WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative uptake rates

  1. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2006-02-15

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution.

  2. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2006-02-01

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution

  3. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and various organ-uptake rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1989-01-01

    Fifty four elements and 65 radioactive compounds were examined to determine the organ uptake rates for rats 3, 24 and 48 h after i.v. injection of these compounds. They were prepared as carrier free nuclides, or containing a small amount of stable nuclide. Generally speaking, behaviors of K, Rb, Cs and Tl in all the organs were very similar to one another, but they differed from that of Na. Bivalent hard acids were avidly taken up into bone; therefore, uptake rates in soft tissues were very small. Hard acids of tri-, quadri- and pentavalence which were taken up into the soft tissue organs decreased more slowly from these organs than other ions. Soft acids such as Hg2+ were bound very firmly to the component in the kidney. Anions (with few exceptions), GeCl4 and SbCl3 were rapidly excreted in urine, so that the uptake rates in organs were low.

  4. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and tumor-uptake rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1985-01-01

    The bipositive ions and anions, with few exceptions, indicated a low tumor uptake rate. On the other hand, compounds of Hg, Au and Bi, which have a strong binding power to protein, showed a high tumor uptake rate. As Hg/sup 2 +/, Au/sup +/ and Bi/sup 3 +/ are soft acids according to the classification of Lewis acids, it was thought that these ions would bind strongly to soft bases (R-SH, R-S-) present in tumor tissue. For many hard acids such as /sup 85/Sr/sup 2 +/, /sup 67/Ga/sup 3 +/, /sup 181/Hf/sup 4 +/, and /sup 95/Nb/sup 5 +/, tumor uptake rates are shown as a function of ionic potentials of the metal ions. Considering the present data and previously reported results, it was presumed that hard acids of trivalence, quadrivalence and pentavalence would replace calcium in the calcium salts of hard bases. Ionic potentials of alkaline metals and Tl were small, but the tumor-uptake rate of these elements indicated various values. As Ge and Sb are bound by covalent bonds to chloride, GeCl/sub 4/ and SbCl/sub 3/ behaved differently from many metallic compounds in tumor tissue.

  5. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and tumor-uptake rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1985-01-01

    The bipositive ions and anions, with few exceptions, indicated a low tumor uptake rate. On the other hand, compounds of Hg, Au and Bi, which have a strong binding power to protein, showed a high tumor uptake rate. As Hg2+, Au+ and Bi3+ are soft acids according to the classification of Lewis acids, it was thought that these ions would bind strongly to soft bases (R-SH, R-S-) present in tumor tissue. For many hard acids such as 85Sr2+, 67Ga3+, 181Hf4+, and 95Nb5+, tumor uptake rates are shown as a function of ionic potentials (valency/ionic radii) of the metal ions. Considering the present data and previously reported results, it was presumed that hard acids of trivalence, quadrivalence and pentavalence would replace calcium in the calcium salts of hard bases (calcium salts of acid mucopolysaccharides, etc.). Ionic potentials of alkaline metals and Tl were small, but the tumor-uptake rate of these elements indicated various values. As Ge and Sb are bound by covalent bonds to chloride, GeCl4 and SbCl3 behaved differently from many metallic compounds in tumor tissue.

  6. Efficiency of nitrate uptake in spinach : impact of external nitrate concentration and relative growth rate on nitrate influx and efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Steege, MW; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, PK; Posthumus, F; Vaalburg, W

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of nitrate influx and efflux in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Subito), was studied in short-term label experiments with N-13- and N-15-nitrate. Nitrate fluxes were examined in relation to the N demand for growth, defined as relative growth rate (RGR) times plant N concentration.

  7. Myosin heavy chain composition in the vastus lateralis muscle in relation to oxygen uptake and heart rate during cycling in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, J; Nieckarz, Z; Karasinski, J; Zoladz, J A

    2014-04-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between fast myosin heavy chain (MyHC2) content in the vastus lateralis and the rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) increase during an incremental exercise in 38, young, healthy men. Prior to the exercise test, muscle biopsies were taken in order to evaluate the MyHC composition. It was found that during cycling performed below the lactate threshold (LT), a positive relationship between MyHC2 and the intercept of the oxygen uptake and power output (VO2-PO) relationship existed (r=0.49, P=0.002), despite no correlation between MyHC2 and the slope value of the VO2-PO relationship (r= -0.18, P=0.29). During cycling performed above the LT, MyHC2 correlated positively with the magnitude of the nonlinearity in the VO2-PO relationship; i.e. with the accumulated VO2'excess' (r=0.44, P=0.006) and peak VO2'excess' (r=0.44, P=0.006), as well as with the slope of the HR-PO relationship (r=0.49, P=0.002). We have concluded that a greater MyHC2 content in the vastus lateralis is accompanied by a higher oxygen cost of cycling during exercise performed below the LT. This seems to be related to the higher energy cost of the non-cross-bridge activities in the muscles possessing a greater proportion of MyHC2 content. In the case of heavy-intensity exercise, a higher MyHC2 content in the vastus lateralis is accompanied by greater non-linearity in the VO2-PO relationship, as well as a steeper increase in HR in the function of an increase of PO. This relationship can be explained by greater disturbances in metabolic stability in type II muscle fibres during exercise, resulting in a decrease of muscle mechanical efficiency and greater increase of heart rate at a given power output. Therefore, MyHC composition has an impact on the oxygen cost of cycling both below and above the LT.

  8. Root distribution pattern and nitrogen uptake of some wheat and triticale germplasms in relation to rates and methods of nitrogen application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, N.L.; Seth, Jagdish

    1975-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted under irrigated conditions with four germplasms viz. Triticale(70-2), and wheat varieties HD 4502(durum), Kalyan Sona and Moti (aestivums) at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute Farm, New Delhi, during rabi season of 1972-73. The treatments comprised of three rates of nitrogen viz. 0,60 and 120 kg/ha and two methods of nitrogen application viz. (1) soil + foliar and (2) soil. The root distribution of the four germplasms, studied by 32 P injection technique was increased both vertically and horizontally with the addition of nitrogen. Root distribution of triticale was observed to be deep and spreading in habit, while durum proved to be shallow rooted and compact in nature. The total uptake of nitrogen was significantly increased with higher rates of nitrogen in all the germplasms. The maximum uptake of nitrogen was observed in the durum wheat. (author)

  9. The relation of putamen nucleus 6-[18F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine uptake to total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchy, R.

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of dopaminergic deficiency in the striatum to the severity of locomotor disability in Parkinson's disease has been consistently shown with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA in positron emission tomography. Recently, 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine, an alternative tracer with similar distribution kinetics has been used to facilitate data analysis. Locomotor disability in Parkinson's disease can be measured using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale was used in conjunction with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine -PET to clinically examine a group of five Parkinson's disease patients. An inverse relation similar to that previously demonstrated with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA was found between the putamen nucleus 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine influx constant and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score. This finding suggests that like 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine can be used to accurately measure the degree of locomotor disability caused by Parkinson's disease. (author)

  10. Variable phosphorus uptake rates and allocation across microbial groups in the oligotrophic Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popendorf, Kimberly J; Duhamel, Solange

    2015-10-01

    Microbial uptake of dissolved phosphorus (P) is an important lever in controlling both microbial production and the fate and cycling of marine P. We investigated the relative role of heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton in P cycling by measuring the P uptake rates of individual microbial groups (heterotrophic bacteria and the phytoplankton groups Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus and picoeukaryotic phytoplankton) in the P-depleted Gulf of Mexico. Phosphorus uptake rates were measured using incubations with radiolabelled phosphate and adenosine triphosphate coupled with cell sorting flow cytometry. We found that heterotrophic bacteria were the dominant consumers of P on both a biomass basis and a population basis. Biovolume normalized heterotrophic bacteria P uptake rate per cell (amol P μm(-3) h(-1)) was roughly an order of magnitude greater than phytoplankton uptake rates, and heterotrophic bacteria were responsible for generally greater than 50% of total picoplankton P uptake. We hypothesized that this variation in uptake rates reflects variation in cellular P allocation strategies, and found that, indeed, the fraction of cellular P uptake utilized for phospholipid production was significantly higher in heterotrophic bacteria compared with cyanobacterial phytoplankton. These findings indicate that heterotrophic bacteria have a uniquely P-oriented physiology and play a dominant role in cycling dissolved P. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Relation of oxygen uptake to work rate in prepubertal healthy children - reference for VO2/W-slope and effect on cardiorespiratory fitness assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompuri, Tuomo; Lintu, Niina; Laitinen, Tomi; Lakka, Timo A

    2017-08-09

    Exercise testing by cycle ergometer allows to observe the interaction between oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) and workload (W), and VO 2 /W-slope can be used as a diagnostic tool. Respectively, peak oxygen uptake (VO 2 PEAK ) can be estimated by maximal workload. We aim to determine reference for VO 2 /W-slope among prepubertal children and define agreement between estimated and measured VO 2 PEAK . A total of 38 prepubertal children (20 girls) performed a maximal cycle ergometer test with respiratory gas analysis. VO 2 /W-slopes were computed using linear regression. Agreement analysis by Bland and Altman for estimated and measured VO 2 PEAK was carried out including limits of agreement (LA). Determinants for VO 2 /W-slopes and estimation bias were defined. VO2/W-slope was in both girls and boys ≥9·4 and did not change with exercise level, but the oxygen cost of exercise was higher among physically more active children. Estimated VO 2 PEAK had 6·4% coefficient of variation, and LA varied from 13% underestimation to 13% overestimation. Bias had a trend towards underestimation along lean mass proportional VO 2 PEAK . The primary determinant for estimation bias was VO2/W-slope (β = -0·65; PW-slope among healthy prepubertal children were similar to those published for adults and among adolescents. Estimated and measured VO 2 PEAK should not be considered to be interchangeable because of the variation in the relationship between VO 2 and W. On other hand, variation in the relationship between VO 2 and W enables that VO 2 /W-slope can be used as a diagnostic tool. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Simple mass transport model for metal uptake by marine macroalgae growing at different rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Although algae growing at different rates may exhibit different concentrations of a given metal, such differences in algal chemistry may or may not reflect actual effects of environmental growth factors on the kinetics of metal uptake. Published data on uptake of rubidium, cadmium, and manganese by the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile grown at different rates in open system sea water was interpreted using the model. Differences in exposure time to sea water of relatively old and relatively young thalli were responsible for significant decreases in algal rubidium and cadmium concentrations with increases in specific growth rate. The biomass-specific growth rates of uptake of these two metals did not vary with growth rate. Both algal concentrations and specific rates of uptake of manganese increase significantly with increasing growth rate, thus indicating a distinct link between the kinetics of manganese uptake and metabolic rate. Under some circumstances, seaweed bioassay coupled with an interpretive model may provide the only reasonable approach to the study of chemical uptake-growth phenomena. In practice, if the residence time of sea water in culture chambers is sufficiently low to preclude pseudo-closed system artifacts, differences in trace metal concentrations between input and output sea water may be difficult to detect. In the field and in situ experiments based on time-series monitoring of changes in the water chemistry would be technically difficult or perhaps impossible to perform. 13 references, 1 figure.

  13. Gender differentials in ICT uptake rating among research scientists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the challenge to ICT uptake rating among research scientists in the Nigerian Universities of Agriculture through gender inequality. Primary data were used for the study which was generated through the use of questionnaire. The study took a sample of 240 respondents from a population of 1758 from the ...

  14. Oxygen uptake rate (OUR) control strategy for improving avermectin B

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glucose metabolism plays a crucial role in the process of avermectin B1a biosynthesis. Controlling glucose feeding based on oxygen uptake rate (OUR) was established to improve the efficiency of avermectin B1a production. The result showed that avermectin B1a production was greatly enhanced by OUR control strategy.

  15. Changes in calcium uptake rate by rat cardiac mitochondria during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, R A; Fagian, M M; Bassani, J W; Vercesi, A E

    1998-10-01

    Ca2+ uptake, transmembrane electrical potential (Deltapsim) and oxygen consumption were measured in isolated ventricular mitochondria of rats from 3 days to 5 months of age. Estimated values of ruthenium red-sensitive, succinate-supported maximal rate of Ca2+ uptake (Vmax, expressed as nmol Ca2+/min/mg protein) were higher in neonates and gradually fell during postnatal development (from 435+/-24 at 3-6 days, to 156+/-10 in adults,Palpha-ketoglutarate as substrates) and state 3ADP (alpha-ketoglutarate-supported) respiration rates, as well as Deltapsim values (approximately-150 mV). Respiration-independent Deltapsim and Ca2+ uptake, supported by valinomycin-induced K+ efflux were also investigated at these ages. A transient Deltapsim (approximately -30 mV) was evoked by valinomycin in both neonatal and adult mitochondria. Respiration-independent Ca2+ uptake was also transient, but its initial rate was significantly higher in neonates than in adults (49. 4+/-10.0v 28.0+/-5.7 mmol Ca2+/min/mg protein,P<0.01). These results indicate that Ca2+ uptake capacity of rat cardiac mitochondria is remarkably high just after birth and declines over the first weeks of postnatal life, without change in apparent affinity of the transporter. Increased mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake rate in neonates appears to be related to the uniporter itself, rather than to modification of the driving force of the transport. Copyright 1998 Academic Press

  16. Bioavailability of contaminants estimated from uptake rates into soil invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straalen, N.M. van; Donker, M.H.; Vijver, M.G.; Gestel, C.A.M. van

    2005-01-01

    It is often argued that the concentration of a pollutant inside an organism is a good indicator of its bioavailability, however, we show that the rate of uptake, not the concentration itself, is the superior predictor. In a study on zinc accumulation and toxicity to isopods (Porcellio scaber) the dietary EC 50 for the effect on body growth was rather constant and reproducible, while the internal EC 50 varied depending on the accumulation history of the animals. From the data a critical value for zinc accumulation in P. scaber was estimated as 53 μg/g/wk. We review toxicokinetic models applicable to time-series measurements of concentrations in invertebrates. The initial slope of the uptake curve is proposed as an indicator of bioavailability. To apply the dynamic concept of bioavailability in risk assessment, a set of representative organisms should be chosen and standardized protocols developed for exposure assays by which suspect soils can be evaluated. - Sublethal toxicity of zinc to isopods suggests that bioavailability of soil contaminants is best measured by uptake rates, not by body burdens

  17. Uptake rate of cationic mitochondrial inhibitor MKT-077 determines cellular oxygen consumption change in carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Chunta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Since tumor radiation response is oxygen-dependent, radiosensitivity can be enhanced by increasing tumor oxygenation. Theoretically, inhibiting cellular oxygen consumption is the most efficient way to increase oxygen levels. The cationic, rhodacyanine dye-analog MKT-077 inhibits mitochondrial respiration and could be an effective metabolic inhibitor. However, the relationship between cellular MKT-077 uptake and metabolic inhibition is unknown. We hypothesized that rat and human mammary carcinoma cells would take up MKT-077, causing a decrease in oxygen metabolism related to drug uptake. METHODS: R3230Ac rat breast adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to MKT-077. Cellular MKT-077 concentration was quantified using spectroscopy, and oxygen consumption was measured using polarographic electrodes. MKT-077 uptake kinetics were modeled by accounting for uptake due to both the concentration and potential gradients across the plasma and mitochondrial membranes. These kinetic parameters were used to model the relationship between MKT-077 uptake and metabolic inhibition. MKT-077-induced changes in oxygen consumption were also characterized in MDA-MB231 human breast carcinoma cells. RESULTS: Cells took up MKT-077 with a time constant of ∼1 hr, and modeling showed that over 90% of intracellular MKT-077 was bound or sequestered, likely by the mitochondria. The uptake resulted in a rapid decrease in oxygen consumption, with a time constant of ∼30 minutes. Surprisingly the change in oxygen consumption was proportional to uptake rate, not cellular concentration. MKT-077 proved a potent metabolic inhibitor, with dose-dependent decreases of 45-73% (p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: MKT-077 caused an uptake rate-dependent decrease in cellular metabolism, suggesting potential efficacy for increasing tumor oxygen levels and radiosensitivity in vivo.

  18. Rate equation analysis of hydrogen uptake on Si (100) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inanaga, S.; Rahman, F.; Khanom, F.; Namiki, A.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the uptake process of H on Si (100) surfaces by means of rate equation analysis. Flowers' quasiequilibrium model for adsorption and desorption of H [M. C. Flowers, N. B. H. Jonathan, A. Morris, and S. Wright, Surf. Sci. 396, 227 (1998)] is extended so that in addition to the H abstraction (ABS) and β 2 -channel thermal desorption (TD) the proposed rate equation further includes the adsorption-induced desorption (AID) and β 1 -TD. The validity of the model is tested by the experiments of ABS and AID rates in the reaction system H+D/Si (100). Consequently, we find it can well reproduce the experimental results, validating the proposed model. We find the AID rate curve as a function of surface temperature T s exhibits a clear anti-correlation with the bulk dangling bond density versus T s curve reported in the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for amorphous Si films. The significance of the H chemistry in plasma-enhanced CVD is discussed

  19. The time aspect of bioenergy. Climate impacts of bioenergy due to differences in carbon uptake rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zetterberg, Lars [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Chen, Deliang [Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the climate impacts from bioenergy due to how they influence carbon stocks over time and more specifically how fast combustion related carbon emissions are compensated by uptake of atmospheric carbon. A set of fuel types representing different uptake rates are investigated, namely willow, branches and tops, stumps and coal. Net emissions are defined as emissions from utilizing the fuel minus emissions from a reference case of no utilisation. In the case of forest residues, the compensating 'uptake' is avoided emissions from the reference case of leaving the residues to decompose on the ground. Climate impacts are estimated using the measures radiative forcing and global average surface temperature, which have been calculated by an energy balance climate model. We conclude that there is a climate impact from using bioenergy due to how fast the emission pulse is compensated by uptake of atmospheric carbon (or avoided emissions). Biofuels with slower uptake rates have a stronger climate impact than fuels with a faster uptake rate, assuming all other parameters equal. The time perspective over which the analysis is done is crucial for the climate impact of biofuels. If only biogenic fluxes are considered, our results show that over a 100 year perspective branches and tops are better for climate mitigation than stumps which in turn are better than coal. Over a 20 year time perspective this conclusion holds, but the differences between these fuels are relatively smaller. Establishing willow on earlier crop land may reduce atmospheric carbon, provided new land is available. However, these results are inconclusive since we haven't considered the effects, if needed, of producing the traditional agricultural crops elsewhere. The analysis is not a life cycle assessment of different fuels and does therefore not consider the use of fossil fuels for logging, transportation and refining, other greenhouse gases than carbon or energy

  20. Glucagon effects on the membrane potential and calcium uptake rate of rat liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingrove, D.E.; Amatruda, J.M.; Gunter, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    It has been widely reported that the in vivo administration of glucagon to rats results in the stimulation of calcium influx in subsequently isolated liver mitochondria. The mechanism of this effect is investigated through simultaneous measurements of calcium uptake rate and mitochondrial membrane potential. This allows the measurement of the calcium uniporter conductance independent of hormonal effects on electron transport or respiration. Two experimental approaches are used. The first involves measuring the uptake of 40-50 nmol of Ca 2+ /mg of mitochondrial protein with the calcium dye antipyrylazo III; the second uses 45 Ca 2+ to follow uptake in the presence of 0.5 to 1.5 μM free calcium, buffered with HEDTA. In both cases a tetraphenyl phosphonium electrode is used to follow membrane potential, and membrane potential is varied using either malonate or butylmalonate in the presence of rotenone. The relative merits of these two approaches are discussed. The conductance of the calcium uniporter is found not to be stimulated by glucagon pretreatment. Also, the relative glucagon stimulation of both calcium influx and membrane potential is found to increase with increasing malonate concentration. These results imply that there is no direct stimulation of calcium uptake into liver mitochondria following glucagon treatment. The results are consistent with a glucagon stimulation of substrate transport, substrate oxidation, or a stimulation of electron transport resulting in an increased membrane potential and secondary stimulation of calcium uptake

  1. Binding proteins enhance specific uptake rate by increasing the substrate-transporter encounter rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdriesz, Evert; Magnúsdóttir, Stefanía; Bruggeman, Frank J; Teusink, Bas; Molenaar, Douwe

    2015-06-01

    Microorganisms rely on binding-protein assisted, active transport systems to scavenge for scarce nutrients. Several advantages of using binding proteins in such uptake systems have been proposed. However, a systematic, rigorous and quantitative analysis of the function of binding proteins is lacking. By combining knowledge of selection pressure and physiochemical constraints, we derive kinetic, thermodynamic, and stoichiometric properties of binding-protein dependent transport systems that enable a maximal import activity per amount of transporter. Under the hypothesis that this maximal specific activity of the transport complex is the selection objective, binding protein concentrations should exceed the concentration of both the scarce nutrient and the transporter. This increases the encounter rate of transporter with loaded binding protein at low substrate concentrations, thereby enhancing the affinity and specific uptake rate. These predictions are experimentally testable, and a number of observations confirm them. © 2015 FEBS.

  2. Quantitative assessment of thallium myocardial washout rate: Importance of peak heart rate and lung thallium uptake in defining normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Kozuka, Takahiro; Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka

    1987-01-01

    Traditionally, the results of exercise thallium scintigraphy were interpreted by transient defect analysis using initial and delayed images. Recently, washout rate analysis has been used for the relative quantification of exercise thallium scintigraphy. A diffuse slow washout from all myocardial regions has been defined as the indicator of extensive coronary artery disease. However, slow washout has occasionally been observed in normal cases and in healthy myocardial segments which are not supplied by a stenosed artery in patients with single or double vessel disease. We evaluate the factors influencing washout rate in 100 normal patients and 63 patients with angina pectoris (33 cases of single vessel disease and 30 cases of double vessel disease). The washout rates were calculated using circumferential profile analysis. In normal patients, washout rate was closely related to peak heart rate (r=0.72) and inversely related to lung thallium uptake (r=-0.56). A diffuse slow washout was observed in seven (7%) of 100 normal patients, six (18%) of 33 cases of single vessel disease and eight (24%) of 30 cases of double vessel disease. The patients with diffuse slow washout showed significantly higher lung thallium uptake values and lower peak heart rates than those without diffuse slow washout (P<0.01). Thus, this false positive slow washout should be considered in the interpretation of quantitative exercise thallium scintigraphy. (orig.)

  3. Heart Rate and Oxygen Uptake Recovery and the Level of Aerobic Capacity in Mountain Bikers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalik Kamil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since mountain biking involves exercise of varying intensity, competitive performance may be affected by the rate of recovery. The aim of the current study was to determine whether maximal oxygen uptake is associated with the rate of heart rate and oxygen uptake recovery in mountain bike athletes.

  4. Tumor grade-related thallium-201 uptake in chondrosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, G.C.; Demir, Y.; Ozkal, S.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnosis of low-grade chondrosarcoma, especially discrimination between enchondroma and low-grade chondrosarcoma, may be difficult pathologically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of thallium-201 (Tl-201) scintigraphy in the diagnosis of chondrosarcoma and to investigate whether there was a correlation between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade. We retrospectively evaluated 121 patients with pathologically proven bone and soft tissue tumors diagnosed between the years 1999 and 2007. All patients were followed by the Bone and Soft Tissue Tumor Working Group in our hospital. Twenty-three patients, mean age 44±15 (range 17-72) years, with a diagnosis of cartilaginous tumors were included. Increased Tl-201 uptake at the lesion sites greater than background was evaluated as malignant tumor. For the pathologic classification, a grading system (grade 1-3) based on the histopathologic findings was used. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine whether there was any correlation between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade in chondrosarcoma. There were 7 enchondromas and 16 chondrosarcomas. Four of 16 patients with chondrosarcoma had lesions pathologically classified as grade 3, 5 as grade 2, and 7 had grade 1 chondrosarcoma. Increased Tl-201 uptake was observed in all patients with grade 3 chondrosarcoma and 2 patients with grade 2 chondrosarcoma. Of 10 patients with chondrosarcoma, 3 grade 2 chondrosarcomas and 7 grade 1 chondrosarcomas, there was no Tl-201 uptake in the tumor region. A significant correlation was found between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade in chondrosarcoma (p=0.002, r=0.71). Only a few reports in literature have demonstrated false negative results in low-grade chondrosarcoma. Tl-201 uptake was related to tumor grade in chondrosarcoma. If there is a possibility of chondrosarcoma, Tl-201 scintigraphy should be reported with caution. (author)

  5. Comparison of specific oxygen uptake rates of two beach-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The determined values of oxygen uptake rate during the endogenous reaction phase (between 0.1054 and 0.3564 mgO2/L.minute) and concentrations of mixed liquor suspended solids (between 1183 and 1957 mgMLSS/L) are comparable to those reported elsewhere in literature. Results of specific oxygen uptake rate of ...

  6. Accessibility and screening uptake rates for gestational diabetes mellitus in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullinan, John

    2012-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy and is associated with a range of maternal and neonatal complications and conditions. Given increasing levels of prevalence worldwide, there are growing calls for the implementation of screening practices to identify and treat positive GDM cases. This paper uses a unique dataset to investigate the role of healthcare centre accessibility on the decision to attend for screening, employing geographic information systems, econometric and simulation techniques. We focus on the extent to which \\'travel distance to screening hospital site\\' impacts upon the individual\\'s screen uptake decision, whether significant geographic inequalities exist in relation to accessibility to screening, and the likely impact on uptake rates of providing screening services at a local level via primary care. Our findings have important implications for the provision of GDM screening services.

  7. Estimation of uptake rate constants for PCB congeners accumulated by semipermeable membrane devices and brown treat (Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, J.C.; Echols, K.R.; Huckins, J.N.; Borsuk, F.A.; Carline, R.F.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The triolein-filled semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) is a simple and effective method of assessing the presence of waterborne hydrophobic chemicals. Uptake rate constants for individual chemicals are needed to accurately relate the amounts of chemicals accumulated by the SPMD to dissolved water concentrations. Brown trout and SPMDs were exposed to PCB- contaminated groundwater in a spring for 28 days to calculate and compare uptake rates of specific PCB congeners by the two matrixes. Total PCB congener concentrations in water samples from the spring were assessed and corrected for estimated total organic carbon (TOC) sorption to estimate total dissolved concentrations. Whole and dissolved concentrations averaged 4.9 and 3.7 ??g/L, respectively, during the exposure. Total concentrations of PCBs in fish rose from 0.06 to 118.3 ??g/g during the 28-day exposure, while concentrations in the SPMD rose from 0.03 to 203.4 ??g/ g. Uptake rate constants (k1) estimated for SPMDs and brown trout were very similar, with k1 values for SPMDs ranging from one to two times those of the fish. The pattern of congener uptake by the fish and SPMDs was also similar. The rates of uptake generally increased or decreased with increasing K(ow), depending on the assumption of presence or absence of TOC.The triolein-filled semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) is a simple and effective method of assessing the presence of waterborne hydrophobic chemicals. Uptake rate constants for individual chemicals are needed to accurately relate the amounts of chemicals accumulated by the SPMB to dissolved water concentrations. Brown trout and SPMDs were exposed to PCB-contaminated groundwater in a spring for 28 days to calculate and compare uptake rates of specific PCB congeners by the two matrixes. Total PCB congener concentrations in water samples from the spring were assessed and corrected for estimated total organic carbon (TOC) sorption to estimate total dissolved concentrations. Whole and

  8. Uptake kinetics of relatively insoluble particles by tracheobronchial lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    Tracheobronchial lymph nodes accumulate a portion of material deposited in the deep lung following inhalation of relatively insoluble particles. Experiments involving a variety of compounds, inhaled singly or repeatedly, indicate that the kinetics of lymph node uptake are fairly independent of particle characteristics and mammalian species. The buildup per unit weight of nodal tissue compared with that of lung tissue, with time, can be represented by a linear logarithmic function. However, since the scatter in experimental points may be large at any given time after inhalation exposure, a number of different kinetic descriptions of uptake can be derived. The logarithmic pattern of accumulation can be approximated over an extended time range (several years) by use of a combination of first-order kinetics of loss from the lung and of buildup in lymph nodes, but it is recognized that the processes are much more complicated than this treatment would indicate. Clearance (loss) from the lymph nodes is not well defined, but this aspect is discussed in light of the kinetic models presented

  9. Cyclic variations in nitrogen uptake rate of soybean plants: effects of external nitrate concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley-Henry, L.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Granato, T. C.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Net uptake of NO3- by non-nodulated soybean plants [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] growing in flowing hydroponic cultures containing 0.5, 1.0 and 10.0 mol m-3 NO3- was measured daily during a 24-d period of vegetative development to determine if amplitude of maximum and minimum rates of net NO3- uptake are responsive to external concentrations of NO3-. Removal of NO3- from the replenished solutions during each 24-h period was determined by ion chromatography. Neither dry matter accumulation nor the periodicity of oscillations in net uptake rate was altered by the external NO3- concentrations. The maxima of the oscillations in net uptake rate, however, increased nearly 3-fold in response to external NO3- concentrations. The maxima and minima, respectively, changed from 4.0 and 0.6 mmol NO3- per gram root dry weight per day at an external solution level of 0.5 mol m-3 NO3- to 15.2 and -2.7 mmol NO3- per gram root dry weight per day at an external solution level of 10.0 mol m-3 NO3-. The negative values for minimum net uptake rate from 10.0 mol m-3 NO3- solutions show that net efflux was occurring and indicate that the magnitude of the efflux component of net uptake was responsive to external concentration of NO3-.

  10. Cyclic variations in nitrogen uptake rate of soybean plants: ammonium as a nitrogen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr

    1989-01-01

    When NO3- is the sole nitrogen source in flowing solution culture, the net rate of nitrogen uptake by nonnodulated soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Ransom) plants cycles between maxima and minima with a periodicity of oscillation that corresponds with the interval of leaf emergence. Since soybean plants accumulate similar quantities of nitrogen when either NH4+ or NO3- is the sole source in solution culture controlled at pH 6.0, an experiment was conducted to determine if the oscillations in net rate of nitrogen uptake also occur when NH4+ is the nitrogen source. During a 21-day period of vegetative development, net uptake of NH4+ was measured daily by ion chromatography as depletion of NH4+ from a replenished nutrient solution containing 1.0 millimolar NH4+. The net rate of NH4+ uptake oscillated with a periodicity that was similar to the interval of leaf emergence. Instances of negative net rates of uptake indicate that the transition between maxima and minima involved changes in influx and efflux components of net NH4+ uptake.

  11. Assessment of relative individual renal function based on DMSA uptake corrected for renal size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estorch, M.; Camacho, V.; Tembl, A.; Mena, I.; Hernandez, A.; Flotats, A.; Carrio, I.; Torres, G.; Prat, L.

    2002-01-01

    Decreased relative renal DMSA uptake can be a consequence of abnormal kidney size, associated with normal or impaired renal function. The quantification of relative renal function based on DMSA uptake in both kidneys is an established method for the assessment of individual renal function. Aim: To assess relative renal function by means of quantification of renal DMSA uptake corrected for kidney size. Results were compared with relative renal DMSA uptake without size correction, and were validated against the absolute renal DMSA uptake. Material and Methods: Four-hundred-forty-four consecutive patients (147 adults, mean age 14 years) underwent a DMSA study for several renal diseases. The relative renal function, based on the relative DMSA uptake uncorrected and corrected for renal size, and the absolute renal DMSA uptake were calculated. In order to relate the relative DMSA uptake uncorrected and corrected for renal size with the absolute DMSA uptake, subtraction of uncorrected (SU) and corrected (SC) relative uptake percentages of each pair of kidneys was obtained, and these values were correlated to the matched subtraction percentages of absolute uptake (SA). If the individual relative renal function is normal (45%-55%), the subtraction value is less or equal to 10%. Results: In 227 patients (51%) the relative renal DMSA uptake value was normal either uncorrected or corrected for renal size (A), and in 149 patients (34%) it was abnormal by both quantification methods (B). Seventy-seven patients (15%) had the relative renal DMSA uptake abnormal only by the uncorrected method (C). Subtraction value of absolute DMSA uptake percentages was not significantly different of subtraction value of relative DMSA uptake percentages corrected for renal size when relative uncorrected uptake was abnormal and corrected normal. where * p<0.0001, and p=NS. Conclusion: When uncorrected and corrected relative DMSA uptake are abnormal, the absolute uptake is also impaired, while when

  12. Attempt to define a repair threshold (or the prospects for kidneys of reduced uptake rate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duc, A.; Camey, M.; Bourguignon, M.; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1976-01-01

    The definition of a repair threshold hardly seems realistic whatever the etiology considered. It is impossible to set a lower uptake limit below which a kidney does not recover, nor an upper limit above which recuperation is inevitable. To be able to use an uptake rate result with discernment it is useful to know two facts: '0 degradation' prospects exist for very diseased kidneys; the prospects of recovery are very appreciable for kidneys subjected to an infected stasis, amply justifying conservation in uptake regions around 20%. All this obviously needs confirmation which can only be obtained by adding a functional study to certain files which already date back significantly [fr

  13. Hysteresis in the relation between moisture uptake and electrical conductivity in neat epoxy

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles; Sulaimani, Anwar Ali; El Yagoubi, Jalal; Mulle, Matthieu; Verdu, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring changes in electrical conductivity is a simple way to assess the water uptake from environmental moisture in polymers. However, the relation between water uptake and changes in conductivity is not fully understood. We monitored changes

  14. Bicyclists' Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution: Effects of the Urban Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-27

    While bicyclists and other active travelers obtain health benefits from increased physical activity, they also risk uptake of traffic-related air pollution. But pollution uptake by urban bicyclists is not well understood due to a lack of direct measu...

  15. Retinol uptake and esterification in the rate sertoli cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingleton, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism by which Sertoli cells accumulate retinol from retinol-binding protein (RBP) and the cellular metabolism of the accumulated retinol were investigated here using primary cultures of Sertoli cells isolated from 20 day-old rats. Cells incubated with [ 3 H]retinol-RBP accumulated [ 3 H]retinol in a time- and temperature dependent manner. The rate of [ 3 H] retinol accumulation declined when cellular [ 3 H] retinol concentrations reached approximately 0.53 pmol of retinol per μg of cellular DNA, equivalent to the cellular content of cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP). Excess unlabeled retinol-RBP competed with [ 3 H] retinol-RBP for [ 3 H] retinol delivery to the cells but free retinol did not. Furthermore, free [ 3 H] retinol associated with Sertoli cells in a non-saturable manner. The transport constant for specific retinol accumulation from RBP was 1.9 μM, suggesting that any change in the normal circulating retinol-RBP level would directly affect the rate of retinol accumulation. Competition studies and studies using labeled RBP, cellular energy inhibitors, and lysosomal poisons indicated that the specific retinol accumulation by Sertoli cells occurs by interaction with a cell-surface receptor that internalizes retinol without concomitant internalization of RBP. Extraction and HPLC analysis of the radioactivity associated with Sertoli cells after incubation with [ 3 H] retinol-RBP yielded retinol and retinyl esters

  16. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchini, A.; Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Gregory, S.

    2002-01-01

    -specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from...... toxicological (LC50 of AgNO3) and physiological (22Na uptake rate) tests performed on juvenile fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), early juvenile and adult crayfish (Cambarus diogenes diogenes), and neonate and adult daphnids (Daphnia magna) in moderately hard water of constant quality support the above...... hypothesis. Therefore, sensitivity to AgNO3, in terms of either total measured silver or free Ag+, was reliably predicted from the whole body Na+ uptake rate in animals with body mass ranging over 6 orders of magnitude (from micrograms to grams). A positive log-log correlation between acute AgNO3 toxicity...

  17. Uptake rate constants and partition coefficients for vapor phase organic chemicals using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranor, W.L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    To fully utilize semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive samplers in air monitoring, data are required to accurately estimate airborne concentrations of environmental contaminants. Limited uptake rate constants (kua) and no SPMD air partitioning coefficient (Ksa) existed for vapor-phase contaminants. This research was conducted to expand the existing body of kinetic data for SPMD air sampling by determining kua and Ksa for a number of airborne contaminants including the chemical classes: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, brominated diphenyl ethers, phthalate esters, synthetic pyrethroids, and organophosphate/organosulfur pesticides. The kuas were obtained for 48 of 50 chemicals investigated and ranged from 0.03 to 3.07??m3??g-1??d-1. In cases where uptake was approaching equilibrium, Ksas were approximated. Ksa values (no units) were determined or estimated for 48 of the chemicals investigated and ranging from 3.84E+5 to 7.34E+7. This research utilized a test system (United States Patent 6,877,724 B1) which afforded the capability to generate and maintain constant concentrations of vapor-phase chemical mixtures. The test system and experimental design employed gave reproducible results during experimental runs spanning more than two years. This reproducibility was shown by obtaining mean kua values (n??=??3) of anthracene and p,p???-DDE at 0.96 and 1.57??m3??g-1??d-1 with relative standard deviations of 8.4% and 8.6% respectively.

  18. Plant traits related to nitrogen uptake influence plant-microbe competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Delphine; Pivato, Barbara; Bru, David; Busset, Hugues; Deau, Florence; Faivre, Céline; Matejicek, Annick; Strbik, Florence; Philippot, Laurent; Mougel, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Plant species are important drivers of soil microbial communities. However, how plant functional traits are shaping these communities has received less attention though linking plant and microbial traits is crucial for better understanding plant-microbe interactions. Our objective was to determine how plant-microbe interactions were affected by plant traits. Specifically we analyzed how interactions between plant species and microbes involved in nitrogen cycling were affected by plant traits related to 'nitrogen nutrition in interaction with soil nitrogen availability. Eleven plant species, selected along an oligotrophic-nitrophilic gradient, were grown individually in a nitrogen-poor soil with two levels of nitrate availability. Plant traits for both carbon and nitrogen nutrition were measured and the genetic structure and abundance of rhizosphere. microbial communities, in particular the ammonia oxidizer and nitrate reducer guilds, were analyzed. The structure of the bacterial community in the rhizosphere differed significantly between plant species and these differences depended on nitrogen availability. The results suggest that the rate of nitrogen uptake per unit of root biomass and per day is a key plant trait, explaining why the effect of nitrogen availability on the structure of the bacterial community depends on the plant species. We also showed that the abundance of nitrate reducing bacteria always decreased with increasing nitrogen uptake per unit of root biomass per day, indicating that there was competition for nitrate between plants and nitrate reducing bacteria. This study demonstrates that nitrate-reducing microorganisms may be adversely affected by plants with a high nitrogen uptake rate. Our work puts forward the role of traits related to nitrogen in plant-microbe interactions, whereas carbon is commonly considered as the main driver. It also suggests that plant traits related to ecophysiological processes, such as nitrogen uptake rates, are more

  19. A comparison of deconvolution and the Rutland-Patlak plot in parenchymal renal uptake rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shakhrah, Issa A

    2012-07-01

    Deconvolution and the Rutland-Patlak (R-P) plot are two of the most commonly used methods for analyzing dynamic radionuclide renography. Both methods allow estimation of absolute and relative renal uptake of radiopharmaceutical and of its rate of transit through the kidney. Seventeen patients (32 kidneys) were referred for further evaluation by renal scanning. All patients were positioned supine with their backs to the scintillation gamma camera, so that the kidneys and the heart are both in the field of view. Approximately 5-7 mCi of (99m)Tc-DTPA (diethylinetriamine penta-acetic acid) in about 0.5 ml of saline is injected intravenously and sequential 20 s frames were acquired, the study on each patient lasts for approximately 20 min. The time-activity curves of the parenchymal region of interest of each kidney, as well as the heart were obtained for analysis. The data were then analyzed with deconvolution and the R-P plot. A strong positive association (n = 32; r = 0.83; R (2) = 0.68) was found between the values that obtained by applying the two methods. Bland-Altman statistical analysis demonstrated that ninety seven percent of the values in the study (31 cases from 32 cases, 97% of the cases) were within limits of agreement (mean ± 1.96 standard deviation). We believe that R-P analysis method is expected to be more reproducible than iterative deconvolution method, because the deconvolution technique (the iterative method) relies heavily on the accuracy of the first point analyzed, as any errors are carried forward into the calculations of all the subsequent points, whereas R-P technique is based on an initial analysis of the data by means of the R-P plot, and it can be considered as an alternative technique to find and calculate the renal uptake rate.

  20. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Water Uptake Rate and Gelatinization of Brown Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, C.S.; Lee, J.W.; Lee, Y.S.; Byun, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on brown rice quality were evaluated. Brown rice was irradiated at absorbed dose of 1, 3 or 5 kGy, and ground. Water uptake, pasting properties, and physicochemical characteristics of flour samples were tested. Water uptake rates of irradiated samples were higher than that of control, and were dose-dependent. Hydration capacity decreased in sample irradiated at 5 kGy due to leaching out of soluble compounds, whereas no differences were observed among other irradiated samples and control

  1. Gallium uptake in tryptophan-related pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.M.; Park, C.H.; Intenzo, C.M.; Patel, R.

    1991-01-01

    We describe a patient who developed fever, fatigue, muscle weakness, dyspnea, skin rash, and eosinophilia after taking high doses of tryptophan for insomnia for two years. A gallium-67 scan revealed diffuse increased uptake in the lung and no abnormal uptake in the muscular distribution. Bronchoscopy and biopsy confirmed inflammatory reactions with infiltration by eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes. CT scan showed an interstitial alveolar pattern without fibrosis. EMG demonstrated diffuse myopathy. Muscle biopsy from the right thigh showed an inflammatory myositis with eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltrations

  2. Relative contributions of copper oxide nanoparticles and dissolved copper to Cu uptake kinetics of Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chuanjia; Castellon, Benjamin T.; Matson, Cole W.; Aiken, George R.; Hsu-Kim, Heileen

    2017-01-01

    The toxicity of soluble metal-based nanomaterials may be due to the uptake of metals in both dissolved and nanoparticulate forms, but the relative contributions of these different forms to overall metal uptake rates under environmental conditions are not quantitatively defined. Here, we investigated the linkage between the dissolution rates of copper(II) oxide (CuO) nanoparticles (NPs) and their bioavailability to Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) embryos, with the aim of quantitatively delineating the relative contributions of nanoparticulate and dissolved species for Cu uptake. Gulf killifish embryos were exposed to dissolved Cu and CuO NP mixtures comprising a range of pH values (6.3–7.5) and three types of natural organic matter (NOM) isolates at various concentrations (0.1–10 mg-C L–1), resulting in a wide range of CuO NP dissolution rates that subsequently influenced Cu uptake. First-order dissolution rate constants of CuO NPs increased with increasing NOM concentration and for NOM isolates with higher aromaticity, as indicated by specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA), while Cu uptake rate constants of both dissolved Cu and CuO NP decreased with NOM concentration and aromaticity. As a result, the relative contribution of dissolved Cu and nanoparticulate CuO species for the overall Cu uptake rate was insensitive to NOM type or concentration but largely determined by the percentage of CuO that dissolved. These findings highlight SUVA and aromaticity as key NOM properties affecting the dissolution kinetics and bioavailability of soluble metal-based nanomaterials in organic-rich waters. These properties could be used in the incorporation of dissolution kinetics into predictive models for environmental risks of nanomaterials.

  3. Rates of Water Loss and Uptake in Recalcitrant Fruits of Quercus Species Are Determined by Pericarp Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ke; Daws, Matthew I.; Stuppy, Wolfgang; Zhou, Zhe-Kun; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2012-01-01

    Desiccation-sensitive recalcitrant seeds and fruits are killed by the loss of even moderate quantities of water. Consequently, minimizing the rate of water loss may be an important ecological factor and evolutionary driver by reducing the risk of mortality during post-dispersal dry-spells. For recalcitrant fruits of a range of Quercus species, prolonged drying times have been observed previously. However, the underlying mechanism(s) for this variation is unknown. Using nine Quercus species we investigated the major route(s) of water flow into and out of the fruits and analysed the relative importance of the different pericarp components and their anatomy on water uptake/loss. During imbibition (rehydration), the surface area of the cupule scar and the frequency and area of the vascular bundles contained therein were significantly correlated with the rates of water uptake across the scar. The vascular bundles serving the apex of the fruit were a minor contributor to overall water. Further, the rate of water uptake across the remainder of the pericarp surface was significantly correlated with the thickness of the vascularised inner layer in the pericarp. Fruits of Q. franchetii and Q. schottkyana dried most slowly and had a comparatively small scar surface area with few vascular bundles per unit area. These species inhabit drier regions than the other species studied, suggesting these anatomical features may have ecological value by reducing the risk of desiccation stress. However, this remains to be tested in the field. PMID:23071795

  4. Rates and tissue sites of non-insulin- and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, A.D.; Brechtel, G.; Wallace, P.; Edelman, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    In vivo glucose uptake can occur via two mechanisms, namely, insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU) and non-insulin-mediated glucose uptake (NIMGU). Although the principal tissue sites for IMGU are skeletal muscle, the tissue sites for NIMGU at a given serum glucose concentration are not known. To examine this issue, rates of whole body glucose uptake (Rd) were measured at basal and during glucose clamp studies performed at euglycemia (approximately 90 mg/dl) and hyperglycemia (approximately 220 mg/dl) in six lean healthy men. Studies were performed during hyperinsulinemia (approximately 70 microU/ml) and during somatostatin-induced insulinopenia to measure IMGU and NIMGU, respectively. During each study, leg glucose balance (arteriovenous catheter technique) was also measured. With this approach, rates of whole body skeletal muscle IMGU and NIMGU can be estimated, and the difference between overall Rd and skeletal muscle glucose uptake represents non-skeletal muscle Rd. The results indicate that approximately 20% of basal Rd is into skeletal muscle. During insulinopenia approximately 86% of body NIMGU occurs in non-skeletal muscle tissues at euglycemia. When hyperglycemia was created, whole body NIMGU increased from 128 +/- 6 to 213 +/- 18 mg/min (P less than 0.01); NIMGU into non-skeletal muscle tissues was 134 +/- 11 and 111 +/- 6 mg/min at hyperglycemia and euglycemia, respectively, P = NS. Therefore, virtually all the hyperglycemia induced increment in NIMGU occurred in skeletal muscle. During hyperinsulinemia, IMGU in skeletal muscle represented 75 and 95% of body Rd, at euglycemia and hyperglycemia, respectively

  5. Tc-99m-DMSA renal uptake rate and renal volume of elderly persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yukihiko; Machida, Toyohei; Kido, Akira

    1987-01-01

    Renal function of erderly persons was evaluated by the radionuclide renal function test based on the renal uptake rate and the renal volume determined by Tc-99m-DMSA transectional tomographic images using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Forty-three erderly cases (13 healthy persons and 30 patients with various types of renal disorders) aged between 60 and 87 on an average of 70 were studied and compared with results obtained from 20 healthy adults (18 - 45 years old). Renal volume was calculated from the summation of voxels in the region districted by equi-count threshold level (percentage to maximum count) on each section of the SPECT image. Attenuation correction was made by GE-STAR protocol utilizing Sorrenson's precorrection method. The renal uptake rate was expressed as a percentage of the total radioactivity detected within the renal volume, against an amount of dose injected. In the 26 kidneys of 13 healthy elderly persons, Tc-99m-DMSA renal uptake was 23 ± 5 %, which was significantly lower (p < 0.01) than that of healthy adults being 27 ± 2 %. A correlation coefficient between renal volume and uptake of 79 kidneys of 43 elderly persons was 0.5081 (p < 0.01). Creatinine clearance (Ccr) was better correlated with the total renal uptake (r = 0.6471, p < 0.01) than with the total renal volume (r = 0.3592, p < 0.01). This method is considered to be useful for clinical purpose as a test of renal function for elderly persons since it requires neither blood nor urine samples. (author)

  6. Fatty acid uptake and turnover rate in the ischemic before and after bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freundlieb, C.; Hoeck, A.; Vyska, K.; Erbel, R.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    17-123-Iodo-heptadecanoic acid (IHA) turnover in myocardium signals myocardial metabolism of free fatty acids. Thus, it appeared promising to examine the influence of cardiovascular surgery on coronary perfusion and on the metabolic state of the ischemic myocardium by use of IHA. The data show that IHA uptake and elimination are two separate parameters which may be changed in the ischemic heart. The two parameters do not necessarily change in parallel. In ischemic heart disease at rest a normal IHA accumulation pattern may be associated with altered regional IHA turnover rates. On the other hand also accumulation defects without changes in IHA turnover rate were observed. Although the relationship between IHA uptake and turnover is not yet sufficiently understood that statements about the indication and prognosis of bypass surgery can be derived

  7. Nitrogen nutrition of Canna indica: Effects of ammonium versus nitrate on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity and N uptake rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Dennis; Brix, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inorganic nitrogen (N) source (NH4+, NO3- or both) on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, N uptake rate, nitrate reductase activity and mineral composition of Canna indica were studied in hydroponic culture. The relative growth rates (0.05-0.06 g g-1 d-1), biomass allocation...

  8. Isoguvacine binding, uptake, and release: relation to the GABA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W F; Snodgrass, S R

    1983-06-01

    Isoguvacine (1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-4-carboxylic acid) is a GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) agonist with limited conformational flexibility. In these studies we investigated the binding, uptake, and release of (3H) isoguvacine by use of tissue preparations of rat CNS, comparing the results with similar studies of (3H)GABA. The results from these investigations indicate that isoguvacine binds to membrane preparations of rat forebrain with pharmacological characteristics similar to the post-synaptic GABA recognition site; that it is transported into synaptosomal preparations by an uptake system similar to the high-affinity GABA uptake system; and that recently accumulated isoguvacine is released in a Ca2+-dependent manner and by heteroexchange with external GABA. The ability of isoguvacine and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid to decrease the K+-stimulated Ca2+-dependent release process was also investigated. The results indicate that isoguvacine interactions have many of the biochemical features of GABA synaptic function, isoguvacine being, however, less potent than GABA.

  9. High HPV vaccination uptake rates for adolescent girls after regional governmental funding in Shiki City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Y; Shimizu, Y; Netsu, S; Hanley, S; Konno, R

    2012-08-10

    In Japan, the bivalent HPV vaccine was approved in October, 2009 and became available as a non-routine vaccine from December, 2009. While routine vaccinations are free, the cost and responsibility for non-routine vaccinations are left to the individual. In exceptional circumstances regional governments fund non-routine vaccinations. This was the case in Shiki City, Saitama Prefecture, where a high uptake rate for individual (non-school based) HPV vaccination was obtained. On January 20, 2010, the mayor of Shiki City announced to the media his decision to vaccinate adolescent girls in Shiki City against HPV. A project team for HPV vaccination was set up in the city's Health Promotion Center. To gain mutual consent for HPV vaccination, senior health professionals, city officials, the head of the board of education, school principals and health-care teachers met several times. The cohort to be vaccinated was 1254 girls aged 12-15 years. Individual notifications were mailed to each girl on April 23, 2010, along with information about the HPV vaccine. As of April 10th, 2011, the uptake rate for girls aged 15 years old was 90.7% for the 1st dose. The vaccine registry is managed by the health care system of the city. The success of the HPV vaccination program and high uptake rates in Shiki City is a good model for the nationwide HPV vaccination program that started in February, 2011. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plant–Water Relations (1): Uptake and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Summary Plants, like all living things, are mostly water. Water is the matrix of life, and its availability determines the distribution and productivity of plants on earth. Vascular plants evolved structures that enable them to transport water long distances with little input of energy, but the hollow tracheary elements are just one of many adaptations that enable plants to cope with a very dry atmosphere. This lecture examines the physical laws that govern water uptake and transport, the biological properties of cells and plant tissues that facilitate it, and the strategies that enable plants to survive in diverse environments

  11. Estimation of time-varying growth, uptake and excretion rates from dynamic metabolomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquemani, Eugenio; Laroute, Valérie; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel; de Jong, Hidde; Ropers, Delphine

    2017-07-15

    Technological advances in metabolomics have made it possible to monitor the concentration of extracellular metabolites over time. From these data, it is possible to compute the rates of uptake and excretion of the metabolites by a growing cell population, providing precious information on the functioning of intracellular metabolism. The computation of the rate of these exchange reactions, however, is difficult to achieve in practice for a number of reasons, notably noisy measurements, correlations between the concentration profiles of the different extracellular metabolites, and discontinuties in the profiles due to sudden changes in metabolic regime. We present a method for precisely estimating time-varying uptake and excretion rates from time-series measurements of extracellular metabolite concentrations, specifically addressing all of the above issues. The estimation problem is formulated in a regularized Bayesian framework and solved by a combination of extended Kalman filtering and smoothing. The method is shown to improve upon methods based on spline smoothing of the data. Moreover, when applied to two actual datasets, the method recovers known features of overflow metabolism in Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis , and provides evidence for acetate uptake by L. lactis after glucose exhaustion. The results raise interesting perspectives for further work on rate estimation from measurements of intracellular metabolites. The Matlab code for the estimation method is available for download at https://team.inria.fr/ibis/rate-estimation-software/ , together with the datasets. eugenio.cinquemani@inria.fr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Influence of salinity on uptake rate and bioaccumulation of /sup 137/Cs in the oyster crassostrea glomerata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Khan, S.; Chaghtai, F.; Akhter, P.; Jabbar, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes results of experiment on bioaccumulation and uptake rate of radiocesium /sup 137/Cs from dissolved phase in the flesh of the Oysters (Crassostrea glomerata) collected off Karachi coast. A radiotracer experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to determine the uptake rate and bioaccumulation of /sup 137/Cs from dissolved phase in the flesh of the Oyster. Oysters (size: 6-7 cm) were subjected to radiocesium activity of 24 Kilobecquerel per liter (kBq L/sup -1/) under three salinity Ievels (25, 30 and 35 ppt). The uptake of /sup 137/Cs was monitored for a period of seven days. The results showed that bioaccumulation and uptake of /sup 137/Cs in oysters were considerably dependent of salinity levels. Higher bioaccumulation factors and uptake rates were found at low salinity levels. (author)

  13. Effectiveness of a group opt-in session on uptake and graduation rates for pulmonary rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J; Sandrey, V; Graves, T; Smith, D L

    2010-08-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is an effective intervention in the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Unfortunately some patients offered this treatment either fail to take up the offer or fail to complete the course. Studies have indicated a number of factors influencing uptake and completion rates. We describe the introduction of an intervention, the group opt-in session (GOIS), prior to individualised baseline assessment and entry to the PR course, with the intention being to improve uptake and completion rates. A 1.5-hour-long GOIS was offered as the first face-to-face contact to all patients referred for PR. Drop-out rates at all stages of the pathway from referral to graduation were collected on 200 patients prior to the introduction of the GOIS (non-GOIS group) and compared to the first 400 patients following introduction (the GOIS group). Possible independent predictors of course uptake and completion were examined in the GOIS group. The proportion of referred patients taking up the offer of individualised baseline assessment or a GOIS was similar (75% vs. 72.2%, p value not significant [ns]). However, since in the GOIS group the opt-in session preceded the individualised baseline assessment and some patients opted-out, a smaller proportion of referred patients underwent this assessment than in the non-GOIS group (58.7% vs. 75%, p graduated in the GOIS group (87.9% vs. 76.4%, p rates due to illness were similar in both groups (8.5% pre vs. 6.8% post, ns). However, drop-out rates not due to illness were much higher in the non-GOIS group (15.1% vs. 5.3%, p graduation rates at The North Bristol Lung Centre PR Course and reduced wasted assessments. There was no effect on initial uptake. Analysis of the behaviour of patients invited to a GOIS suggested that age, lung function and travel distance were important factors influencing patient choice.

  14. The rate of 99m Tc-MDP uptake in metastatic bone lesions before and after 89m Sr therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Joseane Fonseca; Braga, Francisco J.H.N.

    1996-01-01

    The rate of 99m Tc-MDP uptake is studied in metastatic bone lesions, before and after 89m Sr therapy. Eight hopeless patients (age between 56 and 74) presenting disseminated carcinoma of the prostate are evaluated. No hormonal therapy and a limited radiotherapy were considered. It is concluded that therapeutical doses of 89m Sr reduces MDP uptake

  15. Effects of heart rate on myocardial thallium-201 uptake and clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordrehaug, J.E.; Danielsen, R.; Vik-Mo, H.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of heart rate on the myocardial uptake and clearance of 201 Tl were studied prospectively in seven healthy men, mean age 43 +/- 7 (s.d.) yr. Initial and delayed (3 hr) thallium images were obtained in three views after three bicycle exercise tests: to maximal, 80% and 60% of predicted maximal heart rate. The mean of three views initial myocardial 201 Tl uptake was higher at maximal than at both 80% and 60% of predicted maximal heart rate, being 81% (p less than 0.01) and 60% (p less than 0.01) of maximal activity, respectively. The myocardial activity in the delayed images was identical. There was a linear relationship between heart rate and the initial myocardial activity, r = 0.86 (p less than 0.001). The mean (range) 201 Tl clearance was 58% (51-65), 47% (34-56), and 34% (22-49) (all differences p less than 0.01), respectively. Concordance among the three individual views in estimating clearance was best for the highest exercise level. There was a linear relationship between heart rate and clearance, r = 0.80 (p less than 0.001). Clearance was altered by only 1.67 x 10%/heart bpm (0.024 hr/heart beat). Clearance in the liver, spleen and lungs increased at submaximal exercise levels. Thus, a linear relationship between heart rate and clearance is the result of changes in the initial exercise myocardial 201 Tl activity. Submaximal exercise may reduce reproducibility of clearance estimation, and the change of myocardial clearance with heart rate seems less than previously suggested

  16. Biomass characterization by dielectric monitoring of viability and oxygen uptake rate measurements in a novel membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Farshid Pajoum; Heran, Marc; Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Mehrnia, Mohammad Reza; Sarzana, Gabriele; Ghommidh, Charles; Grasmick, Alain

    2013-07-01

    The application of permittivity and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) as biological process control parameters in a wastewater treatment system was evaluated. Experiments were carried out in a novel airlift oxidation ditch membrane bioreactor under different organic loading rates (OLR). Permittivity as representative of activated sludge viability was measured by a capacitive on-line sensor. OUR was also measured as a representative for respirometric activity. Results showed that the biomass concentration increases with OLR and all biomass related measurements and simulators such as MLSS, permittivity, OUR, ASM1 and ASM3 almost follow the same increasing trends. The viability of biomass decreased when the OLR was reduced from 5 to 4 kg COD m(-3)d(-1). During decreasing of OLR, biomass related parameters generally decreased but not in a similar manner. Also, protein concentration in the system during OLR decreasing changed inversely with the activated sludge viability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of Prolonged Spaceflight on Heart Rate and Oxygen Uptake Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, U.; Moore, A.; Drescher, U.

    2013-02-01

    During prolonged spaceflight, physical training is used to minimize cardiovascular deconditioning. Measurement of the kinetics of cardiorespiratory parameters, in particular the kinetic analysis of heart rate, respiratory and muscular oxygen uptake, provides useful information with regard to the efficiency and regulation of the cardiorespiratory system. Practically, oxygen uptake kinetics can only be measured at the lung site (V’O2 resp). The dynamics of V’O2 resp, however, is not identical with the dynamics at the site of interest: skeletal muscle. Eight Astronauts were tested pre- and post-flight using pseudo random binary workload changes between 30 and 80 W. Their kinetic responses of heart rate, respiratory as well as muscular V’O2 kinetics were estimated by using time-series analysis. Statistical analysis revealed that the kinetic responses of respiratory as well as muscular V’O2 kinetics are slowed post-flight than pre-flight. Heart rate seems not to be influenced following flight. The influence of other factors (e. g. astronauts’ exercise training) may impact these parameters and is an area for future studies.

  18. A prospective population study of resting heart rate and peak oxygen uptake (the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Nauman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We assessed the prospective association of resting heart rate (RHR at baseline with peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak 23 years later, and evaluated whether physical activity (PA could modify this association. BACKGROUND: Both RHR and VO(2peak are strong and independent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the association of RHR with VO(2peak and modifying effect of PA have not been prospectively assessed in population studies. METHODS: In 807 men and 810 women free from cardiovascular disease both at baseline (1984-86 and follow-up 23 years later, RHR was recorded at both occasions, and VO(2peak was measured by ergospirometry at follow-up. We used Generalized Linear Models to assess the association of baseline RHR with VO(2peak, and to study combined effects of RHR and self-reported PA on later VO(2peak. RESULTS: There was an inverse association of RHR at baseline with VO(2peak (p<0.01. Men and women with baseline RHR greater than 80 bpm had 4.6 mL.kg(-1.min(-1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 6.3 and 1.4 mL.kg(-1.min(-1 (95% CI, -0.4 to 3.1 lower VO(2peak at follow-up compared with men and women with RHR below 60 bpm at baseline. We found a linear association of change in RHR with VO(2peak (p=0.03, suggesting that a decrease in RHR over time is likely to be beneficial for cardiovascular fitness. Participants with low RHR and high PA at baseline had higher VO(2peak than inactive people with relatively high RHR. However, among participants with relatively high RHR and high PA at baseline, VO(2peak was similar to inactive people with relatively low RHR. CONCLUSION: RHR is an important predictor of VO(2peak, and serial assessments of RHR may provide useful and inexpensive information on cardiovascular fitness. The results suggest that high levels of PA may compensate for the lower VO(2peak associated with a high RHR.

  19. Vesicular GABA Uptake Can Be Rate Limiting for Recovery of IPSCs from Synaptic Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manami Yamashita

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Synaptic efficacy plays crucial roles in neuronal circuit operation and synaptic plasticity. Presynaptic determinants of synaptic efficacy are neurotransmitter content in synaptic vesicles and the number of vesicles undergoing exocytosis at a time. Bursts of presynaptic firings depress synaptic efficacy, mainly due to depletion of releasable vesicles, whereas recovery from strong depression is initiated by endocytic vesicle retrieval followed by refilling of vesicles with neurotransmitter. We washed out presynaptic cytosolic GABA to induce a rundown of IPSCs at cerebellar inhibitory cell pairs in slices from rats and then allowed fast recovery by elevating GABA concentration using photo-uncaging. The time course of this recovery coincided with that of IPSCs from activity-dependent depression induced by a train of high-frequency stimulation. We conclude that vesicular GABA uptake can be a limiting step for the recovery of inhibitory neurotransmission from synaptic depression. : Recovery of inhibitory synaptic transmission from activity-dependent depression requires refilling of vesicles with GABA. Yamashita et al. find that vesicular uptake rate of GABA is a slow process, limiting the recovery rate of IPSCs from depression.

  20. A longitudinal analysis of the effect of nonmedical exemption law and vaccine uptake on vaccine-targeted disease rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Debold, Vicky

    2014-02-01

    We assessed how nonmedical exemption (NME) laws and annual uptake of vaccines required for school or daycare entry affect annual incidence rates for 5 vaccine-targeted diseases: pertussis, measles, mumps, Haemophilus influenzae type B, and hepatitis B. We employed longitudinal mixed-effects models to examine 2001-2008 vaccine-targeted disease data obtained from the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System. Key explanatory variables were state-level vaccine-specific uptake rates from the National Immunization Survey and a state NME law restrictiveness level. NME law restrictiveness and vaccine uptake were not associated with disease incidence rate for hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type B, measles, or mumps. Pertussis incidence rate, however, was negatively associated with NME law restrictiveness (b = -0.20; P = .03) and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine uptake (b = -0.01; P = .05). State NME laws and vaccine uptake rates did not appear to influence lower-incidence diseases but may influence reported disease rates for higher-incidence diseases. If all states increased their NME law restrictiveness by 1 level and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus uptake by 1%, national annual pertussis cases could decrease by 1.14% (171 cases) and 0.04% (5 cases), respectively.

  1. Comparison of phosphate uptake rates by the smallest plastidic and aplastidic protists in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Manuela; Grob, Carolina; Scanlan, David J; Martin, Adrian P; Burkill, Peter H; Zubkov, Mikhail V

    2011-11-01

    The smallest phototrophic protists (protists meet their inorganic nutrient requirements, we compared the phosphate uptake rates of plastidic and aplastidic protists in the phosphate-depleted subtropical and tropical North Atlantic (4-29°N) using a combination of radiotracers and flow cytometric sorting on two Atlantic Meridional Transect cruises. Plastidic protists were divided into two groups according to their size (protists showed higher phosphate uptake rates per cell than the aplastidic protists. Although the phosphate uptake rates of protist cells were on average seven times (Pprotists were one fourth to one twentieth of an average bacterioplankton cell. The unsustainably low biomass-specific phosphate uptake by both plastidic and aplastidic protists suggests the existence of a common alternative means of phosphorus acquisition - predation on phosphorus-rich bacterioplankton cells. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Composition and properties of atmospheric particles in the eastern Atlantic and impacts on gas phase uptake rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFiggans

    2009-12-01

    humidity using HTDMA data. Heterogeneous uptake rates of hypoiodous acid (HOI were also predicted and the nss accumulation mode was found to be the most significant part of the size distribution, which could act as an inert sink for this species. The predicted uptake rates were enhanced by around a factor of 2 during the African influence period due to the addition of both coarse and fine particles.

    The hygroscopicity of the nss fraction was modelled using the Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model (ADDEM using the measured composition and results compared with the HTDMA data. This was the first time such a reconciliation study with this model has been performed with marine data and good agreement was reached within the resolution of the instruments. The effect of hygroscopic growth on HOI uptake was also modelled and ambient uptake rates were found to be approximately doubled compared to equivalent dry particles.

  3. Orthopedic surgery-related benign uptake on FDG-PET. Case examples and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Orthopedic surgical procedures often create some special postoperative complications, which may demonstrate abnormally increased or focal uptake for an extended period of time on fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-CT images. The distinction of normal from pathologic, benign from malignant uptake is very important to minimize the number of false positive results. To date, very little data have been published regarding surgical-related benign musculoskeletal uptake on PET-CT imaging. In this paper, we present to the readers some case examples of FDG PET-CT imaging for postoperative fracture, infection or osteomyelitis, metallic implants, aggressive bone edge, heterotopic ossification, granuloma and neuroma. We also discuss potential pitfalls to recognize these orthopedic surgery-related complications and identify benign nature of increased FDG uptake. In all cases, the patient's medical and surgical history would be of paramount importance to the radiologists/nuclear medicine physicians who interprets the scan. It is also crucial to carefully correlate FDG uptake with the anatomy on the co-registered CT images in all transaxial, coronal and sagittal views in order to identify the location and pattern of uptake. (author)

  4. Microbial uptake of radiolabeled substrates: estimates of growth rates from time course measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.K.W.

    1984-01-01

    The uptake of [ 3 H]glucose and a mixture of 3 H-labeled amino acids was measured, in time course fashion, in planktonic microbial assemblages of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. The average generation times of those portions of the assemblages able to utilize these substrates were estimated from a simple exponential growth model. Other workers have independently used this model in its integrated or differential form. A mathematical verification and an experimental demonstration of the equivalence of the two approaches are presented. A study was made of the size distribution of heterotrophic activity, using time course measurements. It was found that the size distribution and the effect of sample filtration before radiolabeling were dependent on time of incubation. In principle, it was possible to ascribe these time dependences to differences in th specific growth rate and initial standing stock of the microbial assemblages. 33 references

  5. AMF Inoculation Enhances Growth and Improves the Nutrient Uptake Rates of Transplanted, Salt-Stressed Tomato Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrit Balliu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of commercially available AMF inoculate (Glomus sp. mixture on the growth and the nutrient acquisition in tomato (Solanumlycopersicum L. plants directly after transplanting and under different levels of salinity. Inoculated (AMF+ and non-inoculated (AMF− tomato plants were subjected to three levels of NaCl salinity (0, 50, and 100 mM·NaCl. Seven days after transplanting, plants were analyzed for dry matter and RGR of whole plants and root systems. Leaf tissue was analyzed for mineral concentration before and after transplanting; leaf nutrient content and relative uptake rates (RUR were calculated. AMF inoculation did not affect plant dry matter or RGR under fresh water-irrigation. The growth rate of AMF−plants did significantly decline under both moderate (77% and severe (61% salt stress compared to the fresh water-irrigated controls, while the decline was much less (88% and 75%,respectivelyand statistically non-significant in salt-stressed AMF+ plants. Interestingly, root system dry matter of AMF+ plants (0.098 g plant–1 remained significantly greater under severe soil salinity compared to non-inoculated seedlings (0.082 g plant–1. The relative uptake rates of N, P, Mg, Ca, Mn, and Fe were enhanced in inoculated tomato seedlings and remained higher under (moderate salt stress compared to AMF− plants This study suggests that inoculation with commercial AMF during nursery establishment contributes to alleviation of salt stress by maintaining a favorable nutrient profile. Therefore, nursery inoculation seems to be a viable solution to attenuate the effects of increasing soil salinity levels, especially in greenhouses with low natural abundance of AMF spores.

  6. Using the North Dakota Immunization Information System to determine adolescent vaccination rates and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMurray, Keith; Sander, Molly

    2011-01-01

    We described the uptake and coverage rates of meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4); tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap); and quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) in North Dakota using the North Dakota Immunization Information System (NDIIS). We analyzed all available MCV4, Tdap, and HPV4 doses given after vaccine licensure and through December 31, 2009, obtained from the NDIIS to identify trends and patterns in vaccine administration. We analyzed all data by administration date, age group, and health-care provider type. We also calculated missed opportunities to complete all recommended vaccines among vaccinated adolescents. For adolescents aged 13-17 years, 69.2% had > or = 1 dose of Tdap and 62.8% had > or = 1 dose of MCV4. Of females aged 13-17 years, 42.8% initiated the HPV4 vaccination series and 24.9% received > or = 3 HPV4 doses. Only 48.7% of males aged 13-17 years received both Tdap and MCV4 at the same visit, and only 11.5% of females aged 13-17 years received Tdap, MCV4, and HPV4 doses at the first visit. The NDIIS is useful in tracking adolescent vaccine uptake. The immunization rates for all three routinely recommended adolescent vaccines are rising in North Dakota, although at different paces. Providers should be educated about the importance of not missing opportunities to vaccinate, and school-based vaccination clinics should be used to reach adolescents who are less likely to have preventive care visits.

  7. Specific light uptake rates can enhance astaxanthin productivity in Haematococcus lacustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Sang; Kim, Z-Hun; Park, Hanwool; Lee, Choul-Gyun

    2016-05-01

    Lumostatic operation was applied for efficient astaxanthin production in autotrophic Haematococcus lacustris cultures using 0.4-L bubble column photobioreactors. The lumostatic operation in this study was performed with three different specific light uptake rates (q(e)) based on cell concentration, cell projection area, and fresh weight as one-, two- and three-dimensional characteristics values, respectively. The q(e) value from the cell concentration (q(e1D)) obtained was 13.5 × 10⁻⁸ μE cell⁻¹ s⁻¹, and the maximum astaxanthin concentration was increased to 150 % compared to that of a control with constant light intensity. The other optimum q e values by cell projection area (q(e2D)) and fresh weight (q( e3D)) were determined to be 195 μE m⁻² s⁻¹ and 10.5 μE g⁻¹ s⁻¹ for astaxanthin production, respectively. The maximum astaxanthin production from the lumostatic cultures using the parameters controlled by cell projection area (2D) and fresh weight (3D) also increased by 36 and 22% over that of the controls, respectively. When comparing the optimal q e values among the three different types, the lumostatic cultures using q(e) based on fresh weight showed the highest astaxanthin productivity (22.8 mg L⁻¹ day⁻¹), which was a higher level than previously reported. The lumostatic operations reported here demonstrated that more efficient and effective astaxanthin production was obtained by H. lacustris than providing a constant light intensity, regardless of which parameter is used to calculate the specific light uptake rate.

  8. Analysis of heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics studied by two different pseudo-random binary sequence work rate amplitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, U; Koschate, J; Schiffer, T; Schneider, S; Hoffmann, U

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the kinetics responses of heart rate (HR), pulmonary (V˙O 2 pulm) and predicted muscular (V˙O 2 musc) oxygen uptake between two different pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) work rate (WR) amplitudes both below anaerobic threshold. Eight healthy individuals performed two PRBS WR protocols implying changes between 30W and 80W and between 30W and 110W. HR and V˙O 2 pulm were measured beat-to-beat and breath-by-breath, respectively. V˙O 2 musc was estimated applying the approach of Hoffmann et al. (Eur J Appl Physiol 113: 1745-1754, 2013) considering a circulatory model for venous return and cross-correlation functions (CCF) for the kinetics analysis. HR and V˙O 2 musc kinetics seem to be independent of WR intensity (p>0.05). V˙O 2 pulm kinetics show prominent differences in the lag of the CCF maximum (39±9s; 31±4s; p<0.05). A mean difference of 14W between the PRBS WR amplitudes impacts venous return significantly, while HR and V˙O 2 musc kinetics remain unchanged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Connecting Related Rates and Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This article points out a simple connection between related rates and differential equations. The connection can be used for in-class examples or homework exercises, and it is accessible to students who are familiar with separation of variables.

  10. Can hydrographic data provide evidence that the rate of oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is increasing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Carlisle Thacker

    Full Text Available Predictions of the rate of accumulation of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the Pacific Ocean near 32°S and 150°W based on the P16 surveys of 1991 and 2005 and on the P06 surveys of 1992 and 2003 underestimate the amount found in the P06 survey of 2009-2010, suggesting an increasing uptake rate. Assuming the accumulation rate to be constant over the two decades, analyses using all five surveys lead to upward revision of the rates based only on the first four. On the other hand, accumulation rates estimated for 2003-2010 are significantly greater than those for 1991-2003, again suggesting an increasing uptake rate. In addressing this question it is important to acknowledge the limitations of the repeat hydrography and consequent uncertainties of estimated accumulation rates.

  11. On the relations between the oceanic uptake of CO2 and its carbon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimann, M.; Maier-Reimer, E.

    1994-01-01

    The recent proposals to estimate the oceanic uptake of CO 2 by monitoring the oceanic change in 13 C/ 12 C isotope ratio or the air-sea 13 C/ 12 C isotopic disequilibrium is reviewed. Because the history of atmospheric CO 2 and 13 CO 2 since preindustrial times is almost the same, the oceanic penetration depth of both tracers must be the same. This dynamic constraint permits the establishment of yet a third method to estimate the global ocean uptake of CO 2 from 13 C measurements. Using available observations in conjunction with canonical values for the global carbon cycle parameters the three methods yield inconsistent oceanic CO 2 uptake rates for the time period 1970-1990, ranging from 0 to over 3 GtC year -1 . However, uncertainties in the available carbon cycle data must be taken into account. Using a non-linear estimation procedure, a consistent scenario with an oceanic CO 2 uptake rate of 2.2±0.8 GtC year -1 can be established. The method also permits an investigation of the sensitivities of the different approaches. An analysis of the results of two three-dimensional simulations with the Hamburg Model of the Oceanic Carbon Cycle shows that the 13 C isotope indeed tracks the oceanic penetration of anthropogenic CO 2 . Because of its different time history, bomb produced radiocarbon, as measured at the time of GEOSECS, correlates much less well to excess carbon. (orig.)

  12. Age-related normal uptake of 99mTc-MDP in the lower spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundkvist, G.M.G.; Lilja, B.; Mattsson, S.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: The uptake of 99m Tc-MDP in the lower spine was quantified in connection with ordinary bone scintigraphy. Methods: Fifty-seven women and seventy-two men (aged 20-69 y), with no signs of metabolic or malignant disease and no history of back pain or atraumatic fractures, were included in the study. Results: The women showed an increase in 99m Tc-MDP uptake from the age of 20 y to about 45 y with a decrease from the time of menopause. In contrast to women, the uptake in men showed a slight decrease from the age of 20 y to about 50 y and thereafter a more marked decrease was seen. The major difference between men and women is the high premenopausal uptake in the female skeleton. Conclusion: An understanding of age-related changes in 99m Tc-MDP uptake, which are indices of the skeletal metabolism, is of importance especially in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, a common disorder in postmenopausal women. (orig.) [de

  13. Plant uptake of 134Cs in relation to soil properties and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massas, I.; Skarlou, V.; Haidouti, C.

    2002-01-01

    134 Cs uptake by sunflower and soybean plants grown on seven different soils and its relation to soil properties were studied in a greenhouse pot experiment. Soil in each pot was contaminated by dripping the 134 Cs in layers, and sunflower and soybean plants were grown for three and two successive periods, respectively. 134 Cs plant uptake was expressed as the transfer factor (TF) (Bq kg -1 plant/Bq kg -1 soil) and as the daily plant uptake (flux) (Bq pot -1 day -1 ) taking into account biomass production and growth time. For the studied soils and for both plants, no consistent trend of TFs with time was observed. The use of fluxes, in general, provided less variable results than TFs and stronger functional relationships. A negative power functional relationship between exchangeable potassium plus ammonium cations expressed as a percentage of cation exchange capacity of each soil and 134 Cs fluxes was found for the sunflower plants. A similar but weaker relationship was observed for soybean plants. The significant correlation between sunflower and soybean TFs and fluxes, as well as the almost identical highest/lowest 134 Cs flux ratios, in the studied soils, indicated a similar effect of soil characteristics on 134 Cs uptake by both plants. In all the studied soils, sunflower 134 Cs TFs and fluxes were significantly higher than the respective soybean values, while no significant difference was observed in potassium content and daily potassium plant uptake (flux) of the two plants

  14. Correlation between TCA cycle flux and glucose uptake rate during respiro-fermentative growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Jan; Fu, Jianan; Blank, Lars M

    2009-12-01

    Glucose repression of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated under different environmental conditions using (13)C-tracer experiments. Real-time quantification of the volatile metabolites ethanol and CO(2) allowed accurate carbon balancing. In all experiments with the wild-type, a strong correlation between the rates of growth and glucose uptake was observed, indicating a constant yield of biomass. In contrast, glycerol and acetate production rates were less dependent on the rate of glucose uptake, but were affected by environmental conditions. The glycerol production rate was highest during growth in high-osmolarity medium (2.9 mmol g(-1) h(-1)), while the highest acetate production rate of 2.1 mmol g(-1) h(-1) was observed in alkaline medium of pH 6.9. Under standard growth conditions (25 g glucose l(-1) , pH 5.0, 30 degrees C) S. cerevisiae had low fluxes through the pentose phosphate pathway and the TCA cycle. A significant increase in TCA cycle activity from 0.03 mmol g(-1) h(-1) to about 1.7 mmol g(-1) h(-1) was observed when S. cerevisiae grew more slowly as a result of environmental perturbations, including unfavourable pH values and sodium chloride stress. Compared to experiments with high glucose uptake rates, the ratio of CO(2) to ethanol increased more than 50 %, indicating an increase in flux through the TCA cycle. Although glycolysis and the ethanol production pathway still exhibited the highest fluxes, the net flux through the TCA cycle increased significantly with decreasing glucose uptake rates. Results from experiments with single gene deletion mutants partially impaired in glucose repression (hxk2, grr1) indicated that the rate of glucose uptake correlates with this increase in TCA cycle flux. These findings are discussed in the context of regulation of glucose repression.

  15. Pedaling rate is an important determinant of human oxygen uptake during exercise on the cycle ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E; Borrani, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Estimation of human oxygen uptake (V˙o2) during exercise is often used as an alternative when its direct measurement is not feasible. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggests estimating human V˙o2 during exercise on a cycle ergometer through an equation that considers individual's body mass and external work rate, but not pedaling rate (PR). We hypothesized that including PR in the ACSM equation would improve its V˙o2 prediction accuracy. Ten healthy male participants' (age 19-48 years) were recruited and their steady-state V˙o2 was recorded on a cycle ergometer for 16 combinations of external work rates (0, 50, 100, and 150 W) and PR (50, 70, 90, and 110 revolutions per minute). V˙o2 was calculated by means of a new equation, and by the ACSM equation for comparison. Kinematic data were collected by means of an infrared 3-D motion analysis system in order to explore the mechanical determinants of V˙o2. Including PR in the ACSM equation improved the accuracy for prediction of sub-maximal V˙o2 during exercise (mean bias 1.9 vs. 3.3 mL O2 kg(-1) min(-1)) but it did not affect the accuracy for prediction of maximal V˙o2 (P > 0.05). Confirming the validity of this new equation, the results were replicated for data reported in the literature in 51 participants. We conclude that PR is an important determinant of human V˙o2 during cycling exercise, and it should be considered when predicting oxygen consumption. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  16. INES rating of radiation protection related events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hort, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, based on the draft Manual, a short review of the use of the INES rating of events concerning radiation protection is given, based on a new INES User's Manual edition. The presentation comprises a brief history of the scale development, general description of the scale and the main principles of the INES rating. Several examples of the use of the scale for radiation protection related events are mentioned. In the presentation, the term 'radiation protection related events' is used for radiation source and transport related events outside the nuclear installations. (authors)

  17. Hysteresis in the relation between moisture uptake and electrical conductivity in neat epoxy

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-05-11

    Monitoring changes in electrical conductivity is a simple way to assess the water uptake from environmental moisture in polymers. However, the relation between water uptake and changes in conductivity is not fully understood. We monitored changes in the electrical volume conductivity of an anhydride-cured epoxy polymer during moisture sorption-desorption experiments. Gravimetric analysis showed that the polymer exhibits a two-stage sorption behavior resulting from the competition between diffusive and reactive mechanisms. As expected, the macroscopic electrical conductivity increases with the diffusion of water. However, our most surprising observation was severe hysteresis in the relation between water uptake and electrical conductivity during the sorption and desorption experiments. This indicates that change in the electrical conductivity depends on both the water uptake and the competition between the diffusive and reactive mechanisms. We studied samples with various thicknesses to determine the relative effects of the diffusive and reactive mechanisms. This is an important observation as it means that general electrical monitoring techniques should be used cautiously when it comes to measuring the moisture content of polymer or polymer-based composite samples.

  18. Do individuals with intellectual disability have a lower peak heart rate and maximal oxygen uptake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa Irena Maria; Baynard, Tracy

    2017-12-12

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have very low physical activity and low peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ), potentially explained by physiologically lower peak heart rates (HR peak ). The present authors performed a retrospective analysis of a large data set of individuals with intellectual disability (n = 100), with Down syndrome (DS) (n = 48) and without intellectual disability (n = 224) using multiple linear regression analyses, to determine if individuals with intellectual disability exhibit lower HR peak and VO 2peak than individuals without intellectual disability, controlling for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Individuals with intellectual disability on average have significantly lower HR peak and VO 2peak than individuals without intellectual disability, even when controlling VO 2peak for the lower HR peak . This study suggests potential physiological differences in individuals with intellectual disability and warrants further investigation to determine their relevance to physical activity promotion and exercise testing in individuals with intellectual disability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effect of pedal rate on primary and slow-component oxygen uptake responses during heavy-cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Jamie S M; Doust, Jonathan H; Carter, Helen; Tolfrey, Keith; Jones, Andrew M

    2003-04-01

    We hypothesized that a higher pedal rate (assumed to result in a greater proportional contribution of type II motor units) would be associated with an increased amplitude of the O(2) uptake (Vo(2)) slow component during heavy-cycle exercise. Ten subjects (mean +/- SD, age 26 +/- 4 yr, body mass 71.5 +/- 7.9 kg) completed a series of square-wave transitions to heavy exercise at pedal rates of 35, 75, and 115 rpm. The exercise power output was set at 50% of the difference between the pedal rate-specific ventilatory threshold and peak Vo(2), and the baseline power output was adjusted to account for differences in the O(2) cost of unloaded pedaling. The gain of the Vo(2) primary component was significantly higher at 35 rpm compared with 75 and 115 rpm (mean +/- SE, 10.6 +/- 0.3, 9.5 +/- 0.2, and 8.9 +/- 0.4 ml. min(-1). W(-1), respectively; P exercise at the same relative intensity, presumably by altering motor unit recruitment patterns.

  20. Relationship between oxygen uptake slow component and surface EMG during heavy exercise in humans: influence of pedal rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruyssen, Fabrice; Missenard, Olivier; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that extreme pedal rates contributed to the slow component of oxygen uptake (VO(2) SC) in association with changes in surface electromyographic (sEMG) during heavy-cycle exercise. Eight male trained cyclists performed two square-wave transitions at 50 and 110 rpm at a work rate that would elicit a VO(2) corresponding to 50% of the difference between peak VO(2) and the ventilatory threshold. Pulmonary gas exchange was measured breath-by-breath and sEMG was obtained from the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles. Integrated EMG flow (QiEMG) and mean power frequency (MPF) were computed. The relative amplitude of the VO(2) SC was significantly higher during the 110-rpm bout (556+/-186 ml min(-1), Pexercise only during the 110-rpm bout and were associated with the greater amplitude of the VO(2) SC observed for this condition (Pmotor units recruitment pattern, muscle energy turnover and muscle temperature have been suggested to explain the different VO(2) SC to heavy pedal rate bouts.

  1. A COMPARISON BETWEEN VENTILATION AND HEART RATE AS INDICATOR OF OXYGEN UPTAKE DURING DIFFERENT INTENSITIES OF EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Prioux

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the relation between ventilation (VE and oxygen uptake (VO2 [VO2=ƒ(VE] and between heart rate (HR and VO2 [VO2=ƒ(HR]. Each one of the subjects performed three types of activities of different intensities (walking without load, walking with load and intermittent work. VO2, VE, and HR were measured continuously by using indirect calorimetry and an electrocardiogram. Linear regressions and coefficients of determination (r² were calculated to compare the relation VO2 =ƒ(VE and VO2 =ƒ(HR for two different regroupings: by session duration (r²session and by subject (r²subject. Results showed that r²session of the relation VO2 =ƒ(VE were significantly higher than those of the relation VO2 =ƒ(HR for steady state activities (walking with or without load during 3 or 6 min, p < 0.01 and for activities without oxygen consumption steady state (walking with or without load during 1 min, p < 0.01 and intermittent work, p < 0.05. VE is more strongly correlated with VO2 than with HR. This is a very promising approach to develop a new method to estimate energy expenditure

  2. Heart rate during basketball game play and volleyball drills accurately predicts oxygen uptake and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribbans, T D; Berg, K; Narazaki, K; Janssen, I; Gurd, B J

    2015-09-01

    There is currently little information regarding the ability of metabolic prediction equations to accurately predict oxygen uptake and exercise intensity from heart rate (HR) during intermittent sport. The purpose of the present study was to develop and, cross-validate equations appropriate for accurately predicting oxygen cost (VO2) and energy expenditure from HR during intermittent sport participation. Eleven healthy adult males (19.9±1.1yrs) were recruited to establish the relationship between %VO2peak and %HRmax during low-intensity steady state endurance (END), moderate-intensity interval (MOD) and high intensity-interval exercise (HI), as performed on a cycle ergometer. Three equations (END, MOD, and HI) for predicting %VO2peak based on %HRmax were developed. HR and VO2 were directly measured during basketball games (6 male, 20.8±1.0 yrs; 6 female, 20.0±1.3yrs) and volleyball drills (12 female; 20.8±1.0yrs). Comparisons were made between measured and predicted VO2 and energy expenditure using the 3 equations developed and 2 previously published equations. The END and MOD equations accurately predicted VO2 and energy expenditure, while the HI equation underestimated, and the previously published equations systematically overestimated VO2 and energy expenditure. Intermittent sport VO2 and energy expenditure can be accurately predicted from heart rate data using either the END (%VO2peak=%HRmax x 1.008-17.17) or MOD (%VO2peak=%HRmax x 1.2-32) equations. These 2 simple equations provide an accessible and cost-effective method for accurate estimation of exercise intensity and energy expenditure during intermittent sport.

  3. The declining uptake rate of atmospheric CO2 by land and ocean sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Raupach

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Through 1959–2012, an airborne fraction (AF of 0.44 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions remained in the atmosphere, with the rest being taken up by land and ocean CO2 sinks. Understanding of this uptake is critical because it greatly alleviates the emissions reductions required for climate mitigation, and also reduces the risks and damages that adaptation has to embrace. An observable quantity that reflects sink properties more directly than the AF is the CO2 sink rate (kS, the combined land–ocean CO2 sink flux per unit excess atmospheric CO2 above preindustrial levels. Here we show from observations that kS declined over 1959–2012 by a factor of about 1 / 3, implying that CO2 sinks increased more slowly than excess CO2. Using a carbon–climate model, we attribute the decline in kS to four mechanisms: slower-than-exponential CO2 emissions growth (~ 35% of the trend, volcanic eruptions (~ 25%, sink responses to climate change (~ 20%, and nonlinear responses to increasing CO2, mainly oceanic (~ 20%. The first of these mechanisms is associated purely with the trajectory of extrinsic forcing, and the last two with intrinsic, feedback responses of sink processes to changes in climate and atmospheric CO2. Our results suggest that the effects of these intrinsic, nonlinear responses are already detectable in the global carbon cycle. Although continuing future decreases in kS will occur under all plausible CO2 emission scenarios, the rate of decline varies between scenarios in non-intuitive ways because extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms respond in opposite ways to changes in emissions: extrinsic mechanisms cause kS to decline more strongly with increasing mitigation, while intrinsic mechanisms cause kS to decline more strongly under high-emission, low-mitigation scenarios as the carbon–climate system is perturbed further from a near-linear regime.

  4. The declining uptake rate of atmospheric CO2 by land and ocean sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raupach, M.R.; Gloor, M.; Sarmiento, J.L.; Gasser, T.

    2014-01-01

    Through 1959-2012, an airborne fraction (AF) of 0.44 of total anthropogenic CO 2 emissions remained in the atmosphere, with the rest being taken up by land and ocean CO 2 sinks. Understanding of this uptake is critical because it greatly alleviates the emissions reductions required for climate mitigation, and also reduces the risks and damages that adaptation has to embrace. An observable quantity that reflects sink properties more directly than the AF is the CO 2 sink rate (k S ), the combined land-ocean CO 2 sink flux per unit excess atmospheric CO 2 above pre industrial levels. Here we show from observations that k S declined over 1959-2012 by a factor of about 1/3, implying that CO 2 sinks increased more slowly than excess CO 2 . Using a carbon-climate model, we attribute the decline in k S to four mechanisms: slower-than-exponential CO 2 emissions growth (35% of the trend), volcanic eruptions (25 %), sink responses to climate change (20 %), and nonlinear responses to increasing CO 2 , mainly oceanic (20 %). The first of these mechanisms is associated purely with the trajectory of extrinsic forcing, and the last two with intrinsic, feedback responses of sink processes to changes in climate and atmospheric CO 2 . Our results suggest that the effects of these intrinsic, nonlinear responses are already detectable in the global carbon cycle. Although continuing future decreases in k S will occur under all plausible CO 2 emission scenarios, the rate of decline varies between scenarios in non intuitive ways because extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms respond in opposite ways to changes in emissions: extrinsic mechanisms cause k S to decline more strongly with increasing mitigation, while intrinsic mechanisms cause k S to decline more strongly under high-emission, low-mitigation scenarios as the carbon-climate system is perturbed further from a near-linear regime. (authors)

  5. The clinical significance of measuring the thyroid 131I uptake rate to identify the type of premature hypothyroidism for hyperthyroid after 131I treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Bo; Chen Huaming; Zhu Tianfeng

    2001-01-01

    The 3 h thyroid 131 I uptake rate and the content of serum TT 3 , TT 4 , TSH are measured in 63 patients of premature hypothyroidism (consisting of 33 provisional hypothyroids and 30 perpetual hypothyroidism) before and after thyroxine substitutes treatment for six moths. The results show that there is obvious difference in 131 I uptake rate compared provisional hypothyroidism with perpetual hypothyroidism, and no difference in the content of serum TT 3 , TT 4 , TSH before the treatment. Compared with normal conditions, there is no difference in 131 I uptake rate of provisional hypothyroidism, but the 131 I uptake rate of perpetual hypothyroidism has obvious decrease before and after the treatment. Therefore the type of patients who suffer from premature hypothyroidism can be distinguished according to the 131 I uptake rate: if the 3 h thyroid 131 I uptake rate is normal, it is provisional hypothyroidism; if not, it is perpetual hypothyroidism

  6. The effect of eating salt with iodine on the normal values of thyroid 131I uptake rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunyan; Wang Huawen; Li Guirong; Chen Chunmei; Zhang Lixia; Yu Yuehua

    2002-01-01

    131 I uptake rates of control group, which stop eating salt with iodine for over six weeks, eating salt with iodine group, the hyperthyroidism group are determined in 2 h, 6 h and 24 h respectively. The results show 131 I uptake rate of eating salt with iodine group are (7.7 +- 4.2)% in 2 h, (13.8 +- 5.3)% in 6 h and (21.9 +- 7.7)% in 24 h. There are no difference between sex. There is significance of difference (P 131 I uptake rates between the hyperthyroidism group of eating salt with iodine and control group is 5.0%, and eating salt with iodine group is 22.5%. To determine the thyroid iodine uptake rate in the patients who did not stop eating salt with iodine, the ranges of normal values must be defined. This result could be as a standard to diagnose the patients of hyperthyroidism of eating salt with iodine

  7. A clinical study on 125I T3 resin uptake rate and serum thyroxin (T4) in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, E.S.; Park, Y.H.; Cho, C.H.; Park, I.S.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    Total of 94 cases of hyperthyroidism were classified as toxic diffuse goiter (77 case) as toxic adematous goiter (8 case) and as toxic multinodular goiter (9 case) on the levels of T 3 - 125 I resin uptake rate and the measurement of serum T 4 levels. Various clinical symptoms and diagnostic characteristics were discussed. (author)

  8. Study of oxygen mass transfer coefficient and oxygen uptake rate in a stirred tank reactor for uranium ore bioleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zokaei-Kadijani, S.; Safdari, J.; Mousavian, M.A.; Rashidi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mass transfer coefficient does not depend on biomass concentration. ► The pulp density has a negative effect on mass transfer coefficient. ► The pulp density is the unique factor that affects maximum OUR. ► In this work, Neale’s correlation is corrected for prediction of mass transfer coefficient. ► Biochemical reaction is a limiting factor in the uranium bioleaching process. - Abstract: In this work, the volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient and the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) were studied for uranium ore bioleaching process by Acidthiobacillus ferrooxidans in a stirred tank reactor. The Box-Bohnken design method was used to study the effect of operating parameters on the oxygen mass transfer coefficient. The investigated factors were agitation speed (rpm), aeration rate (vvm) and pulp density (% weight/volume) of the stirred tank reactor. Analysis of experimental results showed that the oxygen mass transfer coefficient had low dependence on biomass concentration but had higher dependence on the agitation speed, aeration rate and pulp density. The obtained biological enhancement factors were equal to ones in experiments. On the other hand, the obtained values for Damkohler number (Da < 0.468) indicated that the process was limited by the biochemical reaction rate. Experimental results obtained for oxygen mass transfer coefficient were correlated with the empirical relations proposed by Garcia-Ochoa and Gomez (2009) and Neale and Pinches (1994). Due to the high relative error in the correlation of Neale and Pinches, that correlation was corrected and the coefficient of determination was calculated to be 89%. The modified correlation has been obtained based on a wide range of operating conditions, which can be used to determine the mass transfer coefficient in a bioreactor

  9. 'In vitro' determination of the rate of 32P uptake by erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, J.C.; Vitti, D.M.S.S.; Abdalla, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    An ''in vitro'' methodology based on 32 p uptake by erythrocytes was established as a potencial method for a phosphorus sub-clinical deficiency diagnosis in ruminant. Blood samples stored up to 48 hours were incubated with 32 p at different periods and temperatures. There was no effect of storage time and the greatest 32 p uptake values were obtained with incubation over 2 hours at 38 to 50 0 C. (author) [pt

  10. Relation between blood clearance and hepatic uptake of sup 99m Tc-phytate in rats with hepatic injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Hiroshi; Hisano, Tomoyuki; Kohno, Masahiro (Yamaguchi University, Ube (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1989-10-01

    The relation among the blood clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-phytake ({sup 99m}Tc-P), the hepatic uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-P and the severity of hepatic injury was investigated by using the rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCL{sub 4}), D-galactosamine (Gal N), alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) or DL-ethionine (EthN) induced hepatic injury. After the administration of CCL{sub 4}, GalN or ANIT, serum GPT activity increased significantly with the increase of dose level, and the degree of this increase was in the order: GalN>CCl{sub 4}>ANIT. However, the mild increase in serum GPT activity was observed after EthN administration. The blood clearance rate of {sup 99m}Tc-P and the hepatic uptake ratio of {sup 99m}Tc-P decreased with the increase of dose level after CCl{sub 4}, GalN or ANIT administration, but significant changes were not found after EthN administration. The degree of decrease in the blood clearance rate of {sup 99m}Tc-P was in the order: GalNapproxCCl{sub 4}>ANIT, and the degree of decrease in the hepatic uptake ratio of {sup 99m}Tc-P was in the order: GalNapproxCCl{sub 4}>ANIT. These results suggest that the disorder in the hepatocytes may be one of causes for inducing the decrease in the hepatic uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-P, and the consequence of this decrease may induce the decrease in the blood clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-P. (author).

  11. Relative Water Uptake as a Criterion for the Design of Trickle Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communar, G.; Friedman, S. P.

    2008-12-01

    Previously derived analytical solutions to the 2- and 3-dimensional water flow problems describing trickle irrigation are not being widely used in practice because those formulations either ignore root water uptake or refer to it as a known input. In this lecture we are going to describe a new modeling approach and demonstrate its applicability for designing the geometry of trickle irrigation systems, namely the spacing between the emitters and drip lines. The major difference between our and previous modeling approaches is that we refer to the root water uptake as to the unknown solution of the problem and not as to a known input. We postulate that the solution to the steady-state water flow problem with a root sink that is acting under constant, maximum suction defines un upper bound to the relative water uptake (water use efficiency) in actual transient situations and propose to use it as a design criterion. Following previous derivations of analytical solutions we assume that the soil hydraulic conductivity increases exponentially with its matric head, which allows the linearization of the Richards equation, formulated in terms of the Kirchhoff matric flux potential. Since the transformed problem is linear, the relative water uptake for any given configuration of point or line sources and sinks can be calculated by superposition of the Green's functions of all relevant water sources and sinks. In addition to evaluating the relative water uptake, we also derived analytical expressions for the steam functions. The stream lines separating the water uptake zone from the percolating water provide insight to the dependence of the shape and extent of the actual rooting zone on the source- sink geometry and soil properties. A minimal number of just 3 system parameters: Gardner's (1958) alfa as a soil type quantifier and the depth and diameter of the pre-assumed active root zone are sufficient to characterize the interplay between capillary and gravitational effects on

  12. Renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid and glomerular filtration rate in chronic nephropathy at angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamper, A.L.; Thomsen, H.S.; Nielsen, S.L.; Strandgaard, S.; Herlev Hospital

    1990-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) were measured in 31 patients with progressive chronic nephropathy before and immediately after the start of treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in order to control adverse effects on kidney function. Scintigrams of the kidneys showed an unaltered distribution of DMSA during treatment. GFR estimated by 51 Cr-EDTA plasma clearance fell by 14% (P 99m Tc-DMSA increased by 10% (P<0.01). It is concluded that DMSA in chronic renal failure is mainly taken up by the tubular cells from the peritubular capillaries since the uptake was unaffected by the acute decrease in GFR. (orig.)

  13. Renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid and glomerular filtration rate in chronic nephropathy at angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Thomsen, H S; Nielsen, S L

    1990-01-01

    function. Scintigrams of the kidneys showed an unaltered distribution of DMSA during treatment. GFR estimated by 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance fell by 14% (P less than 0.01), but renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA increased by 10% (P less than 0.01). It is concluded that DMSA in chronic renal failure is mainly taken......Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) were measured in 31 patients with progressive chronic nephropathy before and immediately after the start of treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in order to control adverse effects on kidney...

  14. The rate of 45Ca uptake by two corals species at waters of Burung island, Bangka-Belitung province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkifli Dahlan; Gusti Diansyah; T Zia Ulqodry; Ania Citraresmini

    2010-01-01

    Coral reefs transplantation is the most technique used for coral reefs rehabilitation, at the present. Recently the 45 Ca technique has been using for determining growth appearances in corals because of its ability to calculate the calcification process. For this reason, the study on the rate of 45 Ca uptake by natural corals Acropora Formosa and Acropora nobilis was carried out between June and December 2009 at the waters of Burung Island, Bangka-Belitung Province. The coral fragments of about 5 cm were harvested and put into a PVC container filled with 2 liters of fresh sea water, then incubated with 45 CaCl 2 solutions with an activity of 11.04 μCi/ml for 8 hour under fluorescent light. After the incubation, the “labeled” coral fragments were transplanted to where they have been taken from, and after such period will be re-harvested to determine their 45 Ca uptake content. The results showed that the 45 Ca technique was a reliable method to calculate the rate 45 Ca uptake by coral fragments, which were studied in different depths and time periods of light exposure. There was a significant difference in the 45 Ca uptake by the two different coral species. A. Formosa up took more 45 Ca than A. nobilis did. The highest 45 Ca uptake was shown by A. Formosa at 5 m. This was true for all the lengths of time to light exposure (1, 3, 5 and 7 hours). Different pattern of 45 Ca uptake showed by A. nobilisat 10 m depth, where it could be recognized that after a drop of 45 Ca the uptake increase continuously until the end of the light exposure (7 hours). The difference in 45 Ca uptake between the coral fragments is assumed to be influence by light and the algae species living symbiotically with the coral species that will further influence the CO 2 -fixation. This process will influence the calcification process, which is expressed in 45 Ca uptake. Further studies should be carried out to exactly gathered data of all the factors which could influence the calcification

  15. Related Rates and the Speed of Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoen, S. C.; Weidner, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Standard calculus textbooks often include a related rates problem involving light cast onto a straight line by a revolving light source. Mathematical aspects to these problems (both in the solution and in the method by which that solution is obtained) are examined. (JN)

  16. Temporal relation between temperature change and FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, SunHee; Krynyckyi, Borys R.; Machac, Josef; Kim, Chun K.

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that the prevalence of 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is related to outdoor temperature, i.e., more frequent during the colder periods of the year. The purpose of this study was to assess the temporal relationship between BAT FDG uptake and temperature. We correlated the prevalence of BAT with average temperatures (divided into five temperature ranges) of seven different durations. One thousand four hundred ninety-five consecutive FDG Positron emission tomography (PET) studies in 1,159 patients (566 male and 593 female, mean age = 60.4 years) were retrospectively reviewed. FDG uptake with distinct patterns compatible with BAT was identified by a consensus of two readers. The local daily average temperature from January 2000 to November 2003 (beginning 60 days before the date of first PET scan) were obtained, and 2-, 3-, 7-, 14-, 30-, and 60-day average temperatures before the date of a PET study were calculated. The prevalence of BAT FDG uptake was correlated with these various average temperatures. The daily, 2-day, 3-day, and 7-day average temperature had an inverse relation with the prevalence of BAT, i.e., the lower the temperature, the higher prevalence of BAT. When the temperature was averaged over 14 days or longer, this inverse relationship between the temperature and the prevalence of BAT was no longer preserved. Our data suggest that increased FDG uptake in BAT occurs more often as an acute response to cold weather (1-7 days) rather than to prolonged periods of average cold weather. (orig.)

  17. Effect of wearing clothes on oxygen uptake and ratings of perceived exertion while swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S W; Kurokawa, T; Ebisu, Y; Kikkawa, K; Shiokawa, M; Yamasaki, M

    2000-07-01

    For a comparative study between swimming in swimwear (control-sw) and swimming in clothes (clothes-sw), oxygen uptake (VO2) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. The subjects were six male members of a university swimming team. Three swimming strokes--the breaststroke, the front crawl stroke and the elementary backstroke--were applied. With regards to clothes-sw, swimmers wore T-shirts, sportswear (shirt and pants) over swimwear and running shoes. In both cases of control-sw and clothes-sw, the VO2 was increased exponentially with increased swimming speed. The VO2 of the subjects during the clothed tests did not exceed 1.4 times of that in the case of control-sw at swimming speeds below 0.3 m/s. As swimming speeds increased, VO2 difference in both cases increased. Consequently, VO2 in the clothed tests was equal to 1.5-1.6 times and 1.5-1.8 times of that in the swimwear tests at speeds of 0.5 and 0.7 m/s, respectively. At speeds below 0.6 m/s in clothes-sw, the breaststroke showed lower VO2 than the front crawl stroke, and the elementary backstroke showed higher VO2 than the other two swimming strokes. RPE increased linearly with %peak VO2. In addition, any RPE differences among the three swimming strokes were not shown in the control-sw tests. At an exercise intensity above 60 %peak VO2, clothed swimmers showed slightly higher RPE in the front crawl stroke compared to that in the two other swimming strokes.

  18. Impaired exercise-related myocardial uptake of technetium-99m-tetrofosmin in relation to coronary narrowing and diabetic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, Hisataka; Nakata, Tomoaki; Tsuchihashi, Kazufumi; Wakabayashi, Takeru; Nakahara, Norifumi; Doi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Akiyoshi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    2001-01-01

    Despite the diagnostic efficacy of stress myocardial perfusion imaging, the correlation between the actual perfusion tracer activity and diseased state of a coronary artery has not been studied in detail. We estimated exercise-related perfusion augmentation in relation to disease states of a coronary artery in diabetic and non-diabetic patients by a newly developed quantitative technetium (Tc)-99m-tetrofosmin myocardial imaging technique. Tc-99m-tetrofosmin tomographic imaging with an exercise-rest protocol was performed in 26 stable coronary patients and in 8 age-matched controls. Percent increase (%IR) in myocardial count during symptom-limited submaximal exercise-stress was calculated in 16 non-infarcted polar map segments and in each coronary territory by a subtraction technique with corrections for physical decay and injected tracer doses, and the results were compared with those of angiographically quantified coronary diameter stenosis (%DS). Percent IR and peak heart rate during exercise showed a positive linear correlation both in coronary territories with significant stenosis (%DS≥75%) and in control or non-stenotic (%DS<75%) territories. The regression line in stenotic regions was, however, significantly (p<0.01) shifted downward compared to that in non-stenotic regions. Percent IR in stenotic regions showed a significant inverse correlation with %DS. Coronary stenosis of 75% or more was identified by a %IR cutoff value of 40% with 77% sensitivity, 70% specificity, and an accuracy of 72%. In coronary territories with a %DS of less than 75%, %IR in diabetic patients was significantly lower (46±15%) than that in non-diabetic patients (61±25%). Thus, blunted exercise-related augmentation of myocardial uptake of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin correlates with the severity of coronary narrowing and diabetic state. (author)

  19. Age-related normal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in the lower spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundkvist, G.M.G. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Centralsjukhuset, Kristianstad (Sweden); Lilja, B. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Universitetssjukhuset MAS, Malmoe (Sweden); Mattsson, S. [Dept. of Radiation Physics, Universitetssjukhuset MAS, Malmoe (Sweden)

    1997-03-01

    Aim: The uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in the lower spine was quantified in connection with ordinary bone scintigraphy. Methods: Fifty-seven women and seventy-two men (aged 20-69 y), with no signs of metabolic or malignant disease and no history of back pain or atraumatic fractures, were included in the study. Results: The women showed an increase in {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptake from the age of 20 y to about 45 y with a decrease from the time of menopause. In contrast to women, the uptake in men showed a slight decrease from the age of 20 y to about 50 y and thereafter a more marked decrease was seen. The major difference between men and women is the high premenopausal uptake in the female skeleton. Conclusion: An understanding of age-related changes in {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptake, which are indices of the skeletal metabolism, is of importance especially in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, a common disorder in postmenopausal women. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: In Verbindung mit einer routinemaessigen Skelettszintigraphie wurde die Speicherung von {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in der unteren Wirbelsaeule quantifiziert. Methoden: 57 Frauen und 22 Maenner (Alter von 20-69 Jahren) ohne metabolische oder boesartige Erkrankungen sowie ohne Rueckenschmerzen oder Wirbelsinterungen wurden in die Studien aufgenommen. Ergebnisse: Bei Frauen zeigte sich ein Anstieg der {sup 99m}Tc-MDP-Speicherung zwischen den Altersabschnitten 20 bis 45 Jahre und dann ein Abfall waehrend der Menopause. Im Gegensatz hierzu zeigte sich bei Maennern ein leichter Abfall der Speicherung vom 20. bis 50. Lebensjahr und danach eine noch staerkere Abnahme. Der Hauptunterschied zwischen den Geschlechtern ist die relativ hohe Speicherung im weiblichen Skelett praemenopausal. Schlussfolgerung: Das Verstaendnis der Altersbeziehungen der {sup 99m}Tc-MDP-Speicherung als Indikator des Knochenstoffwechsels ist fuer Praevention und Behandlung der postmenopausalen Osteoporose wichtig. (orig.)

  20. Comparative evaluation of SUV, tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR), and dual time point measurements for assessment of the metabolic uptake rate in FDG PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofheinz, Frank; Hoff, Jörg van den; Steffen, Ingo G; Lougovski, Alexandr; Ego, Kilian; Amthauer, Holger; Apostolova, Ivayla

    2016-12-01

    We have demonstrated recently that the tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR) is superior to tumor standardized uptake value (SUV) as a surrogate of the metabolic uptake rate K m of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), overcoming several of the known shortcomings of the SUV approach: excellent linear correlation of SUR and K m from Patlak analysis was found using dynamic imaging of liver metastases. However, due to the perfectly standardized uptake period used for SUR determination and the comparatively short uptake period, these results are not automatically valid and applicable for clinical whole-body examinations in which the uptake periods (T) are distinctly longer and can vary considerably. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the correlation between SUR derived from clinical static whole-body scans and K m-surrogate derived from dual time point (DTP) measurements. DTP (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed in 90 consecutive patients with histologically proven non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the PET images, the primary tumor was delineated with an adaptive threshold method. For determination of the blood SUV, an aorta region of interest (ROI) was delineated manually in the attenuation CT and transferred to the PET image. Blood SUV was computed as the mean value of the aorta ROI. SUR values were computed as ratio of tumor SUV and blood SUV. SUR values from the early time point of each DTP measurement were scan time corrected to 75 min postinjection (SURtc). As surrogate of K m, we used the SUR(T) slope, K slope, derived from DTP measurements since it is proportional to the latter under the given circumstances. The correlation of SUV and SURtc with K slope was investigated. The prognostic value of SUV, SURtc, and K slope for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was investigated with univariate Cox regression in a homogeneous subgroup (N=31) treated with primary chemoradiation. Correlation analysis revealed for both, SUV and SURtc, a

  1. An experimental set-up to study carbon, water, and nitrate uptake rates by hydroponically grown plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriolo, J L; Le Bot, J; Gary, C; Sappe, G; Orlando, P; Brunel, B; Sarrouy, C

    1996-01-01

    The experimental system described allows concomitant hourly measurements of CO2, H2O, and NO3 uptake rates by plants grown hydroponically in a greenhouse. Plants are enclosed in an airtight chamber through which air flows at a controlled speed. Carbon dioxide exchange and transpiration rates are determined from respective differences of concentrations of CO2 and water vapor of the air at the system inlet and outlet. This set-up is based on the "open-system" principle with improvements made on existing systems. For instance, propeller anemometers are used to monitor air flow rates in the chamber. From their signal it is possible to continuously adjust air speed to changing environmental conditions and plant activity. The air temperature inside the system therefore never rises above that outside. Water and NO3 uptake rates are calculated at time intervals from changes in the volume and the NO3 concentration of the nutrient solution in contact with the roots. The precise measurement of the volume of solution is achieved using a balance which has a higher precision than any liquid level sensors. Nitrate concentration is determined in the laboratory from aliquots of solution sampled at time intervals. A number of test runs are reported which validate the measurements and confirm undisturbed conditions within the system. Results of typical diurnal changes in CO2, H2O, and NO3 uptake rates by fruiting tomato plants are also presented.

  2. Rate of uptake and distribution of Hg in dissolved organic carbon compounds in darkwater ecosystems by ICP-MS and enriched stable isotope spiking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telmer, Kevin; Dario Bermudez, Rafael; Veiga, Marcello M.; Souza, Terezinha Cid da

    2001-01-01

    The role of natural organic acids on mercury binding, transportation, net uptake rates and possibly net methylation rates will be evaluated by tracing these processes with isotope enriched mercury and ICP-MS technology. The correlation between dissolved organic matter and Hg in waters is well documented. It appears that organic acids can react with mercury residing in or emitted from different sources such as soils (particularly hydromorphic soils), laterites, natural degassing, forest fires, fuel combustion, gold mining activities, etc. to form soluble Hg-organo-complexes. The formation of these complexes is believed to greatly enhance Hg transport and be an important preliminary step in the formation of Methyl-Hg and biological uptake. The rates of these reactions and the key organic compounds involved in mercury binding will be determined by reacting isotopically-enriched Hg with samples containing a variety of concentrations and types of organic acids and subsequently analysing both reactants and organisms exposed to the reactants (bioassays) for Hg isotopes by ICP-MS. The Hg spike will allow the precise determination of rates of uptake and the most active agents of uptake. Initially, the method will be used to examine total Hg uptake and distribution but if technological limitations are overcome, this same approach can be used to determine net rates of methylation and net MeHg uptake. After the method is validated the experimental design can be altered to test the relative effects of such things as the addition of CO 2 (pH change), or adding a substrate such as Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides. The addition of synthetic materials such as mulched automobile tires, can also be tested with the goal developing a pragmatic remedial method for Hg containment. Ultimately, this research should contribute to an understanding of mercury mobilization, transport and bio-concentration mechanisms, and provide a basis for developing management and treatment strategies. Emphasis will be

  3. A Clinical Study on 125IT3 Resin Uptake Rate and Serum Thyroxin(T4) in Hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MooN, Ern Soo; Park, Yoh Han; Cho, Chang Ho; Park, In Soo; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong

    1978-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism may be defined as those clinical conditions which result from an increase in the circulating levels of one or both thyroid hormones. Hyperthyroidism in broad sense could be classified with toxic diffuse goiter, toxic adenomatous goiter, and toxic multinodular goiter on the basis of the circulating thyroid hormone levels. For this study, the subject included 94 cases with hyperthyroidism were presented in 77 with toxic diffuse goiter, 8 with toxic adenomatous goiter, and 9 with toxic multinodular goiter on the levels of 125 IT 3 resin uptake rate and serum thyroxine (T 4 ). The observed results were as follows: 1) In the cases of hyperthyroidism including toxic diffuse goiter, toxic adenomatous goiter, and toxic multinodular goiter, 20.21% of the patients were male and 79.79% female. The majority of the patients were in 2nd to 4th decades of their lives. 2) There were objective signs clearly manifested in hyperthyroidism including toxic diffuse goiter and toxic adenomatous goiter which were rare in the multinodular goiter. The clinical signs in toxic diffuse and toxic adenomatous goiter included wide pulse pressure, tachycardia, systolic murmur, exophthalmos, tremor and warm skin etc. 3) The most frequent complaints of the patients with hyperthyroidism were palpitation, weight loss, increased appetite, perspiration, heat intolerance, nervousness, exertional dyspnea, and menstrual disturbance etc. There was no clear difference in the incidence of symptoms between toxic diffuse goiter and toxic adenomatous goiter, but there was clear difference between toxic multinodular goiter. 4) Considering of results of 125 IT 3 resin uptake rate and serum T 4 level in toxic diffuse goiter, toxic adenomatous goiter and toxic multinodular goiter, 125 IT 3 resin uptake rate was 49.15±9.94% (mean) and serum T 4 21.29±7.04 ug/dl (mean) in toxic diffuse goiter. In toxic multinodular goiter, 125 I T 3 resin uptake rate was 32.47±6.74% (mean) and serum T 4 level 11.03

  4. Nitrogen uptake and rate-limiting step in low-temperature nitriding of iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inia, DK; Vredenberg, AM; Habraken, FHPM; Boerma, DO

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a method to nitride iron in NH3 ambients at low temperature (225-350 degrees C) has been developed. In this method, the Fe is covered with a thin (similar to 40 nm) Ni layer, which acts as a catalyst for the nitriding process. From experiments, in which the amount of nitrogen uptake is

  5. EFFECTS OF IMMOBILIZATION IN Ba-ALGINATE ON NITRILE-DEPENDENT OXYGEN UPTAKE RATES OF CANDIDA GUILLIERMONDII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias João Carlos Teixeira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeast cells immobilized by entrapment in Ba-alginate gel were investigated for growth pattern and respiratory activity. The oxygen uptake rates (OUR of cells entrapped in gels with 4% alginate were 5.2 and 23% lower than the OUR of 2% alginate and free cells, respectively. The mass-transfer resistance offered by the matrix and growth of the entrapped cells determine a gradient of nutrients throughout the gel which is responsible for both a lower specific growth rate of immobilized cells with respect to that of free ones, and a heterogeneous biomass distribution, with progressively increasing cellular density from the inside to the outside of the matrix. Gel-matrix polymer concentration affected the maximum oxygen uptake of immobilized growing yeast cells.

  6. PVC flooring is related to human uptake of phthalates in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstedt, F; Jönsson, B A G; Bornehag, C-G

    2013-02-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring material contains phthalates, and it has been shown that such materials are important sources for phthalates in indoor dust. Phthalates are suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Consecutive infants between 2 and 6 months old and their mothers were invited. A questionnaire about indoor environmental factors and family lifestyle was used. Urinary metabolites of the phthalates diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), and dietylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were measured in the urine of the children. Of 209 invited children, 110 (52%) participated. Urine samples were obtained from 83 of these. Urine levels of the BBzP metabolite monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) was significantly higher in infants with PVC flooring in their bedrooms (P flooring material may increase the human uptake of phthalates in infants. Urinary levels of phthalate metabolites during early life are associated with the use of PVC flooring in the bedroom, body area, and the use of infant formula. This study shows that the uptake of phthalates is not only related to oral uptake from, for example, food but also to environmental factors such as building materials. This new information should be considered when designing indoor environment, especially for children. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. A novel method for measuring cellular antibody uptake using imaging flow cytometry reveals distinct uptake rates for two different monoclonal antibodies targeting L1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazin, John; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Altevogt, Peter; Brady, Nathan R

    2015-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have emerged as a promising tool for cancer therapy. Differing approaches utilize mAbs to either deliver a drug to the tumor cells or to modulate the host's immune system to mediate tumor kill. The rate by which a therapeutic antibody is being internalized by tumor cells is a decisive feature for choosing the appropriate treatment strategy. We herein present a novel method to effectively quantitate antibody uptake of tumor cells by using image-based flow cytometry, which combines image analysis with high throughput of sample numbers and sample size. The use of this method is established by determining uptake rate of an anti-EpCAM antibody (HEA125), from single cell measurements of plasma membrane versus internalized antibody, in conjunction with inhibitors of endocytosis. The method is then applied to two mAbs (L1-9.3, L1-OV52.24) targeting the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM) at two different epitopes. Based on median cell population responses, we find that mAb L1-OV52.24 is rapidly internalized by the ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV3ip while L1 mAb 9.3 is mainly retained at the cell surface. These findings suggest the L1 mAb OV52.24 as a candidate to be further developed for drug-delivery to cancer cells, while L1-9.3 may be optimized to tag the tumor cells and stimulate immunogenic cancer cell killing. Furthermore, when analyzing cell-to-cell variability, we observed L1 mAb OV52.24 rapidly transition into a subpopulation with high-internalization capacity. In summary, this novel high-content method for measuring antibody internalization rate provides a high level of accuracy and sensitivity for cell population measurements and reveals further biologically relevant information when taking into account cellular heterogeneity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiation utilization efficiency, nitrogen uptake and modeling crop growth and yield of rainfed rice under different nitrogen rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouranga, Kar; Ashwani Kumar; Mohapatra, Sucharita

    2014-01-01

    Optimum utilization of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) along with proper nitrogen (N) management for sustainable rice production is still a promising management recommendation for sustainable rainfed rice cultivation in eastern India. The objective of this investigation was to study radiation utilization efficiency (RUE), N uptake and modeling growth and productivity of wet/rainy season rice (cv. Lalat and Gayatri) under 0, 50, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha -1 N application. Results showed that N rates significantly affected plant biomass, leaf area index (LAI), biological yield (straw and grain yield) and N uptake for both the varieties. The intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR) and spectral reflectance based vegetation indices (IR/R, NDVI) were also different between two varieties and among N rates. Higher rate of N increased the RUE significantly; averaged over years and varieties, mean values of RUE were 1.35, 1.70, 2.01, 2.15 and 2.17 g MJ -1 under 0, 50, 90, 120 and 150 kg N ha -1 , respectively. Though crop growth, yield, N uptake and RUE were higher at 150 kg N ha -1 but the results were at par with 120 kg N ha -1 . Agronomic N use efficiency (ANUE) was also low at 150 kg N ha -1 . The DSSAT v 4.5 model was applied to simulate crop growth, yield and phenology of the crop under different N rates. Model performance was found to be poor at low N rates (0, 50 kg N ha -1 ), but the model performed fairly well at higher N rates (90 kg ha -1 and above). (author)

  9. Root porosity and radial oxygen loss related to arsenic tolerance and uptake in wetland plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Ye, Z.H.; Wei, Z.J.; Wong, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The rates of radial oxygen loss (ROL), root porosity, concentrations of arsenic (As), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in shoot and root tissues and on root surfaces, As tolerances, and their relationships in different wetland plants were investigated based on a hydroponic experiment (control, 0.8, 1.6 mg As L -1 ) and a soil pot trail (control, 60 mg As kg -1 ). The results revealed that wetland plants showed great differences in root porosity (9-64%), rates of ROL (55-1750 mmo1 O 2 kg -1 root d.w. d -1 ), As uptake (e.g., 8.8-151 mg kg -1 in shoots in 0.8 mg As L -1 treatment), translocation factor (2.1-47% in 0.8 mg As L -1 ) and tolerance (29-106% in 0.8 mg As L -1 ). Wetland plants with higher rates of ROL and root porosity tended to form more Fe/Mn plaque, possess higher As tolerance, higher concentrations of As on root surfaces and a lower As translocation factor so decreasing As toxicity. - Research highlights: → There is significant correlation between the porosity of roots and rates of ROL. → The rates of ROL are significantly correlated with tolerance indices and concentrations of As, Fe, Mn on root surface. → The rates of ROL is negatively correlated with As translocation factor. - Wetland plants with high rates of ROL tended to form more Fe plaque on root surfaces and possess higher As tolerance.

  10. High failure rates after (131)I therapy in Graves hyperthyroidism patients with large thyroid volumes, high iodine uptake, and high iodine turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jeroen A F; Verkooijen, Helena M; Valk, Gerlof D; Zelissen, Pierre M J; de Keizer, Bart

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify patient characteristics positively and independently associated with I-iodide treatment failure in a large cohort of patients with Graves hyperthyroidism treated with either a calculated "standard" activity of 3.7 MBq/mL (0.1 mCi) or 7.4 MBq/mL (0.2 mCi) of thyroid volume. Data on 385 consecutive patients were prospectively collected. Clinical treatment outcome up to 1 year in relation to thyroid volume, 5- and 24-hour I uptake, 5/24-hour I uptake ratio, and the administered activity of radioiodine were analyzed. Overall treatment results were hypothyroidism in 46%, euthyroidism in 29%, and recurrent hyperthyroidism in 26% of patients. Thyroid volume (P = 0.000), 5/24-hour uptake ratio (P = 0.000), and 5- and 24-hour uptake alone (respectively, P = 0.000 and P = 0.002) were significantly associated with therapy outcome. Patients with a combination of a thyroid volume greater than 50 mL and a 5/24-hour uptake ratio 0.8 or greater showed treatment failure in 70% and 42% (respectively, 3.7 MBq/mL, n = 20; and 7.4 MBq/mL, n = 41).Thyroid volume and 5/24-hour uptake ratio were positively and independently associated with recurrent hyperthyroidism (respectively, odds ratio [OR], 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.39-11.76; and OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.59-5.59). Higher activities of 7.4 MBq/mL I were associated with a lower risk of treatment failure (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.62). Large thyroid volumes and high 5/24-hour uptake ratios are positively and independently associated with recurrent hyperthyroidism following I therapy in Graves hyperthyroidism. Higher success rates can be achieved when account is taken of these poor prognostic factors. In consequence, these patients should be treated with activities greater than 7.4 MBq/mL.

  11. Seasonal temperatures have more influence than nitrogen fertilizer rates on cucumber yield and nitrogen uptake in a double cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ruiying; Li Xiaolin; Christie, Peter; Chen Qing; Zhang Fusuo

    2008-01-01

    Two-year greenhouse cucumber experiments were conducted to investigate seasonal effects on fruit yield, dry matter allocation, and N uptake in a double-cropping system with different fertilizer management. Seasonal effects were much greater than fertilizer effects, and winter-spring (WS) cucumber attained higher fruit yields and N uptake than autumn-winter (AW) cucumber due to lower cumulative air temperatures during fruit maturation in the AW season. Fertilizer N application and apparent N loss under recommended N management (Nmr) decreased by 40-78% and 33-48% without yield loss compared to conventional N management (Nmt) over four growing seasons. However, there were no seasonal differences in N recommendations, taking into consideration seasonal differences in crop N demand, critical nutrient supply in the root zone and N mineralization rate. - Nitrogen inputs can be reduced to minimize N losses to the environment while maintaining yields but N recommendations must reflect seasonal temperature effects

  12. Seasonal temperatures have more influence than nitrogen fertilizer rates on cucumber yield and nitrogen uptake in a double cropping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Ruiying; Li Xiaolin [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China); Christie, Peter [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China); Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Chen Qing [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China)], E-mail: qchen@cau.edu.cn; Zhang Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2008-02-15

    Two-year greenhouse cucumber experiments were conducted to investigate seasonal effects on fruit yield, dry matter allocation, and N uptake in a double-cropping system with different fertilizer management. Seasonal effects were much greater than fertilizer effects, and winter-spring (WS) cucumber attained higher fruit yields and N uptake than autumn-winter (AW) cucumber due to lower cumulative air temperatures during fruit maturation in the AW season. Fertilizer N application and apparent N loss under recommended N management (Nmr) decreased by 40-78% and 33-48% without yield loss compared to conventional N management (Nmt) over four growing seasons. However, there were no seasonal differences in N recommendations, taking into consideration seasonal differences in crop N demand, critical nutrient supply in the root zone and N mineralization rate. - Nitrogen inputs can be reduced to minimize N losses to the environment while maintaining yields but N recommendations must reflect seasonal temperature effects.

  13. Factors influencing [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) uptake in melanoma cells. The role of proliferation rate, viability, glucose transporter expression and hexokinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kiyoshi; Brink, I.; Bisse, E.; Epting, T.; Engelhardt, R.

    2005-01-01

    Using human (SK-MEL 23, SK-MEL 24 and G361) and murine (B16) melanoma cell lines, the coregulatory potential of the uptake of the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, [Fluorine-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) has been investigated in relationship to tumor characteristics. Comparative studies among the four melanoma cell lines demonstrated that the lowest FDG uptake in SK-MEL 24 corresponded strongly to the data for DT (population doubling time) and MTT (tetrazolium salt) cell viability as well as hexokinase (HK) activity, but was not related to the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT 1) expression level. Furthermore, the FDG uptake in each melanoma cell line measured by cell cycle kinetics was significantly positively correlated to both the proliferation index (PI=S/G 2 M phase fractions) and the cell viability, though with one exception relating to the proliferation index (PI) of the lowest FDG uptake cell line, SK-MEL 24. No positive correlation was found between the expression of GLUT 1 and FDG uptake in any individual cell line. However, the HK activities in SK-MEL 23 and 24 showed considerable positive relationships with FDG uptake. Our present study suggests that both the proliferation rate and the cell viability of melanoma cells may be key factors for FDG uptake and that HK activity, rather than GLUT 1 expression, seems to be a major factor. (author)

  14. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoek, Pim [Minnetonka, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Rush, Brian [Minneapolis, MN

    2011-05-10

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  15. Uptake and release of glucose by the human kidney. Postabsorptive rates and responses to epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumvoll, M; Chintalapudi, U; Perriello, G; Welle, S; Gutierrez, O; Gerich, J

    1995-11-01

    Despite ample evidence that the kidney can both produce and use appreciable amounts of glucose, the human kidney is generally regarded as playing a minor role in glucose homeostasis. This view is based on measurements of arteriorenal vein glucose concentrations indicating little or no net release of glucose. However, inferences from net balance measurements do not take into consideration the simultaneous release and uptake of glucose by the kidney. Therefore, to assess the contribution of release and uptake of glucose by the human kidney to overall entry and removal of plasma glucose, we used a combination of balance and isotope techniques to measure renal glucose net balance, fractional extraction, uptake and release as well as overall plasma glucose appearance and disposal in 10 normal volunteers under basal postabsorptive conditions and during a 3-h epinephrine infusion. In the basal postabsorptive state, there was small but significant net output of glucose by the kidney (66 +/- 22 mumol.min-1, P = 0.016). However, since renal glucose fractional extraction averaged 2.9 +/- 0.3%, there was considerable renal glucose uptake (2.3 +/- 0.2 mumol.kg-1.min-1) which accounted for 20.2 +/- 1.7% of systemic glucose disposal (11.4 +/- 0.5 mumol.kg-1.min-1). Renal glucose release (3.2 +/- 0.2 mumol.kg-1.min-1) accounted for 27.8 +/- 2.1% of systemic glucose appearance (11.4 +/- 0.5 mumol.kg-1.min-1). Epinephrine infusion, which increased plasma epinephrine to levels observed during hypoglycemia (3722 +/- 453 pmol/liter) increased renal glucose release nearly twofold (5.2 +/- 0.5 vs 2.8 +/- 0.1 mol.kg-1.min-1, P = 0.01) so that at the end of the infusion, renal glucose release accounted for 40.3 +/- 5.5% of systemic glucose appearance and essentially all of the increase in systemic glucose appearance. These observations suggest an important role for the human kidney in glucose homeostasis.

  16. CO2 uptake of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. whole trees and single cladodes, in relation to plant water status and cladode age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Liguori

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of net photosynthesis determinations in Opuntia ficus-indica come from measurements on individual cladodes. However, they have limitations when used to scale up to whole canopy gas exchange, because a large variability of carbon assimilation may occur within the canopy, due to, among others, differences in cladode age and intercepted radiation or individual cladode response to abiotic stresses. The aim of this work was to evaluate the application of open gas exchange chambers, simultaneously applied around the whole canopy, to measure net CO2 uptake, continuously over a 24 h period, in single Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. potted trees and in relation with their water status. Net CO2 uptake was also measured for single cladodes differentiated by age. O. ficus-indica trees continued their photosynthetic activity 60 days after the irrigation was stopped, when soil water content was lower than 5%. At this stage, current-year and 1-year-old cladodes had become flaccid but still the daily net CO2 uptake of non-irrigated trees kept the same rate than at the beginning of the experiment, while watered trees had doubled their net CO2 uptake. The highest instantaneous rates and total daily net CO2 uptake for both well-watered and non-irrigated trees occurred 60 days after the onset of the dry period, when maximal instantaneous rates were 11.1 in well-watered trees and 8.4 mol m–2 s–1 in non-irrigated trees. During the drought period, the chlorenchyma fresh weight decreased by 45% and 30%, in 1- and 2-yearold drought cladodes respectively, and marginally increased in currentyear ones (+20%. Net CO2 uptake for 1-year-old and 2-year-old cladodes changed only at highest photosynthetic photon flux density and temperatures, and average seasonal net CO2 uptake of 2-year-old cladodes was 15% lower than for 1-year-old ones. Whole-tree gas exchange measurements applied for the first time to O. ficus-indica indicated that whole cactus pear trees maintain

  17. Whole body synthesis rates of DHA from α-linolenic acid are greater than brain DHA accretion and uptake rates in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Chen, Chuck T; Trepanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P Mark; Bazinet, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, however, the exact amount required for the brain is not agreed upon. While it is believed that the synthesis rate of DHA from α-linolenic acid (ALA) is low, how this synthesis rate compares with the amount of DHA required to maintain brain DHA levels is unknown. The objective of this work was to assess whether DHA synthesis from ALA is sufficient for the brain. To test this, rats consumed a diet low in n-3 PUFAs, or a diet containing ALA or DHA for 15 weeks. Over the 15 weeks, whole body and brain DHA accretion was measured, while at the end of the study, whole body DHA synthesis rates, brain gene expression, and DHA uptake rates were measured. Despite large differences in body DHA accretion, there was no difference in brain DHA accretion between rats fed ALA and DHA. In rats fed ALA, DHA synthesis and accretion was 100-fold higher than brain DHA accretion of rats fed DHA. Also, ALA-fed rats synthesized approximately 3-fold more DHA than the DHA uptake rate into the brain. This work indicates that DHA synthesis from ALA may be sufficient to supply the brain.

  18. Whole body synthesis rates of DHA from α-linolenic acid are greater than brain DHA accretion and uptake rates in adult rats[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Chen, Chuck T.; Trepanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P. Mark; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, however, the exact amount required for the brain is not agreed upon. While it is believed that the synthesis rate of DHA from α-linolenic acid (ALA) is low, how this synthesis rate compares with the amount of DHA required to maintain brain DHA levels is unknown. The objective of this work was to assess whether DHA synthesis from ALA is sufficient for the brain. To test this, rats consumed a diet low in n-3 PUFAs, or a diet containing ALA or DHA for 15 weeks. Over the 15 weeks, whole body and brain DHA accretion was measured, while at the end of the study, whole body DHA synthesis rates, brain gene expression, and DHA uptake rates were measured. Despite large differences in body DHA accretion, there was no difference in brain DHA accretion between rats fed ALA and DHA. In rats fed ALA, DHA synthesis and accretion was 100-fold higher than brain DHA accretion of rats fed DHA. Also, ALA-fed rats synthesized approximately 3-fold more DHA than the DHA uptake rate into the brain. This work indicates that DHA synthesis from ALA may be sufficient to supply the brain. PMID:24212299

  19. The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Willigen, de P.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was studied in four field experiments. The methods of application were broadcast application vs band placement and split application. Maximum uptake of nitrogen

  20. Increasing plant use of organic nitrogen with elevation is reflected in nitrogen uptake rates and ecosystem delta15N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Colin; Finzi, Adrien

    2011-04-01

    It is hypothesized that decreasing mean annual temperature and rates of nitrogen (N) cycling causes plants to switch from inorganic to organic forms of N as the primary mode of N nutrition. To test this hypothesis, we conducted field experiments and collected natural-abundance delta15N signatures of foliage, soils, and ectomycorrhizal sporocarps along a steep elevation-climate gradient in the White Mountains, New Hampshire, USA. Here we show that with increasing elevation organic forms of N became the dominant source of N taken up by hardwood and coniferous tree species based on dual-labeled glycine uptake analysis, an important confirmation of an emerging theory for the biogeochemistry of the N cycle. Variation in natural abundance foliar delta15N with elevation was also consistent with increasing organic N uptake, though a simple, mass balance model demonstrated that the uptake of delta15N depleted inorganic N, rather than fractionation upon transfer of N from mycorrhizal fungi, best explains variations in foliar delta15N with elevation.

  1. In-situ Measured Carbon and Nitrogen Uptake Rates of Melt Pond Algae in the Western Arctic Ocean, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ho Jung; Kim, Kwanwoo; Lee, Jae Hyung; Ahn, So Hyun; Joo, Houng-Min; Jeong, Jin Young; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Yun, Mi Sun; Lee, Sang Heon

    2018-03-01

    Although the areal coverage of melt pond in the Arctic Ocean has recently increased, very few biological researches have been conducted. The objectives in this study were to ascertain the uptake rates of carbon and nitrogen in various melt ponds and to understand the major controlling factors for the rates. We obtained 22 melt pond samples at ice camp 1 (146.17°W, 77.38°N) and 11 melt pond samples at ice camp 2 (169.79°W, 76.52°N). The major nutrient concentrations varied largely among melt ponds at the ice camps 1 and 2. The chl-a concentrations averaged from the melt ponds at camps 1 and 2 were 0.02-0.56 mg chl-a m-3 (0.12 ± 0.12 mg chl-a m-3) and 0.08-0.30 mg chl-a m-3 (0.16 ± 0.08 mg chl-a m-3), respectively. The hourly carbon uptake rates at camps 1 and 2 were 0.001-0.080 mg C m-3 h-1 (0.025 ± 0.024 mg C m-3 h-1) and 0.022-0.210 mg C m-3 h-1 (0.077 ± 0.006 mg C m-3 h-1), respectively. In comparison, the nitrogen uptake rates at camps 1 and 2 were 0.001-0.030 mg N m-3 h-1 (0.011 ± 0.010 mg N m-3 h-1) and 0.002-0.022 mg N m-3 h-1 (0.010 ± 0.006 mg N m-3 h-1), respectively. The values obtained in this study are significantly lower than those reported previously. A large portion of algal biomass trapped in the new forming surface ice in melt ponds appears to be one of the main potential reasons for the lower chl-a concentration and subsequently lower carbon and nitrogen uptake rates revealed in this study. A long-term monitoring program on melt ponds is needed to understand the response of the Arctic marine ecosystem to ongoing environmental changes.

  2. FDG uptake in vaginal tampons is caused by urinary contamination and related to tampon position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Irene A.; Crook, David W.; Treyer, Valerie; Hany, Thomas F.; Schulthess, Gustav K. von; Scheiner, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the aetiology of FDG uptake in vaginal tampons (VT), a known artefact in premenopausal women evaluated by PET/CT. This Institutional Review Board approved study consisted of retrospective and prospective parts. The retrospective analysis included 685 women examined between January 2008 and December 2009 regarding VT presence. PET/CT images were analysed to determine the localization and the standardized uptake value (SUV) of VTs. We prospectively recruited 24 women (20-48 years old) referred for staging or follow-up in an oncology setting between February and April 2010, who were provided a commercial VT to be used during the entire examination after obtaining written informed consent. After image acquisition, VTs were individually analysed for creatinine concentration and blood traces. Statistical significance was tested with the Mann-Whitney U test. In the retrospective part, 38 of 685 women were found to have a VT of which 17 (45%) were FDG positive. A statistically significant correlation was found between FDG activity and VT position below the pubococcygeal line (PCL) (13 ± 11.2 mm). In the prospective study, 7 of 24 (29%) women had increased FDG activity in their VTs (SUV 18.8 ± 11 g/ml) but were not menstruating. FDG-positive VTs were significantly lower in position (14.6 ± 11.4 mm,below the PCL) than FDG-negative VTs (p = 0.039). The creatinine concentration was significantly increased in all seven positive VTs (931 ± 615 μmol/l). FDG uptake in VTs is caused by urine contamination, which is likely related to localization below the PCL resulting in contact with urine during voiding. (orig.)

  3. Relationship between work rate and oxygen uptake in mitochondrial myopathy during ramp-incremental exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Gimenes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We determined the response characteristics and functional correlates of the dynamic relationship between the rate (Δ of oxygen consumption ( O2 and the applied power output (work rate = WR during ramp-incremental exercise in patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM. Fourteen patients (7 males, age 35.4 ± 10.8 years with biopsy-proven MM and 10 sedentary controls (6 males, age 29.0 ± 7.8 years took a ramp-incremental cycle ergometer test for the determination of the O2 on-exercise mean response time (MRT and the gas exchange threshold (GET. The ΔO2/ΔWR slope was calculated up to GET (S1, above GET (S2 and over the entire linear portion of the response (S T. Knee muscle endurance was measured by isokinetic dynamometry. As expected, peak O2 and muscle performance were lower in patients than controls (P O2/ΔWR than controls, especially the S2 component (6.8 ± 1.5 vs 10.3 ± 0.6 mL·min-1·W-1, respectively; P O2/ΔWR (S T and muscle endurance, MRT-O2, GET and peak O2 in MM patients (P O2/ΔWR below 8 mL·min-1·W-1 had severely reduced peak O2 values (O2 had lower ΔO2/ΔWR (P O2/ΔWR is typically reduced in patients with MM, being related to increased functional impairment and higher cardiopulmonary stress.

  4. Age-related changes in the global skeletal uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate in healthy women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevale, V.; Frusciante, V.; Scillitani, A.; Modoni, S.; Pileri, M.; Chiodini, I.; Dicembrino, F.; Romagnoli, E.; Minisola, S.

    1996-01-01

    A short-term evaluation of global skeletal uptake (GSU) of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) was performed in 40 healthy female subjects with a wide age range in order to investigate the clinical performance of the technique and to detect the age-related changes in bone turnover. The results obtained were compared with measurements of the main biochemical markers of skeletal metabolism. We found that GSU increases progressively with age, independently of concomitant changes in renal function; significant correlations with biochemical markers of bone formation were also found. Therefore, the method appears to provide useful information concerning the bone turnover rate, and is also applicable to elderly people owing to its simplicity. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Diffuse Intense {sup 18}F-FDG Uptake at PET in Unilateral Breast Related to Breastfeeding Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Hee; Jung, Hye Kyoung [Department of Radiololgy, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam 463-712 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Tae Joo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam 463-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    We present an interesting case of incidental diffuse fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake at PET in her left breast, related to atypical breastfeeding practice. Clinically, differential diagnoses of diffuse intense FDG uptake in unilateral breast include advanced breast cancer, breast lymphoma and inflammatory condition. However, normal physiologic lactation may also show increased FDG uptake in the breasts. Therefore, if we encounter that finding in daily practice, we should question the patient regarding unilateral breastfeeding. In addition, mammography and ultrasound would be helpful to confirm the diagnosis.

  6. 32P assessed phosphate uptake by tomato plants Hebros in relation to soil nutrient substance supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanova, I.; Rankov, V.; Dimitrov, G.

    1978-01-01

    The uptake of phosphates by tomato plants, cv.Hebros, was assessed by 32 P in a vegetation pot experiment. Leached meadow-cinnamon soil was used, taken from a stationary field experiment to which, for a period of eight years, various rates of NPK were applied. As a result of that significant changes occurred in the soil nutrient substance supplies (concerning total and mobile forms of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, pH and salts concentration). It was established that the coefficient of phasphate utilization by tomato plants was the highest (19.15%) on soil receiving a N 210 P 210 K 210 fertilizer application. Long-term fertilization with higher rates at a 1:1:1 NPK ratio increased the content of nutrient substances in the soil, but the coefficient of utilization of available phosphate diminished and was lowest (11.40%) in the case when a N 960 P 960 K 720 mineral fertilizer rate was applied. Following prolonged mineral fertilization with growing N rates (from 240 up to 720 kg/ha) at a background of P 720 K 210 , the coefficient of phosphate utilization by tomato plants also diminished from 16.16 to 12.26%. (author)

  7. Health-related religious rituals of the Greek Orthodox Church: their uptake and meanings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouka, Georgia; Plakas, Sotirios; Taket, Ann; Boudioni, Markella; Dandoulakis, Michael

    2012-12-01

    To examine the uptake of religious rituals of the Greek Orthodox Church by relatives of patients in critical condition in Greece and to explore their symbolic representations and spiritual meanings. Patients and their relatives want to be treated with respect and be supported for their beliefs, practices, customs and rituals. However nurses may not be ready to meet the spiritual needs of relatives of patients, while the health-related religious beliefs, practices and rituals of the Greek Orthodox Christian denomination have not been explored. This study was part of a large study encompassing 19 interviews with 25 informants, relatives of patients in intensive care units of three large hospitals in Athens, Greece, between 2000 and 2005. In this paper data were derived from personal accounts of religious rituals given by six participants. Relatives used a series of religious rituals, namely blessed oil and holy water, use of relics of saints, holy icons, offering names for pleas and pilgrimage. Through the rituals, relatives experience a sense of connectedness with the divine and use the sacred powers to promote healing of their patients. Nurse managers should recognize, respect and facilitate the expression of spirituality through the practice of religious rituals by patients and their relatives. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The Test of Inaccurate Position of Renography Detector to Relative UptakeFigure and Individual Excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang-Supardiyono; Prayitno

    2000-01-01

    Accuracy of detector position toward the kidney location (preciseposition) in renography will resulting the maximum count figure, detectorposition change from the precise point (inaccurate) will decreasing the countrate. Therefore for it had been simulated the influence of count figure ofright kidney (fixed left kidney count) ± 5 % to ± 20 % to relativeuptake figure and individual excretion. Based on the calculation it was foundthat the relation of detector position ± 0.5 cm to ± 2 cm from theprecise point will have effect to relative uptake figure ± (1.25 % to 5.00%), the fixed individual excretion figure. The change is still can beaccepted because the qualitative information with 10 % accuracy is stillacceptable. (author)

  9. Heart Rate and Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Type 2 Diabetes Patients - A Pilot Study on the Influence of Cardiovascular Medication on Regulatory Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschate, Jessica; Drescher, Uwe; Baum, Klaus; Brinkmann, Christian; Schiffer, Thorsten; Latsch, Joachim; Brixius, Klara; Hoffmann, Uwe

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether there are differences in heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics in type 2 diabetes patients, considering their cardiovascular medication. It was hypothesized that cardiovascular medication would affect heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics and that this could be detected using a standardized exercise test. 18 subjects were tested for maximal oxygen uptake. Kinetics were measured in a single test session with standardized, randomized moderate-intensity work rate changes. Time series analysis was used to estimate kinetics. Greater maxima in cross-correlation functions indicate faster kinetics. 6 patients did not take any cardiovascular medication, 6 subjects took peripherally acting medication and 6 patients were treated with centrally acting medication. Maximum oxygen uptake was not significantly different between groups. Significant main effects were identified regarding differences in muscular oxygen uptake kinetics and heart rate kinetics. Muscular oxygen uptake kinetics were significantly faster than heart rate kinetics in the group with no cardiovascular medication (maximum in cross-correlation function of muscular oxygen uptake vs. heart rate; 0.32±0.08 vs. 0.25±0.06; p=0.001) and in the group taking peripherally acting medication (0.34±0.05 vs. 0.28±0.05; p=0.009) but not in the patients taking centrally acting medication (0.28±0.05 vs. 0.30±0.07; n.s.). It can be concluded that regulatory processes for the achievement of a similar maximal oxygen uptake are different between the groups. The used standardized test provided plausible results for heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics in a single measurement session in this patient group. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Root porosity and radial oxygen loss related to arsenic tolerance and uptake in wetland plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Ye, Z.H., E-mail: lssyzhh@mail.sysu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wei, Z.J. [School of Information and Technology, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.h [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-15

    The rates of radial oxygen loss (ROL), root porosity, concentrations of arsenic (As), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in shoot and root tissues and on root surfaces, As tolerances, and their relationships in different wetland plants were investigated based on a hydroponic experiment (control, 0.8, 1.6 mg As L{sup -1}) and a soil pot trail (control, 60 mg As kg{sup -1}). The results revealed that wetland plants showed great differences in root porosity (9-64%), rates of ROL (55-1750 mmo1 O{sub 2} kg{sup -1} root d.w. d{sup -1}), As uptake (e.g., 8.8-151 mg kg{sup -1} in shoots in 0.8 mg As L{sup -1} treatment), translocation factor (2.1-47% in 0.8 mg As L{sup -1}) and tolerance (29-106% in 0.8 mg As L{sup -1}). Wetland plants with higher rates of ROL and root porosity tended to form more Fe/Mn plaque, possess higher As tolerance, higher concentrations of As on root surfaces and a lower As translocation factor so decreasing As toxicity. - Research highlights: There is significant correlation between the porosity of roots and rates of ROL. The rates of ROL are significantly correlated with tolerance indices and concentrations of As, Fe, Mn on root surface. The rates of ROL is negatively correlated with As translocation factor. - Wetland plants with high rates of ROL tended to form more Fe plaque on root surfaces and possess higher As tolerance.

  11. Systemic perfusion: a method of enhancing relative tumor uptake of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, R.L.; Piko, C.R.; Beers, B.A.; Geatti, O.; Johnson, J.; Sherman, P. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1989-01-01

    The authors evaluated the feasibility of systemic vascular perfusion with saline (mimicking plasmapheresis) as a method to enhance tumor-specific monoclonal antibody (MoAb) tumor/background ratios. Perfusion in rats dropped whole-body 5G6.4 levels significantly at both perfusion times. The drop in whole-body radioactivity with perfusion was significantly greater for the animals perfused at 4 h post i.v. 5G6.4 antibody injection (48.3 +- 5.1%) than for those perfused at 24h post i.v. antibody injection (32.9 +- 2.9%). In the nude mice with ovarian cancer xenografts, gamma camera images of tumors were visually and quantitatively by computer image analysis enhanced by perfusion, with a 2.33-fold greater decline in whole body uptake than in the tumor. These studies show that much background antibody radioactivity can be removed using whole-body perfusion with saline, that the decline in whole body activity is larger with 4 than 24h perfusion and that tumor imaging can be enhanced by this approach. This and similar approaches that increase relative tumor antibody uptake such as plasmapheresis may be useful in imaging and therapy with radiolabeled antibodies.

  12. A Radiochemical Biotechnological Approach: Preliminary Study of Lactose Uptake Rate by Kefir Cells, Using 14C-labeled Lactose, in Anaerobic Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfinopoulos, A.; Soupioni, M.; Kanellaki, M.; Koutinas, A. A.

    2008-08-01

    The effect of initial lactose concentration on lactose uptake rate by kefir free cells, during the lactose fermentation, was studied in this work. For the investigation 14C-labelled lactose was used due to the fact that labeled and unlabeled molecules are fermented in the same way. The results illustrated lactose uptake rates are about up to two fold higher at lower initial ∘Bé densities as compared with higher initial ∘Bé densities.

  13. A Radiochemical Biotechnological Approach: Preliminary Study of Lactose Uptake Rate by Kefir Cells, Using 14C-labeled Lactose, in Anaerobic Fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golfinopoulos, A.; Soupioni, M.; Kanellaki, M.; Koutinas, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of initial lactose concentration on lactose uptake rate by kefir free cells, during the lactose fermentation, was studied in this work. For the investigation 14 C-labelled lactose was used due to the fact that labeled and unlabeled molecules are fermented in the same way. The results illustrated lactose uptake rates are about up to two fold higher at lower initial (convolution sign)Be densities as compared with higher initial (convolution sign)Be densities

  14. Effect of Different Silicon Sources on Yield and Silicon Uptake of Rice Grown under Varying Phosphorus Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia B. Agostinho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of pot experiments were conducted to: (1 evaluate the effects of different Si sources (soil- and foliar-applied on grain yield and Si accumulation of rice supplied with varying P rates, and (2 evaluate Si absorption of rice using foliar- and soil-applied Si fertilizers. Three P rates, (0, 112, and 224 kg ha−1 combined with five Si treatments (wollastonite and slag applied at 4.5 ton ha−1 and one foliar Si solution applied at 20, 40 and 80 mg Si L−1 and a check were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The presence of P and Si in the soil created a synergistic effect on soil Al, Mn, and As (P < 0.01, but not on rice growth and P uptake. Wollastonite and slag application were most effective in raising rice Si content than foliar applied Si (P < 0.001. While there was an improvement in biomass (42% and tiller production (25% for rice receiving foliar Si, no supporting evidence was obtained in these experiments to verify leaf surface Si absorption. The application of Si-rich materials to soil still remains the most effective method for enhancing Si uptake by plants.

  15. Effect of Different Silicon Sources on Yield and Silicon Uptake of Rice Grown under Varying Phosphorus Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Flavia B; Tubana, Brenda S; Martins, Murilo S; Datnoff, Lawrence E

    2017-08-29

    A series of pot experiments were conducted to: (1) evaluate the effects of different Si sources (soil- and foliar-applied) on grain yield and Si accumulation of rice supplied with varying P rates, and (2) evaluate Si absorption of rice using foliar- and soil-applied Si fertilizers. Three P rates, (0, 112, and 224 kg ha -1 ) combined with five Si treatments (wollastonite and slag applied at 4.5 ton ha -1 and one foliar Si solution applied at 20, 40 and 80 mg Si L -1 ) and a check were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The presence of P and Si in the soil created a synergistic effect on soil Al, Mn, and As ( P rice growth and P uptake. Wollastonite and slag application were most effective in raising rice Si content than foliar applied Si ( P production (25%) for rice receiving foliar Si, no supporting evidence was obtained in these experiments to verify leaf surface Si absorption. The application of Si-rich materials to soil still remains the most effective method for enhancing Si uptake by plants.

  16. Routes of plutonium uptake and their relation to biomagnification in starfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guary, J.-C.; Fowler, S.W.; Beasley, T.M.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of 239+240 Pu and 238 Pu in environmental samples of starfish tissues is identical to the tissue distribution observed in experimental animals following uptake of plutonium directly from water. Plutonium in sea water has a strong affinity for the mucus-rich epidermal layer of starfish which contributes substantially to the relatively high levels of this transuranium nuclide measured in these invertebrates. Transfer of plutonium to starfish via food also occurs; however, the resultant tissue distribution is not consistent with that found in the natural environment where plutonium is available from both contaminated food and water. These data suggest that food chain biomagnification of plutonium by starfish does not occur in nature as has been previously hypothesized. (author)

  17. Relation of zinc levels and water soluble phosphorus in suphala [fertilizer] on uptake of phosphorus and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutatkar, V.K.; Chapke, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    Under pot culture, four levels of Zn 0, 2, 4 and 6 ppm, were studied in relation to 30, 50 and 100 % water soluble levels of phosphorus in suphala for the dry matter production and uptake of P and Zn by maize on acidic soil of Goa and black cotton soil of Maharashtra. 32 P and 65 Zn tracers were used for this investigation. The results revealed that application of Zn has increased the dry matter and uptake of phosphorus upto 4 ppm of Zn application and it has decreased at 6 ppm Zn level. This inhibition of P uptake was observed at all water soluble levels of P and in both the soils studied. Zn uptake by maize in both the soils under study was increased with increasing level of Zn, irrespective of water soluble level of P in suphala. (author)

  18. The uptake of uranium and radium from food and water in relation to calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Observed ratios for dietary radium and calcium suggest that at least a 20 to 70 fold discrimination exists against radium uptake in the skeleton relative to calcium. It has been widely shown in many countries around the world that the relative radium to calcium ratio in the human skeleton varies from country to country, but within geographic areas, it appears to be relatively invariant with age. The ratio of radium-226 to calcium in intake, relative to the radium-226 to calcium value in the skeleton, is called the observed ratio, and varies over the world from a value of 0.013 to 0.039, with a mean of 0.024. In 1975, I inferred a mean observed ratio for uranium of 0.057 for the US. These findings suggest that man is in equilibrium with radium-226 with respect to the calcium in food and water. Most of the calcium would be ingested in diet, as would a significant amount, but not necessarily all, of the radium. The role of calcium for intake in water has not been examined

  19. Effect of different phosphorus fertilizer rates on N-uptake, N-efficiency and zea maize yield in irrigated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.

    1993-01-01

    Effect of different rates of P fertilizer on N-uptake, N-efficiency and zea mays (C.V.Lg 11) were studied by use of 15 N technique. The main objectives of this study were to study effect of different level of P on N-utilization and determine the interaction between P and N on zea mays yield, and the efficiency of N-fertilizer during different stages of plant growth. The field experiment was conducted for two years 1985 and 1986. The treatments were 0, 80, 160 Kg N, as urea Co( 15 NH 2 ) 2 and 0, 40, 80, 160 Kg P 2 O 5 as triplsuperphophate. The experiment design was randomized block of four replicates for each treatment. Yield (grain and dry matter), utilization of urea, N-uptake, total N, N-yield, Ndff%, NDF% and A-values were determined. All results indicate that zea mays responds to the addition of nitrogen and the yield increases with the increase of added nitrogen. The highest yield was for N 2 (160 Kg) level during two seasons. Also zea mays responds clearly to phosphorus especially at stages 1 and 2, where dry matter yield increases with the increase of phosphorus rate. The highest yield was for P 3 (160 Kg) rate. While in grain stage the response was for rate P 1 (40 Kg) and P 2 (80 Kg) in comparison with control. However P 1 , rate was dominant over P 2 and P 3 . The effect of P 2 rate on grain yield was very little in comparison with P 1 , while P 3 decreases the grain yield during two seasons in comparison with control. There is an effect of N and P when added both or separately. There is also effect for interaction between them on the yield (grain and dry matter). Generally, from the previous data we can conclude that the rate 160 Kg N/ha and 40 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha were optimum rate for zea mays fertilization in Deir-Ezzor (Syria) and similar areas for grain yield. (author). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  20. Relative quantification of indium-111 pentetreotide and gallium-68 DOTATOC uptake in the thyroid gland and association with thyroid pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincke, Thomas; Singer, Joerg; Kluge, Regine; Sabri, Osama; Paschke, Ralf

    2009-04-01

    Recent data suggest that increased somatostatin receptor (SSTR) expression is detectable in several thyroid diseases. This raises the question as to the specificity and pathophysiologic relevance of these findings. Therefore, we systematically evaluated Indium-111 (In-111) pentetreotide scintigraphies and Gallium-68 (Ga-68) DOTA-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-Octreotide (DOTATOC) positron emission tomography (PET) scans for thyroid radiotracer uptake. Relative binding of In-111 pentetreotide in the thyroid was measured by region of interest (ROI) technique in 4-hour and 24-hour post-injection (p.i.) planar images of 73 patients undergoing In-111 pentetreotide scintigraphy. Ga-68 DOTATOC PET scans of 77 patients were analyzed by ROI technique applied to coronal slices of 1 cm (0.39 inch) thickness with highest uptake in the thyroid region. A basal indium In-111 and Ga-68 DOTATOC uptake was found in normal thyroid glands. Hot nodules, disseminated thyroid autonomy, and most cases of active Hashimoto's disease as well as goiters and nodular thyroids showed increased In-111 pentetreotide and/or Ga-68 DOTATOC uptake. Higher relative In-111 pentetreotide uptake in the 24-hour p.i. images as compared to the 4-hour p.i. images except for patients after thyroidectomy indicates specific receptor binding in the thyroid. The increased In-111 pentetreotide and Ga-68 DOTATOC uptake in active Hashimoto's disease is most likely related to the lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid. However, the physiologic or pathophysiologic relevance of the increased In-111 pentetreotide and Ga-68 DOTATOC uptake in normal thyroid glands, hot and cold nodules, and goiters and nodular thyroids remain to be determined.

  1. Relative growth rate of rich fen bryophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Riis, Tenna

    Rigkær er blandt den nordlige halvkugles mest artsrige naturtyper, og en lang række sjældne og truede plantearter er knyttet til netop disse områder. I dette forsøg undersøges den relative vækstrate hos to almindelige og to sjældne rigkærsmosser i relation til forskellige niveauer af næringsstoff...

  2. High substrate uptake rates empower Vibrio natriegens as production host for industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart, Eugenia; Grenz, Sebastian; Lange, Julian; Nitschel, Robert; Müller, Felix; Schwentner, Andreas; Feith, André; Lenfers-Lücker, Mira; Takors, Ralf; Blombach, Bastian

    2017-09-08

    The productivity of industrial fermentation processes is essentially limited by the biomass specific substrate consumption rate (q S ) of the applied microbial production system. Since q S depends on the growth rate (μ), we highlight the potential of the fastest growing non-pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio natriegens , as novel candidate for future biotechnological processes. V. natriegens grows rapidly in BHIN complex medium with a μ of up to 4.43 h -1 (doubling time of 9.4 min) as well as in minimal medium supplemented with various industrially relevant substrates. Bioreactor cultivations in minimal medium with glucose showed that V. natriegens possesses an exceptionally high q S under aerobic (3.90 ± 0.08 g g -1 h -1 ) and anaerobic (7.81 ± 0.71 g g -1 h -1 ) conditions. Fermentations with resting cells of genetically engineered V. natriegens under anaerobic conditions yielded an overall volumetric productivity of 0.56 ± 0.10 g alanine L -1 min -1 (i.e. 34 g L -1 h -1 ). These inherent properties render V. natriegens a promising new microbial platform for future industrial fermentation processes operating with high productivity. Importance Low conversion rates are one major challenge to realize microbial fermentation processes for the production of commodities operating competitively to existing petrochemical approaches. For this reason, we screened for a novel platform organism possessing superior characteristics to traditionally employed microbial systems. We identified the fast growing Vibrio natriegens which exhibits a versatile metabolism and shows striking growth and conversion rates, as a solid candidate to reach outstanding productivities. Due to these inherent characteristics V. natriegens can speed up common laboratory routines, is suitable for already existing production procedures, and forms an excellent foundation to engineer next generation bioprocesses. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Mapping water exchange rates in rat tumor xenografts using the late-stage uptake following bolus injections of contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Colleen; Moosvi, Firas; Stanisz, Greg J

    2014-05-01

    To map the intra-to-extracellular water exchange rate constant in rat xenografts using a two-compartment model of relaxation with water exchange and a range of contrast agent concentrations and compare with histology. MDA-MB-231 cells were xenografted into six nude rats. Three bolus injections of gadodiamide were administered. When uptake in the tumor demonstrated a steady-state, T1 data were acquired by spoiled gradient recalled acquisitions at four flip angles. A global fit of data to a two-compartment model incorporating exchange was performed, assuming a distribution volume of 20% of the rat. Voxels that did not reach steady-state and were excluded from parametric maps tended to be in large necrotic areas. TUNEL-negative (nonapoptotic) regions tended to have well-defined error bounds, with an average intra-to-extracellular exchange rate constant of 0.6 s(-1) . Apoptotic regions had higher exchange, but poorly determined upper bounds, with goodness of fit similar to that for a model assuming infinitely fast exchange. A lower bound of >3 s(-1) was used to establish voxels where the exchange rate constant was fast despite a large upper bound. Water exchange rates were higher in apoptotic regions, but examination of statistical errors was an important step in the mapping process. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effect of Coatings on the Uptake Rate and HONO Yield in Heterogeneous Reaction of Soot with NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Quiñones, M.; Khalizov, A. F.; Zhang, R.

    2009-12-01

    adsorptive and reactive centers on soot surface where NO2 is converted into HONO and other products. Coating the soot surface by different materials to simulate atmospheric aging has a strong impact on the reactivity of soot toward NO2. Sulfuric acid coating reduces the uptake coefficient and HONO production by physically blocking the soot active sites and initiating decomposition of HONO in the aqueous acid layer. Furthermore, the HONO yield can be reduced to zero after exposure to elevated relative humidity or partially restored when sulfuric acid is removed by heating. Coatings made of glutaric and succinic acids increase HONO yields and NO2 uptake coefficients, similarly as in the case of pre-heated soot samples. We propose that the organic acids change the top layer morphology, opening up the pores and making the internal soot surface more accessible for heterogeneous interaction with NO2. The implications of our study regarding the contribution of freshly emitted and aged soot aerosols to nighttime HONO production will be discussed.

  5. Non-invasive Estimation of Metabolic Uptake Rate of Glucose using F18-FDG PET and Linear Transformation of Outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark; Reichkendler, M.; Auerback, P.

    For quantitative analysis and kinetic modeling of dynamic PET-data an input function is needed. Normally this is obtained by arterial blood sampling, potentially an unpleasant experience for the patient and laborious for the staff. Aim: To validate methods for determination of the metabolic uptake...... rate (Km) of glucose from dynamic FDG-PET scans using Image Derived Input Functions (IDIF) without blood sampling. Method: We performed 24 dynamic FDG-PET scans of the thigh of 14 healthy young male volunteers during a hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic clamp. Ten of the subjects were scanned twice 11 weeks...... artery diameter in the material, the method should also be applicable to women and people of other ages, but used with caution in the elderly due to variance in intramuscular adipose distribution. If only Km and no other kinetic parameters are needed, the described method with transformation...

  6. Prognostic utility of sestamibi lung uptake does not require adjustment for stress-related variables: A retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, William D; Yogendran, Marina S; Ward, Linda M; Nour, Khaled A; Metge, Colleen J

    2006-01-01

    Increased 99m Tc-sestamibi stress lung-to-heart ratio (sLHR) has been shown to predict cardiac outcomes similar to pulmonary uptake of thallium. Peak heart rate and use of pharmacologic stress affect the interpretation of lung thallium uptake. The current study was performed to determine whether 99m Tc-sestamibi sLHR measurements are affected by stress-related variables, and whether this in turn affects prognostic utility. sLHR was determined in 718 patients undergoing 99m Tc-sestamibi SPECT stress imaging. sLHR was assessed in relation to demographics, hemodynamic variables and outcomes (mean follow up 5.6 ± 1.1 years). Mean sLHR was slightly greater in males than in females (P < 0.01) and also showed a weak negative correlation with age (P < 0.01) and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), but was unrelated to stress method or heart rate at the time of injection. In patients undergoing treadmill exercise, sLHR was also positively correlated with peak workload (P < 0.05) but inversely with double product (P < 0.05). The combined explanatory effect of sex, age and hemodynamic variables on sLHR was less than 10%. The risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or death increased by a factor of 1.7–1.8 for each SD increase in unadjusted sLHR, and was unaffected by adjustment for sex, age and hemodynamic variables (hazard ratios 1.6–1.7). The area under the ROC curve for the unadjusted sLHR was 0.65 (95% CI 0.59–0.71, P < 0.0001) and was unchanged for the adjusted sLHR (0.65, 95% CI 0.61–0.72, P < 0.0001). Stress-related variables have only a weak effect on measured sLHR. Unadjusted and adjusted sLHR provide equivalent prognostic information for prediction of AMI or death

  7. Oxygen in the deep-sea: The challenge of maintaining uptake rates in a changing ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A. F.; Peltzer, E. T.; Brewer, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    Although focused on recently, ocean acidification is not the only effect of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on the ocean. Ocean warming will reduce dissolved oxygen concentrations and at the hypoxic limit for a given species this can pose challenges to marine life. The limit is traditionally reported simply as the static mass concentration property [O2]; here we treat it as a dynamic gas exchange problem for the animal analogous to gas exchange at the sea surface. The diffusive limit and its relationship to water velocity is critical for the earliest stages of marine life (eggs, embryos), but the effect is present for all animals at all stages of life. We calculate the external limiting O2 conditions for several representative metabolic rates and their relationship to flow of the bulk fluid under different environmental conditions. Ocean O2 concentrations decline by ≈ 14 μmol kg-1 for a 2 °C rise in temperature. At standard 1000 m depth conditions in the Pacific, flow over the surface would have to increase by ≈ 60% from 2.0 to 3.2 cm s-1 to compensate for this change. The functions derived allow new calculations of depth profiles of limiting O2 concentrations, as well as maximal diffusively sustainable metabolic oxygen consumption rates at various places around the world. Our treatment shows that there is a large variability in the global ocean in terms of facilitating aerobic life. This variability is greater than the variability of the oxygen concentration alone. It becomes clear that temperature and pressure dependencies of diffusion and partial pressure create a region typically around 1000 m depth where a maximal [O2] is needed to sustain a given metabolic rate. This zone of greatest physical constriction on the diffusive transport in the boundary layer is broadly consistent with the oxygen minimum zone, i.e., the zone of least oxygen concentration supply, resulting in a pronounced minimum of maximal diffusively sustainable metabolic oxygen consumption

  8. Preexposure prophylaxis-related stigma: strategies to improve uptake and adherence - a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire, Bridget G

    2015-01-01

    Despite high levels of efficacy, the implementation of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) as a strategy to prevent new HIV infection has been slow. Studies show that PrEP works so long as it is taken, making adherence one of the great challenges of effective PrEP implementation alongside issues of access and uptake. Given that effective PrEP use requires ongoing self-administration of pills by people at high risk of HIV acquisition, it is a strategy best understood not as simply biomedical, but as biobehavioral or biopsychosocial, meaning that that social, psychological, cultural, and structural factors all contribute to the success or failure of the intervention. The willingness of people at risk of HIV to take up and adhere to PrEP depends greatly upon social understandings - whether it is seen as effective, as a healthy option, and a socially acceptable strategy for preventing HIV. Stigma - unfavorable associations - can negatively influence the implementation of PrEP. Because it is associated with high-risk sexual activity, PrEP risks multiple stigmas that can differ according to specific cultural conditions. This includes the stigma of being related to HIV (which may also relate to other stigmas, such as homosexuality, sex work, and/or drug use) and the stigma of PrEP being an alternative to condoms (as condom use is associated with responsible sexual activity). PrEP-related stigma has emerged as a significant social harm that can arise from PrEP research participation, reported by trial participants from a range of different trial sites, different trial populations, and spanning different continents. Social marketing needs to redress PrEP-related stigmas through health promotion campaigns aimed at clinicians, HIV-affected communities, and people at high risk of HIV who might benefit from PrEP access. PrEP access needs to be reframed as a positive and responsible option to help people remain HIV-negative.

  9. Age- and sex-related bone uptake of Tc-99m-HDP measured by whole-body bone scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, W.; Sieweke, N.; Kampen, W.U.; Zuhayra, M.; Henze, E. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Kiel (Germany); Bohuslavizki, K.H.; Clausen, M. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetskrankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-08-01

    Aim of this study was to validate a recently introduced new and easy-to-perform method for quantifying bone uptake of Tc-99m-labelled diphosphonate in a routine clinical setting and to establish a normal data base for bone uptake depending on age and gender. Methods: In 49 women (14-79 years) and 47 men (6-89 years) with normal bone scans as well as in 49 women (33-81 years) and 37 men (27-88 years) with metastatic bone disease whole-body bone scans were acquired at 3 min and 3-4 hours p.i. to calculate bone uptake after correction for both urinary excretion and soft tissue retention. Results: Bone uptake values of various age-related subgroups showed no significant differences between men and women (p>0.05). Furthermore, no differences could be proven between age-matched subgroups of normals and patients with less than 10 metastatic bone lesions, while patients with wide-spread bone metastases revealed significantly increased uptake values. In both men and women highest bone uptake was obtained (p<0.05) in subjects younger than 20 years with active epiphyseal growth plates. In men, bone uptake slowly decreased with age up to 60 years and then showed a tendency towards increasing uptake values. In women, the mean uptake reached a minimum in the decade 20-29 years and then slowly increased with a positive linear correlation of age and uptake in subjects older than 55 years (r=0.57). Conclusion: Since the results proposed in this study are in good agreement with data from literature, the new method used for quantification could be validated in a large number of patients. Furthermore, age- and sex-related normal bone uptake values of Tc-99m-HDP covering a wide range of age could be presented for this method as a basis for further studies on bone uptake. (orig.) [German] Ziel dieser Studie war die Validierung einer von uns neu entwickelten einfachen Methode zur Quantifizierung des Skelettuptake von Tc-99m-HDP im Rahmen der klinischen Routineanwendung und die Erstellung

  10. Plant iodine-131 uptake in relation to root concentration as measured in minirhizotron by video camera:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, K.J.

    1990-09-01

    Glass viewing tubes (minirhizotrons) were placed in the soil beneath native perennial bunchgrass (Agropyron spicatum). The tubes provided access for observing and quantifying plant roots with a miniature video camera and soil moisture estimates by neutron hydroprobe. The radiotracer I-131 was delivered to the root zone at three depths with differing root concentrations. The plant was subsequently sampled and analyzed for I-131. Plant uptake was greater when I-131 was applied at soil depths with higher root concentrations. When I-131 was applied at soil depths with lower root concentrations, plant uptake was less. However, the relationship between root concentration and plant uptake was not a direct one. When I-131 was delivered to deeper soil depths with low root concentrations, the quantity of roots there appeared to be less effective in uptake than the same quantity of roots at shallow soil depths with high root concentration. 29 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs

  11. Heavy metals uptake by sonicated activated sludge: Relation with floc surface properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Julien; Casellas, Magali; Dagot, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    The effects of sonication of activated sludge on heavy metal uptake were in a first time investigated in respect with potential modifications of floc surface properties. The treatment led to the simultaneous increase of specific surface area and of the availability of negative and/or hydrophilic sites. In parallel, organic matter was released in the soluble fraction. Sorption isotherms of cadmium and copper showed that uptake characteristics and mechanisms were highly dependent on both heavy metal species and specific energy supplied. The increase of both specific surface area and fixation sites availability led to the increase of Cd(II) uptake. For Cu(II), organic matter released in soluble phase during the treatment seemed to act as a ligand and to limit adsorption on flocs surface. Three different heavy metals uptake mechanisms have been identified: proton exchange, ion exchange and (co)precipitation

  12. Relative levels of dietary EPA and DHA impact gastric oxidation and essential fatty acid uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasilva, Gabriel; Boller, Matthew; Medina, Isabel; Storch, Judith

    2018-05-01

    Previous research showed that increasing the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in marine lipid supplements significantly reduces associated health benefits compared with balanced eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):DHA supplementation Dasilva et al., 2015 [1]. It was therefore hypothesized that the EPA and DHA molecules might have differential resistance to oxidation during gastric digestion and that the oxidation level achieved could be inversely correlated with intestinal absorption and, hence, with the resultant health benefits. Accordingly, we tested this proposed mechanism of action by investigating the degree of oxidation in the stomach, and the levels of bioaccessible lipids, of varying molar proportions of DHA and EPA (2:1, 1:1 and 1:2) using the dynamic gastrointestinal tract model TIM-1. In addition, small intestine enterocyte absorption and metabolism were simulated by Caco-2 cell monolayers that were incubated with these same varying proportions of DHA and EPA, and comparing oxidized and nonoxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The results show an inverse correlation between lipid oxidation products in the stomach and the levels of bioaccessible lipids. The balanced 1:1 EPA:DHA diet resulted in lower oxidation of PUFAs during stomach digestion relative to the other ratios tested. Finally, cell-based studies showed significantly lower assimilation of oxidized EPA and DHA substrates compared to nonoxidized PUFAs, as well as significant differences between the net uptake of EPA and DHA. Overall, the present work suggests that the correct design of diets and/or supplements containing marine lipids can strongly influence the stability and bioaccessibility of PUFAs during gastrointestinal digestion and subsequent absorption. This could modulate their health benefits related with inflammation, oxidative stress and metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantification of water uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae and its significance for leaf growth, water relations, and gas exchange of barley subjected to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalvati, M A; Hu, Y; Mozafar, A; Schmidhalter, U

    2005-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate drought stress in their host plants via the direct uptake and transfer of water and nutrients through the fungal hyphae to the host plants. To quantify the contribution of the hyphae to plant water uptake, a new split-root hyphae system was designed and employed on barley grown in loamy soil inoculated with Glomus intraradices under well-watered and drought conditions in a growth chamber with a 14-h light period and a constant temperature (15 degrees C; day/night). Drought conditions were initiated 21 days after sowing, with a total of eight 7-day drying cycles applied. Leaf water relations, net photosynthesis rates, and stomatal conductance were measured at the end of each drying cycle. Plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Compared to the control treatment, the leaf elongation rate and the dry weight of the shoots and roots were reduced in all plants under drought conditions. However, drought resistance was comparatively increased in the mycorrhizal host plants, which suffered smaller decreases in leaf elongation, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and turgor pressure compared to the non-mycorrhizal plants. Quantification of the contribution of the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae to root water uptake showed that, compared to the non-mycorrhizal treatment, 4 % of water in the hyphal compartment was transferred to the root compartment through the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae under drought conditions. This indicates that there is indeed transport of water by the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae under drought conditions. Although only a small amount of water transport from the hyphal compartment was detected, the much higher hyphal density found in the root compartment than in the hyphal compartment suggests that a larger amount of water uptake by the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae may occur in the root compartment.

  14. Preexposure prophylaxis-related stigma: strategies to improve uptake and adherence – a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haire BG

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bridget G Haire Kirby Institute for Infection and Immunity in Society, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Despite high levels of efficacy, the implementation of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP as a strategy to prevent new HIV infection has been slow. Studies show that PrEP works so long as it is taken, making adherence one of the great challenges of effective PrEP implementation alongside issues of access and uptake. Given that effective PrEP use requires ongoing self-administration of pills by people at high risk of HIV acquisition, it is a strategy best understood not as simply biomedical, but as biobehavioral or biopsychosocial, meaning that that social, psychological, cultural, and structural factors all contribute to the success or failure of the intervention. The willingness of people at risk of HIV to take up and adhere to PrEP depends greatly upon social understandings – whether it is seen as effective, as a healthy option, and a socially acceptable strategy for preventing HIV. Stigma – unfavorable associations – can negatively influence the implementation of PrEP. Because it is associated with high-risk sexual activity, PrEP risks multiple stigmas that can differ according to specific cultural conditions. This includes the stigma of being related to HIV (which may also relate to other stigmas, such as homosexuality, sex work, and/or drug use and the stigma of PrEP being an alternative to condoms (as condom use is associated with responsible sexual activity. PrEP-related stigma has emerged as a significant social harm that can arise from PrEP research participation, reported by trial participants from a range of different trial sites, different trial populations, and spanning different continents. Social marketing needs to redress PrEP-related stigmas through health promotion campaigns aimed at clinicians, HIV-affected communities, and people at high risk of HIV who might benefit from PrEP access. Pr

  15. Changes in Intestinal Gene Expression of Zebrafish (Danio rerio Related to Sterol Uptake and Excretion upon β-Sitosterol Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Takase

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of fishmeal with plant ingredients will introduce not only plant oil and protein but also phytosterol to the fish diet. Mammals strictly restrict the uptake of phytosterol at intestinal epithelial cells by regulating the gene expressions of sterol uptake and excretion proteins; however, phytosterol is found in the fish muscle and other organs. In order to assess the ability of phytosterol uptake by the intestinal epithelial cells of fish, no-sterol diet, cholesterol-, and β-sitosterol-containing diet was separately administered to zebrafish, and the relative mRNA expressions related to sterol uptake and excretion were evaluated. Gene expression of Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1 in the sitosterol-fed group was significantly higher than that of the cholesterol-fed group (p < 0.05. The expression of apolipoprotein A-I gene was also higher in the sitosterol-fed group than that in the no-sterol and cholesterol-fed groups. The expressions of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G, member 5 and 8, were significantly higher in the sitosterol-fed group, compared to the no-sterol group. Regarding the gene expression of ATP-binding cassette sub-family A, member 1, the sitosterol-fed group showed higher expression level compared to the other groups (p < 0.01. These results suggest that fish should be tolerant to phytosterols in contrast to mammals.

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accretion in the placenta but not the fetus is matched by plasma unesterified DHA uptake rates in pregnant Long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Lacombe, R J Scott; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Alashmali, Shoug M; Lin, Lin; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-10-01

    Maternal delivery of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) to the developing fetus via the placenta is required for fetal neurodevelopment, and is the only mechanism by which DHA can be accreted in the fetus. The aim of the current study was to utilize a balance model of DHA accretion combined with kinetic measures of serum unesterified DHA uptake to better understand the mechanism by which maternal DHA is delivered to the fetus via the placenta. Female rats maintained on a 2% α-linolenic acid diet free of DHA for 56 days were mated, and for balance analysis, sacrificed at 18 days of pregnancy, and fetus, placenta and maternal carcass fatty acid concentration were determined. For tissue DHA uptake, pregnant dams (14-18 days) were infused for 5 min with radiolabeled 14 C-DHA and kinetic modeling was used to determine fetal and placental serum unesterified DHA uptake rates. DHA accretion rates in the fetus were determined to be 38 ± 2 nmol/d/g, 859 ± 100 nmol/d/litter and 74 ± 3 nmol/d/pup, which are all higher (P  0.05) in placental DHA accretion rates versus serum unesterified DHA uptake rates were observed as values varied only 6-35% between studies. No differences in placental accretion and uptake rates suggests that serum unesterified DHA is a significant pool for the maternal-placental transfer of DHA, and lower fetal DHA uptake compared to accretion supports remodeling of placental DHA for delivery to the fetus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effects of Source and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Irrigation on Nitrogen Uptake of Silage Corn and Residual Soil Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Khodshenas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing irrigation demand for corn production, along side with draws of ground water from stressed water sources, should be limited due to scarce resources and environmental protection aspects. Nitrogen fertilizer applied at rates higher than the optimum requirement for crop production may cause an increase in nitrate accumulation below the root zone and pose a risk of nitrate leaching. Improving nitrogen management for corn production has a close relation with soil water content. In this study, we investigated the effects of source and rate of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation on silage corn production and nitrogen concentration, nitrogen uptake and residual soil nitrate in two depths. Materials and Methods: This experiment carried out as split spli- plot in a Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD with three replications, in Arak station (Agricultural research center of markazi province, 34.12 N, 49.7 E; 1715 m above mean sea level during three years. The soil on the site was classified as a Calcaric Regosols (loamy skeletal over fragmental, carbonatic, thermic, calcixerollic xerochrepts. Main plots were irrigation treatments based on 70, 100 and 130 mm cumulative evaporation from A class Pan. Sub plots were two kinds of nitrogen fertilizers (Urea and Ammonium nitrate and sub sub-plots were five levels of nitrogen rates (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kgN.ha-1. Nitrogen fertilizer rates were split into three applications: 1/3 was applied at planting, 1/3 at 7-9 leaf stage and 1/3 remainder was applied before tasseling as a banding method. Phosphorus was applied at a rate of 150 kg.ha-1in each season and potassium at a rate of 30kg.ha-1 (only in first growth season based on soil testing as triple super phosphate and potassium sulfate, respectively. The corn variety of single cross 704 was planted at 20 m2 plots. The plants were sampled at dough stage from the two rows and weighted in each plot. Plant samples were dried in a forced air

  18. Benthic Uptake Rate due to Hyporheic Exchange: The Effects of Streambed Morphology for Constant and Sinusoidally Varying Nutrient Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Tonina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyporheic exchange carries reactive solutes, which may include biological oxygen demand (BOD, dissolved oxygen (DO and reactive dissolved inorganic nitrogen (Nr, into the sediment, where biochemical reactions consume DO. Here, we study the impact of streambed morphology, stream-reactive solute loads and their diel oscillations on the DO benthic uptake rate (BUR due to hyporheic processes. Our model solves the hyporheic flow field and the solute transport equations analytically, within a Lagrangian framework, considering advection, longitudinal diffusion and reactions modeled as first order kinetics. The application of the model to DO field measurements over a gravel bar-pool sequence shows a good match with measured DO concentrations with an overall agreement of 58% and a kappa index of 0.46. We apply the model to investigate the effects of daily constant and sinusoidally time varying stream BOD, DO and Nr loads and of the morphodynamic parameters on BUR. Our modeling results show that BUR varies as a function of bedform size and of nutrient loads and that the hyporheic zone may consume up to 0.06% of the stream DO at the pool-riffle bedform scale. Daily oscillations of stream BOD and DO loads have small effects on BUR, but may have an important influence on local hyporheic processes and organisms’ distribution.

  19. Real-time monitoring of specific oxygen uptake rates of embryonic stem cells in a microfluidic cell culture device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Super, Alexandre; Jaccard, Nicolas; Cardoso Marques, Marco Paulo; Macown, Rhys Jarred; Griffin, Lewis Donald; Veraitch, Farlan Singh; Szita, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Oxygen plays a key role in stem cell biology as a signaling molecule and as an indicator of cell energy metabolism. Quantification of cellular oxygen kinetics, i.e. the determination of specific oxygen uptake rates (sOURs), is routinely used to understand metabolic shifts. However current methods to determine sOUR in adherent cell cultures rely on cell sampling, which impacts on cellular phenotype. We present real-time monitoring of cell growth from phase contrast microscopy images, and of respiration using optical sensors for dissolved oxygen. Time-course data for bulk and peri-cellular oxygen concentrations obtained for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and mouse embryonic stem cell (mESCs) cultures successfully demonstrated this non-invasive and label-free approach. Additionally, we confirmed non-invasive detection of cellular responses to rapidly changing culture conditions by exposing the cells to mitochondrial inhibiting and uncoupling agents. For the CHO and mESCs, sOUR values between 8 and 60 amol cell(-1) s(-1) , and 5 and 35 amol cell(-1) s(-1) were obtained, respectively. These values compare favorably with literature data. The capability to monitor oxygen tensions, cell growth, and sOUR, of adherent stem cell cultures, non-invasively and in real time, will be of significant benefit for future studies in stem cell biology and stem cell-based therapies. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Impact of Glycerol as Carbon Source onto Specific Sugar and Inducer Uptake Rates and Inclusion Body Productivity in E. coli BL21(DE3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Kopp

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium E. coli is the host of choice for a multitude of used recombinant proteins. Generally, cultivation is easy, media are cheap, and a high product titer can be obtained. However, harsh induction procedures using isopropyl β-d-1 thiogalactopyranoside as inducer are often referred to cause stress reactions, leading to a phenomenon known as “metabolic” or “product burden”. These high expressions of recombinant proteins mainly result in decreased growth rates and cell lysis at elevated induction times. Therefore, approaches tend to use “soft” or “tunable” induction with lactose and reduce the stress level of the production host. The usage of glucose as energy source in combination with lactose as induction reagent causes catabolite repression effects on lactose uptake kinetics and as a consequence reduced product titer. Glycerol—as an alternative carbon source—is already known to have positive impact on product formation when coupled with glucose and lactose in auto-induction systems, and has been referred to show no signs of repression when cultivated with lactose concomitantly. In recent research activities, the impact of different products on the lactose uptake using glucose as carbon source was highlighted, and a mechanistic model for glucose-lactose induction systems showed correlations between specific substrate uptake rate for glucose or glycerol (qs,C and the maximum specific lactose uptake rate (qs,lac,max. In this study, we investigated the mechanistic of glycerol uptake when using the inducer lactose. We were able to show that a product-producing strain has significantly higher inducer uptake rates when being compared to a non-producer strain. Additionally, it was shown that glycerol has beneficial effects on viability of cells and on productivity of the recombinant protein compared to glucose.

  1. Knowledge, attitude, and uptake related to human papillomavirus vaccination among young women in Germany recruited via a social media site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remschmidt, Cornelius; Walter, Dietmar; Schmich, Patrick; Wetzstein, Matthias; Deleré, Yvonne; Wichmann, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Many industrialized countries have introduced human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of young women, but vaccine uptake often remains suboptimal. This study aimed to investigate whether a social media site like Facebook is an appropriate tool to assess knowledge, attitude and uptake related to HPV vaccination in young women in Germany. Between December 2012 and January 2013 two different targeting strategies were implemented on Facebook, providing a link to an online questionnaire. Advertisements were displayed to female Facebook users aged 18-25 years living in Germany. During the simple targeting strategy, advertisements comprised health-related images along with various short titles and text messages. During the focused strategy, advertisements were targeted to users who in addition had certain fashion brands or pop stars listed on their profiles. The targeting strategies were compared with respect to participant characteristics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with HPV vaccine uptake. A total of 1161 women participated. The two targeting strategies resulted in significant differences regarding educational status and migrant background. Overall, awareness of HPV was high, but only 53% received at least one vaccine dose. In multivariate analysis, HPV vaccine uptake was independently associated with a physician's recommendation and trust in vaccine effectiveness. Concerns of adverse effects were negatively associated with vaccine uptake. Social network recruitment permits fast and convenient access to young people. Sample characteristics can be manipulated by adjusting targeting strategies. There is further need for promoting knowledge of HPV vaccination among young women. Physicians have a major role in the vaccination decision-making process of young women.

  2. Calibrated image-derived input functions for the determination of the metabolic uptake rate of glucose with [18F]-FDG PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark; Reichkendler, Michala H.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the use of a simple calibration method to remove bias in previously proposed approaches to image-derived input functions (IDIFs) when used to calculate the metabolic uptake rate of glucose (Km) from dynamic [18F]-FDG PET scans of the thigh. Our objective was to obtain nonbiased, low...

  3. Relative efficiency of different methods of phosphorus (32P) application on fertilizer phosphorus uptake by maize (zea may L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, M.L.; Gupta, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    A green house study was conducted for comparing four methods of phosphorus application (broad cast, below the seed, one side and both sides of the seeds) at the rate of 60 ppm in sierozem soil of H issar (Haryana). Maize crop was planted in 50 cm. bottomless bitumin drums for 70 days i.e. upto tasseling stage. The plant samples were collected at jointing and tasseling stages of plant growth. The results revealed that the highest dry matter yield, total and fertilizer phosphorus uptake was observed when the phosphorus was applied below the seed, followed by both side application of phosphorus. The least yield, total and fertilizer phosphorus uptake were recorded when the phosphorus was broadcast at the time of sowing. (author)

  4. Auxin uptake, transport and accumulation in relation to rooting and ageing of mung bean cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, B.C.; Shaheed, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The rooting response of mung bean cuttings (Phaseolus aureus Roxb. cv. Berkin) to indoleacetic acid (IAA) progressively declined when they were aged in water prior to auxin treatment. With increased duration of the ageing period the uptake of basally-supplied auxin by cuttings decreased. This correlated with diminished transpiration. Notwithstanding this decline in the uptake of IAA, a decreasing proportion of the acquired auxin was transported acropetally out of the hypocotyl with increasing age of the cuttings. Recovery of 14 C from cuttings 24 h after the foliar application of 14 C-IAA declined with increasing age of the cuttings. Furthermore, the total amount of radioactivity recovered in the hypocotyl diminished as a function of the increasing age of cuttings, as did the proportion of radioactivity located in the hypocotyl. (author)

  5. The relation between respiratory motion artifact correction and lung standardized uptake value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Lijie; Liu Xiaojian; Liu Jie; Xu Rui; Yan Jue

    2014-01-01

    PET/CT is playing an important role in disease diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation. But the respiratory motion artifact may bring trouble in diagnosis and therapy. There are many methods to correct the respiratory motion artifact. Respiratory gated PET/CT is applied most extensively of them. Using respiratory gated PET/CT to correct respiratory motion artifact can increase the maximum standardized uptake value of lung lesion obviously, thereby improving the quality of image and accuracy of diagnosis. (authors)

  6. 25(OHD3 Levels Relative to Muscle Strength and Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Książek Anna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is mainly known for its effects on the bone and calcium metabolism. The discovery of Vitamin D receptors in many extraskeletal cells suggests that it may also play a significant role in other organs and systems. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between 25(OHD3 levels, lower limb isokinetic strength and maximum oxygen uptake in well-trained professional football players. We enrolled 43 Polish premier league soccer players. The mean age was 22.7±5.3 years. Our study showed decreased serum 25(OHD3 levels in 74.4% of the professional players. The results also demonstrated a lack of statistically significant correlation between 25(OHD3 levels and lower limb muscle strength with the exception of peak torque of the left knee extensors at an angular velocity of 150°/s (r=0.41. No significant correlations were found between hand grip strength and maximum oxygen uptake. Based on our study we concluded that in well-trained professional soccer players, there was no correlation between serum levels of 25(OHD3 and muscle strength or maximum oxygen uptake.

  7. Uptake of radioactive strontium by fishes in relation to the calcium content of the water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiosila, J.

    1975-01-01

    The study attempts to compare experimental results obtained with pseudorasbora parava with regard to 85 Sr uptake at various Ca concentrations of the water (4.20 and 50 mg/l Ca) and also to compare these results with natural conditions. The water was contaminated with 500 pCi/ml 85 SrCl 2 only at the onset of the experiments. Radiostrontium uptake is much higher with a very low calcium content of the water; maximum values are reached in about 10 days. - With low or optimum calcium contents of the water, the values are 3-5 times lower and are not reached until 30 days after radioactive contamination. The fish in this Danube water experiment took up somewhat less radioactivity than in an experiment with the same amounts of Ca and Mg in a control medium. The uptake of 85 Sr in fish in dependence of the Ca content of the water varies according to the formula F.C = 2.505 x Casup(-0.909), with Ca given in Mg/l. (orig.) [de

  8. Relative importance of plant uptake and plant associated denitrification for removal of nitrogen from mine drainage in sub-arctic wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallin, Sara; Hellman, Maria; Choudhury, Maidul I; Ecke, Frauke

    2015-11-15

    Reactive nitrogen (N) species released from undetonated ammonium-nitrate based explosives used in mining or other blasting operations are an emerging environmental problem. Wetlands are frequently used to treat N-contaminated water in temperate climate, but knowledge on plant-microbial interactions and treatment potential in sub-arctic wetlands is limited. Here, we compare the relative importance of plant uptake and denitrification among five plant species commonly occurring in sub-arctic wetlands for removal of N in nitrate-rich mine drainage in northern Sweden. Nitrogen uptake and plant associated potential denitrification activity and genetic potential for denitrification based on quantitative PCR of the denitrification genes nirS, nirK, nosZI and nosZII were determined in plants growing both in situ and cultivated in a growth chamber. The growth chamber and in situ studies generated similar results, suggesting high relevance and applicability of results from growth chamber experiments. We identified denitrification as the dominating pathway for N-removal and abundances of denitrification genes were strong indicators of plant associated denitrification activity. The magnitude and direction of the effect differed among the plant species, with the aquatic moss Drepanocladus fluitans showing exceptionally high ratios between denitrification and uptake rates, compared to the other species. However, to acquire realistic estimates of N-removal potential of specific wetlands and their associated plant species, the total plant biomass needs to be considered. The species-specific plant N-uptake and abundance of denitrification genes on the root or plant surfaces were affected by the presence of other plant species, which show that both multi- and inter-trophic interactions are occurring. Future studies on N-removal potential of wetland plant species should consider how to best exploit these interactions in sub-arctic wetlands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. The number of injected same-day preschool vaccines relates to preadolescent needle fear and HPV uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Amy L; Cohen, Lindsey L; Burton, Mark; Mohammed, Anaam; Lawson, M Louise

    2017-07-24

    Fear of needles develops at approximately five years of age, and decreases compliance with healthcare. We sought to examine the relationship of preschool vaccine history, parent and preadolescent needle fear, and subsequent compliance with optional vaccines. As part of a private practice randomized controlled trial, parents and 10-12year olds rated needle anxiety on a 100mm visual analog scale. This follow-up cohort study compared their needle anxiety to previous vaccination records, including number of vaccinations between ages four and six years (total and same-day maximum), and subsequent initiation of the HPV vaccine through age 13. Of the 120 preadolescents enrolled between 4.28.09 and 1.19.2010, 117 received preschool vaccinations between ages four and six years. The likelihood of being in the upper quartile of fear (VAS≥83) five years later increased with each additional same-day injection (OR=3.108, p=0.0100 95%CI=1.311, 7.367), but was not related to total lifetime or total four-to-six year injections. Only 12.5% (15) of parents reported anxiety about their preadolescents' vaccines (VAS>50). Parent and child anxiety was weakly correlated (r=0.15). Eight children in the upper fear quartile began their HPV series (26.67%) compared to 14 in the lower quartile (48.28% VASfear needles five years later. Preadolescent needle fear was a stronger predictor than parent vaccine anxiety of subsequent HPV vaccine uptake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Different components of 3H-imipramine binding in rat brain membranes: relation to serotonin uptake sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobbi, M.; Taddei, C.; Mennini, T.

    1988-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors confirm and extend previous studies showing heterogeneous 3 H-imipramine ( 3 H-IMI) binding sites. Inhibition curves of various drugs (serotonin, imipramine, desmethyl-imipramine, d-fenfluramine, d-norfenfluramine and indalpine, a potent serotonin uptake inhibitor) obtained using 2 nM 3 H-IMI and in presence of 120 mM NaCl, confirmed the presence of at least three 3 H-IMI binding sites: two of these were serotonin-insensitive while the third one was selectively inhibited by serotonin and indalpine with nanomolar affinities. Moreover this last component was found to be selectively modulated by chronic imipramine treatment thus suggesting a close relation to serontonin uptake mechanism. These data indicate that the use of a more selective inhibitors of the serotonin-sensitive component (like indalpine or serotonin itself) to define non specific 3 H-IMI, may be of help in understanding its relation with serotonin uptake system. 22 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  11. Background {sup 99m}Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile uptake of breast-specific gamma imaging in relation to background parenchymal enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon; Kim, Bom Sahn [Ewha Womans University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Yangchun-Ku, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yemi [Ewha Womans University, Clinical Research Institute and Department of Conservative Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jee Eun [Ewha Womans University, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    This study investigated factors that could affect background uptake of {sup 99m}Tc- methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) on normal breast by breast-specific gamma imaging (BSGI). In addition, the impact of background {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake on the diagnostic performance of BSGI was further investigated. One hundred forty-five women with unilateral breast cancer who underwent BSGI, MRI, and mammography were retrospectively enrolled. Background uptake on BSGI was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Patients were classified into non-dense and dense breast groups according to mammographic breast density. Background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) was rated according to BI-RADS classification. The relationship of age, menopausal status, mammographic breast density, and BPE with background {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI uptake was analyzed. Heterogeneous texture and high background uptake ratio on BSGI were significantly correlated with younger age (p < 0.001, respectively), premenopausal status (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003), dense breast (p < 0.001, respectively), and marked BPE (p < 0.001, respectively). On multivariate analysis, only BPE remained a significant factor for background MIBI uptake (p < 0.001).There was a significant reduction in positive predictive value (p = 0.024 and p = 0.002) as background MIBI uptake and BPE grade increased. BPE on MRI was the most important factor for background MIBI uptake on BSGI. High background MIBI uptake or marked BPE can diminish the diagnostic performance of BSGI. (orig.)

  12. Uptake of calcium-45 by apple trees at different levels of moisture in relation to the occurrence of bitter pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanekom, A.N.; Deist, J.; Blommaert, K.L.J.

    1975-01-01

    Uptake and translocation of recently absorbed Ca ( 45 Ca) and total calcium by Golden Delicious apple trees grown in sand culture at different moisture levels were investigated in relation to bitter pit. Growth and development of the trees were significantly retarded by low moisture supply. Moisture stress not only lowered calcium uptake and/or translocation but also significantly decreased the concentration of recently absorbed calcium in the different parts of the tree. Except for the leaves where moisture stress significantly decreased the total calcium concentration, it did not affect the concentration in other parts of the tree. Although the fruit contributed only 5,8% to the total calcium content of the top parts of the tree, this amount of Ca realised a sufficiently high calcium concentration in the fruit to prevent bitter pit. There was no correlation within the experimental period between moisture supply to the trees and the calcium concentration in the fruit or the incidence of bitter pit [af

  13. The Vietnamese lending rate, policy-related rate, and monetary policy post-1997 Asian financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu V. Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetries in the Vietnamese lending central bank’s policy-related rate spread were documented. Empirical results revealed that the spread adjusts to the threshold faster when the central bank’s policy-related rates decrease relative to the lending rates than when the central bank’s policy-related rates move in the opposite direction. Additionally, the empirical findings indicate that Vietnamese commercial banks exhibit competitive rate setting behavior which may be attributable to graft maximization by bank’s management. The results also show bidirectional Granger causality between the Vietnamese lending rate and the central bank’s policy-related rate, indicating that the lending rate and the central bank’s policy-related rate affect each other’s movements. These results suggest that monetary authority can use its countercyclical monetary policy instruments to achieve its macroeconomics objectives. However, the estimation results of the GARCH (2, 3-in-Mean model suggest that they should intervene more frequently and by small policy measures to minimize the conditional variance of the spread to minimize the magnitude of the cycle of the lending rate.

  14. Increasing carbon discrimination rates and depth of water uptake favor the growth of Mediterranean evergreen trees in the ecotone with temperate deciduous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeta, Adrià; Peñuelas, Josep

    2017-12-01

    Tree populations at the low-altitudinal or -latitudinal limits of species' distributional ranges are predicted to retreat toward higher altitudes and latitudes to track the ongoing changes in climate. Studies have focused on the climatic sensitivity of the retreating species, whereas little is known about the potential replacements. Competition between tree species in forest ecotones will likely be strongly influenced by the ecophysiological responses to heat and drought. We used tree-ring widths and δ 13 C and δ 18 O chronologies to compare the growth rates and long-term ecophysiological responses to climate in the temperate-Mediterranean ecotone formed by the deciduous Fagus sylvatica and the evergreen Quercus ilex at the low altitudinal and southern latitudinal limit of F. sylvatica (NE Iberian Peninsula). F. sylvatica growth rates were similar to those of other southern populations and were surprisingly not higher than those of Q. ilex, which were an order of magnitude higher than those in nearby drier sites. Higher Q. ilex growth rates were associated with high temperatures, which have increased carbon discrimination rates in the last 25 years. In contrast, stomatal regulation in F. sylvatica was proportional to the increase in atmospheric CO 2 . Tree-ring δ 18 O for both species were mostly correlated with δ 18 O in the source water. In contrast to many previous studies, relative humidity was not negatively correlated with tree-ring δ 18 O but had a positive effect on Q. ilex tree-ring δ 18 O. Furthermore, tree-ring δ 18 O decreased in Q. ilex over time. The sensitivity of Q. ilex to climate likely reflects the uptake of deep water that allowed it to benefit from the effect of CO 2 fertilization, in contrast to the water-limited F. sylvatica. Consequently, Q. ilex is a strong competitor at sites currently dominated by F. sylvatica and could be favored by increasingly warmer conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Growth and Nitrogen Uptake in Sorghum Plants Manured with Leucaena Leucocaphala Leaves as Affected by Nitrogen Rate and Time of Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurd Ali, F.; Al-Shammaa, M.

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of four rates of nitrogen (N) in the form of leucaena leaves and the time of application on the performance of sorghum plants using the 15 N isotopic dilution technique. Results showed that leucaena green manure (LGM) increased dry matter and N yield of sorghum. Nitrogen recoveries of LGM ranged between 23 and 47%. An additional beneficial effect of LGM was attributed to the enhancement of soil N uptake. The best timing of LGM incorporation for obtaining more N derived from LGM, less soil N uptake, and greater dry matter and N in sorghum leaves seemed to be at planting. However, the appropriate timing and rate of LGM to obtain greater dry matter and N yield in panicles, as well as in the whole plant of sorghum, appeared to be at 30 days before planting, particularly a rate of 120 kg N ha - 1. (author)

  16. Seed Anatomy and Water Uptake in Relation to Seed Dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Segovia, A.; Márquez-Guzmán, J.; Sánchez-Coronado, M. E.; Gamboa de Buen, A.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with ‘hard’ seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. Methods The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. Key Results A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum–micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Conclusions Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae. PMID:17298989

  17. RAPID NITRATE UPTAKE RATES AND LARGE SHORT-TERM STORAGE CAPACITIES MAY EXPLAIN WHY OPPORTUNISTIC GREEN MACROALGAE DOMINATE SHALLOW EUTROPHIC ESTUARIES1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennison, Rachel L; Kamer, Krista; Fong, Peggy

    2011-06-01

    We quantified the effects of initial macroalgal tissue nitrogen (N) status (depleted and enriched) and varying pulses of nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentration on uptake and storage of nitrogen in Ulva intestinalis L. and Ulva expansa (Setch.) Setch. et N. L. Gardner using mesocosms modeling shallow coastal estuaries in Mediterranean climates. Uptake of NO 3 - (μmol · g dry weight [dwt] -1  · h -1 ) was measured as loss from the water after 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h and storage as total tissue nitrogen (% dwt) and nitrate (ppm). Both species of algae exhibited a high affinity for NO 3 - across all N pulses and initial tissue contents. There was greater NO 3 - removal from the water for depleted than enriched algae across all time intervals. In the low-N-pulse treatment, U. intestinalis and U. expansa removed all measurable NO 3 - within 8 and 12 h, respectively, and in the medium and high treatments, removal was high and then decreased over time. Maximum mean uptake rates of nitrate were greater for U. expansa (∼300 μmol · g dwt -1  · h -1 ) than U. intestinalis (∼100 μmol · g dwt -1  · h -1 ); however, uptake rates were highly variable over time. Overall, U. expansa uptake rates were double those of U. intestinalis. Maximum tissue NO 3 - for U. expansa was >1,000 ppm, five times that of U. intestinalis, suggesting that U. expansa has a greater storage capacity in this cellular pool. These results showed that opportunistic green algae with differing tissue nutrient histories were able to efficiently remove nitrate from the water across a wide range of N pulses; thus, both are highly adapted to proliferate in estuarine environments with pulsed nutrient supplies. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  18. Nitrogen-15 Uptake by Pinus contorta Seedlings in Relation to Phenological Stage and Season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amponsah, Isaac G.; Lieffers, Victor J.; Comeau, Philip G.; Landhaeusser, Simon M.

    2004-01-01

    This study measured the amount of uptake of labeled nitrogen ( 15 N) of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm) seedlings, at three different phenological stages, in a growth chamber experiment. Thirty days after 15 N application, the amount of 15 N recovered in seedlings as a percentage of the total 15 N fertilizer applied was 4% in early spring, 43% in summer and 33% in autumn. The total 15 N recovered in the plant-pot system ranged from 80 to 96%, and is higher than reported in other studies. Total 15 N recovered from the pot compartment alone ranged from 48 to 95%, suggesting that substantial pools of N remain in the soil. Results suggest that low 15 N uptake in the spring was associated with limited development of new root as a result of low spring soil temperatures. The lack of unsuberized roots in spring could be a key factor decreasing the effectiveness of early spring fertilization in the boreal forest

  19. Maternal uptake of pertussis cocooning strategy and other pregnancy related recommended immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, C Y; Thomas, N J; Clarke, M; Boros, C; Tuckerman, J; Marshall, H S

    2015-01-01

    Maternal immunization is an important strategy to prevent severe morbidity and mortality in mothers and their offspring. This study aimed to identify whether new parents were following immunization recommendations prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy, and postnatally. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by a questionnaire administered antenatally to pregnant women attending a maternity hospital with a follow-up telephone interview at 8-10 weeks post-delivery. Factors associated with uptake of pertussis vaccination within the previous 5 y or postnatally and influenza vaccination during pregnancy were explored using log binomial regression models. A total of 297 pregnant women completed the questionnaire. For influenza vaccine, 20.3% were immunized during pregnancy and 3.0% postnatally. For pertussis vaccine, 13.1% were vaccinated within 5 y prior to pregnancy and 31 women received the vaccine postnatally, 16 (51.6%) received the vaccine >4 weeks after delivery. Receiving a recommendation from a healthcare provider (HCP) was an independent predictor for receipt of both pertussis (RR 2.07, p immunization is low and likely due to poor knowledge of availability, language barriers and lack of recommendations from HCPs. Strategies to improve maternal vaccine uptake should include education about recommended vaccines for both HCPs and parents and written information in a variety of languages.

  20. The Russian Landing Rate, Central Bank’s Policy Related Rate and Intermediation Premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu V. Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates asymmetries in the Russian intermediation premium as measured by the spread between the commercial lending rate and the Central Bank’s policy related rate. Empirical results have shown that the Russian intermediation premium adjusts to the threshold faster when the Central Bank’s policy related rates increase relative to lending rates as opposed to when the Central Bank’s policy related rates move in the opposite direction. The findings of this paper suggest that during the period when the Russian Federation faced formidable challenges from a sharp decline in oil prices and reduced access to international capital markets due to Western sanctions, the Central Bank of Russia was not effective in utilizing countercyclical monetary policy to achieve macroeconomic objectives and commercial banks exhibited predatory pricing behavior.

  1. Ratio of thyroid radioiodine uptake calculated via the physic decay rate of the standard radioactive source: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yu; Zhou Luyi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the difference of the ratio of thyroid radioiodine ( 131 I) uptake calculated by actually measuring counts of the standard radioactive source(method 1) and by computing counts of the standard radioactive source via physic half life of 131 I (method 2). Methods: Two hundred and nine consecutive patients with Graves' Disease were prospectively recruited. The ratio of thyroid 131 I uptake was calculated by two methods at 4 h and 24 h after administration of 1.48 MBq 131 I, respectively. Paired t-test was used to compare the difference between the two methods. Results: The ratio of thyroid 131 I uptake at 4h was (32±16)% and ( 35±10)% (t=1.98, P=0.20), at 24h (72±19)% and (69±24)% ( t=1.49, P=0.23), respectively, by the two methods. Conclusion: To calculate the ratio of thyroid 131 I uptake via the physic half life of the standard radioactive resource is feasible, and can both reduce the risk of ionizing radiation to technical staff and act as verifying method for quality control of thyroid function equipment. (authors)

  2. Lung inhomogeneities, inflation and [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake rate in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressoni, Massimo; Chiumello, Davide; Chiurazzi, Chiara; Brioni, Matteo; Algieri, Ilaria; Gotti, Miriam; Nikolla, Klodiana; Massari, Dario; Cammaroto, Antonio; Colombo, Andrea; Cadringher, Paolo; Carlesso, Eleonora; Benti, Riccardo; Casati, Rosangela; Zito, Felicia; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the size and location of homogeneous inflamed/noninflamed and inhomogeneous inflamed/noninflamed lung compartments and their association with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) severity.In total, 20 ARDS patients underwent 5 and 45 cmH2O computed tomography (CT) scans to measure lung recruitability. [(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) uptake and lung inhomogeneities were quantified with a positron emission tomography-CT scan at 10 cmH2O. We defined four compartments with normal/abnormal [(18)F]FDG uptake and lung homogeneity.The homogeneous compartment with normal [(18)F]FDG uptake was primarily composed of well-inflated tissue (80±16%), double-sized in nondependent lung (32±27% versus 16±17%, pinflation and [(18)F]FDG uptake decreases with ARDS severity, while the inhomogeneous poorly/not inflated compartment increases. Most of the lung inhomogeneities are inflamed. A minor fraction of healthy tissue remains in severe ARDS. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  3. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, Kevin; Howman-Giles, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV max , and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV max with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  4. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Disciplines of Imaging and Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2014-04-15

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV{sub max}, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV{sub max} with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  5. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Preciado, Diana; Matamoros, Víctor; Bayona, Josep M

    2011-12-15

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L(-1) and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (>200 ng L(-1), on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Relating Hydrogeomorphic Attributes to Nutrient Uptake in Alluvial Streams of a Mountain Lake District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, C. D.; Baker, M. A.

    2005-05-01

    Stream form and hydrologic processes may indirectly drive nutrient uptake, however developing predictive relationships has been elusive. Problems in establishing such relationships may lie in the sets of streams analyzed, which often span diverse channel-sizes, geology, and regions, or are too geomorphically similar. We collected field data on stream geomorphology and hydrologic and nutrient transport processes using solute injections at 22 alluvial stream reaches in the Sawtooth Mountains, Idaho, USA. Many of these streams occur near lakes, which create contrasting fluvial form and functions that we hoped would produce a broad geomorphic dataset to compare to hyporheic and dead-zone transient storage and NO3 and PO4 spiraling metrics. Preliminary results suggest that storage zone residence time (Tsto) was best predicted by sediment D50, wood abundance (CWD), and discharge (r2=0.84, pnutrient cycling processes should be further considered and investigated.

  7. Iron plaque formation on roots of different rice cultivars and the relation with lead uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Leng, Xuemei; Wang, Mingxin; Zhu, Zhongquan; Dai, Qinghua

    2011-07-01

    The relationships between lead (Pb) uptake and iron/manganese plaque formation on rice roots were investigated with three cultivars. The results showed that the rice cultivars with indica consanguinity were more sensitive to soil Pb stress than the cultivar with japonica consanguinity. Pb concentrations and distribution ratios in root tissues were in the order: Shanyou 63 > Yangdao 6 > Wuyunjing 7, but Pb and Fe concentrations and distribution ratios in the plaques showed a reverse order. Mn concentrations and distribution ratios in the plaques of Wuyunjing 7 were significantly higher (P rice root can provide a barrier to soil Pb stress. The plaque will increase sequestration of Pb on rice root surface and in the rhizosphere, providing a means of external exclusion of soil Pb to some extent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Apolipoprotein CIII overexpression exacerbates diet-induced obesity due to adipose tissue higher exogenous lipid uptake and retention and lower lipolysis rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Helena F; Paiva, Adriene A; Kato, Larissa S; de Oliveira, Helena C F

    2015-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a common type of dyslipidemia found in obesity. However, it is not established whether primary hyperlipidemia can predispose to obesity. Evidences have suggested that proteins primarily related to plasma lipoprotein transport, such as apolipoprotein (apo) CIII and E, may significantly affect the process of body fat accumulation. We have previously observed an increased adiposity in response to a high fat diet (HFD) in mice overexpressing apoCIII. Here, we examined the potential mechanisms involved in this exacerbated response of apoCIII mice to the HFD. We measured body energy balance, tissue capacity to store exogenous lipids, lipogenesis and lipolysis rates in non-transgenic and apoCIII overexpressing mice fed a HFD during two months. Food intake, fat excretion and whole body CO2 production were similar in both groups. However, the adipose tissue mass (45 %) and leptin plasma levels (2-fold) were significantly greater in apoCIII mice. Lipogenesis rates were similar, while exogenous lipid retention was increased in perigonadal (2-fold) and brown adipose tissues (40 %) of apoCIII mice. In addition, adipocyte basal lipolysis (55 %) and in vivo lipolysis index (30 %) were significantly decreased in apoCIII mice. A fat tolerance test evidenced delayed plasma triglyceride clearance and greater transient availability of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) during the post-prandial state in the apoCIII mice plasma. Thus, apoCIII overexpression resulted in increased NEFA availability to adipose uptake and decreased adipocyte lipolysis, favoring lipid enlargement of adipose depots. We propose that plasma apoCIII levels represent a new risk factor for diet-induced obesity.

  9. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderón-Preciado, Diana; Matamoros, Víctor; Bayona, Josep M.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L −1 and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (> 200 ng L −1 , on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from −1 , with the neutral compounds being the most abundant. Moreover, the predicted data obtained by fate models generally agreed with experimental data. Finally, human exposure to micropollutants through fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated to be 9.8 μg per person and week (Σ 27 contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers.

  10. Occurrence and potential crop uptake of emerging contaminants and related compounds in an agricultural irrigation network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Preciado, Diana [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Matamoros, Victor, E-mail: victor.matamoros@udg.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Bayona, Josep M. [IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Emerging contaminants have received much attention in recent years due to their presence in surface waters, but little attention has been paid to their occurrence in agricultural irrigation waters. This study investigated the occurrence of these compounds in an agricultural irrigation network in northeastern Spain and, for the first time, using two plant uptake models, estimated the concentration of selected micropollutants in crops. The concentration of micropollutants in agricultural irrigation waters ranged from 10 to 5130 ng L{sup -1} and exhibited some attenuation over the course of the irrigation network. Bromoform, chloroform, diclofenac, caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, methyl dihydrojasmonate, galaxolide, butylated hydroxytoluene, and butylated hydroxyanisole were the most abundant contaminants (> 200 ng L{sup -1}, on average). The estimated concentration of micropollutants in crops ranged from < 1 to 7677 ng kg{sup -1}, with the neutral compounds being the most abundant. Moreover, the predicted data obtained by fate models generally agreed with experimental data. Finally, human exposure to micropollutants through fruit and vegetable consumption was estimated to be 9.8 {mu}g per person and week ({Sigma} 27 contaminants detected). Further studies are needed to determine the health implications that the presence of these compounds in fruit and vegetables may have for consumers.

  11. Relative uptake of minoxidil into appendages and stratum corneum and permeation through human skin in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Jeffrey E; Ciotti, Susan; Weiner, Norman; Lockwood, Peter; Cross, Sheree E; Roberts, Michael S

    2010-02-01

    We examined uptake of the model therapeutic agent, minoxidil, into appendages, stratum corneum (SC), and through human skin, under the influence of different vehicles. Quantitative estimation of therapeutic drug deposition into all three areas has not previously been reported. Finite doses of minoxidil (2%, w/v) in formulations containing varying amounts of ethanol, propylene glycol (PG), and water (60:20:20, 80:20:0, and 0:80:20 by volume, respectively) were used. Minoxidil in SC (by tape stripping), appendages (by cyanoacrylate casting), and receptor fluid was determined by liquid scintillation counting. At early times (30 min, 2 h), ethanol-containing formulations (60:20:20 and 80:20:0) caused significantly greater minoxidil retention in SC and appendages, compared to the formulation lacking ethanol (0:80:20). A significant increase in minoxidil receptor penetration occurred with the PG-rich 0:80:20 formulation after 12 h. We showed that deposition of minoxidil into appendages, SC, and skin penetration into receptor fluid were similar in magnitude. Transport by the appendageal route is likely to be a key determinant of hair growth promotion by minoxidil. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  12. The relative importance of skin oxygen uptake in the naturally buried plaice, Pleuronectes platessa, exposed to graded hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, J F; Lomholt, J P; Johansen, K

    1981-01-01

    Cutaneous O2-uptake has been estimated in plaice, Pleuronectes platessa, naturally buried in sediment as the difference between total O2-uptake, measured in a flow-through respirometer, and branchial O2-uptake calculated from direct and continuous recordings of gill water flow and O2-extraction...

  13. Quantitation of cardiac sympathetic innervation in rabbits using 11C-hydroxyephedrine PET: relation to 123I-MIBG uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yusuke; Kajinami, Kouji; Matsunari, Ichiro; Takamatsu, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Yoshihiro; Matsuya, Takahiro; Chen, Wei-Ping; Taki, Junichi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Nekolla, Stephan G.

    2006-01-01

    Although 11 C-hydroxyephedrine ( 11 C-HED) PET is used to map cardiac sympathetic innervation, no studies have shown the feasibility of quantitation of 11 C-HED PET in small- to medium-sized animals. Furthermore, its relation to 123 I-MIBG uptake, the most widely used sympathetic nervous tracer, is unknown. The aims of this study were to establish in vivo sympathetic nerve imaging in rabbits using 11 C-HED PET, and to compare the retention of 11 C-HED with that of 123 I-MIBG. Twelve rabbits were assigned to three groups; control (n=4), chemical denervation by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) (n=4) and reserpine treated to inhibit vesicular uptake (n=4). After simultaneous injection of 11 C-HED and 123 I-MIBG, all animals underwent dynamic 11 C-HED PET for 40 min with arterial blood sampling. The 11 C-HED retention fraction and normalised 11 C-HED activity measured by tissue sampling were compared with those measured by PET. Both the 11 C-HED retention fraction and the normalised 11 C-HED activity measured by PET correlated closely with those measured by tissue sampling (R=0.96027, p 11 C-HED and 123 I-MIBG. Reserpine pretreatment reduced 11 C-HED retention by 50%, but did not reduce 123 I-MIBG retention at 40 min after injection. Non-invasive quantitation of cardiac sympathetic innervation using 11 C-HED PET is feasible and gives reliable estimates of cardiac sympathetic innervation in rabbits. Additionally, although both 11 C-HED and 123 I-MIBG are specific for sympathetic neurons, 11 C-HED may be more specific for intravesicular uptake than 123 I-MIBG in some situations, such as that seen in reserpine pretreatment. (orig.)

  14. Age-related changes in oxygen and nutrient uptake by hindquarters in newborn pigs during cold-induced shivering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossec, G; Lebreton, Y; Hulin, J C; Fillaut, M; Herpin, P

    1998-11-01

    Newborn pigs rely essentially on shivering thermogenesis in the cold. In order to understand the rapid postnatal enhancement of thermogenic capacities in piglets, the oxygen and nutrient uptake of hindquarters was measured in vivo in 1- (n = 6) and 5-day-old (n = 6) animals at thermal neutrality and during cold exposure. The hindquarters were considered to represent a skeletal muscle compartment. Indirect calorimetry and arterio-venous techniques were used. The cold challenge (23 C at 1 day old and 15 C at 5 days old for 90 min) induced a similar increase (+90 %) in regulatory heat production at both ages. Hindquarters blood flow was higher at 5 days than 1 day old at thermal neutrality (26 +/- 3 vs. 17 +/- 1 ml min-1 (100 g hindquarters)-1) and its increase in the cold was much more marked (+65 % at 5 days old vs. +25 % at 1 day old). Oxygen extraction by the hindquarters rose from 30-35 % at thermal neutrality to 65-70 % in the cold at both ages. The calculated contribution of skeletal muscle to total oxygen consumption averaged 34-40 % at thermal neutrality and 50-64 % in the cold and skeletal muscle was the major contributor to regulatory thermogenesis. Based on hindquarters glucose uptake and lactate release, carbohydrate appeared to be an important fuel for shivering. However, net uptake of fatty acids increased progressively during cold exposure at 5 days old. The enhancement in muscular blood supply and fatty acid utilization during shivering is probably related to the postnatal improvement in the thermoregulatory response of the piglet.

  15. Lower alert rates by clustering of related drug interaction alerts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, M.; Siderius, Hidde; Schreudering, A.; De Smet, Peter Agm; Bouvy, M.L.

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate to what extent clustering of related drug interaction alerts (drug-drug and drug-disease interaction alerts) would decrease the alert rate in clinical decision support systems (CDSSs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of drug interaction alerts

  16. Genetic variants of uncoupling proteins-2 and -3 in relation to maximal oxygen uptake in different sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdys, Joanna; Gronek, Piotr; Kryściak, Jakub; Stanisławski, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3) as mitochondrial electron transporters are involved in regulation of ATP production and energy dissipation as heat. Energy efficiency plays an important role in physical performance, especially in aerobic fitness. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maximal oxygen uptake and genetic variants of the UCP2 and UCP3 genes. The studies were carried out in a group of 154 men and 85 women, professional athletes representing various sports and fitness levels and students of the University of Physical Education in Poznań. Physiological and molecular procedures were used, i.e. direct measurement of maximum oxygen uptake (VO₂max) and analysis of an insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the 3'untranslated region of exon 8 of the UCP2 gene and a C>T substitution in exon 5 (Y210Y) of the UCP3 gene. No statistically significant associations were found, only certain trends. Insertion allele (I) of the I/D UCP2 and the T allele of the UCP3 gene were favourable in obtaining higher VO₂max level and might be considered as endurance-related alleles.

  17. Relative uptake of technetium 99m stannous colloid by neutrophils and monocytes is altered by gram-negative infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, Stuart C.; Maggs, Jacqueline A.; Ketheesan, Natkunam; Norton, Robert; LaBrooy, Justin

    2005-01-01

    Gram-negative infection alters phagocytic cell function; hence, it could affect phagocytic uptake of inorganic colloids by these cells. Neutrophil and monocyte uptake of technetium 99m stannous colloid ( 99m Tc SnC) in whole blood was measured in 10 patients with gram-negative infection (Burkholderia pseudomallei) and 7 controls. Mean uptake per individual neutrophil was reduced in infection. Uptake per monocyte was not significantly different. Blood from six normal individuals was incubated with lysed B. pseudomallei and colloid, which showed reduced neutrophil uptake, but increased monocyte uptake. These results indicate that uptake of 99m Tc SnC stannous colloid can be used to measure alteration in phagocytic cell function. They suggest that infection with B. pseudomallei is associated with reduced phagocytosis by individual neutrophils, possibly through toxic effects of bacterial products. This could have immunopathogenic consequences for this gram-negative infection and may explain why it responds to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

  18. Ruminant urine increases uptake but decreases relative recovery of nitrogen by smooth brome grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) fertilizer application and excreta return may contribute to poor nutrient recovery and use efficiencies in pastures. From 2011-2012, we investigated the effects of ruminant urine input (urine and distilled water control) and N fertilizer rate (0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 lb N/acre) on N res...

  19. A Clinical Study on {sup 125}IT{sub 3} Resin Uptake Rate and Serum Thyroxin(T{sub 4}) in Hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MooN, Ern Soo; Park, Yoh Han; Cho, Chang Ho; Park, In Soo; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1978-09-15

    Hyperthyroidism may be defined as those clinical conditions which result from an increase in the circulating levels of one or both thyroid hormones. Hyperthyroidism in broad sense could be classified with toxic diffuse goiter, toxic adenomatous goiter, and toxic multinodular goiter on the basis of the circulating thyroid hormone levels. For this study, the subject included 94 cases with hyperthyroidism were presented in 77 with toxic diffuse goiter, 8 with toxic adenomatous goiter, and 9 with toxic multinodular goiter on the levels of {sup 125}IT{sub 3} resin uptake rate and serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}). The observed results were as follows: 1) In the cases of hyperthyroidism including toxic diffuse goiter, toxic adenomatous goiter, and toxic multinodular goiter, 20.21% of the patients were male and 79.79% female. The majority of the patients were in 2nd to 4th decades of their lives. 2) There were objective signs clearly manifested in hyperthyroidism including toxic diffuse goiter and toxic adenomatous goiter which were rare in the multinodular goiter. The clinical signs in toxic diffuse and toxic adenomatous goiter included wide pulse pressure, tachycardia, systolic murmur, exophthalmos, tremor and warm skin etc. 3) The most frequent complaints of the patients with hyperthyroidism were palpitation, weight loss, increased appetite, perspiration, heat intolerance, nervousness, exertional dyspnea, and menstrual disturbance etc. There was no clear difference in the incidence of symptoms between toxic diffuse goiter and toxic adenomatous goiter, but there was clear difference between toxic multinodular goiter. 4) Considering of results of {sup 125}IT{sub 3} resin uptake rate and serum T{sub 4} level in toxic diffuse goiter, toxic adenomatous goiter and toxic multinodular goiter, {sup 125}IT{sub 3} resin uptake rate was 49.15+-9.94% (mean) and serum T{sub 4} 21.29+-7.04 ug/dl (mean) in toxic diffuse goiter. In toxic multinodular goiter, {sup 125}I T{sub 3} resin uptake

  20. (18)F-FDG dynamic PET/CT in patients with multiple myeloma: patterns of tracer uptake and correlation with bone marrow plasma cell infiltration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachpekidis, Christos; Mai, Elias K; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Hillengass, Jens; Hose, Dirk; Pan, Leyun; Haberkorn, Uwe; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia

    2015-06-01

    The value of F-FDG PET in the diagnostic approach of multiple myeloma (MM) remains incompletely elicited. Little is known about the kinetics of F-FDG in the bone marrow and extramedullary sites in MM. This study aimed to evaluate quantitative data on kinetics and distribution patterns of F-FDG in MM patients with regard to pelvic bone marrow plasma cell infiltration. The study included 40 patients with primary MM. Dynamic PET/CT scanning of the lower lumbar spine and pelvis was performed after the administration of F-FDG. Whole-body PET/CT studies were performed. Sites of focal increased tracer uptake were considered as highly suggestive of myelomatous involvement after taking into account the patient history and CT findings. Bone marrow of the os ilium without pathologic tracer accumulation served as reference. The evaluation of dynamic PET/CT studies was based in addition to the conventional visual (qualitative) assessment, on semiquantitative (SUV) calculations, as well as on absolute quantitative estimations after application of a 2-tissue compartment model and a noncompartmental approach. F-FDG quantitative information and corresponding distribution patterns were correlated with pelvic bone marrow plasma cell infiltration. Fifty-two myelomatous lesions were detected in the pelvis. All parameters in suspected MM lesions ranged in significantly higher levels than in reference tissue (P PET/CT imaging demonstrated 4 patterns of tracer uptake; these are as follows: negative, focal, diffuse, and mixed (focal/diffuse) tracer uptake. Patients with a mixed pattern of radiotracer uptake had the highest mean plasma cell infiltration rate in their bone marrow, whereas those with negative PET/CT scans demonstrated the lowest bone marrow plasma cell infiltration. In total, 265 focal myeloma-indicative F-FDG-avid lesions were detected, 129 of which correlated with low-dose CT osteolytic findings. No significant correlation between the number of focal lesions detected in PET

  1. Uptake and translocation of labelled iodide ion in privet (Ligustrum vulgare L. ) as related to its defoliating activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marczynski, S; Jankiewicz, L S [Szkola Glowna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego, Warsaw (Poland)

    1978-01-01

    The /sup 131/J/sup -/ ion applied as KJ solution to lanolin ring on the leaf moved quickly to other parts of the leaf, however, it was transported to the stem and axillary bud in small amount. The /sup 131/J/sup -/ ion from potassium iodide was absorbed very fast by privet (Ligustrum vulgare L.). By 45 min after treatment about half of the applied ion was absorbed. This result was also confirmed in field experiments with non labelled KJ with privet and with SpiraeaXbumalda cv. Froebelii during 2 year experiments. In the conditions of high air humidity (95% r.h.) much more K/sup 131/J was absorbed than at low air humidity (50% r.h.) at the same temperature (23/sup 0/). Also at a relatively high temperature (23/sup 0/) the uptake was more intensive than at a low temperature (4/sup 0/), at the same air humidity (95% r.h.).

  2. Age effects on Norway spruce (Picea abies) susceptibility to ozone uptake: a novel approach relating stress avoidance to defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, G.; Tegischer, K. [Forstliche Bundesanstalt, Abteilung Forstpflanzenphysiologie, Innsbruck (Austria); Tausz, M. [Karl Franzens Universitat, Inst. fuer Pflanzenphysiologie, Graz (Austria); Haberle, K-H.; Grams, T. E.; Matyssek, R. [Tecnische Universitat Munchen, Dept. of Ecology/Forest Botany, Freising (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    Cumulative ozone uptake and ozone flux were related to physiological, morphological and biochemical characteristics of Norway spruce trees of different ages. Results showed young trees exhibiting greater sensitivity than mature trees. The greater ozone sensitivity of young trees was associated with needle morphology. Biomass of a 100-needle sample increased significantly with tree age, whereas for specific leaf area the correlation was negative. These changes paralleled those observed during differentiation from shade-type to sun-type needles with tree ontogeny. Age-related changes in leaf morphology were related to changes in detoxification capacity, with area-based concentrations of ascorbate increasing during tree ontogeny. It was hypothesized that the extent of ozone-induced injury was related to the ratio of potentially available antioxidants to ozone influx. This ratio was shown to increase with tree age, hence it was concluded that the ratio may serve as an empirical basis for characterizing age-related differences in tree responses to ozone. 70 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Simple relations between mean passage times and Kramers' stationary rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boilley, David; Jurado, Beatriz; Schmitt, Christelle

    2004-01-01

    The classical problem of the escape time of a metastable potential well in a thermal environment is generally studied by various quantities like Kramers' stationary escape rate, mean first passage time, nonlinear relaxation time, or mean last passage time. In addition, numerical simulations lead to the definition of other quantities as the long-time limit escape rate and the transient time. In this paper, we propose some simple analytical relations between all these quantities. In particular, we point out the hypothesis used to evaluate these various times in order to clarify their comparison and applicability, and show how average times include the transient time and the long-time limit of the escape rate

  4. Ozone sensitivity of Fagus sylvatica and Fraxinus excelsior young trees in relation to leaf structure and foliar ozone uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerosa, Giacomo; Marzuoli, Riccardo; Bussotti, Filippo; Pancrazi, Marica; Ballarin-Denti, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The difference in ozone sensitivity between Fagus sylvatica and Fraxinus exclesior is explained by their different stomatal ozone uptake and by their different foliar structure. - During the summer of 2001, 2-year-old Fraxinus excelsior and Fagus sylvatica plants were subjected to ozone-rich environmental conditions at the Regional Forest Nursery at Curno (Northern Italy). Atmospheric ozone concentrations and stomatal conductance were measured, in order to calculate the foliar fluxes by means of a one-dimensional model. The foliar structure of both species was examined (thickness of the lamina and of the individual tissues, leaf mass per area, leaf density) and chlorophyll a fluorescence was determined as a response parameter. Stomatal conductance was always greater in Fraxinus excelsior, as was ozone uptake, although the highest absorption peaks did not match the peaks of ozone concentration in the atmosphere. The foliar structure can help explain this phenomenon: Fraxinus excelsior has a thicker mesophyll than Fagus sylvatica (indicating a greater photosynthesis potential) and a reduced foliar density. This last parameter, related to the apoplastic fraction, suggests a greater ability to disseminate the gases within the leaf as well as a greater potential detoxifying capacity. As foliar symptoms spread, the parameters relating to chlorophyll a fluorescence also change. PI (Performance Index, Strasser, A., Srivastava, A., Tsimilli-Michael, M., 2000. The fluorescence transient as a tool to characterize and screen photosynthetic samples. In: Yunus, M., Pathre, U., Mohanty, P., (Eds.) Probing Photosynthesis: Mechanisms, Regulation and Adaptation. Taylor and Francis, London, UK, pp. 445-483.) has proved to be a more suitable index than Fv/Fm (Quantum Yield Efficiency) to record the onset of stress conditions

  5. Engineering aspects of rate-related processes in food manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Many rate-related phenomena occur in food manufacturing processes. This review addresses four of them, all of which are topics that the author has studied in order to design food manufacturing processes that are favorable from the standpoint of food engineering. They include chromatographic separation through continuous separation with a simulated moving adsorber, lipid oxidation kinetics in emulsions and microencapsulated systems, kinetic analysis and extraction in subcritical water, and water migration in pasta.

  6. Exchange RateRelative Price Nonlinear Cointegration Relationship in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Venus Khim-Sen Liew; Chee-Keong Choong; Evan Lau; Kian-Ping Lim

    2005-01-01

    The finding of exchange rate–relative price nonlinear cointegration relationship in Malaysia, among others, suggests that nonlinear Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) equilibrium may be regarded as reference point in judging the short run misalignment of the Ringgit currency and thereby deducing effective policy actions. Moreover, economists who wish to extend the simple PPP exchange rate model into the more complicated monetary exchange models may do so comfortably, at least in the text of Malays...

  7. Leaching of radionuclides from decaying blueberry leaves: Relative rate independent of concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    Leaching of radionuclides from decaying vegetation has not been extensively investigated, especially for radionuclides other than 137 Cs. The authors obtained leaves of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium x V. corymbosum) that contained over 25-fold ranges in Se, Cs, and I concentrations, as well as a small quantity of leaves containing detectable U. All were contaminated by way of root uptake. Leaching took place for a period of 1 yr in the laboratory, using leach water from forest litter. Monthly, measurements were made of the radionuclide contents and decaying leaf dry weights. The data conformed to an exponential decay model with two first-order components. In no case did the relative loss rates vary systematically with the initial tissue radionuclide concentrations. Loss rates decreased in the order Cs > I > U > dry wt. > Se. Because of the low leaching rate of Se relative to the loss of dry weight, decaying litter may actually accumulate elements such as Se. Accumulation of radionuclides in litter could have important implications for lateral transport, recycling, and direct incorporation into edible mushrooms

  8. Leaching of radionuclides from decaying blueberry leaves: Relative rate independent of concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada))

    Leaching of radionuclides from decaying vegetation has not been extensively investigated, especially for radionuclides other than {sup 137}Cs. The authors obtained leaves of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium {times} V. corymbosum) that contained over 25-fold ranges in Se, Cs, and I concentrations, as well as a small quantity of leaves containing detectable U. All were contaminated by way of root uptake. Leaching took place for a period of 1 yr in the laboratory, using leach water from forest litter. Monthly, measurements were made of the radionuclide contents and decaying leaf dry weights. The data conformed to an exponential decay model with two first-order components. In no case did the relative loss rates vary systematically with the initial tissue radionuclide concentrations. Loss rates decreased in the order Cs > I > U > dry wt. > Se. Because of the low leaching rate of Se relative to the loss of dry weight, decaying litter may actually accumulate elements such as Se. Accumulation of radionuclides in litter could have important implications for lateral transport, recycling, and direct incorporation into edible mushrooms.

  9. Influence of the form and rate of 15N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers on nitrogen uptake by maize grown on two different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabanova-Georgieva, R.; Ikonomova, E.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of 15 N-labelled urea and ammonium sulfate on the yield and uptake of fertilizer nitrogen and soil nitrogen by maize was studied under the conditions of pot experiments on calcareous black earth and leached black earth. The nitrogen fertilizers were applied in rates: N 1 =250 mg, N 2 =500 mg, N 3 =750 mg and N 4 =1000 mg/1 kg of soil, on phosphorus(P)-potassium(K) background (P=200 and K=600 mg/kg soil). When treating with N 3 and N 4 , the application of the whole nitrogen rate was compared with its split application. It was found that the form of the nitrogen fertilizer played no important role for the formation of the yield of biomass and the uptake of nitrogen with the yield when it is applied in low nitrogen rates and maize was grown on calcareous black earth. The yield of biomass and the uptake of nitrogen with the yield of maize reach their maximum under the conditions of calcareous black earth and high nitrogen rates applied as urea depressed the plants which proves the statement that in case of calcareous black earth application of ammonium sulfate should be preferred rather that urea, fertilization with which should be avoided. No depression of plants was observed under the conditions of leached black earth and application of high urea rates. The amount of nitrogen taken up is growing with the increasing of the nitrogen rate (excluding the N-treatment). The split application of high nitrogen rates increased notably the yield of maize-vegetation mass which proved the great ability of this crop for effective utilization of the nitrogen fertilizers when applied in portions and at suitable phases of plant vegetation. The role of the fertilizer nitrogen on the formation of the plant mass yield is much greater compared to that of the soil nitrogen; in the split application of urea the soil nitrogen plays a much bigger role than in its single application. The additional mobilization of the soil nitrogen under the influence of the applied nitrogen

  10. The distribution of FDG at PET examinations constitutes a relative mechanism: significant effects at activity quantification in patients with a high muscular uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, Henry; Johansson, Ove; Jacobsson, Hans; Jonsson, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    At 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) examinations a high tracer uptake of the skeletal muscles is sometimes encountered which can lead to reduced uptake in pathological lesions. This was evaluated in retrospect in patients being recalled for a repeat examination after reducing the muscular uptake. Ten patients with increased muscular tracer uptake were examined with FDG PET/CT on two occasions with a mean of 6 days. All patients showed at least one pathological lesion with increased tracer uptake. The muscular uptake was reduced at the second examination by informing the patient to refrain from physical activity together with pretreatment with diazepam. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) of the pathological lesion and SUV mean of certain skeletal muscles, liver, spleen, lungs, blood and certain bone marrow portions were calculated. In all patients, the muscular uptake was reduced to a normal level at visual evaluation as well as at comparison of SUVs with 25 consecutive clinical patients exhibiting a normal FDG distribution (p max increased from 2.4 to 3.7 (54 %) between the examinations (p max to the activity of any of the reference tissues/organs there was no significant difference between the studies. The distribution of FDG constitutes a relative mechanism. This must be especially considered at longitudinal examinations in the same patient at therapy evaluations. In examinations with a somehow distorted general distribution of the activity, it may be more relevant to relate the lesion activity to a reference tissue/organ than relying on SUV assessments. (orig.)

  11. Statistical Modelling of Temperature and Moisture Uptake of Biochars Exposed to Selected Relative Humidity of Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Bastistella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available New experimental techniques, as well as modern variants on known methods, have recently been employed to investigate the fundamental reactions underlying the oxidation of biochar. The purpose of this paper was to experimentally and statistically study how the relative humidity of air, mass, and particle size of four biochars influenced the adsorption of water and the increase in temperature. A random factorial design was employed using the intuitive statistical software Xlstat. A simple linear regression model and an analysis of variance with a pairwise comparison were performed. The experimental study was carried out on the wood of Quercus pubescens, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Trigonostemon huangmosun, and Bambusa vulgaris, and involved five relative humidity conditions (22, 43, 75, 84, and 90%, two mass samples (0.1 and 1 g, and two particle sizes (powder and piece. Two response variables including water adsorption and temperature increase were analyzed and discussed. The temperature did not increase linearly with the adsorption of water. Temperature was modeled by nine explanatory variables, while water adsorption was modeled by eight. Five variables, including factors and their interactions, were found to be common to the two models. Sample mass and relative humidity influenced the two qualitative variables, while particle size and biochar type only influenced the temperature.

  12. Influence of the Relative Enamel Abrasivity (REA) of Toothpastes on the Uptake of KOH-soluble and Structurally Bound Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmazi, Valbona; Sener, Beatrice; Attin, Thomas; Imfeld, Thomas; Wegehaupt, Florian J

    2015-01-01

    To determine the influence of the relative enamel abrasivity (REA) of fluoridated toothpaste on the uptake of KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride into enamel. Bovine enamel samples were randomly allocated to 6 groups (n=36 per group). Groups A to C were treated with sodium fluoride (NaF) toothpastes and groups D to F with amine fluoride (AmF) toothpastes (1500 ppm F each). The REA in groups A and D was 2, in groups B and E it was 6 and in groups C and F it was 9. Twice a day, 18 samples of each group were immersed for 2 min in a slurry (toothpaste:artificial saliva=1:3), while the remaining samples were brushed with the respective slurry (2.5 N force; 60 strokes/min; 2 min). All samples were stored at 37°C and 100% humidity. After five days, the amount of KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride was determined and statistically compared by Scheffe's post-hoc tests. REA value and mode of application (immersion or brushing) had no significant influence on the amount of either kind of fluoride from NaF toothpastes. Only for the NaF toothpaste with REA 6 was the amount of KOH-soluble fluoride significantly higher after brushing. With AmF toothpastes, KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride concentrations were significantly higher when the samples were brushed. Furthermore, in the REA-2 group, the amounts of KOH-soluble fluoride (brushed or immersed) and structurally bound fluoride (brushed) were significantly higher than in the other groups. The REA dependency of KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride was found only for the AmF toothpastes. Using AmF toothpaste, the mode of application influenced the uptake of KOH-soluble and structurally bound fluoride into enamel.

  13. High air-sea CO 2 uptake rates in nearshore and shelf areas of Southern Greenland: Temporal and spatial variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Mortensen, J.; Juul-Pedersen, T.

    2012-01-01

    significant correlation between average annual gross primary production and annual air-sea flux during 2005-2010, which suggests that regulation of pCO 2 in the fjord is more complex. Despite three confined periods with supersaturated pCO 2 conditions in surface waters during 2005-2010, Godthåbsfjord can......The present study is based on hourly samplings of wind speed, monthly sampling sessions of temperature, salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, nutrients, primary productivity and vertical export in the outer sill region (station GF3) of a sub-arctic SW Greenland fjord (Godthåbsfjord......) through 2005-2010. Air-sea CO 2 fluxes varied at GF3 from c. -20gCm -2month -1 (uptake from the atmosphere) to 25gCm -2month -1 (release to the atmosphere) during 2005-10. The average annual air-sea CO 2 flux of -83 to -108gCm -2yr -1 was within the range of the local gross annual primary productivity...

  14. Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on Commercial Thermal Desorption Tubes and the Effect of Ozone on Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Parra, Amanda [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Wen-Yee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Diffusive or passive sampling methods using commercially filled axial-sampling thermal desorption tubes are widely used for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. The passive sampling method provides a robust, cost effective way to measure air quality with time-averaged concentrations spanning up to a week or more. Sampling rates for VOCs can be calculated using tube geometry and Fick’s Law for ideal diffusion behavior or measured experimentally. There is evidence that uptake rates deviate from ideal and may not be constant over time. Therefore, experimentally measured sampling rates are preferred. In this project, a calibration chamber with a continuous stirred tank reactor design and constant VOC source was combined with active sampling to generate a controlled dynamic calibration environment for passive samplers. The chamber air was augmented with a continuous source of 45 VOCs ranging from pentane to diethyl phthalate representing a variety of chemical classes and physiochemical properties. Both passive and active samples were collected on commercially filled Tenax TA thermal desorption tubes over an 11-day period and used to calculate passive sampling rates. A second experiment was designed to determine the impact of ozone on passive sampling by using the calibration chamber to passively load five terpenes on a set of Tenax tubes and then exposing the tubes to different ozone environments with and without ozone scrubbers attached to the tube inlet. During the sampling rate experiment, the measured diffusive uptake was constant for up to seven days for most of the VOCs tested but deviated from linearity for some of the more volatile compounds between seven and eleven days. In the ozone experiment, both exposed and unexposed tubes showed a similar decline in terpene mass over time indicating back diffusion when uncapped tubes were transferred to a clean environment but there was no indication of significant loss by ozone reaction.

  15. Screening uptake rates and the clinical and cost effectiveness of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in primary versus secondary care: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Dea, Angela

    2014-01-17

    The risks associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are well recognized, and there is increasing evidence to support treatment of the condition. However, clear guidance on the ideal approach to screening for GDM is lacking. Professional groups continue to debate whether selective screening (based on risk factors) or universal screening is the most appropriate approach. Additionally, there is ongoing debate about what levels of glucose abnormalities during pregnancy respond best to treatment and which maternal and neonatal outcomes benefit most from treatment. Furthermore, the implications of possible screening options on health care costs are not well established. In response to this uncertainty there have been repeated calls for well-designed, randomised trials to determine the efficacy of screening, diagnosis, and management plans for GDM. We describe a randomised controlled trial to investigate screening uptake rates and the clinical and cost effectiveness of screening in primary versus secondary care settings. The objective of this study is to assess screening uptake rates, and the clinical and cost effectiveness of screening for GDM in primary versus secondary care.

  16. Antigen uptake and expression of antigen presentation-related immune genes in flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) after vaccination with an inactivated Edwardsiella tarda immersion vaccine, following hyperosmotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yingli; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2016-08-01

    Antigen uptake is a critical process for activation of the immune system, and therefore the ability to enhance antigen uptake is a primary consideration in the development of an immersion vaccination of fish. In the present work, flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) were immersed in three hyperosmotic solutions with 40, 50 and 60‰ salinities, then transferred into seawater of normal salinity (i.e. 30‰) containing formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda for 30 min. The antigen uptake in vaccinated flounder was determined using an absolute quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results showed significantly higher antigen uptake in the tissues of flounders immersed in solutions with 50‰ and 60‰ salinity compared to the control group directly immersed in vaccine (DI) (P immersed in the 50‰ salinity solution, whereas there was no significant difference in antigen uptake between the 40‰ salinity group and the DI group (P > 0.05). A rapid and significant increase in antigen uptake was detected in the mucosal-associated tissues including the gill, skin and intestine (P immersion, which was significantly higher than the levels of uptake measured in the other tissues (P immersion (hpi). The expression profiles of four antigen presentation-related immune genes (MHC Iα, MHC IIα, CD4-1 and CD8α) were investigated after immersion. These four genes showed a significantly stronger response in the immersed flounders exposed to 50‰ salinity compared with the DI group (P immersion, notably 50‰ salinity significantly enhanced antigen uptake and the expression of selected genes associated with antigen presentation, providing evidence for an enhanced immune activation of the fish's immune response by the hyperosmotic immersion treatment prior to vaccination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E; Guo, Xianfeng; de Visser, Pieter H B; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2017-01-01

    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of water and nutrients in water surpass those in substrate, even though the transport of oxygen may be more complex. Transport rates can only limit growth when they are below a rate corresponding to maximum plant uptake. Our first objective was to compare Chrysanthemum growth performance for three water-based growing systems with different irrigation. We compared; multi-point irrigation into a pond (DeepFlow); one-point irrigation resulting in a thin film of running water (NutrientFlow) and multi-point irrigation as droplets through air (Aeroponic). Second objective was to compare press pots as propagation medium with nutrient solution as propagation medium. The comparison included DeepFlow water-rooted cuttings with either the stem 1 cm into the nutrient solution or with the stem 1 cm above the nutrient solution. Measurements included fresh weight, dry weight, length, water supply, nutrient supply, and oxygen levels. To account for differences in radiation sum received, crop performance was evaluated with Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) expressed as dry weight over sum of Photosynthetically Active Radiation. The reference, DeepFlow with substrate-based propagation, showed the highest RUE, even while the oxygen supply provided by irrigation was potentially growth limiting. DeepFlow with water-based propagation showed 15-17% lower RUEs than the reference. NutrientFlow showed 8% lower RUE than the reference, in combination with potentially limiting irrigation supply of nutrients and oxygen. Aeroponic showed RUE levels similar to the reference and Aeroponic had non-limiting irrigation supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen. Water-based propagation affected the subsequent

  18. Sovereign ratings in the post-crisis world : an analysis of actual, shadow and relative risk ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Kaushik; De, Supriyo; Ratha, Dilip; Timmer, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of sovereign credit ratings in the wake of the global financial crisis by studying changes in actual, shadow, and relative ratings between 2008 and 2012. For countries that do not have a rating from the major rating agencies, shadow ratings are estimated as a function of macroeconomic, structural, and governance variables. The shadow rating exercise confir...

  19. Investigating Ceria Nanocrystals Uptake by Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells and its Related Effects: An Electron Microscopy Study

    KAUST Repository

    Aloufi, Bader

    2017-01-22

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles have been utilized widely nowadays in cancer research. It has been suggested by many studies that these nanoparticles are capable of having dual antioxidant behavior in healthy and cancer microenvironment; where in physiological condition, they act as antioxidant and do not affect the healthy cells, while in tumor-like condition; they act as an oxidase, and result in a selective killing for the cancer cells. In this experiment, the interaction of nanoceria with glioblastoma and healthy astrocyte cells was examined, and further correlated with the in vitro cytotoxic effects of various nanoceria concentrations (100 and 300 µg/ml) and exposure times (12, 24, and 48 hours). Electron microscopes were used to investigate the cellular-NPs interactions, and to examine the related cytotoxic effects in combination with trypan blue and propidium iodide viability assays. Our data suggest the following results. First, the two cell lines demonstrated capability of taken up the ceria through endocytosis pathway, where the NPs were recognized engulfed by double membrane vesicles at various regions over the cellular cytoplasm. Secondly, cerium oxide nanoparticles were found to affect the glioblastoma cells, but not so severely the corresponding healthy astrocytes at the various concentrations and incubation times, as revealed by the viability assays and the electron microscopy analysis. Thirdly, the viability of the glioblastoma cells after the treatment displayed a declined trend when increasing the ceria concentrations, but did not show such dependency with regard to the different time points. In all cases, the healthy astrocyte cells showed slight alterations in mitochondrial shape which did not influence their viability. Among the various nanoceria concentrations and exposure times, the most efficient dose of treatment was found to be with a concentration of 300 µg/ml at a time point of 24-hour, where higher reduction on the viability of

  20. Heart rate variability in sleep-related migraine without aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollono, Catello; Gnoni, Valentina; Testani, Elisa; Dittoni, Serena; Losurdo, Anna; Colicchio, Salvatore; Di Blasi, Chiara; Mazza, Salvatore; Farina, Benedetto; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2013-07-15

    This is an observational study aimed to investigate the activity of autonomic nervous system during sleep in patients with sleep-related migraine. Eight consecutive migraineurs without aura were enrolled (6 women and 2 men), aged 30 to 62 years (mean 48.1 ± 9.3 years). Inclusion criteria were: high frequency of attacks (> 5 per month) and occurrence of more than 75% of the attacks during sleep causing an awakening. Patients were compared with a control group of 55 healthy subjects (23 men and 32 women, mean age 54.2 ± 13.0 years), and with a further control group of 8 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patient and controls underwent polysomnography and heart rate variability analysis. A significant reduction of the LF/HF ratio during N2 and N3 sleep stages was observed in migraineurs compared with controls. No differences in sleep macrostructure were observed; cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) time and CAP rate were lower in migraineurs than in controls. These findings indicate a peculiar modification of the autonomic balance during sleep in sleep-related migraine. The reduction of LF/HF ratio in NREM sleep was observed in controls, but it was quantitatively much more evident in migraineurs. Changes in LF/HF could be consequent to an autonomic unbalance which could manifest selectively (or alternatively become more evident) during sleep. These findings, together with the reduction in CAP rate, could be an expression of reduced arousability during sleep in patients with sleep-related migraine. The simultaneous involvement of the autonomic, arousal, and pain systems might suggest involvement of the hypothalamic pathways.

  1. The role of gender relations in uptake of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in Alor District, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentel, Alison; Wellings, Kaye

    2018-03-12

    The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has set 2020 as a target to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem through mass drug administration (MDA) to all eligible people living in endemic areas. To obtain a better understanding of compliance with LF treatment, a qualitative study using 43 in-depth interviews was carried out in Alor District, Indonesia to explore factors that motivate uptake of LF treatment, including the social and behavioural differences between compliant and non-compliant individuals. In this paper, we report on the findings specific to the role of family and gender relations and how they affect compliance. The sample comprised 21 men and 22 women; 24 complied with treatment while 19 did not. Gender relations emerged as a key theme in access, uptake and compliance with MDA. The view that the husband, as head of household, had the power, control, and in some cases the responsibility to influence whether his wife took the medication was common among both men and women. Gender also affected priorities for health care provision in the household as well as overall decision making regarding health in the household. Four models of responsibility for health decision making emerged: (i) responsibility resting primarily with the husband; (ii) responsibility resting primarily with the wife; (iii) responsibility shared equally by both husband and wife; and (iv) responsibility autonomously assumed by each individual for his or her own self, regardless of the course of action of the other spouse. (i) Gender relations and social hierarchy influence compliance with LF treatment because they inherently affect decisions taken within the household regarding health; (ii) health care interventions need to take account of the complexity of gender roles; (iii) the fact that women's power tends to be implicit and not overtly recognised in the household or the community has important implications for health care interventions; (iv

  2. Glomerular filtration rate estimated from the uptake phase of 99mTc-DTPA renography in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L J; Petersen, J R; Talleruphuus, U

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 99mTc-DTPA renography with that estimated from the renal clearance of 51Cr-EDTA, creatinine and urea.......The purpose of the study was to compare the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 99mTc-DTPA renography with that estimated from the renal clearance of 51Cr-EDTA, creatinine and urea....

  3. Seasonal and diurnal gas exchange differences in ozone-sensitive common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in relation to ozone uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergweiler, Chris; Manning, William J.; Chevone, Boris I.

    2008-01-01

    Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) plants in two different soil moisture regimes were directly quantified and subsequently modeled over an entire growing season. Direct measurements captured the dynamic response of stomatal conductance to changing environmental conditions throughout the day, as well as declining gas exchange and carbon assimilation throughout the growth period beyond an early summer maximum. This phenomenon was observed in plants grown both with and without supplemental soil moisture, the latter of which should theoretically mitigate against harmful physiological effects caused by exposure to ozone. Seasonally declining rates of stomatal conductance were found to be substantial and incorporated into models, making them less susceptible to the overestimations of effective exposure that are an inherent source of error in ozone exposure indices. The species-specific evidence presented here supports the integration of dynamic physiological processes into flux-based modeling approaches for the prediction of ozone injury in vegetation. - Temporal variation in physiological processes underlying diurnal and seasonal ozone uptake are described for a key ozone bioindicator species of North America

  4. Seasonal and diurnal gas exchange differences in ozone-sensitive common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in relation to ozone uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergweiler, Chris [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)], E-mail: bergweiler@nre.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil, and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chevone, Boris I. [Department of Plant Pathology, Physiology, and Weed Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) plants in two different soil moisture regimes were directly quantified and subsequently modeled over an entire growing season. Direct measurements captured the dynamic response of stomatal conductance to changing environmental conditions throughout the day, as well as declining gas exchange and carbon assimilation throughout the growth period beyond an early summer maximum. This phenomenon was observed in plants grown both with and without supplemental soil moisture, the latter of which should theoretically mitigate against harmful physiological effects caused by exposure to ozone. Seasonally declining rates of stomatal conductance were found to be substantial and incorporated into models, making them less susceptible to the overestimations of effective exposure that are an inherent source of error in ozone exposure indices. The species-specific evidence presented here supports the integration of dynamic physiological processes into flux-based modeling approaches for the prediction of ozone injury in vegetation. - Temporal variation in physiological processes underlying diurnal and seasonal ozone uptake are described for a key ozone bioindicator species of North America.

  5. Cellular uptake of {sup 99m}TcN-NOET in human leukaemic HL-60 cells is related to calcium channel activation and cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillermet, Stephanie; Vuillez, Jean-Philippe; Caravel, Jean-Pierre; Marti-Batlle, Daniele; Fagret, Daniel [Universite de Grenoble, Radiopharmaceutiques Biocliniques, La Tronche (France); Fontaine, Eric [Universite de Grenoble, Laboratoire de Bioenergetique Fondamentale et Appliquee, Grenoble (France); Pasqualini, Roberto [Cis Bio International Schering SA, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2006-01-01

    A major goal of nuclear oncology is the development of new radiolabelled tracers as proliferation markers. Intracellular calcium waves play a fundamental role in the course of the cell cycle. These waves occur in non-excitable tumour cells via store-operated calcium channels (SOCCs). Bis(N-ethoxy, N-ethyldithiocarbamato) nitrido technetium (V)-99m ({sup 99m}TcN-NOET) has been shown to interact with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs) in cultured cardiomyocytes. Considering the analogy between VOCCs and SOCCs, we sought to determine whether {sup 99m}TcN-NOET also binds to activated SOCCs in tumour cells in order to clarify the potential value of this tracer as a proliferation marker. Uptake kinetics of {sup 99m}TcN-NOET were measured in human leukaemic HL-60 cells over 60 min and the effect of several calcium channel modulators on 1-min tracer uptake was studied. The uptake kinetics of {sup 99m}TcN-NOET were compared both with the variations of cytosolic free calcium concentration measured by indo-1/AM and with the variations in the SG{sub 2}M cellular proliferation index. All calcium channel inhibitors significantly decreased the cellular uptake of {sup 99m}TcN-NOET whereas the activator thapsigargin induced a significant 10% increase. In parallel, SOCC activation by thapsigargin, as measured using the indo-1/AM probe, was inhibited by nicardipine. These results indicate that the uptake of {sup 99m}TcN-NOET is related to the activation of SOCCs. Finally, a correlation was observed between the tracer uptake and variations in the proliferation index SG{sub 2}M. The uptake of {sup 99m}TcN-NOET seems to be related to SOCC activation and to cell proliferation in HL-60 cells. These results indicate that {sup 99m}TcN-NOET might be a marker of cell proliferation. (orig.)

  6. Cellular uptake of 99mTcN-NOET in human leukaemic HL-60 cells is related to calcium channel activation and cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermet, Stephanie; Vuillez, Jean-Philippe; Caravel, Jean-Pierre; Marti-Batlle, Daniele; Fagret, Daniel; Fontaine, Eric; Pasqualini, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    A major goal of nuclear oncology is the development of new radiolabelled tracers as proliferation markers. Intracellular calcium waves play a fundamental role in the course of the cell cycle. These waves occur in non-excitable tumour cells via store-operated calcium channels (SOCCs). Bis(N-ethoxy, N-ethyldithiocarbamato) nitrido technetium (V)-99m ( 99m TcN-NOET) has been shown to interact with L-type voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCCs) in cultured cardiomyocytes. Considering the analogy between VOCCs and SOCCs, we sought to determine whether 99m TcN-NOET also binds to activated SOCCs in tumour cells in order to clarify the potential value of this tracer as a proliferation marker. Uptake kinetics of 99m TcN-NOET were measured in human leukaemic HL-60 cells over 60 min and the effect of several calcium channel modulators on 1-min tracer uptake was studied. The uptake kinetics of 99m TcN-NOET were compared both with the variations of cytosolic free calcium concentration measured by indo-1/AM and with the variations in the SG 2 M cellular proliferation index. All calcium channel inhibitors significantly decreased the cellular uptake of 99m TcN-NOET whereas the activator thapsigargin induced a significant 10% increase. In parallel, SOCC activation by thapsigargin, as measured using the indo-1/AM probe, was inhibited by nicardipine. These results indicate that the uptake of 99m TcN-NOET is related to the activation of SOCCs. Finally, a correlation was observed between the tracer uptake and variations in the proliferation index SG 2 M. The uptake of 99m TcN-NOET seems to be related to SOCC activation and to cell proliferation in HL-60 cells. These results indicate that 99m TcN-NOET might be a marker of cell proliferation. (orig.)

  7. Crop uptake and leaching losses of 15N labelled fertilizer nitrogen in relation to waterlogging of clay and sandy loam soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, C.P.; Belford, R.K.; Cannell, R.Q.

    1986-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, labelled with 15 N, was applied in spring to winter wheat growing in undisturbed monoliths of clay and sandy loam soil in lysimeters; the rates of application were respectively 95 and 102 kg N ha -1 in the spring of 1976 and 1975. Crops of winter wheat, oilseed rape, peas and barley grown in the following 5 or 6 years were treated with unlabelled nitrogen fertilizer at rates recommended for maximum yields. During each year of the experiments the lysimeters were divided into treatments which were either freely drained or subjected to periods of waterlogging. Another labelled nitrogen application was made in 1980 to a separate group of lysimeters with a clay soil and a winter wheat crop to study further the uptake of nitrogen fertilizer in relation to waterlogging. In the first growing season, shoots of the winter wheater at harvest contained 46 and 58% of the fertilizer nitrogen applied to the clay and sandy loam soils respectively. In the following year the crops contained a further 1-2% of the labelled fertilizer, and after 5 and 6 years the total recoveries of labelled fertilizer in the crops were 49 and 62% on the clay and sandy loam soils respectively. In the first winter after the labelled fertilizer was applied, less than 1% of the fertilizer was lost in the drainage water, and only about 2% of the total nitrogen (mainly nitrate) in the drainage water from both soils was derived from the fertilizer

  8. Do resident's leadership skills relate to ratings of technical skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Samantha J; Law, Katherine E; Ray, Rebecca D; Nathwani, Jay N; DiMarco, Shannon M; D'Angelo, Anne-Lise D; Pugh, Carla M

    2016-12-01

    This study sought to compare general surgery research residents' survey information regarding self-efficacy ratings to their observed performance during a simulated small bowel repair. Their observed performance ratings were based on their leadership skills in directing their assistant. Participants were given 15 min to perform a bowel repair using bovine intestines with standardized injuries. Operative assistants were assigned to help assist with the repair. Before the procedure, participants were asked to rate their expected skills decay, task difficulty, and confidence in addressing the small bowel injury. Interactions were coded to identify the number of instructions given by the participants to the assistant during the repair. Statistical analyses assessed the relationship between the number of directional instructions and participants' perceptions self-efficacy measures. Directional instructions were defined as any dialog by the participant who guided the assistant to perform an action. Thirty-six residents (58.3% female) participated in the study. Participants who rated lower levels of decay in their intraoperative decision-making and small bowel repair skills were noted to use their assistant more by giving more instructions. Similarly, a higher number of instructions correlated with lower perceived difficulty in selecting the correct suture, suture pattern, and completing the entire surgical task. General surgery research residents' intraoperative leadership skills showed significant correlations to their perceptions of skill decay and task difficulty during a bowel repair. Evaluating resident's directional instructions may provide an additional individualized intraoperative assessment metric. Further evaluation relating to operative performance outcomes is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Background Intestinal 18F-FDG Uptake Is Related to Serum Lipid Profile and Obesity in Breast Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Jeon Yoon

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between background intestinal uptake on 18F-FDG PET and cardio-metabolic risk (CMR factors.A total of 326 female patients that underwent 18F-FDG PET to determine the initial stage of breast cancer were enrolled. None of the patients had history of diabetes or hypertension. The background intestinal uptake on PET was visually graded (low vs. high uptake group and quantitatively measured using the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax. SUVmax of 7 bowel segments (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, hepatic flexure, splenic flexure, and descending colon-sigmoid junction were averaged for the total bowel (TB SUVmax. Age, body mass index (BMI, fasting blood glucose level (BST, triglyceride (TG, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL were the considered CMR factors. The relationships between background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake on PET and diverse CMR factors were analyzed.The visual grades based on background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake classified 100 (30.7% patients into the low uptake group, while 226 (69.3% were classified into the high uptake group. Among CMR factors, age (p = 0.004, BMI (p<0.001, and TG (p<0.001 were significantly different according to visual grade of background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake. Quantitative TB SUVmax showed significant positive correlation with age (r = 0.203, p<0.001, BMI (r = 0.373, p<0.001, TG (r = 0.338, p<0.001, cholesterol (r = 0.148, p = 0.008, and LDL (r = 0.143, p = 0.024 and significant negative correlation with HDL (r = -0.147, p = 0.022. Multivariate analysis indicated that BMI and TG were independent factors in both visually graded background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake (p = 0.027 and p = 0.023, respectively and quantitatively measured TB SUVmax (p = 0.006 and p = 0.004, respectively.Increased background intestinal 18F-FDG uptake on PET may suggest alteration of lipid metabolism and risk of cardio-metabolic disease in non

  10. The rate of uptake of cardiac glycosides into human cultured cells and the effects of chloroquine on it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algharably, N; Owler, D; Lamb, J F

    1986-10-15

    HeLa cells grown on Petri dishes were either pulse labelled with various cardiac glycosides or grown in low concentrations of them for up to 2 days; either in the presence of chloroquine or not. The cells were then homogenised and the cell free homogenate layered on a continuous sucrose gradient; and the glycoside content and that of various markers measured. In another series of experiments HeLa cells were grown on plastic beads under the above conditions and then the content of glycosides and of some marker enzymes measured. The rate of internalisation of ouabain, digoxin and digitoxin from the plasma membrane preparation produced by the bead method is at 9% hr-1, similar to the rate of loss of digoxin and digitoxin from whole cells but much faster than that of ouabain. In the sucrose gradient experiments it was found that [3H]ouabain, digoxin and digitoxin all initially co-distribute with the plasma membrane marker, 5'-nucleotidase, and then leave this fraction of the homogenate at a fast rate when kept at 37 degrees, to co-distribute with the lysosomal marker, beta-hexosaminidase. At 2 degrees the ouabain remains co-distributed with the plasma membrane marker. The rate of transfer is estimated to be some 90% hr-1, much faster than previously thought. Chloroquine causes an increased retention of digoxin and digitoxin in the lysosomal fraction of the homogenate. These results are best explained by supposing that the sodium pump-glycoside complex rapidly enters a region of the peripheral cytoplasm, and that this region then controls the subsequent exit of digoxin and digitoxin from the cell. The main barrier for ouabain occurs at a stage later than this. The consequences of this model on other aspects of pump activity is discussed.

  11. Whole body synthesis rates of DHA from α-linolenic acid are greater than brain DHA accretion and uptake rates in adult rats[S

    OpenAIRE

    Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Chen, Chuck T.; Trepanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P. Mark; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, however, the exact amount required for the brain is not agreed upon. While it is believed that the synthesis rate of DHA from α-linolenic acid (ALA) is low, how this synthesis rate compares with the amount of DHA required to maintain brain DHA levels is unknown. The objective of this work was to assess whether DHA synthesis from ALA is sufficient for the brain. To test this, rats consumed a diet low in n-3 PUFAs, or a diet containing...

  12. The relative importance of water and diet for uptake and subcellular distribution of cadmium in the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella sp I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, Henriette; Forbes, Valery E.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of dietary and water exposure on the accumulation and distribution of cadmium (Cd) in subcellular components of the polychaete Capitella sp. I was investigated. Worms were exposed to either dissolved Cd alone ('Water-Only' treatments; WO) or diet-bound Cd alone ('Algae-bound Only......, starvation likewise influenced the distribution of protein between mitochondria and cytosol. Cutaneous uptake and accumulation of Cd from the water was related to surface area while dietary uptake was influenced by the amount of sediment passing through the gut. Irrespective of exposure route, Cd...

  13. Rates of oxygen uptake increase independently of changes in heart rate in late stages of development and at hatching in the green iguana, Iguana iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Marina R; Abe, Augusto S; Crossley, Dane A; Taylor, Edwin W

    2017-03-01

    Oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), heart rate (f H ), heart mass (M h ) and body mass (M b ) were measured during embryonic incubation and in hatchlings of green iguana (Iguana iguana). Mean f H and VO 2 were unvarying in early stage embryos. VO 2 increased exponentially during the later stages of embryonic development, doubling by the end of incubation, while f H was constant, resulting in a 2.7-fold increase in oxygen pulse. Compared to late stage embryos, the mean inactive level of VO 2 in hatchlings was 1.7 fold higher, while f H was reduced by half resulting in a further 3.6 fold increase in oxygen pulse. There was an overall negative correlation between mean f H and VO 2 when data from hatchlings was included. Thus, predicting metabolic rate as VO 2 from measurements of f H is not possible in embryonic reptiles. Convective transport of oxygen to supply metabolism during embryonic incubation was more reliably indicated as an index of cardiac output (CO i ) derived from the product of f H and M h . However, a thorough analysis of factors determining rates of oxygen supply during development and eclosion in reptiles will require cannulation of blood vessels that proved impossible in the present study, to determine oxygen carrying capacity by the blood and arteriovenous oxygen content difference (A-V diff), plus patterns of blood flow. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of false discovery rate control in the assessment of decrease of FDG uptake in early Alzheimer dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Hye Jin; Jang, Myung Jin; Kang, Won Jun; Lee, Jae Sung; Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Kang Uk; Woo, Jong In; Lee, Myung Chul; Cho, Sang Soo

    2003-01-01

    Determining an appropriate thresholding is crucial for PDG PET analysis since strong control of Type I error could fail to find pathological differences between early Alzheimer' disease (AD) patients and healthy normal controls. We compared the SPM results on FDG PET imaging of early AD using uncorrected p-value, random-field based corrected p-value and false discovery rate (FDR) control. Twenty-eight patients (66±7 years old) with early AD and 18 age-matched normal controls (68±6 years old) underwent FDG brain PET. To identify brain regions with hypo-metabolism in group or individual patient compared to normal controls, group images or each patient's image was compared with normal controls using the same fixed p-value of 0.001 on uncorrected thresholding, random-field based corrected thresholding and FDR control. The number of hypo-metabolic voxels was smallest in corrected p-value method, largest in uncorrected p-value method and intermediate in FDG thresholding in group analysis. Three types of result pattern were found. The first was that corrected p-value did yield any voxel positive but FDR gave a few significantly hypometabolic voxels (8/28, 29%). The second was that both corrected p-value and FDR did not yield any positive region but numerous positive voxels were found with the threshold of uncorrected p-values (6/28, 21%). The last was that FDR was detected as many positive voxels as uncorrected p-value method (14/28, 50%). Conclusions FDR control could identify hypo-metabolic areas in group or individual patients with early AD. We recommend FDR control instead of uncorrected or random-field corrected thresholding method to find the areas showing hypometabolism especially in small group or individual analysis of FDG PET

  15. Provider-Initiated Patient Satisfaction Reporting Yields Improved Physician Ratings Relative to Online Rating Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Benjamin F; Waddell, Brad S; Nodzo, Scott R; Lange, Jeffrey; Nocon, Allina A; Amundsen, Spencer; Tarity, T David; McLawhorn, Alexander S

    2017-09-01

    Recently, providers have begun to publicly report the results of patient satisfaction surveys from their practices. However, these outcomes have never been compared with the findings of commercial online physician rating websites. The goals of the current study were to (1) compare overall patient satisfaction ratings for orthopedic surgeons derived from provider-based third-party surveys with existing commercial physician rating websites and (2) determine the association between patient ratings and provider characteristics. The authors identified 12 institutions that provided publicly available patient satisfaction outcomes derived from third-party surveys for their orthopedic surgeons as of August 2016. Orthopedic surgeons at these institutions were eligible for inclusion (N=340 surgeons). Provider characteristics were recorded from publicly available data. Four high-traffic commercial online physician rating websites were identified: Healthgrades.com, UCompareHealthCare.com, Vitals.com, and RateMDs.com. For each surgeon, overall ratings (on a scale of 1-5), total number of ratings, and percentage of negative ratings were compared between provider-initiated internal ratings and each commercial online website. Associations between baseline factors and overall physician ratings and negative ratings were assessed. Provider-initiated internal patient satisfaction ratings showed a greater number of overall patient ratings, higher overall patient satisfaction ratings, and a lower percentage of negative comments compared with commercial online physician rating websites. A greater number of years in practice had a weak association with lower internal ratings, and an academic practice setting and a location in the Northeast were protective factors for negative physician ratings. Compared with commercial online physician rating websites, provider-initiated patient satisfaction ratings of orthopedic surgeons appear to be more favorable, with greater numbers of responses

  16. Rehabilitation materials from surface- coal mines in western U.S.A. III. Relations between elements in mine soil and uptake by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, R.C.; Gough, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Plant uptake of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn from mine soils was assessed using alfalfa Medicago sativa, sainfoin Onobrychis viciaefolia, smooth brome Bromus inermis, crested wheatgrass Agropyron cristatum, slender wheatgrass A. trachycaulum and intermediate wheatgrass A. intermedium; mine soil (cover-soil and spoil material) samples were collected from rehabilitated areas of 11 western US surface-coal mines in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Colorado. Correlations between metals in plants and DTPA-extractable metals from mine soils were generally not statistically significant and showed no consistent patterns for a single metal or for a single plant species. Metal uptake by plants, relative to amounts in DTPA extracts of mine soil, was positively related to mine soil organic matter content or negatively related to mine soil pH. DTPA-extractable metal levels were significantly correlated with mine soil pH and organic-matter content.-from Authors

  17. Yield, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant as affected by nitrogen rates applied with drip-irrigation under greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Akin, A.I.; Kislal, H.; Ozturk, A.; Deviren, A.

    2002-01-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of different N rates applied through drip irrigation on the growth and N uptake by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant under greenhouse conditions. It was found that, for tomato, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer through fertigation (53.9%) as compared to the soil application (34.0%) at 100 mg N/L. In general, any further increase of N fertilizer did not have an improving effect on the tomato yield. With pepper, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer in the irrigation water (49.2%) as compared to the soil application (33.9%) at the same N level (140 mg N/L), being the optimum N rate under our greenhouse conditions. At a fertilization level of 100 mg N/L with fertigation, the % NUE was significantly increased as compared to the soil application. With respectively cucumber, melon and eggplant; the % NUE with fertigation was 63.4, 21.4 and 50.8%, while with soil application it was 34,0 11.0 and 18.8%. (author)

  18. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizae on tomato yield, nutrient uptake, water relations, and soil carbon dynamics under deficit irrigation in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Timothy M; Barrios-Masias, Felipe H; Carlisle, Eli A; Cavagnaro, Timothy R; Jackson, Louise E

    2016-10-01

    Plant strategies to cope with future droughts may be enhanced by associations between roots and soil microorganisms, including arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. But how AM fungi affect crop growth and yield, together with plant physiology and soil carbon (C) dynamics, under water stress in actual field conditions is not well understood. The well-characterized mycorrhizal tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genotype 76R (referred to as MYC+) and the mutant nonmycorrhizal tomato genotype rmc were grown in an organic farm with a deficit irrigation regime and control regime that replaced evapotranspiration. AM increased marketable tomato yields by ~25% in both irrigation regimes but did not affect shoot biomass. In both irrigation regimes, MYC+ plants had higher plant nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations (e.g. 5 and 24% higher N and P concentrations in leaves at fruit set, respectively), 8% higher stomatal conductance (gs), 7% higher photosynthetic rates (Pn), and greater fruit set. Stem water potential and leaf relative water content were similar in both genotypes within each irrigation regime. Three-fold higher rates of root sap exudation in detopped MYC+ plants suggest greater capacity for water uptake through osmotic driven flow, especially in the deficit irrigation regime in which root sap exudation in rmc was nearly absent. Soil with MYC+ plants also had slightly higher soil extractable organic C and microbial biomass C at anthesis but no changes in soil CO2 emissions, although the latter were 23% lower under deficit irrigation. This study provides novel, field-based evidence for how indigenous AM fungi increase crop yield and crop water use efficiency during a season-long deficit irrigation and thus play an important role in coping with increasingly limited water availability in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Are international fund flows related to exchange rate dynamics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Employing monthly data for 53 countries between 1996 and 2015, we investigate the relationship between international fund flows and exchange rate dynamics. We find strong co-movement between funds flows (as measured with the EPFR Global data base) and bilateral real exchange rates vis-à-vis the USD.

  20. Salts and nutrients present in regenerated waters induce changes in water relations, antioxidative metabolism, ion accumulation and restricted ion uptake in Myrtus communis L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Motos, José R; Alvarez, Sara; Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Hernández, José A; Sánchez-Blanco, María J

    2014-12-01

    The use of reclaimed water (RW) constitutes a valuable strategy for the efficient management of water and nutrients in landscaping. However, RW may contain levels of toxic ions, affecting plant production or quality, a very important aspect for ornamental plants. The present paper evaluates the effect of different quality RWs on physiological and biochemical parameters and the recovery capacity in Myrtus communis L. plants. M. communis plants were submitted to 3 irrigation treatments with RW from different sources (22 weeks): RW1 (1.7 dS m(-1)), RW2 (4.0 dS m(-1)) and RW3 (8.0 dS m(-1)) and one control (C, 0.8 dS m(-1)). During a recovery period of 11 weeks, all plants were irrigated with the control water. The RW treatments did not negatively affect plant growth, while RW2 even led to an increase in biomass. After recovery,only plants irrigated with RW3 showed some negative effects on growth, which was related to a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, higher Na accumulation and a reduction in K levels. An increase in salinity was accompanied by decreases in leaf water potential, relative water content and gas exchange parameters, and increases in Na and Cl uptake. Plants accumulated Na in roots and restricted its translocation to the aerial part. The highest salinity levels produced oxidative stress, as seen from the rise in electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation. The use of regenerated water together with carefully managed drainage practices, which avoid the accumulation of salt by the substrate, will provide economic and environmental benefits.

  1. Not that neglected! Base rates influence related and unrelated judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Michał

    2017-06-01

    It is claimed that people are unable (or unwilling) to incorporate prior probabilities into posterior assessments, such as their estimation of the likelihood of a person with characteristics typical of an engineer actually being an engineer given that they are drawn from a sample including a very small number of engineers. This paper shows that base rates are incorporated in classifications (Experiment 1) and, moreover, that base rates also affect unrelated judgments, such as how well a provided description of a person fits a stereotypical engineer (Experiment 2). Finally, Experiment 3 shows that individuals who make both types of assessments - though using base rates to the same extent in the former judgments - are able to decrease the extent to which they incorporate base rates in the latter judgments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical significance of incidental focal bowel uptake on 18F-FDG PET/CT as related to colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltau, Sofus Rønne; Hess, Søren; Nguyen, Tram

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Increased focal colorectal uptake of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) is reported to occur in 1%-3% of patients undergoing (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for disease outside the bowel. However, there is no consensus on how to deal with thi......OBJECTIVE: Increased focal colorectal uptake of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) is reported to occur in 1%-3% of patients undergoing (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for disease outside the bowel. However, there is no consensus on how to deal...... with this finding in the clinic. Due to the non-specific appearance of such lesions and a certain rate of false positive findings, patients may by subjected to unnecessary invasive procedures or, conversely, cancers may be overlooked if the risk of malignancy is downplayed. The purpose of this study was to examine...

  3. Unemployment Rate, Smoking in China: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Shen, Jay J; Cochran, Chris

    2016-01-08

    Studies on the relationship between unemployment rate and smoking have yielded mixed results. The issue in China has not been studied. This study aims to examine the influence of unemployment rate on smoking in China. Logit model and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation were used to estimate the effects. Estimations were done for 4585 individual over 45 using data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study conducted in Zhejiang and Gansu provinces in 2008 and 2012. A percent increase in the unemployment rate resulted in the increase in the likelihood of smoking by a combined 9.1 percent for those who smoked including a 2.9% increase for those who smoked 1-10 cigarettes per day; a 2.8% increase for those who smoked 11-20 cigarettes per day; and a 3.4% increase for those who smoked 20 cigarettes or more per day. The effects were stronger for those who were employed. Non-drinkers were more likely to engage in smoking with increased unemployment rate. 2SLS estimation revealed the same association. The unemployment rate was positively associated with smoking behavior. Smoking control and intervention strategies should focus on both the individual's characteristics and the physical environment in which unemployment rate tend to rise.

  4. Age-Related Differences in Speech Rate Perception Do Not Necessarily Entail Age-Related Differences in Speech Rate Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Christopher C.; Newman, Rochelle S.; Dilley, Laura C.; Idsardi, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A new literature has suggested that speech rate can influence the parsing of words quite strongly in speech. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between younger adults and older adults in the use of context speech rate in word segmentation, given that older adults perceive timing information differently from younger…

  5. The influence of different space-related physiological variations on exercise capacity determined by oxygen uptake kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, J.

    Oxygen uptake kinetics, following defined variations of work load changes allow to estimate the contribution of aerob and anaerob energy supply which is the base for determining work capacity. Under the aspect of long duration missions with application of adequate dosed countermeasures, a reliable estimate of the astronaut's work capacity is important to adjust the necessary inflight training. Since the kinetics of oxygen uptake originate in the working muscle group itself, while measurements are performed at the mouth, various influences within the oxygen transport system might disturb the determinations. There are not only detraining effects but also well-known other influences, such as blood- and fluid shifts induced by weightlessness. They might have an impact on the circulatory system. Some of these factors have been simulated by immersion, blood donation, and changing of the body position.

  6. Distinct Effects of Nalmefene on Dopamine Uptake Rates and Kappa Opioid Receptor Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Following Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie H. Rose

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of pharmacotherapeutics that reduce relapse to alcohol drinking in patients with alcohol dependence is of considerable research interest. Preclinical data support a role for nucleus accumbens (NAc κ opioid receptors (KOR in chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE exposure-induced increases in ethanol intake. Nalmefene, a high-affinity KOR partial agonist, reduces drinking in at-risk patients and relapse drinking in rodents, potentially due to its effects on NAc KORs. However, the effects of nalmefene on accumbal dopamine transmission and KOR function are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of nalmefene on dopamine transmission and KORs using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in NAc brain slices from male C57BL/6J mice following five weeks of CIE or air exposure. Nalmefene concentration-dependently reduced dopamine release similarly in air and CIE groups, suggesting that dynorphin tone may not be present in brain slices. Further, nalmefene attenuated dopamine uptake rates to a greater extent in brain slices from CIE-exposed mice, suggesting that dopamine transporter-KOR interactions may be fundamentally altered following CIE. Additionally, nalmefene reversed the dopamine-decreasing effects of a maximal concentration of a KOR agonist selectively in brain slices of CIE-exposed mice. It is possible that nalmefene may attenuate withdrawal-induced increases in ethanol consumption by modulation of dopamine transmission through KORs.

  7. Distinct Effects of Nalmefene on Dopamine Uptake Rates and Kappa Opioid Receptor Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Following Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jamie H.; Karkhanis, Anushree N.; Steiniger-Brach, Björn; Jones, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    The development of pharmacotherapeutics that reduce relapse to alcohol drinking in patients with alcohol dependence is of considerable research interest. Preclinical data support a role for nucleus accumbens (NAc) κ opioid receptors (KOR) in chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure-induced increases in ethanol intake. Nalmefene, a high-affinity KOR partial agonist, reduces drinking in at-risk patients and relapse drinking in rodents, potentially due to its effects on NAc KORs. However, the effects of nalmefene on accumbal dopamine transmission and KOR function are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of nalmefene on dopamine transmission and KORs using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in NAc brain slices from male C57BL/6J mice following five weeks of CIE or air exposure. Nalmefene concentration-dependently reduced dopamine release similarly in air and CIE groups, suggesting that dynorphin tone may not be present in brain slices. Further, nalmefene attenuated dopamine uptake rates to a greater extent in brain slices from CIE-exposed mice, suggesting that dopamine transporter-KOR interactions may be fundamentally altered following CIE. Additionally, nalmefene reversed the dopamine-decreasing effects of a maximal concentration of a KOR agonist selectively in brain slices of CIE-exposed mice. It is possible that nalmefene may attenuate withdrawal-induced increases in ethanol consumption by modulation of dopamine transmission through KORs. PMID:27472317

  8. Uptake and translocation of Cd in different rice cultivars and the relation with Cd accumulation in rice grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianguo; Qian Min; Cai Guoliang; Yang Jianchang; Zhu Qingsen

    2007-01-01

    The variations among six rice cultivars in cadmium (Cd) uptake and translocation were investigated with pot soil experiments. The results showed that only a very small portion (0.73%) of Cd absorbed by rice plant was transferred into grain. With regard to plant total Cd uptake, Cd concentrations and quantity accumulations in roots, stems and leaves, the differences among the cultivars (between the largest one and the smallest one) were less than one time. But for Cd concentrations and Cd quantity accumulations in the grains, the differences were more than five and eight times, respectively. With respect to Cd distribution portions in plant organs, the diversities among the cultivars were also small in roots, stems and leaves, but much larger in grains. Grain Cd concentrations correlated positively and significantly (P < 0.01) with Cd quantity accumulations in plant, Cd distribution ratios to aboveground parts, and especially with Cd distribution ratios from aboveground parts to the grain. The results indicated that Cd concentration in rice grain was governed somewhat by plant Cd uptake and the transport of Cd from root to shoot, and in a greater extent, by the transport of Cd from shoot to grain. Cd was not distributed evenly in different products after rice grain processing. The average Cd concentration in cortex (embryo) was five times more than that in chaff and polished rice. With regard to Cd quantity accumulation in the products, near 40% in cortex (embryo), 45% in polished rice and 15% in chaff averagely

  9. 60 Co accumulation by scenedesnus obliquus. Mechanism of uptake and relative contribution of radionuclide adsorption and absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucho, R.; Baudin, J.P.

    1989-06-01

    In this paper are presented the results of various 60 Co accumulation and depuration experiments, carried out to assess the respective contributions of passive and active processes in the radionuclide uptake by Scenedesmus obliquus. The experiments were conduced on living illuminated cells, living cells maintained in darkness and dead cells. Exposure study shows that living illuminated cells and dead cells incorporated the same amount of available 60 Co, in the order of 65%. In contrast, the radionuclide uptake by cells in darkness was very lower. Depuration experiments show that radiocobalt release by living illuminated cells and dead cells is an exponential process including two phases. The first, during which the decrease of the radioactivity was about 80%, corresponds to elimination of the 60 Co adsorbed on the cell walls. During the second phase, the slight decrease of the radioactivity results from the intracellular 60 Co desorption. The addition of EDTA in the depuration culture medium results in an almost instantaneous loss of 80% of the accumulated radionuclide. The results clearly indicate that 60 Co uptake is mainly a passive phenomenon, since adsorption accounts for 80% of the accumulation and passive diffusion for about 10%. Metabolic assimilation contributes for a weak part [fr

  10. Assessing ecotoxicity and uptake of metals and metalloids in relation to two different earthworm species (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Mazzia, Christophe; Auffan, Mélanie; Foucault, Yann; Austruy, Annabelle; Dumat, Camille

    2013-01-01

    Due to diffuse atmospheric fallouts of process particles enriched by metals and metalloids, polluted soils concern large areas at the global scale. Useful tools to assess ecotoxicity induced by these polluted soils are therefore needed. Earthworms are currently used as biotest, however the influence of specie and earthworm behaviour, soil characteristics are poorly highlighted. Our aim was therefore to assess the toxicity of various polluted soils with process particles enriches by metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) collected from a lead recycling facility on two earthworm species belonging to different ecological types and thus likely to have contrasted behavioural responses (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris). The combination of behavioural factors measurements (cast production and biomass) and physico-chemical parameters such as metal absorption, bioaccumulation by earthworms and their localization in invertebrate tissues provided a valuable indication of pollutant bioavailability and ecotoxicity. Soil characteristics influenced ecotoxicity and metal uptake by earthworms, as well as their soil bioturbation. -- Highlights: •Historically polluted soils collected from a lead recycling facility were studied. •Cast production is a sensitive parameter to assess ecotoxicity on earthworms. •Both soil parameters, like organic matter content and pH and earthworm specie influence metal uptake and ecotoxicity. -- Behavioural factors and inorganic pollutant uptake by earthworms provide a valuable indication of bioavailability and ecotoxicity

  11. Uptake of oleate by isolated rat adipocytes is mediated by a 40-kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein closely related to that in liver and gut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwieterman, W.; Sorrentino, D.; Potter, B.J.; Rand, J.; Kiang, C.L.; Stump, D.; Berk, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    A portion of the hepatocellular uptake of nonesterified long-chain fatty acids is mediated by a specific 40-kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein, which has also been isolated from the gut. To investigate whether a similar transport process exists in other tissues with high transmembrane fatty acid fluxes, initial rates (V/sub O/) of [ 3 H]-oleate uptake into isolated rat adipocytes were studied as a function of the concentration of unbound [ 3 H]oleate in the medium. V/sub O/ reached a maximum as the concentration of unbound oleate was increased and was significantly inhibited both by phloretin and by prior incubation of the cells with Pronase. A rabbit antibody to the rat liver plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein inhibited adipocyte fatty acid uptake by up to 63% in dose-dependent fashion. Inhibition was noncompetitive; at an immunoglobulin concentration of 250 μg/ml V/sub max/ was reduced from 2480 /plus minus/ 160 to 1870 /plus minus/ 80 pmol/min per 5 /times/ 10 4 adipocytes, with no change in K/sub m/. A basic kDa adipocyte plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein, isolated from crude adipocyte plasma membrane fractions, reacted strongly in both agar gel diffusion and electrophoretic blots with the antibody raised against the corresponding hepatic plasma membrane protein. These data indicate that the uptake of oleate by rat adipocytes is mediated by a 40-kDa plasma membrane fatty acid binding protein closely related to that in liver and gut

  12. CREME96 and Related Error Rate Prediction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the rate of occurrence of single event effects (SEEs) in space requires knowledge of the radiation environment and the response of electronic devices to that environment. Several analytical models have been developed over the past 36 years to predict SEE rates. The first error rate calculations were performed by Binder, Smith and Holman. Bradford and Pickel and Blandford, in their CRIER (Cosmic-Ray-Induced-Error-Rate) analysis code introduced the basic Rectangular ParallelePiped (RPP) method for error rate calculations. For the radiation environment at the part, both made use of the Cosmic Ray LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectra calculated by Heinrich for various absorber Depths. A more detailed model for the space radiation environment within spacecraft was developed by Adams and co-workers. This model, together with a reformulation of the RPP method published by Pickel and Blandford, was used to create the CR ME (Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics) code. About the same time Shapiro wrote the CRUP (Cosmic Ray Upset Program) based on the RPP method published by Bradford. It was the first code to specifically take into account charge collection from outside the depletion region due to deformation of the electric field caused by the incident cosmic ray. Other early rate prediction methods and codes include the Single Event Figure of Merit, NOVICE, the Space Radiation code and the effective flux method of Binder which is the basis of the SEFA (Scott Effective Flux Approximation) model. By the early 1990s it was becoming clear that CREME and the other early models needed Revision. This revision, CREME96, was completed and released as a WWW-based tool, one of the first of its kind. The revisions in CREME96 included improved environmental models and improved models for calculating single event effects. The need for a revision of CREME also stimulated the development of the CHIME (CRRES/SPACERAD Heavy Ion Model of the Environment) and MACREE (Modeling and

  13. Predicting H1N1 vaccine uptake and H1N1-related health beliefs: the role of individual difference in consideration of future consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Kim, Jarim

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the influence of individual difference in consideration of future consequences on H1N1 vaccine uptake and H1N1-related health beliefs (i.e., perceived susceptibility to and severity of the H1N1 flu, perceived efficacy and safety of the H1N1 vaccine, and perceived self-efficacy in obtaining the H1N1 vaccine). A survey of 411 college students showed that consideration of future consequences had no direct effect on vaccine uptake, but higher consideration of future consequences was associated with greater perceived severity of the flu, higher perceived effectiveness of the vaccine, and greater perceived self-efficacy. Additional analysis suggested that consideration of future consequences had a significant indirect effect on vaccine uptake through perceived vaccine efficacy. Results of the study also revealed gender and racial differences in some of the H1N1-related health beliefs. Implications of the findings for vaccine risk communication are discussed.

  14. A relation to describe rate-dependent material failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voight, B

    1989-01-13

    The simple relation OmegaOmega-alpha = 0, where Omega is a measurable quantity such as strain and A and alpha are empirical constants, describes the behavior of materials in terminal stages of failure under conditions of approximately constant stress and temperature. Applicable to metals and alloys, ice, concrete, polymers, rock, and soil, the relation may be extended to conditions of variable and multiaxial stress and may be used to predict time to failure.

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body ...

  16. Uptake in melanoma cells of N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-2-iodobenzamide (BZA2), an imaging agent for melanoma staging: relation to pigmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansard, Sandrine; Papon, Janine; Moreau, Marie-France; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Labarre, Pierre; Bayle, Martine; Veyre, Annie; Madelmont, Jean-Claude; Moins, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-2-iodobenzamide (BZA 2 ) has been singled out as the most efficacious melanoma scintigraphy imaging agent. Our work was designed to assess the mechanisms of the specific affinity of the radioiodinated iodobenzamide for melanoma tissue. We studied the cellular uptake and retention of [ 125 I]-BZA 2 on various cell lines. In vitro, cellular [ 125 I]-BZA 2 uptake was related to the pigmentation status of the cells: higher in pigmented melanoma cell lines (M4 Beu, IPC 227, B 16) than in a nonpigmented one (M3 Dau) and nonmelanoma cell lines (MCF 7 and L 929). Two mechanisms were assessed: binding of the tracer to melanin or to sigma receptors of melanoma cells. First, the uptake of [ 125 I]-BZA 2 after melanogenesis stimulation by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and L-tyrosine increased in the B 16 melanoma cell line both in vitro and in vivo according to melanin concentration. Moreover, the binding of [ 125 I]-BZA 2 to synthetic melanin was dependent on melanin concentration and could be saturated. Second, no competition was evidenced on M4 Beu cells between [ 125 I]-BZA 2 and haloperidol, a sigma ligand, at concentrations ≤10 -6 M. We show that the specificity and sensibility of BZA 2 as a melanoma scintigraphic imaging agent are mostly due to interactions with melanic pigments

  17. Accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in reperfused ischemic canine myocardium: relation with tissue viability assessed by fluorine-18-2-deoxyglucose uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijns, W.; Melin, J.A.; Leners, N.

    1988-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes may participate in reperfusion injury. Whether leukocytes affect viable or only irreversibly injured tissue is not known. Therefore, we assessed the accumulation of 111In-labeled leukocytes in tissue samples characterized as either ischemic but viable or necrotic by metabolic, histochemical, and ultrastructural criteria. Six open-chest dogs received left anterior descending coronary occlusion for 2 hr followed by 4 hr reperfusion. Myocardial blood flow was determined by microspheres and autologous 111In-labeled leukocytes were injected intravenously. Fluorine-18-2-deoxyglucose, a tracer of exogenous glucose utilization, was injected 3 hr after reperfusion. The dogs were killed 4 hr after reperfusion. The risk and the necrotic regions were assessed following in vivo dye injection and postmortem tetrazolium staining. Myocardial samples were obtained in the ischemic but viable, necrotic and normal zones, and counted for 111In and 18F activity. Compared to normal, leukocytes were entrapped in necrotic regions (111In activity: 207 +/- 73%) where glucose uptake was decreased (26 +/- 15%). A persistent glucose uptake, marker of viability, was mainly seen in risk region (135 +/- 85%) where leukocytes accumulation was moderate in comparison to normal zone (146 +/- 44%). Thus, the glucose uptake observed in viable tissue is mainly related to myocytes metabolism and not to leukocytes metabolism

  18. The influence of concentration of inactivated Edwardsiella tarda bacterin and immersion time on antigen uptake and expression of immune-related genes in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yang; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Xing, Jing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2017-02-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated that the immune response of Japanese flounder was associated with the concentration of formalin-inactivated Edwardsiella tarda and immersion time. In order to further investigate the influence of immersion vaccine dose and bath time on the antigen uptake, formalin-killed Edwardsiella tarda bacterin was prepared and adjusted to four concentrations (10 9 , 10 8 , 10 7 , 10 6  cfu ml -1 ) for 30, 60 and 90 min immersion in Japanese flounder model, respectively. Absolute quantitative real-time PCR was employed to examine the bacterin uptake in gill, skin, spleen and kidney at 3 and 6 h post vaccination. The results showed that the antigen uptaken in gills and skin were significant higher than spleen and kidney, and the antigen amounts in gill and skin both declined from 3 to 6 h, whereas the antigen amounts in spleen and kidney gradually increased. Significant higher antigen amounts were detected in 10 9 -30, 10 9 -60, 10 8 -60, 10 8 -90 and 10 8 -90 groups than other groups (P immersion with formalin-inactivated E. tarda, especially under 10 8 -60 min condition could efficiently enhance the antigen uptake and the expression of immune-related genes, which provided evidences for an enhanced vaccination effects under an optimized combination of vaccine dose and immersion time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Plant uptake of dual-labeled organic N biased by inorganic C uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Sauheitl, Leopold; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    glycine or CO2-3 , but found no differences in uptake rates between these C-sources. The uptake of inorganic C to the shoot tissue was higher for maize grown in full light compared to shading, which indicates a passive uptake of inorganic C with water. We conclude that uptake of inorganic C produced...

  20. Age-Related Racial Disparity in Suicide Rates Among U.S. Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ...

  1. Coupling nutrient uptake and energy flow in headwater streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fellows, Christine [Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia; Valett, H. Maurice [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Dahm, Cliff [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Thomas, Steve [University of Nebraska

    2006-08-01

    Nutrient cycling and energy flow in ecosystems are tightly linked through the metabolic processes of organisms. Greater uptake of inorganic nutrients is expected to be associated with higher rates of metabolism [gross primary production (GPP) and respiration (R)], due to assimilatory demand of both autotrophs and heterotrophs. However, relationships between uptake and metabolism should vary with the relative contribution of autochthonous and allochthonous sources of organic matter. To investigate the relationship between metabolism and nutrient uptake, we used whole-stream and benthic chamber methods to measure rates of nitrate-nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N) uptake and metabolism in four headwater streams chosen to span a range of light availability and therefore differing rates of GPP and contributions of autochthonous carbon. We coupled whole-stream metabolism with measures of NO{sub 3}-N uptake conducted repeatedly over the same stream reach during both day and night, as well as incubating benthic sediments under both light and dark conditions. NO{sub 3}-N uptake was generally greater in daylight compared to dark conditions, and although day-night differences in whole-stream uptake were not significant, light-dark differences in benthic chambers were significant at three of the four sites. Estimates of N demand indicated that assimilation by photoautotrophs could account for the majority of NO{sub 3}-N uptake at the two sites with relatively open canopies. Contrary to expectations, photoautotrophs contributed substantially to NO{sub 3}-N uptake even at the two closed-canopy sites, which had low values of GPP/R and relied heavily on allochthonous carbon to fuel R.

  2. Wealth-related inequality in early uptake of HIV testing among pregnant women: an analysis of data from a national cross-sectional survey, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngandu, Nobubelo Kwanele; Van Malderen, Carine; Goga, Ameena; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Wealth-related inequality across the South African antenatal HIV care cascade has not been considered in detail as a potential hindrance to eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission (EMTCT). We aimed to measure wealth-related inequality in early (before enrolling into antenatal care) uptake of HIV testing and identify the contributing determinants. Design Cross-sectional survey. Settings South African primary public health facilities in 2012. Participants A national-level sample of 8618 pregnant women. Outcome measures Wealth-related inequality in early uptake of HIV testing was measured using the Erreygers concentration index (CI) further adjusted for inequality introduced by predicted healthcare need (ie, need-standardised). Determinants contributing to the observed inequality were identified using the Erreygers and Wagstaff decomposition methods. Results Participants were aged 13 to 49 years. Antenatal HIV prevalence was 33.2%, of which 43.7% came from the lowest 40% wealth group. A pro-poor wealth-related inequality in early HIV testing was observed. The need-standardised concentration index was −0.030 (95% confidence interval −0.038 to −0.022). The proportion of early HIV testing was significantly better in the lower 40% wealth group compared with the higher 40% wealth group (p value=0.040). The largest contributions to the observed inequality were from underlying inequalities in province (contribution, 65.27%), age (−44.38%), wealth group (24.73%) and transport means (21.61%). Conclusions Our results on better early uptake of HIV testing among the poorer subpopulation compared with the richer highlights inequity in uptake of HIV testing in South Africa. This socioeconomic difference could contribute to fast-tracking EMTCT given the high HIV prevalence among the lower wealth group. The high contribution of provinces and age to inequality highlights the need to shift from reliance on national-level estimates alone but identify subregional

  3. Wealth-related inequality in early uptake of HIV testing among pregnant women: an analysis of data from a national cross-sectional survey, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngandu, Nobubelo Kwanele; Van Malderen, Carine; Goga, Ameena; Speybroeck, Niko

    2017-07-12

    Wealth-related inequality across the South African antenatal HIV care cascade has not been considered in detail as a potential hindrance to eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission (EMTCT). We aimed to measure wealth-related inequality in early (before enrolling into antenatal care) uptake of HIV testing and identify the contributing determinants. Cross-sectional survey. South African primary public health facilities in 2012. A national-level sample of 8618 pregnant women. Wealth-related inequality in early uptake of HIV testing was measured using the Erreygers concentration index (CI) further adjusted for inequality introduced by predicted healthcare need (ie, need-standardised). Determinants contributing to the observed inequality were identified using the Erreygers and Wagstaff decomposition methods. Participants were aged 13 to 49 years. Antenatal HIV prevalence was 33.2%, of which 43.7% came from the lowest 40% wealth group. A pro-poor wealth-related inequality in early HIV testing was observed. The need-standardised concentration index was -0.030 (95% confidence interval -0.038 to -0.022). The proportion of early HIV testing was significantly better in the lower 40% wealth group compared with the higher 40% wealth group (p value=0.040). The largest contributions to the observed inequality were from underlying inequalities in province (contribution, 65.27%), age (-44.38%), wealth group (24.73%) and transport means (21.61%). Our results on better early uptake of HIV testing among the poorer subpopulation compared with the richer highlights inequity in uptake of HIV testing in South Africa. This socioeconomic difference could contribute to fast-tracking EMTCT given the high HIV prevalence among the lower wealth group. The high contribution of provinces and age to inequality highlights the need to shift from reliance on national-level estimates alone but identify subregional-specific and age-specific bottlenecks. Future interventions need to be context

  4. Thyroid uptake software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Dolores; Arista, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    The DETEC-PC software was developed as a complement to a measurement system (hardware) able to perform Iodine Thyroid Uptake studies. The software was designed according to the principles of Object oriented programming using C++ language. The software automatically fixes spectrometric measurement parameters and besides patient measurement also performs statistical analysis of a batch of samples. It possesses a PARADOX database with all information of measured patients and a help system with the system options and medical concepts related to the thyroid uptake study

  5. Hepatic uptake and storage of warfarin. The relation with the target enzyme vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thijssen, H.H.; Baars, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanisms of the reported dose-dependent warfarin pharmacokinetics were investigated using [ 14 C]warfarin. When administered in microdoses (9 micrograms i.v.) to rats (male Wistars, 270-300 g), a steep distribution phase (T1/2 = 0.25 hr) was followed by a relatively slow beta-phase (T1/2 = 40 hr). The observed volume of distribution was 390 ml. This pharmacokinetic behavior contrasted highly with the one seen for higher (greater than 0.2 mg/kg) doses (unlabeled) warfarin; volume of distribution = 45 ml, T1/2 = 12.5 hr. If a macrodose (0.2 mg/kg) preceded (16 hr) the microdose, normal pharmacokinetics were observed for the latter, suggesting a saturable deep compartment. The administration of 4-hydroxycoumarins (i.e., acenocoumarol, phenprocoumon and warfarin) after the microdose of [ 14 C]warfarin was in its beta-phase caused a rapid rise of plasma [ 14 C]warfarin indicating [ 14 C]warfarin to be displaced from the deep compartment. The rate of appearance of [ 14 C]warfarin was 0.3 hr-1 irrespective the 4-hydroxycoumarin used. The hepatic distribution of [ 14 C]warfarin was investigated and the effect of a displacer thereupon. Fifty-three hours after the [ 14 C]warfarin administration, the liver contained about 40% of the dose; 45% of it was bound to microsomes. The administration of acenocoumarol (0.2 mg/kg) at 48 hr, halved the liver content. [ 14 C]warfarin was redistributed from microsomes (-65%) and from the 10,000 X g pellet (-65%) into the cytosol (+260%) and the plasma (+320%). Microsomal bound [ 14 C]warfarin in vitro could not be washed out or be displaced unless dithiothreitol (50 mM) was included in the washing buffers

  6. Kinetics of radiolabelled silver uptake and depuration in the gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, C.M.; Grosell, M.; Hogstrand, C.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the influence of speciation on the kinetics of silver uptake and deputation in the gills of two freshwater fish, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) which has high branchial Na+ and Cl- uptake rates and is relatively sensitive to silver, and the European eel (Anguilla anguilla...... labile than from Ag+ exposures, with 1.6-1.8-fold greater loss rates during the fast phases in both species. Differences in branchial silver uptake between eel and trout correlate well with differences in acute toxicity, but are not as large as differences in ion uptake rates. The complex time...

  7. Assessing ecotoxicity and uptake of metals and metalloids in relation to two different earthworm species (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Mazzia, Christophe; Auffan, Mélanie; Foucault, Yann; Austruy, Annabelle; Dumat, Camille

    2013-08-01

    Due to diffuse atmospheric fallouts of process particles enriched by metals and metalloids, polluted soils concern large areas at the global scale. Useful tools to assess ecotoxicity induced by these polluted soils are therefore needed. Earthworms are currently used as biotest, however the influence of specie and earthworm behaviour, soil characteristics are poorly highlighted. Our aim was therefore to assess the toxicity of various polluted soils with process particles enriches by metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) collected from a lead recycling facility on two earthworm species belonging to different ecological types and thus likely to have contrasted behavioural responses (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris). The combination of behavioural factors measurements (cast production and biomass) and physico-chemical parameters such as metal absorption, bioaccumulation by earthworms and their localization in invertebrate tissues provided a valuable indication of pollutant bioavailability and ecotoxicity. Soil characteristics influenced ecotoxicity and metal uptake by earthworms, as well as their soil bioturbation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamin-Related Protein 1 Inhibitors Protect against Ischemic Toxicity through Attenuating Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uptake from Endoplasmic Reticulum Store in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Tian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular calcium homeostasis disorder and mitochondrial dysfunction are involved in many acute and chronic brain diseases, including ischemic brain injury. An imbalance in mitochondrial fission and fusion is one of the most important structural abnormalities found in a large number of mitochondrial dysfunction related diseases. Here, we investigated the effects of mitochondrial division inhibitor A (mdivi A and mdivi B, two small molecule inhibitors of mitochondrial fission protein dunamin-related protein 1 (Drp-1, in neuronal injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD in PC12 cells. We found that mdivi A and mdivi B inhibited OGD-induced neuronal injury through attenuating apoptotic cell death. These two inhibitors also preserved mitochondrial function, as evidenced by reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and cytochrome c release, as well as prevented loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP. Moreover, mdivi A and mdivi B significantly suppressed mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, but had no effect on cytoplasmic Ca2+ after OGD injury. The results of calcium imaging and immunofluorescence staining showed that Drp-1 inhibitors attenuated endoplasmic reticulum (ER Ca2+ release and prevented ER morphological changes induced by OGD. These results demonstrate that Drp-1 inhibitors protect against ischemic neuronal injury through inhibiting mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake from the ER store and attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction.

  9. Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables – The relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustsson, Anna L.M., E-mail: anna.augustsson@lnu.se [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden); Uddh-Söderberg, Terese E. [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden); Hogmalm, K. Johan [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Filipsson, Monika E.M. [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil, in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed to quantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure assessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 contaminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soil and vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that concentrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and most samples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) was assessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about a fifth of the study population. Bioconcentration factors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasing metal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected by the choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be unacceptable. - Highlights: • Uptake of Cd and Pb by lettuce and potatoes increased with soil contamination. • Consumption of homegrown vegetables may lead to a daily Cd intake above TDIs. • The variability in the calculated BCFs is high when compared to previous studies. • Exposure assessments are most sensitive to the choice of BCFs at low contamination.

  10. Metal uptake by homegrown vegetables – The relative importance in human health risk assessments at contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustsson, Anna L.M.; Uddh-Söderberg, Terese E.; Hogmalm, K. Johan; Filipsson, Monika E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessments of contaminated land often involve the use of generic bioconcentration factors (BCFs), which express contaminant concentrations in edible plant parts as a function of the concentration in soil, in order to assess the risks associated with consumption of homegrown vegetables. This study aimed to quantify variability in BCFs and evaluate the implications of this variability for human exposure assessments, focusing on cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in lettuce and potatoes sampled around 22 contaminated glassworks sites. In addition, risks associated with measured Cd and Pb concentrations in soil and vegetable samples were characterized and a probabilistic exposure assessment was conducted to estimate the likelihood of local residents exceeding tolerable daily intakes. The results show that concentrations in vegetables were only moderately elevated despite high concentrations in soil, and most samples complied with applicable foodstuff legislation. Still, the daily intake of Cd (but not Pb) was assessed to exceed toxicological thresholds for about a fifth of the study population. Bioconcentration factors were found to vary more than indicated by previous studies, but decreasing BCFs with increasing metal concentrations in the soil can explain why the calculated exposure is only moderately affected by the choice of BCF value when generic soil guideline values are exceeded and the risk may be unacceptable. - Highlights: • Uptake of Cd and Pb by lettuce and potatoes increased with soil contamination. • Consumption of homegrown vegetables may lead to a daily Cd intake above TDIs. • The variability in the calculated BCFs is high when compared to previous studies. • Exposure assessments are most sensitive to the choice of BCFs at low contamination

  11. The mechanism of zinc uptake in excised roots and leaf discs of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van As, J.A.

    1991-03-01

    The mechanism and nature of zinc uptake was studied with the aid of 65 Zn. Uptake of zinc was also compared to that of potassium and phosphate, which are known to be ATP-dependent. Zinc uptake was characterized by a rapid initial uptake, followed by a slower linear phase. Decreasing the temperature from 25 to 2 deg C resulted in a decrease of only 30% in the rate of zinc uptake. Uptake of zinc was insensitive to DNP - possibly indicating the non-metabolic nature of the uptake process. A possible role for zinc in protein synthesis could not be demonstrated as CHI did not inhibit zinc uptake. Cyanide reduced zinc uptake to almost zero, possibly due to complexation of zinc by cyanide. Light had no effect on the accumulation of Zn, whereas dark incubation reduced potassium uptake substantially. The relative high rate of zinc uptake and the passive nature of the uptake process might be due to the high binding capacity of the free space for zinc ions. Transport of the zinc in the xylem and phloem of intact bean plants, as well as the metabolic dependence of the latter, was also investigated. The bulk of the zinc absorbed by bean plants remained in the roots and stems with only a very small fraction being translocated to shoots. Adsorption was the major uptake mechanism in roots and stems. In contrast to transport in the xylem, zinc was readily transported in the phloem. Loading and unloading of zinc in the phloem was not influenced by low temperature or DNP. Opposed to this, loading of potassium and phosphate was inhibited by DNP, while unloading was inhibited by low temperature. It can therefore be concluded that the uptake and transport of zinc is probably a passive process. 33 figs., 282 refs

  12. A high 18F-FDOPA uptake is associated with a slow growth rate in diffuse Grade II-III gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isal, Sibel; Gauchotte, Guillaume; Rech, Fabien; Blonski, Marie; Planel, Sophie; Chawki, Mohammad B; Karcher, Gilles; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Taillandier, Luc; Verger, Antoine

    2018-04-01

    In diffuse Grade II-III gliomas, a high 3,4-dihydroxy-6-( 18 F)-fluoro-L-phenylalanine ( 18 F-FDOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) uptake, with a standardized uptake value (SUV max )/contralateral brain tissue ratio greater than 1.8, was previously found to be consistently associated with the presence of an isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation, whereas this mutation is typically associated with a better prognosis. This pilot study was aimed to ascertain the prognostic value of this high 18 F-FDOPA uptake in diffuse Grade II-III gliomas with regard to the velocity of diameter expansion (VDE), which represents an established landmark of better prognosis when below 4 mm per year. 20 patients (42 ± 10 years, 10 female) with newly-diagnosed diffuse Grade II-III gliomas (17 with IDH mutation) were retrospectively included. All had a 18 F-FDOPA PET, quantified with SUV max ratio, along with a serial MRI enabling VDE determination. SUV max ratio was above 1.8 in 5 patients (25%) all of whom had a VDE VDE <4 mm/year in the overall population (45 vs 0%, p = 0.04) and also in the subgroup of patients with IDH mutation (45 vs 0%, p = 0.10). This pilot study shows that in diffuse Grade II-III gliomas, a high 18 F-FDOPA uptake would be predictive of low tumour growth, with a different prognostic significance than IDH mutation. Advances in knowledge: 18 F-FDOPA PET in a single session imaging could have prognostic value in initial diagnosis of diffuse Grade II-III gliomas.

  13. Determination of uptake kinetics (sampling rates) by lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Orazio, C.E.; Lebo, J.A.; Clark, R.C.; Gibson, V.L.; Gala, W.R.; Echols, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    The use of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) is becoming commonplace, but very little sampling rate data are available for the estimation of ambient contaminant concentrations from analyte levels in exposed SPMDs. We determined the aqueous sampling rates (R(s)s; expressed as effective volumes of water extracted daily) of the standard (commercially available design) 1-g triolein SPMD for 15 of the priority pollutant (PP) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at multiple temperatures and concentrations. Under the experimental conditions of this study, recovery- corrected R(s) values for PP PAHs ranged from ???1.0 to 8.0 L/d. These values would be expected to be influenced by significant changes (relative to this study) in water temperature, degree of biofouling, and current velocity- turbulence. Included in this paper is a discussion of the effects of temperature and octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)); the impacts of biofouling and hydrodynamics are reported separately. Overall, SPMDs responded proportionally to aqueous PAH concentrations; i.e., SPMD R(s) values and SPMD-water concentration factors were independent of aqueous concentrations. Temperature effects (10, 18, and 26 ??C) on Rs values appeared to be complex but were relatively small.The use of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) is becoming commonplace, but very little sampling rate data are available for the estimation of ambient contaminant concentrations from analyte levels in exposed SPMDs. We determined the aqueous sampling rates (Rss; expressed as effective volumes of water extracted daily) of the standard (commercially available design) 1-g triolein SPMD for 15 of the priority pollutant (PP) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at multiple temperatures and concentrations. Under the experimental conditions of this study, recovery-corrected Rs values for PP PAHs ranged from ???1.0 to 8.0 L/d. These values would be expected to be influenced by

  14. Effect of selection for relative growth rate and bodyweight of mice on rate, composition and efficiency of growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, H.

    1974-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of selection for parameters of a growth curve, four selection lines and a control line were started from one base population. In the selection lines is selected for a large and a small relative growth rate between 21 and 29 days (RGH and RGL) and for a large and

  15. Not all that glitters is gold-Electron microscopy study on uptake of gold nanoparticles in Daphnia magna and related artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Skjolding, Lars Michael; Thit, Amalie; Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Købler, Carsten; Mølhave, Kristian; Baun, Anders

    2017-06-01

    Increasing use of engineered nanoparticles has led to extensive research into their potential hazards to the environment and human health. Cellular uptake from the gut is sparsely investigated, and microscopy techniques applied for uptake studies can result in misinterpretations. Various microscopy techniques were used to investigate internalization of 10-nm gold nanoparticles in Daphnia magna gut lumen and gut epithelial cells following 24-h exposure and outline potential artifacts (i.e., high-contrast precipitates from sample preparation related to these techniques). Light sheet microscopy confirmed accumulation of gold nanoparticles in the gut lumen. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and elemental analysis revealed gold nanoparticles attached to the microvilli of gut cells. Interestingly, the peritrophic membrane appeared to act as a semipermeable barrier between the lumen and the gut epithelium, permitting only single particles through. Structures resembling nanoparticles were also observed inside gut cells. Elemental analysis could not verify these to be gold, and they were likely artifacts from the preparation, such as osmium and iron. Importantly, gold nanoparticles were found inside holocrine cells with disrupted membranes. Thus, false-positive observations of nanoparticle internalization may result from either preparation artifacts or mistaking disrupted cells for intact cells. These findings emphasize the importance of cell integrity and combining elemental analysis with the localization of internalized nanoparticles using transmission electron microscopy. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1503-1509. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  16. Lead uptake from soils by perennial ryegrass and its relation to the supply of an essential element (sulfur)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L.H.P.; Jarvis, S.C.; Cowling, D.W.

    1973-06-01

    The lead status of 16 soils of England and Wales was studied by pot-culture and soil chemical procedures. Perennial ryegrass was grown on the soils, with and without added sulfur, in a controlled environment cabinet with carbon-filtered air. Plant-available lead comprised uptake in 4 successive harvests of tops plus that in roots at the final harvest. The concentration of lead in the tops of healthy plants, those with adequate sulfur, was lower than in the roots, e.g., at harvest 4 the means were 5.0 and 12.9 ppm, respectively. However, with sulfur-deficient plants the concentration of lead in the tops was often higher than in the roots, the means at harvest 4 being 16.3 and 13.0 ppm respectively. The marked increases in the concentration of lead in the tops of sulfur-deficient plants coincided with decreases in dry-matter yield, but for any one soil the tops of such plants contained similar amounts of lead to those of healthy plants. The led content of the tops was poorly correlated with soil lead whereas that of the roots, in terms of both concentration and total amount, was highly correlated. The amount of lead extracted by 0.5 M BaCl/sub 2/ or 0.05 M EDTA provided a slightly better assessment of availability than total content or the amount extracted by 2.5 percent acetic acid. The solutions of acetic acid, BaCl/sub 2/ and EDTA extracted, on average, 1.0, 16.3 and 32.7 per cent respectively of the total lead in the soils. The greater replacement of lead by the Ba ion than by the H ion (acetic acid) is ascribed to valence and the similar radii of Pb/sup 2 +/ and Ba/sup 2 +/. It is concluded that in soil-grown ryegrass the roots restrict the movement of lead into the tops of high-yielding plants, but when growth is limited by sulfur deficiency the concentration in the tops increases markedly.

  17. Uptake of cadmium from hydroponic solutions by willows ( Salix spp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salix integra 'Weishanhu') and Yizhibi (S. integra 'Yizhibi') were chosen as model plants to evaluate their potential for uptake of cadmium from hydroponic culture and relative uptake mechanism. Cadmium uptake showed a linear increase in the ...

  18. [14C]-Sucrose uptake by guard cell protoplasts of pisum sativum, argenteum mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrig, K.; Raschke, K.

    1991-01-01

    Guard cells rely on import for their supply with reduced carbon. The authors tested by silicone oil centrifugation the ability of guard cell protoplasts to accumulated [ 14 C]-sucrose. Uptake rates were corrected after measurement of 14 C-sorbitol and 3 H 2 O spaces. Sucrose uptake followed biphasic kinetics, with a high-affinity component below 1 mM external sucrose (apparent K m 0.8 mM at 25C) and a low-affinity nonsaturable component above. Uptake depended on pH (optimum at pH 5.0). Variations in the concentrations of external KCl, CCCP, and valinomycin indicated that about one-half of the sucrose uptake rate could be related to an electrochemical gradient across the plasmalemma. Total uptake rates measured at 5 mM external sucrose seem to be sufficient to replenish emptied plastids with starch within a few hours

  19. Rates of TBI-related Deaths by Age Group - United States, 2001 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Changes in the rates of TBI-related deaths vary depending on age. For persons 44 years of age and younger, TBI-related deaths decreased between the periods of...

  20. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability

    OpenAIRE

    E.R. Migliaro; P. Contreras; S. Bech; A. Etxagibel; M. Castro; R. Ricca; K. Vicente

    2001-01-01

    In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR) and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG) consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S) and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS) also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG) consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min). R-R variability was calculated in the time-...

  1. Copper uptake kinetics and regulation in a marine fish after waterborne copper acclimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Fei; Zhong Huan; Wang Wenxiong

    2009-01-01

    The uptake kinetics and regulation of copper in a marine predatory fish, the black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli after acclimation to waterborne Cu were examined, using radiotracer techniques. The dissolved Cu uptake followed a linear pattern during the time of exposure, and the calculated uptake rate constant was 6.24 L kg -1 day -1 . The efflux rate constant was 0.091 day -1 following dietary uptake of Cu, and the dietary assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cu varied between 1.7% and 10.9% after the fish were fed with three types of prey (oysters, clams and brine shrimp). After the fish were acclimated at a nominal concentration of 50 μg Cu L -1 for 14 days, the Cu uptake rate and efflux rate constant did not change significantly, but the Cu body concentrations and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in fish tissues increased significantly. Subcellular Cu distributions were also modified. Significant MT induction was observed in response to increased Cu tissue concentrations, indicating that MT rather than the uptake kinetics may play a primary role in Cu regulation during waterborne Cu acclimation in this marine fish. Moreover, the high Cu efflux may also be important in Cu regulation during long-term exposure. Our modeling calculations indicated that dietary uptake was likely to be the main route for Cu bioaccumulation in the fish, and the relative contribution of waterborne and dietary uptake depended on the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and ingestion rate of fish.

  2. Calculus in Your Career: Putting the "Relate" Back in Related Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommatsch, Christina W.

    2017-01-01

    "Find the extreme values of the function." "At what rate is the distance between A and B increasing after 12 seconds?" Prompts like these can be heard in most first-semester calculus courses. Unfortunately, these cues also tend to prompt students' eyes to glaze over with thoughts of "When will I ever use this?" This…

  3. Quantitative measurement of 18F-FDG PET/CT uptake reflects the expansion of circulating plasmablasts in IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Alvise; Della-Torre, Emanuel; Gallivanone, Francesca; Canevari, Carla; Milani, Raffaella; Lanzillotta, Marco; Campochiaro, Corrado; Ramirez, Giuseppe Alvise; Bozzalla Cassione, Emanuele; Bozzolo, Enrica; Pedica, Federica; Castiglioni, Isabella; Arcidiacono, Paolo Giorgio; Balzano, Gianpaolo; Falconi, Massimo; Gianolli, Luigi; Dagna, Lorenzo

    2017-12-01

    [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT is increasingly used to assess organ involvement and response to treatment in IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD), but clear correlations between 18F-FDG uptake and disease activity have not been established yet. We aimed to correlate the intensity and distribution of 18F-FDG uptake with validated clinical, serological and immunological parameters of IgG4-RD activity. Twenty patients with active IgG4-RD underwent a baseline 18F-FDG PET/CT. Ten patients repeated 18F-FDG PET/CT after immunosuppressive treatments. 18F-FDG tissue uptake was measured using the standardized uptake value corrected for the partial volume effect (PVC-SUV) and the total lesion glycolysis (TLG) with (TLGtot+ln) and without (TLGtot-ln) lymph nodes. Disease activity was assessed by means of clinical parameters [IgG4-RD Responder Index (RI)], serological (ESR and CRP) and immunological (serum IgG4 and circulating plasmablasts) biomarkers. The enhanced liver fibrosis score was exploited as a biomarker for fibroblast activation. Thirteen (65%) patients had two or more organs affected by IgG4-RD. All patients had active IgG4-RD as defined by a median IgG4-RD RI value of 9 (range 6-15; normal IgG4 and plasmablasts were elevated in 85% of patients. Circulating plasmablasts positively correlated with PVC-SUV (P = 0.027), inversely correlated with TLGtot-ln (P = 0.023) and did not correlate with TLGtot+ln (P > 0.05). No statistically significant correlation was found between PVC-SUV or TLG and IgG4-RD RI, ESR, CRP, serum IgG4 or enhanced liver fibrosis score (P > 0.05). Clinical response to immunosuppressive therapies was associated with a consensual reduction of circulating plasmablasts, PVC-SUV, TLGtot+ln and TLGtot-ln values (P IgG4-RD lesions reflects immunological perturbations of the B cell compartment rather than fibroblast activation and extracellular matrix deposition. Conventional biomarkers of disease activity, namely IgG4-RD RI, ESR, CRP and serum IgG4

  4. Incidence and progression rates of age-related maculopathy: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M. Willemse-Assink (Jacqueline); R. van Leeuwen (Redmer); R.C.W. Wolfs (Roger); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); Th. Stijnen (Theo); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To describe the incidence rate of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the progression rates of early stages of age-related maculopathy (ARM), and to study the hierarchy of fundus features that determine progression. METHODS: A group of 4953 subjects

  5. Self-rated health and sickness-related absence: the modifying role of civic participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, B.; ter Hoeven, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined civic participation as an effect modifier between self-rated health and absence from work. Building on the theoretical framework of social exchange, we use German data to test a conceptual model relating self-rated health to sickness-related absence, as well as the

  6. Autonomic responses to heat pain: Heart rate, skin conductance, and their relation to verbal ratings and stimulus intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loggia, Marco L; Juneau, Mylène; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2011-03-01

    In human pain experiments, as well as in clinical settings, subjects are often asked to assess pain using scales (eg, numeric rating scales). Although most subjects have little difficulty in using these tools, some lack the necessary basic cognitive or motor skills (eg, paralyzed patients). Thus, the identification of appropriate nonverbal measures of pain has significant clinical relevance. In this study, we assessed heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and verbal ratings in 39 healthy male subjects during the application of twelve 6-s heat stimuli of different intensities on the subjects' left forearm. Both HR and SC increased with more intense painful stimulation. However, HR but not SC, significantly correlated with pain ratings at the group level, suggesting that HR may be a better predictor of between-subject differences in pain than is SC. Conversely, changes in SC better predicted variations in ratings within a given individual, suggesting that it is more sensitive to relative changes in perception. The differences in findings derived from between- and within-subject analyses may result from greater within-subject variability in HR. We conclude that at least for male subjects, HR provides a better predictor of pain perception than SC, but that data should be averaged over several stimulus presentations to achieve consistent results. Nevertheless, variability among studies, and the indication that gender of both the subject and experimenter could influence autonomic results, lead us to advise caution in using autonomic or any other surrogate measures to infer pain in individuals who cannot adequately report their perception. Skin conductance is more sensitive to detect within-subject perceptual changes, but heart rate appears to better predict pain ratings at the group level. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Is the effect of silicon on rice uptake of arsenate (AsV) related to internal silicon concentrations, iron plaque and phosphate nutrition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, W.; Zhu, Y.-G.; Liu, W.-J.; Liang, Y.-C.; Geng, C.-N.; Wang, S.-G.

    2007-01-01

    Solution culture experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of silicon (Si) on arsenate (As V ) uptake by rice. The addition of Si to the pretreatment or uptake solution significantly decreased shoot and root As concentrations (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05). The presence of Si in the pretreatment or uptake solution also significantly decreased shoot P concentrations (P < 0.001). The data demonstrated that both internal and external Si inhibited the uptake of As and P. Results of As uptake kinetics showed that the mechanism of the effect of Si on arsenate uptake is not caused by direct competition for active sites of transporters with As. The effect of Si on As uptake was not entirely mediated through the effect of Si on P uptake. Although the addition of Si to pretreatment solutions still significantly decreased shoot and root As concentrations, the extent of reduction became smaller when rice roots were coated with iron plaque. - Arsenate uptake by rice seedlings is affected by both Si (internal and external) and iron plaque on root surface

  8. Seasonal Variations of Indoor Microbial Exposures and Their Relation to Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Exchange Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors, n = 127; outdoors, n = 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total...... inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m3) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m3). Indoor...... of inhalable dust and number of particles. Temperature and air exchange rates were positively associated with fungi and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and negatively with bacteria and the total inflammatory potential. Although temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates were significantly...

  9. Seasonal and diurnal gas exchange differences in ozone-sensitive common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) in relation to ozone uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergweiler, Chris; Manning, William J; Chevone, Boris I

    2008-03-01

    Stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.) plants in two different soil moisture regimes were directly quantified and subsequently modeled over an entire growing season. Direct measurements captured the dynamic response of stomatal conductance to changing environmental conditions throughout the day, as well as declining gas exchange and carbon assimilation throughout the growth period beyond an early summer maximum. This phenomenon was observed in plants grown both with and without supplemental soil moisture, the latter of which should theoretically mitigate against harmful physiological effects caused by exposure to ozone. Seasonally declining rates of stomatal conductance were found to be substantial and incorporated into models, making them less susceptible to the overestimations of effective exposure that are an inherent source of error in ozone exposure indices. The species-specific evidence presented here supports the integration of dynamic physiological processes into flux-based modeling approaches for the prediction of ozone injury in vegetation.

  10. HIV-Related Stigma and HIV Prevention Uptake Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Newman, Peter A; Weaver, James; Roungkraphon, Surachet; Tepjan, Suchon

    2016-02-01

    HIV-related stigma is a pervasive structural driver of HIV. With an HIV epidemic among young men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TG) in Thailand characterized as explosive, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among MSM and TG aged 18-30 years. From April-August 2013, participants recruited using venue-based sampling from gay entertainment sites and community-based organizations completed a tablet-assisted survey interview in Thai language. We conducted multiple logistic regression to assess correlations between HIV-related stigma (felt-normative, vicarious domains) and socio-demographic variables, HIV vulnerabilities (gay entertainment employment, sex work, forced sex history), and HIV prevention uptake (condom use, HIV testing, rectal microbicide acceptability). Among participants (n = 408), 54% identified as gay, 25% transgender, and 21% heterosexual. Two-thirds (65.7%) were employed at gay entertainment venues, 67.0% had more than three male partners (past month), 55.6% had been paid for sex, and 4.5% were HIV-positive. One-fifth (21.3%) reported forced sex. Most participants reported experiencing felt-normative and vicarious HIV-related stigma. Adjusting for socio-demographics, participants with higher total HIV-related stigma scores had significantly lower odds of HIV testing and rectal microbicide acceptability, and higher odds of having experienced forced sex. Both vicarious and felt-normative dimensions of HIV-related stigma were inversely associated with HIV testing and rectal microbicide acceptability. Our findings suggest that HIV-related stigma harms the health of HIV-negative MSM and TG at high risk for HIV infection. HIV-related interventions and research among young MSM and TG in Thailand should address multiple dimensions of HIV-related stigma as a correlate of risk and a barrier to accessing prevention.

  11. Judges' perception of candidates' organization and communication, in relation to oral certification examination ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, James E; Myford, Carol M

    2009-11-01

    To determine (1) whether judges differed in the levels of severity they exercised when rating candidates' performance in an oral certification exam, (2) to what extent candidates' clinical competence ratings were related to their organization/communication ratings, and (3) to what extent clinical competence ratings could predict organization/communication ratings. Six hundred eighty-four physicians participated in a medical specialty board's 2002 oral examination. Ninety-nine senior members of the medical specialty served as judges, rating candidates' performances. Candidates' clinical competence ratings were analyzed using multifaceted Rasch measurement to investigate judge severity. A Pearson correlation was calculated to examine the relationship between ratings of clinical competence and organization/communication. Logistic regression was used to determine to what extent clinical competence ratings predicted organization/communication ratings. There were about three statistically distinct strata of judge severity; judges were not interchangeable. There was a moderately strong relationship between the two sets of candidate ratings. Higher clinical competence ratings were associated with an organization/communication rating of acceptable, whereas lower clinical competence ratings were associated with an organization/communication rating of unacceptable. The judges' clinical competence ratings correctly predicted 61.9% of the acceptable and 88.3% of the unacceptable organization/communication ratings. Overall, the clinical competence ratings correctly predicted 80% of the organization/communication ratings. The close association between the two sets of ratings was possibly due to a "halo" effect. Several explanations for this relationship were explored, and the authors considered the implications for their understanding of how judges carry out this complex rating task.

  12. Not all that glitters is gold - Electron microscopy study on uptake of gold nanoparticles in Daphnia magna and related artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Skjolding, Lars Michael; Thit, Amalie

    2017-01-01

    techniques are used to investigate internalization of 10 nm gold nanoparticles in Daphnia magna gut lumen and gut epithelial cells upon 24h exposure and outline potential artefacts, i.e. high contract precipitates from sample preparation related to these techniques. Light sheet microscopy confirmed...... accumulation of gold nanoparticles in the gut lumen. Scanning transmission electron microscopy and elemental analysis revealed gold nanoparticles attached to the microvilli of gut cells. Interestingly, the peritrophic membrane appeared to act as a semipermeable barrier between the lumen and the gut epithelium...

  13. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial examining the impact of a web-based personally controlled health management system on the uptake of influenza vaccination rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Annie Y S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Online social networking and personally controlled health management systems (PCHMS offer a new opportunity for developing innovative interventions to prevent diseases of public health concern (e.g., influenza but there are few comparative studies about patterns of use and impact of these systems. Methods/Design A 2010 CONSORT-compliant randomised controlled trial with a two-group parallel design will assess the efficacy of a web-based PCHMS called Healthy.me in facilitating the uptake of influenza vaccine amongst university students and staff. Eligible participants are randomised either to obtain access to Healthy.me or a 6-month waitlist. Participants complete pre-study, post-study and monthly surveys about their health and utilisation of health services. A post-study clinical audit will be conducted to validate self-reports about influenza vaccination and visits to the university health service due to influenza-like illness (ILI amongst a subset of participants. 600 participants older than 18 years with monthly access to the Internet and email will be recruited. Participants who (i discontinue the online registration process; (ii report obtaining an influenza vaccination in 2010 before the commencement of the study; or (iii report being influenced by other participants to undertake influenza vaccination will be excluded from analysis. The primary outcome measure is the number of participants obtaining influenza vaccination during the study. Secondary outcome measures include: number of participants (i experiencing ILI symptoms, (ii absent from or experiencing impairment in work or study due to ILI symptoms, (iii using health services or medications due to ILI symptoms; (iv expressing positive or negative attitudes or experiences towards influenza vaccination, via their reasons of receiving (or not receiving influenza vaccine; and (v their patterns of usage of Healthy.me (e.g., frequency and timing of hits, duration of

  14. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial examining the impact of a web-based personally controlled health management system on the uptake of influenza vaccination rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Annie Y S; Sintchenko, Vitali; Crimmins, Jacinta; Magrabi, Farah; Gallego, Blanca; Coiera, Enrico

    2012-04-02

    Online social networking and personally controlled health management systems (PCHMS) offer a new opportunity for developing innovative interventions to prevent diseases of public health concern (e.g., influenza) but there are few comparative studies about patterns of use and impact of these systems. A 2010 CONSORT-compliant randomised controlled trial with a two-group parallel design will assess the efficacy of a web-based PCHMS called Healthy.me in facilitating the uptake of influenza vaccine amongst university students and staff. Eligible participants are randomised either to obtain access to Healthy.me or a 6-month waitlist. Participants complete pre-study, post-study and monthly surveys about their health and utilisation of health services. A post-study clinical audit will be conducted to validate self-reports about influenza vaccination and visits to the university health service due to influenza-like illness (ILI) amongst a subset of participants. 600 participants older than 18 years with monthly access to the Internet and email will be recruited. Participants who (i) discontinue the online registration process; (ii) report obtaining an influenza vaccination in 2010 before the commencement of the study; or (iii) report being influenced by other participants to undertake influenza vaccination will be excluded from analysis. The primary outcome measure is the number of participants obtaining influenza vaccination during the study. Secondary outcome measures include: number of participants (i) experiencing ILI symptoms, (ii) absent from or experiencing impairment in work or study due to ILI symptoms, (iii) using health services or medications due to ILI symptoms; (iv) expressing positive or negative attitudes or experiences towards influenza vaccination, via their reasons of receiving (or not receiving) influenza vaccine; and (v) their patterns of usage of Healthy.me (e.g., frequency and timing of hits, duration of access, uptake of specific functions). This

  15. Ozone uptake (flux) as it relates to ozone-induced foliar symptoms of Prunus serotina and Populus maximowizii x trichocarpa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orendovici-Best, T.; Skelly, J.M.; Davis, D.D.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Savage, J.E.; Stevenson, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    Field studies were conducted during 2003 and 2004 from early June to the end of August, at 20 sites of lower or higher elevation within north-central Pennsylvania, using seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.) and ramets of hybrid poplar (Populus maximowizii x trichocarpa). A linear model was developed to estimate the influence of local environmental conditions on stomatal conductance. The most significant factors explaining stomatal variance were tree species, air temperature, leaf vapor pressure deficit, elevation, and time of day. Overall, environmental factors explained less than 35% of the variation in stomatal conductance. Ozone did not affect gas exchange rates in either poplar or cherry. Ozone-induced foliar injury was positively correlated with cumulative ozone exposures, expressed as SUM40. Overall, the amount of foliar injury was better correlated to a flux-based approach rather than to an exposure-based approach. More severe foliar injuries were observed on plants growing at higher elevations. - Within heterogeneous environments, ozone flux does not completely explain the variation observed in ozone-induced visible injury

  16. Influence of body size, metabolic rate and life history stage on the uptake and excretion of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) by invasive sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Laura R; Long, Tristan A F; Wilkie, Michael P

    2018-01-01

    Invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are controlled in the Great Lakes using the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), which is applied to streams infested with larval lamprey. However, lamprey that survive treatments (residuals) remain a challenge because they may subsequently undergo metamorphosis into parasitic juvenile animals that migrate downstream to the Great Lakes, where they feed on important sport and commercial fishes. The goal of this study was to determine if body size and life stage could potentially influence sea lamprey tolerance to TFM by influencing patterns of TFM uptake and elimination. Because mass specific rates of oxygen consumption (M˙O 2 ) are lower in larger compared to smaller lamprey, we predicted that TFM uptake would be negatively correlated to body size, suggesting that large larvae would be more tolerant to TFM exposure. Accordingly, TFM uptake and M˙O 2 were measured in larvae ranging in size from 0.2-4.2g using radio-labelled TFM ( 14 C-TFM) and static respirometry. Both were inversely proportional to wet mass (M), and could be described usingthe allometric power relationship: Y=aM b , in which M˙O 2 =1.86M 0.53 and TFM Uptake=7.24M 0.34 . We also predicted that body size would extend to rates of TFM elimination, which was measured following the administration of 14 C-TFM (via intraperitoneal injection). However, there were no differences in the half-lives of elimination of TFM (T 1/2 -TFM). There were also no differences in M˙O 2 or TFM uptake amongst size-matched larval, metamorphosing (stages 6-7), or post-metamorphic (juvenile) sea lamprey. However, the T 1/2 -TFM was significantly lower in larval than post-metamorphic lamprey (juvenile), indicating the larval lamprey cleared TFM more efficiently than juvenile lamprey. We conclude that larger larval sea lamprey are more likely to survive TFM treatments suggesting that body size might be an important variable to consider when treating streams with TFM to

  17. Relations between variously available fractions of trace metals in the soil and their actual plant-uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujtas, K.; Csillag, J.

    1999-01-01

    In a pot experiment, availabilities of Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn added to the soil as metal nitrates or as enrichment of sewage sludge were evaluated by comparing concentrations of their total potentially available, presumably plant-available and directly plant-available forms in the soil. At excessively increasing soil contamination, the plant-available concentrations increased more than the total soil contents, thus the relative availabilities of the metals increased. This was reflected in the amounts taken up by the young maize test plants and in the plant/soil transfer factors. Transfer factors calculated for the 'plant-available' soil metal contents depended less on the contamination level than those based on total soil metal contents. Refs. 8 (author)

  18. Influence of Poultry Manure Rates and Spacing on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Concentration , Uptake and Proximate Composition of Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehizogie Joyce FALODUN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant spacing determines to a greater extent crop performance in terms of growth and yield. The production of crop with organic fertilizer also plays a vital role in organic agriculture. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of spacing and poultry manure on the growth, yield and quality of onion. Three spacing regimes were carried out consisting of (15cm x 15 cm , 20 cm x 20 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm and four levels of poultry manure at ( 0, 5, 10 and 15 t /ha . The effects of spacing and poultry manure were evaluated for 2 years based on plant growth, yield, nutrient concentration, uptake and proximate composition of onion plant. Leaf thickness, bulb and shoot fresh weights were significantly increased by the wider spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm, compared with the narrower spacing of 15cm x 15 cm in both seasons. However, highest total dry yield (1.82 and 1.58 t /ha, shoot yield (2.31 and 1.32 t /ha and total fresh yield (13.69 and 12.55 t/ha were obtained with the spacing of 20cm x 20 cm in both years. Similarly, application of poultry manure increased leaf thickness, bulb and shoot fresh weights and yields compared with the control. Generally, using 10 t/ha poultry manure has a superior effect on proximate composition and most of growth parameters and yield components achieved the highest nutrient concentrations and uptake on most of the macro and micronutrients in leaves and bulbs as compared with the control in both years.

  19. Linear rate-equilibrium relations arising from ion channel-bilayer energetic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Per Junior; Lum, Kevin; Ashrafuzzaman, Md

    2011-01-01

    Linear rate-equilibrium (RE) relations, also known as linear free energy relations, are widely observed in chemical reactions, including protein folding, enzymatic catalysis, and channel gating. Despite the widespread occurrence of linear RE relations, the principles underlying the linear relatio...

  20. Relative viscosity of emulsions in simple shear flow: Temperature, shear rate, and interfacial tension dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Se Bin; Lee, Joon Sang [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei Unversity, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We simulate an emulsion system under simple shear rates to analyze its rheological characteristics using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). We calculate the relative viscosity of an emulsion under a simple shear flow along with changes in temperature, shear rate, and surfactant concentration. The relative viscosity of emulsions decreased with an increase in temperature. We observed the shear-thinning phenomena, which is responsible for the inverse proportion between the shear rate and viscosity. An increase in the interfacial tension caused a decrease in the relative viscosity of the decane-in-water emulsion because the increased deformation caused by the decreased interfacial tension significantly influenced the wall shear stress.

  1. Uptake of chemicals and metabolism kinetics related to toxic effects and consideration of phytoremediation as a remediation option

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl

    Denne ph.d.-afhandling præsenterer resultaterne af en detailleret undersøgelse af ”Optag af kemiske stoffer og nedbrydningskinetik i relation til toksiske effekter samt overvejelser vedrørende phytoremediering som en oprensningsteknologi” og indeholder fire artikler, som beskriver og diskuterer det...... fysisk-kemiske egenskaber. Anvendelsen af planter til behandling af forurenet jord, sediment og van d kaldes phytoremediering. For at implementere phytoremediering som en teknologi til oprensning af kemiske stoffer kræves (1) det kemiske stof må ikke være stærk toksisk overfor planten (2) stoffet må ikke......-transpirationstest. Phytoremediering af phenol, 4-chlorphenol og cyanid med piletræer kan anses for en effektiv remedieringsmulighed på grund af dens høje fjernelseseffektivitet og ubetydelige akkumulering inde i palntevævet. Phytoremediering af 2,4-dichlorphenol synes ikke mulig på grund af den lave fjernelseseffektivitet....

  2. Nitrite uptake by nitrogen-depleted wheat seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, W A; Johnson, R E; Volk, R J

    1974-01-01

    Intact, 14-day-old nitrogen-depleted wheat (Triticum vulgare cv. Blueboy) seedlings were exposed to solutions of 0.5 mM KNO/sub 2/, 0.05 mM CaSO/sub 4/ and 1 mM sodium 2-(N-morpholino)-ethanesulfonate, pH 6.1. Nitrite uptake was determined from depletion of the ambient solution or from incorporation of /sup 15/N in the tissue. An initial nitrite uptake shoulder was followed by a relatively slow uptake rate which subsequently increased to a substantially greater rate. This accelerated phase was maintained through 24 h. Nitrite accumulated to a slight extent in the root tissues during the first few hours but declined to low values when the accelerated rate was fully developed, indicating an increase in nitrite reductase activity paralleling the increase in nitrite uptake capacity. About 50% of the nitrogen absorbed as nitrite was translocated to the shoots by 9 to 12 h. Development of the accelerated nitrite uptake rate was restricted in excised roots, in intact plants kept in darkness, by 400 ..mu..g puromycin ml/sup -1/ and by 1 mM L-ethionine. When puromycin and L-ethionine were added after the accelerated phase had been initiated, their effects were not as detrimental as when they were added at first exposure to KNO/sub 2/. The two inhibitors restricted translocation more than uptake. The data indicate an involvement of protein synthesis and a requirement for movement of a substance from shoots to roots for maximal development of the accelerated nitrite uptake phase. A requirement for protein synthesis in the transport of soluble organic nitrogen from roots to shoots is also suggested.

  3. The close relation between birth, abortion and employment rates in Sweden from 1980 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmqvist, Mikael

    2006-09-01

    Birth and abortion rates in Sweden have fluctuated since 1980 while the proportion between the rates are the same at the beginning and end of the period. An increase in birth rates in the late 1980s resulted in a peak in 1991 and 1992, with 124,000 live births each year. Thereafter followed a steady decline in the rate until 2000, when the number of live births was about 90,000. At that point, the trend changed to an increase. The aim of this analysis was to investigate any relation between employment rates and the number of live births among women aged 20-34, and at the same time to explore the trend for abortion rates compared to the trend for live births. The relation between employment status and live birth rate is statistically more significant for women than men, and the rates have a higher correlation for the period after 1986. Young adults in this age group are vulnerable to economic cycles that can explain this covariation but the decline in birth rates in economically developed societies has multidimensional aspects and many other possible explanations. Much has been done in recent years in Sweden to decrease household inequality for families with children to avoid the risk of relative poverty, but the fact that there is no explicit health policy to reduce the abortion level that remain unchanged since the early 1980s may appear as a notable lack of strategy in a country with many other health-related goals.

  4. The Arabidopsis halophytic relative Thellungiella halophila tolerates nitrogen-limiting conditions by maintaining growth, nitrogen uptake, and assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Surya; Bi, Yong-Mei; Weretilnyk, Elizabeth; Barak, Simon; Rothstein, Steven J

    2008-07-01

    A comprehensive knowledge of mechanisms regulating nitrogen (N) use efficiency is required to reduce excessive input of N fertilizers while maintaining acceptable crop yields under limited N supply. Studying plant species that are naturally adapted to low N conditions could facilitate the identification of novel regulatory genes conferring better N use efficiency. Here, we show that Thellungiella halophila, a halophytic relative of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grows better than Arabidopsis under moderate (1 mm nitrate) and severe (0.4 mm nitrate) N-limiting conditions. Thellungiella exhibited a lower carbon to N ratio than Arabidopsis under N limitation, which was due to Thellungiella plants possessing higher N content, total amino acids, total soluble protein, and lower starch content compared with Arabidopsis. Furthermore, Thellungiella had higher amounts of several metabolites, such as soluble sugars and organic acids, under N-sufficient conditions (4 mm nitrate). Nitrate reductase activity and NR2 gene expression in Thellungiella displayed less of a reduction in response to N limitation than in Arabidopsis. Thellungiella shoot GS1 expression was more induced by low N than in Arabidopsis, while in roots, Thellungiella GS2 expression was maintained under N limitation but was decreased in Arabidopsis. Up-regulation of NRT2.1 and NRT3.1 expression was higher and repression of NRT1.1 was lower in Thellungiella roots under N-limiting conditions compared with Arabidopsis. Differential transporter gene expression was correlated with higher nitrate influx in Thellungiella at low (15)NO(3)(-) supply. Taken together, our results suggest that Thellungiella is tolerant to N-limited conditions and could act as a model system to unravel the mechanisms for low N tolerance.

  5. Rates of TBI-related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths - United States, 2001 – 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In general, total combined rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations and deaths have increased over the past...

  6. Stigma, attitudes and help-seeking intentions for psychological problems in relation to regional suicide rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynders, A.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Molenberghs, G.; Van Audenhove, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this ecological study, we investigated whether help-seeking related to stigma, intentions, and attitudes toward suicide are associated with the suicide rates of 20 regions within the Netherlands and Belgium. Significant associations were found between regional suicide rates and the intention to

  7. THE EVOLUTION OF CURRENCY RELATIONS IN THE LIGHT OF MAJOR EXCHANGE RATE ADJUSTMENT THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy TKACH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of major exchange rate adjustment theories on the global monetary system. The reasons of the previous organization forms of monetary relations collapse at the global level are defined. The main achievements and failures of major exchange rate theories are described.

  8. Comparison of the rate of uptake and biologic effects of retinol added to human keratinocytes either directly to the culture medium or bound to serum retinol-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodam, J.R.; St Hilaire, P.; Creek, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    Retinol circulates in the plasma bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP), but the mechanism by which retinol is transferred from RBP to target cells is not known. To study retinol delivery, human keratinocytes (HKc) were incubated with [3H]retinol added directly to the culture medium or bound to RBP and the uptake of [3H]retinol was determined at various times. During the first hour of incubation, the rate of [3H]retinol accumulation by HKc was about 40 times greater when the vitamin was added directly to the media rather than bound to RBP. Although maximal uptake of [3H]retinol added directly to the culture medium occurred at 3 h, the uptake of [3H]retinol from RBP was linear with time for at least 72 h. By 57 h, cell-associated [3H]retinol was the same whether it was added directly to the culture medium or bound to RBP. Excess unlabeled retinol or pretreatment of HKc with retinol had no effect on the uptake of [3H]retinol added directly to the culture medium or bound to RBP. Apo- but not holo-RBP was capable of competing with HKc for the uptake of [3H]retinol from RBP. No specific or saturable binding of 125I-labeled RBP to HKc cultured in the absence or the presence of retinol was found. The dose response of retinol inhibition of cholesterol sulfate synthesis and phorbol ester-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity or retinol modulation of keratin expression was the same whether the retinol was delivered to HKc bound to RBP or added directly to the medium. Our data support a mechanism for retinol delivery from RBP to HKc that does not involve cell-surface RBP receptors but instead suggest that the vitamin is first slowly released from RBP and then becomes cell-associated from the aqueous phase. This mechanism is consistent with the finding that HKc respond identically to retinol whether or not it is delivered to them bound to RBP

  9. Are Competitive Materialism and Female Employment Related to International Homicide Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Don Soo

    2017-04-01

    The institutional anomie theory is a proposal that states competitive materialism, an intense cultural pressure for economic success at any costs, and increased female employment may be related to a high homicide rate. The current work tested this proposition by utilizing homicide data collected from 45 developed and developing countries. Regression results did not support the proposition. Competitive materialism and female employment were not significantly related to the cross-national variation of homicide rates.

  10. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Migliaro

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min. R-R variability was calculated in the time-domain by means of the root mean square successive differences. Frequency-domain HRV was evaluated by power spectrum analysis considering high frequency and low frequency bands. In the YG the effort tolerance was ranked in a bicycle stress test. HR was similar for both groups while ESG showed a reduced HRV compared with YG. Within each group, HRV displayed a negative correlation with HR. Although YG-NS had better effort tolerance than YG-S, their HR and HRV were not significantly different. We conclude that HRV is reduced with increasing HR or age, regardless of life style. The results obtained in our short-term study agree with others of longer duration by showing that age and HR are the main determinants of HRV. Our results do not support the idea that changes in HRV are related to regular physical activity.

  11. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaro, E R; Contreras, P; Bech, S; Etxagibel, A; Castro, M; Ricca, R; Vicente, K

    2001-04-01

    In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR) and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG) consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S) and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS) also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG) consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min). R-R variability was calculated in the time-domain by means of the root mean square successive differences. Frequency-domain HRV was evaluated by power spectrum analysis considering high frequency and low frequency bands. In the YG the effort tolerance was ranked in a bicycle stress test. HR was similar for both groups while ESG showed a reduced HRV compared with YG. Within each group, HRV displayed a negative correlation with HR. Although YG-NS had better effort tolerance than YG-S, their HR and HRV were not significantly different. We conclude that HRV is reduced with increasing HR or age, regardless of life style. The results obtained in our short-term study agree with others of longer duration by showing that age and HR are the main determinants of HRV. Our results do not support the idea that changes in HRV are related to regular physical activity.

  12. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread

  13. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E.; Guo, Xianfeng; Visser, De Pieter H.B.; Marcelis, Leo F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of

  14. Female song rates in response to simulated intruder are positively related to reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E Cain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is well studied in males as a sexually selected behavior. However, although song is also common among females, it is infrequently examined and poorly understood. Research suggests that song is often used as a resource defense behavior and is important in female-female competition for limited resources, e.g. mates and territories. If so, song should be positively related to fitness and related to other resource defense behaviors, but this possibility has rarely been explored. Here we examine fitness estimates in relation to spontaneous song rates and song rates in response to a simulated intruder (playback, in the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus, a cooperatively breeding songbird. We also determine how song rates relate to other territorial defense behaviors. Song rate in response to playback, but not spontaneous song rate, was positively related to nest success and the number of fledglings produced by successful females. Further, response song rate was also correlated with other territorial defense behaviors (latency to respond and flights. This evidence supports the hypothesis that female song may be used in the context of female-female competition to improve access to limited reproductive resources, and suggests that song may provide direct fitness benefits.

  15. Seasonal variations of indoor microbial exposures and their relation to temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael; Gustavsen, Sine; Hansen, Erik Wind; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2012-12-01

    Indoor microbial exposure has been related to adverse pulmonary health effects. Exposure assessment is not standardized, and various factors may affect the measured exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of selected microbial exposures and their associations with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors, n = 127; outdoors, n = 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m(3)) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m(3)). Indoor bacteria peaked in spring (median, 2,165 CFU/m(3)) and were lowest in summer (median, 240 CFU/m(3)). Concentrations of fungi were predominately higher outdoors than indoors, whereas bacteria, endotoxin, and inhalable dust concentrations were highest indoors. Bacteria and endotoxin correlated with the mass of inhalable dust and number of particles. Temperature and air exchange rates were positively associated with fungi and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and negatively with bacteria and the total inflammatory potential. Although temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates were significantly associated with several indoor microbial exposures, they could not fully explain the observed seasonal variations when tested in a mixed statistical model. In conclusion, the season significantly affects indoor microbial exposures, which are influenced by temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates.

  16. The effect of hydrate promoters on gas uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun-Gang; Yu, Yi-Song; Ding, Ya-Long; Cai, Jing; Li, Xiao-Sen

    2017-08-16

    Gas hydrate technology is considered as a promising technology in the fields of gas storage and transportation, gas separation and purification, seawater desalination, and phase-change thermal energy storage. However, to date, the technology is still not commercially used mainly due to the low gas hydrate formation rate and the low gas uptake. In this study, the effect of hydrate promoters on gas uptake was systematically studied and analyzed based on hydrate-based CH 4 storage and CO 2 capture from CO 2 /H 2 gas mixture experiments. Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography (GC) were employed to analyze the microstructures and gas compositions. The results indicate that the effect of the hydrate promoter on the gas uptake depends on the physical and chemical properties of the promoter and gas. A strong polar ionic promoter is not helpful towards obtaining the ideal gas uptake because a dense hydrate layer is easily formed at the gas-liquid interface, which hinders gas diffusion from the gas phase to the bulk solution. For a weak polar or non-polar promoter, the gas uptake depends on the dissolution characteristics among the different substances in the system. The lower the mutual solubility among the substances co-existing in the system, the higher the independence among the substances in the system; this is so that each phase has an equal chance to occupy the hydrate cages without or with small interactions, finally leading to a relatively high gas uptake.

  17. [Myocardial uptake ratio of iodine-123 labeled beta-methyl iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) in relation to the concentration of the substrates of energy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimochi, S; Tamaki, N; Kawamoto, M; Tadamura, E; Fujita, T; Nohara, R; Matsumori, A; Sasayama, S; Yonekura, Y; Konishi, J

    1995-06-01

    Iodine-123 beta-methyl iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) has been used for evaluating myocardial fatty acid metabolism in vivo. The whole body BMIPP imaging was acquired in 26 patients (11 with HCM, 11 with CAD and 4 with DCM) to calculate % uptake in the myocardium and to correlate its uptake with biochemical data, including blood sugar (BS), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and insulin in the blood. BMIPP was administered at rest with overnight fasting state, and the anterior and posterior whole body imaging was performed one hour later. The background corrected whole myocardial counts were calculated to obtain %BMIPP uptake. In addition, the heart to mediastinum count ratio (H/M ratio) was calculated from the mean counts in the heart and the upper mediastinum in the anterior view. The %BMIPP uptake was 3.70 +/- 1.22% and H/M ratio was 2.30 +/- 0.23. The patients with DCM showed higher %BMIPP uptake values (DCM = 5.58 +/- 0.67% vs. CAD = 3.09 +/- 0.97% and HCM = 3.63 +/- 0.86%, both p < 0.01), but similar values of H/M ratio with other patients (DCM = 2.43 +/- 0.20, CAD = 2.22 +/- 0.25 and HCM = 2.32 +/- 0.20). Although the biochemical data varied at the time of the tracer administration, they were not significantly correlated with the %BMIPP uptake or H/M ratio. However, there was a significant correlation between %BMIPP uptake and H/M ratio with the correlation coefficient of 0.80 (p < 0.001). We conclude that the myocardial uptake of BMIPP is not influenced by the plasma substrate level under the fasting state.

  18. Myocardial uptake ratio of iodine-123 labeled beta-methyl iodophenylpentadecanoic acid ({sup 123}I-BMIPP) in relation to the concentration of the substrates of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchimochi, Shinsaku; Tamaki, Nagara; Kawamoto, Masahide [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine] [and others

    1995-06-01

    Iodine-123 beta-methyl iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) has been used for evaluating myocardial fatty acid metabolism in vivo. The whole body BMIPP imaging was acquired in 26 patients (11 with HCM, 11 with CAD and 4 with DCM) to calculate % uptake in the myocardium and to correlate its uptake with biochemical data, including blood sugar (BS), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and insulin in the blood. BMIPP was administered at rest with overnight fasting state, and the anterior and posterior whole body imaging was performed one hour later. The background corrected whole myocardial counts were calculated to obtain %BMIPP uptake. In addition, the heart to mediastinum count ratio (H/M ratio) was calculated from the mean counts in the heart and the upper mediastinum in the anterior view. The %BMIPP uptake was 3.70{+-}1.22% and H/M ratio was 2.30{+-}0.23. The patients with DCM showed higher %BMIPP uptake value (DCM=5.58{+-}0.67% vs. CAD=3.09{+-}0.97% and HCM=3.63{+-}0.86%, both p<0.01), but similar values of H/M ratio with other patients (DCM=2.43{+-}0.20, CAD=2.22{+-}0.25 and HCM=2.32{+-}0.20). Although the biochemical data varied at the time of the tracer administration, they were not significantly correlated with the %BMIPP uptake or H/M ratio. However, there was a significant correlation between %BMIPP uptake and H/M ratio with the correlation coefficient of 0.80 (p<0.001). We conclude that the myocardial uptake of BMIPP is not influenced by the plasma substrate level under the fasting state. (author).

  19. Myocardial uptake ratio of iodine-123 labeled beta-methyl iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) in relation to the concentration of the substrates of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchimochi, Shinsaku; Tamaki, Nagara; Kawamoto, Masahide

    1995-01-01

    Iodine-123 beta-methyl iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) has been used for evaluating myocardial fatty acid metabolism in vivo. The whole body BMIPP imaging was acquired in 26 patients (11 with HCM, 11 with CAD and 4 with DCM) to calculate % uptake in the myocardium and to correlate its uptake with biochemical data, including blood sugar (BS), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) and insulin in the blood. BMIPP was administered at rest with overnight fasting state, and the anterior and posterior whole body imaging was performed one hour later. The background corrected whole myocardial counts were calculated to obtain %BMIPP uptake. In addition, the heart to mediastinum count ratio (H/M ratio) was calculated from the mean counts in the heart and the upper mediastinum in the anterior view. The %BMIPP uptake was 3.70±1.22% and H/M ratio was 2.30±0.23. The patients with DCM showed higher %BMIPP uptake value (DCM=5.58±0.67% vs. CAD=3.09±0.97% and HCM=3.63±0.86%, both p<0.01), but similar values of H/M ratio with other patients (DCM=2.43±0.20, CAD=2.22±0.25 and HCM=2.32±0.20). Although the biochemical data varied at the time of the tracer administration, they were not significantly correlated with the %BMIPP uptake or H/M ratio. However, there was a significant correlation between %BMIPP uptake and H/M ratio with the correlation coefficient of 0.80 (p<0.001). We conclude that the myocardial uptake of BMIPP is not influenced by the plasma substrate level under the fasting state. (author)

  20. Diselenolane-mediated cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuard, Nicolas; Poblador-Bahamonde, Amalia I; Zong, Lili; Bartolami, Eline; Hildebrandt, Jana; Weigand, Wolfgang; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2018-02-21

    The emerging power of thiol-mediated uptake with strained disulfides called for a move from sulfur to selenium. We report that according to results with fluorescent model substrates, cellular uptake with 1,2-diselenolanes exceeds uptake with 1,2-dithiolanes and epidithiodiketopiperazines with regard to efficiency as well as intracellular localization. The diselenide analog of lipoic acid performs best. This 1,2-diselenolane delivers fluorophores efficiently to the cytosol of HeLa Kyoto cells, without detectable endosomal capture as with 1,2-dithiolanes or dominant escape into the nucleus as with epidithiodiketopiperazines. Diselenolane-mediated cytosolic delivery is non-toxic (MTT assay), sensitive to temperature but insensitive to inhibitors of endocytosis (chlorpromazine, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, wortmannin, cytochalasin B) and conventional thiol-mediated uptake (Ellman's reagent), and to serum. Selenophilicity, the extreme CSeSeC dihedral angle of 0° and the high but different acidity of primary and secondary selenols might all contribute to uptake. Thiol-exchange affinity chromatography is introduced as operational mimic of thiol-mediated uptake that provides, in combination with rate enhancement of DTT oxidation, direct experimental evidence for existence and nature of the involved selenosulfides.

  1. Estimating the relative nutrient uptake from different soil depths in Quercus robur, Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göransson, Hans; Wallander, Håkan; Ingerslev, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of fine roots and external ectomycorrhizal mycelium of three species of trees was determined down to a soil depth of 55 cm to estimate the relative nutrient uptake capacity of the trees from different soil layers. In addition, a root bioassay was performed to estimate the nutrien...

  2. Work-related ill health in doctors working in Great Britain: incidence rates and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Anli Yue; Carder, Melanie; Gittins, Matthew; Agius, Raymond

    2017-11-01

    Background Doctors have a higher prevalence of mental ill health compared with other professional occupations but incidence rates are poorly studied. Aims To determine incidence rates and trends of work-related ill health (WRIH) and work-related mental ill health (WRMIH) in doctors compared with other professions in Great Britain. Method Incidence rates were calculated using an occupational physician reporting scheme from 2005-2010. Multilevel regression was use to study incidence rates from 2001 to 2014. Results Annual incidence rates for WRIH and WRIMH in doctors were 515 and 431 per 100 000 people employed, respectively. Higher incidence rates for WRIH and WRMIH were observed for ambulance staff and nurses, respectively. Doctors demonstrated an annual average incidence rates increase for WRIH and WRMIH, especially in women, whereas the other occupations demonstrated a decreasing or static trend. The difference in trends between the occupations was statistically significant. Conclusions WRIH and WRMIH incidence rate are increasing in doctors, especially in women, warranting further research. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  3. Factors influencing uptake of sylvatic plague vaccine baits by prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Russell, Robin E.; Richgels, Katherine; Tripp, Daniel W.; Matchett, Marc R.; Biggins, Dean E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2017-01-01

    Sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) is a virally vectored bait-delivered vaccine expressing Yersinia pestis antigens that can protect prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) from plague and has potential utility as a management tool. In a large-scale 3-year field trial, SPV-laden baits containing the biomarker rhodamine B (used to determine bait consumption) were distributed annually at a rate of approximately 100–125 baits/hectare along transects at 58 plots encompassing the geographic ranges of four species of prairie dogs. We assessed site- and individual-level factors related to bait uptake in prairie dogs to determine which were associated with bait uptake rates. Overall bait uptake for 7820 prairie dogs sampled was 70% (95% C.I. 69.9–72.0). Factors influencing bait uptake rates by prairie dogs varied by species, however, in general, heavier animals had greater bait uptake rates. Vegetation quality and day of baiting influenced this relationship for black-tailed, Gunnison’s, and Utah prairie dogs. For these species, baiting later in the season, when normalized difference vegetation indices (a measure of green vegetation density) are lower, improves bait uptake by smaller animals. Consideration of these factors can aid in the development of species-specific SPV baiting strategies that maximize bait uptake and subsequent immunization of prairie dogs against plague.

  4. Contrasting effects of biochar, compost and farm manure on alleviation of nickel toxicity in maize (Zea mays L.) in relation to plant growth, photosynthesis and metal uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Muhammad Zia-Ur; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Fatima, Nida; Yousaf, Balal; Naeem, Asif; Sabir, Muhammad; Ahmad, Hamaad Raza; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-11-01

    Nickel (Ni) toxicity in agricultural crops is a widespread problem while little is known about the role of biochar (BC) and other organic amendments like farm manure (FM) from cattle farm and compost (Cmp) on its alleviation. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of BC, Cmp and FM on physiological and biochemical characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) under Ni stress. Maize was grown in Ni spiked soil without and with two rates of the amendments (equivalent to 1% and 2% organic carbon, OC) applied separately to the soil. After harvest, plant height, root length, dry weight, chlorophyll contents, gas exchange characteristics and trace elements in plants were determined. In addition, post-harvest soil characteristics like pHs, ECe and bioavailable Ni were also determined. Compared to the control, all of the amendments increased plant height, root length, shoot and root dry weight with the maximum increase in all parameters by FM (2% OC) treatment. Similarly, total chlorophyll contents and gas exchange characteristics significantly increased with the application of amendments being maximum with FM (2% OC) application. Amendments significantly increased copper, zinc, manganese and iron concentrations and decreased Ni concentrations in the plants. The highest reduction in shoot Ni concentration was recorded with FM (2% OC) followed by BC (2% OC) being 73.2% and 61.1% lower compared to the control, respectively. The maximum increase in soil pH and decrease in AB-DTPA extractable Ni was recorded with BC (2% OC) followed by FM (2% OC). It is concluded that FM (2% OC) was the most effective in reducing Ni toxicity to plants by reducing Ni uptake while BC (2% OC) was the most effective in decreasing bioavailable Ni in the soil through increasing soil pH. However, long-term field studies are needed to evaluate the effects of these amendments in reducing Ni toxicity in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigating the mechanisms of Ni uptake and sub-lethal toxicity in the Atlantic killifish Fundulus heteroclitus in relation to salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blewett, Tamzin A.; Ransberry, Victoria E.; McClelland, Grant B.; Wood, Chris M.

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) is a resilient estuarine species that may be subjected to anthropogenic contamination of its natural habitat, by toxicants such as nickel (Ni). We investigated Ni accumulation and potential modes of Ni toxicity, in killifish, as a function of environmental salinity. Killifish were acclimated to 4 different salinities [0 freshwater (FW), 10, 30 and 100% seawater (SW)] and exposed to 5 mg/L of Ni for 96 h. Tissue Ni accumulation, whole body ions, critical swim speed and oxidative stress parameters were examined. SW was protective against Ni accumulation in the gills and kidney. Addition of Mg and Ca to FW protected against gill Ni accumulation, suggesting competition with Ni for uptake. Concentration-dependent Ni accumulation in the gill exhibited saturable relationships in both FW- and SW-acclimated fish. However SW fish displayed a lower B_m_a_x (i.e. lower number of Ni binding sites) and a lower K_m (i.e. higher affinity for Ni binding). No effect of Ni exposure was observed on critical swim speed (U_c_r_i_t) or maximum rate of oxygen consumption (MO_2_m_a_x). Markers of oxidative stress showed either no effect (e.g. protein carbonyl formation), or variable effects that appeared to depend more on salinity than on Ni exposure. These data indicate that the killifish is very tolerant to Ni toxicity, a characteristic that may facilitate the use of this species as a site-specific biomonitor of contaminated estuaries. - Highlights: • SW was protective against Ni accumulation in the gills and kidney only. • Mg and Ca in FW protected against Ni accumulation, suggesting competition with Ni. • No effect of Ni exposure was observed on critical swim speed or oxygen consumption. - Marine vertebrates do not have the same response to Ni toxicity as freshwater vertebrates and as such. Euryhaline killifish may be very useful as site-specific biomonitors.

  6. Relative tropospheric photolysis rates of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde measured at the European Photoreactor Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Bache-Andreassen, Lihn; Johnson, Matthew Stanley

    2009-01-01

    The photolysis rates of HCHO, DCDO, CH3CHO, and CH3CDO are studied by long-path FTIR spectroscopy in natural tropospheric conditions at the European Photoreactor Facility (EUPHORE) in Valencia, Spain. Average relative photolysis rates jHCHO/jDCDO ) 3.15 ( 0.08 and jCH3CHO/jCH3CDO ) 1.26 ( 0.03 ar.......03 are obtained from three days of experiments for each reaction in the period June 17 to July 7, 2006.......The photolysis rates of HCHO, DCDO, CH3CHO, and CH3CDO are studied by long-path FTIR spectroscopy in natural tropospheric conditions at the European Photoreactor Facility (EUPHORE) in Valencia, Spain. Average relative photolysis rates jHCHO/jDCDO ) 3.15 ( 0.08 and jCH3CHO/jCH3CDO ) 1.26 ( 0...

  7. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  8. Exchange Rate – Relative Price Nonlinear Cointegration Relationship in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Venus Khim-Sen Liew; Chee-Keong Choong; Evan Lau; Kian-Ping Lim

    2005-01-01

    The finding of exchange rate–relative price nonlinear cointegration relationship in Malaysia, among others, suggests that nonlinear Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) equilibrium may be regarded as reference point in judging the short run misalignment of the Ringgit currency and thereby deducing effective policy actions. Moreover, economists who wish to extend the simple PPP exchange rate model into the more complicated monetary exchange models may do so comfortably, at least in the text of Mala...

  9. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Olesen, Bjarne W. [ICIEE/BYG, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Iwamatsu, Toshiya [Faculty of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Asada, Hideo [Architech Consulting Co., Tokyo (Japan); Dovjak, Mateja [Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Schellen, Lisje [Eindhoven University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning (Netherlands); Shukuya, Masanori [Laboratory of Building Environment, Tokyo City University, Yokohama (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Application of the exergy concept to research on the built environment is a relatively new approach. It helps to optimize climate conditioning systems so that they meet the requirements of sustainable building design. As the building should provide a healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation. Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy consumption rates increase as the operative temperature increases above 24 C or decreases below 22 C. With the data available so far, a second-order polynomial relationship between thermal sensation and the exergy consumption rate was established. (author)

  10. Flow rate-pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Cognet, Vincent; Shidhore, Tanmay C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2018-04-01

    Laminar flow in devices fabricated from soft materials causes deformation of the passage geometry, which affects the flow rate--pressure drop relation. For a given pressure drop, in channels with narrow rectangular cross-section, the flow rate varies as the cube of the channel height, so deformation can produce significant quantitative effects, including nonlinear dependence on the pressure drop [{Gervais, T., El-Ali, J., G\\"unther, A. \\& Jensen, K.\\ F.}\\ 2006 Flow-induced deformation of shallow microfluidic channels.\\ \\textit{Lab Chip} \\textbf{6}, 500--507]. Gervais et. al. proposed a successful model of the deformation-induced change in the flow rate by heuristically coupling a Hookean elastic response with the lubrication approximation for Stokes flow. However, their model contains a fitting parameter that must be found for each channel shape by performing an experiment. We present a perturbation approach for the flow rate--pressure drop relation in a shallow deformable microchannel using the theory of isotropic quasi-static plate bending and the Stokes equations under a lubrication approximation (specifically, the ratio of the channel's height to its width and of the channel's height to its length are both assumed small). Our result contains no free parameters and confirms Gervais et. al.'s observation that the flow rate is a quartic polynomial of the pressure drop. The derived flow rate--pressure drop relation compares favorably with experimental measurements.

  11. Development in self-rated health among older people as determinant of social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Modvig, Jens Simon; Due, Pernille

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men.......The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men....

  12. Characterization of cadmium uptake in Lactobacillus plantarum and isolation of cadmium and manganese uptake mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Z.; Reiske, H.R.; Wilson, D.B.

    1999-11-01

    Two different Cd{sup 2+} uptake systems were identified in Lactobacillus plantarum. One is a high-affinity, high-velocity Mn{sup 2+} uptake system which also takes up Cd{sup 2+} and is induced by Mn{sup 2+} starvation. The calculated K{sub m} and V{sub max} are 0.26 {mu}M and 3.6 {mu}mol g of dry cell{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Unlike Mn{sup 2+} uptake, which is facilitated by citrate and related tricarboxylic acids, Cd{sup 2+} uptake is weakly inhibited by citrate. Cd{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+} are competitive inhibitors of each other, and the affinity of the system for Cd{sup 2+} is higher than that for Mn{sup 2+}. The other Cd{sup 2+} uptake system is expressed in Mn{sup 2+}-sufficient cells, and no K{sub m} can be calculated for it because uptake is nonsaturable. Mn{sup 2+} does not compete for transport through this system, nor does any other tested cation, i.e., Zn{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, or Ni{sup 2+}. Both systems require energy, since uncouplers completely inhibit their activities. Two Mn{sup 2+}-dependent L. plantarum mutants were isolated by chemical mutagenesis and ampicillin enrichment. They required more than 5,000 times as much Mn{sup 2+} for growth as the parental strain. Mn{sup 2+} starvation-induced Cd{sup 2+} uptake in both mutants was less than 5% the wild-type rate. The low level of long-term Mn{sup 2+} or Cd{sup 2+} accumulation by the mutant strains also shows that the mutations eliminate the high-affinity Mn{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} uptake system.

  13. Relationships between coastal bacterioplankton growth rates and biomass production: comparison of leucine and thymidine uptake with single-cell physiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Vidal, Leticia; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G

    2011-02-01

    Specific growth rates of heterotrophic bacterioplankton have been frequently estimated from in situ bacterial production (BP) to biomass (BB) ratios, using a series of assumptions that may result in serious discrepancies with values obtained from predator-free cultures. Here, we used both types of approaches together with a comprehensive assessment of single-cell physiological characteristics (membrane integrity, nucleic acid content, and active respiration) of coastal bacterioplankton during a complete annual cycle (February 2007-January 2008) in the southern Bay of Biscay off Xixón, Spain. Both leucine and thymidine incorporation rates were used in conjunction with empirical tracer to carbon or cells conversion factors (eCFs) to accurately derive BP. Leu and TdR incorporation rates covaried year-round, as did the corresponding eCFs at 0 and 50 m depth. eCFs peaked in autumn, with mean annual values close to the theoretical ones (3.4 kg C mol Leu(-1) and 2.0 × 10(18) cells mol TdR(-1)). Bacterial abundance (0.2-1.5 × 10(6) cells L(-1)) showed a bimodal distribution with maxima in May and October and minima in March. Live (membrane-intact) cells dominated year-round (79-97%), with high nucleic acid cells (42-88%) and actively respiring bacteria (CTC+, 1-16%) showing distinct surface maxima in April and July, respectively. BB (557-1,558 mg C m(-2)) and BP (7-139 mg C m(-2) day(-1)) presented two distinct peaks in spring and autumn, both of similar size due to a strong upwelling event observed in September. Specific growth rates (0.35-3.8 day(-1)) were one order of magnitude higher in predator-free incubations than bacterial turnover rates derived from integrated BP:BB ratios (0.01-0.16 and 0.01-0.09 day(-1), for Leu and TdR, respectively) and were not correlated, probably due to a significant contribution of low activity cells to total standing stocks. The Leu:TdR molar ratio averaged for the water column (6.6-25.5) decreased significantly with higher integrated

  14. Relative biological effectiveness of 125I seeds for low-dose-rate irradiation of PANC-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jidong; Wang Junjie; Zhuang Hongqing; Liao Anyan; Zhao Yong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative biological effectiveness(RBE) of National Model 6711 125 I seeds and the response patterns of PANC-1 exposed to 125 I seeds irradiation. Methods: PANC-1 cells in exponential growth were irradiated at initial dose rate of 2.59 cGy/h in vitro and exposed to 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy. Meanwhile, the other part of cells were exposed to the same doses by 60 Co at dose rate of 2.21 Gy/min. After irradiation, the cells were stained by trypan blue to measure the cellular mortality rate and to compare the changes along with plating times of 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after 4 Gy. The colonies were counted to obtain the plating efficiencies by colony-forming assay and the cell surviving faction was calculated to plot cell survival curves, and RBE of 125 I seeds relative to 60 Co was determined. Results: The cell death rate for continuous low- dose-rate (LDR) irradiation by 125 I seeds was greater than 60 Co at the same doses above or equal to 4 Gy. After 4 Gy irradiation, the cellular mortality rates were increased with times. The difference was significant between 125 I seeds and 60 Co. The survival fractions of 125 I were lower than those of 60 Co, and the RBE of 125 I relative to 60 Co was determined to be 1.45. Conclusion: The cell-killing effects for continuous low-dose-rate (LDR) irradiation by 125 I seeds are greater than acute high-dose-rate of 60 Co. (authors)

  15. Relative equilibrium plot improves graphical analysis and allows bias correction of standardized uptake value ratio in quantitative 11C-PiB PET studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Sojkova, Jitka; Resnick, Susan M; Wong, Dean F

    2012-04-01

    Both the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) and the Logan plot result in biased distribution volume ratios (DVRs) in ligand-receptor dynamic PET studies. The objective of this study was to use a recently developed relative equilibrium-based graphical (RE) plot method to improve and simplify the 2 commonly used methods for quantification of (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PiB) PET. The overestimation of DVR in SUVR was analyzed theoretically using the Logan and the RE plots. A bias-corrected SUVR (bcSUVR) was derived from the RE plot. Seventy-eight (11)C-PiB dynamic PET scans (66 from controls and 12 from participants with mild cognitive impaired [MCI] from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging) were acquired over 90 min. Regions of interest (ROIs) were defined on coregistered MR images. Both the ROI and the pixelwise time-activity curves were used to evaluate the estimates of DVR. DVRs obtained using the Logan plot applied to ROI time-activity curves were used as a reference for comparison of DVR estimates. Results from the theoretic analysis were confirmed by human studies. ROI estimates from the RE plot and the bcSUVR were nearly identical to those from the Logan plot with ROI time-activity curves. In contrast, ROI estimates from DVR images in frontal, temporal, parietal, and cingulate regions and the striatum were underestimated by the Logan plot (controls, 4%-12%; MCI, 9%-16%) and overestimated by the SUVR (controls, 8%-16%; MCI, 16%-24%). This bias was higher in the MCI group than in controls (P bias and higher consistency of DVR estimates than of SUVR. The RE plot and the bcSUVR are practical quantitative approaches that improve the analysis of (11)C-PiB studies.

  16. Relative Efficacy of Uptake and Presentation of Mycobacterium bovis BCG Antigens by Type I Mouse Lung Epithelial Cells and Peritoneal Macrophages ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Mandavi; Saxena, Rajiv K.

    2011-01-01

    Flow cytometric studies indicated that both peritoneal macrophages (PMs) and primary lung epithelial (PLE) cells isolated from mouse lungs could take up fluorescence-tagged Mycobacterium bovis BCG. BCG uptake in both cases was significantly inhibited by cytochalasin D, indicating active internalization of BCG by these cells. Confocal microscopy data further confirmed that BCG was internalized by PLE cells. BCG sonicate antigen (sBCG) had marked toxicity toward PMs but was relatively nontoxic to PLE cells. Accordingly, BCG sonicate antigen induced a significantly higher apoptotic and necrotic response in PMs compared to that in PLE cells. Both PMs and PLE cells exposed to BCG antigens and fixed thereafter could efficiently present antigens to purified BCG-sensitized T helper cells, as assessed by the release of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). If, however, PLE cells were fixed before exposure to BCG, antigen presentation was abrogated, indicating that the PLE cells may in some way process the BCG antigen. A comparison of efficacies of BCG-pulsed PLE cells and PMs to present antigen at various antigen-presenting cell (APC)/T cell ratios indicated that PMs had only marginally greater APC function than that of PLE cells. Staining with specific monoclonal antibodies indicated that the cultured PLE cells used for antigen presentation essentially comprised type I epithelial cells. Our results suggest that type I lung epithelial cells may present BCG antigens to sensitized T helper cells and that their performance as APCs is comparable with that of PMs. PMID:21646448

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine ( ... for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will I experience during ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uptake measurements are obtained at different times. For example, you may have uptake measurements at four to ... medicine procedures can be time consuming. It can take several hours to days for the radiotracer to ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of ... potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. ... eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry and other metallic accessories should be left ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  3. SU-C-207A-07: Cumulative 18F-FDG Uptake Histogram Relative to Radiation Dose Volume Histogram of Lung After IMRT Or PSPT and Their Association with Radiation Pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shusharina, N; Choi, N; Bortfeld, T; Liao, Z; Mohan, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the difference in cumulative 18F-FDG uptake histogram of lung treated with either IMRT or PSPT is associated with radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with inoperable stage II and III NSCLC. Methods: We analyzed 24 patients from a prospective randomized trial to compare IMRT (n=12) with vs. PSPT (n=12) for inoperable NSCLC. All patients underwent PET-CT imaging between 35 and 88 days post-therapy. Post-treatment PET-CT was aligned with planning 4D CT to establish a voxel-to-voxel correspondence between post-treatment PET and planning dose images. 18F-FDG uptake as a function of radiation dose to normal lung was obtained for each patient. Distribution of the standard uptake value (SUV) was analyzed using a volume histogram method. The image quantitative characteristics and DVH measures were correlated with clinical symptoms of pneumonitis. Results: Patients with RP were present in both groups: 5 in the IMRT and 6 in the PSPT. The analysis of cumulative SUV histograms showed significantly higher relative volumes of the normal lung having higher SUV uptake in the PSPT patients for both symptomatic and asymptomatic cases (VSUV=2: 10% for IMRT vs 16% for proton RT and VSUV=1: 10% for IMRT vs 23% for proton RT). In addition, the SUV histograms for symptomatic cases in PSPT patients exhibited a significantly longer tail at the highest SUV. The absolute volume of the lung receiving the dose >70 Gy was larger in the PSPT patients. Conclusion: 18F-FDG uptake – radiation dose response correlates with RP in both groups of patients by means of the linear regression slope. SUV is higher for the PSPT patients for both symptomatic and asymptomatic cases. Higher uptake after PSPT patients is explained by larger volumes of the lung receiving high radiation dose.

  4. Oral health-related quality of life in youth receiving cleft-related surgery: self-report and proxy ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Hillary L; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Sischo, Lacey

    2017-04-01

    This paper evaluated the impact of cleft-related surgery on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of youth with cleft over time. Data were derived from a 5-year, multi-center, prospective, longitudinal study of 1196 youth with cleft lip and/or palate and their caregivers. Eligible youth were between 7.5 and 18.5 years old, spoke English or Spanish, and were non-syndromic. During each observational period, which included baseline, and 1- and 2-year post-baseline follow-up visits, youths and their caregivers completed the Child Oral Health Impact Profile, a validated measure of OHRQoL. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to analyze the effects of receipt of craniofacial surgery on OHRQoL over time. During the course of this study a total of 516 patients (43 %) received at least one surgery. Youth in the surgery recommendation group had lower self- (β = -2.18, p self- and proxy-rated OHRQoL at baseline. Both surgical and non-surgical youth (β = 3.73, p self-reported OHRQoL for youth postsurgery (β = 1.04, p self- and caregiver-rated OHRQoL when compared to non-surgical youth. Youth who underwent cleft-related surgery had significant incremental improvements in self-rated but not caregiver (proxy)-rated OHRQoL after surgery.

  5. The Common Factor of Bilateral U.S. Exchange Rates: What is it Related to?

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomareva, Natalia; Sheen, Jeffrey; Wang, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We identify a common factor driving a panel of fifteen monthly bilateral exchange rates against the U.S. dollar. We find this factor is closely related to U.S. nominal and real macroeconomic variables, financial market variables and commodity prices. Our results suggest this common factor is broadly related to the macroeconomic fundamentals in the Taylor rule and uncovered interest parity models. However, the set of fundamentals relevant to these models changes over time.

  6. Importance of Passive Diffusion in the Uptake of Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Phagotrophic Protozoa†

    OpenAIRE

    Kujawinski, Elizabeth B.; Farrington, John W.; Moffett, James W.

    2000-01-01

    Unicellular protozoan grazers represent a size class of organisms where a transition in the mechanism of chlorobiphenyl (CB) introduction, from diffusion through surface membranes to ingestion of contaminated prey, could occur. This study compares the relative importance of these two processes in the overall uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by protists. Uptake rates and steady-state concentrations were compared in laboratory cultures of grazing and nongrazing protozoa. These experiments we...

  7. [The effect of assertiveness training on communication related factors and personnel turnover rate among hospital nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung Ja; Lee, Haejung

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of assertiveness training on nurses' assertive behaviors, interpersonal relations, communication conflicts, conflict management style and personnel turnover rate. A non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used in this study. Nurses were assigned into the experimental or control groups, each consisting of 39 nurses. Data was collected between January to March 2004. An 'Assertiveness Training Program' for Nurses developed by Park was used for the study. To emphasize assertiveness practice, 5 practice sessions utilizing ABCDE principles were added to Park's program. To examine the effects of the program, differences between the two groups in assertive behaviors, interpersonal relations, communication conflicts, conflict management style and personnel turnover rate were analyzed using ANCOVA. The assertiveness training was effective in improving the nurses' assertiveness behaviors, but was not effective in improving interpersonal relations, reducing the subjects' communication conflicts, changing the conflict management style or reducing their personnel turnover rate. There have been many studies about factors affecting nurses' personnel turnover rates, but few have been done about methods of intervention to reduce the personnel turnover rate. Thus, this study provides a significant contribution in attempting such an intervention from nursing management perspectives.

  8. The Impact of Energy Substrates, Hormone Level and Subject-Related Factors on Physiologic Myocardial {sup 18}F-FDG Uptake in Normal Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Juhye; Kong, Eunjung; Chun, Kyungah; Cho, Ihnho [Yeung-Nam Univ. Hoepital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    In a whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, non-specific {sup 18}F-FDG uptake of the myocardium is a common finding and can be very variable, ranging from background activity to intense accumulation and inhomogeneity. We investigated the effect of energy substrates and plasma/serum hormones that may have an influence on myocardial {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. F-FDG PET/CT was performed on 100 normal volunteers from November 2007 to August 2008. Blood samples were taken just before {sup 18}F-FDG injection from all subjects. Myocardial {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was measured as the mean (SUVmean) and maximal (SUV{sub max}) standardized uptake value. The myocardium was delineated on the PET/CT image by a manual volume of interest (VOI).We analyzed the influence of age, sex, presence of diabetes, fasting duration, insulin, glucagon, fasting glucose, lactate, free fatty acid (FFA), epinephrine (EPi), norepinephrine (NEp), free triiodothyronine (T3), free thyroxine (T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and body mass index (BMI). Overall, 92 subjects (mean age 50.28±8.30, male 57) were enrolled. The average of myocardial SUVmean was 2.08 and of myocardial SUV{sub max} was 4.57, respectively and there was a strong linear correlation between SUVmean and SUV{sub max} (r =0.98). FFA and fasting duration showed significant negative correlation with myocardial {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, respectively (r =-0.40 in FFA; r =-0.41 in fasting duration). No significant relationships were observed between myocardial uptake and age, sex, presence of diabetics, insulin, glucagon, fasting glucose, lactate, EPi, NEp, free T3, free T4, TSH and BMI. Myocardial {sup 18}F-FDG uptake decreases with longer fasting duration and higher FFA level in normal humans. Modulating myocardial uptake could improve {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging for specific oncologic and cardiovascular indications.

  9. Using field feedback to estimate failure rates of safety-related systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brissaud, Florent

    2017-01-01

    The IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 functional safety standards encourage the use of field feedback to estimate the failure rates of safety-related systems, which is preferred than generic data. In some cases (if “Route 2_H” is adopted for the 'hardware safety integrity constraints”), this is even a requirement. This paper presents how to estimate the failure rates from field feedback with confidence intervals, depending if the failures are detected on-line (called 'detected failures', e.g. by automatic diagnostic tests) or only revealed by proof tests (called 'undetected failures'). Examples show that for the same duration and number of failures observed, the estimated failure rates are basically higher for “undetected failures” because, in this case, the duration observed includes intervals of time where it is unknown that the elements have failed. This points out the need of using a proper approach for failure rates estimation, especially for failures that are not detected on-line. Then, this paper proposes an approach to use the estimated failure rates, with their uncertainties, for PFDavg and PFH assessment with upper confidence bounds, in accordance with IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 requirements. Examples finally show that the highest SIL that can be claimed for a safety function can be limited by the 90% upper confidence bound of PFDavg or PFH. The requirements of the IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 relating to the data collection and analysis should therefore be properly considered for the study of all safety-related systems. - Highlights: • This paper deals with requirements of the IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 for using field feedback to estimate failure rates of safety-related systems. • This paper presents how to estimate the failure rates from field feedback with confidence intervals for failures that are detected on-line. • This paper presents how to estimate the failure rates from field feedback with confidence intervals for failures that are only revealed by

  10. Development in self-rated health among older people as determinant of social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Modvig, Jens Simon; Due, Pernille

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men....

  11. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  12. State-related differences in heart rate variability in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a validated measure of sympato-vagal balance in the autonomic nervous system. HRV appears decreased in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy individuals, but the extent of state-related alterations has been sparingly investigated. The present...... bipolar disorder and could...

  13. Job performance ratings : The relative importance of mental ability, conscientiousness, and career adaptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohme, Melanie; Zacher, Hannes

    According to career construction theory, continuous adaptation to the work environment is crucial to achieve work and career success. In this study, we examined the relative importance of career adaptability for job performance ratings using an experimental policy-capturing design. Employees (N =

  14. Citation Rate of Highly-Cited Papers in 100 Kinesiology-Related Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane

    2015-01-01

    This study extended previous research on several citation-based bibliometric variables for highly cited articles in a large (N = 100) number of journals related to Kinesiology. Total citations and citation rate of the 30 most highly cited articles in each journal were identified by searchers of "Google Scholar (GS)". Other major…

  15. The relations between personality traits and psychopathy as measured by ratings and self-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujačić Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relations between psychopathy - as assessed by ratings (PCL-R and by self-report (SRP3 - on one side, and The Five-Factor personality Model - expanded to include the traits Amorality and Disintegration - on the other. Both methods examined four traits of psychopathy: interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial characteristics. Data were collected on a sample of 112 male convicts. The results show the absence of congruence between the two methods - self-report and rating - in case of interpersonal and affective psychopathic dispositions. This incongruence is also reflected in their relations with personality traits. The self-report measures and the ratings of Lifestyle and Antisocial tendencies are related to amorality, aggressiveness, schizotypy, Neuroticism and impulsivity. However, the ratings of affective and interpersonal style are related to the integrated, organized, and emotionally stable aspects of personality. The results are interpreted in the light of differences between the methods of assessment and in the light of the essential characteristics of the psychopathic phenomena.

  16. An estimator for the relative entropy rate of path measures for stochastic differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opper, Manfred, E-mail: manfred.opper@tu-berlin.de

    2017-02-01

    We address the problem of estimating the relative entropy rate (RER) for two stochastic processes described by stochastic differential equations. For the case where the drift of one process is known analytically, but one has only observations from the second process, we use a variational bound on the RER to construct an estimator.

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin several hours to 24 hours later. Often, two separate uptake ...

  18. Influence of extreme pedal rates on pulmonary O(2) uptake kinetics during transitions to high-intensity exercise from an elevated baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimenna, Fred J; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Burnley, Mark; Bailey, Stephen J; Jones, Andrew M

    2009-10-31

    We used extreme pedal rates to investigate the influence of muscle fibre recruitment on pulmonary V(O)(2) kinetics during unloaded-to-moderate-intensity (U-->M), unloaded-to-high-intensity (U-->H), and moderate-intensity to high-intensity (M-->H) cycling transitions. Seven healthy men completed transitions to 60% of the difference between gas-exchange threshold and peak V(O)(2) from both an unloaded and a moderate-intensity (95% GET) baseline at cadences of 35 and 115rpm. Pulmonary gas exchange was measured breath-by-breath and iEMG of the m. vastus lateralis and m. gluteus maximus was measured during all tests. At 35rpm, the phase II time constant (tau(p)) values for U-->M, U-->H, and M-->H were 26+/-7, 31+/-7 and 36+/-8s with the value for M-->H being longer than for U-->M (PM, U-->H, and M-->H were 29+/-8, 48+/-16 and 53+/-20s with the value for U-->M being shorter than for the other two conditions (Pinfluenced by an interaction of exercise intensity and pedal rate and are consistent with the notion that changes in muscle fibre recruitment are responsible for slower phase II V(O)(2) kinetics during high-intensity and work-to-work exercise transitions.

  19. Diversification rates are more strongly related to microhabitat than climate in squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars-Closel, Melissa; Kohlsdorf, Tiana; Moen, Daniel S; Wiens, John J

    2017-09-01

    Patterns of species richness among clades can be directly explained by the ages of clades or their rates of diversification. The factors that most strongly influence diversification rates remain highly uncertain, since most studies typically consider only a single predictor variable. Here, we explore the relative impacts of macroclimate (i.e., occurring in tropical vs. temperate regions) and microhabitat use (i.e., terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal, aquatic) on diversification rates of squamate reptile clades (lizards and snakes). We obtained data on microhabitat, macroclimatic distribution, and phylogeny for >4000 species. We estimated diversification rates of squamate clades (mostly families) from a time-calibrated tree, and used phylogenetic methods to test relationships between diversification rates and microhabitat and macroclimate. Across 72 squamate clades, the best-fitting model included microhabitat but not climatic distribution. Microhabitat explained ∼37% of the variation in diversification rates among clades, with a generally positive impact of arboreal microhabitat use on diversification, and negative impacts of fossorial and aquatic microhabitat use. Overall, our results show that the impacts of microhabitat on diversification rates can be more important than those of climate, despite much greater emphasis on climate in previous studies. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Magnet-related injury rates in children: a single hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, Chioma; Lee, Lois; Chiang, Vincent; Landscahft, Assaf; Kimia, Tomer; Monuteaux, Michael C; Kimia, Amir A

    2013-07-01

    The ingestion of multiple magnets simultaneously or the placement of magnets in both nares can lead to serious injury resulting from the attraction of the magnets across the tissues. The impact of mandatory standards for toys containing magnets has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of the present study was to describe the emergency department (ED) visit rate for magnet-related injuries. We performed a retrospective study of children evaluated for magnet-related injuries from 1995 to 2012 in an urban tertiary care pediatric ED. We identified cases using a computerized text-search methodology followed by manual chart review. We included children evaluated for magnet ingestion or impaction in the ears, nose, vagina, or rectum. We assessed the type and number of magnets as well as management and required interventions. A Poisson regression model was used to analyze rates of injury over time. We identified 112 cases of magnet injuries. The median patient age was 6 years (IQR 3.5, 10), and 54% were male. Compared to before 2006, the rate for all magnet-related injuries in 2007-2012 (incidence rate ratio 3.44; 95% confidence interval 2.3-5.11) as well as multiple magnet-related injuries (incidence rate ratio 7.54; 95% confidence interval 3.51-16.19) increased. Swallowed magnets accounted for 86% of the injuries. Thirteen patients had endoscopy performed for magnet removal (12%), and 4 (4%) had a surgical intervention. Magnets from toys account for the majority of the injuries. The number of ED visits for magnet-related injuries in children may be rising and are underreported, with an increase in the proportion of multiple magnets involvement. In our case series, mandatory standard for toys had no mitigating effect.

  1. Sudden increase in atmospheric concentration reveals strong coupling between shoot carbon uptake and root nutrient uptake in young walnut trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaire, M.; Sigogne, M.; Beaujard, F.; Frak, E.; Adam, B.; Le Roux, X.

    2005-01-01

    Short-term effects of a sudden increase in carbon dioxide concentration on nutrient uptake by roots during vegetative growth was studied in young walnut trees. Rates of carbon dioxide uptake and water loss by individual trees were determined by a branch bag method from three days before and six days after carbon dioxide concentration was increased. Nutrient uptake rates were measured concurrently by a hydroponic recirculating nutrient solution system. Carbon dioxide uptake rates increased greatly with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide; nutrient uptake rates were proportional to carbon dioxide uptake rates, except for the phosphorus ion. Daily water loss rates were only slightly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Overall, it was concluded that in the presence of non-limiting supplies of water and nutrients, root nutrient uptake and shoot carbon assimilation are strongly coupled in the short term in young walnut trees despite the important carbon and nutrient storage capacities od woody species. 45 refs., 7 figs

  2. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Bonneau, Kara; Vandellen, Michelle; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time-that is, between one year's achievement and the subsequent year's dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved performance saw decreased dropout rates following these successes. However, we find

  3. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    GLENNIE, ELIZABETH; BONNEAU, KARA; VANDELLEN, MICHELLE; DODGE, KENNETH A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. Purpose/Objective/Focus This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Research Design Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time—that is, between one year’s achievement and the subsequent year’s dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. Findings/Results This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved

  4. Survival and reproductive rate of mites in relation to resistance of their barn swallow hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P

    2000-08-01

    Parasite resistance may act via a number of different mechanisms that regulate or control the survival and the reproductive rate of parasites. Observations and experiments were used to test for effects of host resistance on parasite survival and rate of reproduction. Natural levels of infestation of barn swallow Hirundo rustica nests by the tropical fowl mite Ornithonyssus bursa were positively related to brood size, inversely related to the length of the outermost tail feathers of male nest owners (a secondary sexual character) and affected by time of reproduction by the host. A mite inoculation experiment, in which 50 adult mites were introduced into nests during the laying period of the host, was used to test for differential survival and reproduction of mites as a function of host resistance. The relationship between survival and reproduction of parasites, male tail length and host resistance was investigated. There was a negative relationship between mite numbers per nest after fledging of nestlings and male tail length. This relationship was mainly caused by a reduction in the number of mites in the first and second nymph stage with increasing tail length of male hosts, implying a reduction in rate of reproduction of mites. The proportion of mites that had recently fed was inversely related to tail length of male hosts. The proportion of nymph stages was positively related to the proportion of mites that had recently had a blood meal. Parasite resistance of barn swallows to the tropical fowl mite thus appeared to act through increased mortality rate of adult and nymph stages of mites, and through reduced reproductive rates of mites on resistant hosts. This is the first study demonstating a direct relationship between fitness components of a parasite and the expression of a secondary sexual character of a host.

  5. Temporal discounting rates and their relation to exercise behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Linda M; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Landes, Reid D; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Lefler, Leanne L

    2015-12-01

    As our nation's population ages, the rates of chronic illness and disability are expected to increase significantly. Despite the knowledge that exercise may prevent chronic disease and promote health among older adults, many still are inactive. Factors related to exercise behaviors have been explored in recent years. However, temporal discounting is a motivational concept that has not been explored in regard to exercise in older adults. Temporal discounting is a decision making process by which an individual chooses a smaller more immediate reward over a larger delayed reward. The aim of this study was to determine if temporal discounting rates vary between exercising and non-exercising older adults. This study used cross-sectional survey of 137 older adults living in the community. Older adults were recruited from 11 rural Arkansas churches. The Kirby delay-discounting Monetary Choice Questionnaire was used to collect discounting rates and then bivariate analysis was performed to compare temporal discounting rate between the exercisers and non-exercisers. Finally, multivariate analysis was used to compare discounting rate controlling for other covariates. The results indicated that exercising older adults display lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercising older adults. After controlling for education, exercisers still have lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercisers (phealth conditions relate to lack of exercise especially in older adults. This research suggests that if we can find appropriate incentives for discounting individuals, some type of immediate reward, then potentially we can design programs to engage and retain older adults in exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bacterial growth on surfaces: Automated image analysis for quantification of growth rate-related parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S.; Sternberg, Claus; Poulsen, L. K.

    1995-01-01

    species-specific hybridizations with fluorescence-labelled ribosomal probes to estimate the single-cell concentration of RNA. By automated analysis of digitized images of stained cells, we determined four independent growth rate-related parameters: cellular RNA and DNA contents, cell volume......, and the frequency of dividing cells in a cell population. These parameters were used to compare physiological states of liquid-suspended and surfacegrowing Pseudomonas putida KT2442 in chemostat cultures. The major finding is that the correlation between substrate availability and cellular growth rate found...

  7. On the Relation between Tax Rates and Evasion in a Multi-period Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Caball?Author-Email:; Judith Panad?

    2001-01-01

    We extend the basic tax evasion model to a multi-period economy exhibiting sustained growth. When individuals conceal part of their true income from the tax authority, they face the risk of being audited and hence of paying the corresponding fine. Both taxes and fines determine individual saving and the rate of capital accumulation. In this context we show that the sign of the relation between the level of the tax rate and the amount of evaded income is the same as that obtained in static set...

  8. On the relation between tax rates and evasion in a multi-period economy

    OpenAIRE

    Caballé, Jordi

    2006-01-01

    We extend the basic tax evasion model to a multi-period economy exhibiting sustained growth. When individuals conceal part of their true income from the tax authority, they face the risk of being audited and hence of paying the corresponding fine. Both taxes and fines determine individual saving and the rate of capital accumulation. In this context we show that the sign of the relation between the level of the tax rate and the amount of evaded income is the same as that obtained in static set...

  9. A model-independent comparison of the rates of uptake and short term retention of 47Ca and 85Sr by the skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, J; Hesp, R

    1976-12-22

    1. A method has been devised for comparing the impulse response functions of the skeleton for two or more boneseeking tracers, and for estimating the contribution made by measurement errors to the differences between any pair of impulse response functions. 2. Comparisons were made between the calculated impulse response functions for 47Ca and 85Sr obtained in simultaneous double tracer studies in sixteen subjects. Collectively the differences between the 47Ca and 85Sr functions could be accounted for entirely by measurement errors. 3. Because the calculation of an impulse response function requires fewer a priori assumptions than other forms of mathematical analysis, and automatically corrects for differences induced by recycling of tracer and non-identical rates of excretory plasma clearance of tracer, it is concluded that differences shown in previous in vivo studies between the fluxes of Ca and Sr into bone can be fully accounted for by undetermined oversimplifications in the various mathematical models used to analyse the results of those studies. 85Sr is therefore an adequate tracer for bone calcium in most in vivo studies.

  10. Evolution of cultural traits occurs at similar relative rates in different world regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth

    2014-11-22

    A fundamental issue in understanding human diversity is whether or not there are regular patterns and processes involved in cultural change. Theoretical and mathematical models of cultural evolution have been developed and are increasingly being used and assessed in empirical analyses. Here, we test the hypothesis that the rates of change of features of human socio-cultural organization are governed by general rules. One prediction of this hypothesis is that different cultural traits will tend to evolve at similar relative rates in different world regions, despite the unique historical backgrounds of groups inhabiting these regions. We used phylogenetic comparative methods and systematic cross-cultural data to assess how different socio-cultural traits changed in (i) island southeast Asia and the Pacific, and (ii) sub-Saharan Africa. The relative rates of change in these two regions are significantly correlated. Furthermore, cultural traits that are more directly related to external environmental conditions evolve more slowly than traits related to social structures. This is consistent with the idea that a form of purifying selection is acting with greater strength on these more environmentally linked traits. These results suggest that despite contingent historical events and the role of humans as active agents in the historical process, culture does indeed evolve in ways that can be predicted from general principles.

  11. Chloride and sodium uptake potential over an entire rotation of Populus irrigated with landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesny, Jill A; Zalesny, Ronald S

    2009-07-01

    There is a need for information about the response of Populus genotypes to repeated application of high-salinity water and nutrient sources throughout an entire rotation. We have combined establishment biomass and uptake data with mid- and full-rotation growth data to project potential chloride (Cl-) and sodium (Na+) uptake for 2- to 11-year-old Populus in the north central United States. Our objectives were to identify potential levels of uptake as the trees developed and stages of plantation development that are conducive to variable application rates of high-salinity irrigation. The projected cumulative uptake of Cl- and Na+ during mid-rotation plantation development was stable 2 to 3 years after planting but increased steadily from year 3 to 6. Year six cumulative uptake ranged from 22 to 175 kg Cl- ha(-1) and 8 to 74 kg Na+ ha(-1), while annual uptake ranged from 8 to 54 kg Cl- ha(-1) yr(-1) and 3 to 23 kg Na+ ha(-1) yr(-1). Full-rotation uptake was greatest from 4 to 9 years (Cl-) and 4 to 8 years (Na+), with maximum levels of Cl- (32 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) and Na+ (13 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) occurring in year six. The relative uptake potential of Cl- and Na+ at peak accumulation (year six) was 2.7 times greater than at the end of the rotation.

  12. The relevance of parametric U-uptake models in ESR age calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    In the ESR dating three basic parametric U-uptake models have been applied for dating teeth: early U-uptake (EU: closed system), linear U-uptake (LU) and recent U-uptake (RU, it is assumed that the dose rate contribution of U in the dental tissues is zero). In many ESR dating publications it is still assumed that samples comply with one or the other parametric U-uptake model calculation or that their correct age lies somewhere between EU and LU. Observations of the spatial distribution of uranium in dental tissues show that it is difficult to predict any relationships between the relative uptake in the dental tissues. Combined U-series/ESR age estimates can give insights into the actual U-uptake. An evaluation of published data shows that for cave sites, a significant number of results fall outside the EU and LU bracket, while for open air sites, the majority of data are outside this bracket, particularly showing greatly delayed U-uptake. This may be due to changes in the hydrological system, leading to erosion which exposes the open air site. U-leaching has also been observed on samples from open air sites, in which case any reasonable age calculation is impossible.

  13. 134Cs uptake by four plant species and Cs-K relations in the soil-plant system as affected by Ca(OH)2 application to an acid soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massas, I.; Skarlou, V.; Haidouti, C.; Giannakopoulou, F.

    2010-01-01

    Three rates of Ca(OH) 2 were applied to an acid soil and the 134 Cs uptake by radish, cucumber, soybean and sunflower plants was studied. The 134 Cs concentration in all plant species was reduced from 1.6-fold in the sunflower seeds to 6-fold in the soybean vegetative parts at the higher Ca(OH) 2 rate. Potassium (K) concentration in plants was also reduced, but less effectively. The significantly decreased 134 Cs-K soil to plant distribution factors (D.F.) clearly suggest a stronger effect of soil liming on 134 Cs than on K plant uptake. This observation was discussed in terms of ionic interactions in the soil matrix and within the plants. The results also indicated that the increased Ca 2+ concentration in the exchange phase and in the soil solution along with the improved root activity, due to the soil liming, enhanced the immobilization of 134 Cs in the soil matrix and consequently lowered the 134 Cs availability for plant uptake.

  14. {sup 134}Cs uptake by four plant species and Cs-K relations in the soil-plant system as affected by Ca(OH){sub 2} application to an acid soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massas, I., E-mail: massas@aua.g [Soil Science Laboratory, Department of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens (Greece); Skarlou, V.; Haidouti, C.; Giannakopoulou, F. [Soil Science Laboratory, Department of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 11855 Athens (Greece)

    2010-03-15

    Three rates of Ca(OH){sub 2} were applied to an acid soil and the {sup 134}Cs uptake by radish, cucumber, soybean and sunflower plants was studied. The {sup 134}Cs concentration in all plant species was reduced from 1.6-fold in the sunflower seeds to 6-fold in the soybean vegetative parts at the higher Ca(OH){sub 2} rate. Potassium (K) concentration in plants was also reduced, but less effectively. The significantly decreased {sup 134}Cs-K soil to plant distribution factors (D.F.) clearly suggest a stronger effect of soil liming on {sup 134}Cs than on K plant uptake. This observation was discussed in terms of ionic interactions in the soil matrix and within the plants. The results also indicated that the increased Ca{sup 2+} concentration in the exchange phase and in the soil solution along with the improved root activity, due to the soil liming, enhanced the immobilization of {sup 134}Cs in the soil matrix and consequently lowered the {sup 134}Cs availability for plant uptake.

  15. Relation Between Rates of Geriatric Suicide and Consumption of Alcohol Beverages in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Among older adults, suicide is a significant and persistent health problem. The highest suicide rate is found among white men aged 65 years and older. The causes of elder suicide are multifaceted. Although no predominate factor precipitates or explains geriatric suicide, alcohol is strongly linked to suicide attempts and completions. This study examined the relationship between rates of suicide in 65- to 74-year-olds and per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages in European countries. Data on suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-olds and per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages were obtained from the World Health Organization databases. Correlations were computed to examine relationships between suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-old males and females and per capita consumption of beer, wine, and spirits in the general population in 34 European countries. There was a positive correlation between suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-old males and per capita consumption of spirits. No correlations between suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-old males and per capita consumption of beer or wine were found. We also found no correlations between rates of suicide in 65- to 74-year-old females and per capita consumption of beer, wine, or spirits. The results of this study are consistent with reports that consumption of spirits is associated with suicide events. It is to be hoped that this paper will stimulate further studies that are necessary to clarify the relation between suicide rates in different age groups and consumption of alcoholic beverages, and attract more attention to the problem of geriatric suicide.

  16. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise results from a coordinated increase in rates of glucose delivery (higher capillary perfusion), surface membrane glucose transport, and intracellular substrate flux through glycolysis. The mechanism behind the movement of GLUT4...

  17. Hg uptake in ureteral obstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgrez, J.P.; Bourguignon, M.; Raynaud, C.; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1976-01-01

    In the presence of a total obstruction the results obtained with the Hg uptake test, as indeed with other functional tests, inform on the value of the kidney function at the time but have no prognostic value where repair possibilities are concerned. Some preliminary results seem to show however that very soon after the obstacle is removed, by the 10th or 15th day perhaps, quantitative functional tests may once more be used to evaluate the functional prognosis. This would mean that by waiting about two weeks after the disappearance of a total obstruction the Hg uptake test may again be used in all confidence. In order to check this deduction, which is based on slender evidence but which nevertheless has important practical implications, the measurement of the Hg uptake rate during the days following removal of the obstacle appears essential. In long-standing partial obstructions the Hg uptake rate gives an accurate assessment of the functional balance and helps considerably in the choice of therapy [fr

  18. Tc-99m Hydroxymethylene Diphosphonate (HMDP) Renal Uptake as a Surrogate Marker of Postoperative Impairment of the Glomerular Filtration Rate in Renal Tumor Patients Following Nephron-Sparing Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongyoon; Lee, Won Woo; So, Young; Ha, Seunggyun; Byun, Seok-Soo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2014-12-01

    We investigated Tc-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) scintigraphy findings in renal tumor patients from the perspective of postoperative renal dysfunction following nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). Forty-three renal tumor patients (M:F = 28:15, age 53.9 ± 12.5 years) who had undergone Tc-99m HMDP scintigraphy after NSS were enrolled. The patients were divided into HMDP(+) or HMDP(-) groups by visual assessment, and the asymmetric index (ASI) was calculated using a region-of-interest analysis. In 16 patients, the total and split glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was assessed using Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) scintigraphy at baseline and at 3 and 6 months post-NSS. High Tc-99m HMDP uptake was observed in the operated kidneys, but this did not persist later than 7 days post-NSS. Split GFR of the operated kidneys at baseline (58.5 ± 9.3 ml/min) was significantly reduced at 6 months post-NSS (40.1 ± 5.9 ml/min, p Tc-99m HMDP. Declines in both total GFR (p = 0.010 and p = 0.002 for 3 and 6 months, respectively) and split GFR of the operated kidneys (p Tc-99m HMDP in the operated kidneys. The ASI was negatively correlated with %change in the split GFR of these operated kidneys at 6 months post-NSS (rho =-0.578, p = 0.0304). Tc-99m HMDP uptake within 1 week following NSS is a surrogate marker of GFR impairment over 6 months post-NSS.

  19. A prospective analysis of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with uveal melanoma: comparison between metabolic rate of glucose (MRglu) and standardized uptake value (SUV) and correlations with histopathological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Maria Lucia; Mattoli, Maria Vittoria; Rufini, Vittoria; Giordano, Alessandro [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Roma (Italy); Blasi, Maria Antonietta; Sammarco, Maria Grazia [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Ophthalmology, Roma (Italy); Petrone, Gianluigi; Mule, Antonino [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Department of Pathology, Roma (Italy); Indovina, Luca [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Physics Unit, Roma (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    To evaluate whether standardized uptake value (SUV) and/or metabolic rate of glucose (MRglu) are different among epithelioid, mixed, and spindle cell uveal melanomas, as well as between low and high risk melanomas; to correlate ultrasonographic data and metabolic parameters with histopathological features; and to assess the role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for evaluating prognosis. Of 34 eligible patients prospectively enrolled with clinical suspicion of medium/large uveal melanoma, 26 (15 men, mean age 62.8 {+-} 11.8 years) were evaluated. All patients underwent metastatic work-up, 3-D dynamic brain and whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, and surgery. Of the 26 ocular lesions, 23 showed {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, with a sensitivity of 88 %. MRglu was significantly higher in the epithelioid cell melanomas than in the spindle cell melanomas, as well as in high-risk lesions than in low-risk lesions (p = 0.01, p = 0.02, respectively). SUV and MRglu were correlated with histopathological features while ultrasonographic data were not. MRglu is useful for distinguishing the different cell types in uveal melanoma, as well as high-risk from low-risk lesions, while SUV is not. MRglu provides a more accurate evaluation of glucose consumption, whereas SUV provides only an estimation. In addition, the metabolic parameters correlate with histopathological features, well also reflecting cellular behaviour in ocular malignancy. A longer follow-up is needed to assess the role of {sup 18}F-FDG in evaluating prognosis. (orig.)

  20. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to either 1 or 2 feedings of colostrum replacer: effect on uptake and rate of absorption of immunoglobulin G in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, R G; Kent, E J; Haines, D M; Erickson, P S

    2012-06-01

    Forty Holstein dairy calves were blocked by birth date and sex, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments within each block to elucidate the effect of feeding regimen and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) supplementation on absorption of IgG from colostrum replacer (CR). Calves received CR containing 191.4 g of IgG fed either in 1 feeding at 0 h (within 45 min of birth), with or without 30 g of NaHCO₃, or in 2 feedings (127.6 g of IgG at 0 h, with or without 20 g of NaHCO₃, and 63.8 g of IgG at 6 h, with or without 10 g of NaHCO₃). The treatments were (1) 1 feeding of CR+0 g of NaHCO₃; (2) 1 feeding of CR+30 g of NaHCO₃; (3) 2 feedings of CR+0 g of NaHCO₃; and (4) 2 feedings of CR+30 g total of NaHCO₃. Only calves born with no dystocia were used on this study. Blood samples were taken at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24h postpartum and were analyzed for IgG using a radial immunoassay. Results indicated that, individually, feeding regimen and NaHCO₃ treatments had no effect. However, the interaction was significant for 24-h IgG and area under the curve, and showed a trend for apparent efficiency of absorption. Absorption rate data indicated that, for calves fed within 45 min of birth, most IgG absorption occurred in the first 6 h after birth. From 6 to 12 h postpartum, IgG absorption started to decrease; however, IgG absorption remained higher for calves fed in a single feeding than in 2 feedings. These data indicated that NaHCO₃ may increase IgG absorption when calves are fed colostrum in a single feeding but is not beneficial when colostrum is fed in 2 feedings. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Stigma, Attitudes, and Help-Seeking Intentions for Psychological Problems in Relation to Regional Suicide Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Alexandre; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Molenberghs, Geert; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2016-02-01

    In this ecological study, we investigated whether help-seeking related to stigma, intentions, and attitudes toward suicide are associated with the suicide rates of 20 regions within the Netherlands and Belgium. Significant associations were found between regional suicide rates and the intention to seek informal help (β = -1.47, p = .001), self-stigma (β = 1.33, p = .038), and shame (β = .71, p = .030). The association between self-stigma and suicide rate was mediated by intentions to seek informal help. These results suggest that to promote suicide prevention at the level of the regional population, stigma, shame, and intentions to seek help should be targeted in the public domain. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  2. The impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates: global data review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Maki; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Ferronato, Angela Esposito; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta

    2016-09-01

    to describe the impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates in countries that implemented universal vaccination against the disease. we identified countries that implemented universal vaccination against varicella at the http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/schedules site of the World Health Organization and selected articles in Pubmed describing the changes (pre/post-vaccination) in the varicella-related hospitalization rates in these countries, using the Keywords "varicella", "vaccination/vaccine" and "children" (or) "hospitalization". Publications in English published between January 1995 and May 2015 were included. 24 countries with universal vaccination against varicella and 28 articles describing the impact of the vaccine on varicella-associated hospitalizations rates in seven countries were identified. The US had 81.4% -99.2% reduction in hospitalization rates in children younger than four years after 6-14 years after the onset of universal vaccination (1995), with vaccination coverage of 90%; Uruguay: 94% decrease (children aged 1-4 years) in six years, vaccination coverage of 90%; Canada: 93% decrease (age 1-4 years) in 10 years, coverage of 93%; Germany: 62.4% decrease (age 1-4 years) in 8 years, coverage of 78.2%; Australia: 76.8% decrease (age 1-4 years) in 5 years, coverage of 90%; Spain: 83.5% decrease (age <5 years) in four years, coverage of 77.2% and Italy 69.7% -73.8% decrease (general population), coverage of 60%-95%. The publications showed variations in the percentage of decrease in varicella-related hospitalization rates after universal vaccination in the assessed countries; the results probably depend on the time since the implementation of universal vaccination, differences in the studied age group, hospital admission criteria, vaccination coverage and strategy, which does not allow direct comparison between data. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por

  3. The impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates: global data review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Hirose

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates in countries that implemented universal vaccination against the disease. Data source: We identified countries that implemented universal vaccination against varicella at the http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/schedules site of the World Health Organization and selected articles in Pubmed describing the changes (pre/post-vaccination in the varicella-related hospitalization rates in these countries, using the Keywords "varicella", "vaccination/vaccine" and "children" (or "hospitalization". Publications in English published between January 1995 and May 2015 were included. Data synthesis: 24 countries with universal vaccination against varicella and 28 articles describing the impact of the vaccine on varicella-associated hospitalizations rates in seven countries were identified. The US had 81.4%–99.2% reduction in hospitalization rates in children younger than four years, 6–14 years after the onset of universal vaccination (1995, with vaccination coverage of 90%; Uruguay: 94% decrease (children aged 1–4 years in six years, vaccination coverage of 90%; Canada: 93% decrease (age 1–4 years in 10 years, coverage of 93%; Germany: 62.4% decrease (age 1–4 years in 8 years, coverage of 78.2%; Australia: 76.8% decrease (age 1–4 years in 5 years, coverage of 90%; Spain: 83.5% decrease (age <5 years in four years, coverage of 77.2% and Italy 69.7%–73.8% decrease (general population, coverage of 60%–95%. Conclusions: The publications showed variations in the percentage of decrease in varicella-related hospitalization rates after universal vaccination in the assessed countries; the results probably depend on the time since the implementation of universal vaccination, differences in the studied age group, hospital admission criteria, vaccination coverage and strategy, which does not allow direct comparison between

  4. Self-rated health, psychosocial functioning, and health-related behavior among Thai adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn

    2009-02-01

    Despite the popularity of self-rated health (SRH) in Western countries as a useful public health tool, it has only rarely been used in Asian countries. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether measures of psychosocial functioning and health-related factors differ according to SRH in a school-based sample of Thai adolescents. The survey was given to 2519 adolescents attending 10 coeducational secondary high schools in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and included measures of psychosocial functioning (loneliness, hopelessness, shyness, perceptions of social status, self-rated happiness, and perception of physical attractiveness) and certain health-related factors (height/weight, physical activity, eating breakfast, sleep). The proportion of boys (5.1%) reporting that they were not healthy was similar to the proportion of girls (4.6%) making the same rating. These adolescents showed a pattern of overall poor health risk. Compared to adolescent peers who rated their health as healthy or very healthy, they were less physically active, got less sleep, were more likely to be overweight, and scored lower on loneliness, shyness, hopelessness, and self-rated happiness. The present pattern of poor health risk warrants attention and supports the merit of using SRH in adolescent health assessment. SRH is easy to obtain and simple to assess and single-item assessments of SRH appear to be valid measures of health status in adults and adolescent. Interventions, such as health counseling, mental health counseling, and health education, can target adolescents who rate themselves as 'not healthy' or report poor health status.

  5. Effects of Context and Relative Rank on Mate Choice and Affiliation Ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lynne Honey

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Female dominance has not often been studied as a factor in mate choice and other social interactions. When it has been examined, there have been a number of conflicting findings. The present study was designed to clarify interpretations of a study conducted by Brown and Lewis (2004 that found that men prefer subordinate women in a workplace context. We presented participants with information about the relative rank of physically attractive targets, in two very different contexts (work-related and recreational. We found that the context in which rank cues are presented has an impact on affiliation ratings, but that cues of rank do not affect mate choice ratings. Future studies of effects of dominance must take into account the context in which they are presented, and recognize that rank may not be a sufficient indicator of dominance for the purpose of mate choice by both men and women.

  6. Influence of the relative deformation rate on tube processing by ultrasonic vibration drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susan, M.; Bujoreanu, L. G.; Galusca, D. G.; Munteanu, C.; Lliescu, V.

    2004-01-01

    After a brief review of the friction reversion mechanism during ultrasonic vibration drawing of tubes (UVD), the paper introduces a method to determine the drawing force based on the theorem of total consumed power, in the case of tube processing. The experiments performed on tubes made from 10TiNiCr180 (AISI321) austenitic stainless steel confirm the superiority of UVD technology regarding the diminution of the drawing force, the increase of the plasticity and the improvement of the safety coefficient, tendencies that are enhanced with the decrease of the relative drawing rate. The best results were obtained for the relative drawing rate of 0.12 for which the drawing force decreased with 33%, plasticity increased with 9% and safety coefficient with 22%, as compared to CT. (Author) 10 refs

  7. Novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-11-01

    Ergodic capacity and average bit error rate have been widely used to compare the performance of different wireless communication systems. As such recent scientific research and studies revealed strong impact of designing and implementing wireless technologies based on these two performance indicators. However and to the best of our knowledge, the direct links between these two performance indicators have not been explicitly proposed in the literature so far. In this paper, we propose novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate of an overall communication system using binary modulation schemes for signaling with a limited bandwidth and operating over generalized fading channels. More specifically, we show that these two performance measures can be represented in terms of each other, without the need to know the exact end-to-end statistical characterization of the communication channel. We validate the correctness and accuracy of our newly proposed relations and illustrated their usefulness by considering some classical examples. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. The Relation between Recombination Rate and Patterns of Molecular Evolution and Variation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, José L.; Halligan, Daniel L.; Haddrill, Penelope R.; Charlesworth, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Genetic recombination associated with sexual reproduction increases the efficiency of natural selection by reducing the strength of Hill–Robertson interference. Such interference can be caused either by selective sweeps of positively selected alleles or by background selection (BGS) against deleterious mutations. Its consequences can be studied by comparing patterns of molecular evolution and variation in genomic regions with different rates of crossing over. We carried out a comprehensive study of the benefits of recombination in Drosophila melanogaster, both by contrasting five independent genomic regions that lack crossing over with the rest of the genome and by comparing regions with different rates of crossing over, using data on DNA sequence polymorphisms from an African population that is geographically close to the putatively ancestral population for the species, and on sequence divergence from a related species. We observed reductions in sequence diversity in noncrossover (NC) regions that are inconsistent with the effects of hard selective sweeps in the absence of recombination. Overall, the observed patterns suggest that the recombination rate experienced by a gene is positively related to an increase in the efficiency of both positive and purifying selection. The results are consistent with a BGS model with interference among selected sites in NC regions, and joint effects of BGS, selective sweeps, and a past population expansion on variability in regions of the genome that experience crossing over. In such crossover regions, the X chromosome exhibits a higher rate of adaptive protein sequence evolution than the autosomes, implying a Faster-X effect. PMID:24489114

  9. Development in self-rated health among older people as determinant of social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten; Modvig, Jens

    2004-01-01

    .3-5.2) in the two-point analyses. Furthermore, a deterioration in SRH predicted poor contact satisfaction OR=2.8 (1.7-4.5). All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, mental health, functional ability, cohabitation status, and a measure of social relations at baseline. Results for the three-point analyses were......AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men. METHODS: A longitudinal questionnaire-based study...

  10. THE OBSERVED RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, DUST EXTINCTION, AND STAR FORMATION RATE IN LOCAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, H. J.; Kewley, L. J.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Yates, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and star formation rate (SFR) using ∼150,000 star-forming galaxies from SDSS DR7. We show that the relation between dust extinction and SFR changes with stellar mass. For galaxies at the same stellar mass, dust extinction is anti-correlated with the SFR at stellar masses 10 M ☉ . There is a sharp transition in the relation at a stellar mass of 10 10 M ☉ . At larger stellar masses, dust extinction is positively correlated with the SFR for galaxies at the same stellar mass. The observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR presented in this study helps to confirm similar trends observed in the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR. The relation reported in this study provides important new constraints on the physical processes governing the chemical evolution of galaxies. The correlation between SFR and dust extinction for galaxies with stellar masses >10 10 M ☉ is shown to extend to the population of quiescent galaxies suggesting that the physical processes responsible for the observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR may be related to the processes leading to the shutdown of star formation in galaxies.

  11. THE OBSERVED RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, DUST EXTINCTION, AND STAR FORMATION RATE IN LOCAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahid, H. J.; Kewley, L. J.; Kudritzki, R. P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Yates, R. M. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    In this study, we investigate the relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and star formation rate (SFR) using {approx}150,000 star-forming galaxies from SDSS DR7. We show that the relation between dust extinction and SFR changes with stellar mass. For galaxies at the same stellar mass, dust extinction is anti-correlated with the SFR at stellar masses <10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }. There is a sharp transition in the relation at a stellar mass of 10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }. At larger stellar masses, dust extinction is positively correlated with the SFR for galaxies at the same stellar mass. The observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR presented in this study helps to confirm similar trends observed in the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR. The relation reported in this study provides important new constraints on the physical processes governing the chemical evolution of galaxies. The correlation between SFR and dust extinction for galaxies with stellar masses >10{sup 10} M {sub Sun} is shown to extend to the population of quiescent galaxies suggesting that the physical processes responsible for the observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR may be related to the processes leading to the shutdown of star formation in galaxies.

  12. Relative rate study of the kinetic isotope effect in the 13CH3D + Cl reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joelsson, Lars Magnus Torvald; Forecast, Roslyn; Schmidt, Johan Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    The 13CH3D/12CH4kinetic isotope effect, α13CH3D, of CH4 + Cl is determined for the first time, using the relative rate technique and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. α13CH3D is found to be 1.60 ± 0.04. In addition, a quantum chemistry/transition state theory model with tunneling...

  13. Comparison of computational models for estimation of whole body and organ radiation dose in rainbow trout from uptake of iodine-131 - Comparison of rainbow trout phantoms for estimation of whole body and organ radiation dose rates from uptake of iodine-131 in freshwater systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Nicole E. [Department of Environmental and Engineering Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, 29634 (United States); Johnson, Thomas E.; Ruedig, Elizabeth; Pinder, John E. III [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, 1681 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    . Organs were modeled using detailed tissue composition data for rainbow trout acquired by ICP-MS. We consider the dose rates to the thyroid, GI-tract, and liver of rainbow trout from uptake of iodine-131, where the concentrations of {sup 131}I in these organs have been determined for the first 32 days following an {sup 131}I release into the freshwater system. The largest average organ dose rates were for the thyroid, which ranged up to 0.6 mGy d{sup -1}. Preliminary results suggest significant differences between the phantom types for both whole body and organ dose rates, and agree well with previous work which has proposed 104 as the maximum deviation between whole body and organ dose rates. (authors)

  14. Uptake and allocation of 15N in alpine plants. Implications for the importance of competitive ability in predicting community structure in a stressful environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodose, T.A.; Jaeger, C.H.; Bowman, W.D.; Schardt, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Several potential components of competitive ability were determined for 13 plant species in a N-limited alpine moist meadow community in order to determine if competition had an influence on relative abundance in this stressful environment. The components of competitive ability examined were 15 N uptake rate, 15 N allocation, whole plant biomass, root:shoot ratio, and tissue N concentrations. It was hypothesized that 15 N uptake rate would be the component most correlated with relative abundance. However, 15 N uptake rate was negatively correlated with percent cover in the community. In contrast, whole plant biomass and root:shoot ratio were positively correlated with relative abundance. Tissue N concentrations and 15 N allocation were not important predictors of relative abundance. These results suggest that in a harsh environment, high resource uptake rates are not indicative of competitive ability, but may instead by a mechanism by which rare species are able to coexist with competitive dominants. (au) 47 refs

  15. Importance of passive diffusion in the uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by phagotrophic protozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawinski, E.B.; Farrington, J.W.; Moffett, J.W.

    2000-05-01

    Unicellular protozoan grazers represent a size class of organisms where a transition in the mechanism of chlorobiphenyl (CB) introduction, from diffusion through surface membranes to ingestion of contaminated prey, could occur. This study compares the relative importance of these two processes in the overall uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by protists. Uptake rates and steady-state concentrations were compared in laboratory cultures of grazing and nongrazing protozoa. These experiments were conducted with a 10-{micro}m marine scuticociliate (Uronema sp.), bacterial prey (Halomonas halodurans), and a suite of 21 CB congeners spanning a range of aqueous solubilities. The dominant pathway of CB uptake by both grazing and nongrazing protozoa was diffusion. Organic-carbon-normalized CB concentrations (in the protozoan cell) were equivalent in grazing and nongrazing protozoa for all congeners studied. Rate constants for uptake into and loss from the protozoan cell were independently determined by using [3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime}-{sup 14}C]tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC no. 77), 0.38 {+-} 0.03 min{sup {minus}1} and (1.1 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup {minus}5} (g of organic carbon){minus}{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Magnitudes of the uptake and loss processes were calculated and compared by using a numerical model. The model result was consistent with data from the bioaccumulation experiment and supported the hypothesis that diffusive uptake is faster than ingestive uptake in phagotrophic unicellular protozoa.

  16. Calcitonin gene-related peptide alters the firing rates of hypothalamic temperature sensitive and insensitive neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimm Eleanor R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient hyperthermic shifts in body temperature have been linked to the endogenous hormone calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, which can increase sympathetic activation and metabolic heat production. Recent studies have demonstrated that these centrally mediated responses may result from CGRP dependent changes in the activity of thermoregulatory neurons in the preoptic and anterior regions of the hypothalamus (POAH. Results Using a tissue slice preparation, we recorded the single-unit activity of POAH neurons from the adult male rat, in response to temperature and CGRP (10 μM. Based on the slope of firing rate as a function of temperature, neurons were classified as either warm sensitive or temperature insensitive. All warm sensitive neurons responded to CGRP with a significant decrease in firing rate. While CGRP did not alter the firing rates of some temperature insensitive neurons, responsive neurons showed an increase in firing rate. Conclusion With respect to current models of thermoregulatory control, these CGRP dependent changes in firing rate would result in hyperthermia. This suggests that both warm sensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the POAH may play a role in producing this hyperthermic shift in temperature.

  17. Development of Copper Corrosion Products and Relation between Surface Appearance and Corrosion Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Binh, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Tru, Nguyen Nhi; Yoshino, Tsujino; Yasuki, Maeda

    2008-01-01

    Copper was exposed unsheltered and sheltered in four humid tropical sites, representing urban, urban-industrial, urban-marine and rural environments. The corrosion rates and the sequence of corrosion product formation are presented and discussed in relation with climatic and atmospheric pollution parameters. Chemical compositions of corrosion products were found to depend on environments and duration of exposure. In all environments, cuprite was the predominating corrosion product that formed first and continuously increased during the exposure. Among the sulphur-containing corrosion products, posnjakite and brochantite were more frequently found and the first formed earlier. Nantokite was the most common chlorine-containing products for most cases, except the high-chloride environment, where atacamite was detected instead. The corrosion rate of copper was well indicated by the colour of patina. The red-purple colour corresponded to the high corrosion rate and the greenish grey colour corresponded to the low corrosion rate. Corrosion rate of sheltered copper in urban-marine environment increased with the exposure time

  18. An examination of black/white differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fenelon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rate of mortality increase with age among adults is typically used as a measure of the rate of functional decline associated with aging or senescence. While black and white populations differ in the level of mortality, mortality also rises less rapidly with age for blacks than for whites, leading to the well-known black/white mortality "crossover". OBJECTIVE This paper investigates black/white differences in the rate of mortality increase with age for major causes of death in order to examine the factors responsible for the black/white crossover. METHODS The analysis considers two explanations for the crossover: selective survival and age misreporting. Mortality is modeled using a Gompertz model for 11 causes of death from ages 50-84 among blacks and whites by sex. RESULTS Mortality increases more rapidly with age for whites than for blacks for nearly all causes of death considered. The all-cause mortality rate of mortality increase is nearly two percentage points higher for whites. The analysis finds evidence for both selective survival and age misreporting, although age misreporting is a more prominent explanation among women. CONCLUSIONS The black/white mortality crossover reflects large differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase. Instead of reflecting the impact of specific causes of death, this pattern exists across many disparate disease conditions, indicating the need for a broad explanation.

  19. Glycolysis Is Dynamic and Relates Closely to Respiration Rate in Stored Sugarbeet Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice A. Megguer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although respiration is the principal cause of the loss of sucrose in postharvest sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L., the internal mechanisms that control root respiration rate are unknown. Available evidence, however, indicates that respiration rate is likely to be controlled by the availability of respiratory substrates, and glycolysis has a central role in generating these substrates. To determine glycolytic changes that occur in sugarbeet roots after harvest and to elucidate relationships between glycolysis and respiration, sugarbeet roots were stored for up to 60 days, during which activities of glycolytic enzymes and concentrations of glycolytic substrates, intermediates, cofactors, and products were determined. Respiration rate was also determined, and relationships between respiration rate and glycolytic enzymes and metabolites were evaluated. Glycolysis was highly variable during storage, with 10 of 14 glycolytic activities and 14 of 17 glycolytic metabolites significantly altered during storage. Changes in glycolytic enzyme activities and metabolites occurred throughout the 60 day storage period, but were greatest in the first 4 days after harvest. Positive relationships between changes in glycolytic enzyme activities and root respiration rate were abundant, with 10 of 14 enzyme activities elevated when root respiration was elevated and 9 glycolytic activities static during periods of unchanging respiration rate. Major roles for pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase in the regulation of postharvest sugarbeet root glycolysis were indicated based on changes in enzymatic activities and concentrations of their substrates and products. Additionally, a strong positive relationship between respiration rate and pyruvate kinase activity was found indicating that downstream TCA cycle enzymes were unlikely to regulate or restrict root respiration in a major way. Overall, these results establish that glycolysis is not static during sugarbeet root

  20. Uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jiemin; Chen Ziyuan; Tang Shirong; Guangzhou Univ., Guangzhou; Ding Bingyang

    2005-01-01

    The review covers results at home and abroad in terms of uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes, and suggests pteridophytes' significance in phytoremediation; the mechanisms related to uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes and some methods and means used for research on the mechanism are also introduced; the authors' viewpoints on future development trends are presented in this paper. (authors)

  1. Carbon and nitrogen uptake of calcareous benthic foraminifera along a depth-related oxygen gradient in the OMZ of the Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekatrin Julie Enge

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Foraminifera are an important faunal element of the benthos in oxygen-depleted settings such as Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs where they can play a relevant role in the processing of phytodetritus. We investigated the uptake of phytodetritus (labeled with 13C and 15N by cal-careous foraminifera in the 0-1 cm sediment horizon under different oxygen concentrations within the OMZ in the eastern Arabian Sea. The in situ tracer experiments were carried out along a depth transect on the Indian margin over a period of 4 to 10 days. The uptake of phy-todetrital carbon within 4 days by all investigated species shows that phytodetritus is a rele-vant food source for foraminifera in OMZ sediments. The decrease of total carbon uptake from 540 to 1100 m suggests a higher demand for carbon by species in the low-oxygen core region of the OMZ or less food competition with macrofauna. Especially Uvigerinids showed high uptake of phytodetrital carbon at the lowest oxygenated site. Variation in the ratio of phytodetrital carbon to nitrogen between species and sites indicates that foraminiferal carbon and nitrogen use can be decoupled and different nutritional demands are found between spe-cies. Lower ratio of phytodetrital carbon and nitrogen at 540 m could hint for greater demand or storage of food-based nitrogen, ingestion or hosting of bacteria under almost anoxic condi-tions. Shifts in the foraminiferal assemblage structure (controlled by oxygen or food availabil-ity and in the presence of other benthic organisms account for observed changes in the pro-cessing of phytodetritus in the different OMZ habitats. Foraminifera dominate the short-term processing of phytodetritus in the OMZ core but are less important in the lower OMZ bounda-ry region of the Indian margin as biological interactions and species distribution of foraminif-era change with depth and oxygen levels.

  2. Copper uptake kinetics and regulation in a marine fish after waterborne copper acclimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang Fei; Zhong Huan [AMCE and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong, E-mail: wwang@ust.hk [AMCE and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-09-14

    The uptake kinetics and regulation of copper in a marine predatory fish, the black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli after acclimation to waterborne Cu were examined, using radiotracer techniques. The dissolved Cu uptake followed a linear pattern during the time of exposure, and the calculated uptake rate constant was 6.24 L kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The efflux rate constant was 0.091 day{sup -1} following dietary uptake of Cu, and the dietary assimilation efficiency (AE) of Cu varied between 1.7% and 10.9% after the fish were fed with three types of prey (oysters, clams and brine shrimp). After the fish were acclimated at a nominal concentration of 50 {mu}g Cu L{sup -1} for 14 days, the Cu uptake rate and efflux rate constant did not change significantly, but the Cu body concentrations and metallothionein (MT) concentrations in fish tissues increased significantly. Subcellular Cu distributions were also modified. Significant MT induction was observed in response to increased Cu tissue concentrations, indicating that MT rather than the uptake kinetics may play a primary role in Cu regulation during waterborne Cu acclimation in this marine fish. Moreover, the high Cu efflux may also be important in Cu regulation during long-term exposure. Our modeling calculations indicated that dietary uptake was likely to be the main route for Cu bioaccumulation in the fish, and the relative contribution of waterborne and dietary uptake depended on the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of the prey and ingestion rate of fish.

  3. Role of endothelial permeability hotspots and endothelial mitosis in determining age-related patterns of macromolecule uptake by the rabbit aortic wall near branch points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooi, K Yean; Comerford, Andrew; Cremers, Stephanie J; Weinberg, Peter D

    2016-07-01

    Transport of macromolecules between plasma and the arterial wall plays a key role in atherogenesis. Scattered hotspots of elevated endothelial permeability to macromolecules occur in the aorta; a fraction of them are associated with dividing cells. Hotspots occur particularly frequently downstream of branch points, where lesions develop in young rabbits and children. However, the pattern of lesions varies with age, and can be explained by similar variation in the pattern of macromolecule uptake. We investigated whether patterns of hotspots and mitosis also change with age. Evans' Blue dye-labeled albumin was injected intravenously into immature or mature rabbits and its subsequent distribution in the aortic wall around intercostal branch ostia examined by confocal microscopy and automated image analysis. Mitosis was detected by immunofluorescence after adding 5-bromo-2-deoxiuridine to drinking water. Hotspots were most frequent downstream of branches in immature rabbits, but a novel distribution was observed in mature rabbits. Neither pattern was explained by mitosis. Hotspot uptake correlated spatially with the much greater non-hotspot uptake (p hotspots were considered. The pattern of hotspots changes with age. The data are consistent with there being a continuum of local permeabilities rather than two distinct mechanisms. The distribution of the dye, which binds to elastin and collagen, was similar to that of non-binding tracers and to lesions apart from a paucity at the lateral margins of branches that can be explained by lower levels of fibrous proteins in those regions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Subway-Related Trauma: An Urban Public Health Issue with a High Case-Fatality Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Simon G; DiMaggio, Charles J; Wall, Stephen; Sim, Vasiliy; Frangos, Spiros G; Ayoung-Chee, Patricia; Bukur, Marko; Tandon, Manish; Todd, S Rob; Marshall, Gary T

    2018-05-09

    Between 1990 and 2003, there were 668 subway-related fatalities in New York City. However, subway-related trauma remains an understudied area of injury-related morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to characterize the injuries and events leading up to the injuries of all patients admitted after subway-related trauma. We conducted a retrospective case series of subway-related trauma at a Level I trauma center from 2001 to 2016. Descriptive epidemiology of patient demographics, incident details, injuries, and outcomes were analyzed. Over 15 years, 254 patients were admitted for subway-related trauma. The mean (standard error of the mean) age was 41 (1.0) years, 80% were male (95% confidence interval [CI] 74-84%) and median Injury Severity Score was 14 (interquartile range [IQR] 5-24). The overall case-fatality rate was 10% (95% CI 7-15%). The most common injuries were long-bone fractures, intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic amputations. Median length of stay was 6 days (IQR 1-18 days). Thirty-seven percent of patients required surgical intervention. At the time of injury, 55% of patients (95% CI 49-61%) had a positive urine drug or alcohol screen, 16% (95% CI 12-21%) were attempting suicide, and 39% (95% CI 33-45%) had a history of psychiatric illness. Subway-related trauma is associated with a high case-fatality rate. Alcohol or drug intoxication and psychiatric illness can increase the risk of this type of injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutrient uptake dynamics across a gradient of nutrient concentrations and ratios at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Catherine A.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Conine, Andrea L.; Lipshutz, Sondra M.

    2015-02-01

    Understanding interactions between nutrient cycles is essential for recognizing and remediating human impacts on water quality, yet multielemental approaches to studying nutrient cycling in streams are currently rare. Here we utilized a relatively new approach (tracer additions for spiraling curve characterization) to examine uptake dynamics for three essential nutrients across a landscape that varied in absolute and relative nutrient availability. We measured nutrient uptake for soluble reactive phosphorous, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen in 16 headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains, New York. Across the landscape, ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus had shorter uptake lengths and higher uptake velocities than nitrate-nitrogen. Ammonium-nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus uptake velocities were tightly correlated, and the slope of the relationship did not differ from one, suggesting strong demand for both nutrients despite the high ambient water column dissolved inorganic nitrogen: soluble reactive phosphorus ratios. Ammonium-nitrogen appeared to be the preferred form of nitrogen despite much higher nitrate-nitrogen concentrations. The uptake rate of nitrate-nitrogen was positively correlated with ambient soluble reactive phosphorus concentration and soluble reactive phosphorus areal uptake rate, suggesting that higher soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations alleviate phosphorus limitation and facilitate nitrate-nitrogen uptake. In addition, these streams retained a large proportion of soluble reactive phosphorus, ammonium-nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen supplied by the watershed, demonstrating that these streams are important landscape filters for nutrients. Together, these results (1) indicated phosphorus limitation across the landscape but similarly high demand for ammonium-nitrogen and (2) suggested that nitrate-nitrogen uptake was influenced by variability in soluble reactive phosphorus availability and preference for

  6. Thyroid uptake test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid gland is altered by the iodine content of diet or drugs. American diet has a high iodine content because each slice of the white bread contains nearly 150μg of iodine due to the bleaching process employed in the production of the bread. This carrier content of iodine reduces the uptake so much, that the normal American uptakes are usually three to four times lower than the uptakes in the developing countries. The other drawback of the thyroid uptake test is that it is affected by the iodine containing drugs. Anti-diarrhoea medications are quire common in the developing countries and many of them contain iodine moiety. Without a reliable drug history, a low thyroid uptake value may lead to a misleading conclusion

  7. 18F-FDG PET-CT uptake is a feature of both normal diameter and aneurysmal aortic wall and is not related to aneurysm size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barwick, Tara D. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology/Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Hammersmith Hospital, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Lyons, O.T.A.; Waltham, M. [King' s College London, BHF Centre of Research Excellence and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at King' s Health Partners, Academic Department of Surgery, London (United Kingdom); Mikhaeel, N.G. [Guy' s and St Thomas' Foundation NHS Trust, Department of Oncology, London (United Kingdom); O' Doherty, M.J. [King' s Health Partners, Clinical PET Centre, St Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Aortic metabolic activity is suggested to correlate with presence and progression of aneurysmal disease, but has been inadequately studied. This study investigates the 2-[{sup 18}F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) uptake in a population of infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), compared to a matched non-aneurysmal control group. The Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET/CT) database was searched for infra-renal AAA. Exclusion criteria were prior repair, vasculitis, and saccular/mycotic thoracic or thoraco-abdominal aneurysms. Matching of 159 non-aneurysmal (<3 cm diameter) controls from the same population was assessed. Infra-renal aortic wall FDG uptake was assessed using visual analysis; maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and target to background mediastinal blood pool ratio (TBR) were documented. Predictors of FDG uptake (age, sex, aortic diameter, hypertension, statin use, and diabetes) were assessed using univariate analysis. Follow-up questionnaires were sent to referring clinicians. Aneurysms (n = 151) and controls (n = 159) were matched (p > 0.05) for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, smoking status, statin use, and indication for PET/CT. Median aneurysm diameter was 5.0 cm (range 3.2-10.4). On visual analysis there was no significant difference in the overall numbers with increased visual uptake 24 % (36/151) in the aneurysm group vs. 19 % (30/159) in the controls, p = ns. SUV{sub max} was slightly lower in the aneurysm group vs. controls (mean (2 SD) 1.75(0.79) vs. 1.84(0.58), p = 0.02). However there was no difference in TBR between the AAA group and controls (mean (2 SD) 1.03 (0.46) vs. 1.05(0.31), p = 0.36). During a median 18 (interquartile range 8-35) months' follow-up 20 were repaired and four were confirmed ruptured. The level of metabolic activity as assessed by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in infra-renal AAA does not correlate with aortic size and does not differ between aneurysms and matched controls

  8. Factors influencing the detection rate of drug-related problems in community pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, T; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, A

    1999-01-01

    This study analyzes relationships between the number of drug-related problems detected in community pharmacy practice and the educational level and other characteristics of pharmacy personnel and their work sites. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn...... by each professional. The regression analysis showed the educational level of the professional to have a statistically significant effect on the detection rate, with pharmacists finding on average 2.5 more drug-related problems per 100 patients than prescriptionists and about 3.6 more than technicians....... The results of this study indicate the importance of education and training of pharmacy personnel in detection of drug-related problems. This findings speaks in favor of increasing the pharmacist to other personnel ratio, provided the higher costs will be offset by societal benefits....

  9. The mechanism of zinc uptake in excised roots and leaf discs of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Die meganisme van sinkopname in blaarskyfies en wortelpunte van Phaseolus vulgaris L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van As, J A

    1991-03-01

    The mechanism and nature of zinc uptake was studied with the aid of {sup 65}Zn. Uptake of zinc was also compared to that of potassium and phosphate, which are known to be ATP-dependent. Zinc uptake was characterized by a rapid initial uptake, followed by a slower linear phase. Decreasing the temperature from 25 to 2 deg C resulted in a decrease of only 30% in the rate of zinc uptake. Uptake of zinc was insensitive to DNP - possibly indicating the non-metabolic nature of the uptake process. A possible role for zinc in protein synthesis could not be demonstrated as CHI did not inhibit zinc uptake. Cyanide reduced zinc uptake to almost zero, possibly due to complexation of zinc by cyanide. Light had no effect on the accumulation of Zn, whereas dark incubation reduced potassium uptake substantially. The relative high rate of zinc uptake and the passive nature of the uptake process might be due to the high binding capacity of the free space for zinc ions. Transport of the zinc in the xylem and phloem of intact bean plants, as well as the metabolic dependence of the latter, was also investigated. The bulk of the zinc absorbed by bean plants remained in the roots and stems with only a very small fraction being translocated to shoots. Adsorption was the major uptake mechanism in roots and stems. In contrast to transport in the xylem, zinc was readily transported in the phloem. Loading and unloading of zinc in the phloem was not influenced by low temperature or DNP. Opposed to this, loading of potassium and phosphate was inhibited by DNP, while unloading was inhibited by low temperature. It can therefore be concluded that the uptake and transport of zinc is probably a passive process. 33 figs., 282 refs.

  10. Iodine uptake patterns om post-ablation whole body scans are related to elevated serum thyroglobulin levels after radioactive iodine therapy in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Geum Cheol; Song, Min Chul; Min, Jung Joon; Cho, Sang Geon; Kwon, Seong Young [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ki Seong; Kang, Sae Ryung; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) level is frequently elevated shortly after radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation therapy. The authors studied the relationship between the elevation of serum Tg after RAI therapy and iodine uptake pattern on post-ablation whole body scans (RxWBSs) in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The study subjects were patients with PTC that had undergone first RAI therapy with thyroid hormone withdrawal after total thyroidectomy. Patients with a high level of serum anti-Tg antibody (TgAb, ≥ 60 U/mL), possible regional or distant metastasis as determined by pre-ablation or post-ablation studies, and negative iodine uptake of the anterior neck on RxWBS were excluded. Serum Tg was checked twice, that is, 7 days after (post-ablation Tg) and on the day of RAI therapy (pre-ablation Tg). Ratio of pre-ablation Tg to post-ablation Tg (Tg ratio) was used to assess changes in serum Tg levels after RAI therapy. Patients were classified into two groups according to the presence of midline uptake above the thyroidectomy bed on RxWBS (negative (group 1) or positive (group 2) midline uptake). Variables were subjected to analysis to identify differences between the two groups. Two hundred and fifty patients were enrolled in this study; 101 in group 1 and 149 in group 2. Based on univariate analysis, post-ablation Tg (8.12 ± 11.05 vs. 34.12 ± 54.31; P < 0.001) and Tg ratio (7.81 ± 8.98 vs. 20.01 ± 19.84; P < 0.001) were significantly higher in group 2. On the other hand, gender, tumor (T) stage, lymph node (N) stage, size, multiplicity or bilaterality of primary tumor, dose of 131I, serum TgAb and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level (before or after RAI therapy) were not significantly different in the two groups. Variables with P values of < 0.25 by univariate analysis were subjected to multivariate analysis, which showed post-ablation Tg (OR 1.060, 95 % CI = 1.028–1.092; P < 0.001) and Tg ratio (OR 1.059, 95 % CI

  11. EXPLORING SYSTEMATIC EFFECTS IN THE RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, GAS PHASE METALLICITY, AND STAR FORMATION RATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, O. Grace; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Conroy, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the well-established mass–metallicity relation in galaxies is correlated with a third parameter: star formation rate (SFR). The strength of this correlation may be used to disentangle the relative importance of different physical processes (e.g., infall of pristine gas, metal-enriched outflows) in governing chemical evolution. However, all three parameters are susceptible to biases that might affect the observed strength of the relation between them. We analyze possible sources of systematic error, including sample bias, application of signal-to-noise ratio cuts on emission lines, choice of metallicity calibration, uncertainty in stellar mass determination, aperture effects, and dust. We present the first analysis of the relation between stellar mass, gas phase metallicity, and SFR using strong line abundance diagnostics from Dopita et al. for ∼130,000 star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and provide a detailed comparison of these diagnostics in an appendix. Using these new abundance diagnostics yields a 30%–55% weaker anti-correlation between metallicity and SFR at fixed stellar mass than that reported by Mannucci et al. We find that, for all abundance diagnostics, the anti-correlation with SFR is stronger for the relatively few galaxies whose current SFRs are elevated above their past average SFRs. This is also true for the new abundance diagnostic of Dopita et al., which gives anti-correlation between Z and SFR only in the high specific star formation rate (sSFR) regime, in contrast to the recent results of Kashino et al. The poorly constrained strength of the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR must be carefully accounted for in theoretical studies of chemical evolution.

  12. Uptake of mercury vapor by wheat. An assimilation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browne, C.L.; Fang, S.C.

    1978-01-01

    Using a whole-plant chamber and 203 Hg-labeled mercury, a quantitative study was made of the effect of environmental parameters on the uptake, by wheat (Triticum aestivum), of metallic mercury vapor, an atmospheric pollutant. Factors were examined in relation to their influence on components of the gas-assimilation model, U(Hg) = (C/sub A' -- C/sub L')/(r/sub L.Hg/ + r/sub M.Hg/) where U(Hg) is the rate of mercury uptake per unit leaf surface, C/sub A'/ is the ambient mercury vapor concentration, C/sub L'/ is the mercury concentration at immobilization sites within the plant (assumed to be zero), r/sub L.Hg/ is the total leaf resistance to mercury vapor exchange, and r/sub M.Hg/ is a residual term to account for unexplained physical and biochemical resistances to mercury vapor uptake. Essentially all mercury vapor uptake was confined to the leaves. r/sub L.Hg/ was particularly influenced by illumination (0 to 12.8 klux), but unaffected by ambient temperature (17 to 33 0 C) and mercury vapor concentration (0 to 40 μg m -3 ). The principal limitation to mercury vapor uptake was r/sub M.Hg/, which was linearly related to leaf temperature, but unaffected by mercury vapor concentration and illumination, except for apparent high values in darkness. Knowing C/sub A'/ and estimating r/sub L.Hg/ and r/sub M.Hg/ from experimental data, mercury vapor uptake by wheat in light was accurately predicted for several durations of exposure using the above model

  13. High rate of adaptation of mammalian proteins that interact with Plasmodium and related parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telis, Natalie; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium parasites, along with their Piroplasm relatives, have caused malaria-like illnesses in terrestrial mammals for millions of years. Several Plasmodium-protective alleles have recently evolved in human populations, but little is known about host adaptation to blood parasites over deeper evolutionary timescales. In this work, we analyze mammalian adaptation in ~500 Plasmodium- or Piroplasm- interacting proteins (PPIPs) manually curated from the scientific literature. We show that (i) PPIPs are enriched for both immune functions and pleiotropy with other pathogens, and (ii) the rate of adaptation across mammals is significantly elevated in PPIPs, compared to carefully matched control proteins. PPIPs with high pathogen pleiotropy show the strongest signatures of adaptation, but this pattern is fully explained by their immune enrichment. Several pieces of evidence suggest that blood parasites specifically have imposed selection on PPIPs. First, even non-immune PPIPs that lack interactions with other pathogens have adapted at twice the rate of matched controls. Second, PPIP adaptation is linked to high expression in the liver, a critical organ in the parasite life cycle. Finally, our detailed investigation of alpha-spectrin, a major red blood cell membrane protein, shows that domains with particularly high rates of adaptation are those known to interact specifically with P. falciparum. Overall, we show that host proteins that interact with Plasmodium and Piroplasm parasites have experienced elevated rates of adaptation across mammals, and provide evidence that some of this adaptation has likely been driven by blood parasites. PMID:28957326

  14. Sex ratio at birth and mortality rates are negatively related in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Shivajirao Dama

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory posits that resource availability and parental investment ability could signal offspring sex selection, in order to maximize reproductive returns. Non-human studies have provided evidence for this phenomenon, and maternal condition around the time of conception has been identified as most important factor that influence offspring sex selection. However, studies on humans have reported inconsistent results, mostly due to use of disparate measures as indicators of maternal condition. In the present study, the cross-cultural differences in human natal sex ratio were analyzed with respect to indirect measures of condition namely, life expectancy and mortality rate. Multiple regression modeling suggested that mortality rates have distinct predictive power independent of cross-cultural differences in fertility, wealth and latitude that were earlier shown to predict sex ratio at birth. These findings suggest that sex ratio variation in humans may relate to differences in parental and environmental conditions.

  15. Dating of Pregnancy in First versus Second Trimester in Relation to Post-Term Birth Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thagaard, Ida Näslund; Krebs, Lone; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in a national standardised setting whether the performance of ultrasound dating during the first rather than the second trimester of pregnancy had consequences regarding the definition of pre- and post-term birth rates. METHODS: A cohort study of 8,551 singleton pregnancies...... with spontaneous delivery was performed from 2006 to 2012 at Copenhagen University Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark. We determined the duration of pregnancy calculated by last menstrual period, crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (1st trimester), BPD (2nd trimester), and head circumference and compared mean...... and median durations, the mean differences, the systematic discrepancies, and the percentages of pre-term and post-term pregnancies in relation to each method. The primary outcomes were post-term and pre-term birth rates defined by different dating methods. RESULTS: The change from use of second to first...

  16. Temperature and rainfall are related to fertility rate after spring artificial insemination in small ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J. A.; Arrébola, F.; Macías, A.; Laviña, A.; González-Casquet, O.; Benítez, F.; Palacios, C.

    2016-10-01

    A total number of 1092 artificial inseminations (AIs) performed from March to May were documented over four consecutive years on 10 Payoya goat farms (36° N) and 19,392 AIs on 102 Rasa Aragonesa sheep farms (41° N) over 10 years. Mean, maximum, and minimum ambient temperatures, mean relative humidity, mean solar radiation, and total rainfall on each insemination day were recorded. Overall, fertility rates were 58 % in goats and 45 % in sheep. The fertility rates of the highest and lowest deciles of each of the meteorological variables indicated that temperature and rainfall had a significant effect on fertility in goats. Specifically, inseminations that were performed when mean (68 %), maximum (68 %), and minimum (66 %) temperatures were in the highest decile, and rainfall was in the lowest decile (59 %), had a significantly ( P goats and sheep.

  17. Heart rate during conflicts predicts post-conflict stress-related behavior in greylag geese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A F Wascher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social stressors are known to be among the most potent stressors in group-living animals. This is not only manifested in individual physiology (heart rate, glucocorticoids, but also in how individuals behave directly after a conflict. Certain 'stress-related behaviors' such as autopreening, body shaking, scratching and vigilance have been suggested to indicate an individual's emotional state. Such behaviors may also alleviate stress, but the behavioral context and physiological basis of those behaviors is still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded beat-to-beat heart rates (HR of 22 greylag geese in response to agonistic encounters using fully implanted sensor-transmitter packages. Additionally, for 143 major events we analyzed the behavior shown by our focal animals in the first two minutes after an interaction. Our results show that the HR during encounters and characteristics of the interaction predicted the frequency and duration of behaviors shown after a conflict. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this is the first study to quantify the physiological and behavioral responses to single agonistic encounters and to link this to post conflict behavior. Our results demonstrate that 'stress-related behaviors' are flexibly modulated by the characteristics of the preceding aggressive interaction and reflect the individual's emotional strain, which is linked to autonomic arousal. We found no support for the stress-alleviating hypothesis, but we propose that stress-related behaviors may play a role in communication with other group members, particularly with pair-partners.

  18. Hybridization rates between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative (L. serriola) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Luigi; Felber, François; Guadagnuolo, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression between crops and wild relatives may have important evolutionary and ecological consequences such as gene swamping or increased invasiveness. In the present study, we investigated hybridization under field conditions between crop lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative prickly lettuce (L. serriola), two cross-compatible, predominantly autogamous and insect pollinated species. In 2003 and 2004, we estimated the rates of hybridization between L. sativa and L. serriola in close-to-reality field experiments carried out in two locations of Northern Switzerland. Seeds set by the experimental wild plants were collected and sown (44 352 in 2003 and 252 345 in 2004). Progeny was screened morphologically for detecting natural hybrids. Prior to the experiment, specific RAPD markers were used to confirm that morphological characters were reliable for hybrid identification. Hybridization occurred up to the maximal distance tested (40 m), and hybridization rates varied between 0 to 26%, decreasing with distance. More than 80% of the wild plants produced at least one hybrid (incidence of hybridization, IH) at 0 m and 1 m. It equaled 4 to 5% at 40 m. In sympatric crop-wild populations, cross-pollination between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative has to be seen as the rule rather than the exception for short distances.

  19. The Relation Between Plate Spreading Rate, Crustal Thickness and Axial Relief at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Buck, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Variations in axial valley relief and in faulting at plate spreading centers are clearly related to magma supply and axial lithospheric structure. Previous models that consider the interaction of magmatic dikes with lithospheric stretching do not successfully reproduce both of these trends. We present the first model that reproduces these trends by making simple assumptions about the partitioning of magma between dikes, gabbros and extrusives. A key concept is that dikes open not only in the brittle axial lithosphere but also into the underlying ductile crust, where they cool to form gabbro. The amount of gabbro so intruded depends on magma pressure that is related to axial relief. The deeper the valley the less magma goes into gabbros and the more magma is available for dikes to accommodate plate separation. We define the fraction of plate separation rate accommodated by dikes as M. If Mreasonable. Finally, we describe themo-mechanical models that allow us to relate plate spreading rate and crustal thickness and to axial valley depth.

  20. Dependence of the firearm-related homicide rate on gun availability: a mathematical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Komarova, Natalia L

    2013-01-01

    In the USA, the relationship between the legal availability of guns and the firearm-related homicide rate has been debated. It has been argued that unrestricted gun availability promotes the occurrence of firearm-induced homicides. It has also been pointed out that gun possession can protect potential victims when attacked. This paper provides a first mathematical analysis of this tradeoff, with the goal to steer the debate towards arguing about assumptions, statistics, and scientific methods. The model is based on a set of clearly defined assumptions, which are supported by available statistical data, and is formulated axiomatically such that results do not depend on arbitrary mathematical expressions. According to this framework, two alternative scenarios can minimize the gun-related homicide rate: a ban of private firearms possession, or a policy allowing the general population to carry guns. Importantly, the model identifies the crucial parameters that determine which policy minimizes the death rate, and thus serves as a guide for the design of future epidemiological studies. The parameters that need to be measured include the fraction of offenders that illegally possess a gun, the degree of protection provided by gun ownership, and the fraction of the population who take up their right to own a gun and carry it when attacked. Limited data available in the literature were used to demonstrate how the model can be parameterized, and this preliminary analysis suggests that a ban of private firearm possession, or possibly a partial reduction in gun availability, might lower the rate of firearm-induced homicides. This, however, should not be seen as a policy recommendation, due to the limited data available to inform and parameterize the model. However, the model clearly defines what needs to be measured, and provides a basis for a scientific discussion about assumptions and data.

  1. Dependence of the firearm-related homicide rate on gun availability: a mathematical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Wodarz

    Full Text Available In the USA, the relationship between the legal availability of guns and the firearm-related homicide rate has been debated. It has been argued that unrestricted gun availability promotes the occurrence of firearm-induced homicides. It has also been pointed out that gun possession can protect potential victims when attacked. This paper provides a first mathematical analysis of this tradeoff, with the goal to steer the debate towards arguing about assumptions, statistics, and scientific methods. The model is based on a set of clearly defined assumptions, which are supported by available statistical data, and is formulated axiomatically such that results do not depend on arbitrary mathematical expressions. According to this framework, two alternative scenarios can minimize the gun-related homicide rate: a ban of private firearms possession, or a policy allowing the general population to carry guns. Importantly, the model identifies the crucial parameters that determine which policy minimizes the death rate, and thus serves as a guide for the design of future epidemiological studies. The parameters that need to be measured include the fraction of offenders that illegally possess a gun, the degree of protection provided by gun ownership, and the fraction of the population who take up their right to own a gun and carry it when attacked. Limited data available in the literature were used to demonstrate how the model can be parameterized, and this preliminary analysis suggests that a ban of private firearm possession, or possibly a partial reduction in gun availability, might lower the rate of firearm-induced homicides. This, however, should not be seen as a policy recommendation, due to the limited data available to inform and parameterize the model. However, the model clearly defines what needs to be measured, and provides a basis for a scientific discussion about assumptions and data.

  2. Interspecific correlates of plasticity in relative growth rate following a decrease in nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Antonio; Shipley, Bill

    2010-02-01

    Nitrogen availability varies greatly over short time scales. This requires that a well-adapted plant modify its phenotype by an appropriate amount and at a certain speed in order to maximize growth and fitness. To determine how plastic ontogenetic changes in each trait interact and whether or not these changes are likely to maximize growth, ontogenetic changes in relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and root weight ratio (RWR), before and after a decrease in nitrogen supply, were studied in 14 herbaceous species. Forty-four plants of each species were grown in hydroponic culture under controlled conditions in a control treatment where the supply of nitrogen remained constant at 1 mm, and in a stress treatment where the nitrogen supply was abruptly decreased from 1 to 0.01 mm during the growth period. In the treatment series, and in comparison with the control, NAR and RGR decreased, RWR increased, and SLA did not change except for the timing of ontogenetic change. Species having greater increases in the maximum rate of change in RWR also had smaller reductions in RGR; plasticity in RWR is therefore adaptive. In contrast, species which showed a greater decrease in NAR showed stronger reductions in RGR; plasticity in NAR is therefore not adaptive. Plasticity in RGR was not related to plasticity in SLA. There were no significant relationships among the plasticities in NAR, RWR or SLA. Potentially fast-growing species experienced larger reductions in RGR following the nitrogen reduction. These results suggest that competitive responses to interspecific competition for nitrogen might be positively correlated with the plasticity in the maximum rate of change in RWR in response to a reduction in nitrogen supply.

  3. Significance of experts' overall ratings for medical student competence in relation to history-taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ernesto de Almeida Troncon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Overall ratings (ORs of competence, given by expert physicians, are increasingly used in clinical skills assessments. Nevertheless, the influence of specific components of competence on ORs is incompletely understood. The aim here was to investigate whether ORs for medical student history-taking competence are influenced by performance relating to communication skills, completeness of questioning and asking contentdriven key questions. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive, quantitative study at Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Thirty-six medical students were examined in a 15-station high-stake objective structured clinical examination (OSCE. At four stations devoted to history-taking, examiners filled out checklists covering the components investigated and independently rated students’ overall performance using a five-point scale from 1 (poor to 5 (excellent. Physician ratings were aggregated for each student. Nonparametric correlations were made between ORs. RESULTS: ORs presented significant correlations with checklist scores (Spearman’s rs = 0.38; p = 0.02 and OSCE general results (rs = 0.52; p < 0.001. Scores for "communication skills" tended to correlate with ORs (rs = 0.31, but without reaching significance (p = 0.06. Neither the scores for "completeness" (rs = 0.26; p = 0.11 nor those for "asking key questions" (rs = 0.07; p = 0.60 correlated with ORs. CONCLUSIONS: Experts’ overall ratings for medical student competence regarding history-taking is likely to encompass a particular dimension, since ratings were only weakly influenced by specific components of performance.

  4. Relative Impacts of Low Permeability Subsurface Deposits on Recharge Basin Infiltration Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnell, P.; Becker, M.; Pham, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Hutchinson, A.; Plumlee, M.

    2017-12-01

    Artificial recharge of aquifers through spreading basins has become an important component of water management in semi-arid climates. The rate at which water can be recharged in these basins is limited by the natural vertical permeability of the underlying deposits which may be highly variable both laterally and vertically. To help understand hydrostratigraphic controls on recharge, a newly constructed basin was surveyed and instrumented. Prior to flooding the basin, lithology was characterized by shallow hand coring, direct push coring, ground penetrating radar, and electrical resistivity. After flooding, recharge was monitored through piezometers, electrical resistivity, and a network of fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS). The DTS network used temperature as a tracer to measure infiltration rate on 25 cm intervals both laterally and vertically. Several hundred paired DTS time series datasets (from fiber optic cables located at 0 and 0.5 meters below ground surface) were processed with the cross-wavelet transform (XWT) to calculate spatially and temporally continuous infiltration rates, which can be interpolated and animated to visualize heterogeneity. Time series data from 8-meter deep, vertically oriented DTS cables reveal depth intervals where infiltration rates vary. Inverted resistivity sections from repeated dipole-dipole surveys along the sidewall of a spreading basin exhibit a positive correlation with the distribution of relatively high and low infiltration rates, indicating zones of preferential downward (efficient) and lateral (inefficient) flow, respectively. In contrast to other monitored basins, no perching was observed in the vertically oriented DTS cables. The variation in recharge across the basin and the appearance of subsurface lateral flow can be explained in context of the alluvial depositional environment.

  5. The mass-metallicity-star formation rate relation under the STARLIGHT microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlickmann, M.; Vale Asari, N.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Stasińska, G.

    2014-10-01

    The correlation between stellar mass and gas-phase oxygen abundance (M-Z relation) has been known for decades. The slope and scatter of this trend is strongly dependent on galaxy evolution: Chemical enrichment in a galaxy is driven by its star formation history, which in turn depends on its secular evolution and interaction with other galaxies and intergalactic gas. In last couple of years, the M-Z relation has been studied as a function of a third parameter: the recent star formation rate (SFR) as calibrated by the Hα luminosity, which traces stars formed in the last 10 Myr. This mass-metallicity-SFR relation has been reported to be very tight. This result puts strong constraints on galaxy evolution models in low and high redshifts, informing which models of infall and outflow of gas are acceptable. We explore the mass-metallicity-SFR relation in light of the SDSS-STARLIGHT database put together by our group. We find that we recover similar results as the ones reported by authors who use the MPA/JHU catalogue. We also present some preliminary results exploring the mass-metallicity-SFR relation in a more detailed fashion: starlight recovers a galaxy's full star formation history, and not only its recent SFR.

  6. Endocytosis of the major yolk proteins of the silkmoth, Hyalophora cecropia: Uptake kinetics and interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakosky, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    The oocytes of Lepidopteran insects take up several yolk proteins in defined proportions even though their relative availability in the hemolymph changes during the several days required to complete yolk formation in all the eggs. There are three hemolymph yolk precursors, vitellogenin, microvitellogenin and lipophorin; one precursor, paravitellogenin is produced in the ovary. The control mechanism for their proportional endocytosis is not known. In this thesis, the author describe the purification of all four proteins and the radiolabeling of the hemolymph precursors. The radiolabeled proteins were tested with an in vitro incubation system to assess the biological activity of the proteins and the reliability of the incubation methods. All of the labeled probes were transferred from the incubation medium to yolk spheres within the oocyte in a saturable, energy-dependent, and stage-specific manner. The rates of uptake were similar to the estimated rates of uptake in situ. The concentration dependence of in vitro uptake was investigated and found to be consistent with in situ concentrations and the composition of yolk in mature eggs. Two precursors, vitellogenin and lipophorin, competed for uptake indicating that they share a common binding site while the third, microvitellin, did not compete with the others. Though vitellogenin and lipophorin competed for uptake, only vitellogenin displayed the unique ability to increase the uptake rate of microvitellin and fluid in vitro

  7. Relation between climate and diesel fuel rate consumption for sugar cane agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte Hernandez, Aramis; Rivero Vega, Roger

    2005-01-01

    In the present work, some results are shown of a study carried out within the ENERCLIMA project. The principal objective was to establish the relationship between diesel fuel rate consumption by agricultural equipment in activities related to sugar cane production and simple climatic variables. Through a statistical analysis, we show the possibility of obtaining statistical models of an acceptable confidence level, as applied to some of these activities, which could be used in order to plan more rationally the level of fuel consumption of the agricultural companies with access to meteorological stations located nearby

  8. The impact of child welfare legislation on domestic violence-related homicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Kabir; Pacheco, Gail

    2018-05-01

    State-specific statutes providing legal consequences for perpetrating domestic violence in the presence of a child have been enacted across the United States between 1996 and 2012. This paper examines the impact of this child welfare legislation, using a difference-in-differences approach. We find a significant drop in domestic violence-related homicide rates, when considering a wide range of victim-offender relationships. However, this result does not hold for marital homicides, suggesting that for this subpopulation, the risk of reprisal and consequent reduction in reporting may be counterbalancing the hypothesized deterrent impacts of the legislation. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Growth Rate and Relocation Movements of Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) Nestlings in Relation to Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gunnar R.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2012-01-01

    Relocation by dependent young is a survival strategy that occurs among a wide range of taxa. The Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) lays its eggs on bare substrate and, once hatched, nestlings may relocate to new sites daily. We located and monitored eight Common Nighthawk nests in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, quantified inter-use-site distances in relation to nestling age, and calculated a nestling growth rate curve. Common Nighthawk nestlings grow in a nearly linear fashion. Nestlings moved up to 48 m in a single day and larger, older nestlings tended to move greater distances between daily use-sites.

  10. Age-related decreases in motor unit discharge rate and force control during isometric plantar flexion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, J; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, J

    2012-01-01

    Aging is related to multiple changes in muscle physiology and function. Previous findings concerning the effects of aging on motor unit discharge rate (DR) and fluctuations in DR and force are somewhat contradictory. Eight YOUNG and nine OLD physically active males performed isometric ramp (RECR......) and isotonic (ISO) plantar flexions at 10 and 20% of surface EMG at MVC. Motor unit (MU) action potentials were recorded with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes and decomposed with custom build software "Daisy". DR was lower in OLD in RECR-10% (17.9%, p...

  11. 18F-FDG PET-CT uptake is a feature of both normal diameter and aneurysmal aortic wall and is not related to aneurysm size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barwick, Tara D.; Lyons, O.T.A.; Waltham, M.; Mikhaeel, N.G.; O'Doherty, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aortic metabolic activity is suggested to correlate with presence and progression of aneurysmal disease, but has been inadequately studied. This study investigates the 2-[ 18 F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) uptake in a population of infra-renal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), compared to a matched non-aneurysmal control group. The Positron Emission Tomography - Computed Tomography (PET/CT) database was searched for infra-renal AAA. Exclusion criteria were prior repair, vasculitis, and saccular/mycotic thoracic or thoraco-abdominal aneurysms. Matching of 159 non-aneurysmal ( max ) and target to background mediastinal blood pool ratio (TBR) were documented. Predictors of FDG uptake (age, sex, aortic diameter, hypertension, statin use, and diabetes) were assessed using univariate analysis. Follow-up questionnaires were sent to referring clinicians. Aneurysms (n = 151) and controls (n = 159) were matched (p > 0.05) for age, sex, diabetes, hypertension, smoking status, statin use, and indication for PET/CT. Median aneurysm diameter was 5.0 cm (range 3.2-10.4). On visual analysis there was no significant difference in the overall numbers with increased visual uptake 24 % (36/151) in the aneurysm group vs. 19 % (30/159) in the controls, p = ns. SUV max was slightly lower in the aneurysm group vs. controls (mean (2 SD) 1.75(0.79) vs. 1.84(0.58), p = 0.02). However there was no difference in TBR between the AAA group and controls (mean (2 SD) 1.03 (0.46) vs. 1.05(0.31), p = 0.36). During a median 18 (interquartile range 8-35) months' follow-up 20 were repaired and four were confirmed ruptured. The level of metabolic activity as assessed by 18 F-FDG PET/CT in infra-renal AAA does not correlate with aortic size and does not differ between aneurysms and matched controls. (orig.)

  12. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at the surgical margin after hepatic resection: Patterns of uptake and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peungjesada, Silanath [University New Mexico, Department of Radiology, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aloia, Thomas A. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Surgical Oncology, Unit 444, Houston, TX (United States); Fox, Patricia [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Biostatistics, Unit 1411, Houston, TX (United States); Chasen, Beth [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Unit 1483, Houston, TX (United States); Shin, Sooyoung; Loyer, Evelyne M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States); Baiomy, Ali [Cairo University, National Cancer Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the patterns of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at the surgical margin after hepatectomy to identify features that may differentiate benign and malignant uptake. Patients who had undergone a PET/CT after hepatectomy were identified. Delay between resection and PET/CT, presence of uptake at the surgical margin, pattern of uptake, and maximal standardized value were recorded. The PET/CT findings were correlated with contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. There were 26 patients with increased 18F-FDG uptake; uptake was diffuse in seven and focal in 19. Diffuse uptake was due to inflammation in all cases. Focal uptake was due to recurrence in 12 and inflammation in seven cases. Defining a focal pattern only as a positive for malignancy yielded 100 % sensitivity, 87 % specificity, 37 % false positive rate. As expected, SUV{sub max} was significantly higher for recurrence than inflammation, but did overlap. Contrast-enhanced CT allowed differentiation between malignant and benign uptake in all cases. F-FDG uptake after hepatectomy does not equate to recurrence and yields a high false positive rate. Diffuse uptake did not require additional evaluation in our sample. Focal uptake, however, may be due to recurrence; differentiating benign and malignant nodular uptake relies on optimal contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. (orig.)

  13. Forest Transpiration: Resolving Species-Specific Root Water Uptake Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, T.; Heidbuechel, I.; Simard, S.; Guntner, A.; Weiler, M.; Stewart, R. D.

    2016-12-01

    Transpiration and its spatio-temporal variability are still not fully understood, despite their importance for the global water cycle. This is in part due to our inability to measure transpiration comprehensively. Transpiration is usually either estimated with empirical equations based on climatic variables and crop factors, by measuring sap velocities, estimating sap wood area and scaling up to the forest stand based on a number of assumptions or by measuring the integral signal across a footprint with eddy flux towers. All these methods are focused on the cumulated loss of water to the atmosphere and do not provide information on where this water is coming from. In this study, spatio-temporal variability of root water uptake was investigated in a forest in the northeastern German lowlands. The soils are sandy and the depth of the unsaturated zone ranges from 1 to 30 m. We estimated root water uptake from different soil depths, from 0.1 m down to 2 m, based on diurnal fluctuations in soil moisture content during rain-free days. The 15 field sites cover different topographic positions and forest stands: 4 pure stands of both mature and young beech and pine and 9 mixed stands. The resulting daily data set of root water uptake shows that the forest stands differ in total amounts as well as in uptake depth distributions. Temporal dynamics of signal strength within the profile suggest a locally shifting spatial distribution of uptake that changes with water availability. The relationship of these depth-resolved uptake rates to overall soil water availability varies considerably between tree species. Using the physically-based soil hydrological model HYDRUS we investigated to what extent the observed patterns in uptake can be related to soil physical relationships alone and where tree species-specific aspects come into play. We furthermore used the model to test assumptions and estimate uncertainties of this soil moisture based estimation of plant water uptake. The

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ...

  16. Stream Ammonium Uptake Across Scales in Headwater Catchments of a Tropical Rainforest, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, R. L.; McDowell, W. H.; Wymore, A.

    2015-12-01

    Many tropical forest streams export high amounts of nitrogen relative to streams draining undisturbed watersheds of other biomes. With their low DOC concentrations and high rates of respiration, headwater streams in the Luquillo Mountains have been previously characterized as energy-limited, suggesting that NH4+ uptake is dominated not by N demand but by energy demand. In the Rio Icacos watershed, high concentrations of NH4+ (>1 mg N/L) are found in groundwater adjacent to the streams, making high inputs of NH4+ to the stream channel via groundwater seepage likely. Stream nutrient spiraling metrics can be used to quantify uptake and retention rates of specific nutrients, and can be measured by solute additions. Tracer Additions for Spiraling Curve Characterization (TASCC) is a recently developed method (Covino et al. 2010) for quantifying nutrient uptake with a single slug addition of nutrient and conservative tracer. Here we present NH4+ uptake metrics from TASCC additions in three Luquillo streams of different sizes, ranging from 2nd to 4th order: the Rio Icacos, a larger, 3rd order tributary and a smaller 2nd order tributary. Background NH4+ concentrations vary by up to an order of magnitude, with highest concentrations (27 μg N/L) found in the smaller tributary. Background DOC concentrations are uniformly low and show no difference between the three streams (500-600 μg C/L). The smaller tributary has the shortest uptake length (155 m) and highest uptake velocity (2.9 mm/min) of the three streams. Unexpectedly, the Rio Icacos has a higher uptake velocity (1.7 mm/min) than the larger tributary (1.0 mm/min), despite having an uptake length more than double (1400 m) that of the larger tributary (596 m). Overall, NH4+ uptake is substantial in all three streams and varies with background concentrations, not stream size.

  17. Persistent smoking rate after coronary revascularization and factors related to smoking cessation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Kudret; Sezai Yildiz, Süleyman; Çetinkal, Gökhan; Çetin, Sükrü; Sigirci, Serhat; Kilci, Hakan; Aksan, Gökhan; Helvaci, Füsun; Gürdal, Ahmet; Balaban Kocas, Betül; Arslan, Sükrü; Orta Kiliçkesmez, Kadriye

    2017-11-22

    Although smoking is an established risk factor for coronary artery disease, smoking cessation efforts, as part of a lifestyle change, have been disappointing so far. Therefore, assessing current smoking trends and identifying patients who are at risk of smoking continuation is of paramount importance. In this study, our aim was to assess current smoking rates after coronary revascularization as of 2017, and to define factors that potentially affect smoking cessation. Overall, 350 patients who had undergone coronary revascularization, either by percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery were included in this cross-sectional, observational study. Patients were queried for various sociodemographic characteristics and smoking habits. Disease related data were obtained from the hospital archives. The overall smoking rate was 57% after coronary revascularization. Age, bypass surgery and the occurrence of in-hospital adverse events were found to be independent predictors of smoking cessation in multivariate analysis. Despite efforts, smoking rates after coronary intervention remain substantially high. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach to smoking cessation that incorporates cardiac rehabilitation programs and medications should be implemented in clinical practice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Evolution of mitochondrial DNA and its relation to basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Zhao, Huabin; Lu, Xin

    2015-08-01

    Energy metabolism is essential for the survival of animals, which can be characterized by maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and basal metabolic rate (BMR). Because of the crucial roles of mitochondria in energy metabolism, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been subjected to stronger purifying selection in strongly locomotive than weakly locomotive birds and mammals. Although maximum locomotive speed (an indicator of MMR) showed a negative correlation with the evolutionary rate of mtDNA, it is unclear whether BMR has driven the evolution of mtDNA. Here, we take advantage of the large amount of mtDNA and BMR data in 106 mammals to test whether BMR has influenced the mtDNA evolution. Our results showed that, in addition to the locomotive speed, mammals with higher BMR have subjected to stronger purifying selection on mtDNA than did those with lower BMR. The evolution of mammalian mtDNA has been modified by two levels of energy metabolism, including MMR and BMR. Our study provides a more comprehensive view of mtDNA evolution in relation to energy metabolism.

  19. Relative effect of dose-rate values and fractionation on late responding tissues and tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malgieri, F.

    1995-01-01

    There are currently available different facilities for radiotherapy also with regard to the dose-rate values (in the ranges LDR - MDR - HDR), sometimes used alternatively or subsequently for the same tumour. We have set up a 'unitary' L-Q model, based on Liversage's and Dale's works, that explicitly include also the dose-rate value and a correction factor of the β parameter depending on the sublethal damage repair time constant, on the length of time of each irradiation and on the time interval between following irradiation for to realize the effect of the incomplete repair when the time interval is short as, for example, in the PLDR. This 'unitary' L-Q model is, of course, usable in the same way both for external beam therapy and for curietherapy and make possible to compute and compare, for each kind of tumour and normal tissue, the relative effect of the different available modality of radiotherapy also with regard to the dose-rate. We show and discuss the resulting relationships of the ratio BED 'late'/BED tumour changing the time-dose parameters and the values of the biological characteristic parameters T p , α/β and μ, for defined size of tumour control and different value of the doserate

  20. Rate of antioxidant degradation and color variations in dehydrated apples as related to water activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Vera; Vantaggi, Claudia

    2009-06-10

    Dehydrated apples were studied to evaluate the effects of water activity on the stability of their antioxidants and color. Apples were freeze-dried, ground, then equilibrated, and stored at eight water activity levels, ranging from 0.058 to 0.747, at 40 degrees C. Their contents of hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, catechin, epicatechin, polymeric flavan-3-ols, and hydroxymethylfurfural, their antioxidant activity values, and their Hunter colorimetric parameters were analyzed at different storage times. Antioxidant degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and was accelerated by increasing the water activity. The order of antioxidant stability in the products at water activity levels below 0.316 was catechin, epicatechin, and ascorbic acid acid acid; however, in the products at water activity levels above 0.316, the degradation of all antioxidants was very fast. The hydroxymethylfurfural formation rate increased exponentially during storage, especially at high water activity levels. The antioxidant activity of the dehydrated apples decreased during storage, consistent with antioxidant loss. The variations of the colorimetric parameters, namely, lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*), followed pseudo-zero-order kinetics and were accelerated by increasing water activity. All analytical indices indicated that the dehydrated apples were stable at water activity levels below 0.316, with the degradation rate accelerating upon exposure to higher relative humidities. Above 0.316, a small increase in water activity of the product would sharply increase the degradation rate constants for both antioxidant and color variations.

  1. Relating high-temperature flow stress of AISI 316 stainless steel to strain and strain rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteazzi, S.; Paitti, G.; Boerman, D.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have performed an experimental determination of tensile stress-strain curves for different strain rates (4.67 x 10 - 5 , 4.67 x 10 - 2 s - 1 ) and for a variety of temperature conditions (773-1073 K) of AISI 316H stainless steel (annealed conditions) and also a computer analysis of the experimental curves using a fitting program which takes into consideration different constitutive relations describing the plastic flow behaviour of the metals. The results show that the materials tested are clearly affected by strain rate only at the highest temperature investigated (1073 K) and that the plastic strain is the more significant variable. Of the constitutive equations considered, Voce's relation gives the best fit for the true stress-time-strain curves. However, the Ludwik and Ludwigson equations also provide a description of the experimental data, whereas Hollomon's equation does not suitably characterize AISI 316H stainless steel and can be applied with some accuracy only at 1073 K. (author)

  2. Spontaneous eye blink rate as predictor of dopamine-related cognitive function-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongkees, Bryant J; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2016-12-01

    An extensive body of research suggests the spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR) is a non-invasive indirect marker of central dopamine (DA) function, with higher EBR predicting higher DA function. In the present review we provide a comprehensive overview of this literature. We broadly divide the available research in studies that aim to disentangle the dopaminergic underpinnings of EBR, investigate its utility in diagnosis of DA-related disorders and responsivity to drug treatment, and, lastly, investigate EBR as predictor of individual differences in DA-related cognitive performance. We conclude (i) EBR can reflect both DA receptor subtype D1 and D2 activity, although baseline EBR might be most strongly related to the latter, (ii) EBR can predict hypo- and hyperdopaminergic activity as well as normalization of this activity following treatment, and (iii) EBR can reliably predict individual differences in performance on many cognitive tasks, in particular those related to reward-driven behavior and cognitive flexibility. In sum, this review establishes EBR as a useful predictor of DA in a wide variety of contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relation of uptake and metabolism of (1,2,6,7-3H)testosterone to individual differences in sexual behavior in male guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, C F; Feder, H H

    1976-03-19

    Male guinea pigs were given 3 tests for sexual behavior. Animals that never ejaculated were classified as low activity (LA), animals that ejaculated on one test were classified as medium activity (MA), and animals that ejaculated on two or more tests were classified as high activity (HA). Subsequently, animals from each group were castrated and given an s.c. injection of 43 muCi of [1,2,6,7-3H]testosterone and were killed 0.5, 1, or 4 h after injection. There were no significant differences in uptake or metabolism of radioactive testosterone among LA, MA, and HA males in homogenates of anterior and posterior hypothalamus, cerebral cortex, midbrain, or seminal vesicle. Thus, differences in sexual behavior could not be attributed to differences in testosterone uptake in tissue homogenates. At the 1 h time interval (time of peak plasma radioactivity), radioactivity in the seminal vesicles of all males was primarily in the form of steroids with the chromatographic mobility of dihydrotestosterone. In all males, anterior and posterior hypothalamus contained a higher proportion of steroids with the mobility of testosterone than did midbrain, and midbrain contained more testosterone zone radioactivity than cerebral cortex at 1 h. The highest proportion of dihydrotestosterone zone radioactivity in neural tissues was found in anterior hypothalamus. These results are discussed in terms of androgenic mediation of sex behavior by the anterior hypothalamus in guinea pigs.

  4. Medication-related problem type and appearance rate in ambulatory hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drayer Debra K

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemodialysis (HD patients are at risk for medication-related problems (MRP. The MRP number, type, and appearance rate over time in ambulatory HD patients has not been investigated. Methods Randomly selected HD patients were enrolled to receive monthly pharmaceutical care visits. At each visit, MRP were identified through review of the patient chart, electronic medical record, patient interview, and communications with other healthcare disciplines. All MRP were categorized by type and medication class. MRP appearance rate was determined as the number of MRP identified per month/number of months in study. The number of MRP per patient-drug exposures were determined using: {[(number of patients × (mean number of medications]/(number of months of study} /number of MRP identified. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation or percentages. Results Patients were 62.6 ± 15.9 years old, had 6.4 ± 2.0 comorbid conditions, were taking 12.5 ± 4.2 medications, and 15.7 ± 7.2 doses per day at baseline. Medication-dosing problems (33.5%, adverse drug reactions (20.7%, and an indication that was not currently being treated (13.5% were the most common MRP. 5,373 medication orders were reviewed and a MRP was identified every 15.2 medication exposures. Overall MRP appearance rate was 0.68 ± 0.46 per patient per month. Conclusion MRP continue to occur at a high rate in ambulatory HD patients. Healthcare providers taking care of HD patients should be aware of this problem and efforts to avoid or resolve MRP should be undertaken at all HD clinics.

  5. Lifestyle-related attitudes: do they explain self-rated health and life-satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, A Simon; Jalundhwala, Yash J; Bewsher, Helen; Sharp, Lisa K; Walton, Surrey M; Schumock, Glen T; Caskey, Rachel N

    2018-05-01

    Strategies to improve public health may benefit from targeting specific lifestyles associated with poor health behaviors and outcomes. The aim of this study was to characterize and examine the relationship between health and lifestyle-related attitudes (HLAs) and self-rated health and life-satisfaction. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from a 2012 community wellness survey in Kirklees, UK. Using a validated HLA tool, respondents (n = 9130) were categorized into five segments: health conscious realists (33%), balanced compensators (14%), live-for-todays (18%), hedonistic immortals (10%), and unconfident fatalists (25%). Multivariate regression was used to examine whether HLAs could explain self-rated health using the EQ-5D visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) and life-satisfaction. Health conscious realists served as the reference group. Self-rated health differed by HLA, with adjusted mean EQ-VAS scores being significantly higher (better) among balanced compensators (1.15, 95% CI 0.27, 2.03) and lower scores among unconfident fatalists (- 9.02, 95% CI - 9.85, - 8.21) and live-for-todays (- 1.96, 95% CI - 2.80, - 1.14). Balanced compensators were less likely to report low life-satisfaction (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62, 0.90), while unconfident fatalists were most likely to have low life-satisfaction (OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.92, 4.23). Segmentation by HLA explained differences in self-rated health and life-satisfaction, with unconfident fatalists being a distinct segment with significantly worse health perceptions and life-satisfaction. Health promotion efforts may benefit from considering the HLA segment that predominates a patient group, especially unconfident fatalists.

  6. Surface applicators for high dose rate brachytherapy in AIDS-related kaposi's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Michael D.C.; Yassa, Mariam; Podgorsak, Ervin B.; Roman, Ted N.; Schreiner, L. John; Souhami, Luis

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The development of commercially available surface applicators using high dose rate remote afterloading devices has enabled radiotherapy centers to treat selected superficial lesions using a remote afterloading brachytherapy unit. The dosimetric parameters of these applicators, the clinical implementation of this technique, and a review of the initial patient treatment regimes are presented. Methods and Materials: A set of six fixed-diameter (1, 2, and 3 cm), tungsten/steel surface applicators is available for use with a single stepping-source (Ir-192, 370 GBq) high dose rate afterloader. The source can be positioned either in a parallel or perpendicular orientation to the treatment plane at the center of a conical aperture that sits at an SSD of approximately 15 mm and is used with a 1-mm thick removable plastic cap. The surface dose rates, percent depth dose, and off-axis ratios were measured. A custom-built, ceiling-mounted immobilization device secures the applicator on the surface of the patient's lesion during treatment. Results: Between November 1994, and September 1996, 16 AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma patients having a total of 120 lesions have been treated with palliative intent. Treatment sites were distributed between the head and neck, extremity, and torso. Doses ranged from 8 to 20 Gy, with a median dose of 10 Gy delivered in a single fraction. Treatments were well tolerated with minimal skin reaction, except for patients with lesions treated to 20 Gy who developed moderate/severe desquamation. Conclusion: Radiotherapy centers equipped with a high dose rate remote afterloading unit may treat small selected surface lesions with commercially available surface applicators. These surface applicators must be used with a protective cap to eliminate electron contamination. The optimal surface dose appears to be either 10 or 15 Gy depending upon the height of the lesion

  7. Ocean carbon uptake and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilbrook, Bronte

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The ocean contains about 95% of the carbon in the atmosphere, ocean and land biosphere system, and is of fundamental importance in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In the 1990s an international research effort involving Australia was established to determine the uptake and storage of anthropogenic C02 for all major ocean basins. The research showed that about 118 of the 244 + 20 billion tons of the anthropogenic carbon emitted through fossil fuel burning and cement production has been stored in the ocean since preindustrial times, thus helping reduce the rate of increase in atmospheric C02. The research also showed the terrestrial biosphere has been a small net source of C02 (39 ± 28 billion tons carbon) to the atmosphere over the same period. About 60% of the total ocean inventory of the anthropogenic C02 was found in the Southern Hemisphere, with most in the 30 0 S to 50 0 S latitude band. This mid-latitude band is where surface waters are subducted as Mode and Intermediate waters, which is a major pathway controlling ocean C02 uptake. High storage (23% of the total) also occurs in the North Atlantic, associated with deep water formation in that basin. The ocean uptake and storage is expected to increase in the coming decades as atmospheric C02 concentrations rise. However, a number of feedback mechanisms associated with surface warming, changes in circulation, and biological effects are likely to impact on the uptake capacity. The accumulation or storage-of the C02 in the ocean is also the major driver of ocean acidification with potential to disrupt marine ecosystems. This talk will describe the current understanding of the ocean C02 uptake and storage and a new international research strategy to detect how the ocean uptake and storage will evolve on interannual through decadal scales. Understanding the ocean response to increasing atmospheric C02 will be a key element in managing future C02 increases and establishing

  8. Effect of tumour mass animal gender on specific uptake of [99Tc] pertechnetate in the EMT6 tumor in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddalena, D.J.; Snowdon, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of tumour mass and animal gender on tumour uptake of [ 99m Tc] pertechnetate were examined in balb/c mice bearing an EMT-6 tumour showing high affinity for pertechnetate. The injected dose per gram found in the tumours appears to be inversely related to the tumour mass with good correlation suggesting a high specific uptake. The tumours grown in female mice had greater uptakes and rates of uptake than those grown in the male mice. Studies carried out in animals treated with perchlorate to block active anion transport showed low pertechnetate uptake into the tumours suggesting that the high affinity of 99m TcO 4 - for the tumour was due to a specific 99m TcO 4 - transport mechanism. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  9. Sphagnum mosses--masters of efficient N-uptake while avoiding intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Christian; Lamers, Leon P M; Riaz, Muhammad; van den Berg, Leon J L; Elzenga, Theo J T M

    2014-01-01

    Peat forming Sphagnum mosses are able to prevent the dominance of vascular plants under ombrotrophic conditions by efficiently scavenging atmospherically deposited nitrogen (N). N-uptake kinetics of these mosses are therefore expected to play a key role in differential N availability, plant competition, and carbon sequestration in Sphagnum peatlands. The interacting effects of rain N concentration and exposure time on moss N-uptake rates are, however, poorly understood. We investigated the effects of N-concentration (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µM), N-form ((15)N-ammonium or nitrate) and exposure time (0.5, 2, 72 h) on uptake kinetics for Sphagnum magellanicum from a pristine bog in Patagonia (Argentina) and from a Dutch bog exposed to decades of N-pollution. Uptake rates for ammonium were higher than for nitrate, and N-binding at adsorption sites was negligible. During the first 0.5 h, N-uptake followed saturation kinetics revealing a high affinity (Km 3.5-6.5 µM). Ammonium was taken up 8 times faster than nitrate, whereas over 72 hours this was only 2 times. Uptake rates decreased drastically with increasing exposure times, which implies that many short-term N-uptake experiments in literature may well have overestimated long-term uptake rates and ecosystem retention. Sphagnum from the polluted site (i.e. long-term N exposure) showed lower uptake rates than mosses from the pristine site, indicating an adaptive response. Sphagnum therefore appears to be highly efficient in using short N pulses (e.g. rainfall in pristine areas). This strategy has important ecological and evolutionary implications: at high N input rates, the risk of N-toxicity seems to be reduced by lower uptake rates of Sphagnum, at the expense of its long-term filter capacity and related competitive advantage over vascular plants. As shown by our conceptual model, interacting effects of N-deposition and climate change (changes in rainfall) will seriously alter the functioning of Sphagnum peatlands.

  10. Sphagnum Mosses - Masters of Efficient N-Uptake while Avoiding Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Christian; Lamers, Leon P. M.; Riaz, Muhammad; van den Berg, Leon J. L.; Elzenga, Theo J. T. M.

    2014-01-01

    Peat forming Sphagnum mosses are able to prevent the dominance of vascular plants under ombrotrophic conditions by efficiently scavenging atmospherically deposited nitrogen (N). N-uptake kinetics of these mosses are therefore expected to play a key role in differential N availability, plant competition, and carbon sequestration in Sphagnum peatlands. The interacting effects of rain N concentration and exposure time on moss N-uptake rates are, however, poorly understood. We investigated the effects of N-concentration (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 µM), N-form (15N - ammonium or nitrate) and exposure time (0.5, 2, 72 h) on uptake kinetics for Sphagnum magellanicum from a pristine bog in Patagonia (Argentina) and from a Dutch bog exposed to decades of N-pollution. Uptake rates for ammonium were higher than for nitrate, and N-binding at adsorption sites was negligible. During the first 0.5 h, N-uptake followed saturation kinetics revealing a high affinity (Km 3.5–6.5 µM). Ammonium was taken up 8 times faster than nitrate, whereas over 72 hours this was only 2 times. Uptake rates decreased drastically with increasing exposure times, which implies that many short-term N-uptake experiments in literature may well have overestimated long-term uptake rates and ecosystem retention. Sphagnum from the polluted site (i.e. long-term N exposure) showed lower uptake rates than mosses from the pristine site, indicating an adaptive response. Sphagnum therefore appears to be highly efficient in using short N pulses (e.g. rainfall in pristine areas). This strategy has important ecological and evolutionary implications: at high N input rates, the risk of N-toxicity seems to be reduced by lower uptake rates of Sphagnum, at the expense of its long-term filter capacity and related competitive advantage over vascular plants. As shown by our conceptual model, interacting effects of N-deposition and climate change (changes in rainfall) will seriously alter the functioning of Sphagnum peatlands

  11. Insulin resistance and maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Marie; Vestergaard, Henrik; Burchardt, Hans

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes, coronary atherosclerosis, and physical fitness all correlate with insulin resistance, but the relative importance of each component is unknown. HYPOTHESIS: This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between insulin resistance, maximal oxygen uptake......, and the presence of either diabetes or ischemic heart disease. METHODS: The study population comprised 33 patients with and without diabetes and ischemic heart disease. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp; maximal oxygen uptake was measured during a bicycle exercise test. RESULTS......: There was a strong correlation between maximal oxygen uptake and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (r = 0.7, p = 0.001), and maximal oxygen uptake was the only factor of importance for determining insulin sensitivity in a model, which also included the presence of diabetes and ischemic heart disease. CONCLUSION...

  12. Variation in summer nitrogen and phosphorus uptake among Siberian headwater streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Schade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Arctic streams are likely to receive increased inputs of dissolved nutrients and organic matter from thawing permafrost as climate warms. Documenting how Arctic streams process inorganic nutrients is necessary to understand mechanisms that regulate watershed fluxes of permafrost-derived materials to downstream ecosystems. We report on summer nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P uptake in streams draining upland soils from the Pleistocene, and lowland floodplain soils from the Holocene, in Siberia's Kolyma River watershed. Uptake of N and P differed between upland and floodplain streams, suggesting topographic variation in nutrient limitation. In floodplain streams, P uptake rate and uptake velocity were higher than N, while upland streams had similar values for all N and P uptake metrics. Phosphorus uptake velocity and size of the transient hydrologic storage zone were negatively related across all study streams, indicating strong influence of hydrologic processes on nutrient fluxes. Physical sorption of P was higher in floodplain stream sediments relative to upland stream sediments, suggesting more physically driven uptake in floodplain streams and higher biological activity in upland streams. Overall, these results demonstrate that high-latitude headwater streams actively retain N and P during summer base flows; however, floodplain and upland streams varied substantially in N and P uptake and may respond differently to inorganic nutrient and organic matter inputs. Our results highlight the need for a comprehensive assessment of N and P uptake and retention in Arctic streams in order to fully understand the impact of permafrost-derived materials on ecosystem processes, and their fate in continental drainage networks.

  13. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  14. Similar star formation rate and metallicity variability time-scales drive the fundamental metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars; McKinnon, Ryan; Marinacci, Federico; Simcoe, Robert A.; Springel, Volker; Pillepich, Annalisa; Naiman, Jill; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Weinberger, Rainer; Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy

    2018-06-01

    The fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) is a postulated correlation between galaxy stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and gas-phase metallicity. At its core, this relation posits that offsets from the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) at a fixed stellar mass are correlated with galactic SFR. In this Letter, we use hydrodynamical simulations to quantify the time-scales over which populations of galaxies oscillate about the average SFR and metallicity values at fixed stellar mass. We find that Illustris and IllustrisTNG predict that galaxy offsets from the star formation main sequence and MZR oscillate over similar time-scales, are often anticorrelated in their evolution, evolve with the halo dynamical time, and produce a pronounced FMR. Our models indicate that galaxies oscillate about equilibrium SFR and metallicity values - set by the galaxy's stellar mass - and that SFR and metallicity offsets evolve in an anticorrelated fashion. This anticorrelated variability of the metallicity and SFR offsets drives the existence of the FMR in our models. In contrast to Illustris and IllustrisTNG, we speculate that the SFR and metallicity evolution tracks may become decoupled in galaxy formation models dominated by feedback-driven globally bursty SFR histories, which could weaken the FMR residual correlation strength. This opens the possibility of discriminating between bursty and non-bursty feedback models based on the strength and persistence of the FMR - especially at high redshift.

  15. Differentiation of pain ratings in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Anja; Geuze, Elbert; Schmahl, Christian; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Bohus, Martin; Vermetten, Eric

    2009-06-01

    Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with chronic pain, preliminary evidence suggests reduced experimental pain sensitivity in this disorder. The questions addressed in the present study were whether pain perception would also be reduced in PTSD patients who are not suffering from chronic pain symptoms, and whether a reduction in pain sensitivity would also be present in combat veterans who did not develop PTSD. For this, we determined thermal detection and pain thresholds in 10 male combat-related PTSD patients, 10 combat control subjects (no PTSD) and 10 healthy controls without combat experience. All subjects were pain free. First, we measured thermal sensory thresholds with ramped heat and cold stimuli using the method of limits. Ramped thermal sensory stimulation revealed no deficits for the detection of (non-noxious) f2.1thermal stimuli between groups. In contrast, heat and cold pain thresholds in both combat groups (PTSD and combat controls) were significantly increased compared to healthy controls. However, these stimuli could not distinguish between the two groups due to ceiling effects. When using longer-lasting heat stimulation at different temperatures (30s duration; method of fixed stimuli), we found significantly lower frequency of pain reports in PTSD patients compared with both combat and healthy controls, as well as significantly lower pain ratings. Our results suggest an association of PTSD with reduced pain sensitivity, which could be related to PTSD-related (neuro-)psychological alterations or to a pre-existing risk factor for the disorder.

  16. Relating Complexity and Error Rates of Ontology Concepts. More Complex NCIt Concepts Have More Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hua; Zheng, Ling; Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; De Coronado, Sherri; Ochs, Christopher

    2017-05-18

    Ontologies are knowledge structures that lend support to many health-information systems. A study is carried out to assess the quality of ontological concepts based on a measure of their complexity. The results show a relation between complexity of concepts and error rates of concepts. A measure of lateral complexity defined as the number of exhibited role types is used to distinguish between more complex and simpler concepts. Using a framework called an area taxonomy, a kind of abstraction network that summarizes the structural organization of an ontology, concepts are divided into two groups along these lines. Various concepts from each group are then subjected to a two-phase QA analysis to uncover and verify errors and inconsistencies in their modeling. A hierarchy of the National Cancer Institute thesaurus (NCIt) is used as our test-bed. A hypothesis pertaining to the expected error rates of the complex and simple concepts is tested. Our study was done on the NCIt's Biological Process hierarchy. Various errors, including missing roles, incorrect role targets, and incorrectly assigned roles, were discovered and verified in the two phases of our QA analysis. The overall findings confirmed our hypothesis by showing a statistically significant difference between the amounts of errors exhibited by more laterally complex concepts vis-à-vis simpler concepts. QA is an essential part of any ontology's maintenance regimen. In this paper, we reported on the results of a QA study targeting two groups of ontology concepts distinguished by their level of complexity, defined in terms of the number of exhibited role types. The study was carried out on a major component of an important ontology, the NCIt. The findings suggest that more complex concepts tend to have a higher error rate than simpler concepts. These findings can be utilized to guide ongoing efforts in ontology QA.

  17. Relative rates of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production by nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and nitrate respirers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, I. C.; Levine, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the atmospheric chemical and photochemical effects of biogenic nitric and nitrous oxide emissions. The magnitude of the biogenic emission of NO is noted to remain uncertain. Possible soil sources of NO and N2O encompass nitrification by autotropic and heterotropic nitrifiers, denitrification by nitrifiers and denitrifiers, nitrate respiration by fermenters, and chemodenitrification. Oxygen availability is the primary determinant of these organisms' relative rates of activity. The characteristics of this major influence are presently investigated in light of the effect of oxygen partial pressure on NO and N2O production by a wide variety of common soil-nitrifying, denitrifying, and nitrate-respiring bacteria under laboratory conditions. The results obtained indicate that aerobic soils are primary sources only when there is sufficient moisture to furnish anaerobic microsites for denitrification.

  18. Observational study of the relationship between entrainment rate and relative dispersion in deep convective clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaohao; Lu, Chunsong; Zhao, Tianliang; Liu, Yangang; Zhang, Guang Jun; Luo, Shi

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of entrainment rate (λ) on relative dispersion (ε) of cloud droplet size distributions (CDSD) in the 99 growing precipitating deep convective clouds during TOGA-COARE. The results show that entrainment suppresses ε, which is opposite to the traditional understanding that entrainment-mixing broadens CDSD. To examine how the relationship between ε and λ is affected by droplets with different sizes, CDSDs are divided into three portions with droplet radius processes is developed to illustrate the possible scenarios entailing different relationships between ε and λ. The number concentration of small droplets and the degree of evaporation of small droplets are found to be key factors that shift the sign (i.e., positive or negative) of the ε-λ relationship.

  19. Dispersion relation and growth rate of a relativistic electron beam propagating through a Langmuir wave wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, H.; Jafari, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a theory of free-electron laser (FEL) with a Langmuir wave wiggler in the presence of an axial magnetic field has been presented. The small wavelength of the plasma wave (in the sub-mm range) allows obtaining higher frequency than conventional wiggler FELs. Electron trajectories have been obtained by solving the equations of motion for a single electron. In addition, a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method has been used to simulate the electron trajectories. Employing a perturbation analysis, the dispersion relation for an electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been derived by solving the momentum transfer, continuity, and wave equations. Numerical calculations show that the growth rate increases with increasing the e-beam energy and e-beam density, while it decreases with increasing the strength of the axial guide magnetic field.

  20. Relation between Silver Nanoparticle Formation Rate and Antioxidant Capacity of Aqueous Plant Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azat Akbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between the antioxidant capacity and silver nanoparticle formation rates of pomegranate (Punica granatum, quince (Cydonia oblonga, chestnut (Castanea sativa, fig (Ficus carica, walnut (Juglans cinerea, black mulberry (Morus nigra, and white mulberry (Morus alba leaf extracts is investigated at a fixed illumination. Silver nanoparticles formed in all plant leaf extracts possess round shapes with average particle size of 15 to 25 nm, whereas corresponding surface plasmon resonance peak wavelengths vary between 422 nm and 451 nm. Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity technique is used as a reference method to determine total antioxidant capacity of the plant leaf extracts. Integrated absorbance over the plasmon resonance peaks exhibits better linear relation with antioxidant capacities of various plant leaf extracts compared to peak absorbance values, with correlation coefficient values of 0.9333 and 0.7221, respectively.

  1. A Computational Study on the Relation between Resting Heart Rate and Atrial Fibrillation Hemodynamics under Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Scarsoglio, Stefania; Saglietto, Andrea; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Clinical data indicating a heart rate (HR) target during rate control therapy for permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) and assessing its eventual relationship with reduced exercise tolerance are lacking. The present study aims at investigating the impact of resting HR on the hemodynamic response to exercise in permanent AF patients by means of a computational cardiovascular model. The AF lumped-parameter model was run to simulate resting (1 Metabolic Equivalent of Task-MET) and various exercise conditions (4 METs: brisk walking; 6 METs: skiing; 8 METs: running), considering different resting HR (70 bpm for the slower resting HR-SHR-simulations, and 100 bpm for the higher resting HR-HHR-simulations). To compare relative variations of cardiovascular variables upon exertion, the variation comparative index (VCI)-the absolute variation between the exercise and the resting values in SHR simulations referred to the absolute variation in HHR simulations-was calculated at each exercise grade (VCI4, VCI6 and VCI8). Pulmonary venous pressure underwent a greater increase in HHR compared to SHR simulations (VCI4 = 0.71, VCI6 = 0.73 and VCI8 = 0.77), while for systemic arterial pressure the opposite is true (VCI4 = 1.15, VCI6 = 1.36, VCI8 = 1.56). The computational findings suggest that a slower, with respect to a higher resting HR, might be preferable in permanent AF patients, since during exercise pulmonary venous pressure undergoes a slighter increase and systemic blood pressure reveals a more appropriate increase.

  2. Physiological Study on the Relation of Heart Rate Variability in Ageing and Thyroid Hormone Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed A. M. Shokr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate whether cardiac autonomic dysfunction in aging human might be related to an underlying thyroid disturbance. ageing has been associated with hypothyroidism and cardiac autonomic dysfunction. On the basis of body mass index (BMI, 150 patients were grouped into three groups (n = 50 48 years ± 2, 55 years ± 2 and 63 years ± 2. Electrocardiogram was recorded using PowerLab system and the time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV were calculated. Fasting blood samples were drawn for measurement of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total thyroxin (T4 and total triiodothyronine (T3 concentrations. The levels of TSH, T4 and T3 were not significantly different between the groups. The frequency domain HRV parameter reflecting parasympathetic tone (high-frequency normalized units, HFnu was significantly reduced in aging third groups group. The parameters which reflect sympathetic activation (Heart rate, low-frequency normalized units; LFnu and the LF/HF ratio were significantly increased in the aging group. HFnu was significantly and negatively correlated with age, whereas LFnu and LF/HF ratio were significantly and positively correlated with the above mentioned parameters. No significant relationships were noted between the HRV parameters and the levels of TSH or thyroid hormones. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in aging human is not linked with underlying thyroid disturbance.

  3. Relating coccolithophore calcification rates to phytoplankton community dynamics: Regional differences and implications for carbon export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Alex J.; Adey, Tim R.; Balch, William M.; Holligan, Patrick M.

    2007-03-01

    Recent measurements of surface coccolithophore calcification from the Atlantic Ocean (50°N-50°S) are compared to similar measurements from other oceanic settings. By combining the different data sets of surface measurements, we examine general and regional patterns of calcification relative to organic carbon production (photosynthesis) and other characteristics of the phytoplankton community. Generally, surface calcification and photosynthesis are positively correlated, although the strength of the relationship differs between biogeochemical provinces. Relationships between surface calcification, chlorophyll- a and calcite concentrations are also statistically significant, although again there is considerable regional variability. Such variability appears unrelated to phytoplankton community composition or hydrographic conditions, and may instead reflect variations in coccolithophore physiology. The contribution of inorganic carbon fixation (calcification) to total carbon fixation (calcification plus photosynthesis) is ˜1-10%, and we estimate a similar contribution from coccolithophores to total organic carbon fixation. However, these contributions vary between biogeochemical provinces, and occasionally coccolithophores may account for >20% of total carbon fixation in unproductive central subtropical gyres. Combining surface calcification and photosynthetic rates with standing stocks of calcite, particulate organic carbon, and estimated phytoplankton carbon allows us to examine the fates of these three carbon pools. The relative turnover times vary between different biogeochemical provinces, with no clear relationship to the overall productivity or phytoplankton community structure found in each province. Rather, interaction between coccolithophore physiology (coccolith production and detachment rates), species diversity (cell size), and food web dynamics (grazer ecology) may control the composition and turnover times of calcite particles in the upper ocean.

  4. Nasal congestion in relation to low air exchange rate in schools. Evaluation by acoustic rhinometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wålinder, R; Norbäck, D; Wieslander, G; Smedje, G; Erwall, C

    1997-09-01

    Upper airway symptoms are common, but there is little information available on clinical findings in relation to indoor air pollution. This pilot study was conducted to test whether increased levels of indoor air pollutants in schools may correlate to a swelling of the nasal mucosa. The assumption was made that the degree of swelling could be related to the degree of decongestive effect of xylometazoline, and measured by acoustic rhinometry. The study was performed among 15 subjects in a school with low air exchange rate (0.6 air changes/h) and 12 subjects in a school with high air exchange rate (5.2 air changes/h). Hygienic measurements were performed in both schools. Acoustic rhinometry was performed for each individual under standardized forms. Cross-sectional areas and volumes of the nasal cavity were measured before and after decongestion with xylometazoline hydrochloride. Absolute values of the minimal cross-sectional area were lower in the school with poor ventilation. The decongestive effect of xylometazoline was significantly higher in the school with low air exchange, when correction for the influence of age was made. A diminished decongestive effect was seen with increasing age. The exposure measurements showed that indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds, bacteria and moulds were higher in the school with low ventilation. In conclusion, raised levels of indoor air pollutants due to inadequate ventilation in schools may affect the upper airways and cause a swelling of the nasal mucosa, and acoustic rhinometry could be a useful objective method to measure human nasal reactions to the indoor environment.

  5. Correlation and clinical significance between glomerular filtration rate and age in living-related kidney donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiuyi; Shao Yahui; Wang Yanming; Zhang Aimin; Hao Junwen; Tian Jun; Sun Ben; Han Jiankui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To quantitatively investigate the effect of age on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in living-related kidney donors. to analyze the clinical value and the dependence of GFR on age and to provide an objective basis for the selection of the living kidney donor. Methods: One hundred and sixty-one living-related kidney donors were divided into four age groups, namely 20-29 years (n=52), 30-39 years (n=44), 40-49 years (n=38) and ≥50 years (n=27). On the other hand, the total donors were divided into the groups older than 55 years (n=24) and younger than 55 years (n=137). To quantify GFR in all the subjects using the 99 Tc m -diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99 Tc m -DTPA) renography according to standard procedure and to evaluate the effects of age on renal function. Results: The total GFR in living-related kidney donors was calculated as (89.55±12.87) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 . The GFR in the first to the four age groups were (88.27±12.29) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , (91.85±14.51) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , (98.25±11.26) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 and (88.24±13.20) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 . The difference of GFR were not significant between the four age groups (F=2.09, P=0.10). The GFR in the donors older than 55 years and younger than 55 years were (88.57±13.14) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 and (89.44±10.34) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , there no significant difference in GFR between the two groups (F=1.31, P=0.25). When relating GFR to age in all the living-related kidney donors, there was no significant correlation (r=-0.033, P=0.69). No serious complications occurred after living kidney transplantation, serum creatinine values and blood urea nitrogen recovered to the normal levels in a short period, hepatic and renal functions were normal. Conclusion: This study indicated that the GFR values were not correlated with the change of age in living-related kidney donors, and the results were helpful for the selection of living

  6. Relative rates of B meson decays into psi(2S) and J/psi mesons

    OpenAIRE

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study of the relative rates of B meson decays into ψ(2S) and J/ψ mesons using 1.3  fb-1 of pp̅ collisions at √s=1.96  TeV recorded by the D0 detector operating at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We observe the channels Bs0→ψ(2S)ϕ, Bs0→J/ψϕ, B±→ψ(2S)K±, and B±→J/ψK± and we measure the relative branching fractions for these channels to be B(Bs0→ψ(2S)ϕ)/B(Bs0→J/ψϕ)=0.53±0.10(stat)±0.07(syst)±0.06(B), B(B±→ψ(2S)K±)/B(B±→J/ψK±)=0.63±0.05(stat)±0.03(syst)±0.07(B),where the final erro...

  7. Cesarean Section Rate in Singleton Primiparae and Related Factors in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geng; Wei, Yu-Mei; Zhu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Hui-Xia

    2017-10-20

    The cesarean section rate (CSR) has been a main concern worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the CSR in Beijing, China, and to analyze the related factors of CS delivery. An observational study was conducted in 15 medical centers in Beijing using a systemic cluster sampling method. In total, 15,194 pregnancies were enrolled in the study between June 20, 2013 and November 30, 2013. Independent t-tests and Pearson's Chi-square test were used to examine differences between two groups, and related factors of the CSR were examined by multivariable logistic regression. The CSR was 41.9% (4471/10,671) in singleton primiparae. Women who were more than 35 years old had a 7.4-fold increased risk of CS delivery compared with women level. Neonates weighing 3000-3499 g had the lowest CSR (36.2%). Neonates weighing levels, residence, education level, and singleton fetal birth weight are all factors that might significantly affect the CSR.

  8. Characterization of tropical precipitation using drop size distribution and rain rate-radar reflectivity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurabh; Maitra, Animesh

    2018-04-01

    Characterization of precipitation is important for proper interpretation of rain information from remotely sensed data. Rain attenuation and radar reflectivity (Z) depend directly on the drop size distribution (DSD). The relation between radar reflectivity/rain attenuation and rain rate (R) varies widely depending upon the origin, topography, and drop evolution mechanism and needs further understanding of the precipitation characteristics. The present work utilizes 2 years of concurrent measurements of DSD using a ground-based disdrometer at five diverse climatic conditions in Indian subcontinent and explores the possibility of rain classification based on microphysical characteristics of precipitation. It is observed that both gamma and lognormal distributions are performing almost similar for Indian region with a marginally better performance by one model than other depending upon the locations. It has also been found that shape-slope relationship of gamma distribution can be a good indicator of rain type. The Z-R relation, Z = ARb, is found to vary widely for different precipitation systems, with convective rain that has higher values of A than the stratiform rain for two locations, whereas the reverse is observed for the rest of the three locations. Further, the results indicate that the majority of rainfall (>50%) in Indian region is due to the convective rain although the occurrence time of convective rain is low (<10%).