hawking radiation would be highly sensitive to some unknown high energy physics. To study the effects of any unknown physics at the Planck scale on the Hawking radiation, the dispersive field theory models have been proposed, which are variations of Unruh's sonic black hole analogy. In this paper, we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to investigate the dispersive field theory models. The preferred frame is the free-fall frame of the black hole. The dispersion relation adopted agrees with the relativistic one at low energy but is modified near the Planck mass m{sub p}. The corrections to the Hawking temperature are calculated for massive and charged particles to O(m{sub p}{sup -2}) and neutral and massless particles with λ = 0 to all orders. The Hawking temperature of radiation agrees with the standard one at the leading order. After the spectrum of radiation near the horizon is obtained, we use the brick wall model to compute the thermal entropy of a massless scalar field near the horizon of a 4D spherically symmetric black hole and a 2D one. Finally, the luminosity of a Schwarzschild black hole is calculated by using the geometric optics approximation. (orig.)
Wang, Ji; Ge, Jian; Wan, Xiaoke; De Lee, Nathan; Lee, Brian
2012-11-01
A fixed delay interferometer is the key component in a DFDI (dispersed fixed delay interferometer) instrument for an exoplanet search using the radial velocity (RV) technique. Although the group delay (GD) of the interferometer can be measured with white light combs (WLCs), the measurement precision is limited by the comb visibility, and the wavelength coverage is constrained by the comb sampling. For instance, this method can calibrate only half of the SDSS-III MARVELS spectra and reach a precision of 2.2 m s-1. This article introduces an innovative method using a sine source for precision delay calibration over very broad wavelengths. The sine source is made of a monolithic Michelson interferometer fed with white light. The interferometer modulated white light (in a sinusoidal form) is fed into a DFDI instrument for calibration. Due to an optimal GD of the sine source, Fourier components from the DFDI interferometer, the sine source, and their frequency beating can be clearly separated and effectively extracted with a chirped Fourier transform to allow precision measurements of the interferometer GD over the entire range of operation wavelengths. The measurements of the MARVELS interferometer with a sine source show that this new calibration method has improved the wavelength coverage by a factor of 2 and the precision by a factor of 3. The RV measurement error induced by GD measurement uncertainties is controlled to be less than 1 m s-1, which has met the requirements for MARVELS moderate-to-high Doppler precision (∼5–30 m s-1) for exoplanet search around V ∼ 8–12 solar-type stars. Heterodyne combs using an external interferometer source can be applied in other areas of optics measurement and calibration.
Relative dispersion of clustered drifters in a small micro-tidal estuary
Suara, Kabir; Chanson, Hubert; Borgas, Michael; Brown, Richard J.
2017-07-01
Small tide-dominated estuaries are affected by large scale flow structures which combine with the underlying bed generated smaller scale turbulence to significantly increase the magnitude of horizontal diffusivity. Field estimates of horizontal diffusivity and its associated scales are however rare due to limitations in instrumentation. Data from multiple deployments of low and high resolution clusters of GPS-drifters are used to examine the dynamics of a surface flow in a small micro-tidal estuary through relative dispersion analyses. During the field study, cluster diffusivity, which combines both large- and small-scale processes ranged between, 0.01 and 3.01 m2/s for spreading clusters and, -0.06 and -4.2 m2/s for contracting clusters. Pair-particle dispersion, Dp2, was scale dependent and grew as Dp2 ∼ t1.83 in streamwise and Dp2 ∼ t0.8 in cross-stream directions. At small separation scale, pair-particle (d law and became weaker as separation scale increases. Pair-particle diffusivity was described as Kp ∼ d1.01 and Kp ∼ d0.85 in the streamwise and cross-stream directions, respectively for separation scales ranging from 0.1 to 10 m. Two methods were used to identify the mechanism responsible for dispersion within the channel. The results clearly revealed the importance of strain fields (stretching and shearing) in the spreading of particles within a small micro-tidal channel. The work provided input for modelling dispersion of passive particle in shallow micro-tidal estuaries where these were not previously experimentally studied.
Олексій Модестович Халімовський
2017-07-01
Full Text Available A device design has been developed that makes it possible to insert intelligent sensors (IS into the products from composite polymeric materials to control their stress-strain state. The results of the experiments made it possible to improve the algorithm of coordinated work of the vector controlled induction electric drive of the device elements. The simulation results of the transient processes of the operating conditions of the IS automatic insertions into the predetermined spatial coordinates of the extruder channel polymer have been shown. The presence of such sensors within the given spatial coordinates of a product is realized due to rapid movement of molten polymer with included IS under use of the scheme of influx fitting to the polymer that moves in the main channel of the extruder. Based on the simulation results a dependence function for the immersion depth of the polymer melt with included IS from its movement velocity has been obtained. The approximation of this dependence via a polynomial function of 5-th order made it possible to determine with the relative error less than 1% analytically the linear velocity of the rod in the cylinder injector for transporting of the molten polymer with included IS to the predetermined spatial coordinates of the polymer channel of the extruder. For inserting of the intelligent sensors (IS into the depth of 1.2 mm a required motor speed of electric drive was calculated under considering of the peculiarities of the chosen kinematic scheme. The obtained experimental data have confirmed the possibility of technical implementation of the developed device as well as allowed refining of the algorithm for the automation system. The simulation results for the system have been presented. The system used the vector-controlled asynchronous electric drives with standard settings for their contours to provide the agreed movement of the plasticiser screw and the injector rod by inserting of IS at a given depth
Morales, J; Fonseca, F; Morales, John; Quimbay, Carlos; Fonseca, Frank
1999-01-01
We calculate the fermionic dispersion relations in the minimal standard model at finite temperature in presence of non-vanishing chemical potentials due to the CP-asymmetric fermionic background. The dispersion relations are calculated for a vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field equal to zero (unbroken electroweak symmetry). The calculation is performed in the real time formalism of the thermal field theory at one-loop order in a general $\\xi$ gauge. The fermionic self-energy is calculated at leading order in temperature and chemical potential and this fact permits us to obtain gauge invariant analytical expressions for the dispersion relations.
Morphological Tuning of the Plasmon Dispersion Relation in Dielectric-Loaded Nanofiber Waveguides
Leißner, Till; Lemke, Christoph; Fiutowski, Jacek
2013-01-01
in a waveguide. This Letter reports on the measurement of the real part of the surface plasmon polariton dispersion relation in the near infrared spectral regime for individual nanoscale plasmonic waveguides, which were formed by deposition of para-hexaphenylene (p-6P) based nanofibers on top of a gold film....... A detailed structural characterization of the nanofibers provides accurate information on the dimensions of the investigated waveguides and enables us to quantify the effect of mode confinement by comparison with experimental results from continuous p-6P films and calculations based on the effective index...
Disordered locality and Lorentz dispersion relations: an explicit model of quantum foam
Caravelli, F
2012-01-01
Using the framework of Quantum Graphity, we construct an explicit model of a quantum foam, a quantum spacetime with spatial wormholes. The states depend on two parameters: the minimal size of the wormholes and their density with respect to this length. Macroscopic Lorentz invariance requires that the quantum superposition of spacetimes is suppressed by the length of these wormholes. We parametrize this suppression by the distribution of wormhole lengths in the quantum foam. We discuss the general case and then analyze two specific natural wormhole distributions. Corrections to the Lorentz dispersion relations are calculated using techniques developed in previous work.
Light-induced nonlinear effects on dispersion relation of ultracold Bose gas
胡正峰; 杜春光; 李师群
2003-01-01
We have investigated the optical properties of A-configuration ultracold dense Bose gas interacting with two laser pulses, which usually result in electromagnetically induced transparency. With the nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics and taking into account the atomic dipole-dipole interaction and local field effect, we have derived the Maxwell-Bloch equations of the system. The dispersion relation of an ultracold Bose gas has been obtained and the light-induced nonlinear effects have been analysed. The light-induced nonlinear effects are different from the effects induced by two-body collision of Bose-Einstein condensation atoms which have a frequency shift of transparent window.
Light—induced nonlinear effects of dispersion relation of ultracold Bose gas
HuZheng-Feng; DuChunGuang; LiShi-Qun
2003-01-01
We have investigated the optical properties of A-configuration ultracold dense Bose gas interacting with two laser pulses, which usually result in electromagnetically induced transparency. With the nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics and taking into account the atomic dipole-dipole interaction and local field effect, we have derived the Maxwell-Bloch equations of the system. The dispersion relation of an ultracold Bose gas has been obtained and the light-induced nonlinear effects have been analysed. The light-induced nonlinear effects are different from the effects induced by two-body collision of Bose-Einstein condensation atoms which have a frequency shift of transparent window.
Near-field heat transfer between graphene monolayers: Dispersion relation and parametric analysis
Yin, Ge; Yang, Jiang; Ma, Yungui
2016-12-01
Plasmon polaritons in graphene can enhance near-field heat transfer. In this work, we give a complete parametric analysis on the near-field heat transfer between two graphene monolayers that allows transfer efficiencies several orders-of-magnitude larger than blackbody radiation. Influences of major parameters are conclusively clarified from the changes of the interlayer supermode coupling and their dispersion relations. The method to maximize the near-field heat flux is discussed. The generalized Stefan-Boltzmann formula is proposed to describe the near-field heat transfer dominated by evanescent wave tunneling. Our results are of practical significance in guiding the design of thermal management systems.
Dispersion Relation of a Surface Wave at a Rough Metal-Air Interface
Kotelnikov, Igor
2016-01-01
We derived a dispersion relation of a surface wave at a rough metal-air interface. In contrast to previous publications, we assumed that an intrinsic surface impedance due to a finite electric conductivity of the metal can be of the same order as the roughness-induced impedance. We then applied our results to the analysis of a long-standing problem of the discrepancy between the experimental data on the propagation of surface waves in the terahertz range of frequencies and the classical Drude theory.
An Analysis of the New LHC Data through the Dispersion Relations
Selyugin, O V
2016-01-01
We analyse the tension between the (indirect) measurements of the total cross section, and show the impact of various assumptions on the extraction of the parameters from the elastic scattering amplitude, with a special attention to the total cross section. In particular, the determination of the phase of the elastic scattering amplitude will play an important role, and we shall study it via dispersion relations. We shall also examine the origin of the dependence on momentum transfer of the slopes of the different parts of the scattering amplitude in different models. We shall also give the results of another similar analysis based on a Regge-trajectory approach for the hadron scattering amplitude.
Shinton, I
2008-01-01
The globalised cascaded scattering matrix technique is a well proven, practical method that can be used to simulate large accelerating RF structures in which realistic fabrication errors to be incorporated in an efficient manner without the necessity to re-mesh the entire geometry. The globalised scattering matrix (GMS) technique allows one to obtain the scattering matrix for a structure. The method allows rapid e.m. field calculations to be obtained. Results are presented on monopole mode fields and dispersion relations calculated from direct and analytical methods. Analytical approximate results are also presented for the equivalent shunt susceptance of an iris loaded structure.
Groen, B.E.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Duysens, J.
2008-01-01
Fall techniques that reduce fall severity may decrease the risk of hip fractures. A fundamental variable for fall severity is impact force, but impact velocity is also used. The purpose of the study was to determine whether impact velocity is valid to determine differences in fall severity between
Groen, B.E.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Duysens, J.
2008-01-01
Fall techniques that reduce fall severity may decrease the risk of hip fractures. A fundamental variable for fall severity is impact force, but impact velocity is also used. The purpose of the study was to determine whether impact velocity is valid to determine differences in fall severity between d
Simon Hallstan
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Species distribution modeling is used in applied ecology; for example in predicting the consequences of global change. However, questions still remain about the robustness of model predictions. Here we estimate effects of landscape spatial configuration and organism flight ability—factors related to dispersal—on the accuracy of species distribution models. Distribution models were developed for 129 phytoplankton taxa, 164 littoral invertebrate taxa and 44 profundal invertebrate taxa sampled in 105 Swedish lakes, using six different modeling techniques (generalized linear models (GLM, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, classification tree analysis (CTA, mixture discriminant analysis (MDA, generalized boosting models (GBM and random forests (RF. Model accuracy was not affected by dispersal ability (i.e., invertebrate flight ability, but the accuracy of phytoplankton assemblage predictions and, to a lesser extent, littoral invertebrate assemblages were related to ecosystem size and connectivity. Although no general pattern across species or spatial configuration was evident from our study, we recommend that dispersal and spatial configuration of ecosystems should be considered when developing species distribution models.
Muñoz Mateo, A.; Brand, J.
2015-12-01
We analyse the dynamical properties of three-dimensional solitary waves in cylindrically trapped Bose-Einstein condensates. Families of solitary waves bifurcate from the planar dark soliton and include the solitonic vortex, the vortex ring and more complex structures of intersecting vortex lines known collectively as Chladni solitons. The particle-like dynamics of these guided solitary waves provides potentially profitable features for their implementation in atomtronic circuits, and play a key role in the generation of metastable loop currents. Based on the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation we calculate the dispersion relations of moving solitary waves and their modes of dynamical instability. The dispersion relations reveal a complex crossing and bifurcation scenario. For stationary structures we find that for μ /{\\hslash }{ω }\\perp \\gt 2.65 the solitonic vortex is the only stable solitary wave. More complex Chladni solitons still have weaker instabilities than planar dark solitons and may be seen as transient structures in experiments. Fully time-dependent simulations illustrate typical decay scenarios, which may result in the generation of multiple separated solitonic vortices.
LINKING MOTOR-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIALS AND VELOCITY PROFILES IN MULTI-JOINT ARM REACHING MOVEMENTS
Julià L Amengual
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The study of the movement related brain potentials (MRPBs needs accurate technical approaches to disentangle the specific patterns of bran activity during the preparation and execution of movements. During the last forty years, synchronizing the electromiographic activation (EMG of the muscle with the electrophysiological recordings (EEG has been commonly ussed for these purposes. However, new clinical approaches in the study of motor diseases and rehabilitation suggest the demand of new paradigms that might go further into the study of the brain activity associated with the kinematics of movement. As a response to this call, we have used a 3-D hand tracking system with the aim to record continuously the position of an ultrasonic sender located on the hand during the performance of multi-joint self-pace movements. We synchronized the time-series of position of velocity of the sender with the EEG recordings, obtaining specific patterns of brain activity as a function of the fluctuations of the kinematics during the natural movement performance. Additionally, the distribution of the brain activity during the preparation and execution phases of movement was similar that reported previously using the EMG, suggesting the validity of our technique. We claim that this paradigm could be usable in patients because of its simplicity and the potential knowledge that can be extracted from clinical protocols.
Universal current-velocity relation of skyrmion motion in chiral magnets
Iwasaki, Junichi; Mochizuki, Masahito; Nagaosa, Naoto
2013-03-01
Current-driven motion of the magnetic domain wall requires large critical current density jc ~109 -1012 A/m2, at which the joule heating is a serious problem. The skyrmions recently discovered in chiral magnets, on the other hand, have much smaller critical current of jc ~105 -106 A/m2. We present a numerical simulation of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, which reveals a remarkably robust and universal current-velocity relation of the slyrmion motion driven by the spin transfer torque unaffected by either impurities or nonadiabatic effect in sharp contrast to the case of domain wall or spin helix (HL). Simulation results are analyzed using a theory based on Thiele's equation, and it is concluded that this surprising behavior is due to the Magnus force and flexible shape-deformation of individual skyrmions and skyrmion crystal (SkX), which enable them to avoid pinning centers and then weaken the net pinning force. Dynamical deformation of SkX leads to the fluctuation of Bragg peak with large amplitude, which can be detected by the recent neutron-scattering experiment.
Huang, N. E.; Tung, C.-C.
1977-01-01
The influence of the directional distribution of wave energy on the dispersion relation is calculated numerically using various directional wave spectrum models. The results indicate that the dispersion relation varies both as a function of the directional energy distribution and the direction of propagation of the wave component under consideration. Furthermore, both the mean deviation and the random scatter from the linear approximation increase as the energy spreading decreases. Limited observational data are compared with the theoretical results. The agreement is favorable.
Are Ring Current Ions Lost in Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Wave Dispersion Relation?
Khazanov, G. V.; Gamayunov, K. V.
2006-01-01
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are widely observed in the inner and outer magnetosphere, at geostationary orbit, at high latitudes along the plasmapause, and at the ionospheric altitudes. Interaction of the Ring Current (RC) ions and EMIC waves causes ion scattering into the loss cone and leads to decay of the RC, especially during the main phase of storms when the RC decay times of about one hour or less are observed. The oblique EMIC waves damp due to Landau resonance with the thermal plasmaspheric electrons, and subsequent transport of the dissipating wave energy into the ionosphere below causes an ionosphere temperature enhancement. Induced scattering of these waves by the plasmaspheric thermal ions leads to ion temperature enhancement, and forms a so-called hot zone near the plasmapause where the temperature of core plasma ions can reach tens of thousands of degrees. Relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt also interact well with the EMIC waves, and during the main and/or recovery phases of the storms these electrons can easily be scattered into the loss cone over a time scale from several hours to a day. The plasma density distribution in the magnetosphere and the ion content play a critical role in EMIC wave generation and propagation, but the wave dispersion relation in the known RC-EMIC wave interaction models is assumed to be determined by the thermal plasma distribution only. In these models, the modification of the EMIC wave dispersion relation caused by the RC ions is not taken into account, and the RC ions are only treated as a source of free energy in order to generate EMIC waves. At the same time, the RC ions can dominate the thermal magnetospheric content in the night MLT sector at great L shells during the main and/or recovery storm phase. In this study, using our self-consistent RC-EMIC wave model [Khazanov et al., 2006], we simulate the May 1998 storm in order to quantify the global EMIC wave redistribution caused by
Effect of Ring Current Ions on Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Wave Dispersion Relation
Gamayunov, K. V.; Khazanov, G. V.
2006-01-01
Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are widely observed in the inner and outer magnetosphere, at geostationary orbit, at high latitudes along the plasmapause, and at the ionospheric altitudes. Interaction of the Ring Current (RC) ions and EMIC waves causes ion scattering into the loss cone and leads to decay of the RC, especially during the main phase of storms when the RC decay times of about one hour or less are observed. The oblique EMIC waves damp due to Landau resonance with the thermal plasmaspheric electrons, and subsequent transport of the dissipating wave energy into the ionosphere below causes an ionosphere temperature enhancement. Induced scattering of these waves by the plasmaspheric thermal ions leads to ion temperature enhancement, and forms a so-called hot zone near the plasmapause where the temperature of core plasma ions can reach tens of thousands of degrees. Relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt also interact well with the EMIC waves, and during the main and/or recovery phases of the storms these electrons can easily be scattered into the loss cone over a time scale from several hours to a day. The plasma density distribution in the magnetosphere and the ion content play a critical role in EMIC wave generation and propagation, but the wave dispersion relation in the known RC-EMIC wave interaction models is assumed to be determined by the thermal plasma distribution only. In these models, the modification of the EMIC wave dispersion relation caused by the RC ions is not taken into account, and the RC ions are only treated as a source of free energy in order to generate EMIC waves. At the same time, the RC ions can dominate the thermal magnetospheric content in the night MLT sector at great L shells during the main and/or recovery storm phase. In this study, using our self-consistent RC-EMIC wave model [Khazanov et al., 2006], we simulate the May 1998 storm in order to quantify the global EMIC wave redistribution caused by
Black Hole Corrections due to Minimal Length and Modified Dispersion Relation
Tawfik, Abdel Nasser
2015-01-01
The generalized uncertainty principles (GUP) and modified dispersion relations (MDR) are much like two faces for one coin in research for the phenomenology of quantum gravity which apparently plays an important role in estimating the possible modifications of the black hole thermodynamics and the Friedmann equations. We first reproduce the horizon area for different types of black holes and investigate the quantum corrections to Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (entropy-area law). Based on this, we study further thermodynamical quantities and accordingly the modified Friedmann equation in four-dimensional de Sitter-Schwarzschild, Reissner-N\\"{o}rdstrom and Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger black holes. In doing this we applied various quantum gravity approaches. The MDR parameter relative to the GUP one is computed and the properties of the black holes are predicted. This should play an important role in estimating response of quantum gravity to the various metric-types of black holes. We found a considerable change in...
Effective matter dispersion relation in quantum covariant Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity
Alexandre, Jean
2015-01-01
We study how quantum fluctuations of the metric in covariant Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz gravity influence the propagation of classical fields (complex scalar and photon). The effective Lorentz-symmetry violation induced by the breaking of 4-dimensional diffeomorphism is then evaluated, by comparing the dressed dispersion relations for both external fields. The constraint of vanishing 3-dimensional Ricci scalar is imposed in the path integral, which therefore explicitly depends on two propagating gravitational degrees of freedom only. Because the matter fields are classical, the present model contains only logarithmic divergences. Furthermore, it imposes the characteristic Ho\\v{r}ava-Lifshitz scale, above which General Relativity is no-longer valid, to be smaller than $10^{10}$ GeV, if one wishes not to violate the current bounds on Lorentz symmetry violation.
Causality and dispersion relations and the role of the S-matrix in the ongoing research
Schroer, Bert
2011-01-01
The adaptation of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations to the causal localization structure of QFT led to an important project in particle physics, the only one with a successful closure. The same cannot be said about the subsequent attempts to formulate particle physics as a pure S-matrix project. The feasibility of a pure S-matrix approach are critically analyzed and their serious shortcomings are highlighted. Whereas the conceptual/mathematical demands of renormalized perturbation theory are modest and misunderstandings could easily be corrected, the correct understanding about the origin of the crossing property demands the use of the mathematical theory of modular localization and its relation to the thermal KMS condition. These concepts which combine localization, vacuum polarization and thermal properties under the roof of modular theory will be explained and their use in a new constructive (nonperturbative) approach to QFT will be indicated. The S-matrix still plays a predominant role, but differen...
K Nithyanandan; R Vasantha Jayakantha Raja; T Uthayakumar; K Porsezian
2014-02-01
A theoretical analysis of modulational instability (MI) of optical pulses propagating near the zero dispersion wavelength of a lossless fibre with the effect of delayed saturable nonlinear response is presented. We calculate the exact dispersion relation with the effect of higher dispersion for the harmonic perturbation. We analysed the impact of fourth-order dispersion effects in the MI spectrum. We examine the possibility of MI in both dispersion regimes, regardless of the sign of the group velocity dispersion.
2003-06-01
Introduction Ultrasonic transducers for high power applications, such as ultrasonic motors and piezoelectric actuators have been intensively...investigated in recent years 1-5. The materials with low loss and high vibrational velocity vo are desirable for ultrasonic motors application. Higher...velocity are an important issue, which to date has proven difficult to achieve. Heat generation is the most serious problem in ultrasonic motors , which
Bong, Lee-Jin; Neoh, Kok-Boon; Lee, Chow-Yang; Jaal, Zairi
2013-10-01
Paederus fuscipes Curtis, a dermatitis linearis causing agent, has received increasing attention from the public, as it poses a serious health threat after mass dispersal into human-dominated areas. Preventive measures against this insect have so far been unsuccessful partly because of limited knowledge about its dispersal pattern. In this study, the dispersal activity of P. fuscipes was studied at infestation-prone residential buildings in Mainland Penang, Malaysia. The dispersal activity of P. fuscipes showed two peaks, that is, from February to April and August to October. Overall, there was no statistical significant correlation between dispersal and climatic parameters, that is, temperature, relative humidity, total rainfall, at all sampling localities. However, dispersal was primarily caused by human activities in rice fields, which accounted for >60% of the variability in dispersal. Particularly, rice harvesting, including straw burning, and cultivation were the major factors triggering P. fuscipes dispersal. These activities presumably disrupted the habitat and normal activities of P. fuscipes and rendered the rice fields unfavorable refuges. In addition, the beetles might also face food shortages after the disturbance of their prey base in the crop fields. The current study provides a predictive tool of P. fuscipes flight periods to ensure insecticide residual spraying is timed in the infestation-prone residential areas before the onset of infestation.
Stoičkov Viktor
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction QT dispersion (QTd is a measure of non-homogeneous repolarisation of the myocardium and is used as an indicator of arrhythmogenicity. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the relation between QT dispersion, left ventricle systolic function and frequency of ventricular arrhythmias in coronary patients. Method We studied 290 coronary patients, 72 with angina pectoris and 218 after myocardial infarction. Eighty-one coronary patients had frequent and complex ventricular arrhythmias (out of them 19 had ventricular tachycardia and 209 were without arrhythmias or with infrequent ventricular premature contractions (VPC≤10/h. In all patients, QT dispersion, exercise test, 24-hour Holter monitoring and echocardiographic examination were performed. Results Patients with frequent and complex ventricular arrhythmias had significantly higher values of QTd (71.8±25.5 vs 55.6±21.7 ms; p<0.001, corrected QT dispersion (QTdc: 81.3±31.5 vs. 60.3±26.1 ms; p<0.001, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd: 56.2±6.9 vs. 53.4±6.2 mm; p<0.001 and left ventricular end-systolic diameter (LVESd: 39.5±6.2 vs. 36.0±6.3 mm; p<0.001, and significantly lower values of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF: 47.7±13.9 vs. 55.9±11.6%; p<0.001 in comparison to those without arrhythmias or with infrequent VPC. Patients with VT had significantly higher values of QTd and QTdc in comparison to other patients with frequent and complex ventricular arrhythmias (83.8±17.1 vs. 69.4±26.2 ms; p<0.02 for QTd; 101.1±23.9:77.6±31.4 ms; p<0.005 for QTdc. There is a significant negative correlation of QTd and QTdc with LVEF, and a significant positive correlation of QTd and QTdc with inside dimensions of the left ventricle, in patients with frequent and complex ventricular arrhythmias. Conclusion The study demonstrated that patients with frequent and complex ventricular arrhythmias had significantly higher values of QTd and QTdc, as well as a higher
Predictions for TOTEM experiment at LHC from integral and derivative dispersion relations
Alkin, A
2010-01-01
Integral and derivative dispersion relations (IDR and DDR) are considered for the proton-proton and antiproton-proton forward scattering amplitudes. A scheme for calculation of the corrections to asymptotic form for the DDR is presented. The data on the total proton-proton and antiproton-proton cross sections as well as the data on the ratios $\\rho $ of real to imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitudes have been analyzed by the IDR and DDR methods within high-energy Regge models. Regge parametrizations of high-energy total cross sections supplemented by the properly calculated low-energy part of the dispersion integral (from the two-proton threshold up to center-of-mass energy 5 GeV) allow to reproduce well the $\\rho $ data at low energies with the only free parameter, subtraction constant. It is shown that three models for the pomeron, simple pole pomeron (with intercept large than unity), tripole pomeron and dipole pomeron (the both with the unit value intercept) lead to practically equivalent des...
Mobley, Joel; Waters, Kendall R; Miller, James G
2005-07-01
Kramers-Kronig (KK) analyses of experimental data are complicated by the extrapolation problem, that is, how the unexamined spectral bands impact KK calculations. This work demonstrates the causal linkages in resonant-type data provided by acoustic KK relations for the group velocity (c(g)) and the derivative of the attenuation coefficient (alpha') (components of the derivative of the acoustic complex wave number) without extrapolation or unmeasured parameters. These relations provide stricter tests of causal consistency relative to previously established KK relations for the phase velocity (c(p)) and attenuation coefficient (alpha) (components of the undifferentiated acoustic wave number) due to their shape invariance with respect to subtraction constants. For both the group velocity and attenuation derivative, three forms of the relations are derived. These relations are equivalent for bandwidths covering the entire infinite spectrum, but differ when restricted to bandlimited spectra. Using experimental data from suspensions of elastic spheres in saline, the accuracy of finite-bandwidth KK predictions for c(g) and alpha' is demonstrated. Of the multiple methods, the most accurate were found to be those whose integrals were expressed only in terms of the phase velocity and attenuation coefficient themselves, requiring no differentiated quantities.
Sánchez-Moreno, Miguel; Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Pareja-Blanco, Fernando; Mora-Custodio, Ricardo; González-Badillo, Juan José
2017-03-24
to analyze the relationship between movement velocity and relative load (%1RM) in the pull-up exercise (PU), and to determine the pattern of repetition velocity loss during a single set to failure in pulling one's own body mass. Fifty-two men (age = 26.5 ± 3.9 years, body mass = 74.3 ± 7.2 kg) performed a first evaluation (T1) consisting of an one-repetition maximum test (1RM), and a test of maximum number of repetitions to failure pulling one's own body mass (MNR) in the PU exercise. Thirty-nine subjects performed both tests on a second occasion (T2) following 12 weeks' training. We observed a strong relationship between mean propulsive velocity (MPV) and %1RM (r = -.96). Mean velocity attained with 1RM load (V1RM) was 0.20 ± 0.05 m·s(-1) and it influenced the MPV attained with each %1RM. Although 1RM increased by 3.4% from T1 to T2, the relationship between MPV and %1RM, and V1RM remained stable. We also confirmed stability in the V1RM regardless of individual relative strength. We found a strong relationship between percentage of velocity loss and percentage of performed repetitions (R(2) = .88), which remained stable despite a 15% increase in MNR. Monitoring repetition velocity allows estimation of the %1RM used as soon as the first repetition with a given load is performed, and the number of repetitions remaining in reserve when a given percentage of velocity loss is achieved during a PU exercise set.
Mayer, Christian; Jaglin, Xavier H; Cobbs, Lucy V; Bandler, Rachel C; Streicher, Carmen; Cepko, Constance L; Hippenmeyer, Simon; Fishell, Gord
2015-09-02
The medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) gives rise to the majority of mouse forebrain interneurons. Here, we examine the lineage relationship among MGE-derived interneurons using a replication-defective retroviral library containing a highly diverse set of DNA barcodes. Recovering the barcodes from the mature progeny of infected progenitor cells enabled us to unambiguously determine their respective lineal relationship. We found that clonal dispersion occurs across large areas of the brain and is not restricted by anatomical divisions. As such, sibling interneurons can populate the cortex, hippocampus striatum, and globus pallidus. The majority of interneurons appeared to be generated from asymmetric divisions of MGE progenitor cells, followed by symmetric divisions within the subventricular zone. Altogether, our findings uncover that lineage relationships do not appear to determine interneuron allocation to particular regions. As such, it is likely that clonally related interneurons have considerable flexibility as to the particular forebrain circuits to which they can contribute.
Sanjay Chaubey
2007-04-01
In Zn–Bi and Al–Bi systems, both of which belong to monotectic class, dispersion of second phase particles within the matrix have been produced through rapid solidification processing (RSP) route. In order to understand relative catalytic efficiencies of Zn and Al matrices in catalyzing nucleation of Bi particles entrapped in the respective metal matrices, thermal analysis in constant program mode was performed. Thermal analyses revealed that Bi undercools by 132° in Zn matrix and by 157° in Al matrix. Thermodynamic barrier to nucleation (*) for Bi has also been calculated, which is 39.8 kcal/mole and 47.085 kcal/mole, in Zn and Al matrices, respectively at the maximum recorded undercoolings.
Forward dispersion relations and Roy equations in $\\pi\\pi$ scattering
Kaminski, R; Ynduráin, F J
2007-01-01
We review results of an analysis of pipi interactions in S, P and D waves for two-pion effective mass from threshold to about 1.4 GeV. In particular we show a recent improvement of this analysis above the K anti-K threshold using more data for phase shifts and including the S0 wave inelasticity from pipi -> K anti-K. In addition, we have improved the fit to the f2(1270) resonance and used a more flexible P wave parametrization above the K anti-K threshold and included an estimation of the D2 wave inelasticity. The better accuracy thus achieved also required a refinement of the Regge analysis above 1.42 GeV. We have checked that the pipi scattering amplitudes obtained in this approach satisfy remarkably well forward dispersion relations and Roy's equations.
Modified Dispersion Relations: from Black-Hole Entropy to the Cosmological Constant
Garattini, Remo
2011-01-01
Quantum Field Theory is plagued by divergences in the attempt to calculate physical quantities. Standard techniques of regularization and renormalization are used to keep under control such a problem. In this paper we would like to use a different scheme based on Modified Dispersion Relations (MDR) to remove infinities appearing in one loop approximation in contrast to what happens in conventional approaches. In particular, we apply the MDR regularization to the computation of the entropy of a Schwarzschild black hole from one side and the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) of the graviton from the other side. The graviton ZPE is connected to the cosmological constant by means of of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation.
Modified Dispersion Relations: from Black-Hole Entropy to the Cosmological Constant
Garattini, Remo
2012-07-01
Quantum Field Theory is plagued by divergences in the attempt to calculate physical quantities. Standard techniques of regularization and renormalization are used to keep under control such a problem. In this paper we would like to use a different scheme based on Modified Dispersion Relations (MDR) to remove infinities appearing in one loop approximation in contrast to what happens in conventional approaches. In particular, we apply the MDR regularization to the computation of the entropy of a Schwarzschild black hole from one side and the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) of the graviton from the other side. The graviton ZPE is connected to the cosmological constant by means of of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation.
About scaling properties of relative velocity between heavy particles in turbulence
Lanotte, A S [ISAC-CNR, and INFN, Sez. Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Bee, J [Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS- OCA, Laboratoire Cassiopee, 06300 Nice (France); Biferale, L [Department of Physics and INFN, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome (Italy); Cencini, M [INFM-CNR, SMC Department of Physics, University of Rome La Sapienza, and ISC-CNR, 00185 Roma (Italy); Toschi, F, E-mail: a.lanotte@isac.cnr.it [Department of Physics Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2011-12-22
We present results obtained from high-resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) of incompressible, statistically homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, up to a Taylor scale based Reynolds number Re{sub {lambda}} {approx_equal} 200 and with millions of heavy particles with different inertia. In our set-up, particles are assumed to be spherical and rigid, they simply move by viscous forces, such as the Stokes drag. The velocity statistics is found to be extremely intermittent, with an almost bi-fractal behavior. Here, we consider also a new data analysis for the stationary distribution of rescaled longitudinal velocity difference and further assess the intermittent character of the heavy particles velocities, characterized by the presence of quasi-algebraic tails.
Mei, A. B.; Hellman, O.; Schlepütz, C. M.; Rockett, A.; Chiang, T.-C.; Hultman, L.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.
2015-11-01
Synchrotron reflection x-ray thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) measurements, rather than previously reported transmission TDS, are carried out at room temperature and analyzed using a formalism based upon second-order interatomic force constants and long-range Coulomb interactions to obtain quantitative determinations of MgO phonon dispersion relations ℏ ωj (q), phonon densities of states g (ℏ ω ), and isochoric temperature-dependent vibrational heat capacities cv(T ) . We use MgO as a model system for investigating reflection TDS due to its harmonic behavior as well as its mechanical and dynamic stability. Resulting phonon dispersion relations and densities of states are found to be in good agreement with independent reports from inelastic neutron and x-ray scattering experiments. Temperature-dependent isochoric heat capacities cv(T ) , computed within the harmonic approximation from ℏ ωj (q) values, increase with temperature from 0.4 ×10-4eV /atom K at 100 K to 1.4 ×10-4eV /atom K at 200 K and 1.9 ×10-4eV /atom K at 300 K, in excellent agreement with isobaric heat capacity values cp(T ) between 4 and 300 K. We anticipate that the experimental approach developed here will be valuable for determining vibrational properties of heteroepitaxial thin films since the use of grazing-incidence (θ ≲θc , where θc is the density-dependent critical angle) allows selective tuning of x-ray penetration depths to ≲10 nm .
Zhang, Hongmao; Chu, Wei; Zhang, Zhibin
2017-01-01
Little is known about seeding regeneration of cultivated trees compared to wild relatives in areas where seed dispersers are shared. Here, we investigated the differences in seed fates of cultivated walnut (Juglans regia) and wild Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica) trees under rodent predation and dispersal. J. regia seeds have higher nutritional value (large size, mass and kernel mass) and lower mechanical defensiveness (thin endocarp) than J. mandshurica seeds. We tracked seeds of J. regia and J. mandshurica under both enclosure and field conditions to assess differences in competing for seed dispersers of the two co-occurring tree species of the same genus. We found that rodents preferred to harvest, eat and scatter-hoard seeds of J. regia as compared to those of J. mandshurica. Seeds of J. regia were removed and scatter-hoarded faster than those of J. mandshurica. Caches of J. regia were more likely to be rediscovered by rodents than those of J. mandshurica. These results suggest that J. regia showed earlier dispersal fitness but not the ultimate dispersal fitness over J. mandshurica in seeding regeneration under rodent mediation, implying that J. regia has little effect on seeding regeneration of J. mandshurica in the field. The effects of seed traits on seed dispersal fitness may vary at different dispersal stages under animal mediation.
Cooperation is related to dispersal patterns in Sino-Tibetan populations
Wu, Jia-Jia; Ji, Ting; He, Qiao-Qiao; Du, Juan; Mace, Ruth
2015-01-01
There is growing recognition in both evolutionary biology and anthropology that dispersal is key to establishing patterns of cooperation. However, some models predict that cooperation is more likely to evolve in low dispersal (viscous) populations, while others predict that local competition for resources inhibits cooperation. Sex-biased dispersal and extra-pair mating may also have an effect. Using economic games in Sino-Tibetan populations with strikingly different dispersal patterns, we measure cooperation in 36 villages in southwestern China; we test whether social structure is associated with cooperative behaviour toward those in the neighbourhood. We find that social organization is associated with levels of cooperation in public goods and dictator games and a resource dilemma; people are less cooperative towards other villagers in communities where dispersal by both sexes is low. This supports the view that dispersal for marriage played an important role in the evolution of large-scale cooperation in human society. PMID:26478534
Predicting species' maximum dispersal distances from simple plant traits.
Tamme, Riin; Götzenberger, Lars; Zobel, Martin; Bullock, James M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Kaasik, Ants; Pärtel, Meelis
2014-02-01
Many studies have shown plant species' dispersal distances to be strongly related to life-history traits, but how well different traits can predict dispersal distances is not yet known. We used cross-validation techniques and a global data set (576 plant species) to measure the predictive power of simple plant traits to estimate species' maximum dispersal distances. Including dispersal syndrome (wind, animal, ant, ballistic, and no special syndrome), growth form (tree, shrub, herb), seed mass, seed release height, and terminal velocity in different combinations as explanatory variables we constructed models to explain variation in measured maximum dispersal distances and evaluated their power to predict maximum dispersal distances. Predictions are more accurate, but also limited to a particular set of species, if data on more specific traits, such as terminal velocity, are available. The best model (R2 = 0.60) included dispersal syndrome, growth form, and terminal velocity as fixed effects. Reasonable predictions of maximum dispersal distance (R2 = 0.53) are also possible when using only the simplest and most commonly measured traits; dispersal syndrome and growth form together with species taxonomy data. We provide a function (dispeRsal) to be run in the software package R. This enables researchers to estimate maximum dispersal distances with confidence intervals for plant species using measured traits as predictors. Easily obtainable trait data, such as dispersal syndrome (inferred from seed morphology) and growth form, enable predictions to be made for a large number of species.
Age-related botulinum toxin effects on muscle fiber conduction velocity in non-injected muscles
Lange, Fiete; van Weerden, Tiemen W.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.
2007-01-01
Objective: We studied systemic effects of botulinum toxin (BTX) treatment on muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) and possible effects of age. Methods: MFCV was determined by an invasive EMG method in the biceps brachii muscle. Seventeen BTX treated patients and 58 controls were investigated. BTX
Age-related decline in mitral peak diastolic velocities is unaffected in well-trained runners
Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Couppé, Christian; Dall, Christian Have;
2015-01-01
(a') diastolic and systolic (s') annular longitudinal tissue Doppler velocities were measured by echocardiography during four stages (rest, supine bike exercise at 30% and 60% of maximal workload, and recovery). RESULTS: The athletes had marked cardiac remodeling, while overall differences in mitral...
Ipatov, Sergei I
2008-01-01
Time variations of velocities and relative amount of material ejected from Comet 9P/Tempel 1 are studied based on analysis of the images made by Deep Impact (DI) cameras during the first 13 minutes after the collision of the DI impactor with the comet. The rate of production of observed ejected material and velocities considered correspond mainly to small (with diameter d1 s can be considered to be proportional to te^{-0.75} or te^{-0.7 }, but the decrease of velocity could differ from this exponential dependence. Comparison of the observed DI ejection with theoretical models testifies in favor of a model close to gravity-dominated cratering, i.e. in favor of greater amounts of ejected material and greater size of a crater.
Marques, Koen M J; van Eenige, Machiel J; Spruijt, Hugo J; Westerhof, Nico; Twisk, Jos; Visser, Cees A; Visser, Frans C
2006-12-01
To evaluate the hemodynamic impact of coronary stenoses, the fractional (FFR) or coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) usually is measured. The combined measurement of instantaneous flow velocity and pressure gradient (v-dp relation) is rarely used in humans. We derived from the v-dp relation a new index, dp(v50) (pressure gradient at flow velocity of 50 cm/s), and compared the diagnostic performance of dp(v50), CFVR, and FFR. Before coronary angiography was performed, patients underwent noninvasive stress testing. In all coronary vessels with an intermediate or severe stenosis, the flow velocity, aortic, and distal coronary pressure were measured simultaneously with a Doppler and pressure guidewire after induction of hyperemia. After regression analysis of all middiastolic flow velocity and pressure gradient data, the dp(v50) was calculated. With the use of the results of noninvasive stress testing, the dp(v50) cutoff value was established at 22.4 mmHg. In 77 patients, 124 coronary vessels with a mean 39% (SD 19) diameter stenosis were analyzed. In 43 stenoses, ischemia was detected. We found a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 56%, 86%, and 76% for CFVR; 77%, 99%, and 91% for FFR; and 95%, 95%, and 95% for dp(v50). To establish that dp(v50) is not dependent on maximal hyperemia, dp(v50) was recalculated after omission of the highest quartile of flow velocity data, showing a difference of 3%. We found that dp(v50) provided the highest sensitivity and accuracy compared with FFR and CFVR in the assessment of coronary stenoses. In contrast to CFVR and FFR, assessment of dp(v50) is not dependent on maximal hyperemia.
Seismic and experimental insights into relative velocity changes at Volcán de Colima in 1998
Lamb, O. D.; De Angelis, S.; Wall, R.; Varley, N. R.; Reyes Dávila, G. A.; Arámbula-Mendoza, R.; Hornby, A. J.; Kendrick, J. E.; Lavallée, Y.
2016-12-01
Temporal changes in seismic velocity before eruptions have been measured in a few volcanoes around the world, raising its potential as a forecasting tool. Here we use seismic data from Volcán de Colima, Mexico, to investigate the effect of ascending magma on seismic wave propagation in the edifice. In addition, we use acoustic emissions from laboratory experiments to test the mechanism inferred from the seismic data. Volcán de Colima entered a new phase of eruptive activity in late 1998 with the extrusion of a new lava dome and flow. A multi-station detection algorithm was used to build a catalogue of 17,893 earthquakes from continuous data recorded by the local seismic network between 1 October 1998 and 1 January 1999. Coda wave interferometry was employed to assess relative seismic velocity change between pairs of repeating earthquakes at each station in the seismic network. First, 1,313 repeating events were identified using waveform correlation, before a stretching technique calculated the relative velocity change of each pair. Linear inversion of these measurements allowed us to retrieve the time history of seismic velocity change within the observation period. We infer that the variation in seismic velocity resulted from changes in the local stress regime caused by dyke formation during magma ascent. Using acoustic emissions recorded during Brazilian tensile tests on andesite from Volcán de Colima, we demonstrate that a decrease in seismic velocity can be attributed to crack dilation due to tensile stress. This study highlights how a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding geophysical signals can help future interpretations of pre-eruptive activity at volcanoes.
Kotoh, K. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Kubo, K.; Takashima, S.; Moriyama, S.T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Tanaka, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Sugiyama, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya (Japan)
2015-03-15
Authors have been developing a cryogenic pressure swing adsorption system for hydrogen isotope separation. In the problem of its design and operation, it is necessary to predict the concentration profiles developing in packed beds of adsorbent pellets. The profiling is affected by the longitudinal dispersion of gas flowing in packed beds, in addition to the mass transfer resistance in porous media of adsorbent pellets. In this work, an equation is derived for estimating the packed-bed dispersion coefficient of hydrogen isotopes, by analyzing the breakthrough curves of trace D{sub 2} or HD replacing H{sub 2} adsorbed in synthetic zeolite particles packed columns at the liquefied nitrogen temperature 77.4 K. Since specialized for hydrogen isotopes, this equation can be considered to estimate the dispersion coefficients more reliable for the cryogenic hydrogen isotope adsorption process, than the existing equations. (authors)
Clifford M. Krowne
2007-01-01
Full Text Available A microstrip configuration has been loaded with a dispersive isotropic left-handed medium (LHM substrate and studied regarding its high frequency millimeter-wave behavior near 100 GHz. This has been accomplished using a full-wave integral-equation anisotropic Green's function code configured to run for isotropy. Never before seen electromagnetic field distributions are produced, unlike anything found in normal media devices, using this ab initio solver. These distributions are made in the cross-sectional dimension, with the field propagating in the perpendicular direction. It is discovered that the LHM distributions are so radically different from ordinary media used as a substrate that completely new electronic devices based upon the new physics become a real possibility. The distinctive dispersion diagram for the dispersive medium, consisting of unit cells with split ring resonator-rod combinations, is provided over the upper millimeter-wave frequency regime.
Causality and dispersion relations and the role of the S-matrix in the ongoing research
Schroer, Bert, E-mail: schroer@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freie Univ. , Berlin (Germany). Inst. fur Theoretische Physik
2011-07-01
The adaptation of the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relations to the causal localization structure of QFT led to an important project in particle physics, the only one with a successful closure. The same cannot be said about the subsequent attempts to formulate particle physics as a pure S-matrix project. The feasibility of a pure S-matrix approach are critically analyzed and their seri- ous shortcomings are highlighted. Whereas the conceptual/mathematical demands of renormalized perturbation theory are modest and misunderstandings could easily be corrected, the correct understanding about the origin of the crossing property demands the use of the mathematical theory of modular localization and its relation to the thermal KMS condition. These concepts which combine localization, vacuum polarization and thermal properties under the roof of modular theory will be explained and their use in a new constructive (nonperturbative) approach to QFT will be indicated. The S-matrix still plays a predominant role, but different from Heisenberg's and Mandelstam's proposals the new project is not a pure S-matrix approach. (author)
Relation between hardness and ultrasonic velocity on pipeline steel welded joints
Carreón, H.; Barrera, G.; Natividad, C.; Salazar, M.; Contreras, A.
2016-04-01
In general, the ultrasonic techniques have been used to determine the mechanical properties of materials based on their relationship with metallurgical characteristics. In this research work, the relationship between ultrasonic wave velocity, hardness and the microstructure of steel pipeline welded joints is investigated. Measurements of ultrasonic wave velocity were made as a function of the location across the weld. Hardness measurements were performed in an attempt to correlate with ultrasonic response. In addition, the coarse and dendritic grain structure of the weld material is extreme and unpredictably anisotropic. Thus, due to the acoustic anisotropy of the crystal, weld material of studied joints is anisotropic too. Such structure is no longer direction-independent to the ultrasonic wave propagation; therefore, the ultrasonic beam deflects and redirects and the wave front becomes distorted. Thus, the use of conventional ultrasonic testing techniques using fixed beam angles is very limited and the application of conventional ultrasonic phased array techniques becomes desirable. This technique is proposed to assist pipeline operators in estimating the hardness through ultrasonic measures to evaluate the susceptibility to stress sulphide cracking and hydrogen-induced cracking due to hard spots in steel pipeline welded joints in service. Sound wave velocity and hardness measurements have been carried out on a steel welded joint. For each section of the welding, weld bead, fusion zone, heat affected zone and base metal were found to correspond particular values of the ultrasound velocity. These results were correlated with electron microscopy observations of the microstructure and sectorial scan view of welded joints by ultrasonic phased array.
Molinari, Vincenzo
2014-01-01
He-4 is known to become superfluid at very low temperatures. This effect is now generally accepted to be connected with BEC (Bose-Einstein Condensation). The dispersion relation of pressure waves in superfluid He-4 has been determined at 1.1 {\\deg}K by Yarnell et al., and exhibits a non monotonic behaviour - with a maximum and a minimum - usually explained in terms of excitations called rotons, introduced by Landau. In the present work an attempt is made to describe the phenomenon within the bohmian interpretation of QM. To this end, the effects of the intermolecular potential, taken to be essentially of the Lennard-Jones type, are included as a Vlasov-type self-consistent field. A dispersion relation is found, that is in good agreement with Yarnell's curve. Keywords: Bohm potential; Intermolecular potential; Dispersion relation; Superfluid He-4; First sound. PACS: 05.30.Jp; 05.20.Dd; 03.75.Kk; 67.25.dt
Removing Activity-Related Radial Velocity Noise to Improve Extrasolar Planet Searches
Saar, Steven; Lindstrom, David M. (Technical Monitor)
2004-01-01
We have made significant progress towards the proposal goals of understanding the causes and effects of magnetic activity-induced radial velocity (v_r) jitter and developing methods for correcting it. In the process, we have also made some significant discoveries in the fields of planet-induced stellar activity, planet detection methods, M dwarf convection, starspot properties, and magnetic dynamo cycles. We have obtained super high resolution (R approximately 200,000), high S / N (greater than 300) echelle study of joint line bisector and radial velocity variations using the McDonald 2-D coude. A long observing run in October 2002 in particular was quite successful (8 clear nights). We now have close to three years of data, which begins to sample a good fraction of the magnetic cycle timescales for some of our targets (e.g., kappa Ceti; P_cyc = 5.6 yrs). This will be very helpful in unraveling the complex relationships between plage and radial velocity (v-r) changes which we have uncovered. Preliminary analysis (Saar et al. 2003) of the data in hand, reveals correlations between median line bisector displacement and v_r. The correlation appears to be specific the the particular star being considered, probably since it is a function of both spectral type and rotation rate. Further analysis and interpretation will be in the context of evolving plage models and is in progress.
Zhuravleva, I; Schekochihin, A A; Lau, E T; Nagai, D; Gaspari, M; Allen, S W; Nelson, K; Parrish, I J
2014-01-01
We address the problem of evaluating the power spectrum of the velocity field of the ICM using only information on the plasma density fluctuations, which can be measured today by Chandra and XMM-Newton observatories. We argue that for relaxed clusters there is a linear relation between the rms density and velocity fluctuations across a range of scales, from the largest ones, where motions are dominated by buoyancy, down to small, turbulent scales: $(\\delta\\rho_k/\\rho)^2 = \\eta_1^2 (V_{1,k}/c_s)^2$, where $\\delta\\rho_k/\\rho$ is the spectral amplitude of the density perturbations at wave number $k$, $V_{1,k}^2=V_k^2/3$ is the mean square component of the velocity field, $c_s$ is the sound speed, and $\\eta_1$ is a dimensionless constant of order unity. Using cosmological simulations of relaxed galaxy clusters, we calibrate this relation and find $\\eta_1\\approx 1 \\pm 0.3$. We argue that this value is set at large scales by buoyancy physics, while at small scales the density and velocity power spectra are proporti...
Boyles, Jason; Panzer, Stefan; Shea, Charles H
2012-02-01
An experiment was conducted to determine whether multi-frequency continuous bimanual circling movements of varying difficulty (1:2, 2:3, 3:4, and 4:5) could be effectively performed following relatively little practice when on-line continuous relative velocity feedback is provided. The between-subjects results indicate extremely effective bimanual multi-frequency performance for all coordination patterns with relatively stable and continuous movements of both limbs. The findings suggest that the previous performance effects using Lissajous feedback with reciprocal movement can be extended to circling movements using on-line relative velocity feedback. Contrary to the long-held position that these coordination patterns result in increasing difficulty, we failed to find systematic relative velocity error, variability, or bias differences between the participants performing the various multi-frequency coordination patterns. Indeed, coordination error, variability, and biases were remarkably low for each of the tasks. The results clearly indicate the ease with which participants are able to produce bimanual coordination patterns typically considered difficult if not impossible when salient visual information is provided that allows the participants to detect and correct their coordination errors.
Wu, Junru; Layman, Christopher; Liu, Jun
2004-02-01
A fundamental mathematical framework for applications of Doublet Mechanics to ultrasound propagation in a discrete material is introduced. A multiscale wave equation, dispersion relation for longitudinal waves, and shear waves are derived. The van Hove singularities and corresponding highest frequency limits for the Mth-order wave equations of longitudinal and shear waves are determined for a widely used microbundle structure. Doublet Mechanics is applied to soft tissue and low-density polyethylene. The experimental dispersion data for soft tissue and low-density polyethylene are compared with results predicted by Doublet Mechanics and an attenuation model based on a Kramers-Kronig relation in classical continuum mechanics.
Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Meijer, J.; Beckmann, Leo H.J.F.
1997-01-01
Laser surface treatment, more specifically laser - (re)melting, -alloying and -dispersing, are techniques for improving wear, fatigue and erosion resistance of mechanical parts, using high power lasers. Analytical models which decrease these processes in a simplified way can be helpful for (a)
Gage, Matthew J G; Macfarlane, Christopher P; Yeates, Sarah; Ward, Richard G; Searle, Jeremy B; Parker, Geoffrey A
2004-01-06
Sperm competition occurs when sperm from more than one male compete for fertilizations. This form of post-copulatory sexual selection is recognized as a significant and widespread force in the evolution of male reproductive biology and as a key determinant of differential male reproductive success. Despite its importance, however, detailed mechanisms of sperm competition at the gamete level remain poorly understood. Here, we use natural variation in spermatozoal traits among wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), a species naturally adapted to sperm competition, to examine how the relative influences of sperm (i) number, (ii) velocity, (iii) longevity, and (iv) total length determine sperm competition success. Atlantic salmon fertilize externally, and we were therefore able to conduct controlled in vitro fertilization competitions while concurrently measuring spermatozoal traits within the aqueous micro-environment to which salmon gametes are naturally adapted. Microsatellite DNA fingerprinting revealed that a male's relative sperm velocity was the primary determinant of sperm competition success. There was no significant relationship between fertilization success and either relative sperm number or total length; sperm longevity showed an inverse relationship with competition success. These relationships were consistent for two experimental repeats of the in vitro fertilization competitions. Our results therefore show, under the natural microenvironment for salmon gametes, that relative sperm velocity is a key spermatozoal component for sperm competition success. Atlantic salmon sperm can be considered to enter a competition analogous to a race in which the fastest sperm have the highest probability of success.
Thermal mass and dispersion relations of quarks in the deconfined phase of quenched QCD
Kaczmarek, Olaf; Kitazawa, Masakiyo; Soeldner, Wolfgang
2012-01-01
Temporal quark correlation functions are analyzed in quenched lattice QCD for two values of temperature above the critical temperature (Tc) for deconfinement, T=1.5Tc and 3Tc. A two-pole ansatz for the quark spectral function is used to determine the bare quark mass and the momentum dependence of excitation spectra on large lattices of size up to 128^3x16. The dependence of the quark correlator on these parameters as well as the finite volume dependence of the excitation energies are analyzed in detail in order to examine the reliability of our analysis. Our results suggest the existence of quasi-particle peaks in the quark spectrum. We furthermore find evidence that the dispersion relation of the plasmino mode has a minimum at non-zero momentum even in the non-perturbative region near Tc. We also elaborate on the enhancement of the quark correlator near the chiral limit which is observed at T=1.5Tc on about half of the gauge configurations. We attribute this to the presence of near zero-modes of the fermion ...
Average and dispersion of the luminosity-redshift relation in the concordance model
Ben-Dayan, I. [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Gasperini, M. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy); Marozzi, G. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France); Geneve Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Theorique and CAP; Nugier, F. [Ecole Normale Superieure CNRS, Paris (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique; Veneziano, G. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Physics Dept.; New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics
2013-03-15
Starting from the luminosity-redshift relation recently given up to second order in the Poisson gauge, we calculate the effects of the realistic stochastic background of perturbations of the so-called concordance model on the combined light-cone and ensemble average of various functions of the luminosity distance, and on their variance, as functions of redshift. We apply a gauge-invariant light-cone averaging prescription which is free from infrared and ultraviolet divergences, making our results robust with respect to changes of the corresponding cutoffs. Our main conclusions, in part already anticipated in a recent letter for the case of a perturbation spectrum computed in the linear regime, are that such inhomogeneities not only cannot avoid the need for dark energy, but also cannot prevent, in principle, the determination of its parameters down to an accuracy of order 10{sup -3} - 10{sup -5}, depending on the averaged observable and on the regime considered for the power spectrum. However, taking into account the appropriate corrections arising in the non-linear regime, we predict an irreducible scatter of the data approaching the 10% level which, for limited statistics, will necessarily limit the attainable precision. The predicted dispersion appears to be in good agreement with current observational estimates of the distance-modulus variance due to Doppler and lensing effects (at low and high redshifts, respectively), and represents a challenge for future precision measurements.
Marilena Pannone
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Present work is aimed at the derivation of a simply usable equation for the total flow resistance associated with river bedforms, by a unifying approach allowing for bypassing some of the limiting restrictions usually adopted in similar types of studies. Specifically, we focused on the effect induced by the out-of-phase free surface undulations appearing in presence of sand dunes. The proposed expression, obtained by combining the balance of momentum referred to the control volume whose longitudinal dimension coincides with the dune wavelength and the energy balance integrated between its extreme sections, was tested by comparison with some laboratory experimental measurements available in the literature and referred to steady flow past fixed, variably rough bedforms. In terms of shear stress or friction factor, the proposed theory provides estimates in good agreement with the real data, especially if evaluated against the performances provided by other classical similar approaches. Moreover, when analyzed in terms of hydrodynamic dispersive properties as a function of the skin roughness on the basis of a previously derived analytical solution, the dune-covered beds seem to behave like meandering channels, responsible for a globally enhanced fluid particles longitudinal spreading, with a relatively reduced effect in the presence of less pronounced riverbed modelling.
Forward dispersion relations and Roy equations in {pi}{pi} scattering
Kaminski, R. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Department of Theoretical Physics Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Pelaez, J.R. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, II (Metodos Matematicos), Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Madrid (Spain); Yndurain, F.J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Canto Blanco, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain)
2007-03-15
We first review the results of an analysis of {pi}{pi} interactions in S, P and D waves for the two-pion effective mass from threshold to about 1.4 GeV. In particular, we show a recent improvement of this analysis above the K anti K threshold using more data for phase shifts and including the S0-wave inelasticity from {pi}{pi}{yields}K anti K. In addition, we have improved the fit to the f{sub 2}(1270)-resonance and used a more flexible P-wave parametrization above the K anti K threshold and included an estimation of the D2-wave inelasticity. The better accuracy thus achieved also required a refinement of the Regge analysis above 1.42 GeV. Finally, in this work we check that the {pi}{pi} scattering amplitudes obtained in this approach satisfy remarkably well forward dispersion relations and Roy's equations. (orig.)
Fast flavor conversions of supernova neutrinos: Classifying instabilities via dispersion relations
Capozzi, Francesco; Dasgupta, Basudeb; Lisi, Eligio; Marrone, Antonio; Mirizzi, Alessandro
2017-08-01
Supernova neutrinos can exhibit a rich variety of flavor conversion mechanisms. In particular, they can experience "fast" self-induced flavor conversions almost immediately above the core. Very recently, a novel method has been proposed to investigate these phenomena, in terms of the dispersion relation for the complex frequency and wave number (ω ,k ) of disturbances in the mean field of the νeνx flavor coherence. We discuss a systematic approach to such instabilities, originally developed in the context of plasma physics, and based of the time-asymptotic behavior of the Green's function of the system. Instabilities are typically seen to emerge for complex ω and can be further characterized as convective (moving away faster than they spread) and absolute (growing locally), depending on k -dependent features. Stable cases emerge when k (but not ω ) is complex, leading to disturbances damped in space, or when both ω and k are real, corresponding to complete stability. The analytical classification of both unstable and stable modes leads not only to qualitative insights about their features but also to quantitative predictions about the growth rates of instabilities. Representative numerical solutions are discussed in a simple two-beam model of interacting neutrinos. As an application, we argue that supernova and binary neutron star mergers exhibiting a "crossing" in the electron lepton number would lead to an absolute instability in the flavor content of the neutrino gas.
Dispersion Relations and Polarizations of Low-frequency Waves in Two-fluid Plasmas
Zhao, Jinsong
2015-01-01
Analytical expressions for the dispersion relations and polarizations of low-frequency waves in magnetized plasmas based on two-fluid model are obtained. The properties of waves propagating at different angles (to the ambient magnetic field $\\mathbf{B}_{0}$) and \\beta (the ratio of the plasma to magnetic pressures) values are investigated. It is shown that two linearly polarized waves, namely the fast and Alfv\\'{e}n modes in the low-\\beta $\\left( \\beta \\ll 1\\right)$ plasmas, the fast and slow modes in the \\beta \\sim 1 plasmas, and the Alfv\\'{e}n and slow modes in the high-\\beta $\\left( \\beta \\gg 1\\right)$ plasmas, become circularly polarized at the near-parallel (to $\\mathbf{B}_{0}$) propagation. The negative magnetic-helicity of the Alfv\\'{e}n mode occurs only at small or moderate angles in the low-\\beta plasmas, and the ion cross-helicity of the slow mode is nearly the same as that of the Alfv\\'{e}n mode in the high-\\beta plasmas. It also shown the electric polarization $\\delta E_{z}/\\delta E_{y}$ decreases...
Xu, Yanlong
2015-08-01
The coupled mode theory with coupling of diffraction modes and waveguide modes is usually used on the calculations of transmission and reflection coefficients for electromagnetic waves traveling through periodic sub-wavelength structures. In this paper, I extend this method to derive analytical solutions of high-order dispersion relations for shear horizontal (SH) wave propagation in elastic plates with periodic stubs. In the long wavelength regime, the explicit expression is obtained by this theory and derived specially by employing an effective medium. This indicates that the periodical stubs are equivalent to an effective homogenous layer in the long wavelength. Notably, in the short wavelength regime, high-order diffraction modes in the plate and high-order waveguide modes in the stubs are considered with modes coupling to compute the band structures. Numerical results of the coupled mode theory fit pretty well with the results of the finite element method (FEM). In addition, the band structures\\' evolution with the height of the stubs and the thickness of the plate shows clearly that the method can predict well the Bragg band gaps, locally resonant band gaps and high-order symmetric and anti-symmetric thickness-twist modes for the periodically structured plates. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Average and dispersion of the luminosity-redshift relation in the concordance model
Ben-Dayan, I. [DESY Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Gasperini, M. [Bari Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bari (Italy); Marozzi, G. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France); Geneve Univ. (Switzerland). Dept. de Physique Theorique and CAP; Nugier, F. [Ecole Normale Superieure CNRS, Paris (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique; Veneziano, G. [College de France, 75 - Paris (France); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Physics Dept.; New York Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Physics
2013-03-15
Starting from the luminosity-redshift relation recently given up to second order in the Poisson gauge, we calculate the effects of the realistic stochastic background of perturbations of the so-called concordance model on the combined light-cone and ensemble average of various functions of the luminosity distance, and on their variance, as functions of redshift. We apply a gauge-invariant light-cone averaging prescription which is free from infrared and ultraviolet divergences, making our results robust with respect to changes of the corresponding cutoffs. Our main conclusions, in part already anticipated in a recent letter for the case of a perturbation spectrum computed in the linear regime, are that such inhomogeneities not only cannot avoid the need for dark energy, but also cannot prevent, in principle, the determination of its parameters down to an accuracy of order 10{sup -3} - 10{sup -5}, depending on the averaged observable and on the regime considered for the power spectrum. However, taking into account the appropriate corrections arising in the non-linear regime, we predict an irreducible scatter of the data approaching the 10% level which, for limited statistics, will necessarily limit the attainable precision. The predicted dispersion appears to be in good agreement with current observational estimates of the distance-modulus variance due to Doppler and lensing effects (at low and high redshifts, respectively), and represents a challenge for future precision measurements.
Voitcu, Gabriel
2016-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the formation of ring-shaped and gyro-phase restricted velocity distribution functions (VDFs) at the edges of a cloud of protons injected into non-uniform distributions of the electromagnetic field. The velocity distribution function is reconstructed using the forward test-kinetic method. We consider two profiles of the electric field: (1) a non-uniform E-field obtained by solving the Laplace equation consistent with the conservation of the electric drift and (2) a constant and uniform E-field. In both cases, the magnetic field is similar to the solutions obtained for tangential discontinuities. The initial velocity distribution function is Liouville mapped along numerically integrated trajectories. The numerical results show the formation of an energy-dispersed structure due to the energy-dependent displacement of protons towards the edges of the cloud by the gradient-B drift. Another direct effect of the gradient-B drift is the formation of ring-shaped velocity distribution functio...
Yu, Fei; Shi, Xiao-Xiao; Yi, Xian-Feng; Wang, De-Xiang
2013-06-01
An investigation was conducted in a forest farm in the Xiaoxing' an Mountains in autumn, 2009 and 2010 to study the effects of Quercus mongolica acorn quantity and rodent density on the seed dispersal of five tree species (Juglans mandshurica, Pinus koraiensis, Corylus mandshurica, Corylus heterophylla, and Q. mongolica). In the farm, there was an annual change in rodent density. The total capture rate of small rodents in 2009 (31.0%) was significantly higher than that in 2010 (16.7%). The acorn quantity and relative seed abundance (per capita rodent) of Quercus mongolica in 2009 (6.2 +/- 2.1 acorns x m(-2) and 20.0, respectively) were significantly lower than those in 2010 (26.7 +/- 10.2 acorns x m(-2) and 160.0, respectively). In 2009, all the seeds of the five tree species except J. mandshurica were dispersed or eaten in situ, among which, the acorns of Q. mongolica were scatter-hoarded most, and their average dispersal distance was the furthest. In 2010, the seeds of J. mandshurica were scatter-hoarded most, and their average dispersal distance was the furthest. The relative seed abundance of Q. mongolica could be the key factor determining the seed dispersal of the other tree species in the study area.
Se-Hwan; Park; Byong-Kook; Gu; Joong-Ho; Shin; Geun-Jong; Yoo
2002-01-01
Cylindrical Cam Mechanism which is one of the best eq uipments to accomplish an accurate motion transmission is widely used in the fie lds of industries, such as machine tool exchangers, textile machinery and automa tic transfer equipments. This paper proposes a new approach for the shape design and manufacturing of the cylindrical cam. The design approach uses the relative velocity concept and the manufacturing approach uses the inverse kinematics concept. For the shape desig n, the contact points betw...
Battaglia, G; Helmi, A; Morrison, H; Harding, P; Olszewski, EW; Mateo, M; Freeman, KC; Norris, J; Shectman, SA
2005-01-01
We have compiled a new sample of 240 halo objects with accurate distance and radial velocity measurements, including globular clusters, satellite galaxies, field blue horizontal branch (FHB) stars and red giant stars from the Spaghetti survey. The new data lead to a significant increase in the numbe
Battaglia, G; Helmi, A; Morrison, H; Harding, P; Olszewski, EW; Mateo, M; Freeman, KC; Norris, J; Shectman, SA
2005-01-01
We have compiled a new sample of 240 halo objects with accurate distance and radial velocity measurements, including globular clusters, satellite galaxies, field blue horizontal branch (FHB) stars and red giant stars from the Spaghetti survey. The new data lead to a significant increase in the numbe
Saar, Steven; Lindstrom, David (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
We have continued the super high resolution (R is approximately 200,000), high S/N (> 300) echelle study of joint line bisector and radial velocity variations using the McDonald 2-D coude. A long observing run in October 2002 was quite successful (8 clear nights). We now have close to three years of data, which begins to sample a good fraction of the magnetic cycle timescales for some of our targets (e.g., K Ceti; P(sub cyc)=5.6 yrs). This will be very helpful in unraveling the complex relationships between plage and v(sub r), changes which we have uncovered. A preliminary analysis of the limited data in hand, and find some tantalizing evidence for correlations between median line bisector displacement and radial velocity v(sub r). The correlation appears to be specific to the particular star being considered, probably since it is a function of both spectral type and rotation rate. Additional information regarding progress on the grant is included.
Cho, Heon Ki; Nikolov, Alex D; Wasan, Darsh T
2017-03-02
The motion of air bubbles in tubes filled with aqueous suspensions of nanoparticles (nanofluids) is of practical interest for bubblejets, lab-on-a-chip, and transporting media. Therefore, the focus of this study is the dynamics of air bubbles rising in a tube in a nanofluid. Many authors experimentally and analytically proposed that the velocity of rising air bubbles is constant for long air bubbles suspended in a vertical tube in common liquids (e.g. an aqueous glycerol solution) when the capillary number is larger than 10-4. For the first time, we report here a systematic study of an air bubble rising in a vertical tube in a nanofluid (e.g. an aqueous silica dioxide nanoparticle suspension, nominal particle size, 19nm). We varied the bubble length scaled by the diameter of the tubes (L/D), the concentration of the nanofluid (10, and 12.5 v%) and the tube diameter (0.45cm, 0.47cm, and 0.50cm). The presence of the nanoparticles creates a significant change in the bubble velocity compared with the bubble rising in the common liquid with the same bulk viscosity. We observed a novel phenomenon of a step-wise increase in the air bubble rising velocity vs. bubble length for small capillary numbers less than 10-7. This step-wise velocity increase vs. the bubble length was not observed in a common fluid. The step-wise velocity increase is attributed to the nanoparticle self-layering phenomenon in the film adjacent to the tube wall. In order to elucidate the role of the nanoparticle film self-layering on the bubble rising velocity, the effect of the capillary number, the tube diameter (e.g, the capillary pressure), and nanofilm viscosity are investigated. We propose a model that takes into consideration the nanoparticle layering in the film confinement to explain the step-wise velocity phenomenon versus the length of the bubble. The oscillatory film interaction energy isotherm is calculated and the Frenkel approach is used to estimate the film viscosity.
Grüss, Arnaud; Kaplan, David M; Hart, Deborah R
2011-01-01
Movement of individuals is a critical factor determining the effectiveness of reserve networks. Marine reserves have historically been used for the management of species that are sedentary as adults, and, therefore, larval dispersal has been a major focus of marine-reserve research. The push to use marine reserves for managing pelagic and demersal species poses significant questions regarding their utility for highly-mobile species. Here, a simple conceptual metapopulation model is developed to provide a rigorous comparison of the functioning of reserve networks for populations with different admixtures of larval dispersal and adult movement in a home range. We find that adult movement produces significantly lower persistence than larval dispersal, all other factors being equal. Furthermore, redistribution of harvest effort previously in reserves to remaining fished areas ('fishery squeeze') and fishing along reserve borders ('fishing-the-line') considerably reduce persistence and harvests for populations mobile as adults, while they only marginally changes results for populations with dispersing larvae. Our results also indicate that adult home-range movement and larval dispersal are not simply additive processes, but rather that populations possessing both modes of movement have lower persistence than equivalent populations having the same amount of 'total movement' (sum of larval and adult movement spatial scales) in either larval dispersal or adult movement alone.
Arnaud Grüss
Full Text Available Movement of individuals is a critical factor determining the effectiveness of reserve networks. Marine reserves have historically been used for the management of species that are sedentary as adults, and, therefore, larval dispersal has been a major focus of marine-reserve research. The push to use marine reserves for managing pelagic and demersal species poses significant questions regarding their utility for highly-mobile species. Here, a simple conceptual metapopulation model is developed to provide a rigorous comparison of the functioning of reserve networks for populations with different admixtures of larval dispersal and adult movement in a home range. We find that adult movement produces significantly lower persistence than larval dispersal, all other factors being equal. Furthermore, redistribution of harvest effort previously in reserves to remaining fished areas ('fishery squeeze' and fishing along reserve borders ('fishing-the-line' considerably reduce persistence and harvests for populations mobile as adults, while they only marginally changes results for populations with dispersing larvae. Our results also indicate that adult home-range movement and larval dispersal are not simply additive processes, but rather that populations possessing both modes of movement have lower persistence than equivalent populations having the same amount of 'total movement' (sum of larval and adult movement spatial scales in either larval dispersal or adult movement alone.
R T Tagiyeva
2004-09-01
Localized magnetic polaritons are investigated in the systems consisting of two magnetic superlattices, coupled by a ferromagnetic contact layer. The general dispersion relation for localized magnetic polaritons are derived in the framework of the electromagnetic wave theory in the Voigt geometry by the `transfer' matrix method. The numerical calculations were carried out for different parameters of the superlattices and contact layer and then discussed.
Verscharen, Daniel
2012-01-01
An ion beam can destabilize Alfv\\'en/ion-cyclotron waves and magnetosonic/whistler waves if the beam speed is sufficiently large. Numerical solutions of the hot-plasma dispersion relation have previously shown that the minimum beam speed required to excite such instabilities is significantly smaller for oblique modes with $\\vec k \\times \\vec B_0\
Sorokin, Vladislav S.; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2016-01-01
The paper deals with analytically predicting the effects of weak nonlinearity on the dispersion relation and frequency band-gaps of a periodic Bernoulli– Euler beam performing bending oscillations. Two cases are considered: (i) large transverse deflections, where nonlinear (true) curvature...
Tomalak, O. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany); Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Department of Physics, Kyiv (Ukraine); Vanderhaeghen, M. [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany)
2015-02-01
We apply a subtracted dispersion relation formalism with the aim to improve predictions for the two-photon exchange corrections to elastic electron-proton scattering observables at finite momentum transfers. We study the formalism on the elastic contribution, and make a detailed comparison with existing data for unpolarized cross sections as well as polarization transfer observables. (orig.)
The pion-kaon scattering amplitude constrained with forward dispersion relations up to 1.6 GeV
Pelaez, J R
2016-01-01
In this work we provide simple and precise parameterizations of the existing $\\pi K$ scattering data from threshold up to 1.6 GeV, which are constrained to satisfy forward dispersion relations as well as three additional threshold sum rules. We also provide phenomenological values of the threshold parameters and of the resonance poles that appear in elastic scattering.
NICA-MPD fixed target mode: soft jet studies in the relative 4-velocity space
Okorokov, V A
2016-01-01
Experimental results obtained by studying the properties of soft jets in the 4-velocity space at $\\sqrt{s} \\sim 2-20$ GeV are presented. The changes in the mean distance from the jet axis to the jet particles, the mean kinetic energy of these particles, and the cluster dimension in response to the growth of the collision energy are consistent with the assumption that quark degrees of freedom manifest themselves in processes of pion jet production at intermediate energies. The energy at which quark degrees of freedom begin to manifest themselves experimentally in the production of soft pion jets is estimated for the first time. The estimated value of this energy is $2.8 \\pm 0.6$ GeV. The suggestions are made for future investigations on NICA-MPD.
Lin, M; Chu, C C; Lee, H L; Chang, S L; Ohashi, J; Tokunaga, K; Akaza, T; Juji, T
2000-01-01
Taiwan's 9 indigenous tribes (Tsou, Bunun, Paiwan, Rukai, Atayal, Saisiat, Ami, Puyuma, Yami) are highly homogeneous within each tribe, but diversified among the different tribes due to long-term isolation, most probably since Taiwan became an island about 12,000 years ago. Homogeneity of each tribe is evidenced by many HLA-A,B,C alleles having the world's highest ever reported frequencies, e.g. A24 (86.3%), A26 (18.8%), Cw10 (36.8%), Cw7 (66%), Cw8 (32.1%), B13 (27.9%), B62 (37.4%), B75 (18%), B39 (53.5%), B60 (33.3%), and B48 (24%). Also, all of these tribes have HLA class I haplotype frequencies greater than 10%, with A24-Cw7-B39 in Saisiat (44.5%) being the highest, suggesting Taiwan's indigenous tribes are probably the most homogeneous ( the "purest") population in the world. A24-Cw8-B48, A24-Cw10-B60 and A24-Cw9-B61 found common to many Taiwan indigenous tribes, have also been observed in Maori, Papua New Guinea Highlanders, Orochons, Mongolians, Inuit, Japanese, Man, Buryat, Yakut, Tlingit, Tibetans and Thais. These findings suggest Taiwan's indigenous groups are more or less genetically related to both northern and southern Asians. Principal component analysis and the phylogenetic tree (using the neighbor-joining method) showed close relationship between the indigenous groups and Oceanians. This relationship supports the hypothesis that Taiwan was probably on the route of prehistoric Mongoloid dispersals that most likely took place along the coastal lowland of the Asian continent (which is under the sea today). Cultural anthropology also suggests a relationship between Taiwan's indigenous tribes and southern Asians and to a lesser extent, northern Asians. However, the indigenous groups show little genetic relationship to current southern and northern Han Chinese.
André Vitor Fleuri Jardim
2009-10-01
Full Text Available The main selective forces affecting the fruiting strategies are related to the environment in which plants occur. As a savanna, microclimatic conditions should not vary in relation to distance from edge in cerrado sensu stricto fragments. Thus, we postulated that the importance of different dispersal syndromes would not vary towards the fragment core. Our aim was to test in four cerrado sensu stricto fragments in central Brazil whether the absolute density of anemo-, auto-, and zoochorous individuals varied in relation to edge distance. According to results, the absolute density of anemo-and autochorous individuals did not vary, whereas those of zoochorous individuals increased with edge distance, pointing out that there were other factors rather than abiotic conditions shifting zoochorous species to the interior of cerrado sensu stricto fragments.As principais forças seletivas que afetam as estratégias de frutificação estão relacionadas ao ambiente em que as plantas ocorrem. Como fragmentos de cerrado sensu stricto são savânicos, as condições microclimáticas não devem variar em relação à distância da borda. Assim, postulamos que a importância das diferentes síndromes de dispersão não varia da borda ao interior de um fragmento de vegetação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar, em quatro fragmentos de cerrado sensu stricto (centro-oeste do Brasil, se a densidade absoluta de indivíduos anemo, auto e zoocóricos variava em função da distância da borda. Segundo nossos resultados, a densidade absoluta de indivíduos anemo e autocóricos não variou significativamente borda em direção ao interior dos fragmentos, enquanto que a dos indivíduos zoocóricos aumentou, indicando que existem outros fatores, que não as condições abióticas, deslocando as espécies zoocóricas para o interior dos fragmentos de cerrado sensu stricto.
Bertoglio, Cristóbal; Núñez, Rodolfo; Galarce, Felipe; Nordsletten, David; Osses, Axel
2017-09-07
The relative pressure difference across stenotic blood vessels serves as an important clinical index for the diagnosis of many cardiovascular diseases. While the clinical gold standard for relative pressure difference measurements is invasive catheterization, Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging has emerged as a promising tool for enabling a non-invasive quantification, by linking highly spatially resolved velocity measurements with relative pressures via the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. In this work we provide a review and analysis of current methods for relative pressure estimation and propose three additional techniques. Methods are compared using synthetic data from numerical examples and sensitivity to subsampling and noise was explored. Through our analysis, we verify that the newly proposed approaches are more robust with respect to spatial subsampling and less sensitive to noise, and therefore provide improved means for estimating relative pressure differences non-invasively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Kramers-Kronig relationship between ultrasonic attenuation and phase velocity
Odonnell, M.; Jaynes, E. T.; Miller, J. G.
1981-01-01
Kramers-Kronig relations linking the attenuation and dispersion are presented for a linear acoustic system. These expressions are used as a starting point to derive approximate, nearly local expressions relating the ultrasonic attenuation at a specific frequency to the local frequency derivative of the phase velocity (i.e., dispersion). The validity of these approximate relationships is demonstrated in several acoustic systems exhibiting substantially different physical properties.
Lindgård, Per-Anker; Kowalska, A.; Laut, Peter
1967-01-01
A general bilinear two-Bose Hamiltonian is diagonalized and the result used in a discussion of non-imteracting spin waves in a two-sub-lattice ferromagnet having not negligible anisotropy in the spin interaction. Model-independent functions suitable for the analysis of experimental dispersion...... for the exchange interaction seem to be necessary for agreement with experimental dispersion curves be obtained. The effect of the anisotropy in the cross section is estimated and shown to be important for small magnon energies....
Yoo, Jaiyul
2013-01-01
We study the effect of the supersonic relative velocity between dark matter and baryons on large-scale galaxy clustering and derive the constraint on the relative velocity bias parameter from the Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) power spectrum measurements. Recent work has shown that the relative velocity effect may have a dramatic impact on the star formation at high redshifts, if first stars are formed in minihalos around z~20, or if the effect propagates through secondary effects to stars formed at later redshifts. The relative velocity effect has particularly strong signatures in the large scale clustering of these sources, including the BAO position. Assuming that a small fraction of stars in low-redshift massive galaxies retain the memory of the primordial relative velocity effect, galaxy clustering measurements can be used to constrain the signatures of the first stars. Luminous red galaxies contain some of the oldest stars in the Universe and are ideally suited to search for this effec...
Laser Doppler measurement of relative blood velocity in the human optic nerve head.
Riva, C E; Grunwald, J E; Sinclair, S H
1982-02-01
The Doppler shift frequency spectrum (DSFS) of laser light scattered from red blood cells (RBCs) moving in the microcirculation of the optic nerve head has been recorded in normal volunteers by means of a fundus camera laser Doppler velocimeter. The width of the DSFS, which varies in proportion to the speed of the RBCs, has been characterized by a parameter alpha. With the use of a model for the scattering of light by tissue and RBCs and for the RBC velocity distribution, values of alpha recorded at normal intraocular pressure (IOP) suggest that the RBCs that contribute to the Doppler signal are flowing in capillaries. The parameter alpha was found to vary markedly with the IOP and with the phase of the ocular pressure pulse at elevated IOP. The return of the speed of RBCs toward normal, which is observed after a step increase of IOP above normal and after a step decrease below normal, has been attributed to an autoregulatory response of the optic nerve circulation.
Relations between diabetes, blood pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity in haemodialysis patients
Peters, Christian Daugaard; Kjærgaard, Krista Dybtved; Dzeko, Mirela;
Diabetes (DM) is common in haemodialysis (HD) patients and affects both blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness. Carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) reflects the stiffness of the aorta and is regarded as a strong risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) mortality in HD patients. However, PWV...... is highly influenced by the BP-level. Higher PWV-values among HD patients with DM could reflect a higher BP-level rather than increased arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DM on BP and PWV in a group of HD patients. BP and PWV were measured in 66 HD patients without DM...... (HD) and 32 HD patients with DM (HD+DM). The SphygmoCor system was used for estimation of PWV. HD-duration, age, gender and BP medication were similar in the two groups. Mean DM-duration was 23±11 years and 25(78%) had type 2 DM. HD+DM had higher BMI (26±5 vs. 29±5 kg/m2, p=0.02), systolic BP (142...
A relation between velocity-vorticity correlations and skin friction in wall-bounded turbulent flows
Yoon, Min; Ahn, Junsun; Hwang, Jinyul; Sung, Hyung Jin
2016-11-01
The relationship between the skin friction and the velocity-vorticity correlations in wall-bounded turbulent flows is derived from the mean vorticity equation. A formula for the skin friction coefficient (Cf) is proposed and evaluated with regards to three canonical wall-bounded flows: turbulent boundary layer, turbulent channel flow, and turbulent pipe flow. The skin friction coefficient can be derived from the mean spanwise vorticity at the wall. Double integration with respect to the wall-normal direction (from 0 to y) is needed to derive Cf from the second derivative of the mean spanwise vorticity in the mean spanwise vorticity equation. One more integration is needed to find the contribution of each component to Cf from the wall to the boundary layer edge (from 0 to δ) . The present formula encompasses four terms: advective vorticity transport, vortex stretching, viscous, and inhomogeneous terms. Drag-reduced channel flow with the slip condition is used to test the reliability of the formula. The advective vorticity transport and vortex stretching terms are found to dominate the contributions to the frictional drag. This work was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2016-004749) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).
Sun, Enwei; Cao, Wenwu; Han, Pengdi
2011-08-01
The frequency dispersion of ultrasonic velocity and attenuation in [001](c)-poled 0.24Pb(in(1/2)Nb(1/2))O(3)-0.45Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))o(3)-0.31PbTio(3) (PIN-0.45PMN-0.31PT) ternary single crystal were measured by ultrasonic spectroscopy from 25 to 100 MHz for the longitudinal wave. It was found that the velocity has a linear relationship with the frequency f, but the attenuation has a quadratic relation with f. The attenuation and frequency dispersion of the ternary system are lower than that of the (1-x)Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-xPbTiO(3) (PMN-PT) binary system and the coercive field also increased by a factor of 2.5, hence, the ternary single system is superior to the corresponding binary single-crystal system for high-frequency and high-power transducer applications.
Plasma Dispersion Function for the Kappa Distribution
Podesta, John J.
2004-01-01
The plasma dispersion function is computed for a homogeneous isotropic plasma in which the particle velocities are distributed according to a Kappa distribution. An ordinary differential equation is derived for the plasma dispersion function and it is shown that the solution can be written in terms of Gauss' hypergeometric function. Using the extensive theory of the hypergeometric function, various mathematical properties of the plasma dispersion function are derived including symmetry relations, series expansions, integral representations, and closed form expressions for integer and half-integer values of K.
Veale, Melanie; Thomas, Jens; Greene, Jenny E; McConnell, Nicholas J; Walsh, Jonelle; Ito, Jennifer; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan
2016-01-01
We present spatially-resolved two-dimensional stellar kinematics for the 41 most massive early-type galaxies (MK ~ 10^11.8 Msun) of the volume-limited (D ; the most luminous galaxies have ~ 0.05 while less luminous galaxies have a range of values between 0 and 0.5. Most of our galaxies show positive radial gradients in h4, and those galaxies also tend to have rising sigma profiles. We discuss the implications for the relationship among dynamical mass, sigma, h4, and velocity anisotropy for these massive galaxies.
The influence of stochastic dispersion on optical soliton system and its suppression
杨祥林; 温扬敬; 张明德
1995-01-01
The influence of stochastic dispersion on an optical soliton communication system is investigated, and the method of reducing this influence is also given. The analysis shows that the existence-of stochastic dispersion results in the arrival time jitter, which is in proportion to the mean square fluctuation of the imaginary component of stochastic dispersion and is related to soliton amplitude and velocity. The influence of stochastic dispersion can be reduced by using filtering method in frequency domain.
李伟; 魏彦玉; 谢鸿全; 刘盛纲; 巩马理
2003-01-01
A general dispersion equation of a partially filled plasma corrugated waveguide immersed in a finite magnetic field is presented. When the guiding magnet Bo →∞ or 0, this equation can be reduced to the results obtained in previous works.
Patzak, Andreas; Petzhold, Daria; Wronski, Thomas; Martinka, Peter; Babu, Gopal J; Periasamy, Muthu; Haase, Hannelore; Morano, Ingo
2005-12-01
Constriction of renal arterioles contributes significantly to the control of perfusion and glomerular filtration. Afferent but not efferent arterioles express smooth muscle myosin heavy chain B (SMB) (with a 5'-insert of seven amino acids). The aim of the present study was to investigate (1) the constriction characteristics of afferent and efferent arterioles under physiologic load and (2) whether expression of SMB may causally contribute to these constriction characteristics. We compared constriction parameters [constriction amplitude, maximal rate of constriction velocity ("dc/dt(max)"), and time to half-maximal constriction (t(1/2)) of in vitro perfused renal afferent and efferent arterioles of wild-type (smb(+/+)] and homozygous SMB knockout [smb(-/-)] mice upon stimulation with angiotensin II (Ang II) (10(-8) mol/L) and potassium chloride (KCl) (100 mmol/L). SMB expression was investigated by double-labeling immunofluorescence. Contraction amplitude and dc/dt(max) of mouse afferent arterioles upon Ang II stimulation were significantly greater compared to efferent arterioles. However, constriction amplitudes, dc/dt(max), and t(1/2) of afferent as well as efferent arterioles upon Ang II stimulation were similar in smb(+/+) and smb(-/-) mice. Constriction amplitudes upon KCl stimulation of afferent arterioles were similar in both smb(+/+) and smb(-/-) mice. Furthermore, KCl-induced dc/dt(max) and t(1/2) of afferent arterioles were similar in both smb(+/+) and smb(-/-) mice. SMB expression could be detected in afferent but not efferent arterioles in smb(+/+) mice. No SMB expression in either arteriole could be observed in smb(-/-) mice. Our results suggest that the presence of different alternatively 5'-spliced smooth muscle-myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC) isoforms does not dominate the different contractile features of physiologically loaded renal afferent or efferent arterioles.
J. A. Sauvaud
Full Text Available The Toulouse ION experiment flown on the Russian Interball-Aurora mission performs simultaneous ion and electron measurements. Two mass spectrometers looking in opposing directions perpendicular to the satellite spin axis, which points toward the sun, measure ions in the mass and energy ranges 1–32 amu and ~0–14 000 eV. Two electron spectrometers also looking in opposing directions perform measurements in the energy range ~10 eV–20 000 eV. The Interball-Aurora spacecraft was launched on 29 August 1996 into a 62.8° inclination orbit with an apogee of ~3 R_{E}. The satellite orbital period is 6 h, so that every four orbits the satellite sweeps about the same region of the auroral zone; the orbit plane drifts around the pole in ~9 months. We present a description of the ION experiment and discuss initial measurements performed in the cusp near noon, in the polar cleft at dusk, and inside the proton aurora at dawn. Ion-dispersed energy structures resulting from time-of-flight effects are observed both in the polar cleft at ~16 hours MLT and in the dawnside proton aurora close to 06 hours MLT. Magnetosheath plasma injections in the polar cleft, which appear as overlapping energy bands in particle energy-time spectrograms, are traced backwards in time using a particle trajectory model using 3D electric and magnetic field models. We found that the cleft ion source is located at distances of the order of 18 R_{E} from the earth at about 19 MLT, i.e., on the flank of the magnetopause. These observations are in agreement with flux transfer events (FTE occurring not only on the front part of the magnetopause but also in a region extending at least to dusk. We also show that, during quiet magnetic conditions, time-of-flight ion dispersions can also be measured inside the dawn proton aurora. A method similar to that used for the cleft is applied to these auroral energy dispersion signatures. Unexpectedly, the ion source is found to be
Solutions of the benchmark problems by the dispersion-relation-preserving scheme
Tam, Christopher K. W.; Shen, H.; Kurbatskii, K. A.; Auriault, L.
1995-01-01
The 7-point stencil Dispersion-Relation-Preserving scheme of Tam and Webb is used to solve all the six categories of the CAA benchmark problems. The purpose is to show that the scheme is capable of solving linear, as well as nonlinear aeroacoustics problems accurately. Nonlinearities, inevitably, lead to the generation of spurious short wave length numerical waves. Often, these spurious waves would overwhelm the entire numerical solution. In this work, the spurious waves are removed by the addition of artificial selective damping terms to the discretized equations. Category 3 problems are for testing radiation and outflow boundary conditions. In solving these problems, the radiation and outflow boundary conditions of Tam and Webb are used. These conditions are derived from the asymptotic solutions of the linearized Euler equations. Category 4 problems involved solid walls. Here, the wall boundary conditions for high-order schemes of Tam and Dong are employed. These conditions require the use of one ghost value per boundary point per physical boundary condition. In the second problem of this category, the governing equations, when written in cylindrical coordinates, are singular along the axis of the radial coordinate. The proper boundary conditions at the axis are derived by applying the limiting process of r approaches 0 to the governing equations. The Category 5 problem deals with the numerical noise issue. In the present approach, the time-independent mean flow solution is computed first. Once the residual drops to the machine noise level, the incident sound wave is turned on gradually. The solution is marched in time until a time-periodic state is reached. No exact solution is known for the Category 6 problem. Because of this, the problem is formulated in two totally different ways, first as a scattering problem then as a direct simulation problem. There is good agreement between the two numerical solutions. This offers confidence in the computed results. Both
Modified definition of group velocity and electromagnetic energy conservation equation
Wang, Changbiao
2013-01-01
The classical definition of group velocity has two flaws: (a) the group velocity can be greater than the phase velocity in a non-dispersive medium; (b) the definition is not consistent with the principle of relativity. To remove the flaws, a modified definition is proposed. A criterion is set up to identify the justification of group velocity definition. A "superluminal power flow" is constructed to show that the electromagnetic energy conservation equation cannot uniquely define the power flow if the principle of Fermat is not taken into account.
Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi
2012-01-01
In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...
Guo, Xiao; Wei, Peijun; Lan, Man; Li, Li
2016-08-01
The effects of functionally graded interlayers on dispersion relations of elastic waves in a one-dimensional piezoelectric/piezomagnetic phononic crystal are studied in this paper. First, the state transfer equation of the functionally graded interlayer is derived from the motion equation by the reduction of order (from second order to first order). The transfer matrix of the functionally graded interlayer is obtained by solving the state transfer equation with the spatial-varying coefficient. Based on the transfer matrixes of the piezoelectric slab, the piezomagnetic slab and the functionally graded interlayers, the total transfer matrix of a single cell is obtained. Further, the Bloch theorem is used to obtain the resultant dispersion equations of in-plane and anti-plane Bloch waves. The dispersion equations are solved numerically and the numerical results are shown graphically. Five kinds of profiles of functionally graded interlayers between a piezoelectric slab and a piezomagnetic slab are considered. It is shown that the functionally graded interlayers have evident influences on the dispersion curves and the band gaps.
Sorokin, Vladislav S; Thomsen, Jon Juel
2016-02-01
The paper deals with analytically predicting the effects of weak nonlinearity on the dispersion relation and frequency band-gaps of a periodic Bernoulli-Euler beam performing bending oscillations. Two cases are considered: (i) large transverse deflections, where nonlinear (true) curvature, nonlinear material and nonlinear inertia owing to longitudinal motions of the beam are taken into account, and (ii) mid-plane stretching nonlinearity. A novel approach is employed, the method of varying amplitudes. As a result, the isolated as well as combined effects of the considered sources of nonlinearities are revealed. It is shown that nonlinear inertia has the most substantial impact on the dispersion relation of a non-uniform beam by removing all frequency band-gaps. Explanations of the revealed effects are suggested, and validated by experiments and numerical simulation.
Szybisz, Leszek
1990-06-01
The self-consistency of solutions obtained from a recently proposed numerical relaxation method of solving the Euler-Lagrange equations for the ground state of inhomogeneous Bose systems at zero temperature is investigated. For this kind of system at least three different dispersion relations can be formulated, all of them providing information about the same eigenstates. The quality of our optimization scheme is studied by analyzing the convergence of the low-lying eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of these dispersion relations. Numerical results for the spectrum and spatial shape of elementary excitations of a thin film of liquid 4He supported by an external potential are reported. The optimal lowest-lying eigenvalues are compared with estimations based on simple theoretical approaches and with calculations performed by other authors.
ZHONG Hong-Wei; TANG Yi
2006-01-01
@@ The phonon dispersion relation of the commensurate quantum Frenkel-Kontorova model is studied by means of the time-dependent variational approach combined with a Hartree-type many-body trial wavefunction for the particles. The single-particle state is taken to be a frozen Jackiw-Kerman wavefunction. Under the condition of minimum uncertainty, equations of motion for the particle expectation values are derived to obtain the phonon dispersion relation. It is shown that the strength of the substrate potential and the phonon excitation gap are reduced due to the quantum fluctuations in comparison with those of the classical model. We also compare our results with those previously obtained by using the path-integral molecular dynamics.
A.Hasanbeigi; H.Mehdian
2013-01-01
The effects of corrugated ion channels on electron trajectories and spatial growth rate for a free-electron laser with a one-dimensional helical wiggler have been investigated.Analysis of the steady-state electron trajectories is performed by solving the equations of motion.Our results show that the presence of a corrugated channel shifts the resonance frequency to smaller values of ion channel frequency.The sixth-order dispersion equation describing the coupling between the electrostatic beam mode and the electromagnetic mode has also been derived.The dispersion relation characteristic is analyzed in detail by numerical solution.Results show that the growth rate of instability in the presence of corrugated ion channels can be greatly enhanced relative to the case of an uniform ion channel.
Quantum dispersion relations for excitations of long folded spinning superstring in AdS_5 x S^5
Giombi, S; Roiban, R; Tseytlin, A A
2010-01-01
We use AdS_5 x S^5 superstring sigma model perturbation theory to compute the leading one-loop corrections to the dispersion relations of the excitations near a long spinning string in AdS. This investigation is partially motivated by the OPE-based approach to the computation of the expectation value of null polygonal Wilson loops suggested in arXiv:1006.2788. Our results are in partial agreement with the recent asymptotic Bethe ansatz computation in arXiv:1010.5237. In particular, we find that the heaviest AdS mode (absent in the ABA approach) is stable and has a corrected one-loop dispersion relation similar to the other massive modes. Its stability might hold also at the next-to-leading order as we suggest using a unitarity-based argument.
Once subtracted Roy-like dispersion relations and a precise analysis of $\\pi\\pi$ scattering data
Garcia-Martin, R; Peláez, J R; Ynduráin, F J
2009-01-01
We report our progress on the data analysis of $\\pi\\pi$ scattering data in terms of Forward Dispersion Relations (FDR), as well as Roy equations (RE) and their once-subtracted counterpart, GKPY equations. The first part of the analysis consists of independent fits to the different $\\pi\\pi$ channels. The GKPY equations provide a more stringent consistency check for the parametrizations of the S0-wave data in the region from 400 to 1100 MeV, In the second part we present our preliminary analysis where the fits are constrained to satisfy all dispersion relations within errors, including the new GKPY Eqs., thus providing a very precise and model independent description of data using just analyticity, causality and crossing.
Dispersion management with metamaterials
Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.
2017-03-07
An apparatus, system, and method to counteract group velocity dispersion in fibers, or any other propagation of electromagnetic signals at any wavelength (microwave, terahertz, optical, etc.) in any other medium. A dispersion compensation step or device based on dispersion-engineered metamaterials is included and avoids the need of a long section of specialty fiber or the need for Bragg gratings (which have insertion loss).
Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo; D'Hertefeldt, T.
2009-01-01
Background, aim, and scope We strive to predict consequences of genetically modified plants (GMPs) being cultivated openly in the environment, as human and animal health, biodiversity, agricultural practise and farmers’ economy could be affected. Therefore, it is unfortunate that the risk...... of fitness parameters. Monitoring of the extent of spontaneous introgression in natural populations was also performed. Modelling was used as an additional tool to identify key parameters in gene flow. Results The GM plant may affect the environment directly or indirectly by dispersal of the transgene....... In the present review, this is illustrated through a bunch of examples mostly from our own research on oilseed rape, Brassica napus. In the Brassica cases, the variability affected all five main steps in the process of gene dispersal. The modelling performed suggests that in Brassica, differences in fitness...
Dispersion of the Nabro volcanic plume and its relation to the Asian summer monsoon
Fairlie, T. D.; Vernier, J.-P.; M. Natarajan; Bedka, K M
2014-01-01
We use nighttime measurements from the Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, together with a Lagrangian trajectory model, to study the initial dispersion of volcanic aerosol from the eruption of Mt. Nabro (Ethiopia/Eritrea) in June 2011. The Nabro eruption reached the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) directly, and the plume was initially entrained by the flow surrounding the Asian anticyclone, which prevails in ...
Tso, Rhondale; Chen, Yanbei; Stein, Leo
2016-01-01
We propose a generic, phenomenological approach to modifying the dispersion of gravitational waves, independent of corrections to the generation mechanism. This model-independent approach encapsulates all previously proposed parametrizations, including Lorentz violation in the Standard-Model Extension, and provides a roadmap for additional theories. Furthermore, we present a general approach to include modulations to the gravitational-wave polarization content. The framework developed here can be implemented in existing data analysis pipelines for future gravitational-wave observation runs.
Ackerman, Joshua T.; Ringelman, Kevin M.; Eadie, J.M.
2012-01-01
When nest predation levels are very high or very low, the absolute range of observable nest success is constrained (a floor/ceiling effect), and it may be more difficult to detect density-dependent nest predation. Density-dependent nest predation may be more detectable in years with moderate predation rates, simply because there can be a greater absolute difference in nest success between sites. To test this, we replicated a predation experiment 10 years after the original study, using both natural and artificial nests, comparing a year when overall rates of nest predation were high (2000) to a year with moderate nest predation (2010). We found no evidence for density-dependent predation on artificial nests in either year, indicating that nest predation is not density-dependent at the spatial scale of our experimental replicates (1-ha patches). Using nearest-neighbor distances as a measure of nest dispersion, we also found little evidence for “dispersion-dependent” predation on artificial nests. However, when we tested for dispersion-dependent predation using natural nests, we found that nest survival increased with shorter nearest-neighbor distances, and that neighboring nests were more likely to share the same nest fate than non-adjacent nests. Thus, at small spatial scales, density-dependence appears to operate in the opposite direction as predicted: closer nearest neighbors are more likely to be successful. We suggest that local nest dispersion, rather than larger-scale measures of nest density per se, may play a more important role in density-dependent nest predation.
ZHANG Jia-Lin; YU Hong-Wei
2005-01-01
@@ We show that the velocity and position dispersions of a test particle with a nonzero constant classical velocity undergoing Brownian motion caused by electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations in a space with plane boundaries can be obtained from those of the static case by Lorentz transformation. We explicitly derive the Lorentz transformations relating the dispersions of the two cases and then apply them to the case of the Brownian motion of a test particle with a constant classical velocity parallel to the boundary between two conducting planes. Our results show that the influence of a nonzero initial velocity is negligible for nonrelativistic test particles.
Peláez, J R; Kaminski, R; Ynduráin, F J
2009-01-01
This talk is dedicated to the memory of Paco Yndurain, the original speaker in the conference. After a short account of his scientific career, we briefly review our ongoing collaboration to determine precisely the $\\pi\\pi$ scattering amplitude including the most recent data by means of Forward Dispersion Relations and Roy Equations. A remarkable improvement in precision over the intermediate energy region is obtained by using once-subtracted Roy Equations in addition to the standard twice-subtracted ones.
Pelaez, J.R.; Garcia Martin, R. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica II, Univ. Complutense de Madrid. 28040 Madrid. Spain (Spain); Kaminski, R. [Department of Theoretical Physics Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342, Krakow (Poland); Yndurain, F.J. [Dept. de Fisica Teorica, C-XI Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Canto Blanco, E-28049, Madrid (Spain)
2009-01-15
This talk is dedicated to the memory of Paco Yndurain, the original speaker in the conference. After a short account of his scientific career, we briefly review our ongoing collaboration to determine precisely the {pi}{pi} scattering amplitude including the most recent data by means of Forward Dispersion Relations and Roy Equations. A remarkable improvement in precision over the intermediate energy region is obtained by using once-subtracted Roy Equations in addition to the standard twice-subtracted ones.
Migliano, P.; Zarzoso, D.; Artola, F. J.; Camenen, Y.; Garbet, X.
2017-09-01
The analytical treatment of plasma kinetic linear instabilities in toroidal geometry is commonly tackled employing a power series expansion of the resonant part of the dispersion relation. This expansion is valid under the assumption that the modulus of the mode frequency is smaller than the magnitude of the frequencies characterising the system (the drift, bounce and transit frequencies for example). We will refer to this approximation as high frequency approximation (HFA). In this paper the linear plasma dispersion relation is derived in the framework of the gyro-kinetic model, for the electrostatic case, in the local limit, in the absence of collisions, for a non rotating plasma, considering adiabatic electrons, in toroidal circular geometry, neglecting the parallel dynamics effect. A systematic analysis of the meaning and limitations of the HFA is performed. As already known, the HFA is not valid for tokamak relevant parameters. A new way to approximate the resonant part of the dispersion relation, called here Improved high frequency approximation (IHFA), is therefore proposed. A quantitative analysis of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) instability is presented. The IHFA is shown to be applicable to the treatment of the ITG instability in tokamaks.
Confirmation of general relativity on large scales from weak lensing and galaxy velocities.
Reyes, Reinabelle; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Seljak, Uros; Baldauf, Tobias; Gunn, James E; Lombriser, Lucas; Smith, Robert E
2010-03-11
Although general relativity underlies modern cosmology, its applicability on cosmological length scales has yet to be stringently tested. Such a test has recently been proposed, using a quantity, E(G), that combines measures of large-scale gravitational lensing, galaxy clustering and structure growth rate. The combination is insensitive to 'galaxy bias' (the difference between the clustering of visible galaxies and invisible dark matter) and is thus robust to the uncertainty in this parameter. Modified theories of gravity generally predict values of E(G) different from the general relativistic prediction because, in these theories, the 'gravitational slip' (the difference between the two potentials that describe perturbations in the gravitational metric) is non-zero, which leads to changes in the growth of structure and the strength of the gravitational lensing effect. Here we report that E(G) = 0.39 +/- 0.06 on length scales of tens of megaparsecs, in agreement with the general relativistic prediction of E(G) approximately 0.4. The measured value excludes a model within the tensor-vector-scalar gravity theory, which modifies both Newtonian and Einstein gravity. However, the relatively large uncertainty still permits models within f(R) theory, which is an extension of general relativity. A fivefold decrease in uncertainty is needed to rule out these models.
Fang, L.; Zhang, Y. J.; Fang, J.; Zhu, Y.
2016-08-01
We show by direct numerical simulations (DNSs) that in different types of isotropic turbulence, the fourth-order statistical invariants have approximately a linear relation, which can be represented by a straight line in the phase plane, passing two extreme states: the Gaussian state and the restricted Euler state. Also, each DNS case corresponds to an equilibrium region that is roughly Reynolds-dependent. In addition, both the time reversal and the compressibility effect lead to nonequilibrium transition processes in this phase plane. This observation adds a new restriction on the mean-field theory.
Gas phase dispersion in compost as a function of different water contents and air flow rates
Sharma, Prabhakar; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.
2009-07-01
Gas phase dispersion in a natural porous medium (yard waste compost) was investigated as a function of gas flow velocity and compost volumetric water content using oxygen and nitrogen as tracer gases. The compost was chosen because it has a very wide water content range and because it represents a wide range of porous media, including soils and biofilter media. Column breakthrough curves for oxygen and nitrogen were measured at relatively low pore gas velocities, corresponding to those observed in for instance soil vapor extraction systems or biofilters for air cleaning at biogas plants or composting facilities. Total gas mechanical dispersion-molecular diffusion coefficients were fitted from the breakthrough curves using a one-dimensional numerical solution to the advection-dispersion equation and used to determine gas dispersivities at different volumetric gas contents. The results showed that gas mechanical dispersion dominated over molecular diffusion with mechanical dispersion for all water contents and pore gas velocities investigated. Importance of mechanical dispersion increased with increasing pore gas velocity and compost water content. The results further showed that gas dispersivity was relatively constant at high values of compost gas-filled porosity but increased with decreasing gas-filled porosity at lower values of gas-filled porosity. Results finally showed that measurement uncertainty in gas dispersivity is generally highest at low values of pore gas velocity.
Confirmation of general relativity on large scales from weak lensing and galaxy velocities
Reyes, Reinabelle; Seljak, Uros; Baldauf, Tobias; Gunn, James E; Lombriser, Lucas; Smith, Robert E; 10.1038/nature08857
2010-01-01
Although general relativity underlies modern cosmology, its applicability on cosmological length scales has yet to be stringently tested. Such a test has recently been proposed, using a quantity, EG, that combines measures of large-scale gravitational lensing, galaxy clustering and structure growth rate. The combination is insensitive to 'galaxy bias' (the difference between the clustering of visible galaxies and invisible dark matter) and is thus robust to the uncertainty in this parameter. Modified theories of gravity generally predict values of EG different from the general relativistic prediction because, in these theories, the 'gravitational slip' (the difference between the two potentials that describe perturbations in the gravitational metric) is non-zero, which leads to changes in the growth of structure and the strength of the gravitational lensing effect3. Here we report that EG = 0.39 +/- 0.06 on length scales of tens of megaparsecs, in agreement with the general relativistic prediction of EG $\\app...
Influence of Dispersion on Transport of Tracer through Unsaturated Porous Media
T Bunsri
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The dispersion phenomenon has resulted from the various water flow magnitude and direction in porous media. The dissolved tracer tends to spread due to dispersion and then travel time of tracer through the porous media increases. In unsaturated porous media, dispersion coefficient varies with non-linear Darcy’s velocity and the water content. These effects observed in both of the laboratory scale sand and soil columns (20 cm. The unsaturated infiltration column and tracer tests have been used to interpret the relationships between Darcy’s velocity and the water content together with the dispersion coefficient. However, the dispersivity coefficient cannot be measured directly, it has to determine from advection-dispersion equation (ADE, which can be used to model the tracer transport in unsaturated porous media. The model was used to describe the non-linear functions of water contents and dispersivities for both porous media. The simulations have been verified that the dispersion of tracer through soil is higher than sand column and also travel time of tracer through soil is longer than sand column. Even though, soil has very low degree of pore velocity, the high dispersivity is observed in the simulations. The water content and tracer concentration profiles reveal that the increase of dispersivity induces the increase of flow path distance and the decrease of pore velocity. The maximum dispersivity was observed when the water content of porous media is relatively low; this leads the maximum of spreading of tracer.
Distinguishing screening mechanisms with environment-dependent velocity statistics
Ivarsen, Magnus Fagernes; Llinares, Claudio; Mota, David F
2016-01-01
Alternative theories of gravity typically invoke an environment-dependent "screening mechanism" to allow phenomenologically interesting deviations from general relativity (GR) to manifest on larger scales, while reducing to GR on small scales. The observation of the transition from screened to unscreened behavior would be compelling evidence for beyond-GR physics. In this paper, we show that pairwise peculiar velocity statistics -- in particular the relative radial velocity dispersion, $\\sigma_\\parallel$ -- can be used to observe this transition when they are binned by some measure of halo environment. We establish this by measuring the radial velocity dispersion between pairs of halos in N-body simulations for 3 $f(R)$ gravity and 4 Symmetron models. We develop an estimator involving only line-of-sight velocities to show that this quantity is observable, and bin the results in halo mass, ambient density, and the "isolatedness" of halos. Ambient density is found to be the most relevant measure of environment;...
Slepian, Zachary; Blazek, Jonathan A; Brownstein, Joel R; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Ho, Shirley; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; McEwen, Joseph E; Percival, Will J; Ross, Ashley J; Rossi, Graziano; Seo, Hee-Jong; Slosar, Anže; Vargas-Magaña, Mariana
2016-01-01
We search for a galaxy clustering bias due to a modulation of galaxy number with the baryon-dark matter relative velocity resulting from recombination-era physics. We find no detected signal and place the constraint $b_v < 0.01$ on the relative velocity bias for the CMASS galaxies. This bias is an important potential systematic of Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) method measurements of the cosmic distance scale using the 2-point clustering. Our limit on the relative velocity bias indicates a systematic shift of no more than $0.3\\%$ rms in the distance scale inferred from the BAO feature in the BOSS 2-point clustering, well below the $1\\%$ statistical error of this measurement. This constraint is the most stringent currently available and has important implications for the ability of upcoming large-scale structure surveys such as DESI to self-protect against the relative velocity as a possible systematic.
Precise Near-Infrared Radial Velocities
Plavchan, Peter; Gagne, Jonathan; Furlan, Elise; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Bottom, Michael; Tanner, Angelle; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; White, Russel; Davison, Cassy; Mills, Sean; Beichman, Chas; Johnson, John Asher; Ciardi, David; Wallace, Kent; Mennesson, Bertrand; Vasisht, Gautam; Prato, Lisa; Kane, Stephen; Crawford, Sam; Crawford, Tim; Sung, Keeyoon; Drouin, Brian; Lin, Sean; Leifer, Stephanie; Catanzarite, Joe; Henry, Todd; von Braun, Kaspar; Walp, Bernie; Geneser, Claire; Ogden, Nick; Stufflebeam, Andrew; Pohl, Garrett; Regan, Joe
2016-01-01
We present the results of two 2.3 micron near-infrared radial velocity surveys to detect exoplanets around 36 nearby and young M dwarfs. We use the CSHELL spectrograph (R ~46,000) at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility, combined with an isotopic methane absorption gas cell for common optical path relative wavelength calibration. We have developed a sophisticated RV forward modeling code that accounts for fringing and other instrumental artifacts present in the spectra. With a spectral grasp of only 5 nm, we are able to reach long-term radial velocity dispersions of ~20-30 m/s on our survey targets.
Galley, Chad R
2009-01-01
We present a new analytical framework for describing the dynamics of a gravitational binary system with unequal masses moving with arbitrary relative velocity, taking into account the backreaction from both compact objects in the form of tidal deformation, gravitational waves and self forces. Allowing all dynamical variables to interact with each other in a self-consistent manner this formalism ensures that all the dynamical quantities involved are conserved on the background spacetime and obey the gauge invariance under general coordinate transformations that preserve the background geometry. Because it is based on a generalized perturbation theory and the important new emphasis is on the self-consistency of all the dynamical variables involved we call it a gravitational perturbation theory with self-consistent backreaction (GP-SCB). As an illustration of how this formalism is implemented we construct perturbatively a self-consistent set of equations of motion for an inspiraling gravitational binary, which d...
Lassen, L.H.; Jacobsen, V.B.; Haderslev, P.A.
2008-01-01
g/min) or placebo for 20 min was studied in 12 patients with migraine without aura outside attacks. Xenon-133 inhalation SPECT-determined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and transcranial Doppler (TCD)-determined blood velocity (V-mean) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), as well as the heart......Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing nerves are closely associated with cranial blood vessels. CGRP is the most potent vasodilator known in isolated cerebral blood vessels. CGRP can induce migraine attacks, and two selective CGRP receptor antagonists are effective in the treatment...... of migraine attacks. It is therefore important to investigate its mechanism of action in patients with migraine. We here investigate the effects of intravenous human alpha-CGRP (h alpha CGRP) on intracranial hemodynamics. In a double-blind, cross-over study, the effect of intravenous infusion of haCGRP (2 mu...
Velocity anticipation in the optimal velocity model
DONG Li-yun; WENG Xu-dan; LI Qing-ding
2009-01-01
In this paper,the velocity anticipation in the optimal velocity model (OVM) is investigated.The driver adjusts the velocity of his vehicle by the desired headway,which depends on both instantaneous headway and relative velocity.The effect of relative velocity is measured by a sensitivity function.A specific form of the sensitivity function is supposed and the involved parameters are determined by the both numerical simulation and empirical data.It is shown that inclusion of velocity anticipation enhances the stability of traffic flow.Numerical simulations show a good agreement with empirical data.This model provides a better description of real traffic,including the acceleration process from standing states and the deceleration process approaching a stopped car.
Mechanism of proton anisotropic velocity distribution in the solar wind
AO; Xianzhi(敖先志); SHEN; Ji(沈迹); TU; Chuanyi(涂传诒)
2003-01-01
Although it has been long that spacecraft observed the anisotropy of velocity protons in the solar wind, there is still not a reasonable explanation. In this paper we try to give an explanation from the diffusion plateau of protoncyclotron resonance predicted by the quasi-linear theory for the resonance between the protons and the parallel propagating waves. We consider the effect of dispersion relation on diffusion plateau and notice that the diffusion plateau we have got by using cold plasma dispersion relation accords with the density contours in the velocity phase space detected at 0.3 AU in fast solar wind. For explaining proton distributions obtained in the fast solar wind from 0.7 AU to 1 AU hot plasma dispersion relation should be considered. We also give a theoretical relation of proton thermal anisotropy A and plasma parameter β.
Nonlinear effects related to circularly polarized dispersive Alfvén waves
Sharma, Swati; Gaur, Nidhi; Sharma, R. P.
2016-09-01
In situ measurements of solar wind have strongly implicated its turbulent behavior. The observed power spectra report a breakpoint around length scales of the order of ion scales. As one of the responsible mechanisms for the observed steepening in power spectrum, our approach includes a right circularly polarized dispersive Alfvén wave (DAW) with finite frequency correction which, when subjected to transverse collapse/filamentation instability, may possibly result in steepening of spectrum and progressive transfer of energy from larger scales to smaller scales. We have studied the nonlinear effects associated with coupling of DAW with kinetic Alfvén wave in solar wind at 1 A.U. The formation of localized structures provides a clue about the emergence of turbulence. Numerical simulation is performed to study localization and power spectral density of the field and density fluctuations. The results show steeper spectrum indicating transfer of large scale turbulent energy down to small scales.
Templeman, B.; Raman, S.; Templeman, S.; Nigam, S.; Singh, M. P.
Digital analysis of smoke plume imagery is applied to video and photographs of a smoke plume taken on 22 June 1987 at the Badrapur Power Plant in New Delhi, India. Using a medium resolution video digitizer, these photographs and video are digitized and analyzed to produce a composite averaged plume that corresponds to a sampling interval of 2 min. These estimates are then used to estimate parameters of vertical dispersion and relative centerline concentration. Estimates of vertical dispersion are compared with Briggs' recommended values for stability class C (slightly unstable conditions). The digital technique produces values of σz that compare well with those estimated using Briggs' formulations. The values obtained using the digital method did not vary by more than 5 per cent from those formulated by Briggs. Estimates of relative concentration, which are values normalized by the concentration associated with a travel distance of 100 m, are compared with relative concentrations obtained using the Gaussian diffusion equation. The digital method produces estimates of relative concentration that compare well with the Gaussian diffusion equation, the differences encountered varying by less than 10 per cent throughout the calculated travel distance.
Energy velocity and group velocity
陈宇
1995-01-01
A new Lagrangian method for studying the relationship between the energy velocity and the group velocity is described. It is proved that under the usual quasistatic electric field, the energy velocity is identical to the group velocity for acoustic waves in anisotropic piezoelectric (or non-piezoelectric) media.
Remiddi, Ettore
2016-01-01
It is shown that the study of the imaginary part and of the corresponding dispersion relations of Feynman graph amplitudes within the differential equations method can provide a powerful tool for the solution of the equations, especially in the massive case. The main features of the approach are illustrated by discussing the simple cases of the 1-loop self-mass and of a particular vertex amplitude, and then used for the evaluation of the two-loop massive sunrise and the QED kite graph (the problem studied by Sabry in 1962), up to first order in the (d-4) expansion.
Remiddi, Ettore; Tancredi, Lorenzo
2016-06-01
It is shown that the study of the imaginary part and of the corresponding dispersion relations of Feynman graph amplitudes within the differential equations method can provide a powerful tool for the solution of the equations, especially in the massive case. The main features of the approach are illustrated by discussing the simple cases of the 1-loop self-mass and of a particular vertex amplitude, and then used for the evaluation of the two-loop massive sunrise and the QED kite graph (the problem studied by Sabry in 1962), up to first order in the (d - 4) expansion.
Gryning, Sven-Erik; Larsen, Søren Ejling
1981-01-01
A simple model was described that related the dispersion of material from ground-level sources at 2 areas, taking into account dissimilarities in the surface roughness parameter (z0) and the atmospheric stability characterized by the Monin-Obukhov length (L). The geostrophic wind speed was assumed...... that travelled a distance x; .hivin.z/L was found when z0/L and x/z0 were known. The model was reduced to 3 dimensionless parameters by merging .hivin.z/L for the 2 areas into a composite parameter. Dimensionless results from the model were illustrated for discrete values of this composite parameter....
Dou, Zhongwang; Bragg, Andrew; Hammond, Adam; Liang, Zach; Collins, Lance; Meng, Hui
2016-11-01
Effects of Reynolds number (Rλ) and Stokes number (St) on particle-pair relative velocity (RV) were studied using four-frame particle tracking in an enclosed turbulence chamber. Two tests were performed: varying Rλ between 246 and 357 at six St values, and varying St between 0.02 and 4.63 at five Rλ values. By comparing experimental and DNS results of mean inward particle-pair RV, , we observed excellent agreement for all test conditions across a large range of particle separation distance (r) ; however at r values were higher than simulation. At fixed St , was found to be independent of Rλ in the observable St , r, and Rλ ranges. At fixed Rλ, increased with St at small r and decreased with St at large r. We further compared and variance of RV, , between experiments, DNS and theoretical predictions by Pan and Padoan (2010). At 0 theory-predicted and matched with DNS and experiment in the range of r = 1 - 60 η . As St increased, theoretical predictions were lower than experiment and DNS results. The potential causes of these trends are explored. Additionally, we discuss the observed electrostatic charge effect on particle relative motion in isotropic turbulence and our plans of studying this effect using an integrated experimental, numerical and theoretical approach. This work was supported by NSF CBET-0967407 and CBET-0967349.
Dispersive excitations in the high-temperature superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4
Christensen, N.B.; McMorrow, D.F.; Rønnow, H.M.
2004-01-01
High-resolution neutron scattering experiments on optimally doped La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO(4) (x=0.16) reveal that the magnetic excitations are dispersive. The dispersion is the same as in YBa(2)Cu(3)O(6.85), and is quantitatively related to that observed with charge sensitive probes. The associated veloc...
Velocities of Thwaites and Land glaciers
Lucchitta, B. K.; Mullins, Kevin F.; Ferrigno, J. G.
1993-01-01
Changes in the area of volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate and may severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. An ice sheet's velocity is a critical parameter, which, together with ice thickness, allows the determination of discharge rates. Using moderate-resolution satellite images such as Landsat, the velocity of floating ice can be measured quickly and relatively inexpensively by tracing crevasse patterns on shelves and ice tongues. Errors in measured velocities are as little as 0.02 km per year, if the following criteria are met: (1) the time interval is longer than 10 years; (2) the velocity is higher than 0.5 km per year; (3) the coregistration points are well dispersed and enclose the area to be measured; and (4) the image pair includes a Landsat 4 or 5 image. The fewer of these conditions that are met, the less accurate the results become; but even for poor conditions, the velocities are generally reliable to near 0.1 km per year. We are in the process of obtaining velocities of all ice shelves and ice tongues along the Bakutis and Ruppert coasts, wherever suitable crevasse patterns exist. So far, we have obtained velocities for the Thwaites and Land glacier tongues.