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Sample records for relative transcription rates

  1. Transcriptional dynamics with time-dependent reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Shubhendu; Ghosh, Anandamohan

    2015-02-01

    Transcription is the first step in the process of gene regulation that controls cell response to varying environmental conditions. Transcription is a stochastic process, involving synthesis and degradation of mRNAs, that can be modeled as a birth-death process. We consider a generic stochastic model, where the fluctuating environment is encoded in the time-dependent reaction rates. We obtain an exact analytical expression for the mRNA probability distribution and are able to analyze the response for arbitrary time-dependent protocols. Our analytical results and stochastic simulations confirm that the transcriptional machinery primarily act as a low-pass filter. We also show that depending on the system parameters, the mRNA levels in a cell population can show synchronous/asynchronous fluctuations and can deviate from Poisson statistics.

  2. Transcriptional dynamics with time-dependent reaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Shubhendu; Ghosh, Anandamohan

    2015-01-01

    Transcription is the first step in the process of gene regulation that controls cell response to varying environmental conditions. Transcription is a stochastic process, involving synthesis and degradation of mRNAs, that can be modeled as a birth–death process. We consider a generic stochastic model, where the fluctuating environment is encoded in the time-dependent reaction rates. We obtain an exact analytical expression for the mRNA probability distribution and are able to analyze the response for arbitrary time-dependent protocols. Our analytical results and stochastic simulations confirm that the transcriptional machinery primarily act as a low-pass filter. We also show that depending on the system parameters, the mRNA levels in a cell population can show synchronous/asynchronous fluctuations and can deviate from Poisson statistics. (paper)

  3. Evidence for gene-specific rather than transcription rate-dependent histone H3 exchange in yeast coding regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat-Viks, Irit; Vingron, Martin

    2009-02-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, histones are dynamically exchanged independently of DNA replication. Recent reports show that different coding regions differ in their amount of replication-independent histone H3 exchange. The current paradigm is that this histone exchange variability among coding regions is a consequence of transcription rate. Here we put forward the idea that this variability might be also modulated in a gene-specific manner independently of transcription rate. To that end, we study transcription rate-independent replication-independent coding region histone H3 exchange. We term such events relative exchange. Our genome-wide analysis shows conclusively that in yeast, relative exchange is a novel consistent feature of coding regions. Outside of replication, each coding region has a characteristic pattern of histone H3 exchange that is either higher or lower than what was expected by its RNAPII transcription rate alone. Histone H3 exchange in coding regions might be a way to add or remove certain histone modifications that are important for transcription elongation. Therefore, our results that gene-specific coding region histone H3 exchange is decoupled from transcription rate might hint at a new epigenetic mechanism of transcription regulation.

  4. Resistance-related gene transcription and antioxidant enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two tobacco relatives of Nicotiana alata and Nicotiana longiflora display a high level of resistance against Colletotrichum nicotianae and the two genes NTF6 and NtPAL related to pathogen defense transcription were higher in N. alata and N. longiflora than the commercial cv. K326. Inoculation with C. nicotianae ...

  5. Changes in transcriptional orientation are associated with increases in evolutionary rates of enterobacterial genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiung Chao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in transcriptional orientation (“CTOs” occur frequently in prokaryotic genomes. Such changes usually result from genomic inversions, which may cause a conflict between the directions of replication and transcription and an increase in mutation rate. However, CTOs do not always lead to the replication-transcription confrontation. Furthermore, CTOs may cause deleterious disruptions of operon structure and/or gene regulations. The currently existing CTOs may indicate relaxation of selection pressure. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate whether CTOs have an independent effect on the evolutionary rates of the affected genes, and whether these genes are subject to any type of selection pressure in prokaryotes. Methods Three closely related enterbacteria, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, were selected for comparisons of synonymous (dS and nonsynonymous (dN substitution rate between the genes that have experienced changes in transcriptional orientation (changed-orientation genes, “COGs” and those that do not (same-orientation genes, “SOGs”. The dN/dS ratio was also derived to evaluate the selection pressure on the analyzed genes. Confounding factors in the estimation of evolutionary rates, such as gene essentiality, gene expression level, replication-transcription confrontation, and decreased dS at gene terminals were controlled in the COG-SOG comparisons. Results We demonstrate that COGs have significantly higher dN and dS than SOGs when a series of confounding factors are controlled. However, the dN/dS ratios are similar between the two gene groups, suggesting that the increase in dS can sufficiently explain the increase in dN in COGs. Therefore, the increases in evolutionary rates in COGs may be mainly mutation-driven. Conclusions Here we show that CTOs can increase the evolutionary rates of the affected genes. This effect is independent of the

  6. Transcriptional regulation of genes related to progesterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Tetsuya; Ishikane, Shin; Kawabe, Shinya; Umezawa, Akihiro; Miyamoto, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol in various tissues, mainly in the adrenal glands and gonads. Because these lipid-soluble steroid hormones immediately diffuse through the cells in which they are produced, their secretion directly reflects the activity of the genes related to their production. Progesterone is important not only for luteinization and maintenance of pregnancy, but also as a substrate for most other steroids. Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerase (3β-HSD) are well-known proteins essential for progesterone production. In addition to them, glutathione S-transferase A1-1 and A3-3 are shown to exert Δ(5)-Δ(4) isomerization activity to produce progesterone in a cooperative fashion with 3β-HSD. 5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase 1, ferredoxin 1, and ferredoxin reductase also play a role in steroidogenesis as accessory factors. Members of the nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) family (steroidogenic factor 1 and liver receptor homolog 1) play a crucial role in the transcriptional regulation of these genes. The NR5A family activates these genes by binding to NR5A responsive elements present within their promoter regions, as well as to the elements far from their promoters. In addition, various NR5A-interacting proteins including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 1 (DAX-1), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) are involved in the transcription of NR5A target genes and regulate the transcription either positively or negatively under both basal and tropic hormone-stimulated conditions. In this review, we describe the transcriptional regulation of genes related to progesterone production.

  7. Single molecule approaches for quantifying transcription and degradation rates in intact mammalian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar Halpern, Keren; Itzkovitz, Shalev

    2016-04-01

    A key challenge in mammalian biology is to understand how rates of transcription and mRNA degradation jointly shape cellular gene expression. Powerful techniques have been developed for measuring these rates either genome-wide or at the single-molecule level, however these techniques are not applicable to assessment of cells within their native tissue microenvironment. Here we describe a technique based on single molecule Fluorescence in-situ Hybridization (smFISH) to measure transcription and degradation rates in intact mammalian tissues. The technique is based on dual-color libraries targeting the introns and exons of the genes of interest, enabling visualization and quantification of both nascent and mature mRNA. We present a software, TransQuant, that facilitates quantifying these rates from smFISH images. Our approach enables assessment of both transcription and degradation rates of any gene of interest while controlling for the inherent heterogeneity of intact tissues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcriptional stimulation of rate-limiting components of the autophagic pathway improves plant fitness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minina, E. A.; Moschou, P. N.; Vetukuri, R. R.; Sanchez-Vera, V.; Cardoso, C.; Liu, Q.; Elander, P. H.; Dalman, K.; Beganovic, M.; Lindberg Yilmaz, J.; Marmon, S.; Shabala, S.; Suarez, M.; Ljung, K.; Novák, Ondřej; Shabala, S.; Stymne, S.; Hofius, D.; Bozhkov, P. V.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 6 (2018), s. 1415-1432 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Aging * ATG genes * Autophagy * Autophagy-related ubiquitin-like conjugation systems * Biomass * Oil content * Ratelimiting components of autophagic flux * Seed yield * Stress resistance * Transcriptional regulation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  9. Connecting Related Rates and Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This article points out a simple connection between related rates and differential equations. The connection can be used for in-class examples or homework exercises, and it is accessible to students who are familiar with separation of variables.

  10. Transcription factor control of growth rate dependent genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A three factor design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazio, Alessandro; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2008-01-01

    , such as Ace2 and Swi6, and stress response regulators, such as Yap1, were also shown to have significantly enriched target sets. Conclusion: Our work, which is the first genome-wide gene expression study to investigate specific growth rate and consider the impact of oxygen availability, provides a more......Background: Characterization of cellular growth is central to understanding living systems. Here, we applied a three-factor design to study the relationship between specific growth rate and genome-wide gene expression in 36 steady-state chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The three...... factors we considered were specific growth rate, nutrient limitation, and oxygen availability. Results: We identified 268 growth rate dependent genes, independent of nutrient limitation and oxygen availability. The transcriptional response was used to identify key areas in metabolism around which m...

  11. Inference of RNA decay rate from transcriptional profiling highlights the regulatory programs of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkallas, Rached; Fish, Lisa; Goodarzi, Hani; Najafabadi, Hamed S

    2017-10-13

    The abundance of mRNA is mainly determined by the rates of RNA transcription and decay. Here, we present a method for unbiased estimation of differential mRNA decay rate from RNA-sequencing data by modeling the kinetics of mRNA metabolism. We show that in all primary human tissues tested, and particularly in the central nervous system, many pathways are regulated at the mRNA stability level. We present a parsimonious regulatory model consisting of two RNA-binding proteins and four microRNAs that modulate the mRNA stability landscape of the brain, which suggests a new link between RBFOX proteins and Alzheimer's disease. We show that downregulation of RBFOX1 leads to destabilization of mRNAs encoding for synaptic transmission proteins, which may contribute to the loss of synaptic function in Alzheimer's disease. RBFOX1 downregulation is more likely to occur in older and female individuals, consistent with the association of Alzheimer's disease with age and gender."mRNA abundance is determined by the rates of transcription and decay. Here, the authors propose a method for estimating the rate of differential mRNA decay from RNA-seq data and model mRNA stability in the brain, suggesting a link between mRNA stability and Alzheimer's disease."

  12. INES rating of radiation protection related events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hort, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, based on the draft Manual, a short review of the use of the INES rating of events concerning radiation protection is given, based on a new INES User's Manual edition. The presentation comprises a brief history of the scale development, general description of the scale and the main principles of the INES rating. Several examples of the use of the scale for radiation protection related events are mentioned. In the presentation, the term 'radiation protection related events' is used for radiation source and transport related events outside the nuclear installations. (authors)

  13. Concurrent growth rate and transcript analyses reveal essential gene stringency in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Goh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genes essential for bacterial growth are of particular scientific interest. Many putative essential genes have been identified or predicted in several species, however, little is known about gene expression requirement stringency, which may be an important aspect of bacterial physiology and likely a determining factor in drug target development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Working from the premise that essential genes differ in absolute requirement for growth, we describe silencing of putative essential genes in E. coli to obtain a titration of declining growth rates and transcript levels by using antisense peptide nucleic acids (PNA and expressed antisense RNA. The relationship between mRNA decline and growth rate decline reflects the degree of essentiality, or stringency, of an essential gene, which is here defined by the minimum transcript level for a 50% reduction in growth rate (MTL(50. When applied to four growth essential genes, both RNA silencing methods resulted in MTL(50 values that reveal acpP as the most stringently required of the four genes examined, with ftsZ the next most stringently required. The established antibacterial targets murA and fabI were less stringently required. CONCLUSIONS: RNA silencing can reveal stringent requirements for gene expression with respect to growth. This method may be used to validate existing essential genes and to quantify drug target requirement.

  14. Distinct Contributions of Replication and Transcription to Mutation Rate Variation of Human Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Peng; Ding, Feng; Lin, Qiang; Zhang, Lingfang; Li, Ang; Zhang, Zhang; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Here, we evaluate the contribution of two major biological processes—DNA replication and transcription—to mutation rate variation in human genomes. Based on analysis of the public human tissue transcriptomics data, high-resolution replicating map of Hela cells and dbSNP data, we present significant correlations between expression breadth, replication time in local regions and SNP density. SNP density of tissue-specific (TS) genes is significantly higher than that of housekeeping (HK) genes. TS genes tend to locate in late-replicating genomic regions and genes in such regions have a higher SNP density compared to those in early-replication regions. In addition, SNP density is found to be positively correlated with expression level among HK genes. We conclude that the process of DNA replication generates stronger mutational pressure than transcription-associated biological processes do, resulting in an increase of mutation rate in TS genes while having weaker effects on HK genes. In contrast, transcription-associated processes are mainly responsible for the accumulation of mutations in highly-expressed HK genes.

  15. Distinct Contributions of Replication and Transcription to Mutation Rate Variation of Human Genomes

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Peng

    2012-03-23

    Here, we evaluate the contribution of two major biological processes—DNA replication and transcription—to mutation rate variation in human genomes. Based on analysis of the public human tissue transcriptomics data, high-resolution replicating map of Hela cells and dbSNP data, we present significant correlations between expression breadth, replication time in local regions and SNP density. SNP density of tissue-specific (TS) genes is significantly higher than that of housekeeping (HK) genes. TS genes tend to locate in late-replicating genomic regions and genes in such regions have a higher SNP density compared to those in early-replication regions. In addition, SNP density is found to be positively correlated with expression level among HK genes. We conclude that the process of DNA replication generates stronger mutational pressure than transcription-associated biological processes do, resulting in an increase of mutation rate in TS genes while having weaker effects on HK genes. In contrast, transcription-associated processes are mainly responsible for the accumulation of mutations in highly-expressed HK genes.

  16. Related Rates and the Speed of Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoen, S. C.; Weidner, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Standard calculus textbooks often include a related rates problem involving light cast onto a straight line by a revolving light source. Mathematical aspects to these problems (both in the solution and in the method by which that solution is obtained) are examined. (JN)

  17. Expression of mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia virus-related transcripts in AKR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.S.; Laigret, F.; Rodi, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    The authors used a synthetic 16-base-pair mink cell focus-forming (MCF) env-specific oligomer as radiolabeled probe to study MCF murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related transcripts in brain, kidney, liver, spleen, and thymus tissues of AKR mice ranging from 5 weeks to 6 months (mo) of age. Tissue-specific expression of poly(A) + RNAs was seen. In addition, all the tissues tested contained 3.0-kb messages. The transcription of these MCF-related mRNAs was independent of the presence of ecotropic and xenotropic MuLVs. In general, expression of the MCF env-related transcripts appeared to peak at 2 mo of age; these messages were barely detectable in brain, kidney, liver, and spleen tissues after 2 mo and in thymus tissue after 4 mo of age. All of the subgenomic MCF env-related mRNAs appeared to contain the 190-base-pair cellular DNA insert, characteristic of the long terminal repeats associated with endogenous MCF env-related proviruses. No genomic-size (8.4-kb) transcripts corresponding to endogenous MCF-related proviruses were detected. An 8.4-kb MCF env-related mRNA was first seen at 3 mo of age, exclusively in thymus tissue. This species most likely represents the first appearance of a recombinant MCF-related MuLV genome. The transcripts which were detected in thymus tissue might be involved in the generation of leukemogenic MCF viruses

  18. Myocardin-related transcription factors are required for cardiac development and function

    OpenAIRE

    Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Carroll, Kelli J.; Cenik, Bercin K.; Chen, Beibei; Liu, Ning; Olson, Eric N.; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda

    2015-01-01

    Myocardin-Related Transcription Factors A and B (MRTF-A and MRTF-B) are highly homologous proteins that function as powerful coactivators of serum response factor (SRF), a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor essential for cardiac development. The SRF/MRTF complex binds to CArG boxes found in the control regions of genes that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and muscle contraction, among other processes. While SRF is required for heart development and function, the role of MRTFs in the d...

  19. A transcription factor links growth rate and metabolism in the hypersaline adapted archaeon Halobacterium salinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, Horia; Dulmage, Keely; Gillum, Nicholas; Bain, James R; Muehlbauer, Michael J; Schmid, Amy K

    2014-09-01

    Co-ordinating metabolism and growth is a key challenge for all organisms. Despite fluctuating environments, cells must produce the same metabolic outputs to thrive. The mechanisms underlying this 'growth homeostasis' are known in bacteria and eukaryotes, but remain unexplored in archaea. In the model archaeon Halobacterium salinarum, the transcription factor TrmB regulates enzyme-coding genes in diverse metabolic pathways in response to glucose. However, H. salinarum is thought not to catabolize glucose. To resolve this discrepancy, we demonstrate that TrmB regulates the gluconeogenic production of sugars incorporated into the cell surface S-layer glycoprotein. Additionally, we show that TrmB-DNA binding correlates with instantaneous growth rate, likely because S-layer glycosylation is proportional to growth. This suggests that TrmB transduces a growth rate signal to co-regulated metabolic pathways including amino acid, purine, and cobalamin biosynthesis. Remarkably, the topology and function of this growth homeostatic network appear conserved across domains despite extensive alterations in protein components. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Hippocampal CA1 transcriptional profile of sleep deprivation: relation to aging and stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada M Porter

    Full Text Available Many aging changes seem similar to those elicited by sleep-deprivation and psychosocial stress. Further, sleep architecture changes with age suggest an age-related loss of sleep. Here, we hypothesized that sleep deprivation in young subjects would elicit both stress and aging-like transcriptional responses.F344 rats were divided into control and sleep deprivation groups. Body weight, adrenal weight, corticosterone level and hippocampal CA1 transcriptional profiles were measured. A second group of animals was exposed to novel environment stress (NES, and their hippocampal transcriptional profiles measured. A third cohort exposed to control or SD was used to validate transcriptional results with Western blots. Microarray results were statistically contrasted with prior transcriptional studies. Microarray results pointed to sleep pressure signaling and macromolecular synthesis disruptions in the hippocampal CA1 region. Animals exposed to NES recapitulated nearly one third of the SD transcriptional profile. However, the SD-aging relationship was more complex. Compared to aging, SD profiles influenced a significant subset of genes. mRNA associated with neurogenesis and energy pathways showed agreement between aging and SD, while immune, glial, and macromolecular synthesis pathways showed SD profiles that opposed those seen in aging.We conclude that although NES and SD exert similar transcriptional changes, selective presynaptic release machinery and Homer1 expression changes are seen in SD. Among other changes, the marked decrease in Homer1 expression with age may represent an important divergence between young and aged brain response to SD. Based on this, it seems reasonable to conclude that therapeutic strategies designed to promote sleep in young subjects may have off-target effects in the aged. Finally, this work identifies presynaptic vesicular release and intercellular adhesion molecular signatures as novel therapeutic targets to counter

  1. Tuning of Recombinant Protein Expression in Escherichia coli by Manipulating Transcription, Translation Initiation Rates, and Incorporation of Noncanonical Amino Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Orr; Chemla, Yonatan; Heltberg, Mathias; Ozer, Eden; Marshall, Ryan; Noireaux, Vincent; Jensen, Mogens Høgh; Alfonta, Lital

    2017-06-16

    Protein synthesis in cells has been thoroughly investigated and characterized over the past 60 years. However, some fundamental issues remain unresolved, including the reasons for genetic code redundancy and codon bias. In this study, we changed the kinetics of the Eschrichia coli transcription and translation processes by mutating the promoter and ribosome binding domains and by using genetic code expansion. The results expose a counterintuitive phenomenon, whereby an increase in the initiation rates of transcription and translation lead to a decrease in protein expression. This effect can be rescued by introducing slow translating codons into the beginning of the gene, by shortening gene length or by reducing initiation rates. On the basis of the results, we developed a biophysical model, which suggests that the density of co-transcriptional-translation plays a role in bacterial protein synthesis. These findings indicate how cells use codon bias to tune translation speed and protein synthesis.

  2. Identification of transcripts related to high egg production in the chicken hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Yow-Ling; Chen, Lih-Ren; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Yi-Ling; Ju, Jhy-Phen; Chao, Ching-Hsien; Lin, Yuan-Ping; Kuo, Yu-Ming; Tang, Pin-Chi; Lee, Yen-Pai

    2006-09-15

    To identify transcripts related to high egg production expressed specifically in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland of the chicken, two subtracted cDNA libraries were constructed. Two divergently selected strains of Taiwan Country Chickens (TCCs), B (sire line) and L2 (dam line) were used; they had originated from a single population and were further subjected (since 1982) to selection for egg production to 40 wk of age and body weight/comb size, respectively. A total of 324 and 370 clones were identified from the L2-B (L2-subtract-B) and the B-L2 subtracted cDNA libraries, respectively. After sequencing and annotation, 175 and 136 transcripts that represented 53 known and 65 unknown non-redundant sequences were characterized in the L2-B subtracted cDNA library. Quantitative reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR was used to screen the mRNA expression levels of 32 randomly selected transcripts in another 78 laying hens from five different strains. These strains included the two original strains (B and L2) used to construct the subtracted cDNA libraries and an additional three commercial strains, i.e., Black- and Red-feather TCCs and Single-Comb White Leghorn (WL) layer. The mRNA expression levels of 16 transcripts were significantly higher in the L2 than in the B strain, whereas the mRNA expression levels of nine transcripts, BDH, NCAM1, PCDHA@, PGDS, PLAG1, PRL, SAR1A, SCG2 and STMN2, were significantly higher in two high egg production strains, L2 and Single-Comb WL; this indicated their usefulness as molecular markers of high egg production.

  3. Regulation of an H-ras-related transcript by parathyroid hormone in rat osteosarcoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D. K.; Weaver, W. R.; Clohisy, J. C.; Brakenhoff, K. D.; Kahn, A. J.; Partridge, N. C.

    1992-01-01

    The rat osteosarcoma cell line UMR 106-01 is a commonly used model system for the study of osteoblast function. However, it also expresses a phenotype characteristic of transformed cells. To test whether the latter could be accounted for by aberrant oncogene expression, we probed Northern blots of UMR and other osteoblastic cells with a panel of oncogene probes. These blots, when probed with a cDNA specific for v-H-ras, revealed a 7.0-kilobase (kb) H-ras-related transcript (designated HRRT) in UMR 106-01 cells that was not expressed in other osteoblastic cells. Osteoblast-enriched calvarial cells expressed the typical 1.1-kb H-ras mRNA, which was absent in UMR cells. Additionally, Western blots of lysates of UMR cells documented the presence of three proteins immunologically related to H-rasp21. To determine whether HRRT represented a recombinant retrovirus product, Northern blots were probed with a cDNA specific for the highly conserved gag-pol region of Moloney murine leukemia virus. These blots showed parallel cross-reactivity with an apparently identical transcript of 7.0 kb. The 7.0-kb transcripts detected by both v-H-ras and gag-pol probes declined to the same extent after treatment with concentrations of PTH known to inhibit proliferation of these cells. PTH regulated the abundance of HRRT in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with greatest repression of the transcript after 8 h of treatment with 10(-8) M PTH. The decrease in HRRT could not be completely accounted for by changes in transcriptional activity, as determined by nuclear run-on assays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  4. Transcriptional effects of glucocorticoid receptors in the dentate gyrus increase anxiety-related behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège Sarrazin

    Full Text Available The Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR is a transcription factor ubiquitously expressed in the brain. Activation of brain GRs by high levels of glucocorticoid (GC hormones modifies a large variety of physiological and pathological-related behaviors. Unfortunately the specific cellular targets of GR-mediated behavioral effects of GC are still largely unknown. To address this issue, we generated a mutated form of the GR called DeltaGR. DeltaGR is a constitutively transcriptionally active form of the GR that is localized in the nuclei and activates transcription without binding to glucocorticoids. Using the tetracycline-regulated system (Tet-OFF, we developed an inducible transgenic approach that allows the expression of the DeltaGR in specific brain areas. We focused our study on a mouse line that expressed DeltaGR almost selectively in the glutamatergic neurons of the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus. This restricted expression of the DeltaGR increased anxiety-related behaviors without affecting other behaviors that could indirectly influence performance in anxiety-related tests. This behavioral phenotype was also associated with an up-regulation of the MAPK signaling pathway and Egr-1 protein in the DG. These findings identify glutamatergic neurons in the DG as one of the cellular substrate of stress-related pathologies.

  5. Relative expression of the products of glyoxylate bypass operon: contributions of transcription and translation.

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, T; Resnik, E; Stueland, C; LaPorte, D C

    1993-01-01

    Although the genes of the aceBAK operon are expressed from the same promoter, the relative cellular levels of their products are approximately 0.3:1:0.003. Gene and operon fusions with lacZ were constructed to characterize this differential expression. The upshift in expression between aceB and aceA resulted from differences in translational efficiency. In contrast, inefficient translation and premature transcriptional termination contributed to the downshift in expression between aceA and ac...

  6. Differences in relative amounts of two novel mutant HEXA transcripts in a juvenile TSD Druze patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drucker, L.; Navon, R. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel)]|[Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Sava (Israel)

    1994-09-01

    An Israeli-Druze patient with juvenile Tay-Sachs disease, born to first cousins, was found to be a compound heterozygote for two novel mutant HEXA alleles. SSCP analysis of the parents` genomic DNA revealed alterations in both exons 5 and 8. Direct sequencing showed a novel missense mutation T{sup 835}{r_arrow}C (Ser{sup 279}{r_arrow}Pro) in exon 8, of maternal origin. The mutant allele of paternal origin carried a novel double mutation in exon 5, (i) a C{sup 496} deletion, resulting in a frameshift and eventually a stop codon, (ii) a C{sup 496}{r_arrow}G transition which is a silent mutation. Both these latter mutations occur in the same codon. New restriction sites for ScrFI were introduced into the two mutant alleles, enabling rapid screening for their presence. In order to detect differences of the relative levels of the transcripts originating from the two mutant alleles, we applied allele-specific transcripts polymerase chain reaction (AST-PCR) to the RNA extractions prepared from the heterozygous parents (each carry a normal and mutant allele). In order to distinguish between the transcripts originating from the normal allele and those originating from each of the mutant alleles, the transcripts were digested by ScrFI. A severe depletion of the mRNA coded by the allele carrying the mutation in exon 5 was found. The phenomena corresponds with citations in the literature in cases of stop mutations. The allele carrying the transversion in exon 8, contrary to our expectations, also had a distinctly lower level of transcripts. The AST-PCR approach offers a molecular tool to study allele-specific gene expression in heterozygous individuals.

  7. Transcription Restores DNA Repair to Heterochromatin, Determining Regional Mutation Rates in Cancer Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L. Zheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Somatic mutations in cancer are more frequent in heterochromatic and late-replicating regions of the genome. We report that regional disparities in mutation density are virtually abolished within transcriptionally silent genomic regions of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs arising in an XPC−/− background. XPC−/− cells lack global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER, thus establishing differential access of DNA repair machinery within chromatin-rich regions of the genome as the primary cause for the regional disparity. Strikingly, we find that increasing levels of transcription reduce mutation prevalence on both strands of gene bodies embedded within H3K9me3-dense regions, and only to those levels observed in H3K9me3-sparse regions, also in an XPC-dependent manner. Therefore, transcription appears to reduce mutation prevalence specifically by relieving the constraints imposed by chromatin structure on DNA repair. We model this relationship among transcription, chromatin state, and DNA repair, revealing a new, personalized determinant of cancer risk.

  8. Transcriptional profiling of immune-related genes in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Ruth L; Justino, Emily B; Vieira, Felipe N; Jaramillo, Michael L; Rosa, Rafael D; Perazzolo, Luciane M

    2016-11-01

    We have performed here a gene expression analysis to determine the developmental stage at the main genes involved in crustacean immune response begin to be expressed and their changes in mRNA abundance during shrimp development. By using a quantitative PCR-based approach, we have measured the mRNA abundance of 24 immune-related genes from different functional categories in twelve developmental stages ranging from fertilized eggs to larval and postlarval stages and also in juveniles. We showed for the first time that the main genes from the RNAi-based post-transcriptional pathway involved in shrimp antiviral immunity are transcribed in all developmental stages, but exhibit a diverse pattern of gene expression during shrimp ontogenesis. On the other hand, hemocyte-expressed genes mainly involved in antimicrobial defenses appeared to be transcribed in larval stages, indicating that hematopoiesis initiates early in development. Moreover, transcript levels of some genes were early detected in fertilized eggs at 0-4 h post-spawning, suggesting a maternal contribution of immune-related transcripts to shrimp progeny. Altogether, our results provide important clues regarding the ontogenesis of hemocytes as well the establishment of antiviral and antimicrobial defenses in shrimp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relative growth rate of rich fen bryophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Riis, Tenna

    Rigkær er blandt den nordlige halvkugles mest artsrige naturtyper, og en lang række sjældne og truede plantearter er knyttet til netop disse områder. I dette forsøg undersøges den relative vækstrate hos to almindelige og to sjældne rigkærsmosser i relation til forskellige niveauer af næringsstoff...

  10. Transcriptional profiles of hybrid Eucalyptus genotypes with contrasting lignin content reveal that monolignol biosynthesis-related genes regulate wood composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotaka eShinya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus species constitutes the most widely planted hardwood trees in temperate and subtropical regions. In this study, we compared the transcript levels of genes involved in lignocellulose formation such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin biosynthesis in two selected three-year old hybrid Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis genotypes (AM063 and AM380 that have different lignin content. AM063 and AM380 had 20.2 and 35.5% of Klason lignin content and 59.0% and 48.2%, -cellulose contents, respectively. We investigated the correlation between wood properties and transcript levels of wood formation-related genes using RNA-seq with total RNAs extracted from developing xylem tissues at a breast height. Transcript levels of cell wall construction genes such as cellulose synthase (CesA and sucrose synthase (SUSY were almost the same in both genotypes. However, AM063 exhibited higher transcript levels of UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP and xyloglucan endotransglucoxylase (XTH than those in AM380. Most monolignol biosynthesis- related isozyme genes showed higher transcript levels in AM380. These results indicate monolignol biosynthesis-related genes may regulate wood composition in Eucalyptus. Flavonoids contents were also observed at much higher levels in AM380 as a result of the elevated transcript levels of common phenylpropanoid pathway genes, phenylalanine ammonium lyase (PAL, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL. Secondary plant cell wall formation is regulated by many transcription factors. We analyzed genes encoding NAC, WRKY, AP2/ERF and KNOX transcription factors and found higher transcript levels of these genes in AM380. We also observed increased transcription of some MYB and LIM domain transcription factors in AM380 compared to AM063. All these results show that genes related to monolignol biosynthesis may regulate the wood composition and help maintain the ratio of cellulose and lignin contents

  11. Identification of transcription factors potential related to brown planthopper resistance in rice via microarray expression profiling

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    Wang Yubing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. The molecular responses of plants to sucking insects resemble responses to pathogen infection. However, the molecular mechanism of BPH-resistance in rice remains unclear. Transcription factors (TF are up-stream regulators of various genes that bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription from DNA to mRNA. They are key regulators for transcriptional expression in biological processes, and are probably involved in the BPH-induced pathways in resistant rice varieties. Results We conducted a microarray experiment to analyze TF genes related to BPH resistance in a Sri Lankan rice cultivar, Rathu Heenati (RHT. We compared the expression profiles of TF genes in RHT with those of the susceptible rice cultivar Taichun Native 1 (TN1. We detected 2038 TF genes showing differential expression signals between the two rice varieties. Of these, 442 TF genes were probably related to BPH-induced resistance in RHT and TN1, and 229 may be related to constitutive resistance only in RHT. These genes showed a fold change (FC of more than 2.0 (P10, there were 37 induced TF genes and 26 constitutive resistance TF genes. Of these, 13 were probably involved in BPH-induced resistance, and 8 in constitutive resistance to BPH in RHT. Conclusions We explored the molecular mechanism of resistance to BPH in rice by comparing expressions of TF genes between RHT and TN1. We speculate that the level of gene repression, especially for early TF genes, plays an important role in the defense response. The fundamental point of the resistance strategy is that plants protect themselves by reducing their metabolic level to inhibit feeding by BPH and prevent damage from water and nutrient loss. We have selected 21 TF genes related to BPH resistance for further analyses to understand the molecular responses to BPH feeding in rice.

  12. Conserved regional patterns of GABA-related transcript expression in the neocortex of subjects with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takanori; Bazmi, H Holly; Mirnics, Karoly; Wu, Qiang; Sampson, Allan R; Lewis, David A

    2008-04-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit disturbances in a number of cognitive, affective, sensory, and motor functions that depend on the circuitry of different cortical areas. The cognitive deficits associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex result, at least in part, from abnormalities in GABA neurotransmission, as reflected in a specific pattern of altered expression of GABA-related genes. Consequently, the authors sought to determine whether this pattern of altered gene expression is restricted to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or could also contribute to the dysfunction of other cortical areas in subjects with schizophrenia. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the levels of eight GABA-related transcripts in four cortical areas (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and primary motor and primary visual cortices) of subjects (N=12) with schizophrenia and matched normal comparison subjects. Expression levels of seven transcripts were lower in subjects with schizophrenia, with the magnitude of reduction for each transcript comparable across the four areas. The largest reductions were detected for mRNA encoding somatostatin and parvalbumin, followed by moderate decreases in mRNA expression for the 67-kilodalton isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase, the GABA membrane transporter GAT-1, and the alpha 1 and delta subunits of GABA(A) receptors. In contrast, the expression of calretinin mRNA did not differ between the subject groups in any of the four areas. Because the areas examined represent the major functional domains (e.g., association, limbic, motor, and sensory) of the cerebral cortex, our findings suggest that a conserved set of molecular alterations affecting GABA neurotransmission contribute to the pathophysiology of different clinical features of schizophrenia.

  13. Identification of transcription factors potential related to brown planthopper resistance in rice via microarray expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubing; Guo, Huimin; Li, Haichao; Zhang, Hao; Miao, Xuexia

    2012-12-10

    Brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål, is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. The molecular responses of plants to sucking insects resemble responses to pathogen infection. However, the molecular mechanism of BPH-resistance in rice remains unclear. Transcription factors (TF) are up-stream regulators of various genes that bind to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the transcription from DNA to mRNA. They are key regulators for transcriptional expression in biological processes, and are probably involved in the BPH-induced pathways in resistant rice varieties. We conducted a microarray experiment to analyze TF genes related to BPH resistance in a Sri Lankan rice cultivar, Rathu Heenati (RHT). We compared the expression profiles of TF genes in RHT with those of the susceptible rice cultivar Taichun Native 1 (TN1). We detected 2038 TF genes showing differential expression signals between the two rice varieties. Of these, 442 TF genes were probably related to BPH-induced resistance in RHT and TN1, and 229 may be related to constitutive resistance only in RHT. These genes showed a fold change (FC) of more than 2.0 (Pgenes related to BPH-induced resistance, most of them were readily induced in TN1 than in RHT by BPH feeding, for instance, 154 TF genes were up-regulated in TN1, but only 31 TF genes were up-regulated in RHT at 24 hours after BPH infestation; 2-4 times more TF genes were induced in TN1 than in RHT by BPH. At an FC threshold of >10, there were 37 induced TF genes and 26 constitutive resistance TF genes. Of these, 13 were probably involved in BPH-induced resistance, and 8 in constitutive resistance to BPH in RHT. We explored the molecular mechanism of resistance to BPH in rice by comparing expressions of TF genes between RHT and TN1. We speculate that the level of gene repression, especially for early TF genes, plays an important role in the defense response. The fundamental point of the resistance strategy is that plants

  14. Myocardin-related transcription factors are required for cardiac development and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokalled, Mayssa H.; Carroll, Kelli J.; Cenik, Bercin K.; Chen, Beibei; Liu, Ning; Olson, Eric N.; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    Myocardin-Related Transcription Factors A and B (MRTF-A and MRTF-B) are highly homologous proteins that function as powerful coactivators of serum response factor (SRF), a ubiquitously expressed transcription factor essential for cardiac development. The SRF/MRTF complex binds to CArG boxes found in the control regions of genes that regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and muscle contraction, among other processes. While SRF is required for heart development and function, the role of MRTFs in the developing or adult heart has not been explored. Through cardiac-specific deletion of MRTF alleles in mice, we show that either MRTF-A or MRTF-B is dispensable for cardiac development and function, whereas deletion of both MRTF-A and MRTF-B causes a spectrum of structural and functional cardiac abnormalities. Defects observed in MRTF-A/B null mice ranged from reduced cardiac contractility and adult onset heart failure to neonatal lethality accompanied by sarcomere disarray. RNA-seq analysis on neonatal hearts identified the most altered pathways in MRTF double knockout hearts as being involved in cytoskeletal organization. Together, these findings demonstrate redundant but essential roles of the MRTFs in maintenance of cardiac structure and function and as indispensible links in cardiac cytoskeletal gene regulatory networks. PMID:26386146

  15. Expression of Root-Related Transcription Factors Associated with Flooding Tolerance of Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Valliyodan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of

  16. Expression of root-related transcription factors associated with flooding tolerance of soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliyodan, Babu; Van Toai, Tara T; Alves, Jose Donizeti; de Fátima P Goulart, Patricia; Lee, Jeong Dong; Fritschi, Felix B; Rahman, Mohammed Atiqur; Islam, Rafiq; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T

    2014-09-29

    Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs) associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of these genes will be

  17. Transcriptional responses to glucose at different glycolytic rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Karin; Ståhlberg, Anders; Hohmann, Stefan; Gustafsson, Lena

    2004-12-01

    The addition of glucose to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells causes reprogramming of gene expression. Glucose is sensed by membrane receptors as well as (so far elusive) intracellular sensing mechanisms. The availability of four yeast strains that display different hexose uptake capacities allowed us to study glucose-induced effects at different glycolytic rates. Rapid glucose responses were observed in all strains able to take up glucose, consistent with intracellular sensing. The degree of long-term responses, however, clearly correlated with the glycolytic rate: glucose-stimulated expression of genes encoding enzymes of the lower part of glycolysis showed an almost linear correlation with the glycolytic rate, while expression levels of genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes and invertase (SUC2) showed an inverse correlation. Glucose control of SUC2 expression is mediated by the Snf1-Mig1 pathway. Mig1 dephosphorylation upon glucose addition is known to lead to repression of target genes. Mig1 was initially dephosphorylated upon glucose addition in all strains able to take up glucose, but remained dephosphorylated only at high glycolytic rates. Remarkably, transient Mig1-dephosphorylation was accompanied by the repression of SUC2 expression at high glycolytic rates, but stimulated SUC2 expression at low glycolytic rates. This suggests that Mig1-mediated repression can be overruled by factors mediating induction via a low glucose signal. At low and moderate glycolytic rates, Mig1 was partly dephosphorylated both in the presence of phosphorylated, active Snf1, and unphosphorylated, inactive Snf1, indicating that Mig1 was actively phosphorylated and dephosphorylated simultaneously, suggesting independent control of both processes. Taken together, it appears that glucose addition affects the expression of SUC2 as well as Mig1 activity by both Snf1-dependent and -independent mechanisms that can now be dissected and resolved as early and late/sustained responses.

  18. Application of anti-listerial bacteriocins: monitoring enterocin expression by multiplex relative reverse transcription-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D Ross; Chanos, Panagiotis

    2012-12-01

    Listeriosis is a deadly food-borne disease, and its incidence may be limited through the biotechnological exploitation of a number of anti-listerial biocontrol agents. The most widely used of these agents are bacteriocins and the Class II enterocins are characterized by their activity against Listeria. Enterocins are primarily produced by enterococci, particularly Enterococcus faecium and many strains have been described, often encoding multiple bacteriocins. The use of these strains in food will require that they are free of virulence functions and that they exhibit a high level expression of anti-listerial enterocins in fermentation conditions. Multiplex relative RT (reverse transcription)-PCR is a technique that is useful in the discovery of advantageous expression characteristics among enterocin-producing strains. It allows the levels of individual enterocin gene expression to be monitored and determination of how expression is altered under different growth conditions.

  19. Transcription factor IID in the Archaea: sequences in the Thermococcus celer genome would encode a product closely related to the TATA-binding protein of eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, T. L.; Reich, C. I.; Whitelock, R. B.; Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The first step in transcription initiation in eukaryotes is mediated by the TATA-binding protein, a subunit of the transcription factor IID complex. We have cloned and sequenced the gene for a presumptive homolog of this eukaryotic protein from Thermococcus celer, a member of the Archaea (formerly archaebacteria). The protein encoded by the archaeal gene is a tandem repeat of a conserved domain, corresponding to the repeated domain in its eukaryotic counterparts. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the two halves of the repeat are consistent with the duplication occurring before the divergence of the archael and eukaryotic domains. In conjunction with previous observations of similarity in RNA polymerase subunit composition and sequences and the finding of a transcription factor IIB-like sequence in Pyrococcus woesei (a relative of T. celer) it appears that major features of the eukaryotic transcription apparatus were well-established before the origin of eukaryotic cellular organization. The divergence between the two halves of the archael protein is less than that between the halves of the individual eukaryotic sequences, indicating that the average rate of sequence change in the archael protein has been less than in its eukaryotic counterparts. To the extent that this lower rate applies to the genome as a whole, a clearer picture of the early genes (and gene families) that gave rise to present-day genomes is more apt to emerge from the study of sequences from the Archaea than from the corresponding sequences from eukaryotes.

  20. Production of the 2400 kb Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene transcript; transcription time and cotranscriptional splicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, C.N.; Worton, R.G. [Univ. of Toronto and the Hospital for Sick Children, Ontario (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    The largest known gene in any organism is the human DMD gene which has 79 exons that span 2400 kb. The extreme nature of the DMD gene raises questions concerning the time required for transcription and whether splicing begins before transcription is complete. DMD gene transcription is induced as cultured human myoblasts differentiate to form multinucleated myotubes, providing a system for studying the kinetics of transcription and splicing. Using quantitative RT-PCR, transcript accumulation was monitored from four different regions within the gene following induction of expression. By comparing the accumulation of transcripts from the 5{prime} and 3{prime} ends of the gene we have shown that approximately 12 hours are required to transcribe 1770 kb of the gene, extrapolating to a time of 16 hours for the transcription unit expressed in muscle. Comparison of accumulation profiles for spliced and total transcript demonstrated that transcripts are spliced at the 5{prime} end before transcription is complete, providing strong evidence for cotranscriptional splicing of DMD gene transcripts. Finally, the rate of transcript accumulation was reduced at the 3{prime} end of the gene relative to the 5{prime} end, perhaps due to premature termination of transcription complexes as they traverse this enormous transcription unit. The lag between transcription initiation and the appearance of complete transcripts could be important in limiting transcript production in dividing cells and to the timing of mRNA appearance in differentiating muscle.

  1. The Vietnamese lending rate, policy-related rate, and monetary policy post-1997 Asian financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu V. Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetries in the Vietnamese lending central bank’s policy-related rate spread were documented. Empirical results revealed that the spread adjusts to the threshold faster when the central bank’s policy-related rates decrease relative to the lending rates than when the central bank’s policy-related rates move in the opposite direction. Additionally, the empirical findings indicate that Vietnamese commercial banks exhibit competitive rate setting behavior which may be attributable to graft maximization by bank’s management. The results also show bidirectional Granger causality between the Vietnamese lending rate and the central bank’s policy-related rate, indicating that the lending rate and the central bank’s policy-related rate affect each other’s movements. These results suggest that monetary authority can use its countercyclical monetary policy instruments to achieve its macroeconomics objectives. However, the estimation results of the GARCH (2, 3-in-Mean model suggest that they should intervene more frequently and by small policy measures to minimize the conditional variance of the spread to minimize the magnitude of the cycle of the lending rate.

  2. Gene transcription profiles, global DNA methylation and potential transgenerational epigenetic effects related to Zn exposure history in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandegehuchte, Michiel B.; De Coninck, Dieter; Vandenbrouck, Tine; De Coen, Wim M.; Janssen, Colin R.

    2010-01-01

    A reduced level of DNA methylation has recently been described in both Zn-exposed and non-exposed offspring of Daphnia magna exposed to Zn. The hypothesis examined in this study is that DNA hypomethylation has an effect on gene transcription. A second hypothesis is that accumulative epigenetic effects can affect gene transcription in non-exposed offspring from parents with an exposure history of more than one generation. Transcriptional gene regulation was studied with a cDNA microarray. In the exposed and non-exposed hypomethylated daphnids, a large proportion of common genes were similarly up- or down-regulated, indicating a possible effect of the DNA hypomethylation. Two of these genes can be mechanistically involved in DNA methylation reduction. The similar transcriptional regulation of two and three genes in the F 0 and F 1 exposed daphnids on one hand and their non-exposed offspring on the other hand, could be the result of a one-generation temporary transgenerational epigenetic effect, which was not accumulative. - Zn-induced DNA hypomethylation is related to gene transcription in Daphnia magna and Zn exposure potentially induced limited temporary transgenerational effects on gene transcription.

  3. Different transcriptional responses from slow and fast growth rate strains of Listeria monocytogenes adapted to low temperature

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    Ninoska eCordero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes has become one of the principal foodborne pathogens worldwide. The capacity of this bacterium to grow at low temperatures has opened an interesting field of study in terms of the identification and classification of new strains of L. monocytogenes with different growth capacities at low temperatures. We determined the growth rate at 8 ºC of 110 strains of L. monocytogenes isolated from different food matrices. We identified a group of slow and fast strains according to their growth rate at 8 °C and performed a global transcriptomic assay in strains previously adapted to low temperature. We then identified shared and specific transcriptional mechanisms, metabolic and cellular processes of both groups; bacterial motility was the principal process capable of differentiating the adaptation capacity of L. monocytogenes strains with different ranges of tolerance to low temperatures. Strains belonging to the fast group were less motile, which may allow these strains to achieve a greater rate of proliferation at low temperature.

  4. The Russian Landing Rate, Central Bank’s Policy Related Rate and Intermediation Premium

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    Chu V. Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates asymmetries in the Russian intermediation premium as measured by the spread between the commercial lending rate and the Central Bank’s policy related rate. Empirical results have shown that the Russian intermediation premium adjusts to the threshold faster when the Central Bank’s policy related rates increase relative to lending rates as opposed to when the Central Bank’s policy related rates move in the opposite direction. The findings of this paper suggest that during the period when the Russian Federation faced formidable challenges from a sharp decline in oil prices and reduced access to international capital markets due to Western sanctions, the Central Bank of Russia was not effective in utilizing countercyclical monetary policy to achieve macroeconomic objectives and commercial banks exhibited predatory pricing behavior.

  5. Cis-Natural Antisense Transcripts Are Mainly Co-expressed with Their Sense Transcripts and Primarily Related to Energy Metabolic Pathways during Muscle Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunxia; Hou, Ye; Zhao, Changzhi; Liu, Fei; Luan, Yu; Jing, Lu; Li, Xinyun; Zhu, Mengjin; Zhao, Shuhong

    2016-01-01

    Cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs) are a new class of RNAs identified in various species. However, the biological functions of cis-NATs are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional characteristics and functions of cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of lean Landrace and indigenous fatty Lantang pigs. In total, 3,306 cis-NATs of 2,469 annotated genes were identified in the muscle tissue of pigs. More than 1,300 cis-NATs correlated with their sense genes at the transcriptional level, and approximately 80% of them were co-expressed in the two breeds. Furthermore, over 1,200 differentially expressed cis-NATs were identified during muscle development. Function annotation showed that the cis-NATs participated in muscle development mainly by co-expressing with genes involved in energy metabolic pathways, including citrate cycle (TCA cycle), glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, mitochondrial activation and so on. Moreover, these cis-NATs and their sense genes abruptly increased at the transition from the late fetal stages to the early postnatal stages and then decreased along with muscle development. In conclusion, the cis-NATs in the muscle tissue of pigs were identified and determined to be mainly co-expressed with their sense genes. The co-expressed cis-NATs and their sense gene were primarily related to energy metabolic pathways during muscle development in pigs. Our results offered novel evidence on the roles of cis-NATs during the muscle development of pigs.

  6. Loss of runt-related transcription factor 3 expression leads hepatocellular carcinoma cells to escape apoptosis

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    Nakamura Shinichiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3 is known as a tumor suppressor gene for gastric cancer and other cancers, this gene may be involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Methods RUNX3 expression was analyzed by immunoblot and immunohistochemistry in HCC cells and tissues, respectively. Hep3B cells, lacking endogenous RUNX3, were introduced with RUNX3 constructs. Cell proliferation was measured using the MTT assay and apoptosis was evaluated using DAPI staining. Apoptosis signaling was assessed by immunoblot analysis. Results RUNX3 protein expression was frequently inactivated in the HCC cell lines (91% and tissues (90%. RUNX3 expression inhibited 90 ± 8% of cell growth at 72 h in serum starved Hep3B cells. Forty-eight hour serum starvation-induced apoptosis and the percentage of apoptotic cells reached 31 ± 4% and 4 ± 1% in RUNX3-expressing Hep3B and control cells, respectively. Apoptotic activity was increased by Bim expression and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation. Conclusion RUNX3 expression enhanced serum starvation-induced apoptosis in HCC cell lines. RUNX3 is deleted or weakly expressed in HCC, which leads to tumorigenesis by escaping apoptosis.

  7. Hyperosmotic stress regulates the distribution and stability of myocardin-related transcription factor, a key modulator of the cytoskeleton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ly, Donald L.; Waheed, Faiza; Lodyga, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Hyperosmotic stress initiates several adaptive responses, including the remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Besides maintaining structural integrity, the cytoskeleton has emerged as an important regulator of gene transcription. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), an actin-regulated coactiv......Hyperosmotic stress initiates several adaptive responses, including the remodeling of the cytoskeleton. Besides maintaining structural integrity, the cytoskeleton has emerged as an important regulator of gene transcription. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), an actin......-regulated coactivator of serum response factor, is a major link between the actin skeleton and transcriptional control. We therefore investigated whether MRTF is regulated by hyperosmotic stress. Here we show that hypertonicity induces robust, rapid, and transient translocation of MRTF from the cytosol to the nucleus...... in kidney tubular cells. We found that the hyperosmolarity-triggered MRTF translocation is mediated by the RhoA/Rho kinase (ROK) pathway. Moreover, the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor GEF-H1 is activated by hyperosmotic stress, and it is a key contributor to the ensuing RhoA activation and MRTF...

  8. Arabidopsis transcriptional responses differentiating closely related chemicals (herbicides) and cross-species extrapolation to Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using whole genome Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChips we characterized the transcriptional response of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia 24 hours after treatment with five different herbicides. Four of them (chloransulam, imazapyr, primisulfuron, sulfometuron) inhibit acetolactate synthase (A...

  9. Transcriptional interference networks coordinate the expression of functionally related genes clustered in the same genomic loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldogköi, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression is essential for normal functioning of biological systems in every form of life. Gene expression is primarily controlled at the level of transcription, especially at the phase of initiation. Non-coding RNAs are one of the major players at every level of genetic regulation, including the control of chromatin organization, transcription, various post-transcriptional processes, and translation. In this study, the Transcriptional Interference Network (TIN) hypothesis was put forward in an attempt to explain the global expression of antisense RNAs and the overall occurrence of tandem gene clusters in the genomes of various biological systems ranging from viruses to mammalian cells. The TIN hypothesis suggests the existence of a novel layer of genetic regulation, based on the interactions between the transcriptional machineries of neighboring genes at their overlapping regions, which are assumed to play a fundamental role in coordinating gene expression within a cluster of functionally linked genes. It is claimed that the transcriptional overlaps between adjacent genes are much more widespread in genomes than is thought today. The Waterfall model of the TIN hypothesis postulates a unidirectional effect of upstream genes on the transcription of downstream genes within a cluster of tandemly arrayed genes, while the Seesaw model proposes a mutual interdependence of gene expression between the oppositely oriented genes. The TIN represents an auto-regulatory system with an exquisitely timed and highly synchronized cascade of gene expression in functionally linked genes located in close physical proximity to each other. In this study, we focused on herpesviruses. The reason for this lies in the compressed nature of viral genes, which allows a tight regulation and an easier investigation of the transcriptional interactions between genes. However, I believe that the same or similar principles can be applied to cellular organisms too.

  10. The cellular transcription factor CREB corresponds to activating transcription factor 47 (ATF-47) and forms complexes with a group of polypeptides related to ATF-43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, H C; Masson, N; Jones, N C; Lee, K A

    1990-12-01

    Promoter elements containing the sequence motif CGTCA are important for a variety of inducible responses at the transcriptional level. Multiple cellular factors specifically bind to these elements and are encoded by a multigene family. Among these factors, polypeptides termed activating transcription factor 43 (ATF-43) and ATF-47 have been purified from HeLa cells and a factor referred to as cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) has been isolated from PC12 cells and rat brain. We demonstrated that CREB and ATF-47 are identical and that CREB and ATF-43 form protein-protein complexes. We also found that the cis requirements for stable DNA binding by ATF-43 and CREB are different. Using antibodies to ATF-43 we have identified a group of polypeptides (ATF-43) in the size range from 40 to 43 kDa. ATF-43 polypeptides are related by their reactivity with anti-ATF-43, DNA-binding specificity, complex formation with CREB, heat stability, and phosphorylation by protein kinase A. Certain cell types vary in their ATF-43 complement, suggesting that CREB activity is modulated in a cell-type-specific manner through interaction with ATF-43. ATF-43 polypeptides do not appear simply to correspond to the gene products of the ATF multigene family, suggesting that the size of the ATF family at the protein level is even larger than predicted from cDNA-cloning studies.

  11. Whole-genome transcriptional analysis of Escherichia coli during heat inactivation processes related to industrial cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernec, A; Robichaud-Rincon, P; Saucier, L

    2013-08-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 was grown to the stationary phase, for maximum physiological resistance, in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth at 37°C. Cells were then heated at 58°C or 60°C to reach a process lethality value \\[\\mathbf{\\left(}{{\\mathit{F}}^{\\mathit{o}}}_{\\mathbf{70}}^{\\mathbf{10}}\\mathbf{\\right)} \\] of 2 or 3 or to a core temperature of 71°C (control industrial cooking temperature). Growth recovery and cell membrane integrity were evaluated immediately after heating, and a global transcription analysis was performed using gene expression microarrays. Only cells heated at 58°C with F(o) = 2 were still able to grow on liquid or solid BHI broth after heat treatment. However, their transcriptome did not differ from that of bacteria heated at 58°C with F(o) = 3 (P value for the false discovery rate [P-FDR] > 0.01), where no growth recovery was observed posttreatment. Genome-wide transcriptomic data obtained at 71°C were distinct from those of the other treatments without growth recovery. Quantification of heat shock gene expression by real-time PCR revealed that dnaK and groEL mRNA levels decreased significantly above 60°C to reach levels similar to those of control cells at 37°C (P citE, glyS, oppB, and asd, whose expression was upregulated at 71°C, may be worth investigating as good biomarkers for accurately determining the efficiency of heat treatments, especially when cells are too injured to be enumerated using growth media.

  12. Transcription Factor EB Expression in Early Breast Cancer Relates to Lysosomal/Autophagosomal Markers and Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Sivridis, Efthimios; Kalamida, Dimitra; Koukourakis, Michael I

    2017-06-01

    Disrupting the autophagic balance to trigger autophagic death may open new strategies for cancer therapy. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) is a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and may play a role in cancer biology and clinical behavior. The expression of TFEB and the lysosomal cancer cell content (expression of lysosomal associated membrane protein 2a [LAMP2a] and cathepsin D) was studied in a series of 100 T1-stage breast carcinomas. Expression patterns were correlated with autophagy/hypoxia-related proteins, angiogenesis, and clinical outcome. The effect of hypoxic/acidic conditions on TFEB kinetics was studied in the MCF-7 cancer cell line. Overexpression of TFEB in cancer cell cytoplasm and the perinuclear/nuclear area was noted in 23 (23%) of 100 cases. High LAMP2a and cathepsin D expression was noted in 30 (30%) of 100 and 28 (28%) of 100 cases, respectively. TFEB expression was directly linked with LAMP2a (P factor 2-alpha (HIF-2α) (P = .01, r = 0.25) expression and inversely with progesterone receptor (P = .01, r = 0.22). High vascular density was directly linked with LAMP2a (P = .05, r = 0.18) and cathepsin D (P = .005, r = 0.28). In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, TFEB and cathepsin D expression were related to an ominous prognosis (P = .001 and P = .03, respectively). In multivariate analysis, TFEB expression sustained its independent prognostic significance (P = .05, hazard ratio 2.1). In in vitro experiments, acidity triggered overexpression of TFEB and nuclear translocation. Intense TFEB expression and lysosomal biogenesis, evident in one fourth of early breast carcinomas, define poor prognosis. Tumor acidity is among the microenvironmental conditions that trigger TFEB overactivity. TFEB is a sound target for the development of lysosomal targeting therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Mediator Complex MED15 Subunit Mediates Activation of Downstream Lipid-Related Genes by the WRINKLED1 Transcription Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Jung; Jang, In-Cheol; Chua, Nam-Hai

    2016-07-01

    The Mediator complex is known to be a master coordinator of transcription by RNA polymerase II, and this complex is recruited by transcription factors (TFs) to target promoters for gene activation or repression. The plant-specific TF WRINKLED1 (WRI1) activates glycolysis-related and fatty acid biosynthetic genes during embryogenesis. However, no Mediator subunit has yet been identified that mediates WRI1 transcriptional activity. Promoter-β-glucuronidase fusion experiments showed that MEDIATOR15 (MED15) is expressed in the same cells in the embryo as WRI1. We found that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MED15 subunit of the Mediator complex interacts directly with WRI1 in the nucleus. Overexpression of MED15 or WRI1 increased transcript levels of WRI1 target genes involved in glycolysis and fatty acid biosynthesis; these genes were down-regulated in wild-type or WRI1-overexpressing plants by silencing of MED15 However, overexpression of MED15 in the wri1 mutant also increased transcript levels of WRI1 target genes, suggesting that MED15 also may act with other TFs to activate downstream lipid-related genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the association of MED15 with six WRI1 target gene promoters. Additionally, silencing of MED15 resulted in reduced fatty acid content in seedlings and mature seeds, whereas MED15 overexpression increased fatty acid content in both developmental stages. Similar results were found in wri1 mutant and WRI1 overexpression lines. Together, our results indicate that the WRI1/MED15 complex transcriptionally regulates glycolysis-related and fatty acid biosynthetic genes during embryogenesis. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Modulation of Caenorhabditis elegans transcription factor activity by HIM-8 and the related Zinc-Finger ZIM proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongliu; Nelms, Brian L; Sleiman, Sama F; Chamberlin, Helen M; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2007-10-01

    The previously reported negative regulatory activity of HIM-8 on the Sox protein EGL-13 is shared by the HIM-8-related ZIM proteins. Furthermore, mutation of HIM-8 can modulate the effects of substitution mutations in the DNA-binding domains of at least four other transcription factors, suggesting broad regulatory activity by HIM-8.

  15. Novel estrogen receptor-related Transcripts in Marisa cornuarietis; a freshwater snail with reported sensitivity to estrogenic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Richard; Beresford, Nicola; May, Denise; Routledge, Edwin J; Jobling, Susan; Rand-Weaver, Mariann

    2007-04-01

    We have isolated novel molluskan steroid receptor transcripts orthologous to vertebrate estrogen receptors (ERs) and estrogen receptor-related receptors (ERRs) from the freshwater snail Marisa cornuarietis. Radiolabeled ligand binding analyses showed that neither recombinant receptor protein specifically bound 17beta-estradiol over the range applied (0.3-9.6 nM). These novel receptor transcripts have thus been designated mcER-like and mcERR respectively. Quantitative PCR revealed mcER-like to be expressed ubiquitously throughout a range of male and female structures studied, including neural and reproductive tissues. Highest absolute levels were seen in the male penis-sheath complex. The mcERR mRNA was also expressed ubiquitously throughout all male and female tissues analyzed here, with very low absolute transcript numbers in female accessory sex structures compared to other tissues.

  16. Transcription elongation rate has a tissue-specific impact on alternative cleavage and polyadenylation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaochuan; Freitas, Jaime; Zheng, Dinghai; Oliveira, Marta S; Hoque, Mainul; Martins, Torcato; Henriques, Telmo; Tian, Bin; Moreira, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    Alternative polyadenylation (APA) is a mechanism that generates multiple mRNA isoforms with different 3'UTRs and/or coding sequences from a single gene. Here, using 3' region extraction and deep sequencing (3'READS), we have systematically mapped cleavage and polyadenylation sites (PASs) in Drosophila melanogaster , expanding the total repertoire of PASs previously identified for the species, especially those located in A-rich genomic sequences. Cis -element analysis revealed distinct sequence motifs around fly PASs when compared to mammalian ones, including the greater enrichment of upstream UAUA elements and the less prominent presence of downstream UGUG elements. We found that over 75% of mRNA genes in Drosophila melanogaster undergo APA. The head tissue tends to use distal PASs when compared to the body, leading to preferential expression of APA isoforms with long 3'UTRs as well as with distal terminal exons. The distance between the APA sites and intron location of PAS are important parameters for APA difference between body and head, suggesting distinct PAS selection contexts. APA analysis of the RpII215 C4 mutant strain, which harbors a mutant RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) with a slower elongation rate, revealed that a 50% decrease in transcriptional elongation rate leads to a mild trend of more usage of proximal, weaker PASs, both in 3'UTRs and in introns, consistent with the "first come, first served" model of APA regulation. However, this trend was not observed in the head, suggesting a different regulatory context in neuronal cells. Together, our data expand the PAS collection for Drosophila melanogaster and reveal a tissue-specific effect of APA regulation by RNAPII elongation rate. © 2017 Liu et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  17. G-actin sequestering protein thymosin-β4 regulates the activity of myocardin-related transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Ken'ichiro

    2013-08-02

    Myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) are robust coactivators of serum response factor (SRF). MRTFs contain three copies of the RPEL motif at their N-terminus, and they bind to monomeric globular actin (G-actin). Previous studies illustrate that G-actin binding inhibits MRTF activity by preventing the MRTFs nuclear accumulation. In the living cells, the majority of G-actin is sequestered by G-actin binding proteins that prevent spontaneous actin polymerization. Here, we demonstrate that the most abundant G-actin sequestering protein thymosin-β4 (Tβ4) was involved in the regulation of subcellular localization and activity of MRTF-A. Tβ4 competed with MRTF-A for G-actin binding; thus, interfering with G-actin-MRTF-A complex formation. Tβ4 overexpression induced the MRTF-A nuclear accumulation and activation of MRTF-SRF signaling. The activation rate of MRTF-A by the Tβ4 mutant L17A, whose affinity for G-actin is very low, was lower than that by wild-type Tβ4. In contrast, the β-actin mutant 3DA, which has a lower affinity for Tβ4, more effectively suppressed MRTF-A activity than wild-type β-actin. Furthermore, ectopic Tβ4 increased the endogenous expression of SRF-dependent actin cytoskeletal genes. Thus, Tβ4 is an important MRTF regulator that controls the G-actin-MRTFs interaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transcript Abundance of Photorhabdus Insect-Related (Pir Toxin in Manduca sexta and Galleria mellonella Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Castagnola

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed pirAB toxin transcription in Photorhabdus luminescens laumondii (strain TT01 (Enterobacteriaceae by comparing mRNA abundance under in vivo and in vitro conditions. In vivo assays considered both natural and forced infections with two lepidopteran hosts: Galleria mellonella and Manduca sexta. Three portals of entry were utilized for the forced infection assays: (a integument; (b the digestive route (via mouth and anus; and (c the tracheal route (via spiracles. We also assessed plu4093-2 transcription during the course of a natural infection; this is when the bacteria are delivered by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes. Transcript abundance in G. mellonella was higher than in M. sexta at two of the observed time points: 15 and 18 h. Expression of pirAB plu4093-2 reached above endogenous control levels at 22 h in G. mellonella but not in M. sexta. Overall, pirAB plu4093-2 transcripts were not as highly expressed in M. sexta as in G. mellonella, from 15 to 22 h. This is the first study to directly compare pirAB plu4093-2 toxin transcript production considering different portals of entry.

  19. Effects of Replication and Transcription on DNA Structure-Related Genetic Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guliang; Vasquez, Karen M

    2017-01-05

    Many repetitive sequences in the human genome can adopt conformations that differ from the canonical B-DNA double helix (i.e., non-B DNA), and can impact important biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, recombination, telomere maintenance, viral integration, transposome activation, DNA damage and repair. Thus, non-B DNA-forming sequences have been implicated in genetic instability and disease development. In this article, we discuss the interactions of non-B DNA with the replication and/or transcription machinery, particularly in disease states (e.g., tumors) that can lead to an abnormal cellular environment, and how such interactions may alter DNA replication and transcription, leading to potential conflicts at non-B DNA regions, and eventually result in genetic stability and human disease.

  20. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton via transcriptional regulation of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes by myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs/MAL/MKLs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Tsuyoshi; Mayanagi, Taira; Sobue, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    RhoA is a crucial regulator of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation through the activation of actin nucleation and polymerization. It also regulates the nuclear translocation of myocardin-related transcription factor-A and -B (MRTF-A/B, MAL or MKL 1/2), which are co-activators of serum response factor (SRF). In dominant-negative MRTF-A (DN-MRTF-A)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the expressions of several cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes were down-regulated, and the formation of stress fiber and focal adhesion was severely diminished. MRTF-A/B-knockdown cells also exhibited such cytoskeletal defects. In reporter assays, both RhoA and MRTF-A enhanced promoter activities of these genes in a CArG-box-dependent manner, and DN-MRTF-A inhibited the RhoA-mediated activation of these promoters. In dominant-negative RhoA (RhoA-N19)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the nuclear translocation of MRTF-A/B was predominantly prevented, resulting in the reduced expression of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins. Further, constitutive-active MRTF-A/B increased the expression of endogenous cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins, and thereby rescued the defective phenotype of stress fibers and focal adhesions in RhoA-N19 expressing cells. These results indicate that MRTF-A/B act as pivotal mediators of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation via the transcriptional regulation of a subset of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes

  1. Lower alert rates by clustering of related drug interaction alerts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, M.; Siderius, Hidde; Schreudering, A.; De Smet, Peter Agm; Bouvy, M.L.

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate to what extent clustering of related drug interaction alerts (drug-drug and drug-disease interaction alerts) would decrease the alert rate in clinical decision support systems (CDSSs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of drug interaction alerts

  2. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in simulated gastrointestinal system and transcriptional profiling of stress- and adhesion-related genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Lingli; Olesen, Inger; Andersen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    -related genes after exposure to the conditions similar to those encountered in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine. None of the L. monocytogenes strains investigated could survive in the gastric juice at pH 2.5 or 3.0. Their survival increased at higher pH (3.5 and 4.0) in the gastric stress. Relative...... afterpassing through the simulated gastrointestinal tract, whereas that of the adhesion-related gene ami was downregulated. Taken together, this study revealed that L. monocytogenes strains enhanced the expression of stressrelated genes and decreased the transcription of adhesion-related gene in order...

  3. Cellular promoters incorporated into the adenovirus genome: effects of viral regulatory elements on transcription rates and cell specificity of albumin and beta-globin promoters.

    OpenAIRE

    Babiss, L E; Friedman, J M; Darnell, J E

    1986-01-01

    In the accompanying paper (Friedman et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:3791-3797, 1986), hepatoma-specific expression of the rat albumin promoter within the adenovirus genome was demonstrated. However, the rate of transcription was very low compared with that of the endogenous chromosomal albumin gene. Here we show that in hepatoma cells the adenovirus E1A enhancer, especially in the presence of E1A protein, greatly stimulates transcription from the albumin promoter but not the mouse beta-globin prom...

  4. The Role of Estrogen Related Receptor in Modulating Estrogen Receptor Mediated Transcription in Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    tumors correlates with an unfavorable prognosis (Ariazi 2002; Lu 2001; Suzuki 2004; Vanacker 1999). The transcriptional activity of ERRa is not inhibited...SA. 101:6570-5. Needham, M ., S. Raines, J. McPheat, C. Stacey, J. Ellston, S. Hoare, and M . Parker. 2000. Differential interaction of steroid hormone...R. Graves, M . Wright, and B.M. Spiegelman. 1998. A cold- inducible coactivator of nuclear receptors linked to adaptive thermogenesis. Cell. 92:829- 39

  5. Transcription factor Fos-Related Antigen-2 induces progressive peripheral vasculopathy in mice closely resembling human systemic sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, B; Busch, N; Jüngel, A; Pileckyte, M; Gay, R E; Michel, B A; Schett, G; Gay, S; Distler, J; Distler, O

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: -Microvascular damage is one of the first pathological changes in systemic sclerosis. In this study, we investigated the role of Fos-related antigen-2 (Fra-2), a transcription factor of the activator protein-1 family, in the peripheral vasculopathy of systemic sclerosis and examined the underlying mechanisms. Methods and Results-Expression of Fra-2 protein was significantly increased in skin biopsies of systemic sclerosis patients compared with healthy controls, especially in endo...

  6. Sex-related differences in murine hepatic transcriptional and proteomic responses to TCDD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Watson, John D.; Lee, Jamie; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Boutros, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental contaminant that produces myriad toxicities in most mammals. In rodents alone, there is a huge divergence in the toxicological response across species, as well as among different strains within a species. But there are also significant differences between males and females animals of a single strain. These differences are inconsistent across model systems: the severity of toxicity is greater in female rats than males, while male mice and guinea pigs are more sensitive than females. Because the specific events that underlie this difference remain unclear, we characterized the hepatic transcriptional response of adult male and female C57BL/6 mice to 500 μg/kg TCDD at multiple time-points. The transcriptional profile diverged significantly between the sexes. Female mice demonstrated a large number of altered transcripts as early as 6 h following treatment, suggesting a large primary response. Conversely, male animals showed the greatest TCDD-mediated response 144 h following exposure, potentially implicating significant secondary responses. Nr1i3 was statistically significantly induced at all time-points in the sensitive male animals. This mRNA encodes the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a transcription factor involved in the regulation of xenobiotic metabolism, lipid metabolism, cell cycle and apoptosis. Surprisingly though, changes at the protein level (aside from the positive control, CYP1A1) were modest, with only FMO3 showing clear induction, and no genes with sex-differences. Thus, while male and female mice show transcriptional differences in their response to TCDD, their association with TCDD-induced toxicities remains unclear. - Highlights: • Differences exist between the toxicity phenotypes to TCDD in male and female mice. • TCDD-mediated transcriptomic differences were identified between the sexes. • Resistant female mice displayed a large, early-onset, transcriptomic response.

  7. Survival-related profile, pathways, and transcription factors in ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne P G Crijns

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis due to advanced stage at presentation and either intrinsic or acquired resistance to classic cytotoxic drugs such as platinum and taxoids. Recent large clinical trials with different combinations and sequences of classic cytotoxic drugs indicate that further significant improvement in prognosis by this type of drugs is not to be expected. Currently a large number of drugs, targeting dysregulated molecular pathways in cancer cells have been developed and are introduced in the clinic. A major challenge is to identify those patients who will benefit from drugs targeting these specific dysregulated pathways.The aims of our study were (1 to develop a gene expression profile associated with overall survival in advanced stage serous ovarian cancer, (2 to assess the association of pathways and transcription factors with overall survival, and (3 to validate our identified profile and pathways/transcription factors in an independent set of ovarian cancers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: According to a randomized design, profiling of 157 advanced stage serous ovarian cancers was performed in duplicate using approximately 35,000 70-mer oligonucleotide microarrays. A continuous predictor of overall survival was built taking into account well-known issues in microarray analysis, such as multiple testing and overfitting. A functional class scoring analysis was utilized to assess pathways/transcription factors for their association with overall survival. The prognostic value of genes that constitute our overall survival profile was validated on a fully independent, publicly available dataset of 118 well-defined primary serous ovarian cancers. Furthermore, functional class scoring analysis was also performed on this independent dataset to assess the similarities with results from our own dataset. An 86-gene overall survival profile discriminated between patients with unfavorable and favorable prognosis (median survival, 19

  8. Sex-related differences in murine hepatic transcriptional and proteomic responses to TCDD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Watson, John D. [Informatics and Bio-computing Program, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto (Canada); Lee, Jamie [Informatics and Bio-computing Program, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto (Canada); Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Pohjanvirta, Raimo [Laboratory of Toxicology, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio Finland (Finland); Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Boutros, Paul C., E-mail: Paul.Boutros@oicr.on.ca [Informatics and Bio-computing Program, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto (Canada); Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental contaminant that produces myriad toxicities in most mammals. In rodents alone, there is a huge divergence in the toxicological response across species, as well as among different strains within a species. But there are also significant differences between males and females animals of a single strain. These differences are inconsistent across model systems: the severity of toxicity is greater in female rats than males, while male mice and guinea pigs are more sensitive than females. Because the specific events that underlie this difference remain unclear, we characterized the hepatic transcriptional response of adult male and female C57BL/6 mice to 500 μg/kg TCDD at multiple time-points. The transcriptional profile diverged significantly between the sexes. Female mice demonstrated a large number of altered transcripts as early as 6 h following treatment, suggesting a large primary response. Conversely, male animals showed the greatest TCDD-mediated response 144 h following exposure, potentially implicating significant secondary responses. Nr1i3 was statistically significantly induced at all time-points in the sensitive male animals. This mRNA encodes the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a transcription factor involved in the regulation of xenobiotic metabolism, lipid metabolism, cell cycle and apoptosis. Surprisingly though, changes at the protein level (aside from the positive control, CYP1A1) were modest, with only FMO3 showing clear induction, and no genes with sex-differences. Thus, while male and female mice show transcriptional differences in their response to TCDD, their association with TCDD-induced toxicities remains unclear. - Highlights: • Differences exist between the toxicity phenotypes to TCDD in male and female mice. • TCDD-mediated transcriptomic differences were identified between the sexes. • Resistant female mice displayed a large, early-onset, transcriptomic response.

  9. Simple relations between mean passage times and Kramers' stationary rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boilley, David; Jurado, Beatriz; Schmitt, Christelle

    2004-01-01

    The classical problem of the escape time of a metastable potential well in a thermal environment is generally studied by various quantities like Kramers' stationary escape rate, mean first passage time, nonlinear relaxation time, or mean last passage time. In addition, numerical simulations lead to the definition of other quantities as the long-time limit escape rate and the transient time. In this paper, we propose some simple analytical relations between all these quantities. In particular, we point out the hypothesis used to evaluate these various times in order to clarify their comparison and applicability, and show how average times include the transient time and the long-time limit of the escape rate

  10. G-actin sequestering protein thymosin-β4 regulates the activity of myocardin-related transcription factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Ken’ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Tβ4 competed with MRTF-A for G-actin binding. •Tβ4 activated the MRTF–SRF signaling pathway. •Tβ4 increased the endogenous expression of SRF-dependent genes. -- Abstract: Myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) are robust coactivators of serum response factor (SRF). MRTFs contain three copies of the RPEL motif at their N-terminus, and they bind to monomeric globular actin (G-actin). Previous studies illustrate that G-actin binding inhibits MRTF activity by preventing the MRTFs nuclear accumulation. In the living cells, the majority of G-actin is sequestered by G-actin binding proteins that prevent spontaneous actin polymerization. Here, we demonstrate that the most abundant G-actin sequestering protein thymosin-β4 (Tβ4) was involved in the regulation of subcellular localization and activity of MRTF-A. Tβ4 competed with MRTF-A for G-actin binding; thus, interfering with G-actin–MRTF-A complex formation. Tβ4 overexpression induced the MRTF-A nuclear accumulation and activation of MRTF–SRF signaling. The activation rate of MRTF-A by the Tβ4 mutant L17A, whose affinity for G-actin is very low, was lower than that by wild-type Tβ4. In contrast, the β-actin mutant 3DA, which has a lower affinity for Tβ4, more effectively suppressed MRTF-A activity than wild-type β-actin. Furthermore, ectopic Tβ4 increased the endogenous expression of SRF-dependent actin cytoskeletal genes. Thus, Tβ4 is an important MRTF regulator that controls the G-actin–MRTFs interaction

  11. G-actin sequestering protein thymosin-β4 regulates the activity of myocardin-related transcription factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tsuyo@nbiochem.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Hayashi, Ken’ichiro

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •Tβ4 competed with MRTF-A for G-actin binding. •Tβ4 activated the MRTF–SRF signaling pathway. •Tβ4 increased the endogenous expression of SRF-dependent genes. -- Abstract: Myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs) are robust coactivators of serum response factor (SRF). MRTFs contain three copies of the RPEL motif at their N-terminus, and they bind to monomeric globular actin (G-actin). Previous studies illustrate that G-actin binding inhibits MRTF activity by preventing the MRTFs nuclear accumulation. In the living cells, the majority of G-actin is sequestered by G-actin binding proteins that prevent spontaneous actin polymerization. Here, we demonstrate that the most abundant G-actin sequestering protein thymosin-β4 (Tβ4) was involved in the regulation of subcellular localization and activity of MRTF-A. Tβ4 competed with MRTF-A for G-actin binding; thus, interfering with G-actin–MRTF-A complex formation. Tβ4 overexpression induced the MRTF-A nuclear accumulation and activation of MRTF–SRF signaling. The activation rate of MRTF-A by the Tβ4 mutant L17A, whose affinity for G-actin is very low, was lower than that by wild-type Tβ4. In contrast, the β-actin mutant 3DA, which has a lower affinity for Tβ4, more effectively suppressed MRTF-A activity than wild-type β-actin. Furthermore, ectopic Tβ4 increased the endogenous expression of SRF-dependent actin cytoskeletal genes. Thus, Tβ4 is an important MRTF regulator that controls the G-actin–MRTFs interaction.

  12. Engineering aspects of rate-related processes in food manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Many rate-related phenomena occur in food manufacturing processes. This review addresses four of them, all of which are topics that the author has studied in order to design food manufacturing processes that are favorable from the standpoint of food engineering. They include chromatographic separation through continuous separation with a simulated moving adsorber, lipid oxidation kinetics in emulsions and microencapsulated systems, kinetic analysis and extraction in subcritical water, and water migration in pasta.

  13. Exchange RateRelative Price Nonlinear Cointegration Relationship in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Venus Khim-Sen Liew; Chee-Keong Choong; Evan Lau; Kian-Ping Lim

    2005-01-01

    The finding of exchange rate–relative price nonlinear cointegration relationship in Malaysia, among others, suggests that nonlinear Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) equilibrium may be regarded as reference point in judging the short run misalignment of the Ringgit currency and thereby deducing effective policy actions. Moreover, economists who wish to extend the simple PPP exchange rate model into the more complicated monetary exchange models may do so comfortably, at least in the text of Malays...

  14. The cellular transcription factor CREB corresponds to activating transcription factor 47 (ATF-47) and forms complexes with a group of polypeptides related to ATF-43.

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, H C; Masson, N; Jones, N C; Lee, K A

    1990-01-01

    Promoter elements containing the sequence motif CGTCA are important for a variety of inducible responses at the transcriptional level. Multiple cellular factors specifically bind to these elements and are encoded by a multigene family. Among these factors, polypeptides termed activating transcription factor 43 (ATF-43) and ATF-47 have been purified from HeLa cells and a factor referred to as cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) has been isolated from PC12 cells and rat brain. We...

  15. [The role of Smads and related transcription factors in the signal transduction of bone morphogenetic protein inducing bone formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-liang; Dai, Ke-rong; Tang, Ting-ting

    2003-09-01

    To clarify the mechanisms of the signal transduction of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) inducing bone formation and to provide theoretical basis for basic and applying research of BMPs. We looked up the literature of the role of Smads and related transcription factors in the signal transduction of BMPs inducing bone formation. The signal transduction processes of BMPs included: 1. BMPs combined with type II and type I receptors; 2. the type I receptor phosphorylated Smads; and 3. Smads entered the cell nucleus, interacted with transcription factors and influenced the transcription of related proteins. Smads could be divided into receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads: Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad5, Smad8 and Smad9), common-mediator Smad (co-Smad: Smad4), and inhibitory Smads (I-Smads: Smad6 and Smad7). Smad1, Smad5, Smad8, and probable Smad9 were involved in the signal transduction of BMPs. Multiple kinases, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt serine/threonine kinase were related to Smads signal transduction. Smad1 and Smad5 related with transcription factors included core binding factor A1 (CBFA1), smad-interacting protein 1 (SIP1), ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (OAZ), activating protein-1 (AP-1), xenopus ventralizing homeobox protein-2 (Xvent-2), sandostatin (Ski), antiproliferative proteins (Tob), and homeodomain-containing transcriptian factor-8 (Hoxc-8), et al. CBFA1 could interact with Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, and Smad5, so it was involved in TGF-beta and BMP-2 signal transduction, and played an important role in the bone formation. Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) was thought to be caused by heterozygous mutations in CBFA1. The CBFA1 knockout mice showed no osteogenesis and had maturational disturbance of chondrocytes. Smads and related transcription factors, especially Smad1, Smad5, Smad8 and CBFA1, play an important role in the signal transduction of BMPs inducing bone

  16. Time- and dose rate-related effects of internal 177Lu exposure on gene expression in mouse kidney tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schüler, Emil; Rudqvist, Nils; Parris, Toshima Z.; Langen, Britta; Spetz, Johan; Helou, Khalil; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The kidneys are the dose-limiting organs in some radionuclide therapy regimens. However, the biological impact of internal exposure from radionuclides is still not fully understood. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of dose rate and time after i.v. injection of 177 LuCl 3 on changes in transcriptional patterns in mouse kidney tissue. Methods: To investigate the effect of dose rate, female Balb/c nude mice were i.v. injected with 11, 5.6, 1.6, 0.8, 0.30, and 0 MBq of 177 LuCl 3 , and killed at 3, 6, 24, 48, 168, and 24 hours after injection, respectively. Furthermore, the effect of time after onset of exposure was analysed using mice injected with 0.26, 2.4, and 8.2 MBq of 177 LuCl 3 , and killed at 45, 90, and 140 days after injection. Global transcription patterns of irradiated kidney cortex and medulla were assessed and enriched biological processes were determined from the regulated gene sets using Gene Ontology terms. Results: The average dose rates investigated were 1.6, 0.84, 0.23, 0.11 and 0.028 mGy/min, with an absorbed dose of 0.3 Gy. At 45, 90 and 140 days, the absorbed doses were estimated to 0.3, 3, and 10 Gy. In general, the number of differentially regulated transcripts increased with time after injection, and decreased with absorbed dose for both kidney cortex and medulla. Differentially regulated transcripts were predominantly involved in metabolic and stress response-related processes dependent on dose rate, as well as transcripts associated with metabolic and cellular integrity at later time points. Conclusion: The observed transcriptional response in kidney tissue was diverse due to difference in absorbed dose, dose rate and time after exposure. Nevertheless, several transcripts were significantly regulated in all groups despite differences in exposure parameters, which may indicate potential biomarkers for exposure of kidney tissue

  17. Two MYB-related transcription factors play opposite roles in sugar signaling in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Shih; Chao, Yi-Chi; Tseng, Tzu-Wei; Huang, Chun-Kai; Lo, Pei-Ching; Lu, Chung-An

    2017-02-01

    Sugar regulation of gene expression has profound effects at all stages of the plant life cycle. Although regulation at the transcriptional level is one of the most prominent mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated, only a few transcription factors have been identified and demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of sugar-regulated gene expression. OsMYBS1, an R1/2-type MYB transcription factor, has been demonstrated to be involved in sugar- and hormone-regulated α-amylase gene expression in rice. Arabidopsis contains two OsMYBS1 homologs. In the present study, we investigate MYBS1 and MYBS2 in sugar signaling in Arabidopsis. Our results indicate that MYBS1 and MYBS2 play opposite roles in regulating glucose and ABA signaling in Arabidopsis during seed germination and early seedling development. MYB proteins have been classified into four subfamilies: R2R3-MYB, R1/2-MYB, 3R-MYB, and 4R-MYB. An R1/2-type MYB transcription factor, OsMYBS1, has been demonstrated to be involved in sugar- and hormone-regulated α-amylase genes expression in rice. In this study, two genes homologous to OsMYBS1, MYBS1 and MYBS2, were investigated in Arabidopsis. Subcellular localization analysis showed that MYBS1 and MYBS2 were localized in the nucleus. Rice embryo transient expression assays indicated that both MYBS1 and MYBS2 could recognize the sugar response element, TA-box, in the promoter and induced promoter activity. mybs1 mutant exhibited hypersensitivity to glucose, whereas mybs2 seedlings were hyposensitive to it. MYBS1 and MYBS2 are involved in the control of glucose-responsive gene expression, as the mybs1 mutant displayed increased expression of a hexokinase gene (HXK1), chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene (CAB1), ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (APL3), and chalcone synthase gene (CHS), whereas the mybs2 mutant exhibited decreased expression of these genes. mybs1 also showed an enhanced response to abscisic acid (ABA) in the seed germination and seedling

  18. Transcriptional targets shared by estrogen receptor- related receptors (ERRs) and estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, but not by ERbeta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, J M; Pettersson, K; Gustafsson, J A; Laudet, V

    1999-01-01

    The physiological activities of estrogens are thought to be mediated by specific nuclear receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta. However, certain tissues, such as the bone, that are highly responsive to estrogens only express a low level of these receptors. Starting from this apparent contradiction, we have evaluated the potentials of two related receptors ERRalpha and ERRbeta to intervene in estrogen signaling. ERalpha, ERRalpha and ERRbeta bind to and activate transcription through both the classical estrogen response element (ERE) and the SF-1 response element (SFRE). In contrast, ERbeta DNA-binding and transcriptional activity is restricted to the ERE. Accordingly, the osteopontin gene promoter is stimulated through SFRE sequences, by ERRalpha as well as by ERalpha, but not by ERbeta. Analysis of the cross-talk within the ER/ERR subgroup of nuclear receptors thus revealed common targets but also functional differences between the two ERs. PMID:10428965

  19. Curcumin enhances neurogenesis and cognition in aged rats: implications for transcriptional interactions related to growth and synaptic plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzhen Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Curcumin has been demonstrated to have many neuroprotective properties, including improvement of cognition in humans and neurogenesis in animals, yet the mechanism of such effects remains unclear. METHODOLOGY: We assessed behavioural performance and hippocampal cell proliferation in aged rats after 6- and 12-week curcumin-fortified diets. Curcumin enhanced non-spatial and spatial memory, as well as dentate gyrate cell proliferation as compared to control diet rats. We also investigated underlying mechanistic pathways that might link curcumin treatment to increased cognition and neurogenesis via exon array analysis of cortical and hippocampal mRNA transcription. The results revealed a transcriptional network interaction of genes involved in neurotransmission, neuronal development, signal transduction, and metabolism in response to the curcumin treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest a neurogenesis- and cognition-enhancing potential of prolonged curcumin treatment in aged rats, which may be due to its diverse effects on genes related to growth and plasticity.

  20. Curcumin Enhances Neurogenesis and Cognition in Aged Rats: Implications for Transcriptional Interactions Related to Growth and Synaptic Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E. Siobhan; Xiu, Jin; Tiwari, Jyoti K.; Hu, Yinghe; Cao, Xiaohua; Zhao, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Curcumin has been demonstrated to have many neuroprotective properties, including improvement of cognition in humans and neurogenesis in animals, yet the mechanism of such effects remains unclear. Methodology We assessed behavioural performance and hippocampal cell proliferation in aged rats after 6- and 12-week curcumin-fortified diets. Curcumin enhanced non-spatial and spatial memory, as well as dentate gyrate cell proliferation as compared to control diet rats. We also investigated underlying mechanistic pathways that might link curcumin treatment to increased cognition and neurogenesis via exon array analysis of cortical and hippocampal mRNA transcription. The results revealed a transcriptional network interaction of genes involved in neurotransmission, neuronal development, signal transduction, and metabolism in response to the curcumin treatment. Conclusions The results suggest a neurogenesis- and cognition-enhancing potential of prolonged curcumin treatment in aged rats, which may be due to its diverse effects on genes related to growth and plasticity. PMID:22359574

  1. nalyot, a mutation of the Drosophila myb-related Adf1 transcription factor, disrupts synapse formation and olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeZazzo, J; Sandstrom, D; de Belle, S; Velinzon, K; Smith, P; Grady, L; DelVecchio, M; Ramaswami, M; Tully, T

    2000-07-01

    nalyot (nal) is a novel olfactory memory mutant of Drosophila, encoding Adf1, a myb-related transcription factor. Following extended training sessions, Adf1 mutants show normal early memory but defective longterm memory. Adf1 shows widespread spatiotemporal expression, yet mutant alleles reveal no discernible disruptions in gross morphology of the nervous system. Studies at the larval neuromuscular junction, however, reveal a role for Adf1 in the modulation of synaptic growth-in contrast to the role established for dCREB2 in the control of synaptic function (Davis et al., 1996). These findings suggest that Adf1 and dCREB2 regulate distinct transcriptional cascades involved in terminal stages of synapse maturation. More generally, Adf1 provides a novel link between molecular mechanisms of developmental and behavioral plasticity.

  2. Combined effect of copper and cadmium on Chlorella vulgaris growth and photosynthesis-related gene transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Haifeng; Li Jingjing; Sun Liwei; Chen Wei; Sheng, G. Daniel; Liu Weiping; Fu Zhengwei

    2009-01-01

    Chlorella vulgaris was tested to assess their toxicities in freshwater contaminated by the metal compounds of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), both singly and combined. Exposure to 0.5 and 1.5 μM Cu or 1.0 and 2.0 μM Cd alone significantly decreased algal growth and chlorophyll content and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) content. Two-way ANOVA analysis shows that the combination of these two metal compounds decreased cell growth, chlorophyll content and increased ROS content synergistically. The highest algal cell inhibition was 78.55%, the lowest levels of chl a, chl b and total-chl were 10.59%, 33.33% and 17.94% of the control, respectively. The highest increase in ROS was 9.15-fold greater than that of the control when exposed to Cu(1.5) + Cd(2.0). Real-time PCR shows that Cu and Cd reduced the transcript abundance of psbA and rbcL, but without a synergistic interaction, whereas Cu and Cd increased the transcript abundance of psaB synergistically. These results demonstrate that Cu and Cd independently inhibit PSII activity and CO 2 assimilation, but synergistically increase ROS content to disrupt chlorophyll synthesis and inhibit cell growth.

  3. Combined effect of copper and cadmium on Chlorella vulgaris growth and photosynthesis-related gene transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian Haifeng; Li Jingjing; Sun Liwei; Chen Wei; Sheng, G. Daniel; Liu Weiping [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Fu Zhengwei, E-mail: azwfu2003@yahoo.com.cn [College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2009-08-13

    Chlorella vulgaris was tested to assess their toxicities in freshwater contaminated by the metal compounds of copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd), both singly and combined. Exposure to 0.5 and 1.5 {mu}M Cu or 1.0 and 2.0 {mu}M Cd alone significantly decreased algal growth and chlorophyll content and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) content. Two-way ANOVA analysis shows that the combination of these two metal compounds decreased cell growth, chlorophyll content and increased ROS content synergistically. The highest algal cell inhibition was 78.55%, the lowest levels of chl a, chl b and total-chl were 10.59%, 33.33% and 17.94% of the control, respectively. The highest increase in ROS was 9.15-fold greater than that of the control when exposed to Cu(1.5) + Cd(2.0). Real-time PCR shows that Cu and Cd reduced the transcript abundance of psbA and rbcL, but without a synergistic interaction, whereas Cu and Cd increased the transcript abundance of psaB synergistically. These results demonstrate that Cu and Cd independently inhibit PSII activity and CO{sub 2} assimilation, but synergistically increase ROS content to disrupt chlorophyll synthesis and inhibit cell growth.

  4. Transcriptional profiling of protein expression related genes of Pichia pastoris under simulated microgravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qi

    Full Text Available The physiological responses and transcription profiling of Pichia pastoris GS115 to simulated microgravity (SMG were substantially changed compared with normal gravity (NG control. We previously reported that the recombinant P. pastoris grew faster under SMG than NG during methanol induction phase and the efficiencies of recombinant enzyme production and secretion were enhanced under SMG, which was considered as the consequence of changed transcriptional levels of some key genes. In this work, transcriptiome profiling of P. pastoris cultured under SMG and NG conditions at exponential and stationary phases were determined using next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies. Four categories of 141 genes function as methanol utilization, protein chaperone, RNA polymerase and protein transportation or secretion classified according to Gene Ontology (GO were chosen to be analyzed on the basis of NGS results. And 80 significantly changed genes were weighted and estimated by Cluster 3.0. It was found that most genes of methanol metabolism (85% of 20 genes and protein transportation or secretion (82.2% of 45 genes were significantly up-regulated under SMG. Furthermore the quantity and fold change of up-regulated genes in exponential phase of each category were higher than those of stationary phase. The results indicate that the up-regulated genes of methanol metabolism and protein transportation or secretion mainly contribute to enhanced production and secretion of the recombinant protein under SMG.

  5. Genomic survey of bZIP transcription factor genes related to tanshinone biosynthesis in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinones are a class of bioactive components in the traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza, and their biosynthesis and regulation have been widely studied. Current studies show that basic leucine zipper (bZIP proteins regulate plant secondary metabolism, growth and developmental processes. However, the bZIP transcription factors involved in tanshinone biosynthesis are unknown. Here, we conducted the first genome-wide survey of the bZIP gene family and analyzed the phylogeny, gene structure, additional conserved motifs and alternative splicing events in S. miltiorrhiza. A total of 70 SmbZIP transcription factors were identified and categorized into 11 subgroups based on their phylogenetic relationships with those in Arabidopsis. Moreover, seventeen SmbZIP genes underwent alternative splicing events. According to the transcriptomic data, the SmbZIP genes that were highly expressed in the Danshen root and periderm were selected. Based on the prediction of bZIP binding sites in the promoters and the co-expression analysis and co-induction patterns in response to Ag+ treatment via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, we concluded that SmbZIP7 and SmbZIP20 potentially participate in the regulation of tanshinone biosynthesis. These results provide a foundation for further functional characterization of the candidate SmbZIP genes, which have the potential to increase tanshinone production. KEY WORDS: bZIP genes, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Phylogenetic analysis, Expression pattern analysis, Tanshinone biosynthesis

  6. Validation of aspirin response-related transcripts in patients with coronary artery disease and preliminary investigation on CMTM5 function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J W; Liu, T F; Chen, X H; Liang, W Y; Feng, X R; Wang, L; Fu, Sidney W; McCaffrey, Timothy A; Liu, M L

    2017-08-15

    Aspirin is widely used in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, but the antiplatelet responses vary from one patient to another. To validate aspirin response related transcripts and illustrate their roles in predicting cardiovascular events, we have quantified the relative expression of 14 transcripts previously identified as related to high on-aspirin platelet reactivity (HAPR) in 223 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) on regular aspirin treatment. All patients were followed up regularly for cardiovascular events (CVE). The mean age of our enrolled population was 75.80±8.57years. HAPR patients showed no significant differences in terms of co-morbidities and combined drugs. Besides, the relative expression of HLA-DQA1 was significantly lower in low on-aspirin platelet reactivity (LAPR) patients, when compared with HAPR and high normal (HN) group (p=0.028). What's more, the number of arteries involved, HAPR status and the relative expression of CLU, CMTM5 and SPARC were independent risk factors for CVE during follow up (p<0.05). In addition, overexpression of CMTM5 attenuated endothelial cells (ECs) migration and proliferation, with significantly decreased phosphorylated-Akt levels, while its inhibition promoted these processes in vitro (p<0.05).Our study provides evidence that circulating transcripts might be potential biomarkers in predicting cardiovascular events. CMTM5 might exert anti-atherosclerotic effects via suppressing migration and proliferation in the vessel wall. Nevertheless, larger-scale and long-term studies are still needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The transcriptional landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The application of new and less biased methods to study the transcriptional output from genomes, such as tiling arrays and deep sequencing, has revealed that most of the genome is transcribed and that there is substantial overlap of transcripts derived from the two strands of DNA. In protein coding...... regions, the map of transcripts is very complex due to small transcripts from the flanking ends of the transcription unit, the use of multiple start and stop sites for the main transcript, production of multiple functional RNA molecules from the same primary transcript, and RNA molecules made...... by independent transcription from within the unit. In genomic regions separating those that encode proteins or highly abundant RNA molecules with known function, transcripts are generally of low abundance and short-lived. In most of these cases, it is unclear to what extent a function is related to transcription...

  8. Identification of the G13 (cAMP-response-element-binding protein-related protein) gene product related to activating transcription factor 6 as a transcriptional activator of the mammalian unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haze, K; Okada, T; Yoshida, H; Yanagi, H; Yura, T; Negishi, M; Mori, K

    2001-04-01

    Eukaryotic cells control the levels of molecular chaperones and folding enzymes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by a transcriptional induction process termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The mammalian UPR is mediated by the cis-acting ER stress response element consisting of 19 nt (CCAATN(9)CCACG), the CCACG part of which is considered to provide specificity. We recently identified the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) protein ATF6 as a mammalian UPR-specific transcription factor; ATF6 is activated by ER stress-induced proteolysis and binds directly to CCACG. Here we report that eukaryotic cells express another bZIP protein closely related to ATF6 in both structure and function. This protein encoded by the G13 (cAMP response element binding protein-related protein) gene is constitutively synthesized as a type II transmembrane glycoprotein anchored in the ER membrane and processed into a soluble form upon ER stress as occurs with ATF6. The proteolytic processing of ATF6 and the G13 gene product is accompanied by their relocation from the ER to the nucleus; their basic regions seem to function as a nuclear localization signal. Overexpression of the soluble form of the G13 product constitutively activates the UPR, whereas overexpression of a mutant lacking the activation domain exhibits a strong dominant-negative effect. Furthermore, the soluble forms of ATF6 and the G13 gene product are unable to bind to several point mutants of the cis-acting ER stress response element in vitro that hardly respond to ER stress in vivo. We thus concluded that the two related bZIP proteins are crucial transcriptional regulators of the mammalian UPR, and propose calling the ATF6 gene product ATF6alpha and the G13 gene product ATF6beta.

  9. Sovereign ratings in the post-crisis world : an analysis of actual, shadow and relative risk ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Kaushik; De, Supriyo; Ratha, Dilip; Timmer, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of sovereign credit ratings in the wake of the global financial crisis by studying changes in actual, shadow, and relative ratings between 2008 and 2012. For countries that do not have a rating from the major rating agencies, shadow ratings are estimated as a function of macroeconomic, structural, and governance variables. The shadow rating exercise confir...

  10. Heart rate variability in sleep-related migraine without aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollono, Catello; Gnoni, Valentina; Testani, Elisa; Dittoni, Serena; Losurdo, Anna; Colicchio, Salvatore; Di Blasi, Chiara; Mazza, Salvatore; Farina, Benedetto; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2013-07-15

    This is an observational study aimed to investigate the activity of autonomic nervous system during sleep in patients with sleep-related migraine. Eight consecutive migraineurs without aura were enrolled (6 women and 2 men), aged 30 to 62 years (mean 48.1 ± 9.3 years). Inclusion criteria were: high frequency of attacks (> 5 per month) and occurrence of more than 75% of the attacks during sleep causing an awakening. Patients were compared with a control group of 55 healthy subjects (23 men and 32 women, mean age 54.2 ± 13.0 years), and with a further control group of 8 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patient and controls underwent polysomnography and heart rate variability analysis. A significant reduction of the LF/HF ratio during N2 and N3 sleep stages was observed in migraineurs compared with controls. No differences in sleep macrostructure were observed; cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) time and CAP rate were lower in migraineurs than in controls. These findings indicate a peculiar modification of the autonomic balance during sleep in sleep-related migraine. The reduction of LF/HF ratio in NREM sleep was observed in controls, but it was quantitatively much more evident in migraineurs. Changes in LF/HF could be consequent to an autonomic unbalance which could manifest selectively (or alternatively become more evident) during sleep. These findings, together with the reduction in CAP rate, could be an expression of reduced arousability during sleep in patients with sleep-related migraine. The simultaneous involvement of the autonomic, arousal, and pain systems might suggest involvement of the hypothalamic pathways.

  11. Transcriptional Response in Mouse Thyroid Tissue after 211At Administration: Effects of Absorbed Dose, Initial Dose-Rate and Time after Administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Rudqvist

    Full Text Available 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals are potentially useful for tumor therapy. However, a limitation has been the preferential accumulation of released 211At in the thyroid gland, which is a critical organ for such therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of absorbed dose, dose-rate, and time after 211At exposure on genome-wide transcriptional expression in mouse thyroid gland.BALB/c mice were i.v. injected with 1.7, 7.5 or 100 kBq 211At. Animals injected with 1.7 kBq were killed after 1, 6, or 168 h with mean thyroid absorbed doses of 0.023, 0.32, and 1.8 Gy, respectively. Animals injected with 7.5 and 100 kBq were killed after 6 and 1 h, respectively; mean thyroid absorbed dose was 1.4 Gy. Total RNA was extracted from pooled thyroids and the Illumina RNA microarray platform was used to determine mRNA levels. Differentially expressed transcripts and enriched GO terms were determined with adjusted p-value 1.5, and p-value <0.05, respectively.In total, 1232 differentially expressed transcripts were detected after 211At administration, demonstrating a profound effect on gene regulation. The number of regulated transcripts increased with higher initial dose-rate/absorbed dose at 1 or 6 h. However, the number of regulated transcripts decreased with mean absorbed dose/time after 1.7 kBq 211At administration. Furthermore, similar regulation profiles were seen for groups administered 1.7 kBq. Interestingly, few previously proposed radiation responsive genes were detected in the present study. Regulation of immunological processes were prevalent at 1, 6, and 168 h after 1.7 kBq administration (0.023, 0.32, 1.8 Gy.

  12. Do resident's leadership skills relate to ratings of technical skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Samantha J; Law, Katherine E; Ray, Rebecca D; Nathwani, Jay N; DiMarco, Shannon M; D'Angelo, Anne-Lise D; Pugh, Carla M

    2016-12-01

    This study sought to compare general surgery research residents' survey information regarding self-efficacy ratings to their observed performance during a simulated small bowel repair. Their observed performance ratings were based on their leadership skills in directing their assistant. Participants were given 15 min to perform a bowel repair using bovine intestines with standardized injuries. Operative assistants were assigned to help assist with the repair. Before the procedure, participants were asked to rate their expected skills decay, task difficulty, and confidence in addressing the small bowel injury. Interactions were coded to identify the number of instructions given by the participants to the assistant during the repair. Statistical analyses assessed the relationship between the number of directional instructions and participants' perceptions self-efficacy measures. Directional instructions were defined as any dialog by the participant who guided the assistant to perform an action. Thirty-six residents (58.3% female) participated in the study. Participants who rated lower levels of decay in their intraoperative decision-making and small bowel repair skills were noted to use their assistant more by giving more instructions. Similarly, a higher number of instructions correlated with lower perceived difficulty in selecting the correct suture, suture pattern, and completing the entire surgical task. General surgery research residents' intraoperative leadership skills showed significant correlations to their perceptions of skill decay and task difficulty during a bowel repair. Evaluating resident's directional instructions may provide an additional individualized intraoperative assessment metric. Further evaluation relating to operative performance outcomes is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Absence of 60-Hz, 0.1-mT magnetic field-induced changes in oncogene transcription rates or levels in CEM-CM3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahreis, G P; Johnson, P G; Zhao, Y L; Hui, S W

    1998-12-22

    Our objective was to assess the reproducibility of the 60-Hz magnetic field-induced, time-dependent transcription changes of c-fos, c-jun and c-myc oncogenes in CEM-CM3 cells reported by Phillips et al. (Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1132 (1992) 140-144). Cells were exposed to a 60-Hz magnetic field (MF) at 0.1 mT (rms), generated by a pair of Helmholtz coils energized in a reinforcing (MF) mode, or to a null magnetic field when the coils were energized in a bucking (sham) mode. After MF or sham exposure for 15, 30, 60 or 120 min, nuclei and cytoplasmic RNA were extracted. Transcription rates were measured by a nuclear run-on assay, and values were normalized against either their zero-time exposure values, or against those of the c-G3PDH (housekeeping) gene at the same time points. There was no significant difference, at P=0.05, detected between MF and either sham-exposed or control cells at any time point. Transcript levels of the oncogenes were measured by Northern analysis and normalized as above. No significant difference (P=0.05) in transcript levels between MF and either sham-exposed or control cells was detected.

  14. DNA methylation alters transcriptional rates of differentially expressed genes and contributes to pathophysiology in mice fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pili Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Overnutrition can alter gene expression patterns through epigenetic mechanisms that may persist through generations. However, it is less clear if overnutrition, for example a high fat diet, modifies epigenetic control of gene expression in adults, or by what molecular mechanisms, or if such mechanisms contribute to the pathology of the metabolic syndrome. Here we test the hypothesis that a high fat diet alters hepatic DNA methylation, transcription and gene expression patterns, and explore the contribution of such changes to the pathophysiology of obesity. Methods: RNA-seq and targeted high-throughput bisulfite DNA sequencing were used to undertake a systematic analysis of the hepatic response to a high fat diet. RT-PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation and in vivo knockdown of an identified driver gene, Phlda1, were used to validate the results. Results: A high fat diet resulted in the hypermethylation and decreased transcription and expression of Phlda1 and several other genes. A subnetwork of genes associated with Phlda1 was identified from an existing Bayesian gene network that contained numerous hepatic regulatory genes involved in lipid and body weight homeostasis. Hepatic-specific depletion of Phlda1 in mice decreased expression of the genes in the subnetwork, and led to increased oil droplet size in standard chow-fed mice, an early indicator of steatosis, validating the contribution of this gene to the phenotype. Conclusions: We conclude that a high fat diet alters the epigenetics and transcriptional activity of key hepatic genes controlling lipid homeostasis, contributing to the pathophysiology of obesity. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: DNA methylation, RNA-seq, Transcription, High fat diet, Liver, Phlda1

  15. Primary effect of chemotherapy on the transcription profile of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyl, Antoinette C van der; Burg, Remco van den; Zorgdrager, Fokla; Dekker, John T; Maas, Jolanda; Noesel, Carel JM van; Goudsmit, Jaap; Cornelissen, Marion

    2002-01-01

    Drugs & used in anticancer chemotherapy have severe effects upon the cellular transcription and replication machinery. From in vitro studies it has become clear that these drugs can affect specific genes, as well as have an effect upon the total transcriptome. Total mRNA from two skin lesions from a single AIDS-KS patient was analyzed with the SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression) technique to assess changes in the transcriptome induced by chemotherapy. SAGE libraries were constructed from material obtained 24 (KS-24) and 48 (KS-48) hrs after combination therapy with bleomycin, doxorubicin and vincristine. KS-24 and KS-48 were compared to SAGE libraries of untreated AIDS-KS, and to libraries generated from normal skin and from isolated CD4+ T-cells, using the programs USAGE and HTM. SAGE libraries were also compared with the SAGEmap database. In order to assess the primary response of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) to chemotherapy in vivo, we analyzed the transcriptome of AIDS-KS skin lesions from a HIV-1 seropositive patient at two time points after therapy. The mRNA profile was found to have changed dramatically within 24 hours after drug treatment. There was an almost complete absence of transcripts highly expressed in AIDS-KS, probably due to a transcription block. Analysis of KS-24 suggested that mRNA pool used in its construction originated from poly(A) binding protein (PABP) mRNP complexes, which are probably located in nuclear structures known as interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs). IGCs are known to fuse after transcription inhibition, probably affecting poly(A)+RNA distribution. Forty-eight hours after chemotherapy, mRNA isolated from the lesion was largely derived from infiltrating lymphocytes, confirming the transcriptional block in the AIDS-KS tissue. These in vivo findings indicate that the effect of anti-cancer drugs is likely to be more global than up- or downregulation of specific genes, at least in this single patient with

  16. Increased expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene transcript in relation to IL-6 promoter hypomethylation in gingival tissue from patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Ishida, Kohei; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2016-09-01

    DNA methylation of the cytokine genes may play a role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the alteration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene promoter methylation in the gingival tissue (GT) and peripheral blood (PB) is unique to chronic periodontitis (CP). DNA isolated from the GT and PB of 25 patients with (CP) and 20 healthy controls (H) was modified with sodium bisulfite and analyzed for IL-6 promoter methylation with direct sequencing. The levels of IL-6 mRNA and serum IL-6 protein were evaluated by a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The CP group showed that the overall methylation rates of IL-6 promoter that contained 19 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) motifs were significantly decreased in GT in comparison to PB (p<0.001), which was significantly negatively correlated with the probing depth (p=0.003). The GT and PB of the H group displayed similar overall methylation rates. No significant difference was observed in the methylation rates at each CpG in GT in comparison to the PB in both groups. The levels of IL-6 mRNA in the GT and PB and serum IL-6 of the two groups were comparable. The ratio of IL-6 mRNA in the GT relative to the PB was significantly higher in the CP group than in the H group (p=0.03). The increased expression of IL-6 gene transcription may be related to IL-6 promoter hypomethylation in the GT from CP patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inhibition of transcription of abscisic acid in relation to the binding with DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, Sukla; Basu, P.S.; Biswas, B.B.

    1976-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), a plant substance inhibits RNA synthesis in vivo and vitro. In vitro inhibition by ABA has been demonstrated in isolated RNA polymerase system from coconut endosperm chromatin. This inhibition can be partly reversible with indole acetic acid-receptor protein complex if added in the system. To find the mechanism of inhibition of transcription by ABA, it has been found that ABA (10 -4 -10 -5 M) can bind with DNA and can prevent strand separation. This binding increases the Tm value. ABA binds with DNA but not with RNA. Moreover, ABA can equally bind and prevent denaturation of calfthymus DNA and E. coli DNA. pH optimum for this binding is 8.0. The bound complex is resistant to alkali and alcohol but susceptible to acid below pH 5.0. It has further been demonstrated that free aBA at this pH is changed to another component which has tentatively been identified as lactone form of ABA. (author)

  18. Pou1f1, the key transcription factor related to somatic growth in tilapia (Orechromis niloticus), is regulated by two independent post-transcriptional regulation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongfang; Qin, Jingkai; Jia, Jirong; Yan, Peipei; Li, Wensheng

    2017-01-29

    This study aims to determine the post-transcriptional regulation mechanism of the transcription factor pou1f1 (pou class 1 homeobox 1), which is the key gene for pituitary development, somatic growth in vertebrates, and transcription of several hormone genes in teleost fish. MicroRNA miR-223-3p was identified as a bona fide target of pou1f; overexpression of miR-223-3p in primary pituitary cells led to the down-regulation of pou1f1 and downstream genes, and inhibition of miR-223-3p led to the up-regulation of pou1f1 in Nile tilapia dispersed primary pituitary cells. An adenylate-uridylate-rich element (AU-Rich element) was found in the 3'UTR of pou1f1 mRNA, and deletion of the AU-Rich element led to slower mRNA decay and therefore more protein output. A potential mutual relationship between miR-223-3p and the AU-rich element was also investigated, and the results demonstrated that with or without the AU-Rich element, miR-223-3p induced the up-regulation of a reporter system under serum starvation conditions, indicating that miR-223-3p and the AU-Rich element function independent of each other. This study is the first to investigate the post-transcriptional mechanism of pou1f1, which revealed that miR-223-3p down-regulated pou1f1 and downstream gene expressions, and the AU-Rich element led to rapid decay of pou1f1 mRNA. MicroRNA miR-223-3p and the AU-Rich element co-regulated the post-transcriptional expression of pou1f1 independently in Nile tilapia, demonstrating that pou1f1 is under the control of a dual post-transcription regulation mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The BPA-substitute bisphenol S alters the transcription of genes related to endocrine, stress response and biotransformation pathways in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Herrero

    Full Text Available Bisphenol S (BPS is an industrial alternative to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA, and can be found in many products labeled "BPA-free". Its use has grown in recent years, and presently it is considered a ubiquitous emerging pollutant. To date there is a lack of information on the effects of BPS on invertebrates, although they represent more than 95% of known species in the animal kingdom and are crucial for the structure and proper function of ecosystems. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the early detrimental effects of BPS on the transcriptional rate of genes in the model species Chironomus riparius, specifically those related to the ecdysone pathway (EcR, ERR, E74, Vtg, cyp18a1 crucial for insect development and metamorphosis, stress and biotransformation mechanisms (hsp70, hsp40, cyp4g, GPx, GSTd3 that regulate adaptive responses and determine survival, and ribosome biogenesis (its2, rpL4, rpL13 which is essential for protein synthesis and homeostasis. While 24-hour exposure to 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L BPS had no effect on larval survival, almost all the studied genes were upregulated following a non-monotonic dose-response curve. Genes with the greatest increases in transcriptional activity (fold change relative to control were EcR (3.8, ERR (2, E74 (2.4, cyp18a1 (2.5, hsp70 (1.7, hsp40 (2.5, cyp4g (6.4, GPx (1.8, and GST (2.1, while others including Vtg, GAPDH, and selected ribosomal genes remained stable. We also measured the transcriptional activity of these genes 24 hours after BPS withdrawal and a general downregulation compared to controls was observed, though not significant in most cases. Our findings showed that BPS exposure altered the transcriptional profile of these genes, which may have consequences for the hormone system and several metabolic pathways. Although further research is needed to elucidate its mode of action, these results raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives.

  20. The BPA-substitute bisphenol S alters the transcription of genes related to endocrine, stress response and biotransformation pathways in the aquatic midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera, Chironomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Óscar; Aquilino, Mónica; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Planelló, Rosario

    2018-01-01

    Bisphenol S (BPS) is an industrial alternative to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA), and can be found in many products labeled "BPA-free". Its use has grown in recent years, and presently it is considered a ubiquitous emerging pollutant. To date there is a lack of information on the effects of BPS on invertebrates, although they represent more than 95% of known species in the animal kingdom and are crucial for the structure and proper function of ecosystems. In this study, real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the early detrimental effects of BPS on the transcriptional rate of genes in the model species Chironomus riparius, specifically those related to the ecdysone pathway (EcR, ERR, E74, Vtg, cyp18a1) crucial for insect development and metamorphosis, stress and biotransformation mechanisms (hsp70, hsp40, cyp4g, GPx, GSTd3) that regulate adaptive responses and determine survival, and ribosome biogenesis (its2, rpL4, rpL13) which is essential for protein synthesis and homeostasis. While 24-hour exposure to 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L BPS had no effect on larval survival, almost all the studied genes were upregulated following a non-monotonic dose-response curve. Genes with the greatest increases in transcriptional activity (fold change relative to control) were EcR (3.8), ERR (2), E74 (2.4), cyp18a1 (2.5), hsp70 (1.7), hsp40 (2.5), cyp4g (6.4), GPx (1.8), and GST (2.1), while others including Vtg, GAPDH, and selected ribosomal genes remained stable. We also measured the transcriptional activity of these genes 24 hours after BPS withdrawal and a general downregulation compared to controls was observed, though not significant in most cases. Our findings showed that BPS exposure altered the transcriptional profile of these genes, which may have consequences for the hormone system and several metabolic pathways. Although further research is needed to elucidate its mode of action, these results raise new concerns about the safety of BPA alternatives.

  1. Two novel transcriptional regulators are essential for infection-related morphogenesis and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A signaling pathway plays a major role in regulating plant infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Here, we report the identification of two novel genes, MoSOM1 and MoCDTF1, which were discovered in an insertional mutagenesis screen for non-pathogenic mutants of M. oryzae. MoSOM1 or MoCDTF1 are both necessary for development of spores and appressoria by M. oryzae and play roles in cell wall differentiation, regulating melanin pigmentation and cell surface hydrophobicity during spore formation. MoSom1 strongly interacts with MoStu1 (Mstu1, an APSES transcription factor protein, and with MoCdtf1, while also interacting more weakly with the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (CpkA in yeast two hybrid assays. Furthermore, the expression levels of MoSOM1 and MoCDTF1 were significantly reduced in both Δmac1 and ΔcpkA mutants, consistent with regulation by the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. MoSom1-GFP and MoCdtf1-GFP fusion proteins localized to the nucleus of fungal cells. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed that nuclear localization signal sequences in MoSom1 and MoCdtf1 are essential for their sub-cellular localization and biological functions. Transcriptional profiling revealed major changes in gene expression associated with loss of MoSOM1 during infection-related development. We conclude that MoSom1 and MoCdtf1 functions downstream of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and are novel transcriptional regulators associated with cellular differentiation during plant infection by the rice blast fungus.

  2. PEA3/ETV4-related transcription factors coupled with active ERK signalling are associated with poor prognosis in gastric adenocarcinoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keld, R

    2011-06-28

    Background: Transcription factors often play important roles in tumourigenesis. Members of the PEA3 subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors fulfil such a role and have been associated with tumour metastasis in several different cancers. Moreover, the activity of the PEA3 subfamily transcription factors is potentiated by Ras-ERK pathway signalling, which is itself often deregulated in tumour cells.\\r\

  3. Light regimes differentially affect baseline transcript abundance of stress-axis and (neurodevelopment-related genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio, Hamilton 1822 AB and TL larvae

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    Ruud van den Bos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many strains of zebrafish (Danio rerio are readily available. Earlier we observed differences between AB and Tupfel long-fin (TL larvae regarding baseline hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI axis activity and (neurodevelopment. Light regimes, i.e. 14 h light:10 h dark and 24 h continuous dark or light, affect hatching rate and larval growth. Here, we assessed baseline transcript abundance of HPI-axis-related genes and (neurodevelopment-related genes of AB and TL larvae (5 days post fertilisation using these light regimes. A principal component analysis revealed that in AB larvae the baseline expression of HPI-axis-related genes was higher the more hours of light, while the expression of (neurodevelopment-related genes was higher under 14 h light:10 h dark than under both continuous light or dark. In TL larvae, a complex pattern emerged regarding baseline expression of HPI-axis-related and (neurodevelopment-related genes. These data extend data of earlier studies by showing that light regimes affect gene-expression in larvae, and more importantly so, strengthen the notion of differences between larvae of the AB and TL strain. The latter finding adds to the growing database of phenotypical differences between zebrafish of the AB and TL strain.

  4. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly (NGS) of Curcuma longa L. Rhizome Reveals Novel Transcripts Related to Anticancer and Antimalarial Terpenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Vasanthan; Damodaran, Anand C.; Rao, Sudha Narayana; Katta, Mohan A. V. S. K.; Gopinathan, Sreeja; Sarma, Santosh Prasad; Senthilkumar, Vanitha; Niranjan, Vidya; Gopinath, Ashok; Mugasimangalam, Raja C.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal remedies are increasingly being recognised in recent years as alternative medicine for a number of diseases including cancer. Curcuma longa L., commonly known as turmeric is used as a culinary spice in India and in many Asian countries has been attributed to lower incidences of gastrointestinal cancers. Curcumin, a secondary metabolite isolated from the rhizomes of this plant has been shown to have significant anticancer properties, in addition to antimalarial and antioxidant effects. We sequenced the transcriptome of the rhizome of the 3 varieties of Curcuma longa L. using Illumina reversible dye terminator sequencing followed by de novo transcriptome assembly. Multiple databases were used to obtain a comprehensive annotation and the transcripts were functionally classified using GO, KOG and PlantCyc. Special emphasis was given for annotating the secondary metabolite pathways and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. We report for the first time, the presence of transcripts related to biosynthetic pathways of several anti-cancer compounds like taxol, curcumin, and vinblastine in addition to anti-malarial compounds like artemisinin and acridone alkaloids, emphasizing turmeric's importance as a highly potent phytochemical. Our data not only provides molecular signatures for several terpenoids but also a comprehensive molecular resource for facilitating deeper insights into the transcriptome of C. longa. PMID:23468859

  5. Global identification of the full-length transcripts and alternative splicing related to phenolic acid biosynthetic genes in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao eXu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Salvianolic acids are among the main bioactive components in Salvia miltiorrhiza, and their biosynthesis has attracted widespread interest. However, previous studies on the biosynthesis of phenolic acids using next-generation sequencing platforms are limited with regard to the assembly of full-length transcripts. Based on hybrid-seq (next-generation and single molecular real-time sequencing of the S. miltiorrhiza root transcriptome, we experimentally identified 15 full-length transcripts and 4 alternative splicing events of enzyme-coding genes involved in the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid. Moreover, we herein demonstrate that lithospermic acid B accumulates in the phloem and xylem of roots, in agreement with the expression patterns of the identified key genes related to rosmarinic acid biosynthesis. According to co-expression patterns, we predicted that 6 candidate cytochrome P450s and 5 candidate laccases participate in the salvianolic acid pathway. Our results provide a valuable resource for further investigation into the synthetic biology of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza.

  6. The Related Transcriptional Enhancer Factor-1 Isoform, TEAD4216, Can Repress Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appukuttan, Binoy; McFarland, Trevor J.; Stempel, Andrew; Kassem, Jean B.; Hartzell, Matthew; Zhang, Yi; Bond, Derek; West, Kelsey; Wilson, Reid; Stout, Andrew; Pan, Yuzhen; Ilias, Hoda; Robertson, Kathryn; Klein, Michael L.; Wilson, David; Smith, Justine R.; Stout, J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Increased cellular production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is responsible for the development and progression of multiple cancers and other neovascular conditions, and therapies targeting post-translational VEGF products are used in the treatment of these diseases. Development of methods to control and modify the transcription of the VEGF gene is an alternative approach that may have therapeutic potential. We have previously shown that isoforms of the transcriptional enhancer factor 1-related (TEAD4) protein can enhance the production of VEGF. In this study we describe a new TEAD4 isoform, TEAD4216, which represses VEGF promoter activity. The TEAD4216 isoform inhibits human VEGF promoter activity and does not require the presence of the hypoxia responsive element (HRE), which is the sequence critical to hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-mediated effects. The TEAD4216 protein is localized to the cytoplasm, whereas the enhancer isoforms are found within the nucleus. The TEAD4216 isoform can competitively repress the stimulatory activity of the TEAD4434 and TEAD4148 enhancers. Synthesis of the native VEGF165 protein and cellular proliferation is suppressed by the TEAD4216 isoform. Mutational analysis indicates that nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of any isoform determines whether it acts as an enhancer or repressor, respectively. The TEAD4216 isoform appears to inhibit VEGF production independently of the HRE required activity by HIF, suggesting that this alternatively spliced isoform of TEAD4 may provide a novel approach to treat VEGF-dependent diseases. PMID:22761647

  7. De Novo transcriptome assembly (NGS of Curcuma longa L. rhizome reveals novel transcripts related to anticancer and antimalarial terpenoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy S Annadurai

    Full Text Available Herbal remedies are increasingly being recognised in recent years as alternative medicine for a number of diseases including cancer. Curcuma longa L., commonly known as turmeric is used as a culinary spice in India and in many Asian countries has been attributed to lower incidences of gastrointestinal cancers. Curcumin, a secondary metabolite isolated from the rhizomes of this plant has been shown to have significant anticancer properties, in addition to antimalarial and antioxidant effects. We sequenced the transcriptome of the rhizome of the 3 varieties of Curcuma longa L. using Illumina reversible dye terminator sequencing followed by de novo transcriptome assembly. Multiple databases were used to obtain a comprehensive annotation and the transcripts were functionally classified using GO, KOG and PlantCyc. Special emphasis was given for annotating the secondary metabolite pathways and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. We report for the first time, the presence of transcripts related to biosynthetic pathways of several anti-cancer compounds like taxol, curcumin, and vinblastine in addition to anti-malarial compounds like artemisinin and acridone alkaloids, emphasizing turmeric's importance as a highly potent phytochemical. Our data not only provides molecular signatures for several terpenoids but also a comprehensive molecular resource for facilitating deeper insights into the transcriptome of C. longa.

  8. De Novo transcriptome assembly (NGS) of Curcuma longa L. rhizome reveals novel transcripts related to anticancer and antimalarial terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annadurai, Ramasamy S; Neethiraj, Ramprasad; Jayakumar, Vasanthan; Damodaran, Anand C; Rao, Sudha Narayana; Katta, Mohan A V S K; Gopinathan, Sreeja; Sarma, Santosh Prasad; Senthilkumar, Vanitha; Niranjan, Vidya; Gopinath, Ashok; Mugasimangalam, Raja C

    2013-01-01

    Herbal remedies are increasingly being recognised in recent years as alternative medicine for a number of diseases including cancer. Curcuma longa L., commonly known as turmeric is used as a culinary spice in India and in many Asian countries has been attributed to lower incidences of gastrointestinal cancers. Curcumin, a secondary metabolite isolated from the rhizomes of this plant has been shown to have significant anticancer properties, in addition to antimalarial and antioxidant effects. We sequenced the transcriptome of the rhizome of the 3 varieties of Curcuma longa L. using Illumina reversible dye terminator sequencing followed by de novo transcriptome assembly. Multiple databases were used to obtain a comprehensive annotation and the transcripts were functionally classified using GO, KOG and PlantCyc. Special emphasis was given for annotating the secondary metabolite pathways and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. We report for the first time, the presence of transcripts related to biosynthetic pathways of several anti-cancer compounds like taxol, curcumin, and vinblastine in addition to anti-malarial compounds like artemisinin and acridone alkaloids, emphasizing turmeric's importance as a highly potent phytochemical. Our data not only provides molecular signatures for several terpenoids but also a comprehensive molecular resource for facilitating deeper insights into the transcriptome of C. longa.

  9. Transcriptional profiling of primary endometrial epithelial cells following acute HIV-1 exposure reveals gene signatures related to innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Woods, Matthew William; Dizzell, Sara; Nazli, Aisha; Mueller, Kristen M; Nguyen, Philip V; Verschoor, Chris P; Kaushic, Charu

    2018-04-01

    Genital epithelial cells (GECs) line the mucosal surface of the female genital tract (FGT) and are the first cells that interface with both commensal microbiota and sexually transmitted pathogens. Despite the protective barrier formed by GECs, the FGT is a major site of HIV-1 infection. This highlights the importance of studying the interaction of HIV-1 and GECs. Using microarray analysis, we characterized the transcriptional profile of primary endometrial GECs grown in the presence or absence of physiological levels of E2 (10 -9  mol/L) or P4 (10 -7  mol/L) following acute exposure to HIV-1 for 6 hours. Acute exposure of primary endometrial GECs to HIV-1 resulted in the expression of genes related to inflammation, plasminogen activation, adhesion and diapedesis and interferon response. Interestingly, exposure to HIV-1 in the presence of E2 and P4 resulted in differential transcriptional profiles, suggesting that the response of primary endometrial GECs to HIV-1 exposure is modulated by female sex hormones. The gene expression signature of endometrial GECs indicates that the response of these cells may be key to determining host susceptibility to HIV-1 and that sex hormones modulate these interactions. This study allows us to explore possible mechanisms that explain the hormone-mediated fluctuation of HIV-1 susceptibility in women. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cloning and expression analysis of transcription factor RrTTG1 related to prickle development in rose (Rosa Rugosa

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    Feng Li-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prickle is an acuminate protuberance formed by the deformation of plant trichomes together with a few cortical cells. It is a type of multicellular eglandular trichome with special morphology, which originates from the phloem but is not connected to the xylem. Rosa rugosa is an important ornamental/commercial plant and an important raw material in the food and perfume industries. However, the firm prickles on its stems are inconvenient to field management, the harvesting of flowers and garden management. The TTG1 transcription factor related to the development of prickle was isolated from R. rugosa in the present study. Its expression patterns in different tissues and varieties were analyzed. Results showed the expression level of the RrTTG1 gene was highest in the leaves, followed by the stems, but was lower in the pericarps and petals. Moreover, the higher expression level of the RrTTG1 gene in all tissues of the ‘Ciguo rose’, as compared with that of the ‘Weihai wild rose’, follows the results of field morphological observation. Therefore, the RrTTG1 transcription factor is likely to regulate the development of rose prickles. This study allows for further discussion on the molecular mechanisms of prickle formation and development in R. rugosa and provides a molecular basis for the cultivation of roses with fewer or no prickles via genetic engineering.

  11. Provider-Initiated Patient Satisfaction Reporting Yields Improved Physician Ratings Relative to Online Rating Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Benjamin F; Waddell, Brad S; Nodzo, Scott R; Lange, Jeffrey; Nocon, Allina A; Amundsen, Spencer; Tarity, T David; McLawhorn, Alexander S

    2017-09-01

    Recently, providers have begun to publicly report the results of patient satisfaction surveys from their practices. However, these outcomes have never been compared with the findings of commercial online physician rating websites. The goals of the current study were to (1) compare overall patient satisfaction ratings for orthopedic surgeons derived from provider-based third-party surveys with existing commercial physician rating websites and (2) determine the association between patient ratings and provider characteristics. The authors identified 12 institutions that provided publicly available patient satisfaction outcomes derived from third-party surveys for their orthopedic surgeons as of August 2016. Orthopedic surgeons at these institutions were eligible for inclusion (N=340 surgeons). Provider characteristics were recorded from publicly available data. Four high-traffic commercial online physician rating websites were identified: Healthgrades.com, UCompareHealthCare.com, Vitals.com, and RateMDs.com. For each surgeon, overall ratings (on a scale of 1-5), total number of ratings, and percentage of negative ratings were compared between provider-initiated internal ratings and each commercial online website. Associations between baseline factors and overall physician ratings and negative ratings were assessed. Provider-initiated internal patient satisfaction ratings showed a greater number of overall patient ratings, higher overall patient satisfaction ratings, and a lower percentage of negative comments compared with commercial online physician rating websites. A greater number of years in practice had a weak association with lower internal ratings, and an academic practice setting and a location in the Northeast were protective factors for negative physician ratings. Compared with commercial online physician rating websites, provider-initiated patient satisfaction ratings of orthopedic surgeons appear to be more favorable, with greater numbers of responses

  12. Effects of Pb(Ⅱ) exposure on Chlorella protothecoides and Chlorella vulgaris growth, malondialdehyde, and photosynthesis-related gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Bang; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lin; Lin, Kuang-Fei; Guo, Mei-Jin; Wang, Wei-Liang; Cui, Xin-Hong; Bi, Hua-Song; Wang, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Greater exposure to Pb(Ⅱ) increases the likelihood of harmful effects in the environment. In this study, the aquatic unicellular alga Chlorella protothecoides (C. protothecoides) and Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) were chosen to assess the acute and chronic toxicity of Pb(Ⅱ) exposure. Results of the observations show dose-response relationships could be clearly observed between Pb(Ⅱ) concentration and percentage inhibition (PI). Exposure to Pb(Ⅱ) increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content by up to 4.22 times compared with the control, suggesting that there was some oxidative damage. ANOVA analysis shows that Pb(Ⅱ) decreased chlorophyll (chl) content, indicating marked concentration-dependent relationships, and the lowest levels of chl a, chl b, and total-chl were 14.53, 18.80, and 17.95% of the controls, respectively. A real-time PCR assay suggests the changes in transcript abundances of three photosynthetic-related genes. After 120 h exposure Pb(Ⅱ) reduced the transcript abundance of rbcL, psaB, and psbC, and the relative abundances of the three genes of C. protothecoides and C. vulgaris in response to Pb(Ⅱ) were 54.66-98.59, 51.68-95.59, 37.89-95.48, 36.04-94.94, 41.19-91.20, and 58.75-96.80% of those of the controls, respectively. As for 28 d treatments, the three genes displayed similar inhibitory trend. This research provides a basic understanding of Pb(Ⅱ) toxicity to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Are international fund flows related to exchange rate dynamics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Employing monthly data for 53 countries between 1996 and 2015, we investigate the relationship between international fund flows and exchange rate dynamics. We find strong co-movement between funds flows (as measured with the EPFR Global data base) and bilateral real exchange rates vis-à-vis the USD.

  14. Transcription profiling and identification of infection-related genes in Phytophthora cactorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Ren; Huang, Shen-Xin; Zhang, Ye; Sheng, Gui-Lin; Zhang, Bo-Yue; Li, Qi-Yuan; Zhu, Feng; Xu, Jing-You

    2018-04-01

    Phytophthora cactorum, an oomycete pathogen, infects more than 200 plant species within several plant families. To gain insight into the repertoire of the infection-related genes of P. cactorum, Illumina RNA-Seq was used to perform a global transcriptome analysis of three life cycle stages of the pathogen, mycelia (MY), zoospores (ZO) and germinating cysts with germ tubes (GC). From over 9.8 million Illumina reads for each library, 18,402, 18,569 and 19,443 distinct genes were identified for MY, ZO and GC libraries, respectively. Furthermore, the transcriptome difference among MY, ZO and GC stages was investigated. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses revealed diverse biological functions and processes. Comparative analysis identified a large number of genes that are associated with specific stages and pathogenicity, including 166 effector genes. Of them, most of RXLR and NLP genes showed induction while the majority of CRN genes were down-regulated in GC, the important pre-infection stage, compared to either MY or ZO. And 14 genes encoding small cysteine-rich (SCR) secretory proteins showed differential expression during the developmental stages and in planta. Ectopic expression in the Solanaceae indicated that SCR113 and one elicitin PcINF1 can trigger cell death on Nicotiana benthamiana, tobacco (N. tabacum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves. Neither conserved domain nor homologues of SCR113 in other organisms can be identified. Collectively, our study provides a comprehensive examination of gene expression across three P. cactorum developmental stages and describes pathogenicity-related genes, all of which will help elucidate the pathogenicity mechanism of this destructive pathogen.

  15. Not that neglected! Base rates influence related and unrelated judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Michał

    2017-06-01

    It is claimed that people are unable (or unwilling) to incorporate prior probabilities into posterior assessments, such as their estimation of the likelihood of a person with characteristics typical of an engineer actually being an engineer given that they are drawn from a sample including a very small number of engineers. This paper shows that base rates are incorporated in classifications (Experiment 1) and, moreover, that base rates also affect unrelated judgments, such as how well a provided description of a person fits a stereotypical engineer (Experiment 2). Finally, Experiment 3 shows that individuals who make both types of assessments - though using base rates to the same extent in the former judgments - are able to decrease the extent to which they incorporate base rates in the latter judgments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Unemployment Rate, Smoking in China: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Shen, Jay J; Cochran, Chris

    2016-01-08

    Studies on the relationship between unemployment rate and smoking have yielded mixed results. The issue in China has not been studied. This study aims to examine the influence of unemployment rate on smoking in China. Logit model and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation were used to estimate the effects. Estimations were done for 4585 individual over 45 using data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study conducted in Zhejiang and Gansu provinces in 2008 and 2012. A percent increase in the unemployment rate resulted in the increase in the likelihood of smoking by a combined 9.1 percent for those who smoked including a 2.9% increase for those who smoked 1-10 cigarettes per day; a 2.8% increase for those who smoked 11-20 cigarettes per day; and a 3.4% increase for those who smoked 20 cigarettes or more per day. The effects were stronger for those who were employed. Non-drinkers were more likely to engage in smoking with increased unemployment rate. 2SLS estimation revealed the same association. The unemployment rate was positively associated with smoking behavior. Smoking control and intervention strategies should focus on both the individual's characteristics and the physical environment in which unemployment rate tend to rise.

  17. Changes in transcript related to osmosis and intracellular ion homeostasis in Paulownia tomentosa under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang eFan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Paulownia tomentosa is an important economic and greening tree species that is cultivated widely, including salt environment. Our previous studies indicated its autotetraploid induced by colchicine showed better stress tolerance, but the underlying molecular mechanism related to ploidy and salt stress is still unclear. To investigate this issue, physiological measurements and transcriptome profiling of diploid and autotetraploid plants untreated and treated with NaCl were performed. Through the comparisons among four accessions, for one thing, we found different physiological changes between diploid and autotetraploid P. tomentosa; for another, and we detected many differentially expressed unigenes involved in salt stress response. These differentially expressed unigenes were assigned to several metabolic pathways, including plant hormone signal transduction, RNA transporter, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum and plant-pathogen interaction, which constructed the complex regulatory network to maintain osmotic and intracellular ion homeostasis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the expression patterns of 20 unigenes. The results establish the foundation for the genetic basis of salt tolerance in P. tomentosa, which in turn accelerates Paulownia breeding and expands available arable land.

  18. Bioinformatics Identification of Modules of Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Alzheimer's Disease-Related Genes by In Silico Promoter Analysis and Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Augustin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms and genetic risk factors underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD pathogenesis are only partly understood. To identify new factors, which may contribute to AD, different approaches are taken including proteomics, genetics, and functional genomics. Here, we used a bioinformatics approach and found that distinct AD-related genes share modules of transcription factor binding sites, suggesting a transcriptional coregulation. To detect additional coregulated genes, which may potentially contribute to AD, we established a new bioinformatics workflow with known multivariate methods like support vector machines, biclustering, and predicted transcription factor binding site modules by using in silico analysis and over 400 expression arrays from human and mouse. Two significant modules are composed of three transcription factor families: CTCF, SP1F, and EGRF/ZBPF, which are conserved between human and mouse APP promoter sequences. The specific combination of in silico promoter and multivariate analysis can identify regulation mechanisms of genes involved in multifactorial diseases.

  19. Novel Variants in ZNF34 and Other Brain-Expressed Transcription Factors are Shared Among Early-Onset MDD Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subaran, Ryan L.; Odgerel, Zagaa; Swaminathan, Rajeswari; Glatt, Charles E.; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2018-01-01

    There are no known genetic variants with large effects on susceptibility to major depressive disorder (MDD). Although one proposed study approach is to increase sensitivity by increasing sample sizes, another is to focus on families with multiple affected individuals to identify genes with rare or novel variants with strong effects. Choosing the family-based approach, we performed whole-exome analysis on affected individuals (n = 12) across five MDD families, each with at least five affected individuals, early onset, and prepubertal diagnoses. We identified 67 genes where novel deleterious variants were shared among affected relatives. Gene ontology analysis shows that of these 67 genes, 18 encode transcriptional regulators, eight of which are expressed in the human brain, including four KRAB-A box-containing Zn2+ finger repressors. One of these, ZNF34, has been reported as being associated with bipolar disorder and as differentially expressed in bipolar disorder patients compared to healthy controls. We found a novel variant—encoding a non-conservative P17R substitution in the conserved repressor domain of ZNF34 protein—segregating completely with MDD in all available individuals in the family in which it was discovered. Further analysis showed a common ZNF34 coding indel segregating with MDD in a separate family, possibly indicating the presence of an unobserved, linked, rare variant in that particular family. Our results indicate that genes encoding transcription factors expressed in the brain might be an important group of MDD candidate genes and that rare variants in ZNF34 might contribute to susceptibility to MDD and perhaps other affective disorders. PMID:26823146

  20. Age-Related Differences in Speech Rate Perception Do Not Necessarily Entail Age-Related Differences in Speech Rate Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Christopher C.; Newman, Rochelle S.; Dilley, Laura C.; Idsardi, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A new literature has suggested that speech rate can influence the parsing of words quite strongly in speech. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between younger adults and older adults in the use of context speech rate in word segmentation, given that older adults perceive timing information differently from younger…

  1. CREME96 and Related Error Rate Prediction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the rate of occurrence of single event effects (SEEs) in space requires knowledge of the radiation environment and the response of electronic devices to that environment. Several analytical models have been developed over the past 36 years to predict SEE rates. The first error rate calculations were performed by Binder, Smith and Holman. Bradford and Pickel and Blandford, in their CRIER (Cosmic-Ray-Induced-Error-Rate) analysis code introduced the basic Rectangular ParallelePiped (RPP) method for error rate calculations. For the radiation environment at the part, both made use of the Cosmic Ray LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectra calculated by Heinrich for various absorber Depths. A more detailed model for the space radiation environment within spacecraft was developed by Adams and co-workers. This model, together with a reformulation of the RPP method published by Pickel and Blandford, was used to create the CR ME (Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics) code. About the same time Shapiro wrote the CRUP (Cosmic Ray Upset Program) based on the RPP method published by Bradford. It was the first code to specifically take into account charge collection from outside the depletion region due to deformation of the electric field caused by the incident cosmic ray. Other early rate prediction methods and codes include the Single Event Figure of Merit, NOVICE, the Space Radiation code and the effective flux method of Binder which is the basis of the SEFA (Scott Effective Flux Approximation) model. By the early 1990s it was becoming clear that CREME and the other early models needed Revision. This revision, CREME96, was completed and released as a WWW-based tool, one of the first of its kind. The revisions in CREME96 included improved environmental models and improved models for calculating single event effects. The need for a revision of CREME also stimulated the development of the CHIME (CRRES/SPACERAD Heavy Ion Model of the Environment) and MACREE (Modeling and

  2. Relating genes to function: identifying enriched transcription factors using the ENCODE ChIP-Seq significance tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Raymond K; Chen, Bin; Butte, Atul J

    2013-08-01

    Biological analysis has shifted from identifying genes and transcripts to mapping these genes and transcripts to biological functions. The ENCODE Project has generated hundreds of ChIP-Seq experiments spanning multiple transcription factors and cell lines for public use, but tools for a biomedical scientist to analyze these data are either non-existent or tailored to narrow biological questions. We present the ENCODE ChIP-Seq Significance Tool, a flexible web application leveraging public ENCODE data to identify enriched transcription factors in a gene or transcript list for comparative analyses. The ENCODE ChIP-Seq Significance Tool is written in JavaScript on the client side and has been tested on Google Chrome, Apple Safari and Mozilla Firefox browsers. Server-side scripts are written in PHP and leverage R and a MySQL database. The tool is available at http://encodeqt.stanford.edu. abutte@stanford.edu Supplementary material is available at Bioinformatics online.

  3. Gender-related aspects of transmasculine people's vocal situations: insights from a qualitative content analysis of interview transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azul, David

    2016-11-01

    Transmasculine people assigned female gender at birth but who do not identify with this classification have traditionally received little consideration in the voice literature. Existing analyses tend to be focused on evaluating speaker voice characteristics, whereas other factors that contribute to the production of vocal gender have remained underexplored. Most studies rely on researcher-centred perspectives, whereas very little is known about how transmasculine people themselves experience and make sense of their vocal situations. To explore how participants described their subjective gender positionings; which gender attributions they wished to receive from others; which gender they self-attributed to their voices; which gender attributions they had received from others; and how far participants were satisfied with the gender-related aspects of their vocal situations. Transcripts of semi-structured interviews with 14 German-speaking transmasculine people served as the original data corpus. Sections in which participants described the gender-related aspects of their vocal situations and that were relevant to the current research objectives were selected and explored using qualitative content analysis. The analysis revealed diverse accounts pertaining to the factors that contribute to the production of vocal gender for individual participants and variable levels of satisfaction with vocal gender presentation and attribution. Transmasculine people need to be regarded as a heterogeneous population and clinical practice needs to follow a client-centred, individualized approach. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  4. An empirical study on the relationship between customers' credit rating and their financial transcripts for loan assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Najafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important issues on revenue management in banking industries is the assignment of loan to customers. In fact, a big portion of banks' revenue is from loan assignment and choosing appropriate customers for loan assignment not only reduces the financial risk but also it can increase the revenue. In this study, we perform an empirical study to find out whether customers' financial statements could provide enough information about customers for loan assignment. The other objective of this study is to find out whether banks' officials could understand about the details of customers' financial statements. Finally, we want to find out whether there is any relationship between unpaid loans and customers' credit rating. The present study is executed on an Iranian bank by distributing a questionnaire analyzing the results. The results indicate that there are some strong evidence that financial statement could help bank official determine customers' credit rating. The survey also concludes that highly education and experienced employees are the best people for devoting best credit rating for customers.

  5. Differential regulation of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in neuroblastoma: Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) regulates HIF2A transcription and correlates to poor outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidian, Arash; Stedingk, Kristoffer von; Munksgaard Thorén, Matilda; Mohlin, Sofie; Påhlman, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are differentially regulated in tumor cells. While the current paradigm supports post-translational regulation of the HIF-α subunits, we recently showed that hypoxic HIF-2α is also transcriptionally regulated via insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II in the childhood tumor neuroblastoma. Here, we demonstrate that transcriptional regulation of HIF-2α seems to be restricted to neural cell-derived tumors, while HIF-1α is canonically regulated at the post-translational level uniformly across different tumor forms. Enhanced expression of HIF2A mRNA at hypoxia is due to de novo transcription rather than increased mRNA stability, and chemical stabilization of the HIF-α proteins at oxygen-rich conditions unexpectedly leads to increased HIF2A transcription. The enhanced HIF2A levels do not seem to be dependent on active HIF-1. Using a transcriptome array approach, we identified members of the Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)/Estrogen-related receptor (ERR) complex families as potential regulators of HIF2A. Knockdown or inhibition of one of the members, ERRα, leads to decreased expression of HIF2A, and high expression of the ERRα gene ESRRA correlates with poor overall and progression-free survival in a clinical neuroblastoma material consisting of 88 tumors. Thus, targeting of ERRα and pathways regulating transcriptional HIF-2α are promising therapeutic avenues in neuroblastoma. - Highlights: • Transcriptional control of HIF-2α is restricted to neural cell-derived tumors. • Enhanced transcription of HIF2A is not due to increased mRNA stability. • Chemical stabilization of the HIF-α subunits leads to increased HIF2A transcription. • ERRα regulates HIF2A mRNA expression in neuroblastoma. • High expression of ESRRA correlates to poor outcome in neuroblastoma

  6. Differential regulation of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in neuroblastoma: Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) regulates HIF2A transcription and correlates to poor outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidian, Arash; Stedingk, Kristoffer von; Munksgaard Thorén, Matilda; Mohlin, Sofie; Påhlman, Sven, E-mail: sven.pahlman@med.lu.se

    2015-06-05

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are differentially regulated in tumor cells. While the current paradigm supports post-translational regulation of the HIF-α subunits, we recently showed that hypoxic HIF-2α is also transcriptionally regulated via insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II in the childhood tumor neuroblastoma. Here, we demonstrate that transcriptional regulation of HIF-2α seems to be restricted to neural cell-derived tumors, while HIF-1α is canonically regulated at the post-translational level uniformly across different tumor forms. Enhanced expression of HIF2A mRNA at hypoxia is due to de novo transcription rather than increased mRNA stability, and chemical stabilization of the HIF-α proteins at oxygen-rich conditions unexpectedly leads to increased HIF2A transcription. The enhanced HIF2A levels do not seem to be dependent on active HIF-1. Using a transcriptome array approach, we identified members of the Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)/Estrogen-related receptor (ERR) complex families as potential regulators of HIF2A. Knockdown or inhibition of one of the members, ERRα, leads to decreased expression of HIF2A, and high expression of the ERRα gene ESRRA correlates with poor overall and progression-free survival in a clinical neuroblastoma material consisting of 88 tumors. Thus, targeting of ERRα and pathways regulating transcriptional HIF-2α are promising therapeutic avenues in neuroblastoma. - Highlights: • Transcriptional control of HIF-2α is restricted to neural cell-derived tumors. • Enhanced transcription of HIF2A is not due to increased mRNA stability. • Chemical stabilization of the HIF-α subunits leads to increased HIF2A transcription. • ERRα regulates HIF2A mRNA expression in neuroblastoma. • High expression of ESRRA correlates to poor outcome in neuroblastoma.

  7. A relation to describe rate-dependent material failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voight, B

    1989-01-13

    The simple relation OmegaOmega-alpha = 0, where Omega is a measurable quantity such as strain and A and alpha are empirical constants, describes the behavior of materials in terminal stages of failure under conditions of approximately constant stress and temperature. Applicable to metals and alloys, ice, concrete, polymers, rock, and soil, the relation may be extended to conditions of variable and multiaxial stress and may be used to predict time to failure.

  8. NFE2-Related Transcription Factor 2 Coordinates Antioxidant Defense with Thyroglobulin Production and Iodination in the Thyroid Gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziros, Panos G; Habeos, Ioannis G; Chartoumpekis, Dionysios V; Ntalampyra, Eleni; Somm, Emmanuel; Renaud, Cédric O; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Trougakos, Ioannis P; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Kensler, Thomas W; Santisteban, Pilar; Carrasco, Nancy; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie; Amendola, Elena; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Rossich, Luciano; Thomasz, Lisa; Juvenal, Guillermo J; Refetoff, Samuel; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P

    2018-06-01

    The thyroid gland has a special relationship with oxidative stress. While generation of oxidative substances is part of normal iodide metabolism during thyroid hormone synthesis, the gland must also defend itself against excessive oxidation in order to maintain normal function. Antioxidant and detoxification enzymes aid thyroid cells to maintain homeostasis by ameliorating oxidative insults, including during exposure to excess iodide, but the factors that coordinate their expression with the cellular redox status are not known. The antioxidant response system comprising the ubiquitously expressed NFE2-related transcription factor 2 (Nrf2) and its redox-sensitive cytoplasmic inhibitor Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) defends tissues against oxidative stress, thereby protecting against pathologies that relate to DNA, protein, and/or lipid oxidative damage. Thus, it was hypothesized that Nrf2 should also have important roles in maintaining thyroid homeostasis. Ubiquitous and thyroid-specific male C57BL6J Nrf2 knockout (Nrf2-KO) mice were studied. Plasma and thyroids were harvested for evaluation of thyroid function tests by radioimmunoassays and of gene and protein expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively. Nrf2-KO and Keap1-KO clones of the PCCL3 rat thyroid follicular cell line were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and were used for gene and protein expression studies. Software-predicted Nrf2 binding sites on the thyroglobulin enhancer were validated by site-directed in vitro mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation. The study shows that Nrf2 mediates antioxidant transcriptional responses in thyroid cells and protects the thyroid from oxidation induced by iodide overload. Surprisingly, it was also found that Nrf2 has a dramatic impact on both the basal abundance and the thyrotropin-inducible intrathyroidal abundance of thyroglobulin (Tg), the precursor protein of thyroid hormones. This effect is mediated

  9. Assessment of complex water pollution with heavy metals and Pyrethroid pesticides on transcript levels of metallothionein and immune related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Haneen A; Abdel-Razek, Mohamed A S; El Nahas, Abeer F; Mahmoud, Shawky

    2017-09-01

    Alteration of immunological function of an aquatic organism can be used as an indicator for evaluating the direct effect of exposure to pollutants. The aim of this work is to assess the impact of complex water pollution with special reference to Pyrethroid pesticides and heavy metals on mRNA transcript levels of Metallothionine and some immune related genes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromas Niloticus). Residues of six heavy metals and six Pyrethroid were assessed in water as well as fish tissues at three different sites of Lake Burullus, located at Northern Egypt. Variations of water physicochemical properties associated with different levels of heavy metals at the three different sections were recorded. Tissue residues of Fe, Mn and Zn, Cu, Ni exceed water levels in contrast to elevated water level of Pb. All assessed Pyrethroids are detected in fish tissue samples with higher concentration (3-42 folds) than that found in water samples especially Cypermethrin. Significant down-regulation of expression levels of metallothionein (MT) at the three sections of the lake was observed. The expression of immune related genes (IgM) and inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL.8 and IL.1) were affected. IgM and TNF were significantly down-regulated at eastern and western section of the lake; meanwhile the expression of IL8 is down regulated at the three sections of the lack. IL1 was significantly up-regulated at eastern and middle sections. We conclude that, variable gene expression of MT and immune-related genes at the three sections of the lack impose different response to complex water pollution in relation to variable aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transcription factor fos-related antigen-2 induces progressive peripheral vasculopathy in mice closely resembling human systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Britta; Busch, Nicole; Jüngel, Astrid; Pileckyte, Margarita; Gay, Renate E; Michel, Beat A; Schett, Georg; Gay, Steffen; Distler, Jörg; Distler, Oliver

    2009-12-08

    Microvascular damage is one of the first pathological changes in systemic sclerosis. In this study, we investigated the role of Fos-related antigen-2 (Fra-2), a transcription factor of the activator protein-1 family, in the peripheral vasculopathy of systemic sclerosis and examined the underlying mechanisms. Expression of Fra-2 protein was significantly increased in skin biopsies of systemic sclerosis patients compared with healthy controls, especially in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. Fra-2 transgenic mice developed a severe loss of small blood vessels in the skin that was paralleled by progressive skin fibrosis at 12 weeks of age. The reduction in capillary density was preceded by a significant increase in apoptosis in endothelial cells at week 9 as detected by immunohistochemistry. Similarly, suppression of Fra-2 by small interfering RNA prevented human microvascular endothelial cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis and improved both the number of tubes and the cumulative tube lengths in the tube formation assay. In addition, cell migration in the scratch assay and vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent chemotaxis in a modified Boyden chamber assay were increased after transfection of human microvascular endothelial cells with Fra-2 small interfering RNA, whereas proliferation was not affected. Fra-2 is present in human systemic sclerosis and may contribute to the development of microvasculopathy by inducing endothelial cell apoptosis and by reducing endothelial cell migration and chemotaxis. Fra-2 transgenic mice are a promising preclinical model to study the mechanisms and therapeutic approaches of the peripheral vasculopathy in systemic sclerosis.

  11. Copper oxide nanoparticles induce the transcriptional modulation of oxidative stress-related genes in Arbacia lixula embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetto, Alessia; Cappello, Tiziana; Oliva, Sabrina; Parrino, Vincenzo; De Marco, Giuseppe; Fasulo, Salvatore; Mauceri, Angela; Maisano, Maria

    2018-06-14

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are widely used in various industrial applications, i.e. semiconductor devices, batteries, solar energy converter, gas sensor, microelectronics, heat transfer fluids, and have been recently recognized as emerging pollutants of increasing concern for human and marine environmental health. Therefore, the toxicity of CuO NPs needs to be thoroughly understood. In this study, we evaluated the potential role of oxidative stress in CuO NP toxicity by exploring the molecular response of Arbacia lixula embryos to three CuO NP concentrations (0.7, 10, 20 ppb) by investigating the transcriptional patterns of oxidative stress-related genes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) and metallothionein, here cloned and characterized for the first time. Time- and concentration-dependent changes in gene expression were detected in A. lixula embryos exposed to CuO NPs, up to pluteus stage (72 h post-fertilization, hpf), indicating that oxidative stress is one of the toxicity mechanisms for CuO NPs. These findings provide new insights into the comprehension of the molecular mechanisms underlying copper nanoparticle toxicity in A. lixula sea urchin and give new tools for monitoring of aquatic areas, thus corroborating the suitability of this embryotoxicity assay for future evaluation of impacted sites. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Impaired transcriptional activity of Nrf2 in age-related myocardial oxidative stress is reversible by moderate exercise training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellamuthu S Gounder

    Full Text Available Aging promotes accumulation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS in cardiomyocytes, which leads to contractile dysfunction and cardiac abnormalities. These changes may contribute to increased cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Inducible antioxidant pathways are regulated by nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2 through antioxidant response cis-elements (AREs and are impaired in the aging heart. Whereas acute exercise stress (AES activates Nrf2 signaling and promotes myocardial antioxidant function in young mice (~2 months, aging mouse (>23 months hearts exhibit significant oxidative stress as compared to those of the young. The purpose of this study was to investigate age-dependent regulation of Nrf2-antioxidant mechanisms and redox homeostasis in mouse hearts and the impact of exercise. Old mice were highly susceptible to oxidative stress following high endurance exercise stress (EES, but demonstrated increased adaptive redox homeostasis after moderate exercise training (MET; 10m/min, for 45 min/day for ~6 weeks. Following EES, transcription and protein levels for most of the ARE-antioxidants were increased in young mice but their induction was blunted in aging mice. In contrast, 6-weeks of chronic MET promoted nuclear levels of Nrf2 along with its target antioxidants in the aging heart to near normal levels as seen in young mice. These observations suggest that enhancing Nrf2 function and endogenous cytoprotective mechanisms by MET, may combat age-induced ROS/RNS and protect the myocardium from oxidative stress diseases.

  13. Transcriptional profiles of pilocytic astrocytoma are related to their three different locations, but not to radiological tumor features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrzewski, Krzysztof; Jarząb, Michał; Pfeifer, Aleksandra; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Jarząb, Barbara; Liberski, Paweł P.; Zakrzewska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytoma is the most common type of brain tumor in the pediatric population, with a generally favorable prognosis, although recurrences or leptomeningeal dissemination are sometimes also observed. For tumors originating in the supra-or infratentorial location, a different molecular background was suggested, but plausible correlations between the transcriptional profile and radiological features and/or clinical course are still undefined. The purpose of this study was to identify gene expression profiles related to the most frequent locations of this tumor, subtypes based on various radiological features, and the clinical pattern of the disease. Eighty six children (55 males and 31 females) with histologically verified pilocytic astrocytoma were included in this study. Their age at the time of diagnosis ranged from fourteen months to seventeen years, with a mean age of seven years. There were 40 cerebellar, 23 optic tract/hypothalamic, 21 cerebral hemispheric, and two brainstem tumors. According to the radiological features presented on MRI, all cases were divided into four subtypes: cystic tumor with a non-enhancing cyst wall; cystic tumor with an enhancing cyst wall; solid tumor with central necrosis; and solid or mainly solid tumor. In 81 cases primary surgical resection was the only and curative treatment, and in five cases progression of the disease was observed. In 47 cases the analysis was done by using high density oligonucleotide microarrays (Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0) with subsequent bioinformatic analyses and confirmation of the results by independent RT-qPCR (on 39 samples). Bioinformatic analyses showed that the gene expression profile of pilocytic astrocytoma is highly dependent on the tumor location. The most prominent differences were noted for IRX2, PAX3, CXCL14, LHX2, SIX6, CNTN1 and SIX1 genes expression even within different compartments of the supratentorial region. Analysis of the genes potentially associated with radiological

  14. Physiological changes and sHSPs genes relative transcription in relation to the acquisition of seed germination during maturation of hybrid rice seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Wei; Cao, Dong-Dong; Hu, Qi-Juan; Guan, Ya-Jing; Hu, Wei-Min; Nawaz, Aamir; Hu, Jin

    2016-03-30

    During the production of early hybrid rice seed, the seeds dehydrated slowly and retained high moisture levels when rainy weather lasted for a couple of days, and the rice seeds easily occurred pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) along with high temperature. Therefore it is necessary to harvest the seeds before the PHS occurred. The seeds of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica) cv. Qianyou No1 that harvests from 19 to 28 days after pollination (DAP) all had high seed vigour. The seed moisture content at 10 DAP was 36.1%, and declined to 28.6% at 19 DAP; the contents of soluble sugar and total starch increased significantly with the development of seeds. The soluble protein content, the level of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA3 ), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity continued to decrease from 10 DAP to 19 DAP. The seeds at 19 DAP had the highest peroxidase (POD) activity and lowest catalase (CAT) activity while the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity had no significant difference among the different developing periods. The relative expressions of genes 64S Hsp18.0 and Os03g0267200 transcripts increased significantly from 10 to 19 DAP, and then decreased. However, no significant change was recorded in soluble protein, sugar and GA3 after 16 DAP, and they all significantly correlated with seed viability and vigour during the process of seed maturity. The seeds of hybrid rice Qianyou No1 had a higher viability and vigour when harvested from 19 DAP to 28 DAP, the transcription levels of 64S Hsp18.0 and Os03g0267200 increased significantly from 10 DAP to 19 DAP and the highest value was recorded at 19 DAP. The seeds could be harvested as early as 19 DAP without negative influence on seed vigour and viability. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Transcriptional interference networks coordinate the expression of functionally-related genes clustered in the same genomic loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt eBoldogkoi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of gene expression is essential for normal functioning of biological systems in every form of life. Gene expression is primarily controlled at the level of transcription, especially at the phase of initiation. Non-coding RNAs are one of the major players at every level of genetic regulation, including the control of chromatin organisation, transcription, various post-transcriptional processes and translation. In this study, the Transcriptional Interference Network (TIN hypothesis was put forward in an attempt to explain the global expression of antisense RNAs and the overall occurrence of tandem gene clusters in the genomes of various biological systems ranging from viruses to mammalian cells. The TIN hypothesis suggests the existence of a novel layer of genetic regulation, based on the interactions between the transcriptional machineries of neighbouring genes at their overlapping regions, which are assumed to play a fundamental role in coordinating gene expression within a cluster of functionally-linked genes. It is claimed that the transcriptional overlaps between adjacent genes are much more widespread in genomes than is thought today. The Waterfall model of the TIN hypothesis postulates a unidirectional effect of upstream genes on the transcription of downstream genes within a cluster of tandemly-arrayed genes, while the Seesaw model proposes a mutual interdependence of gene expression between the oppositely-oriented genes. The TIN represents an auto-regulatory system with an exquisitely timed and highly synchronised cascade of gene expression in functionally-linked genes located in close physical proximity to each other. In this study, we focused on herpesviruses. The reason for this lies in the compressed nature of viral genes, which allows a tight regulation and an easier investigation of the transcriptional interactions between genes. However, I believe that the same or similar principles can be applied to cellular

  16. Age-Related Racial Disparity in Suicide Rates Among U.S. Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ...

  17. SEPALLATA1/2-suppressed mature apples have low ethylene, high auxin and reduced transcription of ripening-related genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Robert J.; Ireland, Hilary S.; Ross, John J.; Ling, Toby J.; David, Karine M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Fruit ripening is an important developmental trait in fleshy fruits, making the fruit palatable for seed dispersers. In some fruit species, there is a strong association between auxin concentrations and fruit ripening. We investigated the relationship between auxin concentrations and the onset of ethylene-related ripening in Malus × domestica (apples) at both the hormone and transcriptome levels. Methodology Transgenic apples suppressed for the SEPALLATA1/2 (SEP1/2) class of gene (MADS8/9) that showed severely reduced ripening were compared with untransformed control apples. In each apple type, free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations were measured during early ripening. The changes observed in auxin were assessed in light of global changes in gene expression. Principal results It was found that mature MADS8/9-suppressed apples had a higher concentration of free IAA. This was associated with increased expression of the auxin biosynthetic genes in the indole-3-acetamide pathway. Additionally, in the MADS8/9-suppressed apples, there was less expression of the GH3 auxin-conjugating enzymes. A number of genes involved in the auxin-regulated transcription (AUX/IAA and ARF classes of genes) were also observed to change in expression, suggesting a mechanism for signal transduction at the start of ripening. Conclusions The delay in ripening observed in MADS8/9-suppressed apples may be partly due to high auxin concentrations. We propose that, to achieve low auxin associated with fruit maturation, the auxin homeostasis is controlled in a two-pronged manner: (i) by the reduction in biosynthesis and (ii) by an increase in auxin conjugation. This is associated with the change in expression of auxin-signalling genes and the up-regulation of ripening-related genes. PMID:23346344

  18. Dwarf Tiller1, a Wuschel-related homeobox transcription factor, is required for tiller growth in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfei Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Unlike many wild grasses, domesticated rice cultivars have uniform culm height and panicle size among tillers and the main shoot, which is an important trait for grain yield. However, the genetic basis of this trait remains unknown. Here, we report that Dwarf Tiller1 (DWT1 controls the developmental uniformity of the main shoot and tillers in rice (Oryza sativa. Most dwt1 mutant plants develop main shoots with normal height and larger panicles, but dwarf tillers bearing smaller panicles compared with those of the wild type. In addition, dwt1 tillers have shorter internodes with fewer and un-elongated cells compared with the wild type, indicating that DWT1 affects cell division and cell elongation. Map-based cloning revealed that DWT1 encodes a Wuschel-related homeobox (WOX transcription factor homologous to the Arabidopsis WOX8 and WOX9. The DWT1 gene is highly expressed in young panicles, but undetectable in the internodes, suggesting that DWT1 expression is spatially or temporally separated from its effect on the internode growth. Transcriptomic analysis revealed altered expression of genes involved in cell division and cell elongation, cytokinin/gibberellin homeostasis and signaling in dwt1 shorter internodes. Moreover, the non-elongating internodes of dwt1 are insensitive to exogenous gibberellin (GA treatment, and some of the slender rice1 (slr1 dwt1 double mutant exhibits defective internodes similar to the dwt1 single mutant, suggesting that the DWT1 activity in the internode elongation is directly or indirectly associated with GA signaling. This study reveals a genetic pathway synchronizing the development of tillers and the main shoot, and a new function of WOX genes in balancing branch growth in rice.

  19. DWARF TILLER1, a WUSCHEL-Related Homeobox Transcription Factor, Is Required for Tiller Growth in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenfei; Li, Gang; Zhao, Jun; Chu, Huangwei; Lin, Wenhui; Zhang, Dabing; Wang, Zhiyong; Liang, Wanqi

    2014-01-01

    Unlike many wild grasses, domesticated rice cultivars have uniform culm height and panicle size among tillers and the main shoot, which is an important trait for grain yield. However, the genetic basis of this trait remains unknown. Here, we report that DWARF TILLER1 (DWT1) controls the developmental uniformity of the main shoot and tillers in rice (Oryza sativa). Most dwt1 mutant plants develop main shoots with normal height and larger panicles, but dwarf tillers bearing smaller panicles compared with those of the wild type. In addition, dwt1 tillers have shorter internodes with fewer and un-elongated cells compared with the wild type, indicating that DWT1 affects cell division and cell elongation. Map-based cloning revealed that DWT1 encodes a WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) transcription factor homologous to the Arabidopsis WOX8 and WOX9. The DWT1 gene is highly expressed in young panicles, but undetectable in the internodes, suggesting that DWT1 expression is spatially or temporally separated from its effect on the internode growth. Transcriptomic analysis revealed altered expression of genes involved in cell division and cell elongation, cytokinin/gibberellin homeostasis and signaling in dwt1 shorter internodes. Moreover, the non-elongating internodes of dwt1 are insensitive to exogenous gibberellin (GA) treatment, and some of the slender rice1 (slr1) dwt1 double mutant exhibits defective internodes similar to the dwt1 single mutant, suggesting that the DWT1 activity in the internode elongation is directly or indirectly associated with GA signaling. This study reveals a genetic pathway synchronizing the development of tillers and the main shoot, and a new function of WOX genes in balancing branch growth in rice. PMID:24625559

  20. [Construction of Corynebacterium crenatum AS 1.542 δ argR and analysis of transcriptional levels of the related genes of arginine biosynthetic pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuelan; Tang, Li; Jiao, Haitao; Xu, Feng; Xiong, Yonghua

    2013-01-04

    ArgR, coded by the argR gene from Corynebacterium crenatum AS 1.542, acts as a negative regulator in arginine biosynthetic pathway. However, the effect of argR on transcriptional levels of the related biosynthetic genes has not been reported. Here, we constructed a deletion mutant of argR gene: C. crenatum AS 1.542 Delta argR using marker-less knockout technology, and compared the changes of transcriptional levels of the arginine biosynthetic genes between the mutant strain and the wild-type strain. We used marker-less knockout technology to construct C. crenatum AS 1.542 Delta argR and analyzed the changes of the relate genes at the transcriptional level using real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR. C. crenatum AS 1.542 Delta argR was successfully obtained and the transcriptional level of arginine biosynthetic genes in this mutant increased significantly with an average of about 162.1 folds. The arginine biosynthetic genes in C. crenatum are clearly controlled by the negative regulator ArgR. However, the deletion of this regulator does not result in a clear change in arginine production in the bacteria.

  1. Molecular Characterization of a Leaf Senescence-Related Transcription Factor BrWRKY75 of Chinese Flowering Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Tan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available WRKY is a plant-specific transcription factor (TF involved in the regulation of many biological processes; however, its role in leaf senescence of leafy vegetables remains unknown. In the present work, a WRKY TF, termed BrWRKY75 was isolated from Chinese flowering cabbage [Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis (L. Mokino var. utilis Tsen et Lee]. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence and the phylogenetic tree showed that BrWRKY75 has high homology with WRKY75 from Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana, and belongs to the II c sub-group. Sub-cellular localization and transcriptional activity analysis revealed that BrWRKY75 is a nuclear protein with transcriptional repression activity, and was up-regulated during leaf senescence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that BrWRKY75 directly bound to the W-box (TTGAC cis-element. Collectively, these results provide a basis for further investigation of the transcriptional regulation of Chinese flowering cabbage leaf senescence.

  2. Caenorhabditis elegans DAF-16/FOXO Transcription Factor and Its Mammalian Homologs Associate with Age-Related Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesp, K.; Smant, G.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    The insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved and its function is mediated largely by FOXO transcription factors. Reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling leads to translocation of FOXO proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus where they activate a set of genes that mediate oxidative

  3. Impact of nitrogen concentration on validamycin A production and related gene transcription in fermentation of Streptomyces hygroscopicus 5008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhen-Hua; Bai, Linquan; Deng, Zixin; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2012-09-01

    Validamycin A (VAL-A) is an important and widely used agricultural antibiotic. In this study, statistical screening designs were applied to identify significant medium variables for VAL-A production and to find their optimal levels. The optimized medium caused 70% enhancement of VAL-A production. The difference between optimized medium and original medium suggested that low nitrogen source level might attribute to the enhancement of VAL-A production. The addition of different nitrogen sources to the optimized medium inhibited VAL-A production, which confirmed the importance of nitrogen concentration for VAL-A production. Furthermore, differences in structural gene transcription and enzyme activity between the two media were assayed. The results showed that lower nitrogen level in the optimized medium could regulate VAL-A production in gene transcriptional level. Our previous study indicated that the transcription of VAL-A structural genes could be enhanced at elevated temperature. In this work, the increased fermentation temperature from 37 to 42 °C with the optimized medium enhanced VAL-A production by 39%, which testified to the importance of structural gene transcription in VAL-A production. The information is useful for further VAL-A production enhancement.

  4. Relative gene transcription and pathogenicity of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli after long-term adaptation to acid and salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Relative gene transcription and virulence potential, as measured by a Caco-2 adhesion assay, were investigated for three enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains after long-term adaptation for 24 h to acid (BHI pH 5.5) and salt (BHI 4.5% (w/v) NaCl) stress. Five virulence genes (eae, lpf...... compared to EDL933 (O157:H7, raw hamburger). Long-term adaptation to salt stress significantly increased the adhesion of all three EHEC strains to Caco-2 compared to the non-stressed controls. The present study shows that long-term adaptation to food related stress factors such as acid and salt is capable...... of changing the relative transcription of important virulence and stress response genes and increasing the virulence potential as measured by adhesion to the human colonic epithelial cell line, Caco-2....

  5. Brassinosteroids-Induced Systemic Stress Tolerance was Associated with Increased Transcripts of Several Defence-Related Genes in the Phloem in Cucumis sativus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingfang Li

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs, a group of naturally occurring plant steroidal compounds, are essential for plant growth, development and stress tolerance. Recent studies showed that BRs could induce systemic tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses; however, the molecular mechanisms by which BRs signals lead to responses in the whole plant are largely unknown. In this study, 24-epibrassinosteroid (EBR-induced systemic tolerance in Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinyan No. 4 was analyzed through the assessment of symptoms of photooxidative stress by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging pulse amplitude modulation. Expression of defense/stress related genes were induced in both treated local leaves and untreated systemic leaves by local EBR application. With the suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH library using cDNA from the phloem sap of EBR-treated plants as the tester and distilled water (DW-treated plants as the driver, 14 transcripts out of 260 clones were identified. Quantitative Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR validated the specific up-regulation of these transcripts. Of the differentially expressed transcripts with known functions, transcripts for the selected four cDNAs, which encode an auxin-responsive protein (IAA14, a putative ankyrin-repeat protein, an F-box protein (PP2, and a major latex, pathogenesis-related (MLP-like protein, were induced in local leaves, systemic leaves and roots after foliar application of EBR onto mature leaves. Our results demonstrated that EBR-induced systemic tolerance is accompanied with increased transcript of genes in the defense response in other organs. The potential role of phloem mRNAs as signaling components in mediating BR-regulated systemic resistance is discussed.

  6. Effect of selection for relative growth rate and bodyweight of mice on rate, composition and efficiency of growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, H.

    1974-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of selection for parameters of a growth curve, four selection lines and a control line were started from one base population. In the selection lines is selected for a large and a small relative growth rate between 21 and 29 days (RGH and RGL) and for a large and

  7. Relative transcription of Listeria monocytogenes virulence genes in liver pâtés with varying NaCl content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Inger; Thorsen, Line; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    three liver pâtés with reduced NaCl content of which one also has been supplied with organic acids (Ca-acetate and Ca-lactate). The three strains (EGD-e: reference strain; O57: more NaCl sensitive; 6896: more NaCl tolerant) were selected out of twelve strains based on their growth in BHI broth adjusted......B for both O57 and 6896 were significantly higher when the strains were grown in BHI compared to the standard liver pâté. Reducing the NaCl content of the standard liver pâté did not change relative transcription levels of prfA, inlA, sigB or clpC (except for prfA in O57 and sigB in 6896). However......, the presence of Ca-acetate and Ca-lactate induced relative transcription of the stress response gene, clpC, for all three strains. This study demonstrates that relative microbial gene transcription can be measured in complex food matrices and points to the need for designing experimental set-ups in real food...

  8. Rates of TBI-related Deaths by Age Group - United States, 2001 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Changes in the rates of TBI-related deaths vary depending on age. For persons 44 years of age and younger, TBI-related deaths decreased between the periods of...

  9. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability

    OpenAIRE

    E.R. Migliaro; P. Contreras; S. Bech; A. Etxagibel; M. Castro; R. Ricca; K. Vicente

    2001-01-01

    In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR) and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG) consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S) and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS) also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG) consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min). R-R variability was calculated in the time-...

  10. Calculus in Your Career: Putting the "Relate" Back in Related Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommatsch, Christina W.

    2017-01-01

    "Find the extreme values of the function." "At what rate is the distance between A and B increasing after 12 seconds?" Prompts like these can be heard in most first-semester calculus courses. Unfortunately, these cues also tend to prompt students' eyes to glaze over with thoughts of "When will I ever use this?" This…

  11. Incidence and progression rates of age-related maculopathy: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M. Willemse-Assink (Jacqueline); R. van Leeuwen (Redmer); R.C.W. Wolfs (Roger); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); Th. Stijnen (Theo); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To describe the incidence rate of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the progression rates of early stages of age-related maculopathy (ARM), and to study the hierarchy of fundus features that determine progression. METHODS: A group of 4953 subjects

  12. Self-rated health and sickness-related absence: the modifying role of civic participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, B.; ter Hoeven, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined civic participation as an effect modifier between self-rated health and absence from work. Building on the theoretical framework of social exchange, we use German data to test a conceptual model relating self-rated health to sickness-related absence, as well as the

  13. The ubiquitin ligase SEVEN IN ABSENTIA (SINA) ubiquitinates a defense-related NAC transcription factor and is involved in defense signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Min; Niu, Xiangli; Kud, Joanna; Du, Xinran; Avila, Julian; Devarenne, Timothy P; Kuhl, Joseph C; Liu, Yongsheng; Xiao, Fangming

    2016-07-01

    We recently identified a defense-related tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) NAC (NAM, ATAF1,2, CUC2) transcription factor, NAC1, that is subjected to ubiquitin-proteasome system-dependent degradation in plant cells. In this study, we identified a tomato ubiquitin ligase (termed SEVEN IN ABSENTIA3; SINA3) that ubiquitinates NAC1, promoting its degradation. We conducted coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation to determine that SINA3 specifically interacts with the NAC1 transcription factor in the nucleus. Moreover, we found that SINA3 ubiquitinates NAC1 in vitro and promotes NAC1 degradation via polyubiquitination in vivo, indicating that SINA3 is a ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates NAC1, promoting its degradation. Our real-time PCR analysis indicated that, in contrast to our previous finding that NAC1 mRNA abundance increases upon Pseudomonas infection, the SINA3 mRNA abundance decreases in response to Pseudomonas infection. Moreover, using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression, we found that overexpression of SINA3 interferes with the hypersensitive response cell death triggered by multiple plant resistance proteins. These results suggest that SINA3 ubiquitinates a defense-related NAC transcription factor for degradation and plays a negative role in defense signaling. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Autonomic responses to heat pain: Heart rate, skin conductance, and their relation to verbal ratings and stimulus intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loggia, Marco L; Juneau, Mylène; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2011-03-01

    In human pain experiments, as well as in clinical settings, subjects are often asked to assess pain using scales (eg, numeric rating scales). Although most subjects have little difficulty in using these tools, some lack the necessary basic cognitive or motor skills (eg, paralyzed patients). Thus, the identification of appropriate nonverbal measures of pain has significant clinical relevance. In this study, we assessed heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and verbal ratings in 39 healthy male subjects during the application of twelve 6-s heat stimuli of different intensities on the subjects' left forearm. Both HR and SC increased with more intense painful stimulation. However, HR but not SC, significantly correlated with pain ratings at the group level, suggesting that HR may be a better predictor of between-subject differences in pain than is SC. Conversely, changes in SC better predicted variations in ratings within a given individual, suggesting that it is more sensitive to relative changes in perception. The differences in findings derived from between- and within-subject analyses may result from greater within-subject variability in HR. We conclude that at least for male subjects, HR provides a better predictor of pain perception than SC, but that data should be averaged over several stimulus presentations to achieve consistent results. Nevertheless, variability among studies, and the indication that gender of both the subject and experimenter could influence autonomic results, lead us to advise caution in using autonomic or any other surrogate measures to infer pain in individuals who cannot adequately report their perception. Skin conductance is more sensitive to detect within-subject perceptual changes, but heart rate appears to better predict pain ratings at the group level. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Decline in Proliferation and Immature Neuron Markers in the Human Subependymal Zone during Aging: Relationship to EGF- and FGF-related Transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Weissleder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblasts exist within the human subependymal zone (SEZ; however, it is debated to what extent neurogenesis changes during normal aging. It is also unknown how precursor proliferation may correlate with the generation of neuronal and glial cells or how expression of growth factors and receptors may change throughout the adult lifespan. We provided evidence of dividing cells in the human SEZ in conjunction with a dramatic age-related decline (n=50; 21-103 years of mRNAs indicative of proliferating cells (Ki67 and immature neurons (doublecortin. Microglia mRNA (ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 increased during aging, whereas transcript levels of stem/precursor cells (glial fibrillary acidic protein delta and achaete-scute homolog 1, astrocytes (vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein and oligodendrocytes (oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 remained stable. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 mRNAs increased throughout adulthood, while transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα, EGF, Erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 4 (ErbB4 and FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1 mRNAs were unchanged across adulthood. Cell proliferation mRNA positively correlated with FGFR1 transcripts. Immature neuron and oligodendrocyte expression positively correlated with TGFα and ErbB4 mRNAs, whilst astrocyte transcripts positively correlated with EGF, FGF2 and FGFR1 mRNAs. Microglia mRNA positively correlated with EGF and FGF2 expression. Our findings indicate that neurogenesis in the human SEZ continues well into adulthood, although proliferation and neuronal differentiation may decline across adulthood. We suggest that mRNA expression of EGF- and FGF-related family members do not become limited during aging and may modulate neuronal and glial fate determination in the SEZ throughout human life.

  16. Relation of Transcriptional Factors to the Expression and Activity of Cytochrome P450 and UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases 1A in Human Liver: Co-Expression Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shilong; Han, Weichao; Hou, Chuqi; Liu, Junjin; Wu, Lili; Liu, Menghua; Liang, Zhi; Lin, Haoming; Zhou, Lili; Liu, Shuwen; Tang, Lan

    2017-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYPs) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) play important roles in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds. The gene transcription of CYPs and UGTs can be enhanced or reduced by transcription factors (TFs). This study aims to explore novel TFs involved in the regulatory network of human hepatic UGTs/CYPs. Correlations between the transcription levels of 683 key TFs and CYPs/UGTs in three different human liver expression profiles (n = 640) were calculated first. Supervised weighted correlation network analysis (sWGCNA) was employed to define hub genes among the selected TFs. The relationship among 17 defined TFs, CYPs/UGTs expression, and activity were evaluated in 30 liver samples from Chinese patients. The positive controls (e.g., PPARA, NR1I2, NR1I3) and hub TFs (NFIA, NR3C2, and AR) in the Grey sWGCNA Module were significantly and positively associated with CYPs/UGTs expression. And the cancer- or inflammation-related TFs (TEAD4, NFKB2, and NFKB1) were negatively associated with mRNA expression of CYP2C9/CYP2E1/UGT1A9. Furthermore, the effect of NR1I2, NR1I3, AR, TEAD4, and NFKB2 on CYP450/UGT1A gene transcription translated into moderate influences on enzyme activities. To our knowledge, this is the first study to integrate Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets and supervised weighted correlation network analysis (sWGCNA) for defining TFs potentially related to CYPs/UGTs. We detected several novel TFs involved in the regulatory network of hepatic CYPs and UGTs in humans. Further validation and investigation may reveal their exact mechanism of CYPs/UGTs regulation.

  17. Dataset on differential gene expression analysis for splenic transcriptome profiling and the transcripts related to six immune pathways in grass carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxi Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this paper are related to the research article entitled “Transcriptome profiling of developing spleen tissue and discovery of immune-related genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella” (Li et al. 2016 [1]. Please refer to this article for interpretation of the data. Data provided in this submission are comprised of the expression levels of unigenes, significantly differentially expressed genes(DEGs, significant enrichment GO term and KEGG pathway of DEGs, and information of the transcripts assigned to six immune pathways.

  18. Seasonal Variations of Indoor Microbial Exposures and Their Relation to Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Exchange Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors, n = 127; outdoors, n = 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total...... inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m3) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m3). Indoor...... of inhalable dust and number of particles. Temperature and air exchange rates were positively associated with fungi and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and negatively with bacteria and the total inflammatory potential. Although temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates were significantly...

  19. The Eucalyptus grandis R2R3-MYB transcription factor family: evidence for woody growth-related evolution and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Marçal; Camargo, Eduardo Leal Oliveira; Carocha, Victor; Cassan-Wang, Hua; San Clemente, Hélène; Savelli, Bruno; Hefer, Charles A; Paiva, Jorge A Pinto; Myburg, Alexander A; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2015-06-01

    The R2R3-MYB family, one of the largest transcription factor families in higher plants, controls a wide variety of plant-specific processes including, notably, phenylpropanoid metabolism and secondary cell wall formation. We performed a genome-wide analysis of this superfamily in Eucalyptus, one of the most planted hardwood trees world-wide. A total of 141 predicted R2R3-MYB sequences identified in the Eucalyptus grandis genome sequence were subjected to comparative phylogenetic analyses with Arabidopsis thaliana, Oryza sativa, Populus trichocarpa and Vitis vinifera. We analysed features such as gene structure, conserved motifs and genome location. Transcript abundance patterns were assessed by RNAseq and validated by high-throughput quantitative PCR. We found some R2R3-MYB subgroups with expanded membership in E. grandis, V. vinifera and P. trichocarpa, and others preferentially found in woody species, suggesting diversification of specific functions in woody plants. By contrast, subgroups containing key genes regulating lignin biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation are more conserved across all of the species analysed. In Eucalyptus, R2R3-MYB tandem gene duplications seem to disproportionately affect woody-preferential and woody-expanded subgroups. Interestingly, some of the genes belonging to woody-preferential subgroups show higher expression in the cambial region, suggesting a putative role in the regulation of secondary growth. © 2014 The Authors New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Effects of HIF-1 inhibition by chetomin on hypoxia-related transcription and radiosensitivity in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staab, Adrian; Einsele, Hermann; Flentje, Michael; Vordermark, Dirk; Loeffler, Jürgen; Said, Harun M; Diehlmann, Désirée; Katzer, Astrid; Beyer, Melanie; Fleischer, Markus; Schwab, Franz; Baier, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) overexpression has been linked to tumor progression and poor prognosis. We investigated whether targeting of HIF-1 using chetomin, a disrupter of the interaction of HIF-1 with the transcriptional coactivator p300, influences the radiosensitivity of hypoxic HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Optimal dose of chetomin was determined by EGFP-HRE gene reporter assay in stably transfected HT 1080 cells. Cells were assayed for expression of the hypoxia-inducible genes carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by RT-PCR and for clonogenic survival after irradiation with 2, 5 or 10 Gy, under normoxic or hypoxic (0.1% O 2 , 12 h) conditions in the presence or absence of chetomin (150 nM, 12 h, pre-treatment of 4 h). Chetomin treatment significantly reduced CA9 and VEGF mRNA expression in hypoxic cells to 44.4 ± 7.2% and 39.6 ± 16.0%, respectively, of untreated hypoxic controls. Chetomin clearly reduced the modified oxygen enhancement ratio (OER') compared to untreated cells, from 2.02 to 1.27, from 1.86 to 1.22 and from 1.49 to 1.06 at the 50%, 37% and 10% clonogenic survival levels, respectively. HIF-1 inhibition by chetomin effectively reduces hypoxia-dependent transcription and radiosensitizes hypoxic HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro

  1. Feast/famine regulatory proteins (FFRPs): Escherichia coli Lrp, AsnC and related archaeal transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Katsushi; Ishijima, Sanae A; Clowney, Lester; Koike, Hideaki; Aramaki, Hironori; Tanaka, Chikako; Makino, Kozo; Suzuki, Masashi

    2006-01-01

    Feast/famine regulatory proteins comprise a diverse family of transcription factors, which have been referred to in various individual identifications, including Escherichia coli leucine-responsive regulatory protein and asparagine synthase C gene product. A full length feast/famine regulatory protein consists of the N-terminal DNA-binding domain and the C-domain, which is involved in dimerization and further assembly, thereby producing, for example, a disc or a chromatin-like cylinder. Various ligands of the size of amino acids bind at the interface between feast/famine regulatory protein dimers, thereby altering their assembly forms. Also, the combination of feast/famine regulatory protein subunits forming the same assembly is altered. In this way, a small number of feast/famine regulatory proteins are able to regulate a large number of genes in response to various environmental changes. Because feast/famine regulatory proteins are shared by archaea and eubacteria, the genome-wide regulation by feast/famine regulatory proteins is traceable back to their common ancestor, being the prototype of highly differentiated transcription regulatory mechanisms found in organisms nowadays.

  2. Transcriptional regulation by competing transcription factor modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger Hermsen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory networks lie at the heart of cellular computation. In these networks, intracellular and extracellular signals are integrated by transcription factors, which control the expression of transcription units by binding to cis-regulatory regions on the DNA. The designs of both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cis-regulatory regions are usually highly complex. They frequently consist of both repetitive and overlapping transcription factor binding sites. To unravel the design principles of these promoter architectures, we have designed in silico prokaryotic transcriptional logic gates with predefined input-output relations using an evolutionary algorithm. The resulting cis-regulatory designs are often composed of modules that consist of tandem arrays of binding sites to which the transcription factors bind cooperatively. Moreover, these modules often overlap with each other, leading to competition between them. Our analysis thus identifies a new signal integration motif that is based upon the interplay between intramodular cooperativity and intermodular competition. We show that this signal integration mechanism drastically enhances the capacity of cis-regulatory domains to integrate signals. Our results provide a possible explanation for the complexity of promoter architectures and could be used for the rational design of synthetic gene circuits.

  3. Judges' perception of candidates' organization and communication, in relation to oral certification examination ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, James E; Myford, Carol M

    2009-11-01

    To determine (1) whether judges differed in the levels of severity they exercised when rating candidates' performance in an oral certification exam, (2) to what extent candidates' clinical competence ratings were related to their organization/communication ratings, and (3) to what extent clinical competence ratings could predict organization/communication ratings. Six hundred eighty-four physicians participated in a medical specialty board's 2002 oral examination. Ninety-nine senior members of the medical specialty served as judges, rating candidates' performances. Candidates' clinical competence ratings were analyzed using multifaceted Rasch measurement to investigate judge severity. A Pearson correlation was calculated to examine the relationship between ratings of clinical competence and organization/communication. Logistic regression was used to determine to what extent clinical competence ratings predicted organization/communication ratings. There were about three statistically distinct strata of judge severity; judges were not interchangeable. There was a moderately strong relationship between the two sets of candidate ratings. Higher clinical competence ratings were associated with an organization/communication rating of acceptable, whereas lower clinical competence ratings were associated with an organization/communication rating of unacceptable. The judges' clinical competence ratings correctly predicted 61.9% of the acceptable and 88.3% of the unacceptable organization/communication ratings. Overall, the clinical competence ratings correctly predicted 80% of the organization/communication ratings. The close association between the two sets of ratings was possibly due to a "halo" effect. Several explanations for this relationship were explored, and the authors considered the implications for their understanding of how judges carry out this complex rating task.

  4. Induction of time-dependent oxidative stress and related transcriptional effects of perfluorododecanoic acid in zebrafish liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yang [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Wang Jianshe; Wei Yanhong; Zhang Hongxia; Xu Muqi [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China); Dai Jiayin [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road, Beijing 100101 (China)], E-mail: daijy@ioz.ac.cn

    2008-09-29

    The effects of acute perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) exposure on the induction of oxidative stress and alteration of mitochondrial gene expression were studied in the livers of female zebrafish (Danio rerio). Female zebrafish were exposed to PFDoA via a single intraperitoneal injection (0, 20, 40, or 80 {mu}g PFDoA/g body weight) and were then sacrificed 48 h, 96 h, or seven days post-PFDoA administration. PFDoA-treated fish exhibited histopathological liver damage, including swollen hepatocytes, vacuolar degeneration, and nuclei pycnosis. Glutathione (GSH) content and catalase (CAT) activity decreased significantly at 48 h post-injection while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was initially decreased at 48 h post-injection but was then elevated by seven days post-injection. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) increased at 48 h and seven days compared to control fish, although the increased level at seven days post-injection was decreased compared to the level at 48 h post-injection. Lipid peroxidation levels were increased at seven days post-injection, while no apparent induction was observed at 48 h or 96 h post-injection. The mRNA expression of medium-chain fatty acid dehydrogenase (MCAD) was induced, while the transcriptional expression of liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), peroxisome proliferating activating receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}), carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I (CPT-I), uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2), and Bcl-2 were significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the transcriptional expression of peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX), very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) did not exhibit significant changes following PFDoA treatment. No significant changes were noted in the transcriptional expression of genes involved in mitochondrial respiratory chain and ATP synthesis, including cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COXI), NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI), and ATP synthase F0 subunit 6

  5. Induction of time-dependent oxidative stress and related transcriptional effects of perfluorododecanoic acid in zebrafish liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yang; Wang Jianshe; Wei Yanhong; Zhang Hongxia; Xu Muqi; Dai Jiayin

    2008-01-01

    The effects of acute perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) exposure on the induction of oxidative stress and alteration of mitochondrial gene expression were studied in the livers of female zebrafish (Danio rerio). Female zebrafish were exposed to PFDoA via a single intraperitoneal injection (0, 20, 40, or 80 μg PFDoA/g body weight) and were then sacrificed 48 h, 96 h, or seven days post-PFDoA administration. PFDoA-treated fish exhibited histopathological liver damage, including swollen hepatocytes, vacuolar degeneration, and nuclei pycnosis. Glutathione (GSH) content and catalase (CAT) activity decreased significantly at 48 h post-injection while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was initially decreased at 48 h post-injection but was then elevated by seven days post-injection. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) increased at 48 h and seven days compared to control fish, although the increased level at seven days post-injection was decreased compared to the level at 48 h post-injection. Lipid peroxidation levels were increased at seven days post-injection, while no apparent induction was observed at 48 h or 96 h post-injection. The mRNA expression of medium-chain fatty acid dehydrogenase (MCAD) was induced, while the transcriptional expression of liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), peroxisome proliferating activating receptor α (PPARα), carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I (CPT-I), uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2), and Bcl-2 were significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the transcriptional expression of peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX), very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD) did not exhibit significant changes following PFDoA treatment. No significant changes were noted in the transcriptional expression of genes involved in mitochondrial respiratory chain and ATP synthesis, including cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COXI), NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (NDI), and ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 (ATPo6). These

  6. The NAD-Dependent Deacetylase Sirtuin-1 Regulates the Expression of Osteogenic Transcriptional Activator Runt-Related Transcription Factor 2 (Runx2 and Production of Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP-13 in Chondrocytes in Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Terauchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging is one of the major pathologic factors associated with osteoarthritis (OA. Recently, numerous reports have demonstrated the impact of sirtuin-1 (Sirt1, which is the NAD-dependent deacetylase, on human aging. It has been demonstrated that Sirt1 induces osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. However, the role of Sirt1 in the OA chondrocytes still remains unknown. We postulated that Sirt1 regulates a hypertrophic chondrocyte lineage and degeneration of articular cartilage through the activation of osteogenic transcriptional activator Runx2 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-13 in OA chondrocytes. To verify whether sirtuin-1 (Sirt1 regulates chondrocyte activity in OA, we studied expressions of Sirt1, Runx2 and production of MMP-13, and their associations in human OA chondrocytes. The expression of Sirt1 was ubiquitously observed in osteoarthritic chondrocytes; in contrast, Runx2 expressed in the osteophyte region in patients with OA and OA model mice. OA relating catabolic factor IL-1βincreased the expression of Runx2 in OA chondrocytes. OA chondrocytes, which were pretreated with Sirt1 inhibitor, inhibited the IL-1β-induced expression of Runx2 compared to the control. Since the Runx2 is a promotor of MMP-13 expression, Sirt1 inactivation may inhibit the Runx2 expression and the resultant down-regulation of MMP-13 production in chondrocytes. Our findings suggest thatSirt1 may regulate the expression of Runx2, which is the osteogenic transcription factor, and the production of MMP-13 from chondrocytes in OA. Since Sirt1 activity is known to be affected by several stresses, including inflammation and oxidative stress, as well as aging, SIRT may be involved in the development of OA.

  7. Tumor protein D52 expression is post-transcriptionally regulated by T-cell intercellular antigen (TIA) 1 and TIA-related protein via mRNA stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Hiromi; Mukudai, Yoshiki; Ito, Chihiro; Kato, Kosuke; Shimane, Toshikazu; Kondo, Seiji; Shirota, Tatsuo

    2017-05-04

    Although tumor protein D52 (TPD52) family proteins were first identified nearly 20 years ago, their molecular regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the post-transcriptional regulation of TPD52 family genes. An RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay showed the potential binding ability of TPD52 family mRNAs to several RNA-binding proteins, and an RNA degradation assay revealed that TPD52 is subject to more prominent post-transcriptional regulation than are TPD53 and TPD54. We subsequently focused on the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of TPD52 as a cis -acting element in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Several deletion mutants of the 3'-UTR of TPD52 mRNA were constructed and ligated to the 3'-end of a reporter green fluorescence protein gene. An RNA degradation assay revealed that a minimal cis -acting region, located in the 78-280 region of the 5'-proximal region of the 3'-UTR, stabilized the reporter mRNA. Biotin pull-down and RIP assays revealed specific binding of the region to T-cell intracellular antigen 1 (TIA-1) and TIA-1-related protein (TIAR). Knockdown of TIA-1/TIAR decreased not only the expression, but also the stability of TPD52 mRNA; it also decreased the expression and stability of the reporter gene ligated to the 3'-end of the 78-280 fragment. Stimulation of transforming growth factor-β and epidermal growth factor decreased the binding ability of these factors, resulting in decreased mRNA stability. These results indicate that the 78-280 fragment and TIA-1/TIAR concordantly contribute to mRNA stability as a cis -acting element and trans -acting factor(s), respectively. Thus, we here report the specific interactions between these elements in the post-transcriptional regulation of the TPD52 gene. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  8. Venom-related transcripts from Bothrops jararaca tissues provide novel molecular insights into the production and evolution of snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L M; Bastos, Carolina Mancini Val; Ho, Paulo Lee; Luna, Milene Schmidt; Yamanouye, Norma; Casewell, Nicholas R

    2015-03-01

    Attempts to reconstruct the evolutionary history of snake toxins in the context of their co-option to the venom gland rarely account for nonvenom snake genes that are paralogous to toxins, and which therefore represent important connectors to ancestral genes. In order to reevaluate this process, we conducted a comparative transcriptomic survey on body tissues from a venomous snake. A nonredundant set of 33,000 unigenes (assembled transcripts of reference genes) was independently assembled from six organs of the medically important viperid snake Bothrops jararaca, providing a reference list of 82 full-length toxins from the venom gland and specific products from other tissues, such as pancreatic digestive enzymes. Unigenes were then screened for nontoxin transcripts paralogous to toxins revealing 1) low level coexpression of approximately 20% of toxin genes (e.g., bradykinin-potentiating peptide, C-type lectin, snake venom metalloproteinase, snake venom nerve growth factor) in body tissues, 2) the identity of the closest paralogs to toxin genes in eight classes of toxins, 3) the location and level of paralog expression, indicating that, in general, co-expression occurs in a higher number of tissues and at lower levels than observed for toxin genes, and 4) strong evidence of a toxin gene reverting back to selective expression in a body tissue. In addition, our differential gene expression analyses identify specific cellular processes that make the venom gland a highly specialized secretory tissue. Our results demonstrate that the evolution and production of venom in snakes is a complex process that can only be understood in the context of comparative data from other snake tissues, including the identification of genes paralogous to venom toxins. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  9. Linear rate-equilibrium relations arising from ion channel-bilayer energetic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Per Junior; Lum, Kevin; Ashrafuzzaman, Md

    2011-01-01

    Linear rate-equilibrium (RE) relations, also known as linear free energy relations, are widely observed in chemical reactions, including protein folding, enzymatic catalysis, and channel gating. Despite the widespread occurrence of linear RE relations, the principles underlying the linear relatio...

  10. Relative viscosity of emulsions in simple shear flow: Temperature, shear rate, and interfacial tension dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Se Bin; Lee, Joon Sang [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei Unversity, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We simulate an emulsion system under simple shear rates to analyze its rheological characteristics using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). We calculate the relative viscosity of an emulsion under a simple shear flow along with changes in temperature, shear rate, and surfactant concentration. The relative viscosity of emulsions decreased with an increase in temperature. We observed the shear-thinning phenomena, which is responsible for the inverse proportion between the shear rate and viscosity. An increase in the interfacial tension caused a decrease in the relative viscosity of the decane-in-water emulsion because the increased deformation caused by the decreased interfacial tension significantly influenced the wall shear stress.

  11. The close relation between birth, abortion and employment rates in Sweden from 1980 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmqvist, Mikael

    2006-09-01

    Birth and abortion rates in Sweden have fluctuated since 1980 while the proportion between the rates are the same at the beginning and end of the period. An increase in birth rates in the late 1980s resulted in a peak in 1991 and 1992, with 124,000 live births each year. Thereafter followed a steady decline in the rate until 2000, when the number of live births was about 90,000. At that point, the trend changed to an increase. The aim of this analysis was to investigate any relation between employment rates and the number of live births among women aged 20-34, and at the same time to explore the trend for abortion rates compared to the trend for live births. The relation between employment status and live birth rate is statistically more significant for women than men, and the rates have a higher correlation for the period after 1986. Young adults in this age group are vulnerable to economic cycles that can explain this covariation but the decline in birth rates in economically developed societies has multidimensional aspects and many other possible explanations. Much has been done in recent years in Sweden to decrease household inequality for families with children to avoid the risk of relative poverty, but the fact that there is no explicit health policy to reduce the abortion level that remain unchanged since the early 1980s may appear as a notable lack of strategy in a country with many other health-related goals.

  12. Rates of TBI-related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths - United States, 2001 – 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In general, total combined rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations and deaths have increased over the past...

  13. Stigma, attitudes and help-seeking intentions for psychological problems in relation to regional suicide rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynders, A.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Molenberghs, G.; Van Audenhove, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this ecological study, we investigated whether help-seeking related to stigma, intentions, and attitudes toward suicide are associated with the suicide rates of 20 regions within the Netherlands and Belgium. Significant associations were found between regional suicide rates and the intention to

  14. THE EVOLUTION OF CURRENCY RELATIONS IN THE LIGHT OF MAJOR EXCHANGE RATE ADJUSTMENT THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy TKACH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of major exchange rate adjustment theories on the global monetary system. The reasons of the previous organization forms of monetary relations collapse at the global level are defined. The main achievements and failures of major exchange rate theories are described.

  15. Are Competitive Materialism and Female Employment Related to International Homicide Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Don Soo

    2017-04-01

    The institutional anomie theory is a proposal that states competitive materialism, an intense cultural pressure for economic success at any costs, and increased female employment may be related to a high homicide rate. The current work tested this proposition by utilizing homicide data collected from 45 developed and developing countries. Regression results did not support the proposition. Competitive materialism and female employment were not significantly related to the cross-national variation of homicide rates.

  16. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Migliaro

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min. R-R variability was calculated in the time-domain by means of the root mean square successive differences. Frequency-domain HRV was evaluated by power spectrum analysis considering high frequency and low frequency bands. In the YG the effort tolerance was ranked in a bicycle stress test. HR was similar for both groups while ESG showed a reduced HRV compared with YG. Within each group, HRV displayed a negative correlation with HR. Although YG-NS had better effort tolerance than YG-S, their HR and HRV were not significantly different. We conclude that HRV is reduced with increasing HR or age, regardless of life style. The results obtained in our short-term study agree with others of longer duration by showing that age and HR are the main determinants of HRV. Our results do not support the idea that changes in HRV are related to regular physical activity.

  17. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaro, E R; Contreras, P; Bech, S; Etxagibel, A; Castro, M; Ricca, R; Vicente, K

    2001-04-01

    In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR) and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG) consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S) and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS) also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG) consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min). R-R variability was calculated in the time-domain by means of the root mean square successive differences. Frequency-domain HRV was evaluated by power spectrum analysis considering high frequency and low frequency bands. In the YG the effort tolerance was ranked in a bicycle stress test. HR was similar for both groups while ESG showed a reduced HRV compared with YG. Within each group, HRV displayed a negative correlation with HR. Although YG-NS had better effort tolerance than YG-S, their HR and HRV were not significantly different. We conclude that HRV is reduced with increasing HR or age, regardless of life style. The results obtained in our short-term study agree with others of longer duration by showing that age and HR are the main determinants of HRV. Our results do not support the idea that changes in HRV are related to regular physical activity.

  18. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread

  19. Expression of SRY-related HMG Box Transcription Factors (Sox) 2 and 9 in Craniopharyngioma Subtypes and Surrounding Brain Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimsen, Vivian; John, Nora; Buchfelder, Michael; Flitsch, Jörg; Fahlbusch, Rudolf; Stefanits, Harald; Knosp, Engelbert; Losa, Marco; Buslei, Rolf; Hölsken, Annett

    2017-11-20

    Stem cells have been discovered as key players in the genesis of different neoplasms including craniopharyngioma (CP), a rare tumour entity in the sellar region. Sox2 and Sox9 are well-known stem cell markers involved in pituitary development. In this study we analysed the expression of both transcription factors using immunohistochemistry in a large cohort of 64 adamantinomatous (aCP) and 9 papillary CP (pCP) and quantitative PCR in 26 aCP and 7 pCP. Whereas immunohistochemically Sox2+ cells were verifiable in only five aCP (7.8%) and in 39.1% of the respective surrounding cerebral tissue, pCP specimens appeared always negative. In contrast, Sox9 was detectable in all tumours with a significantly higher expression in aCP compared to pCP (protein, p < 0.0001; mRNA p = 0.0484) This was also true for the respective tumour adjacent CNS where 63 aCP (98.4%) and six pCP (66.7%) showed Sox9+ cells. We further confirmed absence of Sox9 expression in nuclear β-catenin accumulating cells of aCP. Our results point to the conclusion that Sox2 and Sox9, seem to play essential roles not only in the specific formation of aCP, but also in processes involving the cerebral tumour environment, which needs to be illuminated in the future.

  20. Immunohistochemical expression of Ets-related gene-transcriptional factor in adenocarcinoma prostate and its correlation with Gleason score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mannan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in males worldwide. The burden is expected to grow 1.7 million new cases and 499,000 new deaths by 2030. In developing countries such as India, prostate carcinoma will show an increase by 140% in the next few years. Although the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma can usually be made on histological features, now a days many immunohistochemical (IHC markers are used to distinguish it from benign mimickers as well as in predicting prognosis and treatment. Out of these markers, Ets-related gene (ERG product is a proto-oncogene which participates in chromosomal translocations and is frequently over expressed in prostate carcinoma which harbors ERG-transmembrane protease, serine 2 fusion. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of carcinoma prostate diagnosed in needle biopsies and prostatic chips, in the Department of Pathology of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Punjab, India, were included in the present study. The slides were observed under the light microscope, and Gleason scoring was done using the 2005 International Society of Urological Pathology modified Gleason system. IHC study for ERG expression was done on all the cases, for which anti-ERG monoclonal rabbit clone antibody EP111 (Dako, Denmark was used. Lymphocytes and endothelial cells were taken as in built positive controls for staining. The intensity of ERG positivity was scored as no staining (0, weak staining (+1, moderate staining (+2 and intense staining (+3. The H score was then calculated by multiplying the intensity of the stain with the percentage (0-100 of the cells showing that staining intensity. The H-score has a range of 0-300. The relationship between IHC expression and clinico-pathological parameters was compared and analyzed using Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Majority of patients included in the study were in the age group of 61-80 (84% of the

  1. Immunohistochemical expression of Ets-related gene-transcriptional factor in adenocarcinoma prostate and its correlation with Gleason score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, Rahul; Bhasin, Tejinder Singh; Manjari, Mridu; Singh, Gagandeep; Bhatia, Puneet Kaur; Sharma, Sonam

    2016-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in males worldwide. The burden is expected to grow 1.7 million new cases and 499,000 new deaths by 2030. In developing countries such as India, prostate carcinoma will show an increase by 140% in the next few years. Although the diagnosis of prostate carcinoma can usually be made on histological features, now a days many immunohistochemical (IHC) markers are used to distinguish it from benign mimickers as well as in predicting prognosis and treatment. Out of these markers, Ets-related gene (ERG product) is a proto-oncogene which participates in chromosomal translocations and is frequently over expressed in prostate carcinoma which harbors ERG-transmembrane protease, serine 2 fusion. Fifty cases of carcinoma prostate diagnosed in needle biopsies and prostatic chips, in the Department of Pathology of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Punjab, India, were included in the present study. The slides were observed under the light microscope, and Gleason scoring was done using the 2005 International Society of Urological Pathology modified Gleason system. IHC study for ERG expression was done on all the cases, for which anti-ERG monoclonal rabbit clone antibody EP111 (Dako, Denmark) was used. Lymphocytes and endothelial cells were taken as in built positive controls for staining. The intensity of ERG positivity was scored as no staining (0), weak staining (+1), moderate staining (+2) and intense staining (+3). The H score was then calculated by multiplying the intensity of the stain with the percentage (0-100) of the cells showing that staining intensity. The H-score has a range of 0-300. The relationship between IHC expression and clinico-pathological parameters was compared and analyzed using Chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Majority of patients included in the study were in the age group of 61-80 (84% of the total). When ERG expression was studied with age

  2. Female song rates in response to simulated intruder are positively related to reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E Cain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is well studied in males as a sexually selected behavior. However, although song is also common among females, it is infrequently examined and poorly understood. Research suggests that song is often used as a resource defense behavior and is important in female-female competition for limited resources, e.g. mates and territories. If so, song should be positively related to fitness and related to other resource defense behaviors, but this possibility has rarely been explored. Here we examine fitness estimates in relation to spontaneous song rates and song rates in response to a simulated intruder (playback, in the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus, a cooperatively breeding songbird. We also determine how song rates relate to other territorial defense behaviors. Song rate in response to playback, but not spontaneous song rate, was positively related to nest success and the number of fledglings produced by successful females. Further, response song rate was also correlated with other territorial defense behaviors (latency to respond and flights. This evidence supports the hypothesis that female song may be used in the context of female-female competition to improve access to limited reproductive resources, and suggests that song may provide direct fitness benefits.

  3. Seasonal variations of indoor microbial exposures and their relation to temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael; Gustavsen, Sine; Hansen, Erik Wind; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2012-12-01

    Indoor microbial exposure has been related to adverse pulmonary health effects. Exposure assessment is not standardized, and various factors may affect the measured exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of selected microbial exposures and their associations with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors, n = 127; outdoors, n = 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m(3)) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m(3)). Indoor bacteria peaked in spring (median, 2,165 CFU/m(3)) and were lowest in summer (median, 240 CFU/m(3)). Concentrations of fungi were predominately higher outdoors than indoors, whereas bacteria, endotoxin, and inhalable dust concentrations were highest indoors. Bacteria and endotoxin correlated with the mass of inhalable dust and number of particles. Temperature and air exchange rates were positively associated with fungi and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and negatively with bacteria and the total inflammatory potential. Although temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates were significantly associated with several indoor microbial exposures, they could not fully explain the observed seasonal variations when tested in a mixed statistical model. In conclusion, the season significantly affects indoor microbial exposures, which are influenced by temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates.

  4. The roles of Dmrt (Double sex/Male-abnormal-3 Related Transcription factor) genes in sex determination and differentiation mechanisms: Ubiquity and diversity across the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Marion Anne-Lise; Cosseau, Céline; Mouahid, Gabriel; Duval, David; Grunau, Christoph; Toulza, Ève; Allienne, Jean-François; Boissier, Jérôme

    2015-07-01

    The Dmrt (Double sex/Male-abnormal-3 Related Transcription factor) genes have been intensively studied because they represent major transcription factors in the pathways governing sex determination and differentiation. These genes have been identified in animal groups ranging from cnidarians to mammals, and some of the genes functionally studied. Here, we propose to analyze (i) the presence/absence of various Dmrt gene groups in the different taxa across the animal kingdom; (ii) the relative expression levels of the Dmrt genes in each sex; (iii) the specific spatial (by organ) and temporal (by developmental stage) variations in gene expression. This review considers non-mammalian animals at all levels of study (i.e. no particular importance is given to animal models), and using all types of sexual strategy (hermaphroditic or gonochoric) and means of sex determination (i.e. genetic or environmental). To conclude this global comparison, we offer an analysis of the DM domains conserved among the different DMRT proteins, and propose a general sex-specific pattern for each member of the Dmrt gene family. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae: a comparison with haploid males, queens and workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia A. Borges

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  6. Transcript levels of ten caste-related genes in adult diploid males of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera, Apidae) - A comparison with haploid males, queens and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Andreia A; Humann, Fernanda C; Oliveira Campos, Lucio A; Tavares, Mara G; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    In Hymenoptera, homozygosity at the sex locus results in the production of diploid males. In social species, these pose a double burden by having low fitness and drawing resources normally spent for increasing the work force of a colony. Yet, diploid males are of academic interest as they can elucidate effects of ploidy (normal males are haploid, whereas the female castes, the queens and workers, are diploid) on morphology and life history. Herein we investigated expression levels of ten caste-related genes in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, comparing newly emerged and 5-day-old diploid males with haploid males, queens and workers. In diploid males, transcript levels for dunce and paramyosin were increased during the first five days of adult life, while those for diacylglycerol kinase and the transcriptional co-repressor groucho diminished. Two general trends were apparent, (i) gene expression patterns in diploid males were overall more similar to haploid ones and workers than to queens, and (ii) in queens and workers, more genes were up-regulated after emergence until day five, whereas in diploid and especially so in haploid males more genes were down-regulated. This difference between the sexes may be related to longevity, which is much longer in females than in males.

  7. Genetic variation in metallothionein and metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 in relation to urinary cadmium, copper, and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Scott V.; Barrick, Brian; Christopher, Emily P.; Shafer, Martin M.; Makar, Karen W.; Song, Xiaoling; Lampe, Johanna W.; Vilchis, Hugo; Ulery, April; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metallothionein (MT) proteins play critical roles in the physiological handling of both essential (Cu and Zn) and toxic (Cd) metals. MT expression is regulated by metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF1). Hence, genetic variation in the MT gene family and MTF1 might influence excretion of these metals. Methods: 321 women were recruited in Seattle, WA and Las Cruces, NM and provided demographic information, urine samples for measurement of metal concentrations by mass spectrometry and creatinine, and blood or saliva for extraction of DNA. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MTF1 gene region and the region of chromosome 16 encoding the MT gene family were selected for genotyping in addition to an ancestry informative marker panel. Linear regression was used to estimate the association of SNPs with urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn, adjusted for age, urinary creatinine, smoking history, study site, and ancestry. Results: Minor alleles of rs28366003 and rs10636 near the MT2A gene were associated with lower urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn. Minor alleles of rs8044719 and rs1599823, near MT1A and MT1B, were associated with lower urinary Cd and Zn, respectively. Minor alleles of rs4653329 in MTF1 were associated with lower urinary Cd. Conclusions: These results suggest that genetic variation in the MT gene region and MTF1 influences urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn excretion. - Highlights: • Genetic variation in metallothionein (MT) genes was assessed in two diverse populations. • Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MT genes were associated with mean urinary Cd, Cu and Zn. • Genetic variation may influence biomarkers of exposure, and associations of exposure with health.

  8. Genetic variation in metallothionein and metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 in relation to urinary cadmium, copper, and zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Scott V., E-mail: sadams@fhcrc.org [Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Barrick, Brian [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Box 30003 MSC 3Q, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Christopher, Emily P. [Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Shafer, Martin M. [Environmental Chemistry and Technology, Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, University of Wisconsin, 2601 Agriculture Dr., Madison, WI 53718 (United States); Makar, Karen W.; Song, Xiaoling [Public Health Science Biomarker Laboratory, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Lampe, Johanna W. [Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Vilchis, Hugo [Border Epidemiology and Environmental Health Center, New Mexico State University, Box 30001 MSC 3BEC, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Ulery, April [Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, New Mexico State University, Box 30003 MSC 3Q, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Newcomb, Polly A. [Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Ave N, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Background: Metallothionein (MT) proteins play critical roles in the physiological handling of both essential (Cu and Zn) and toxic (Cd) metals. MT expression is regulated by metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF1). Hence, genetic variation in the MT gene family and MTF1 might influence excretion of these metals. Methods: 321 women were recruited in Seattle, WA and Las Cruces, NM and provided demographic information, urine samples for measurement of metal concentrations by mass spectrometry and creatinine, and blood or saliva for extraction of DNA. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MTF1 gene region and the region of chromosome 16 encoding the MT gene family were selected for genotyping in addition to an ancestry informative marker panel. Linear regression was used to estimate the association of SNPs with urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn, adjusted for age, urinary creatinine, smoking history, study site, and ancestry. Results: Minor alleles of rs28366003 and rs10636 near the MT2A gene were associated with lower urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn. Minor alleles of rs8044719 and rs1599823, near MT1A and MT1B, were associated with lower urinary Cd and Zn, respectively. Minor alleles of rs4653329 in MTF1 were associated with lower urinary Cd. Conclusions: These results suggest that genetic variation in the MT gene region and MTF1 influences urinary Cd, Cu, and Zn excretion. - Highlights: • Genetic variation in metallothionein (MT) genes was assessed in two diverse populations. • Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MT genes were associated with mean urinary Cd, Cu and Zn. • Genetic variation may influence biomarkers of exposure, and associations of exposure with health.

  9. Work-related ill health in doctors working in Great Britain: incidence rates and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Anli Yue; Carder, Melanie; Gittins, Matthew; Agius, Raymond

    2017-11-01

    Background Doctors have a higher prevalence of mental ill health compared with other professional occupations but incidence rates are poorly studied. Aims To determine incidence rates and trends of work-related ill health (WRIH) and work-related mental ill health (WRMIH) in doctors compared with other professions in Great Britain. Method Incidence rates were calculated using an occupational physician reporting scheme from 2005-2010. Multilevel regression was use to study incidence rates from 2001 to 2014. Results Annual incidence rates for WRIH and WRIMH in doctors were 515 and 431 per 100 000 people employed, respectively. Higher incidence rates for WRIH and WRMIH were observed for ambulance staff and nurses, respectively. Doctors demonstrated an annual average incidence rates increase for WRIH and WRMIH, especially in women, whereas the other occupations demonstrated a decreasing or static trend. The difference in trends between the occupations was statistically significant. Conclusions WRIH and WRMIH incidence rate are increasing in doctors, especially in women, warranting further research. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  10. Proposed Method for Estimating Health-Promoting Glucosinolates and Hydrolysis Products in Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Using Relative Transcript Abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Talon M; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Juvik, John A

    2017-01-18

    Due to the importance of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products in human nutrition and plant defense, optimizing the content of these compounds is a frequent breeding objective for Brassica crops. Toward this goal, we investigated the feasibility of using models built from relative transcript abundance data for the prediction of glucosinolate and hydrolysis product concentrations in broccoli. We report that predictive models explaining at least 50% of the variation for a number of glucosinolates and their hydrolysis products can be built for prediction within the same season, but prediction accuracy decreased when using models built from one season's data for prediction of an opposing season. This method of phytochemical profile prediction could potentially allow for lower phytochemical phenotyping costs and larger breeding populations. This, in turn, could improve selection efficiency for phase II induction potential, a type of chemopreventive bioactivity, by allowing for the quick and relatively cheap content estimation of phytochemicals known to influence the trait.

  11. Relative tropospheric photolysis rates of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde measured at the European Photoreactor Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Bache-Andreassen, Lihn; Johnson, Matthew Stanley

    2009-01-01

    The photolysis rates of HCHO, DCDO, CH3CHO, and CH3CDO are studied by long-path FTIR spectroscopy in natural tropospheric conditions at the European Photoreactor Facility (EUPHORE) in Valencia, Spain. Average relative photolysis rates jHCHO/jDCDO ) 3.15 ( 0.08 and jCH3CHO/jCH3CDO ) 1.26 ( 0.03 ar.......03 are obtained from three days of experiments for each reaction in the period June 17 to July 7, 2006.......The photolysis rates of HCHO, DCDO, CH3CHO, and CH3CDO are studied by long-path FTIR spectroscopy in natural tropospheric conditions at the European Photoreactor Facility (EUPHORE) in Valencia, Spain. Average relative photolysis rates jHCHO/jDCDO ) 3.15 ( 0.08 and jCH3CHO/jCH3CDO ) 1.26 ( 0...

  12. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  13. No substantial changes in estrogen receptor and estrogen-related receptor orthologue gene transcription in Marisa cornuarietis exposed to estrogenic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Richard; Beresford, Nicola; Granger, David W; Pounds, Nadine A; Rand-Weaver, Mariann; White, Roger; Jobling, Susan; Routledge, Edwin J

    2013-09-15

    Estrogen receptor orthologues in molluscs may be targets for endocrine disruptors, although mechanistic evidence is lacking. Molluscs are reported to be highly susceptible to effects caused by very low concentrations of environmental estrogens which, if substantiated, would have a major impact on the risk assessment of many chemicals. The present paper describes the most thorough evaluation to-date of the susceptibility of Marisa cornuarietis ER and ERR gene transcription to modulation by vertebrate estrogens in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the effects of estradiol-17β and 4-tert-Octylphenol exposure on in vivo estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogen-related receptor (ERR) gene transcription in the reproductive and neural tissues of the gastropod snail M. cornuarietis over a 12-week period. There was no significant effect (p>0.05) of treatment on gene transcription levels between exposed and non-exposed snails. Absence of a direct interaction of estradiol-17β and 4-tert-Octylphenol with mollusc ER and ERR protein was also supported by in vitro studies in transfected HEK-293 cells. Additional in vitro studies with a selection of other potential ligands (including methyl-testosterone, 17α-ethinylestradiol, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, diethylstilbestrol, cyproterone acetate and ICI182780) showed no interaction when tested using this assay. In repeated in vitro tests, however, genistein (with mcER-like) and bisphenol-A (with mcERR) increased reporter gene expression at high concentrations only (>10(-6)M for Gen and >10(-5)M for BPA, respectively). Like vertebrate estrogen receptors, the mollusc ER protein bound to the consensus vertebrate estrogen-response element (ERE). Together, these data provide no substantial evidence that mcER-like and mcERR activation and transcript levels in tissues are modulated by the vertebrate estrogen estradiol-17β or 4-tert-Octylphenol in vivo, or that other ligands of vertebrate ERs and ERRs (with the possible exception of genistein and

  14. No substantial changes in estrogen receptor and estrogen-related receptor orthologue gene transcription in Marisa cornuarietis exposed to estrogenic chemicals☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Richard; Beresford, Nicola; Granger, David W.; Pounds, Nadine A.; Rand-Weaver, Mariann; White, Roger; Jobling, Susan; Routledge, Edwin J.

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor orthologues in molluscs may be targets for endocrine disruptors, although mechanistic evidence is lacking. Molluscs are reported to be highly susceptible to effects caused by very low concentrations of environmental estrogens which, if substantiated, would have a major impact on the risk assessment of many chemicals. The present paper describes the most thorough evaluation to-date of the susceptibility of Marisa cornuarietis ER and ERR gene transcription to modulation by vertebrate estrogens in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the effects of estradiol-17β and 4-tert-Octylphenol exposure on in vivo estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogen-related receptor (ERR) gene transcription in the reproductive and neural tissues of the gastropod snail M. cornuarietis over a 12-week period. There was no significant effect (p > 0.05) of treatment on gene transcription levels between exposed and non-exposed snails. Absence of a direct interaction of estradiol-17β and 4-tert-Octylphenol with mollusc ER and ERR protein was also supported by in vitro studies in transfected HEK-293 cells. Additional in vitro studies with a selection of other potential ligands (including methyl-testosterone, 17α-ethinylestradiol, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, diethylstilbestrol, cyproterone acetate and ICI182780) showed no interaction when tested using this assay. In repeated in vitro tests, however, genistein (with mcER-like) and bisphenol-A (with mcERR) increased reporter gene expression at high concentrations only (>10−6 M for Gen and >10−5 M for BPA, respectively). Like vertebrate estrogen receptors, the mollusc ER protein bound to the consensus vertebrate estrogen-response element (ERE). Together, these data provide no substantial evidence that mcER-like and mcERR activation and transcript levels in tissues are modulated by the vertebrate estrogen estradiol-17β or 4-tert-Octylphenol in vivo, or that other ligands of vertebrate ERs and ERRs (with the possible exception of

  15. Exchange Rate – Relative Price Nonlinear Cointegration Relationship in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Venus Khim-Sen Liew; Chee-Keong Choong; Evan Lau; Kian-Ping Lim

    2005-01-01

    The finding of exchange rate–relative price nonlinear cointegration relationship in Malaysia, among others, suggests that nonlinear Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) equilibrium may be regarded as reference point in judging the short run misalignment of the Ringgit currency and thereby deducing effective policy actions. Moreover, economists who wish to extend the simple PPP exchange rate model into the more complicated monetary exchange models may do so comfortably, at least in the text of Mala...

  16. AGO1, QDE-2, and RDE-1 are related proteins required for post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants, quelling in fungi, and RNA interference in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, M; Boutet, S; Morel, J B; Bellini, C; Vaucheret, H

    2000-10-10

    Introduction of transgene DNA may lead to specific degradation of RNAs that are homologous to the transgene transcribed sequence through phenomena named post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants, quelling in fungi, and RNA interference (RNAi) in animals. It was shown previously that PTGS, quelling, and RNAi require a set of related proteins (SGS2, QDE-1, and EGO-1, respectively). Here we report the isolation of Arabidopsis mutants impaired in PTGS which are affected at the Argonaute1 (AGO1) locus. AGO1 is similar to QDE-2 required for quelling and RDE-1 required for RNAi. Sequencing of ago1 mutants revealed one amino acid essential for PTGS that is also present in QDE-2 and RDE-1 in a highly conserved motif. Taken together, these results confirm the hypothesis that these processes derive from a common ancestral mechanism that controls expression of invading nucleic acid molecules at the post-transcriptional level. As opposed to rde-1 and qde-2 mutants, which are viable, ago1 mutants display several developmental abnormalities, including sterility. These results raise the possibility that PTGS, or at least some of its elements, could participate in the regulation of gene expression during development in plants.

  17. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Olesen, Bjarne W. [ICIEE/BYG, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Iwamatsu, Toshiya [Faculty of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Asada, Hideo [Architech Consulting Co., Tokyo (Japan); Dovjak, Mateja [Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Schellen, Lisje [Eindhoven University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning (Netherlands); Shukuya, Masanori [Laboratory of Building Environment, Tokyo City University, Yokohama (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Application of the exergy concept to research on the built environment is a relatively new approach. It helps to optimize climate conditioning systems so that they meet the requirements of sustainable building design. As the building should provide a healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation. Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy consumption rates increase as the operative temperature increases above 24 C or decreases below 22 C. With the data available so far, a second-order polynomial relationship between thermal sensation and the exergy consumption rate was established. (author)

  18. Flow rate-pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Cognet, Vincent; Shidhore, Tanmay C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2018-04-01

    Laminar flow in devices fabricated from soft materials causes deformation of the passage geometry, which affects the flow rate--pressure drop relation. For a given pressure drop, in channels with narrow rectangular cross-section, the flow rate varies as the cube of the channel height, so deformation can produce significant quantitative effects, including nonlinear dependence on the pressure drop [{Gervais, T., El-Ali, J., G\\"unther, A. \\& Jensen, K.\\ F.}\\ 2006 Flow-induced deformation of shallow microfluidic channels.\\ \\textit{Lab Chip} \\textbf{6}, 500--507]. Gervais et. al. proposed a successful model of the deformation-induced change in the flow rate by heuristically coupling a Hookean elastic response with the lubrication approximation for Stokes flow. However, their model contains a fitting parameter that must be found for each channel shape by performing an experiment. We present a perturbation approach for the flow rate--pressure drop relation in a shallow deformable microchannel using the theory of isotropic quasi-static plate bending and the Stokes equations under a lubrication approximation (specifically, the ratio of the channel's height to its width and of the channel's height to its length are both assumed small). Our result contains no free parameters and confirms Gervais et. al.'s observation that the flow rate is a quartic polynomial of the pressure drop. The derived flow rate--pressure drop relation compares favorably with experimental measurements.

  19. Development in self-rated health among older people as determinant of social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Modvig, Jens Simon; Due, Pernille

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men.......The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men....

  20. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of nucleotide excision repair genes in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefkofsky, Hailey B. [Translational Oncology Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Veloso, Artur [Translational Oncology Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bioinformatics Program, Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ljungman, Mats, E-mail: ljungman@umich.edu [Translational Oncology Program, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes DNA helix-distorting lesions induced by UV light and various chemotherapeutic agents such as cisplatin. These lesions efficiently block the elongation of transcription and need to be rapidly removed by transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER) to avoid the induction of apoptosis. Twenty-nine genes have been classified to code for proteins participating in nucleotide excision repair (NER) in human cells. Here we explored the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of these NER genes across 13 human cell lines using Bru-seq and BruChase-seq, respectively. Many NER genes are relatively large in size and therefore will be easily inactivated by UV-induced transcription-blocking lesions. Furthermore, many of these genes produce transcripts that are rather unstable. Thus, these genes are expected to rapidly lose expression leading to a diminished function of NER. One such gene is ERCC6 that codes for the CSB protein critical for TC-NER. Due to its large gene size and high RNA turnover rate, the ERCC6 gene may act as dosimeter of DNA damage so that at high levels of damage, ERCC6 RNA levels would be diminished leading to the loss of CSB expression, inhibition of TC-NER and the promotion of cell death.

  1. Relative biological effectiveness of 125I seeds for low-dose-rate irradiation of PANC-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jidong; Wang Junjie; Zhuang Hongqing; Liao Anyan; Zhao Yong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative biological effectiveness(RBE) of National Model 6711 125 I seeds and the response patterns of PANC-1 exposed to 125 I seeds irradiation. Methods: PANC-1 cells in exponential growth were irradiated at initial dose rate of 2.59 cGy/h in vitro and exposed to 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy. Meanwhile, the other part of cells were exposed to the same doses by 60 Co at dose rate of 2.21 Gy/min. After irradiation, the cells were stained by trypan blue to measure the cellular mortality rate and to compare the changes along with plating times of 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after 4 Gy. The colonies were counted to obtain the plating efficiencies by colony-forming assay and the cell surviving faction was calculated to plot cell survival curves, and RBE of 125 I seeds relative to 60 Co was determined. Results: The cell death rate for continuous low- dose-rate (LDR) irradiation by 125 I seeds was greater than 60 Co at the same doses above or equal to 4 Gy. After 4 Gy irradiation, the cellular mortality rates were increased with times. The difference was significant between 125 I seeds and 60 Co. The survival fractions of 125 I were lower than those of 60 Co, and the RBE of 125 I relative to 60 Co was determined to be 1.45. Conclusion: The cell-killing effects for continuous low-dose-rate (LDR) irradiation by 125 I seeds are greater than acute high-dose-rate of 60 Co. (authors)

  2. Oral health-related quality of life in youth receiving cleft-related surgery: self-report and proxy ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Hillary L; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Sischo, Lacey

    2017-04-01

    This paper evaluated the impact of cleft-related surgery on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of youth with cleft over time. Data were derived from a 5-year, multi-center, prospective, longitudinal study of 1196 youth with cleft lip and/or palate and their caregivers. Eligible youth were between 7.5 and 18.5 years old, spoke English or Spanish, and were non-syndromic. During each observational period, which included baseline, and 1- and 2-year post-baseline follow-up visits, youths and their caregivers completed the Child Oral Health Impact Profile, a validated measure of OHRQoL. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to analyze the effects of receipt of craniofacial surgery on OHRQoL over time. During the course of this study a total of 516 patients (43 %) received at least one surgery. Youth in the surgery recommendation group had lower self- (β = -2.18, p self- and proxy-rated OHRQoL at baseline. Both surgical and non-surgical youth (β = 3.73, p self-reported OHRQoL for youth postsurgery (β = 1.04, p self- and caregiver-rated OHRQoL when compared to non-surgical youth. Youth who underwent cleft-related surgery had significant incremental improvements in self-rated but not caregiver (proxy)-rated OHRQoL after surgery.

  3. The Common Factor of Bilateral U.S. Exchange Rates: What is it Related to?

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomareva, Natalia; Sheen, Jeffrey; Wang, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We identify a common factor driving a panel of fifteen monthly bilateral exchange rates against the U.S. dollar. We find this factor is closely related to U.S. nominal and real macroeconomic variables, financial market variables and commodity prices. Our results suggest this common factor is broadly related to the macroeconomic fundamentals in the Taylor rule and uncovered interest parity models. However, the set of fundamentals relevant to these models changes over time.

  4. Survival Rate and Transcriptional Response upon Infection with the Generalist Parasite Beauveria bassiana in a World-Wide Sample of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paparazzo

    Full Text Available The ability to cope with infection by a parasite is one of the major challenges for any host species and is a major driver of evolution. Parasite pressure differs between habitats. It is thought to be higher in tropical regions compared to temporal ones. We infected Drosophila melanogaster from two tropical (Malaysia and Zimbabwe and two temperate populations (the Netherlands and North Carolina with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to examine if adaptation to local parasite pressures led to differences in resistance. Contrary to previous findings we observed increased survival in temperate populations. This, however, is not due to increased resistance to infection per se, but rather the consequence of a higher general vigor of the temperate populations. We also assessed transcriptional response to infection within these flies eight and 24 hours after infection. Only few genes were induced at the earlier time point, most of which are involved in detoxification. In contrast, we identified more than 4,000 genes that changed their expression state after 24 hours. This response was generally conserved over all populations with only few genes being uniquely regulated in the temperate populations. We furthermore found that the American population was transcriptionally highly diverged from all other populations concerning basal levels of gene expression. This was particularly true for stress and immune response genes, which might be the genetic basis for their elevated vigor.

  5. Survival Rate and Transcriptional Response upon Infection with the Generalist Parasite Beauveria bassiana in a World-Wide Sample of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparazzo, Francesco; Tellier, Aurélien; Stephan, Wolfgang; Hutter, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to cope with infection by a parasite is one of the major challenges for any host species and is a major driver of evolution. Parasite pressure differs between habitats. It is thought to be higher in tropical regions compared to temporal ones. We infected Drosophila melanogaster from two tropical (Malaysia and Zimbabwe) and two temperate populations (the Netherlands and North Carolina) with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to examine if adaptation to local parasite pressures led to differences in resistance. Contrary to previous findings we observed increased survival in temperate populations. This, however, is not due to increased resistance to infection per se, but rather the consequence of a higher general vigor of the temperate populations. We also assessed transcriptional response to infection within these flies eight and 24 hours after infection. Only few genes were induced at the earlier time point, most of which are involved in detoxification. In contrast, we identified more than 4,000 genes that changed their expression state after 24 hours. This response was generally conserved over all populations with only few genes being uniquely regulated in the temperate populations. We furthermore found that the American population was transcriptionally highly diverged from all other populations concerning basal levels of gene expression. This was particularly true for stress and immune response genes, which might be the genetic basis for their elevated vigor.

  6. Survival Rate and Transcriptional Response upon Infection with the Generalist Parasite Beauveria bassiana in a World-Wide Sample of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparazzo, Francesco; Tellier, Aurélien; Stephan, Wolfgang; Hutter, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to cope with infection by a parasite is one of the major challenges for any host species and is a major driver of evolution. Parasite pressure differs between habitats. It is thought to be higher in tropical regions compared to temporal ones. We infected Drosophila melanogaster from two tropical (Malaysia and Zimbabwe) and two temperate populations (the Netherlands and North Carolina) with the generalist entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to examine if adaptation to local parasite pressures led to differences in resistance. Contrary to previous findings we observed increased survival in temperate populations. This, however, is not due to increased resistance to infection per se, but rather the consequence of a higher general vigor of the temperate populations. We also assessed transcriptional response to infection within these flies eight and 24 hours after infection. Only few genes were induced at the earlier time point, most of which are involved in detoxification. In contrast, we identified more than 4,000 genes that changed their expression state after 24 hours. This response was generally conserved over all populations with only few genes being uniquely regulated in the temperate populations. We furthermore found that the American population was transcriptionally highly diverged from all other populations concerning basal levels of gene expression. This was particularly true for stress and immune response genes, which might be the genetic basis for their elevated vigor. PMID:26154519

  7. [The effect of assertiveness training on communication related factors and personnel turnover rate among hospital nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung Ja; Lee, Haejung

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of assertiveness training on nurses' assertive behaviors, interpersonal relations, communication conflicts, conflict management style and personnel turnover rate. A non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used in this study. Nurses were assigned into the experimental or control groups, each consisting of 39 nurses. Data was collected between January to March 2004. An 'Assertiveness Training Program' for Nurses developed by Park was used for the study. To emphasize assertiveness practice, 5 practice sessions utilizing ABCDE principles were added to Park's program. To examine the effects of the program, differences between the two groups in assertive behaviors, interpersonal relations, communication conflicts, conflict management style and personnel turnover rate were analyzed using ANCOVA. The assertiveness training was effective in improving the nurses' assertiveness behaviors, but was not effective in improving interpersonal relations, reducing the subjects' communication conflicts, changing the conflict management style or reducing their personnel turnover rate. There have been many studies about factors affecting nurses' personnel turnover rates, but few have been done about methods of intervention to reduce the personnel turnover rate. Thus, this study provides a significant contribution in attempting such an intervention from nursing management perspectives.

  8. Accumulation of defence-related transcripts and cloning of a chitinase mRNA from pea leaves (Pisum sativum L.) inoculated with Ascochyta pisi Lib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vad, Knud; de Neergaard, Eigil; Madriz-Ordeñana, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The race specific resistance of pea to Ascochyta pisi Lib. was shown to be exhibited as a hypersensitive response associated with the production of polyphenolic substances in epidermal and mesophyll cells. The levels of transcripts representing a pathogenesis-related (PR) protein (chitinase......) and an enzyme of phytoalexin biosynthesis (chalcone synthase) were shown to accumulate more rapidly during the hypersensitive response than during lesion development in the compatible interaction. A full-length (1143 bp) cDNA sequence of a pea chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) (coding for an approx. 34 500 Da protein......) was deduced by combining the overlapping sequences of three clones obtained following PCR amplification of cDNA prepared from mRNA isolated 24 h after inoculation of pea leaves with Ascochyta pisi. The combined sequences were identified as a class I chitinase corresponding to the basic A1-chitinase enzyme...

  9. Using field feedback to estimate failure rates of safety-related systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brissaud, Florent

    2017-01-01

    The IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 functional safety standards encourage the use of field feedback to estimate the failure rates of safety-related systems, which is preferred than generic data. In some cases (if “Route 2_H” is adopted for the 'hardware safety integrity constraints”), this is even a requirement. This paper presents how to estimate the failure rates from field feedback with confidence intervals, depending if the failures are detected on-line (called 'detected failures', e.g. by automatic diagnostic tests) or only revealed by proof tests (called 'undetected failures'). Examples show that for the same duration and number of failures observed, the estimated failure rates are basically higher for “undetected failures” because, in this case, the duration observed includes intervals of time where it is unknown that the elements have failed. This points out the need of using a proper approach for failure rates estimation, especially for failures that are not detected on-line. Then, this paper proposes an approach to use the estimated failure rates, with their uncertainties, for PFDavg and PFH assessment with upper confidence bounds, in accordance with IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 requirements. Examples finally show that the highest SIL that can be claimed for a safety function can be limited by the 90% upper confidence bound of PFDavg or PFH. The requirements of the IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 relating to the data collection and analysis should therefore be properly considered for the study of all safety-related systems. - Highlights: • This paper deals with requirements of the IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 for using field feedback to estimate failure rates of safety-related systems. • This paper presents how to estimate the failure rates from field feedback with confidence intervals for failures that are detected on-line. • This paper presents how to estimate the failure rates from field feedback with confidence intervals for failures that are only revealed by

  10. Development in self-rated health among older people as determinant of social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Modvig, Jens Simon; Due, Pernille

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men....

  11. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  12. State-related differences in heart rate variability in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a validated measure of sympato-vagal balance in the autonomic nervous system. HRV appears decreased in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy individuals, but the extent of state-related alterations has been sparingly investigated. The present...... bipolar disorder and could...

  13. Job performance ratings : The relative importance of mental ability, conscientiousness, and career adaptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohme, Melanie; Zacher, Hannes

    According to career construction theory, continuous adaptation to the work environment is crucial to achieve work and career success. In this study, we examined the relative importance of career adaptability for job performance ratings using an experimental policy-capturing design. Employees (N =

  14. Citation Rate of Highly-Cited Papers in 100 Kinesiology-Related Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane

    2015-01-01

    This study extended previous research on several citation-based bibliometric variables for highly cited articles in a large (N = 100) number of journals related to Kinesiology. Total citations and citation rate of the 30 most highly cited articles in each journal were identified by searchers of "Google Scholar (GS)". Other major…

  15. The relations between personality traits and psychopathy as measured by ratings and self-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujačić Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relations between psychopathy - as assessed by ratings (PCL-R and by self-report (SRP3 - on one side, and The Five-Factor personality Model - expanded to include the traits Amorality and Disintegration - on the other. Both methods examined four traits of psychopathy: interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial characteristics. Data were collected on a sample of 112 male convicts. The results show the absence of congruence between the two methods - self-report and rating - in case of interpersonal and affective psychopathic dispositions. This incongruence is also reflected in their relations with personality traits. The self-report measures and the ratings of Lifestyle and Antisocial tendencies are related to amorality, aggressiveness, schizotypy, Neuroticism and impulsivity. However, the ratings of affective and interpersonal style are related to the integrated, organized, and emotionally stable aspects of personality. The results are interpreted in the light of differences between the methods of assessment and in the light of the essential characteristics of the psychopathic phenomena.

  16. An estimator for the relative entropy rate of path measures for stochastic differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opper, Manfred, E-mail: manfred.opper@tu-berlin.de

    2017-02-01

    We address the problem of estimating the relative entropy rate (RER) for two stochastic processes described by stochastic differential equations. For the case where the drift of one process is known analytically, but one has only observations from the second process, we use a variational bound on the RER to construct an estimator.

  17. RNA-seq for gene identification and transcript profiling in relation to root growth of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Li, Huiying; Chen, Liang; Lou, Yanhong; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jinmin

    2015-08-04

    Soil salinity is one of the most significant abiotic stresses affecting plant shoots and roots growth. The adjustment of root architecture to spatio-temporal heterogeneity in salinity is particularly critical for plant growth and survival. Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used turf and forage perennial grass with a high degree of salinity tolerance. Salinity appears to stimulate the growth of roots and decrease their mortality in tolerant bermudagrass. To estimate a broad spectrum of genes related to root elongation affected by salt stress and the molecular mechanisms that control the positive response of root architecture to salinity, we analyzed the transcriptome of bermudagrass root tips in response to salinity. RNA-sequencing was performed in root tips of two bermudagrass genotypes contrasting in salt tolerance. A total of 237,850,130 high quality clean reads were generated and 250,359 transcripts were assembled with an average length of 1115 bp. Totally, 103,324 unigenes obtained with 53,765 unigenes (52 %) successfully annotated in databases. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that major transcription factor (TF) families linked to stress responses and growth regulation (MYB, bHLH, WRKY) were differentially expressed in root tips of bermudagrass under salinity. In addition, genes related to cell wall loosening and stiffening (xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases, peroxidases) were identified. RNA-seq analysis identified candidate genes encoding TFs involved in the regulation of lignin synthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis controlled by peroxidases, and the regulation of phytohormone signaling that promote cell wall loosening and therefore root growth under salinity.

  18. Heme oxygenase up-regulation under ultraviolet-B radiation is not epigenetically restricted and involves specific stress-related transcriptions factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Santa-Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 plays a protective role against oxidative stress in plants. The mechanisms regulating its expression, however, remain unclear. Here we studied the methylation state of a GC rich HO-1 promoter region and the expression of several stress-related transcription factors (TFs in soybean plants subjected to ultraviolet-B (UV-B radiation. Genomic DNA and total RNA were isolated from leaves of plants irradiated with 7.5 and 15 kJ m-2 UV-B. A 304 bp HO-1 promoter region was amplified by PCR from sodium bisulfite-treated DNA, cloned into pGEMT plasmid vector and evaluated by DNA sequencing. Bisulfite sequencing analysis showed similar HO-1 promoter methylation levels in control and UV-B-treated plants (C: 3.4±1.3%; 7.5: 2.6±0.5%; 15: 3.1±1.1%. Interestingly, HO-1 promoter was strongly unmethylated in control plants. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of TFs showed that GmMYB177, GmMYBJ6, GmWRKY21, GmNAC11, GmNAC20 and GmGT2A but not GmWRK13 and GmDREB were induced by UV-B radiation. The expression of several TFs was also enhanced by hemin, a potent and specific HO inducer, inferring that they may mediate HO-1 up-regulation. These results suggest that soybean HO-1 gene expression is not epigenetically regulated. Moreover, the low level of HO-1 promoter methylation suggests that this antioxidant enzyme can rapidly respond to environmental stress. Finally, this study has identified some stress-related TFs involved in HO-1 up-regulation under UV-B radiation. Keywords: Heme oxygenase, DNA methylation, Transcription factors, Ultraviolet-B radiation, Glycine max

  19. Diversification rates are more strongly related to microhabitat than climate in squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars-Closel, Melissa; Kohlsdorf, Tiana; Moen, Daniel S; Wiens, John J

    2017-09-01

    Patterns of species richness among clades can be directly explained by the ages of clades or their rates of diversification. The factors that most strongly influence diversification rates remain highly uncertain, since most studies typically consider only a single predictor variable. Here, we explore the relative impacts of macroclimate (i.e., occurring in tropical vs. temperate regions) and microhabitat use (i.e., terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal, aquatic) on diversification rates of squamate reptile clades (lizards and snakes). We obtained data on microhabitat, macroclimatic distribution, and phylogeny for >4000 species. We estimated diversification rates of squamate clades (mostly families) from a time-calibrated tree, and used phylogenetic methods to test relationships between diversification rates and microhabitat and macroclimate. Across 72 squamate clades, the best-fitting model included microhabitat but not climatic distribution. Microhabitat explained ∼37% of the variation in diversification rates among clades, with a generally positive impact of arboreal microhabitat use on diversification, and negative impacts of fossorial and aquatic microhabitat use. Overall, our results show that the impacts of microhabitat on diversification rates can be more important than those of climate, despite much greater emphasis on climate in previous studies. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Magnet-related injury rates in children: a single hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, Chioma; Lee, Lois; Chiang, Vincent; Landscahft, Assaf; Kimia, Tomer; Monuteaux, Michael C; Kimia, Amir A

    2013-07-01

    The ingestion of multiple magnets simultaneously or the placement of magnets in both nares can lead to serious injury resulting from the attraction of the magnets across the tissues. The impact of mandatory standards for toys containing magnets has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of the present study was to describe the emergency department (ED) visit rate for magnet-related injuries. We performed a retrospective study of children evaluated for magnet-related injuries from 1995 to 2012 in an urban tertiary care pediatric ED. We identified cases using a computerized text-search methodology followed by manual chart review. We included children evaluated for magnet ingestion or impaction in the ears, nose, vagina, or rectum. We assessed the type and number of magnets as well as management and required interventions. A Poisson regression model was used to analyze rates of injury over time. We identified 112 cases of magnet injuries. The median patient age was 6 years (IQR 3.5, 10), and 54% were male. Compared to before 2006, the rate for all magnet-related injuries in 2007-2012 (incidence rate ratio 3.44; 95% confidence interval 2.3-5.11) as well as multiple magnet-related injuries (incidence rate ratio 7.54; 95% confidence interval 3.51-16.19) increased. Swallowed magnets accounted for 86% of the injuries. Thirteen patients had endoscopy performed for magnet removal (12%), and 4 (4%) had a surgical intervention. Magnets from toys account for the majority of the injuries. The number of ED visits for magnet-related injuries in children may be rising and are underreported, with an increase in the proportion of multiple magnets involvement. In our case series, mandatory standard for toys had no mitigating effect.

  1. Molecular effect of fenofibrate on PBMC gene transcription related to lipid metabolism in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Indias, I; Tinahones, F J; Clemente-Postigo, M; Castellano-Castillo, D; Fernández-García, J C; Macias-Gonzalez, M; Queipo-Ortuño, M I; Cardona, F

    2017-06-01

    Both fasting and postprandial hypertriglyceridaemia are considered independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. Treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia is based on fibrates, which activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). However, the metabolic pathways that activate or inhibit fibrates, and how the postprandial triglyceride levels are modified, have not yet been fully described. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to study the effects of fenofibrate in patients with the metabolic syndrome. A fat overload was given to 50 patients before and after treatment with fenofibrate for 3 months. Anthropometric and biochemical variables as well as gene expression in PBMC were analysed. After treatment with fenofibrate, we observed a decrease in both baseline and postprandial (3 h after the fat overload) levels of serum triglycerides, cholesterol and uric acid and an increase in HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI levels. After treatment, there was also a rise in PPARα and RXRα expression and changes in genes regulated by PPARα, both baseline and postprandial. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that a PPARα agonist changed the expression of genes related with lipid metabolism. Treatment with fenofibrate reduced fasting and postprandial serum triglyceride levels, possibly through a mechanism related with an increase in the expression of RXRα and PPARα, by activating the pathways involved in the uptake and degradation of triglycerides and increasing the synthesis of apolipoprotein. These results suggest that PBMC may be useful for the easy study of fenofibrate actions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Bonneau, Kara; Vandellen, Michelle; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time-that is, between one year's achievement and the subsequent year's dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved performance saw decreased dropout rates following these successes. However, we find

  3. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    GLENNIE, ELIZABETH; BONNEAU, KARA; VANDELLEN, MICHELLE; DODGE, KENNETH A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. Purpose/Objective/Focus This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Research Design Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time—that is, between one year’s achievement and the subsequent year’s dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. Findings/Results This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved

  4. Survival and reproductive rate of mites in relation to resistance of their barn swallow hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P

    2000-08-01

    Parasite resistance may act via a number of different mechanisms that regulate or control the survival and the reproductive rate of parasites. Observations and experiments were used to test for effects of host resistance on parasite survival and rate of reproduction. Natural levels of infestation of barn swallow Hirundo rustica nests by the tropical fowl mite Ornithonyssus bursa were positively related to brood size, inversely related to the length of the outermost tail feathers of male nest owners (a secondary sexual character) and affected by time of reproduction by the host. A mite inoculation experiment, in which 50 adult mites were introduced into nests during the laying period of the host, was used to test for differential survival and reproduction of mites as a function of host resistance. The relationship between survival and reproduction of parasites, male tail length and host resistance was investigated. There was a negative relationship between mite numbers per nest after fledging of nestlings and male tail length. This relationship was mainly caused by a reduction in the number of mites in the first and second nymph stage with increasing tail length of male hosts, implying a reduction in rate of reproduction of mites. The proportion of mites that had recently fed was inversely related to tail length of male hosts. The proportion of nymph stages was positively related to the proportion of mites that had recently had a blood meal. Parasite resistance of barn swallows to the tropical fowl mite thus appeared to act through increased mortality rate of adult and nymph stages of mites, and through reduced reproductive rates of mites on resistant hosts. This is the first study demonstating a direct relationship between fitness components of a parasite and the expression of a secondary sexual character of a host.

  5. Temporal discounting rates and their relation to exercise behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Linda M; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Landes, Reid D; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Lefler, Leanne L

    2015-12-01

    As our nation's population ages, the rates of chronic illness and disability are expected to increase significantly. Despite the knowledge that exercise may prevent chronic disease and promote health among older adults, many still are inactive. Factors related to exercise behaviors have been explored in recent years. However, temporal discounting is a motivational concept that has not been explored in regard to exercise in older adults. Temporal discounting is a decision making process by which an individual chooses a smaller more immediate reward over a larger delayed reward. The aim of this study was to determine if temporal discounting rates vary between exercising and non-exercising older adults. This study used cross-sectional survey of 137 older adults living in the community. Older adults were recruited from 11 rural Arkansas churches. The Kirby delay-discounting Monetary Choice Questionnaire was used to collect discounting rates and then bivariate analysis was performed to compare temporal discounting rate between the exercisers and non-exercisers. Finally, multivariate analysis was used to compare discounting rate controlling for other covariates. The results indicated that exercising older adults display lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercising older adults. After controlling for education, exercisers still have lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercisers (phealth conditions relate to lack of exercise especially in older adults. This research suggests that if we can find appropriate incentives for discounting individuals, some type of immediate reward, then potentially we can design programs to engage and retain older adults in exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bacterial growth on surfaces: Automated image analysis for quantification of growth rate-related parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S.; Sternberg, Claus; Poulsen, L. K.

    1995-01-01

    species-specific hybridizations with fluorescence-labelled ribosomal probes to estimate the single-cell concentration of RNA. By automated analysis of digitized images of stained cells, we determined four independent growth rate-related parameters: cellular RNA and DNA contents, cell volume......, and the frequency of dividing cells in a cell population. These parameters were used to compare physiological states of liquid-suspended and surfacegrowing Pseudomonas putida KT2442 in chemostat cultures. The major finding is that the correlation between substrate availability and cellular growth rate found...

  7. On the Relation between Tax Rates and Evasion in a Multi-period Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Caball?Author-Email:; Judith Panad?

    2001-01-01

    We extend the basic tax evasion model to a multi-period economy exhibiting sustained growth. When individuals conceal part of their true income from the tax authority, they face the risk of being audited and hence of paying the corresponding fine. Both taxes and fines determine individual saving and the rate of capital accumulation. In this context we show that the sign of the relation between the level of the tax rate and the amount of evaded income is the same as that obtained in static set...

  8. On the relation between tax rates and evasion in a multi-period economy

    OpenAIRE

    Caballé, Jordi

    2006-01-01

    We extend the basic tax evasion model to a multi-period economy exhibiting sustained growth. When individuals conceal part of their true income from the tax authority, they face the risk of being audited and hence of paying the corresponding fine. Both taxes and fines determine individual saving and the rate of capital accumulation. In this context we show that the sign of the relation between the level of the tax rate and the amount of evaded income is the same as that obtained in static set...

  9. The Csr/Rsm system of Yersinia and related pathogens: a post-transcriptional strategy for managing virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Böhme, Katja; Dersch, Petra

    2012-04-01

    This review emphasizes the function and regulation of the Csr regulatory system in the human enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and compares its features with the homologous Csr/Rsm systems of related pathogens. The Csr/Rsm systems of eubacteria form a complex regulatory network in which redundant non-translated Csr/Rsm-RNAs bind the RNA-binding protein CsrA/RsmA, thereby preventing its interaction with mRNA targets. The Csr system is controlled by the BarA/UvrY-type of two-component sensor-regulator systems. Apart from that, common or pathogen-specific regulators control the abundance of the Csr components. The coordinate control of virulence factors and infection-linked physiological traits by the Csr/Rsm systems helps the pathogens to adapt individually to rapidly changing conditions to which they are exposed during the different stages of an infection. As Csr/Rsm function is relevant for full virulence, it represents a target suitable for antimicrobial drug development.

  10. Evolution of cultural traits occurs at similar relative rates in different world regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth

    2014-11-22

    A fundamental issue in understanding human diversity is whether or not there are regular patterns and processes involved in cultural change. Theoretical and mathematical models of cultural evolution have been developed and are increasingly being used and assessed in empirical analyses. Here, we test the hypothesis that the rates of change of features of human socio-cultural organization are governed by general rules. One prediction of this hypothesis is that different cultural traits will tend to evolve at similar relative rates in different world regions, despite the unique historical backgrounds of groups inhabiting these regions. We used phylogenetic comparative methods and systematic cross-cultural data to assess how different socio-cultural traits changed in (i) island southeast Asia and the Pacific, and (ii) sub-Saharan Africa. The relative rates of change in these two regions are significantly correlated. Furthermore, cultural traits that are more directly related to external environmental conditions evolve more slowly than traits related to social structures. This is consistent with the idea that a form of purifying selection is acting with greater strength on these more environmentally linked traits. These results suggest that despite contingent historical events and the role of humans as active agents in the historical process, culture does indeed evolve in ways that can be predicted from general principles.

  11. Deletion of the transcriptional coactivator PGC1α in skeletal muscles is associated with reduced expression of genes related to oxidative muscle function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatazawa, Yukino; Minami, Kimiko; Yoshimura, Ryoji; Onishi, Takumi; Manio, Mark Christian; Inoue, Kazuo; Sawada, Naoki; Suzuki, Osamu; Miura, Shinji; Kamei, Yasutomi

    2016-01-01

    The expression of the transcriptional coactivator PGC1α is increased in skeletal muscles during exercise. Previously, we showed that increased PGC1α leads to prolonged exercise performance (the duration for which running can be continued) and, at the same time, increases the expression of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism-related enzymes and genes that are involved in supplying substrates for the TCA cycle. We recently created mice with PGC1α knockout specifically in the skeletal muscles (PGC1α KO mice), which show decreased mitochondrial content. In this study, global gene expression (microarray) analysis was performed in the skeletal muscles of PGC1α KO mice compared with that of wild-type control mice. As a result, decreased expression of genes involved in the TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and BCAA metabolism were observed. Compared with previously obtained microarray data on PGC1α-overexpressing transgenic mice, each gene showed the completely opposite direction of expression change. Bioinformatic analysis of the promoter region of genes with decreased expression in PGC1α KO mice predicted the involvement of several transcription factors, including a nuclear receptor, ERR, in their regulation. As PGC1α KO microarray data in this study show opposing findings to the PGC1α transgenic data, a loss-of-function experiment, as well as a gain-of-function experiment, revealed PGC1α’s function in the oxidative energy metabolism of skeletal muscles. - Highlights: • Microarray analysis was performed in the skeletal muscle of PGC1α KO mice. • Expression of genes in the oxidative energy metabolism was decreased. • Bioinformatic analysis of promoter region of the genes predicted involvement of ERR. • PGC1α KO microarray data in this study show the mirror image of transgenic data.

  12. The related transcriptional enhancer factor-1 isoform, TEAD4(216, can repress vascular endothelial growth factor expression in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy Appukuttan

    Full Text Available Increased cellular production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is responsible for the development and progression of multiple cancers and other neovascular conditions, and therapies targeting post-translational VEGF products are used in the treatment of these diseases. Development of methods to control and modify the transcription of the VEGF gene is an alternative approach that may have therapeutic potential. We have previously shown that isoforms of the transcriptional enhancer factor 1-related (TEAD4 protein can enhance the production of VEGF. In this study we describe a new TEAD4 isoform, TEAD4(216, which represses VEGF promoter activity. The TEAD4(216 isoform inhibits human VEGF promoter activity and does not require the presence of the hypoxia responsive element (HRE, which is the sequence critical to hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-mediated effects. The TEAD4(216 protein is localized to the cytoplasm, whereas the enhancer isoforms are found within the nucleus. The TEAD4(216 isoform can competitively repress the stimulatory activity of the TEAD4(434 and TEAD4(148 enhancers. Synthesis of the native VEGF(165 protein and cellular proliferation is suppressed by the TEAD4(216 isoform. Mutational analysis indicates that nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of any isoform determines whether it acts as an enhancer or repressor, respectively. The TEAD4(216 isoform appears to inhibit VEGF production independently of the HRE required activity by HIF, suggesting that this alternatively spliced isoform of TEAD4 may provide a novel approach to treat VEGF-dependent diseases.

  13. Mutual interdependence of splicing and transcription elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzyżek, Grzegorz; Świeżewski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    Transcription and splicing are intrinsically linked, as splicing needs a pre-mRNA substrate to commence. The more nuanced view is that the rate of transcription contributes to splicing regulation. On the other hand there is accumulating evidence that splicing has an active role in controlling transcription elongation by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We briefly review those mechanisms and propose a unifying model where splicing controls transcription elongation to provide an optimal timing for successive rounds of splicing.

  14. Picroside II Attenuates Airway Inflammation by Downregulating the Transcription Factor GATA3 and Th2-Related Cytokines in a Mouse Model of HDM-Induced Allergic Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Choi

    Full Text Available Picroside II isolated from Pseudolysimachion rotundum var. subintegrum has been used as traditional medicine to treat inflammatory diseases. In this study, we assessed whether picroside II has inhibitory effects on airway inflammation in a mouse model of house dust mite (HDM-induced asthma. In the HDM-induced asthmatic model, picroside II significantly reduced inflammatory cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, the levels of total immunoglobulin (Ig E and HDM-specific IgE and IgG1 in serum, airway inflammation, and mucus hypersecretion in the lung tissues. ELISA analysis showed that picroside II down-regulated the levels of Th2-related cytokines (including IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and asthma-related mediators, but it up-regulated Th1-related cytokine, IFNγ in BALF. Picroside II also inhibited the expression of Th2 type cytokine genes and the transcription factor GATA3 in the lung tissues of HDM-induced mice. Finally, we demonstrated that picroside II significantly decreased the expression of GATA3 and Th2 cytokines in developing Th2 cells, consistent with in vivo results. Taken together, these results indicate that picroside II has protective effects on allergic asthma by reducing GATA3 expression and Th2 cytokine bias.

  15. Metagenomic screening for aromatic compound-responsive transcriptional regulators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Uchiyama

    Full Text Available We applied a metagenomics approach to screen for transcriptional regulators that sense aromatic compounds. The library was constructed by cloning environmental DNA fragments into a promoter-less vector containing green fluorescence protein. Fluorescence-based screening was then performed in the presence of various aromatic compounds. A total of 12 clones were isolated that fluoresced in response to salicylate, 3-methyl catechol, 4-chlorocatechol and chlorohydroquinone. Sequence analysis revealed at least 1 putative transcriptional regulator, excluding 1 clone (CHLO8F. Deletion analysis identified compound-specific transcriptional regulators; namely, 8 LysR-types, 2 two-component-types and 1 AraC-type. Of these, 9 representative clones were selected and their reaction specificities to 18 aromatic compounds were investigated. Overall, our transcriptional regulators were functionally diverse in terms of both specificity and induction rates. LysR- and AraC- type regulators had relatively narrow specificities with high induction rates (5-50 fold, whereas two-component-types had wide specificities with low induction rates (3 fold. Numerous transcriptional regulators have been deposited in sequence databases, but their functions remain largely unknown. Thus, our results add valuable information regarding the sequence-function relationship of transcriptional regulators.

  16. Relation Between Rates of Geriatric Suicide and Consumption of Alcohol Beverages in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Among older adults, suicide is a significant and persistent health problem. The highest suicide rate is found among white men aged 65 years and older. The causes of elder suicide are multifaceted. Although no predominate factor precipitates or explains geriatric suicide, alcohol is strongly linked to suicide attempts and completions. This study examined the relationship between rates of suicide in 65- to 74-year-olds and per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages in European countries. Data on suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-olds and per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages were obtained from the World Health Organization databases. Correlations were computed to examine relationships between suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-old males and females and per capita consumption of beer, wine, and spirits in the general population in 34 European countries. There was a positive correlation between suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-old males and per capita consumption of spirits. No correlations between suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-old males and per capita consumption of beer or wine were found. We also found no correlations between rates of suicide in 65- to 74-year-old females and per capita consumption of beer, wine, or spirits. The results of this study are consistent with reports that consumption of spirits is associated with suicide events. It is to be hoped that this paper will stimulate further studies that are necessary to clarify the relation between suicide rates in different age groups and consumption of alcoholic beverages, and attract more attention to the problem of geriatric suicide.

  17. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2006-02-15

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution.

  18. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2006-02-01

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution

  19. Stigma, Attitudes, and Help-Seeking Intentions for Psychological Problems in Relation to Regional Suicide Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Alexandre; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Molenberghs, Geert; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2016-02-01

    In this ecological study, we investigated whether help-seeking related to stigma, intentions, and attitudes toward suicide are associated with the suicide rates of 20 regions within the Netherlands and Belgium. Significant associations were found between regional suicide rates and the intention to seek informal help (β = -1.47, p = .001), self-stigma (β = 1.33, p = .038), and shame (β = .71, p = .030). The association between self-stigma and suicide rate was mediated by intentions to seek informal help. These results suggest that to promote suicide prevention at the level of the regional population, stigma, shame, and intentions to seek help should be targeted in the public domain. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  20. The impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates: global data review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Maki; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Ferronato, Angela Esposito; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta

    2016-09-01

    to describe the impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates in countries that implemented universal vaccination against the disease. we identified countries that implemented universal vaccination against varicella at the http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/schedules site of the World Health Organization and selected articles in Pubmed describing the changes (pre/post-vaccination) in the varicella-related hospitalization rates in these countries, using the Keywords "varicella", "vaccination/vaccine" and "children" (or) "hospitalization". Publications in English published between January 1995 and May 2015 were included. 24 countries with universal vaccination against varicella and 28 articles describing the impact of the vaccine on varicella-associated hospitalizations rates in seven countries were identified. The US had 81.4% -99.2% reduction in hospitalization rates in children younger than four years after 6-14 years after the onset of universal vaccination (1995), with vaccination coverage of 90%; Uruguay: 94% decrease (children aged 1-4 years) in six years, vaccination coverage of 90%; Canada: 93% decrease (age 1-4 years) in 10 years, coverage of 93%; Germany: 62.4% decrease (age 1-4 years) in 8 years, coverage of 78.2%; Australia: 76.8% decrease (age 1-4 years) in 5 years, coverage of 90%; Spain: 83.5% decrease (age <5 years) in four years, coverage of 77.2% and Italy 69.7% -73.8% decrease (general population), coverage of 60%-95%. The publications showed variations in the percentage of decrease in varicella-related hospitalization rates after universal vaccination in the assessed countries; the results probably depend on the time since the implementation of universal vaccination, differences in the studied age group, hospital admission criteria, vaccination coverage and strategy, which does not allow direct comparison between data. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por

  1. The impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates: global data review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Hirose

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates in countries that implemented universal vaccination against the disease. Data source: We identified countries that implemented universal vaccination against varicella at the http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/schedules site of the World Health Organization and selected articles in Pubmed describing the changes (pre/post-vaccination in the varicella-related hospitalization rates in these countries, using the Keywords "varicella", "vaccination/vaccine" and "children" (or "hospitalization". Publications in English published between January 1995 and May 2015 were included. Data synthesis: 24 countries with universal vaccination against varicella and 28 articles describing the impact of the vaccine on varicella-associated hospitalizations rates in seven countries were identified. The US had 81.4%–99.2% reduction in hospitalization rates in children younger than four years, 6–14 years after the onset of universal vaccination (1995, with vaccination coverage of 90%; Uruguay: 94% decrease (children aged 1–4 years in six years, vaccination coverage of 90%; Canada: 93% decrease (age 1–4 years in 10 years, coverage of 93%; Germany: 62.4% decrease (age 1–4 years in 8 years, coverage of 78.2%; Australia: 76.8% decrease (age 1–4 years in 5 years, coverage of 90%; Spain: 83.5% decrease (age <5 years in four years, coverage of 77.2% and Italy 69.7%–73.8% decrease (general population, coverage of 60%–95%. Conclusions: The publications showed variations in the percentage of decrease in varicella-related hospitalization rates after universal vaccination in the assessed countries; the results probably depend on the time since the implementation of universal vaccination, differences in the studied age group, hospital admission criteria, vaccination coverage and strategy, which does not allow direct comparison between

  2. Self-rated health, psychosocial functioning, and health-related behavior among Thai adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn

    2009-02-01

    Despite the popularity of self-rated health (SRH) in Western countries as a useful public health tool, it has only rarely been used in Asian countries. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether measures of psychosocial functioning and health-related factors differ according to SRH in a school-based sample of Thai adolescents. The survey was given to 2519 adolescents attending 10 coeducational secondary high schools in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and included measures of psychosocial functioning (loneliness, hopelessness, shyness, perceptions of social status, self-rated happiness, and perception of physical attractiveness) and certain health-related factors (height/weight, physical activity, eating breakfast, sleep). The proportion of boys (5.1%) reporting that they were not healthy was similar to the proportion of girls (4.6%) making the same rating. These adolescents showed a pattern of overall poor health risk. Compared to adolescent peers who rated their health as healthy or very healthy, they were less physically active, got less sleep, were more likely to be overweight, and scored lower on loneliness, shyness, hopelessness, and self-rated happiness. The present pattern of poor health risk warrants attention and supports the merit of using SRH in adolescent health assessment. SRH is easy to obtain and simple to assess and single-item assessments of SRH appear to be valid measures of health status in adults and adolescent. Interventions, such as health counseling, mental health counseling, and health education, can target adolescents who rate themselves as 'not healthy' or report poor health status.

  3. Effects of Context and Relative Rank on Mate Choice and Affiliation Ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lynne Honey

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Female dominance has not often been studied as a factor in mate choice and other social interactions. When it has been examined, there have been a number of conflicting findings. The present study was designed to clarify interpretations of a study conducted by Brown and Lewis (2004 that found that men prefer subordinate women in a workplace context. We presented participants with information about the relative rank of physically attractive targets, in two very different contexts (work-related and recreational. We found that the context in which rank cues are presented has an impact on affiliation ratings, but that cues of rank do not affect mate choice ratings. Future studies of effects of dominance must take into account the context in which they are presented, and recognize that rank may not be a sufficient indicator of dominance for the purpose of mate choice by both men and women.

  4. Influence of the relative deformation rate on tube processing by ultrasonic vibration drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susan, M.; Bujoreanu, L. G.; Galusca, D. G.; Munteanu, C.; Lliescu, V.

    2004-01-01

    After a brief review of the friction reversion mechanism during ultrasonic vibration drawing of tubes (UVD), the paper introduces a method to determine the drawing force based on the theorem of total consumed power, in the case of tube processing. The experiments performed on tubes made from 10TiNiCr180 (AISI321) austenitic stainless steel confirm the superiority of UVD technology regarding the diminution of the drawing force, the increase of the plasticity and the improvement of the safety coefficient, tendencies that are enhanced with the decrease of the relative drawing rate. The best results were obtained for the relative drawing rate of 0.12 for which the drawing force decreased with 33%, plasticity increased with 9% and safety coefficient with 22%, as compared to CT. (Author) 10 refs

  5. Novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-11-01

    Ergodic capacity and average bit error rate have been widely used to compare the performance of different wireless communication systems. As such recent scientific research and studies revealed strong impact of designing and implementing wireless technologies based on these two performance indicators. However and to the best of our knowledge, the direct links between these two performance indicators have not been explicitly proposed in the literature so far. In this paper, we propose novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate of an overall communication system using binary modulation schemes for signaling with a limited bandwidth and operating over generalized fading channels. More specifically, we show that these two performance measures can be represented in terms of each other, without the need to know the exact end-to-end statistical characterization of the communication channel. We validate the correctness and accuracy of our newly proposed relations and illustrated their usefulness by considering some classical examples. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. The Relation between Recombination Rate and Patterns of Molecular Evolution and Variation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, José L.; Halligan, Daniel L.; Haddrill, Penelope R.; Charlesworth, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Genetic recombination associated with sexual reproduction increases the efficiency of natural selection by reducing the strength of Hill–Robertson interference. Such interference can be caused either by selective sweeps of positively selected alleles or by background selection (BGS) against deleterious mutations. Its consequences can be studied by comparing patterns of molecular evolution and variation in genomic regions with different rates of crossing over. We carried out a comprehensive study of the benefits of recombination in Drosophila melanogaster, both by contrasting five independent genomic regions that lack crossing over with the rest of the genome and by comparing regions with different rates of crossing over, using data on DNA sequence polymorphisms from an African population that is geographically close to the putatively ancestral population for the species, and on sequence divergence from a related species. We observed reductions in sequence diversity in noncrossover (NC) regions that are inconsistent with the effects of hard selective sweeps in the absence of recombination. Overall, the observed patterns suggest that the recombination rate experienced by a gene is positively related to an increase in the efficiency of both positive and purifying selection. The results are consistent with a BGS model with interference among selected sites in NC regions, and joint effects of BGS, selective sweeps, and a past population expansion on variability in regions of the genome that experience crossing over. In such crossover regions, the X chromosome exhibits a higher rate of adaptive protein sequence evolution than the autosomes, implying a Faster-X effect. PMID:24489114

  7. Development in self-rated health among older people as determinant of social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten; Modvig, Jens

    2004-01-01

    .3-5.2) in the two-point analyses. Furthermore, a deterioration in SRH predicted poor contact satisfaction OR=2.8 (1.7-4.5). All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, mental health, functional ability, cohabitation status, and a measure of social relations at baseline. Results for the three-point analyses were......AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men. METHODS: A longitudinal questionnaire-based study...

  8. THE OBSERVED RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, DUST EXTINCTION, AND STAR FORMATION RATE IN LOCAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, H. J.; Kewley, L. J.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Yates, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and star formation rate (SFR) using ∼150,000 star-forming galaxies from SDSS DR7. We show that the relation between dust extinction and SFR changes with stellar mass. For galaxies at the same stellar mass, dust extinction is anti-correlated with the SFR at stellar masses 10 M ☉ . There is a sharp transition in the relation at a stellar mass of 10 10 M ☉ . At larger stellar masses, dust extinction is positively correlated with the SFR for galaxies at the same stellar mass. The observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR presented in this study helps to confirm similar trends observed in the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR. The relation reported in this study provides important new constraints on the physical processes governing the chemical evolution of galaxies. The correlation between SFR and dust extinction for galaxies with stellar masses >10 10 M ☉ is shown to extend to the population of quiescent galaxies suggesting that the physical processes responsible for the observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR may be related to the processes leading to the shutdown of star formation in galaxies.

  9. THE OBSERVED RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, DUST EXTINCTION, AND STAR FORMATION RATE IN LOCAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahid, H. J.; Kewley, L. J.; Kudritzki, R. P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Yates, R. M. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    In this study, we investigate the relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and star formation rate (SFR) using {approx}150,000 star-forming galaxies from SDSS DR7. We show that the relation between dust extinction and SFR changes with stellar mass. For galaxies at the same stellar mass, dust extinction is anti-correlated with the SFR at stellar masses <10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }. There is a sharp transition in the relation at a stellar mass of 10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }. At larger stellar masses, dust extinction is positively correlated with the SFR for galaxies at the same stellar mass. The observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR presented in this study helps to confirm similar trends observed in the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR. The relation reported in this study provides important new constraints on the physical processes governing the chemical evolution of galaxies. The correlation between SFR and dust extinction for galaxies with stellar masses >10{sup 10} M {sub Sun} is shown to extend to the population of quiescent galaxies suggesting that the physical processes responsible for the observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR may be related to the processes leading to the shutdown of star formation in galaxies.

  10. Relative rate study of the kinetic isotope effect in the 13CH3D + Cl reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joelsson, Lars Magnus Torvald; Forecast, Roslyn; Schmidt, Johan Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    The 13CH3D/12CH4kinetic isotope effect, α13CH3D, of CH4 + Cl is determined for the first time, using the relative rate technique and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. α13CH3D is found to be 1.60 ± 0.04. In addition, a quantum chemistry/transition state theory model with tunneling...

  11. Calcitonin gene-related peptide alters the firing rates of hypothalamic temperature sensitive and insensitive neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimm Eleanor R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient hyperthermic shifts in body temperature have been linked to the endogenous hormone calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, which can increase sympathetic activation and metabolic heat production. Recent studies have demonstrated that these centrally mediated responses may result from CGRP dependent changes in the activity of thermoregulatory neurons in the preoptic and anterior regions of the hypothalamus (POAH. Results Using a tissue slice preparation, we recorded the single-unit activity of POAH neurons from the adult male rat, in response to temperature and CGRP (10 μM. Based on the slope of firing rate as a function of temperature, neurons were classified as either warm sensitive or temperature insensitive. All warm sensitive neurons responded to CGRP with a significant decrease in firing rate. While CGRP did not alter the firing rates of some temperature insensitive neurons, responsive neurons showed an increase in firing rate. Conclusion With respect to current models of thermoregulatory control, these CGRP dependent changes in firing rate would result in hyperthermia. This suggests that both warm sensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the POAH may play a role in producing this hyperthermic shift in temperature.

  12. Development of Copper Corrosion Products and Relation between Surface Appearance and Corrosion Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Binh, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Tru, Nguyen Nhi; Yoshino, Tsujino; Yasuki, Maeda

    2008-01-01

    Copper was exposed unsheltered and sheltered in four humid tropical sites, representing urban, urban-industrial, urban-marine and rural environments. The corrosion rates and the sequence of corrosion product formation are presented and discussed in relation with climatic and atmospheric pollution parameters. Chemical compositions of corrosion products were found to depend on environments and duration of exposure. In all environments, cuprite was the predominating corrosion product that formed first and continuously increased during the exposure. Among the sulphur-containing corrosion products, posnjakite and brochantite were more frequently found and the first formed earlier. Nantokite was the most common chlorine-containing products for most cases, except the high-chloride environment, where atacamite was detected instead. The corrosion rate of copper was well indicated by the colour of patina. The red-purple colour corresponded to the high corrosion rate and the greenish grey colour corresponded to the low corrosion rate. Corrosion rate of sheltered copper in urban-marine environment increased with the exposure time

  13. An examination of black/white differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fenelon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rate of mortality increase with age among adults is typically used as a measure of the rate of functional decline associated with aging or senescence. While black and white populations differ in the level of mortality, mortality also rises less rapidly with age for blacks than for whites, leading to the well-known black/white mortality "crossover". OBJECTIVE This paper investigates black/white differences in the rate of mortality increase with age for major causes of death in order to examine the factors responsible for the black/white crossover. METHODS The analysis considers two explanations for the crossover: selective survival and age misreporting. Mortality is modeled using a Gompertz model for 11 causes of death from ages 50-84 among blacks and whites by sex. RESULTS Mortality increases more rapidly with age for whites than for blacks for nearly all causes of death considered. The all-cause mortality rate of mortality increase is nearly two percentage points higher for whites. The analysis finds evidence for both selective survival and age misreporting, although age misreporting is a more prominent explanation among women. CONCLUSIONS The black/white mortality crossover reflects large differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase. Instead of reflecting the impact of specific causes of death, this pattern exists across many disparate disease conditions, indicating the need for a broad explanation.

  14. Glycolysis Is Dynamic and Relates Closely to Respiration Rate in Stored Sugarbeet Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice A. Megguer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although respiration is the principal cause of the loss of sucrose in postharvest sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L., the internal mechanisms that control root respiration rate are unknown. Available evidence, however, indicates that respiration rate is likely to be controlled by the availability of respiratory substrates, and glycolysis has a central role in generating these substrates. To determine glycolytic changes that occur in sugarbeet roots after harvest and to elucidate relationships between glycolysis and respiration, sugarbeet roots were stored for up to 60 days, during which activities of glycolytic enzymes and concentrations of glycolytic substrates, intermediates, cofactors, and products were determined. Respiration rate was also determined, and relationships between respiration rate and glycolytic enzymes and metabolites were evaluated. Glycolysis was highly variable during storage, with 10 of 14 glycolytic activities and 14 of 17 glycolytic metabolites significantly altered during storage. Changes in glycolytic enzyme activities and metabolites occurred throughout the 60 day storage period, but were greatest in the first 4 days after harvest. Positive relationships between changes in glycolytic enzyme activities and root respiration rate were abundant, with 10 of 14 enzyme activities elevated when root respiration was elevated and 9 glycolytic activities static during periods of unchanging respiration rate. Major roles for pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase in the regulation of postharvest sugarbeet root glycolysis were indicated based on changes in enzymatic activities and concentrations of their substrates and products. Additionally, a strong positive relationship between respiration rate and pyruvate kinase activity was found indicating that downstream TCA cycle enzymes were unlikely to regulate or restrict root respiration in a major way. Overall, these results establish that glycolysis is not static during sugarbeet root

  15. Subway-Related Trauma: An Urban Public Health Issue with a High Case-Fatality Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Simon G; DiMaggio, Charles J; Wall, Stephen; Sim, Vasiliy; Frangos, Spiros G; Ayoung-Chee, Patricia; Bukur, Marko; Tandon, Manish; Todd, S Rob; Marshall, Gary T

    2018-05-09

    Between 1990 and 2003, there were 668 subway-related fatalities in New York City. However, subway-related trauma remains an understudied area of injury-related morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to characterize the injuries and events leading up to the injuries of all patients admitted after subway-related trauma. We conducted a retrospective case series of subway-related trauma at a Level I trauma center from 2001 to 2016. Descriptive epidemiology of patient demographics, incident details, injuries, and outcomes were analyzed. Over 15 years, 254 patients were admitted for subway-related trauma. The mean (standard error of the mean) age was 41 (1.0) years, 80% were male (95% confidence interval [CI] 74-84%) and median Injury Severity Score was 14 (interquartile range [IQR] 5-24). The overall case-fatality rate was 10% (95% CI 7-15%). The most common injuries were long-bone fractures, intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic amputations. Median length of stay was 6 days (IQR 1-18 days). Thirty-seven percent of patients required surgical intervention. At the time of injury, 55% of patients (95% CI 49-61%) had a positive urine drug or alcohol screen, 16% (95% CI 12-21%) were attempting suicide, and 39% (95% CI 33-45%) had a history of psychiatric illness. Subway-related trauma is associated with a high case-fatality rate. Alcohol or drug intoxication and psychiatric illness can increase the risk of this type of injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Discovery of novel transcripts of the human tissue kallikrein (KLK1) and kallikrein-related peptidase 2 (KLK2) in human cancer cells, exploiting Next-Generation Sequencing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamopoulos, Panagiotis G; Kontos, Christos K; Scorilas, Andreas

    2018-03-31

    Tissue kallikrein, kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs), and plasma kallikrein form the largest group of serine proteases in the human genome, sharing many structural and functional properties. Several KLK transcripts have been found aberrantly expressed in numerous human malignancies, confirming their prognostic or/and diagnostic values. However, the process of alternative splicing can now be studied in-depth due to the development of Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). In the present study, we used NGS to discover novel transcripts of the KLK1 and KLK2 genes, after nested touchdown PCR. Bioinformatics analysis and PCR experiments revealed a total of eleven novel KLK transcripts (two KLK1 and nine KLK2 transcripts). In addition, the expression profiles of each novel transcript were investigated with nested PCR experiments using variant-specific primers. Since KLKs are implicated in human malignancies, qualifying as potential biomarkers, the quantification of the presented novel transcripts in human samples may have clinical applications in different types of cancer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Factors influencing the detection rate of drug-related problems in community pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, T; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, A

    1999-01-01

    This study analyzes relationships between the number of drug-related problems detected in community pharmacy practice and the educational level and other characteristics of pharmacy personnel and their work sites. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn...... by each professional. The regression analysis showed the educational level of the professional to have a statistically significant effect on the detection rate, with pharmacists finding on average 2.5 more drug-related problems per 100 patients than prescriptionists and about 3.6 more than technicians....... The results of this study indicate the importance of education and training of pharmacy personnel in detection of drug-related problems. This findings speaks in favor of increasing the pharmacist to other personnel ratio, provided the higher costs will be offset by societal benefits....

  18. EXPLORING SYSTEMATIC EFFECTS IN THE RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, GAS PHASE METALLICITY, AND STAR FORMATION RATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, O. Grace; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Conroy, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the well-established mass–metallicity relation in galaxies is correlated with a third parameter: star formation rate (SFR). The strength of this correlation may be used to disentangle the relative importance of different physical processes (e.g., infall of pristine gas, metal-enriched outflows) in governing chemical evolution. However, all three parameters are susceptible to biases that might affect the observed strength of the relation between them. We analyze possible sources of systematic error, including sample bias, application of signal-to-noise ratio cuts on emission lines, choice of metallicity calibration, uncertainty in stellar mass determination, aperture effects, and dust. We present the first analysis of the relation between stellar mass, gas phase metallicity, and SFR using strong line abundance diagnostics from Dopita et al. for ∼130,000 star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and provide a detailed comparison of these diagnostics in an appendix. Using these new abundance diagnostics yields a 30%–55% weaker anti-correlation between metallicity and SFR at fixed stellar mass than that reported by Mannucci et al. We find that, for all abundance diagnostics, the anti-correlation with SFR is stronger for the relatively few galaxies whose current SFRs are elevated above their past average SFRs. This is also true for the new abundance diagnostic of Dopita et al., which gives anti-correlation between Z and SFR only in the high specific star formation rate (sSFR) regime, in contrast to the recent results of Kashino et al. The poorly constrained strength of the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR must be carefully accounted for in theoretical studies of chemical evolution.

  19. Leaching of radionuclides from decaying blueberry leaves: Relative rate independent of concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    Leaching of radionuclides from decaying vegetation has not been extensively investigated, especially for radionuclides other than 137 Cs. The authors obtained leaves of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium x V. corymbosum) that contained over 25-fold ranges in Se, Cs, and I concentrations, as well as a small quantity of leaves containing detectable U. All were contaminated by way of root uptake. Leaching took place for a period of 1 yr in the laboratory, using leach water from forest litter. Monthly, measurements were made of the radionuclide contents and decaying leaf dry weights. The data conformed to an exponential decay model with two first-order components. In no case did the relative loss rates vary systematically with the initial tissue radionuclide concentrations. Loss rates decreased in the order Cs > I > U > dry wt. > Se. Because of the low leaching rate of Se relative to the loss of dry weight, decaying litter may actually accumulate elements such as Se. Accumulation of radionuclides in litter could have important implications for lateral transport, recycling, and direct incorporation into edible mushrooms

  20. Leaching of radionuclides from decaying blueberry leaves: Relative rate independent of concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada))

    Leaching of radionuclides from decaying vegetation has not been extensively investigated, especially for radionuclides other than {sup 137}Cs. The authors obtained leaves of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium {times} V. corymbosum) that contained over 25-fold ranges in Se, Cs, and I concentrations, as well as a small quantity of leaves containing detectable U. All were contaminated by way of root uptake. Leaching took place for a period of 1 yr in the laboratory, using leach water from forest litter. Monthly, measurements were made of the radionuclide contents and decaying leaf dry weights. The data conformed to an exponential decay model with two first-order components. In no case did the relative loss rates vary systematically with the initial tissue radionuclide concentrations. Loss rates decreased in the order Cs > I > U > dry wt. > Se. Because of the low leaching rate of Se relative to the loss of dry weight, decaying litter may actually accumulate elements such as Se. Accumulation of radionuclides in litter could have important implications for lateral transport, recycling, and direct incorporation into edible mushrooms.

  1. High rate of adaptation of mammalian proteins that interact with Plasmodium and related parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telis, Natalie; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium parasites, along with their Piroplasm relatives, have caused malaria-like illnesses in terrestrial mammals for millions of years. Several Plasmodium-protective alleles have recently evolved in human populations, but little is known about host adaptation to blood parasites over deeper evolutionary timescales. In this work, we analyze mammalian adaptation in ~500 Plasmodium- or Piroplasm- interacting proteins (PPIPs) manually curated from the scientific literature. We show that (i) PPIPs are enriched for both immune functions and pleiotropy with other pathogens, and (ii) the rate of adaptation across mammals is significantly elevated in PPIPs, compared to carefully matched control proteins. PPIPs with high pathogen pleiotropy show the strongest signatures of adaptation, but this pattern is fully explained by their immune enrichment. Several pieces of evidence suggest that blood parasites specifically have imposed selection on PPIPs. First, even non-immune PPIPs that lack interactions with other pathogens have adapted at twice the rate of matched controls. Second, PPIP adaptation is linked to high expression in the liver, a critical organ in the parasite life cycle. Finally, our detailed investigation of alpha-spectrin, a major red blood cell membrane protein, shows that domains with particularly high rates of adaptation are those known to interact specifically with P. falciparum. Overall, we show that host proteins that interact with Plasmodium and Piroplasm parasites have experienced elevated rates of adaptation across mammals, and provide evidence that some of this adaptation has likely been driven by blood parasites. PMID:28957326

  2. FACT, the Bur kinase pathway, and the histone co-repressor HirC have overlapping nucleosome-related roles in yeast transcription elongation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Stevens

    Full Text Available Gene transcription is constrained by the nucleosomal nature of chromosomal DNA. This nucleosomal barrier is modulated by FACT, a conserved histone-binding heterodimer. FACT mediates transcription-linked nucleosome disassembly and also nucleosome reassembly in the wake of the RNA polymerase II transcription complex, and in this way maintains the repression of 'cryptic' promoters found within some genes. Here we focus on a novel mutant version of the yeast FACT subunit Spt16 that supplies essential Spt16 activities but impairs transcription-linked nucleosome reassembly in dominant fashion. This Spt16 mutant protein also has genetic effects that are recessive, which we used to show that certain Spt16 activities collaborate with histone acetylation and the activities of a Bur-kinase/Spt4-Spt5/Paf1C pathway that facilitate transcription elongation. These collaborating activities were opposed by the actions of Rpd3S, a histone deacetylase that restores a repressive chromatin environment in a transcription-linked manner. Spt16 activity paralleling that of HirC, a co-repressor of histone gene expression, was also found to be opposed by Rpd3S. Our findings suggest that Spt16, the Bur/Spt4-Spt5/Paf1C pathway, and normal histone abundance and/or stoichiometry, in mutually cooperative fashion, facilitate nucleosome disassembly during transcription elongation. The recessive nature of these effects of the mutant Spt16 protein on transcription-linked nucleosome disassembly, contrasted to its dominant negative effect on transcription-linked nucleosome reassembly, indicate that mutant FACT harbouring the mutant Spt16 protein competes poorly with normal FACT at the stage of transcription-linked nucleosome disassembly, but effectively with normal FACT for transcription-linked nucleosome reassembly. This functional difference is consistent with the idea that FACT association with the transcription elongation complex depends on nucleosome disassembly, and that the

  3. Sex ratio at birth and mortality rates are negatively related in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Shivajirao Dama

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory posits that resource availability and parental investment ability could signal offspring sex selection, in order to maximize reproductive returns. Non-human studies have provided evidence for this phenomenon, and maternal condition around the time of conception has been identified as most important factor that influence offspring sex selection. However, studies on humans have reported inconsistent results, mostly due to use of disparate measures as indicators of maternal condition. In the present study, the cross-cultural differences in human natal sex ratio were analyzed with respect to indirect measures of condition namely, life expectancy and mortality rate. Multiple regression modeling suggested that mortality rates have distinct predictive power independent of cross-cultural differences in fertility, wealth and latitude that were earlier shown to predict sex ratio at birth. These findings suggest that sex ratio variation in humans may relate to differences in parental and environmental conditions.

  4. Dating of Pregnancy in First versus Second Trimester in Relation to Post-Term Birth Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thagaard, Ida Näslund; Krebs, Lone; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in a national standardised setting whether the performance of ultrasound dating during the first rather than the second trimester of pregnancy had consequences regarding the definition of pre- and post-term birth rates. METHODS: A cohort study of 8,551 singleton pregnancies...... with spontaneous delivery was performed from 2006 to 2012 at Copenhagen University Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark. We determined the duration of pregnancy calculated by last menstrual period, crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (1st trimester), BPD (2nd trimester), and head circumference and compared mean...... and median durations, the mean differences, the systematic discrepancies, and the percentages of pre-term and post-term pregnancies in relation to each method. The primary outcomes were post-term and pre-term birth rates defined by different dating methods. RESULTS: The change from use of second to first...

  5. Temperature and rainfall are related to fertility rate after spring artificial insemination in small ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J. A.; Arrébola, F.; Macías, A.; Laviña, A.; González-Casquet, O.; Benítez, F.; Palacios, C.

    2016-10-01

    A total number of 1092 artificial inseminations (AIs) performed from March to May were documented over four consecutive years on 10 Payoya goat farms (36° N) and 19,392 AIs on 102 Rasa Aragonesa sheep farms (41° N) over 10 years. Mean, maximum, and minimum ambient temperatures, mean relative humidity, mean solar radiation, and total rainfall on each insemination day were recorded. Overall, fertility rates were 58 % in goats and 45 % in sheep. The fertility rates of the highest and lowest deciles of each of the meteorological variables indicated that temperature and rainfall had a significant effect on fertility in goats. Specifically, inseminations that were performed when mean (68 %), maximum (68 %), and minimum (66 %) temperatures were in the highest decile, and rainfall was in the lowest decile (59 %), had a significantly ( P goats and sheep.

  6. Heart rate during conflicts predicts post-conflict stress-related behavior in greylag geese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A F Wascher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social stressors are known to be among the most potent stressors in group-living animals. This is not only manifested in individual physiology (heart rate, glucocorticoids, but also in how individuals behave directly after a conflict. Certain 'stress-related behaviors' such as autopreening, body shaking, scratching and vigilance have been suggested to indicate an individual's emotional state. Such behaviors may also alleviate stress, but the behavioral context and physiological basis of those behaviors is still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded beat-to-beat heart rates (HR of 22 greylag geese in response to agonistic encounters using fully implanted sensor-transmitter packages. Additionally, for 143 major events we analyzed the behavior shown by our focal animals in the first two minutes after an interaction. Our results show that the HR during encounters and characteristics of the interaction predicted the frequency and duration of behaviors shown after a conflict. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this is the first study to quantify the physiological and behavioral responses to single agonistic encounters and to link this to post conflict behavior. Our results demonstrate that 'stress-related behaviors' are flexibly modulated by the characteristics of the preceding aggressive interaction and reflect the individual's emotional strain, which is linked to autonomic arousal. We found no support for the stress-alleviating hypothesis, but we propose that stress-related behaviors may play a role in communication with other group members, particularly with pair-partners.

  7. Hybridization rates between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative (L. serriola) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Luigi; Felber, François; Guadagnuolo, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression between crops and wild relatives may have important evolutionary and ecological consequences such as gene swamping or increased invasiveness. In the present study, we investigated hybridization under field conditions between crop lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative prickly lettuce (L. serriola), two cross-compatible, predominantly autogamous and insect pollinated species. In 2003 and 2004, we estimated the rates of hybridization between L. sativa and L. serriola in close-to-reality field experiments carried out in two locations of Northern Switzerland. Seeds set by the experimental wild plants were collected and sown (44 352 in 2003 and 252 345 in 2004). Progeny was screened morphologically for detecting natural hybrids. Prior to the experiment, specific RAPD markers were used to confirm that morphological characters were reliable for hybrid identification. Hybridization occurred up to the maximal distance tested (40 m), and hybridization rates varied between 0 to 26%, decreasing with distance. More than 80% of the wild plants produced at least one hybrid (incidence of hybridization, IH) at 0 m and 1 m. It equaled 4 to 5% at 40 m. In sympatric crop-wild populations, cross-pollination between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative has to be seen as the rule rather than the exception for short distances.

  8. The Relation Between Plate Spreading Rate, Crustal Thickness and Axial Relief at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Buck, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Variations in axial valley relief and in faulting at plate spreading centers are clearly related to magma supply and axial lithospheric structure. Previous models that consider the interaction of magmatic dikes with lithospheric stretching do not successfully reproduce both of these trends. We present the first model that reproduces these trends by making simple assumptions about the partitioning of magma between dikes, gabbros and extrusives. A key concept is that dikes open not only in the brittle axial lithosphere but also into the underlying ductile crust, where they cool to form gabbro. The amount of gabbro so intruded depends on magma pressure that is related to axial relief. The deeper the valley the less magma goes into gabbros and the more magma is available for dikes to accommodate plate separation. We define the fraction of plate separation rate accommodated by dikes as M. If Mreasonable. Finally, we describe themo-mechanical models that allow us to relate plate spreading rate and crustal thickness and to axial valley depth.

  9. Dependence of the firearm-related homicide rate on gun availability: a mathematical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Komarova, Natalia L

    2013-01-01

    In the USA, the relationship between the legal availability of guns and the firearm-related homicide rate has been debated. It has been argued that unrestricted gun availability promotes the occurrence of firearm-induced homicides. It has also been pointed out that gun possession can protect potential victims when attacked. This paper provides a first mathematical analysis of this tradeoff, with the goal to steer the debate towards arguing about assumptions, statistics, and scientific methods. The model is based on a set of clearly defined assumptions, which are supported by available statistical data, and is formulated axiomatically such that results do not depend on arbitrary mathematical expressions. According to this framework, two alternative scenarios can minimize the gun-related homicide rate: a ban of private firearms possession, or a policy allowing the general population to carry guns. Importantly, the model identifies the crucial parameters that determine which policy minimizes the death rate, and thus serves as a guide for the design of future epidemiological studies. The parameters that need to be measured include the fraction of offenders that illegally possess a gun, the degree of protection provided by gun ownership, and the fraction of the population who take up their right to own a gun and carry it when attacked. Limited data available in the literature were used to demonstrate how the model can be parameterized, and this preliminary analysis suggests that a ban of private firearm possession, or possibly a partial reduction in gun availability, might lower the rate of firearm-induced homicides. This, however, should not be seen as a policy recommendation, due to the limited data available to inform and parameterize the model. However, the model clearly defines what needs to be measured, and provides a basis for a scientific discussion about assumptions and data.

  10. Dependence of the firearm-related homicide rate on gun availability: a mathematical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Wodarz

    Full Text Available In the USA, the relationship between the legal availability of guns and the firearm-related homicide rate has been debated. It has been argued that unrestricted gun availability promotes the occurrence of firearm-induced homicides. It has also been pointed out that gun possession can protect potential victims when attacked. This paper provides a first mathematical analysis of this tradeoff, with the goal to steer the debate towards arguing about assumptions, statistics, and scientific methods. The model is based on a set of clearly defined assumptions, which are supported by available statistical data, and is formulated axiomatically such that results do not depend on arbitrary mathematical expressions. According to this framework, two alternative scenarios can minimize the gun-related homicide rate: a ban of private firearms possession, or a policy allowing the general population to carry guns. Importantly, the model identifies the crucial parameters that determine which policy minimizes the death rate, and thus serves as a guide for the design of future epidemiological studies. The parameters that need to be measured include the fraction of offenders that illegally possess a gun, the degree of protection provided by gun ownership, and the fraction of the population who take up their right to own a gun and carry it when attacked. Limited data available in the literature were used to demonstrate how the model can be parameterized, and this preliminary analysis suggests that a ban of private firearm possession, or possibly a partial reduction in gun availability, might lower the rate of firearm-induced homicides. This, however, should not be seen as a policy recommendation, due to the limited data available to inform and parameterize the model. However, the model clearly defines what needs to be measured, and provides a basis for a scientific discussion about assumptions and data.

  11. Interspecific correlates of plasticity in relative growth rate following a decrease in nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Antonio; Shipley, Bill

    2010-02-01

    Nitrogen availability varies greatly over short time scales. This requires that a well-adapted plant modify its phenotype by an appropriate amount and at a certain speed in order to maximize growth and fitness. To determine how plastic ontogenetic changes in each trait interact and whether or not these changes are likely to maximize growth, ontogenetic changes in relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and root weight ratio (RWR), before and after a decrease in nitrogen supply, were studied in 14 herbaceous species. Forty-four plants of each species were grown in hydroponic culture under controlled conditions in a control treatment where the supply of nitrogen remained constant at 1 mm, and in a stress treatment where the nitrogen supply was abruptly decreased from 1 to 0.01 mm during the growth period. In the treatment series, and in comparison with the control, NAR and RGR decreased, RWR increased, and SLA did not change except for the timing of ontogenetic change. Species having greater increases in the maximum rate of change in RWR also had smaller reductions in RGR; plasticity in RWR is therefore adaptive. In contrast, species which showed a greater decrease in NAR showed stronger reductions in RGR; plasticity in NAR is therefore not adaptive. Plasticity in RGR was not related to plasticity in SLA. There were no significant relationships among the plasticities in NAR, RWR or SLA. Potentially fast-growing species experienced larger reductions in RGR following the nitrogen reduction. These results suggest that competitive responses to interspecific competition for nitrogen might be positively correlated with the plasticity in the maximum rate of change in RWR in response to a reduction in nitrogen supply.

  12. Expression profile of doublesex/male abnormal-3-related transcription factor-1 during gonadal sex change in the protogynous wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozu, Ryo; Horiguchi, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhisa; Nakamura, Masaru

    2015-11-01

    Sex change in fish involves a dramatic transformation of gonadal tissue and a switch in gametogenesis. Doublesex/male abnormal-3-related transcription factor-1 (DMRT1), encoded by the DMRT1 gene, is involved in testicular differentiation in a wide range of vertebrates as well as in sexual differentiation and gonadal sex change. In the present study, we investigated changes in the expression of dmrt1 during artificial gonadal sex change in the three-spot wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus, by real-time quantitative PCR and immunolocalization, using an anti-wrasse-Dmrt1 antibody that we prepared. We found that dmrt1 expression was predominantly observed in the testes, and that Dmrt1 was expressed in Sertoli cells of testes and a few granulosa cells surrounding vitellogenic oocytes of the ovary. Additionally, the upregulation of dmrt1 expression was consistent with an increase in spermatogenic cyst quantity rather than proliferation of presumptive spermatogonia, suggesting that dmrt1 is involved in the progression of spermatogenesis during sex change. Changes in the localization of Dmrt1 during gonadal sex change further implied that Sertoli cells originate from somatic cells adjacent to gonial germ cells during testicular formation in the three-spot wrasse. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Increased Energy Expenditure, Ucp1 Expression, and Resistance to Diet-induced Obesity in Mice Lacking Nuclear Factor-Erythroid-2-related Transcription Factor-2 (Nrf2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kevin; Valdez, Joshua; Nguyen, Janice; Vawter, Marquis; Galke, Brandi; Kurtz, Theodore W; Chan, Jefferson Y

    2016-04-01

    The NRF2 (also known as NFE2L2) transcription factor is a critical regulator of genes involved in defense against oxidative stress. Previous studies suggest thatNrf2plays a role in adipogenesisin vitro, and deletion of theNrf2gene protects against diet-induced obesity in mice. Here, we demonstrate that resistance to diet-induced obesity inNrf2(-/-)mice is associated with a 20-30% increase in energy expenditure. Analysis of bioenergetics revealed thatNrf2(-/-)white adipose tissues exhibit greater oxygen consumption. White adipose tissue showed a >2-fold increase inUcp1gene expression. Oxygen consumption is also increased nearly 2.5-fold inNrf2-deficient fibroblasts. Oxidative stress induced by glucose oxidase resulted in increasedUcp1expression. Conversely, antioxidant chemicals (such asN-acetylcysteine and Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin chloride) and SB203580 (a known suppressor ofUcp1expression) decreasedUcp1and oxygen consumption inNrf2-deficient fibroblasts. These findings suggest that increasing oxidative stress by limitingNrf2function in white adipocytes may be a novel means to modulate energy balance as a treatment of obesity and related clinical disorders. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Differential transcript induction of parsley pathogenesis-related proteins and of a small heat shock protein by ozone and heat shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckey-Kaltenbach, H.; Kiefer, E.; Grosskopf, E.; Ernst, D.; Sandermann, H. Jr

    1997-01-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum (crispum L.) is known to respond to pathogen attack by the synthesis of furanocoumarins and to UV irradiation by the synthesis of flavone glycosides whereas ozone treatment results in the induction of both pathways. A cDNA library from parsley plants was differentially screened using labelled reverse-transcribed poly(A)+ RNA isolated from ozone-treated parsley plants. This resulted in the isolation of 13 independent cDNA clones representing ozone-induced genes and of 11 cDNA clones representing ozone-repressed genes. DNA sequencing of several clones resulted in the identification of pathogenesis-related protein 1-3 (PR1-3), of a new member of PR1 cDNAs (PRI-4) and of a small heat shock protein (sHSP). Northern blot analyses showed a transient induction of the three mRNA species after ozone fumigation. In contrast, heat shock treatment of parsley plants resulted in an increase of sHSP mRNA whereas no increase for transcripts of PR1-3 and PR1-4 could be observed. This is the first characterized sHSP cDNA clone for plants induced by heat shock, as well as by oxidative stress caused by ozone. (author)

  15. Alteration of runt-related transcription factor 3 gene expression and biologic behavior of esophageal carcinoma TE-1 cells after 5-azacytidine intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Liu, Hong; Akhtar, Javed; Chen, Hua-Xia; Wang, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    5-Azacytidine (5-azaC) was originally identified as an anticancer drug (NSC102876) which can cause hypomethylation of tumor suppressor genes. To assess its effects on runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), expression levels and the promoter methylation status of the RUNX3 gene were assessed. We also investigated alteration of biologic behavior of esophageal carcinoma TE-1 cells. MTT assays showed 5-azaC inhibited the proliferation of TE-1 cells in a time and dose-dependent way. Although other genes could be demethylated after 5-azaC intervention, we focused on RUNX3 gene in this study. The expression level of RUNX3 mRNA increased significantly in TE-1 cells after treatment with 5-azaC at hypotoxic levels. RT-PCR showed 5-azaC at 50 μM had the highest RUNX3-induction activity. Methylation-specific PCR indicated that 5-azaC induced RUNX3 expression through demethylation. Migration and invasion of TE-1 cells were inhibited by 5-azaC, along with growth of Eca109 xenografts in nude mice. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the RUNX3 gene can be reactivated by the demethylation reagent 5-azaC, which inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of esophageal carcinoma TE-1 cells.

  16. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 regulates expression of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 related transcription factor-1 (Nrf1) and inhibits pro-survival function of Nrf1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Madhurima; Kwong, Erick K.; Park, Eujean; Nagra, Parminder; Chan, Jefferson Y., E-mail: jchan@uci.edu

    2013-08-01

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor-1 (Nrf1) is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is known to regulate antioxidant and cytoprotective gene expression. It was recently shown that Nrf1 is regulated by SCF–Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase. However our knowledge of upstream signals that targets Nrf1 for degradation by the UPS is not known. We report here that Nrf1 expression is negatively regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) in Fbw7-dependent manner. We show that GSK3 interacts with Nrf1 and phosphorylates the Cdc4 phosphodegron domain (CPD) in Nrf1. Mutation of serine residue in the CPD of Nrf1 to alanine (S350A), blocks Nrf1 from phosphorylation by GSK3, and stabilizes Nrf1. Knockdown of Nrf1 and expression of a constitutively active form of GSK3 results in increased apoptosis in neuronal cells in response to ER stress, while expression of the GSK3 phosphorylation resistant S350A–Nrf1 attenuates apoptotic cell death. Together these data suggest that GSK3 regulates Nrf1 expression and cell survival function in response to stress activation. Highlights: • The effect of GSK3 on Nrf1 expression was examined. • GSK3 destabilizes Nrf1 protein via Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase. • GSK3 binds and phosphorylates Nrf1. • Protection from stress-induced apoptosis by Nrf1 is inhibited by GSK3.

  17. A module of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell transcriptional network containing primitive and differentiation markers is related to specific cardiovascular health variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leni Moldovan

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, including rare circulating stem and progenitor cells (CSPCs, have important yet poorly understood roles in the maintenance and repair of blood vessels and perfused organs. Our hypothesis was that the identities and functions of CSPCs in cardiovascular health could be ascertained by analyzing the patterns of their co-expressed markers in unselected PBMC samples. Because gene microarrays had failed to detect many stem cell-associated genes, we performed quantitative real-time PCR to measure the expression of 45 primitive and tissue differentiation markers in PBMCs from healthy and hypertensive human subjects. We compared these expression levels to the subjects' demographic and cardiovascular risk factors, including vascular stiffness. The tested marker genes were expressed in all of samples and organized in hierarchical transcriptional network modules, constructed by a bottom-up approach. An index of gene expression in one of these modules (metagene, defined as the average standardized relative copy numbers of 15 pluripotency and cardiovascular differentiation markers, was negatively correlated (all p<0.03 with age (R2 = -0.23, vascular stiffness (R2 = -0.24, and central aortic pressure (R2 = -0.19 and positively correlated with body mass index (R2 = 0.72, in women. The co-expression of three neovascular markers was validated at the single-cell level using mRNA in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. The overall gene expression in this cardiovascular module was reduced by 72±22% in the patients compared with controls. However, the compactness of both modules was increased in the patients' samples, which was reflected in reduced dispersion of their nodes' degrees of connectivity, suggesting a more primitive character of the patients' CSPCs. In conclusion, our results show that the relationship between CSPCs and vascular function is encoded in modules of the PBMCs transcriptional

  18. Transcription, Signaling Receptor Activity, Oxidative Phosphorylation, and Fatty Acid Metabolism Mediate the Presence of Closely Related Species in Distinct Intertidal and Cold-Seep Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Campenhout, Jelle; Vanreusel, Ann; Van Belleghem, Steven; Derycke, Sofie

    2015-12-03

    Bathyal cold seeps are isolated extreme deep-sea environments characterized by low species diversity while biomass can be high. The Håkon Mosby mud volcano (Barents Sea, 1,280 m) is a rather stable chemosynthetic driven habitat characterized by prominent surface bacterial mats with high sulfide concentrations and low oxygen levels. Here, the nematode Halomonhystera hermesi thrives in high abundances (11,000 individuals 10 cm(-2)). Halomonhystera hermesi is a member of the intertidal Halomonhystera disjuncta species complex that includes five cryptic species (GD1-5). GD1-5's common habitat is characterized by strong environmental fluctuations. Here, we compared the transcriptomes of H. hermesi and GD1, H. hermesi's closest relative. Genes encoding proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation are more strongly expressed in H. hermesi than in GD1, and many genes were only observed in H. hermesi while being completely absent in GD1. Both observations could in part be attributed to high sulfide concentrations and low oxygen levels. Additionally, fatty acid elongation was also prominent in H. hermesi confirming the importance of highly unsaturated fatty acids in this species. Significant higher amounts of transcription factors and genes involved in signaling receptor activity were observed in GD1 (many of which were completely absent in H. hermesi), allowing fast signaling and transcriptional reprogramming which can mediate survival in dynamic intertidal environments. GC content was approximately 8% higher in H. hermesi coding unigenes resulting in differential codon usage between both species and a higher proportion of amino acids with GC-rich codons in H. hermesi. In general our results showed that most pathways were active in both environments and that only three genes are under natural selection. This indicates that also plasticity should be taken in consideration in the evolutionary history of Halomonhystera species. Such plasticity, as well as possible

  19. Significance of experts' overall ratings for medical student competence in relation to history-taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ernesto de Almeida Troncon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Overall ratings (ORs of competence, given by expert physicians, are increasingly used in clinical skills assessments. Nevertheless, the influence of specific components of competence on ORs is incompletely understood. The aim here was to investigate whether ORs for medical student history-taking competence are influenced by performance relating to communication skills, completeness of questioning and asking contentdriven key questions. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive, quantitative study at Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Thirty-six medical students were examined in a 15-station high-stake objective structured clinical examination (OSCE. At four stations devoted to history-taking, examiners filled out checklists covering the components investigated and independently rated students’ overall performance using a five-point scale from 1 (poor to 5 (excellent. Physician ratings were aggregated for each student. Nonparametric correlations were made between ORs. RESULTS: ORs presented significant correlations with checklist scores (Spearman’s rs = 0.38; p = 0.02 and OSCE general results (rs = 0.52; p < 0.001. Scores for "communication skills" tended to correlate with ORs (rs = 0.31, but without reaching significance (p = 0.06. Neither the scores for "completeness" (rs = 0.26; p = 0.11 nor those for "asking key questions" (rs = 0.07; p = 0.60 correlated with ORs. CONCLUSIONS: Experts’ overall ratings for medical student competence regarding history-taking is likely to encompass a particular dimension, since ratings were only weakly influenced by specific components of performance.

  20. Relative Impacts of Low Permeability Subsurface Deposits on Recharge Basin Infiltration Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnell, P.; Becker, M.; Pham, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Hutchinson, A.; Plumlee, M.

    2017-12-01

    Artificial recharge of aquifers through spreading basins has become an important component of water management in semi-arid climates. The rate at which water can be recharged in these basins is limited by the natural vertical permeability of the underlying deposits which may be highly variable both laterally and vertically. To help understand hydrostratigraphic controls on recharge, a newly constructed basin was surveyed and instrumented. Prior to flooding the basin, lithology was characterized by shallow hand coring, direct push coring, ground penetrating radar, and electrical resistivity. After flooding, recharge was monitored through piezometers, electrical resistivity, and a network of fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS). The DTS network used temperature as a tracer to measure infiltration rate on 25 cm intervals both laterally and vertically. Several hundred paired DTS time series datasets (from fiber optic cables located at 0 and 0.5 meters below ground surface) were processed with the cross-wavelet transform (XWT) to calculate spatially and temporally continuous infiltration rates, which can be interpolated and animated to visualize heterogeneity. Time series data from 8-meter deep, vertically oriented DTS cables reveal depth intervals where infiltration rates vary. Inverted resistivity sections from repeated dipole-dipole surveys along the sidewall of a spreading basin exhibit a positive correlation with the distribution of relatively high and low infiltration rates, indicating zones of preferential downward (efficient) and lateral (inefficient) flow, respectively. In contrast to other monitored basins, no perching was observed in the vertically oriented DTS cables. The variation in recharge across the basin and the appearance of subsurface lateral flow can be explained in context of the alluvial depositional environment.

  1. The mass-metallicity-star formation rate relation under the STARLIGHT microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlickmann, M.; Vale Asari, N.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Stasińska, G.

    2014-10-01

    The correlation between stellar mass and gas-phase oxygen abundance (M-Z relation) has been known for decades. The slope and scatter of this trend is strongly dependent on galaxy evolution: Chemical enrichment in a galaxy is driven by its star formation history, which in turn depends on its secular evolution and interaction with other galaxies and intergalactic gas. In last couple of years, the M-Z relation has been studied as a function of a third parameter: the recent star formation rate (SFR) as calibrated by the Hα luminosity, which traces stars formed in the last 10 Myr. This mass-metallicity-SFR relation has been reported to be very tight. This result puts strong constraints on galaxy evolution models in low and high redshifts, informing which models of infall and outflow of gas are acceptable. We explore the mass-metallicity-SFR relation in light of the SDSS-STARLIGHT database put together by our group. We find that we recover similar results as the ones reported by authors who use the MPA/JHU catalogue. We also present some preliminary results exploring the mass-metallicity-SFR relation in a more detailed fashion: starlight recovers a galaxy's full star formation history, and not only its recent SFR.

  2. Relation between climate and diesel fuel rate consumption for sugar cane agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte Hernandez, Aramis; Rivero Vega, Roger

    2005-01-01

    In the present work, some results are shown of a study carried out within the ENERCLIMA project. The principal objective was to establish the relationship between diesel fuel rate consumption by agricultural equipment in activities related to sugar cane production and simple climatic variables. Through a statistical analysis, we show the possibility of obtaining statistical models of an acceptable confidence level, as applied to some of these activities, which could be used in order to plan more rationally the level of fuel consumption of the agricultural companies with access to meteorological stations located nearby

  3. The impact of child welfare legislation on domestic violence-related homicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Kabir; Pacheco, Gail

    2018-05-01

    State-specific statutes providing legal consequences for perpetrating domestic violence in the presence of a child have been enacted across the United States between 1996 and 2012. This paper examines the impact of this child welfare legislation, using a difference-in-differences approach. We find a significant drop in domestic violence-related homicide rates, when considering a wide range of victim-offender relationships. However, this result does not hold for marital homicides, suggesting that for this subpopulation, the risk of reprisal and consequent reduction in reporting may be counterbalancing the hypothesized deterrent impacts of the legislation. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Growth Rate and Relocation Movements of Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) Nestlings in Relation to Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gunnar R.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2012-01-01

    Relocation by dependent young is a survival strategy that occurs among a wide range of taxa. The Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) lays its eggs on bare substrate and, once hatched, nestlings may relocate to new sites daily. We located and monitored eight Common Nighthawk nests in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, quantified inter-use-site distances in relation to nestling age, and calculated a nestling growth rate curve. Common Nighthawk nestlings grow in a nearly linear fashion. Nestlings moved up to 48 m in a single day and larger, older nestlings tended to move greater distances between daily use-sites.

  5. Age-related decreases in motor unit discharge rate and force control during isometric plantar flexion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, J; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, J

    2012-01-01

    Aging is related to multiple changes in muscle physiology and function. Previous findings concerning the effects of aging on motor unit discharge rate (DR) and fluctuations in DR and force are somewhat contradictory. Eight YOUNG and nine OLD physically active males performed isometric ramp (RECR......) and isotonic (ISO) plantar flexions at 10 and 20% of surface EMG at MVC. Motor unit (MU) action potentials were recorded with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes and decomposed with custom build software "Daisy". DR was lower in OLD in RECR-10% (17.9%, p...

  6. Constitutive Transcription and Stable RNA Accumulation in Plastids during the Conversion of Chloroplasts to Chromoplasts in Ripening Tomato Fruits 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, María Rosa; Carrillo, Néstor

    1992-01-01

    The size distribution of plastid transcripts during chromoplast differentiation in ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruits was determined using northern blot analysis. Hybridization of total cellular RNA from leaves and fruits with several tobacco chloroplast DNA probes showed distinct transcript patterns in chloroplasts and chromoplasts. We also compared transcriptional rates by probing immobilized DNA fragments of small size (representing about 85% of the plastid genome) with run-on transcripts from tomato plastids. The relative rates of transcription of the various DNA regions were very similar in chloro- and chromoplasts. Parallel determination of the steady-state levels of plastid RNA showed no strict correlation between synthesis rate and RNA accumulation. Differences in the relative abundance of transcripts between chloro- and chromoplasts were not very pronounced and were limited to a small number of genes. The results indicate that the conversion of chloroplasts to chromoplasts at the onset of tomato fruit ripening proceeds with no important variations in the relative transcription rates and with only moderate changes in the relative stability of plastid-encoded transcripts. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:16653091

  7. Persistent smoking rate after coronary revascularization and factors related to smoking cessation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Kudret; Sezai Yildiz, Süleyman; Çetinkal, Gökhan; Çetin, Sükrü; Sigirci, Serhat; Kilci, Hakan; Aksan, Gökhan; Helvaci, Füsun; Gürdal, Ahmet; Balaban Kocas, Betül; Arslan, Sükrü; Orta Kiliçkesmez, Kadriye

    2017-11-22

    Although smoking is an established risk factor for coronary artery disease, smoking cessation efforts, as part of a lifestyle change, have been disappointing so far. Therefore, assessing current smoking trends and identifying patients who are at risk of smoking continuation is of paramount importance. In this study, our aim was to assess current smoking rates after coronary revascularization as of 2017, and to define factors that potentially affect smoking cessation. Overall, 350 patients who had undergone coronary revascularization, either by percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery were included in this cross-sectional, observational study. Patients were queried for various sociodemographic characteristics and smoking habits. Disease related data were obtained from the hospital archives. The overall smoking rate was 57% after coronary revascularization. Age, bypass surgery and the occurrence of in-hospital adverse events were found to be independent predictors of smoking cessation in multivariate analysis. Despite efforts, smoking rates after coronary intervention remain substantially high. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach to smoking cessation that incorporates cardiac rehabilitation programs and medications should be implemented in clinical practice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Evolution of mitochondrial DNA and its relation to basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Zhao, Huabin; Lu, Xin

    2015-08-01

    Energy metabolism is essential for the survival of animals, which can be characterized by maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and basal metabolic rate (BMR). Because of the crucial roles of mitochondria in energy metabolism, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been subjected to stronger purifying selection in strongly locomotive than weakly locomotive birds and mammals. Although maximum locomotive speed (an indicator of MMR) showed a negative correlation with the evolutionary rate of mtDNA, it is unclear whether BMR has driven the evolution of mtDNA. Here, we take advantage of the large amount of mtDNA and BMR data in 106 mammals to test whether BMR has influenced the mtDNA evolution. Our results showed that, in addition to the locomotive speed, mammals with higher BMR have subjected to stronger purifying selection on mtDNA than did those with lower BMR. The evolution of mammalian mtDNA has been modified by two levels of energy metabolism, including MMR and BMR. Our study provides a more comprehensive view of mtDNA evolution in relation to energy metabolism.

  9. Relative effect of dose-rate values and fractionation on late responding tissues and tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malgieri, F.

    1995-01-01

    There are currently available different facilities for radiotherapy also with regard to the dose-rate values (in the ranges LDR - MDR - HDR), sometimes used alternatively or subsequently for the same tumour. We have set up a 'unitary' L-Q model, based on Liversage's and Dale's works, that explicitly include also the dose-rate value and a correction factor of the β parameter depending on the sublethal damage repair time constant, on the length of time of each irradiation and on the time interval between following irradiation for to realize the effect of the incomplete repair when the time interval is short as, for example, in the PLDR. This 'unitary' L-Q model is, of course, usable in the same way both for external beam therapy and for curietherapy and make possible to compute and compare, for each kind of tumour and normal tissue, the relative effect of the different available modality of radiotherapy also with regard to the dose-rate. We show and discuss the resulting relationships of the ratio BED 'late'/BED tumour changing the time-dose parameters and the values of the biological characteristic parameters T p , α/β and μ, for defined size of tumour control and different value of the doserate

  10. Rate of antioxidant degradation and color variations in dehydrated apples as related to water activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Vera; Vantaggi, Claudia

    2009-06-10

    Dehydrated apples were studied to evaluate the effects of water activity on the stability of their antioxidants and color. Apples were freeze-dried, ground, then equilibrated, and stored at eight water activity levels, ranging from 0.058 to 0.747, at 40 degrees C. Their contents of hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, catechin, epicatechin, polymeric flavan-3-ols, and hydroxymethylfurfural, their antioxidant activity values, and their Hunter colorimetric parameters were analyzed at different storage times. Antioxidant degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and was accelerated by increasing the water activity. The order of antioxidant stability in the products at water activity levels below 0.316 was catechin, epicatechin, and ascorbic acid acid acid; however, in the products at water activity levels above 0.316, the degradation of all antioxidants was very fast. The hydroxymethylfurfural formation rate increased exponentially during storage, especially at high water activity levels. The antioxidant activity of the dehydrated apples decreased during storage, consistent with antioxidant loss. The variations of the colorimetric parameters, namely, lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*), followed pseudo-zero-order kinetics and were accelerated by increasing water activity. All analytical indices indicated that the dehydrated apples were stable at water activity levels below 0.316, with the degradation rate accelerating upon exposure to higher relative humidities. Above 0.316, a small increase in water activity of the product would sharply increase the degradation rate constants for both antioxidant and color variations.

  11. Genome-wide analysis of brain and gonad transcripts reveals changes of key sex reversal-related genes expression and signaling pathways in three stages of Monopterus albus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chi

    Full Text Available The natural sex reversal severely affects the sex ratio and thus decreases the productivity of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus. How to understand and manipulate this process is one of the major issues for the rice field eel stocking. So far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. Here we provide a comprehensive study of transcriptomes of brain and gonad tissue in three sex stages (female, intersex and male from the rice field eel to investigate changes in transcriptional level during the sex reversal process.Approximately 195 thousand unigenes were generated and over 44.4 thousand were functionally annotated. Comparative study between stages provided multiple differentially expressed genes in brain and gonad tissue. Overall 4668 genes were found to be of unequal abundance between gonad tissues, far more than that of the brain tissues (59 genes. These genes were enriched in several different signaling pathways. A number of 231 genes were found with different levels in gonad in each stage, with several reproduction-related genes included. A total of 19 candidate genes that could be most related to sex reversal were screened out, part of these genes' expression patterns were validated by RT-qPCR. The expression of spef2, maats1, spag6 and dmc1 were abundant in testis, but was barely detected in females, while the 17β-hsd12, zpsbp3, gal3 and foxn5 were only expressed in ovary.This study investigated the complexity of brain and gonad transcriptomes in three sex stages of the rice field eel. Integrated analysis of different gene expression and changes in signaling pathways, such as PI3K-Akt pathway, provided crucial data for further study of sex transformation mechanisms.

  12. Relating high-temperature flow stress of AISI 316 stainless steel to strain and strain rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteazzi, S.; Paitti, G.; Boerman, D.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have performed an experimental determination of tensile stress-strain curves for different strain rates (4.67 x 10 - 5 , 4.67 x 10 - 2 s - 1 ) and for a variety of temperature conditions (773-1073 K) of AISI 316H stainless steel (annealed conditions) and also a computer analysis of the experimental curves using a fitting program which takes into consideration different constitutive relations describing the plastic flow behaviour of the metals. The results show that the materials tested are clearly affected by strain rate only at the highest temperature investigated (1073 K) and that the plastic strain is the more significant variable. Of the constitutive equations considered, Voce's relation gives the best fit for the true stress-time-strain curves. However, the Ludwik and Ludwigson equations also provide a description of the experimental data, whereas Hollomon's equation does not suitably characterize AISI 316H stainless steel and can be applied with some accuracy only at 1073 K. (author)

  13. Spontaneous eye blink rate as predictor of dopamine-related cognitive function-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongkees, Bryant J; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2016-12-01

    An extensive body of research suggests the spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR) is a non-invasive indirect marker of central dopamine (DA) function, with higher EBR predicting higher DA function. In the present review we provide a comprehensive overview of this literature. We broadly divide the available research in studies that aim to disentangle the dopaminergic underpinnings of EBR, investigate its utility in diagnosis of DA-related disorders and responsivity to drug treatment, and, lastly, investigate EBR as predictor of individual differences in DA-related cognitive performance. We conclude (i) EBR can reflect both DA receptor subtype D1 and D2 activity, although baseline EBR might be most strongly related to the latter, (ii) EBR can predict hypo- and hyperdopaminergic activity as well as normalization of this activity following treatment, and (iii) EBR can reliably predict individual differences in performance on many cognitive tasks, in particular those related to reward-driven behavior and cognitive flexibility. In sum, this review establishes EBR as a useful predictor of DA in a wide variety of contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Medication-related problem type and appearance rate in ambulatory hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drayer Debra K

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemodialysis (HD patients are at risk for medication-related problems (MRP. The MRP number, type, and appearance rate over time in ambulatory HD patients has not been investigated. Methods Randomly selected HD patients were enrolled to receive monthly pharmaceutical care visits. At each visit, MRP were identified through review of the patient chart, electronic medical record, patient interview, and communications with other healthcare disciplines. All MRP were categorized by type and medication class. MRP appearance rate was determined as the number of MRP identified per month/number of months in study. The number of MRP per patient-drug exposures were determined using: {[(number of patients × (mean number of medications]/(number of months of study} /number of MRP identified. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation or percentages. Results Patients were 62.6 ± 15.9 years old, had 6.4 ± 2.0 comorbid conditions, were taking 12.5 ± 4.2 medications, and 15.7 ± 7.2 doses per day at baseline. Medication-dosing problems (33.5%, adverse drug reactions (20.7%, and an indication that was not currently being treated (13.5% were the most common MRP. 5,373 medication orders were reviewed and a MRP was identified every 15.2 medication exposures. Overall MRP appearance rate was 0.68 ± 0.46 per patient per month. Conclusion MRP continue to occur at a high rate in ambulatory HD patients. Healthcare providers taking care of HD patients should be aware of this problem and efforts to avoid or resolve MRP should be undertaken at all HD clinics.

  15. Lifestyle-related attitudes: do they explain self-rated health and life-satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, A Simon; Jalundhwala, Yash J; Bewsher, Helen; Sharp, Lisa K; Walton, Surrey M; Schumock, Glen T; Caskey, Rachel N

    2018-05-01

    Strategies to improve public health may benefit from targeting specific lifestyles associated with poor health behaviors and outcomes. The aim of this study was to characterize and examine the relationship between health and lifestyle-related attitudes (HLAs) and self-rated health and life-satisfaction. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from a 2012 community wellness survey in Kirklees, UK. Using a validated HLA tool, respondents (n = 9130) were categorized into five segments: health conscious realists (33%), balanced compensators (14%), live-for-todays (18%), hedonistic immortals (10%), and unconfident fatalists (25%). Multivariate regression was used to examine whether HLAs could explain self-rated health using the EQ-5D visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) and life-satisfaction. Health conscious realists served as the reference group. Self-rated health differed by HLA, with adjusted mean EQ-VAS scores being significantly higher (better) among balanced compensators (1.15, 95% CI 0.27, 2.03) and lower scores among unconfident fatalists (- 9.02, 95% CI - 9.85, - 8.21) and live-for-todays (- 1.96, 95% CI - 2.80, - 1.14). Balanced compensators were less likely to report low life-satisfaction (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62, 0.90), while unconfident fatalists were most likely to have low life-satisfaction (OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.92, 4.23). Segmentation by HLA explained differences in self-rated health and life-satisfaction, with unconfident fatalists being a distinct segment with significantly worse health perceptions and life-satisfaction. Health promotion efforts may benefit from considering the HLA segment that predominates a patient group, especially unconfident fatalists.

  16. Surface applicators for high dose rate brachytherapy in AIDS-related kaposi's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Michael D.C.; Yassa, Mariam; Podgorsak, Ervin B.; Roman, Ted N.; Schreiner, L. John; Souhami, Luis

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The development of commercially available surface applicators using high dose rate remote afterloading devices has enabled radiotherapy centers to treat selected superficial lesions using a remote afterloading brachytherapy unit. The dosimetric parameters of these applicators, the clinical implementation of this technique, and a review of the initial patient treatment regimes are presented. Methods and Materials: A set of six fixed-diameter (1, 2, and 3 cm), tungsten/steel surface applicators is available for use with a single stepping-source (Ir-192, 370 GBq) high dose rate afterloader. The source can be positioned either in a parallel or perpendicular orientation to the treatment plane at the center of a conical aperture that sits at an SSD of approximately 15 mm and is used with a 1-mm thick removable plastic cap. The surface dose rates, percent depth dose, and off-axis ratios were measured. A custom-built, ceiling-mounted immobilization device secures the applicator on the surface of the patient's lesion during treatment. Results: Between November 1994, and September 1996, 16 AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma patients having a total of 120 lesions have been treated with palliative intent. Treatment sites were distributed between the head and neck, extremity, and torso. Doses ranged from 8 to 20 Gy, with a median dose of 10 Gy delivered in a single fraction. Treatments were well tolerated with minimal skin reaction, except for patients with lesions treated to 20 Gy who developed moderate/severe desquamation. Conclusion: Radiotherapy centers equipped with a high dose rate remote afterloading unit may treat small selected surface lesions with commercially available surface applicators. These surface applicators must be used with a protective cap to eliminate electron contamination. The optimal surface dose appears to be either 10 or 15 Gy depending upon the height of the lesion

  17. Changes in transcription of cytokinin metabolism and signalling genes in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries are associated with the ripening-related increase in isopentenyladenine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Christine; Burbidge, Crista A; Boss, Paul K; Davies, Christopher

    2015-09-16

    Cytokinins are known to play an important role in fruit set and early fruit growth, but their involvement in later stages of fruit development is less well understood. Recent reports of greatly increased cytokinin concentrations in the flesh of ripening kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang & A.R. Ferguson) and grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) have suggested that these hormones are implicated in the control of ripening-related processes. A similar pattern of isopentenyladenine (iP) accumulation was observed in the ripening fruit of several grapevine cultivars, strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.), suggesting a common, ripening-related role for this cytokinin. Significant differences in maximal iP concentrations between grapevine cultivars and between fruit species might reflect varying degrees of relevance or functional adaptations of this hormone in the ripening process. Grapevine orthologues of five Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) gene families involved in cytokinin metabolism and signalling were identified and analysed for their expression in developing grape berries and a range of other grapevine tissues. Members of each gene family were characterised by distinct expression profiles during berry development and in different grapevine organs, suggesting a complex regulation of cellular cytokinin activities throughout the plant. The post-veraison-specific expression of a set of biosynthesis, activation, perception and signalling genes together with a lack of expression of degradation-related genes during the ripening phase were indicative of a local control of berry iP concentrations leading to the observed accumulation of iP in ripening grapes. The transcriptional analysis of grapevine genes involved in cytokinin production, degradation and response has provided a possible explanation for the ripening-associated accumulation of iP in grapes and other fruit. The pre- and post-veraison-specific expression of

  18. Similar star formation rate and metallicity variability time-scales drive the fundamental metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars; McKinnon, Ryan; Marinacci, Federico; Simcoe, Robert A.; Springel, Volker; Pillepich, Annalisa; Naiman, Jill; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Weinberger, Rainer; Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy

    2018-06-01

    The fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) is a postulated correlation between galaxy stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and gas-phase metallicity. At its core, this relation posits that offsets from the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) at a fixed stellar mass are correlated with galactic SFR. In this Letter, we use hydrodynamical simulations to quantify the time-scales over which populations of galaxies oscillate about the average SFR and metallicity values at fixed stellar mass. We find that Illustris and IllustrisTNG predict that galaxy offsets from the star formation main sequence and MZR oscillate over similar time-scales, are often anticorrelated in their evolution, evolve with the halo dynamical time, and produce a pronounced FMR. Our models indicate that galaxies oscillate about equilibrium SFR and metallicity values - set by the galaxy's stellar mass - and that SFR and metallicity offsets evolve in an anticorrelated fashion. This anticorrelated variability of the metallicity and SFR offsets drives the existence of the FMR in our models. In contrast to Illustris and IllustrisTNG, we speculate that the SFR and metallicity evolution tracks may become decoupled in galaxy formation models dominated by feedback-driven globally bursty SFR histories, which could weaken the FMR residual correlation strength. This opens the possibility of discriminating between bursty and non-bursty feedback models based on the strength and persistence of the FMR - especially at high redshift.

  19. Differentiation of pain ratings in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Anja; Geuze, Elbert; Schmahl, Christian; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Bohus, Martin; Vermetten, Eric

    2009-06-01

    Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with chronic pain, preliminary evidence suggests reduced experimental pain sensitivity in this disorder. The questions addressed in the present study were whether pain perception would also be reduced in PTSD patients who are not suffering from chronic pain symptoms, and whether a reduction in pain sensitivity would also be present in combat veterans who did not develop PTSD. For this, we determined thermal detection and pain thresholds in 10 male combat-related PTSD patients, 10 combat control subjects (no PTSD) and 10 healthy controls without combat experience. All subjects were pain free. First, we measured thermal sensory thresholds with ramped heat and cold stimuli using the method of limits. Ramped thermal sensory stimulation revealed no deficits for the detection of (non-noxious) f2.1thermal stimuli between groups. In contrast, heat and cold pain thresholds in both combat groups (PTSD and combat controls) were significantly increased compared to healthy controls. However, these stimuli could not distinguish between the two groups due to ceiling effects. When using longer-lasting heat stimulation at different temperatures (30s duration; method of fixed stimuli), we found significantly lower frequency of pain reports in PTSD patients compared with both combat and healthy controls, as well as significantly lower pain ratings. Our results suggest an association of PTSD with reduced pain sensitivity, which could be related to PTSD-related (neuro-)psychological alterations or to a pre-existing risk factor for the disorder.

  20. Growth arrest-specific transcript 5 associated snoRNA levels are related to p53 expression and DNA damage in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Krell

    Full Text Available The growth arrest-specific transcript 5 gene (GAS5 encodes a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA and hosts a number of small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs that have recently been implicated in multiple cellular processes and cancer. Here, we investigate the relationship between DNA damage, p53, and the GAS5 snoRNAs to gain further insight into the potential role of this locus in cell survival and oncogenesis both in vivo and in vitro.We used quantitative techniques to analyse the effect of DNA damage on GAS5 snoRNA expression and to assess the relationship between p53 and the GAS5 snoRNAs in cancer cell lines and in normal, pre-malignant, and malignant human colorectal tissue and used biological techniques to suggest potential roles for these snoRNAs in the DNA damage response.GAS5-derived snoRNA expression was induced by DNA damage in a p53-dependent manner in colorectal cancer cell lines and their levels were not affected by DICER. Furthermore, p53 levels strongly correlated with GAS5-derived snoRNA expression in colorectal tissue.In aggregate, these data suggest that the GAS5-derived snoRNAs are under control of p53 and that they have an important role in mediating the p53 response to DNA damage, which may not relate to their function in the ribosome. We suggest that these snoRNAs are not processed by DICER to form smaller snoRNA-derived RNAs with microRNA (miRNA-like functions, but their precise role requires further evaluation. Furthermore, since GAS5 host snoRNAs are often used as endogenous controls in qPCR quantifications we show that their use as housekeeping genes in DNA damage experiments can lead to inaccurate results.

  1. Activated nuclear transcription factor κB in patients with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy-relation to inflammation and cardiac function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, Peter; Rupp, Heinz; Maisch, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    Objectives and background: Myocarditis is caused by various agents and autoimmune processes. It is unknown whether viral genome persistence represents inactive remnants of previous infections or whether it is attributed to ongoing adverse processes. The latter also applies to the course of autoimmune myocarditis. One principal candidate for an adverse remodeling is nuclear factor-κB (NFκB). Methods: A total of 93 patients with suspected myocarditis/cardiomyopathy was examined. Hemodynamics were assessed by echocardiography as well as right and left heart catheterization. Endomyocardial biopsies were taken from the left ventricle. Biopsies were examined by immunohistochemistry and PCR for viral genomes. Selective immunostaining of activated NFκB was performed. Results: NFκB was increased in patients with myocarditis when compared with controls (11.1 ± 7.1% vs. 5.0 ± 5.3%, P 2 = 0.72, P 2 = 0.43, P < 0.02). Increased activated NFκB was found in adenovirus persistence when compared with controls (P = 0.001). Only a trend of increased NFκB activation was seen in cytomegalovirus persistence. Parvovirus B19 persistence did not affect NFκB activation. Conclusions: Increased activation of NFκB is related to inflammatory processes in myocarditis. Since activated NFκB correlates with left ventricular function, it could be assumed that NFκB activation occurs at early stages of inflammation. Potentially, NFκB could inhibit loss of cardiomyocytes by apoptosis and protect from cardiac dilation. Since NFκB is a crucial key transcription factor of inflammation, its prognostic and future therapeutic relevance should be addressed

  2. Relating Complexity and Error Rates of Ontology Concepts. More Complex NCIt Concepts Have More Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hua; Zheng, Ling; Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; De Coronado, Sherri; Ochs, Christopher

    2017-05-18

    Ontologies are knowledge structures that lend support to many health-information systems. A study is carried out to assess the quality of ontological concepts based on a measure of their complexity. The results show a relation between complexity of concepts and error rates of concepts. A measure of lateral complexity defined as the number of exhibited role types is used to distinguish between more complex and simpler concepts. Using a framework called an area taxonomy, a kind of abstraction network that summarizes the structural organization of an ontology, concepts are divided into two groups along these lines. Various concepts from each group are then subjected to a two-phase QA analysis to uncover and verify errors and inconsistencies in their modeling. A hierarchy of the National Cancer Institute thesaurus (NCIt) is used as our test-bed. A hypothesis pertaining to the expected error rates of the complex and simple concepts is tested. Our study was done on the NCIt's Biological Process hierarchy. Various errors, including missing roles, incorrect role targets, and incorrectly assigned roles, were discovered and verified in the two phases of our QA analysis. The overall findings confirmed our hypothesis by showing a statistically significant difference between the amounts of errors exhibited by more laterally complex concepts vis-à-vis simpler concepts. QA is an essential part of any ontology's maintenance regimen. In this paper, we reported on the results of a QA study targeting two groups of ontology concepts distinguished by their level of complexity, defined in terms of the number of exhibited role types. The study was carried out on a major component of an important ontology, the NCIt. The findings suggest that more complex concepts tend to have a higher error rate than simpler concepts. These findings can be utilized to guide ongoing efforts in ontology QA.

  3. Relative rates of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production by nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and nitrate respirers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, I. C.; Levine, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the atmospheric chemical and photochemical effects of biogenic nitric and nitrous oxide emissions. The magnitude of the biogenic emission of NO is noted to remain uncertain. Possible soil sources of NO and N2O encompass nitrification by autotropic and heterotropic nitrifiers, denitrification by nitrifiers and denitrifiers, nitrate respiration by fermenters, and chemodenitrification. Oxygen availability is the primary determinant of these organisms' relative rates of activity. The characteristics of this major influence are presently investigated in light of the effect of oxygen partial pressure on NO and N2O production by a wide variety of common soil-nitrifying, denitrifying, and nitrate-respiring bacteria under laboratory conditions. The results obtained indicate that aerobic soils are primary sources only when there is sufficient moisture to furnish anaerobic microsites for denitrification.

  4. Observational study of the relationship between entrainment rate and relative dispersion in deep convective clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaohao; Lu, Chunsong; Zhao, Tianliang; Liu, Yangang; Zhang, Guang Jun; Luo, Shi

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of entrainment rate (λ) on relative dispersion (ε) of cloud droplet size distributions (CDSD) in the 99 growing precipitating deep convective clouds during TOGA-COARE. The results show that entrainment suppresses ε, which is opposite to the traditional understanding that entrainment-mixing broadens CDSD. To examine how the relationship between ε and λ is affected by droplets with different sizes, CDSDs are divided into three portions with droplet radius processes is developed to illustrate the possible scenarios entailing different relationships between ε and λ. The number concentration of small droplets and the degree of evaporation of small droplets are found to be key factors that shift the sign (i.e., positive or negative) of the ε-λ relationship.

  5. Dispersion relation and growth rate of a relativistic electron beam propagating through a Langmuir wave wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, H.; Jafari, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a theory of free-electron laser (FEL) with a Langmuir wave wiggler in the presence of an axial magnetic field has been presented. The small wavelength of the plasma wave (in the sub-mm range) allows obtaining higher frequency than conventional wiggler FELs. Electron trajectories have been obtained by solving the equations of motion for a single electron. In addition, a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method has been used to simulate the electron trajectories. Employing a perturbation analysis, the dispersion relation for an electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been derived by solving the momentum transfer, continuity, and wave equations. Numerical calculations show that the growth rate increases with increasing the e-beam energy and e-beam density, while it decreases with increasing the strength of the axial guide magnetic field.

  6. Relation between Silver Nanoparticle Formation Rate and Antioxidant Capacity of Aqueous Plant Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azat Akbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between the antioxidant capacity and silver nanoparticle formation rates of pomegranate (Punica granatum, quince (Cydonia oblonga, chestnut (Castanea sativa, fig (Ficus carica, walnut (Juglans cinerea, black mulberry (Morus nigra, and white mulberry (Morus alba leaf extracts is investigated at a fixed illumination. Silver nanoparticles formed in all plant leaf extracts possess round shapes with average particle size of 15 to 25 nm, whereas corresponding surface plasmon resonance peak wavelengths vary between 422 nm and 451 nm. Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity technique is used as a reference method to determine total antioxidant capacity of the plant leaf extracts. Integrated absorbance over the plasmon resonance peaks exhibits better linear relation with antioxidant capacities of various plant leaf extracts compared to peak absorbance values, with correlation coefficient values of 0.9333 and 0.7221, respectively.

  7. A Computational Study on the Relation between Resting Heart Rate and Atrial Fibrillation Hemodynamics under Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Scarsoglio, Stefania; Saglietto, Andrea; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Clinical data indicating a heart rate (HR) target during rate control therapy for permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) and assessing its eventual relationship with reduced exercise tolerance are lacking. The present study aims at investigating the impact of resting HR on the hemodynamic response to exercise in permanent AF patients by means of a computational cardiovascular model. The AF lumped-parameter model was run to simulate resting (1 Metabolic Equivalent of Task-MET) and various exercise conditions (4 METs: brisk walking; 6 METs: skiing; 8 METs: running), considering different resting HR (70 bpm for the slower resting HR-SHR-simulations, and 100 bpm for the higher resting HR-HHR-simulations). To compare relative variations of cardiovascular variables upon exertion, the variation comparative index (VCI)-the absolute variation between the exercise and the resting values in SHR simulations referred to the absolute variation in HHR simulations-was calculated at each exercise grade (VCI4, VCI6 and VCI8). Pulmonary venous pressure underwent a greater increase in HHR compared to SHR simulations (VCI4 = 0.71, VCI6 = 0.73 and VCI8 = 0.77), while for systemic arterial pressure the opposite is true (VCI4 = 1.15, VCI6 = 1.36, VCI8 = 1.56). The computational findings suggest that a slower, with respect to a higher resting HR, might be preferable in permanent AF patients, since during exercise pulmonary venous pressure undergoes a slighter increase and systemic blood pressure reveals a more appropriate increase.

  8. Physiological Study on the Relation of Heart Rate Variability in Ageing and Thyroid Hormone Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed A. M. Shokr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate whether cardiac autonomic dysfunction in aging human might be related to an underlying thyroid disturbance. ageing has been associated with hypothyroidism and cardiac autonomic dysfunction. On the basis of body mass index (BMI, 150 patients were grouped into three groups (n = 50 48 years ± 2, 55 years ± 2 and 63 years ± 2. Electrocardiogram was recorded using PowerLab system and the time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV were calculated. Fasting blood samples were drawn for measurement of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total thyroxin (T4 and total triiodothyronine (T3 concentrations. The levels of TSH, T4 and T3 were not significantly different between the groups. The frequency domain HRV parameter reflecting parasympathetic tone (high-frequency normalized units, HFnu was significantly reduced in aging third groups group. The parameters which reflect sympathetic activation (Heart rate, low-frequency normalized units; LFnu and the LF/HF ratio were significantly increased in the aging group. HFnu was significantly and negatively correlated with age, whereas LFnu and LF/HF ratio were significantly and positively correlated with the above mentioned parameters. No significant relationships were noted between the HRV parameters and the levels of TSH or thyroid hormones. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in aging human is not linked with underlying thyroid disturbance.

  9. Relating coccolithophore calcification rates to phytoplankton community dynamics: Regional differences and implications for carbon export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Alex J.; Adey, Tim R.; Balch, William M.; Holligan, Patrick M.

    2007-03-01

    Recent measurements of surface coccolithophore calcification from the Atlantic Ocean (50°N-50°S) are compared to similar measurements from other oceanic settings. By combining the different data sets of surface measurements, we examine general and regional patterns of calcification relative to organic carbon production (photosynthesis) and other characteristics of the phytoplankton community. Generally, surface calcification and photosynthesis are positively correlated, although the strength of the relationship differs between biogeochemical provinces. Relationships between surface calcification, chlorophyll- a and calcite concentrations are also statistically significant, although again there is considerable regional variability. Such variability appears unrelated to phytoplankton community composition or hydrographic conditions, and may instead reflect variations in coccolithophore physiology. The contribution of inorganic carbon fixation (calcification) to total carbon fixation (calcification plus photosynthesis) is ˜1-10%, and we estimate a similar contribution from coccolithophores to total organic carbon fixation. However, these contributions vary between biogeochemical provinces, and occasionally coccolithophores may account for >20% of total carbon fixation in unproductive central subtropical gyres. Combining surface calcification and photosynthetic rates with standing stocks of calcite, particulate organic carbon, and estimated phytoplankton carbon allows us to examine the fates of these three carbon pools. The relative turnover times vary between different biogeochemical provinces, with no clear relationship to the overall productivity or phytoplankton community structure found in each province. Rather, interaction between coccolithophore physiology (coccolith production and detachment rates), species diversity (cell size), and food web dynamics (grazer ecology) may control the composition and turnover times of calcite particles in the upper ocean.

  10. Nasal congestion in relation to low air exchange rate in schools. Evaluation by acoustic rhinometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wålinder, R; Norbäck, D; Wieslander, G; Smedje, G; Erwall, C

    1997-09-01

    Upper airway symptoms are common, but there is little information available on clinical findings in relation to indoor air pollution. This pilot study was conducted to test whether increased levels of indoor air pollutants in schools may correlate to a swelling of the nasal mucosa. The assumption was made that the degree of swelling could be related to the degree of decongestive effect of xylometazoline, and measured by acoustic rhinometry. The study was performed among 15 subjects in a school with low air exchange rate (0.6 air changes/h) and 12 subjects in a school with high air exchange rate (5.2 air changes/h). Hygienic measurements were performed in both schools. Acoustic rhinometry was performed for each individual under standardized forms. Cross-sectional areas and volumes of the nasal cavity were measured before and after decongestion with xylometazoline hydrochloride. Absolute values of the minimal cross-sectional area were lower in the school with poor ventilation. The decongestive effect of xylometazoline was significantly higher in the school with low air exchange, when correction for the influence of age was made. A diminished decongestive effect was seen with increasing age. The exposure measurements showed that indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds, bacteria and moulds were higher in the school with low ventilation. In conclusion, raised levels of indoor air pollutants due to inadequate ventilation in schools may affect the upper airways and cause a swelling of the nasal mucosa, and acoustic rhinometry could be a useful objective method to measure human nasal reactions to the indoor environment.

  11. Contribution of the drought tolerance-related Stress-responsive NAC1 transcription factor to resistance of barley to Ramularia leaf spot

    OpenAIRE

    MCGRANN, GRAHAM R D; STEED, ANDREW; BURT, CHRISTOPHER; GODDARD, RACHEL; LACHAUX, CLEA; BANSAL, ANURADHA; CORBITT, MARGARET; GORNIAK, KALINA; NICHOLSON, PAUL; BROWN, JAMES K M

    2014-01-01

    NAC proteins are plant transcription factors that are involved in tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as in many developmental processes. Stress-responsive NAC1 (SNAC1) transcription factor is involved in drought tolerance in barley and rice, but has not been shown previously to have a role in disease resistance. Transgenic over-expression of HvSNAC1 in barley cv. Golden Promise reduced the severity of Ramularia leaf spot (RLS), caused by the fungus Ramularia collo-cygni, but ha...

  12. Correlation and clinical significance between glomerular filtration rate and age in living-related kidney donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiuyi; Shao Yahui; Wang Yanming; Zhang Aimin; Hao Junwen; Tian Jun; Sun Ben; Han Jiankui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To quantitatively investigate the effect of age on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in living-related kidney donors. to analyze the clinical value and the dependence of GFR on age and to provide an objective basis for the selection of the living kidney donor. Methods: One hundred and sixty-one living-related kidney donors were divided into four age groups, namely 20-29 years (n=52), 30-39 years (n=44), 40-49 years (n=38) and ≥50 years (n=27). On the other hand, the total donors were divided into the groups older than 55 years (n=24) and younger than 55 years (n=137). To quantify GFR in all the subjects using the 99 Tc m -diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99 Tc m -DTPA) renography according to standard procedure and to evaluate the effects of age on renal function. Results: The total GFR in living-related kidney donors was calculated as (89.55±12.87) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 . The GFR in the first to the four age groups were (88.27±12.29) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , (91.85±14.51) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , (98.25±11.26) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 and (88.24±13.20) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 . The difference of GFR were not significant between the four age groups (F=2.09, P=0.10). The GFR in the donors older than 55 years and younger than 55 years were (88.57±13.14) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 and (89.44±10.34) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , there no significant difference in GFR between the two groups (F=1.31, P=0.25). When relating GFR to age in all the living-related kidney donors, there was no significant correlation (r=-0.033, P=0.69). No serious complications occurred after living kidney transplantation, serum creatinine values and blood urea nitrogen recovered to the normal levels in a short period, hepatic and renal functions were normal. Conclusion: This study indicated that the GFR values were not correlated with the change of age in living-related kidney donors, and the results were helpful for the selection of living

  13. Relative rates of B meson decays into psi(2S) and J/psi mesons

    OpenAIRE

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study of the relative rates of B meson decays into ψ(2S) and J/ψ mesons using 1.3  fb-1 of pp̅ collisions at √s=1.96  TeV recorded by the D0 detector operating at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We observe the channels Bs0→ψ(2S)ϕ, Bs0→J/ψϕ, B±→ψ(2S)K±, and B±→J/ψK± and we measure the relative branching fractions for these channels to be B(Bs0→ψ(2S)ϕ)/B(Bs0→J/ψϕ)=0.53±0.10(stat)±0.07(syst)±0.06(B), B(B±→ψ(2S)K±)/B(B±→J/ψK±)=0.63±0.05(stat)±0.03(syst)±0.07(B),where the final erro...

  14. Cesarean Section Rate in Singleton Primiparae and Related Factors in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geng; Wei, Yu-Mei; Zhu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Hui-Xia

    2017-10-20

    The cesarean section rate (CSR) has been a main concern worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the CSR in Beijing, China, and to analyze the related factors of CS delivery. An observational study was conducted in 15 medical centers in Beijing using a systemic cluster sampling method. In total, 15,194 pregnancies were enrolled in the study between June 20, 2013 and November 30, 2013. Independent t-tests and Pearson's Chi-square test were used to examine differences between two groups, and related factors of the CSR were examined by multivariable logistic regression. The CSR was 41.9% (4471/10,671) in singleton primiparae. Women who were more than 35 years old had a 7.4-fold increased risk of CS delivery compared with women level. Neonates weighing 3000-3499 g had the lowest CSR (36.2%). Neonates weighing levels, residence, education level, and singleton fetal birth weight are all factors that might significantly affect the CSR.

  15. Characterization of tropical precipitation using drop size distribution and rain rate-radar reflectivity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurabh; Maitra, Animesh

    2018-04-01

    Characterization of precipitation is important for proper interpretation of rain information from remotely sensed data. Rain attenuation and radar reflectivity (Z) depend directly on the drop size distribution (DSD). The relation between radar reflectivity/rain attenuation and rain rate (R) varies widely depending upon the origin, topography, and drop evolution mechanism and needs further understanding of the precipitation characteristics. The present work utilizes 2 years of concurrent measurements of DSD using a ground-based disdrometer at five diverse climatic conditions in Indian subcontinent and explores the possibility of rain classification based on microphysical characteristics of precipitation. It is observed that both gamma and lognormal distributions are performing almost similar for Indian region with a marginally better performance by one model than other depending upon the locations. It has also been found that shape-slope relationship of gamma distribution can be a good indicator of rain type. The Z-R relation, Z = ARb, is found to vary widely for different precipitation systems, with convective rain that has higher values of A than the stratiform rain for two locations, whereas the reverse is observed for the rest of the three locations. Further, the results indicate that the majority of rainfall (>50%) in Indian region is due to the convective rain although the occurrence time of convective rain is low (<10%).

  16. Relative rates of albumin equilibration in the skin interstitium and lymph during vasodilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, M.R.; Wallace, J.R.; Bell, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The initial equilibration of 125 I-labeled albumin between the vascular and extravascular compartments was studied in hindpaw skin of 6 anesthetized rabbits. Papavarine (200 ug/min) was infused into a small branch of the femoral artery of one limb with the contralateral limb as a control. There was a 1.2-fold increase in lymph flow (p 131 I-labeled albumin injected 10 min before ending the experiment. Endogenous albumin was measured in plasma, lymph, and tissue samples using rocket electroimmunoassay. After 3 hrs of tracer infusion, lymph specific activity relative to plasma was significantly greater in the vasodilated hindlimb (0.30 +/- 0.07 vs 0.13 +/- 0.05; mean +/- SE; p < 0.01). Extravascular specific activity relative to plasma was greater in the vasodilated limb (0.13 +/- 0.02 vs 0.09 +/- 0.02; p < 0.05). Thus, vasodilation increased the rates at which lymph and tissue equilibrate with plasma. Also, the difference between lymph and tissue equilibration was greater in the vasodilated hindlimb

  17. Concurrent relations among cigarette smoking status, resting heart rate variability, and erectile response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Christopher B

    2014-05-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a marker of sympathovagal balance; it has been implicated in erectile function and is also altered by tobacco use. Furthermore, smoking and erectile health are strongly related, given that smokers are at increased risk for erectile dysfunction. Few studies have explored the interrelationships between smoking, HRV, and erectile function concurrently. The aim of this study was to examine potential mechanisms underlying tobacco's effects on penile hemodynamics by exploring the mediating role of HRV. The sample comprised 119 men (smokers = 64; nonsmokers = 55) (mean age 28.90 years; standard deviation (SD) 11.68; range 18-58) selected from the control conditions of three previously published experiments. Participants were free from a history of cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarct, and/or cardiac/cardiovascular medication use. During a laboratory visit, self-report, anthropometric, cardiovascular, and electrocardiographic data were assessed, as well as sexual arousal responses elicited from viewing an erotic film. Objective sexual arousal indices (circumferential change via penile plethysmography), self-reported erectile function (per the erectile function domain score of the International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF-EF]), and time- (SD of beat-to-beat intervals) and frequency-domain parameters of HRV (ratio of low-frequency [LF] power to high-frequency [HF] power [LF/HF ratio]) were assessed. Being a current long-term cigarette smoker was associated with dysregulated sympathovagal balance (higher LF/HF ratios, indicative of sympathetic nervous system dominance), which in turn showed inverse relations with magnitude of erectile tumescence. HRV did not mediate relations between tobacco use and either IIEF-EF scores or resting penile circumference. Findings suggest that dysfunctional cardiac autonomic tone may be an underlying mechanism by which tobacco exerts its deleterious effects on erectile health. Further research

  18. Relationship between relative cerebral blood flow, relative cerebral blood volume, and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in the preterm neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourhashemi, Mina; Kongolo, Guy; Mahmoudzadeh, Mahdi; Goudjil, Sabrina; Wallois, Fabrice

    2017-04-01

    The mechanisms responsible for coupling between relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen ([Formula: see text]), an important function of the microcirculation in preterm infants, remain unclear. Identification of a causal relationship between rCBF-rCBV and [Formula: see text] in preterms may, therefore, help to elucidate the principles of cortical hemodynamics during development. We simultaneously recorded rCBF and rCBV and estimated [Formula: see text] by two independent acquisition systems: diffuse correlation spectroscopy and near-infrared spectroscopy, respectively, in 10 preterms aged between 28 and 35 weeks of gestational age. Transfer entropy was calculated in order to determine the directionality between rCBF-rCBV and [Formula: see text]. The surrogate method was applied to determine statistical significance. The results show that rCBV and [Formula: see text] have a predominant driving influence on rCBF at the resting state in the preterm neonatal brain. Statistical analysis robustly detected the correct directionality of rCBV on rCBF and [Formula: see text] on rCBF. This study helps to clarify the early organization of the rCBV-rCBF and [Formula: see text] inter-relationship in the immature cortex.

  19. De novo transcriptome sequence assembly and identification of AP2/ERF transcription factor related to abiotic stress in parsley (Petroselinum crispum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Yao Li

    Full Text Available Parsley is an important biennial Apiaceae species that is widely cultivated as herb, spice, and vegetable. Previous studies on parsley principally focused on its physiological and biochemical properties, including phenolic compound and volatile oil contents. However, little is known about the molecular and genetic properties of parsley. In this study, 23,686,707 high-quality reads were obtained and assembled into 81,852 transcripts and 50,161 unigenes for the first time. Functional annotation showed that 30,516 unigenes had sequence similarity to known genes. In addition, 3,244 putative simple sequence repeats were detected in curly parsley. Finally, 1,569 of the identified unigenes belonged to 58 transcription factor families. Various abiotic stresses have a strong detrimental effect on the yield and quality of parsley. AP2/ERF transcription factors have important functions in plant development, hormonal regulation, and abiotic response. A total of 88 putative AP2/ERF factors were identified from the transcriptome sequence of parsley. Seven AP2/ERF transcription factors were selected in this study to analyze the expression profiles of parsley under different abiotic stresses. Our data provide a potentially valuable resource that can be used for intensive parsley research.

  20. De novo transcriptome sequence assembly and identification of AP2/ERF transcription factor related to abiotic stress in parsley (Petroselinum crispum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Yao; Tan, Hua-Wei; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Qian; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Tian, Chang; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Parsley is an important biennial Apiaceae species that is widely cultivated as herb, spice, and vegetable. Previous studies on parsley principally focused on its physiological and biochemical properties, including phenolic compound and volatile oil contents. However, little is known about the molecular and genetic properties of parsley. In this study, 23,686,707 high-quality reads were obtained and assembled into 81,852 transcripts and 50,161 unigenes for the first time. Functional annotation showed that 30,516 unigenes had sequence similarity to known genes. In addition, 3,244 putative simple sequence repeats were detected in curly parsley. Finally, 1,569 of the identified unigenes belonged to 58 transcription factor families. Various abiotic stresses have a strong detrimental effect on the yield and quality of parsley. AP2/ERF transcription factors have important functions in plant development, hormonal regulation, and abiotic response. A total of 88 putative AP2/ERF factors were identified from the transcriptome sequence of parsley. Seven AP2/ERF transcription factors were selected in this study to analyze the expression profiles of parsley under different abiotic stresses. Our data provide a potentially valuable resource that can be used for intensive parsley research.

  1. The radio continuum-star formation rate relation in WSRT sings galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heesen, Volker; Brinks, Elias; Leroy, Adam K.; Heald, George; Braun, Robert; Bigiel, Frank; Beck, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the spatially resolved radio continuum-star formation rate (RC-SFR) relation using state-of-the-art star formation tracers in a sample of 17 THINGS galaxies. We use SFR surface density (Σ SFR ) maps created by a linear combination of GALEX far-UV (FUV) and Spitzer 24 μm maps. We use RC maps at λλ22 and 18 cm from the WSRT SINGS survey and Hα emission maps to correct for thermal RC emission. We compare azimuthally averaged radial profiles of the RC and FUV/mid-IR (MIR) based Σ SFR maps and study pixel-by-pixel correlations at fixed linear scales of 1.2 and 0.7 kpc. The ratio of the integrated SFRs from the RC emission to that of the FUV/MIR-based SF tracers is R int =0.78±0.38, consistent with the relation by Condon. We find a tight correlation between the radial profiles of the radio and FUV/MIR-based Σ SFR for the entire extent of the disk. The ratio R of the azimuthally averaged radio to FUV/MIR-based Σ SFR agrees with the integrated ratio and has only quasi-random fluctuations with galactocentric radius that are relatively small (25%). Pixel-by-pixel plots show a tight correlation in log-log diagrams of radio to FUV/MIR-based Σ SFR , with a typical standard deviation of a factor of two. Averaged over our sample we find (Σ SFR ) RC ∝(Σ SFR ) hyb 0.63±0.25 , implying that data points with high Σ SFR are relatively radio dim, whereas the reverse is true for low Σ SFR . We interpret this as a result of spectral aging of cosmic-ray electrons (CREs), which are diffusing away from the star formation sites where they are injected into the interstellar medium. This is supported by our finding that the radio spectral index is a second parameter in pixel-by-pixel plots: those data points dominated by young CREs are relatively radio dim, while those dominated by old CREs are slightly more RC bright than what would be expected from a linear extrapolation. We studied the ratio R of radio to FUV/MIR-based integrated SFR as a function of

  2. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Steven Killen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fuelled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced aerobic scope could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how aerobic scope and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden grey mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26oC, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and aerobic scope using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasise that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with

  3. A Computational Study on the Relation between Resting Heart Rate and Atrial Fibrillation Hemodynamics under Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Anselmino

    Full Text Available Clinical data indicating a heart rate (HR target during rate control therapy for permanent atrial fibrillation (AF and assessing its eventual relationship with reduced exercise tolerance are lacking. The present study aims at investigating the impact of resting HR on the hemodynamic response to exercise in permanent AF patients by means of a computational cardiovascular model.The AF lumped-parameter model was run to simulate resting (1 Metabolic Equivalent of Task-MET and various exercise conditions (4 METs: brisk walking; 6 METs: skiing; 8 METs: running, considering different resting HR (70 bpm for the slower resting HR-SHR-simulations, and 100 bpm for the higher resting HR-HHR-simulations. To compare relative variations of cardiovascular variables upon exertion, the variation comparative index (VCI-the absolute variation between the exercise and the resting values in SHR simulations referred to the absolute variation in HHR simulations-was calculated at each exercise grade (VCI4, VCI6 and VCI8.Pulmonary venous pressure underwent a greater increase in HHR compared to SHR simulations (VCI4 = 0.71, VCI6 = 0.73 and VCI8 = 0.77, while for systemic arterial pressure the opposite is true (VCI4 = 1.15, VCI6 = 1.36, VCI8 = 1.56.The computational findings suggest that a slower, with respect to a higher resting HR, might be preferable in permanent AF patients, since during exercise pulmonary venous pressure undergoes a slighter increase and systemic blood pressure reveals a more appropriate increase.

  4. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  5. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Chirag; Vicini, Frank A.

    2011-01-01

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer–related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2–65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  6. Ethanol ablation of predominantly cystic thyroid nodules: Evaluation of recurrence rate and factors related to recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, C.H.; Baek, J.H.; Ha, E.J.; Choi, Y.J.; Lee, J.H.; Kim, J.K.; Chung, K.-W.; Kim, T.Y.; Kim, W.B.; Shong, Y.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate recurrence rate and associated risk factors for recurrence after ethanol ablation (EA) in patients with predominantly cystic thyroid nodules. Materials and methods: This observational study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institutional Review Board and informed consent for procedures was obtained. From April 2009 to April 2013, 107 consecutive patients with predominantly cystic nodules were treated using EA. Recurrence was defined as nodules showing a residual solid portion with internal vascularity, cosmetic problems remaining, or persistent symptoms, and patients who requested additional therapy to resolve their symptomatic or cosmetic problems. Delayed recurrence was defined as treated nodules that showed no recurrent features at 1 month, but showed newly developed recurrent features during the longer follow-up period. Multivariate analysis was used for variables to demonstrate the independent factors related to volume reduction. Results: One month after EA, 18.7% of patients (20/107) showed recurrence. Among 87 patients with non-recurrence, 24.1% (21/87) showed delayed recurrence. The total recurrence rate was 38.3% (41/107). Patients with recurrence (n = 41) were treated using radiofrequency ablation (n = 28), second EA (n = 4), and refused further treatment (n = 9). These patients responded well to repeat EA and radiofrequency ablation. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the initial nodule volume (>20 ml; p < 0.036) and vascularity (grade >1; p < 0.049) were independent predictors of volume reduction at last follow-up. Conclusions: The results revealed that although EA seemed to be effective during the initial period, delayed recurrence should be considered during longer-term follow-up. The independent predictors of recurrence were initial volume (>20 ml) and vascularity. - Highlights: • Ethanol ablation showed unsatisfactory results in 18.7% of patient at one month. • Delayed recurrence was observed in 24

  7. LOFAR/H-ATLAS: the low-frequency radio luminosity-star formation rate relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkan, G.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Smith, D. J. B.; Best, P. N.; Bourne, N.; Calistro-Rivera, G.; Heald, G.; Jarvis, M. J.; Prandoni, I.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Sabater, J.; Shimwell, T.; Tasse, C.; Williams, W. L.

    2018-04-01

    Radio emission is a key indicator of star formation activity in galaxies, but the radio luminosity-star formation relation has to date been studied almost exclusively at frequencies of 1.4 GHz or above. At lower radio frequencies, the effects of thermal radio emission are greatly reduced, and so we would expect the radio emission observed to be completely dominated by synchrotron radiation from supernova-generated cosmic rays. As part of the LOFAR Surveys Key Science project, the Herschel-ATLAS NGP field has been surveyed with LOFAR at an effective frequency of 150 MHz. We select a sample from the MPA-JHU catalogue of Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in this area: the combination of Herschel, optical and mid-infrared data enable us to derive star formation rates (SFRs) for our sources using spectral energy distribution fitting, allowing a detailed study of the low-frequency radio luminosity-star formation relation in the nearby Universe. For those objects selected as star-forming galaxies (SFGs) using optical emission line diagnostics, we find a tight relationship between the 150 MHz radio luminosity (L150) and SFR. Interestingly, we find that a single power-law relationship between L150 and SFR is not a good description of all SFGs: a broken power-law model provides a better fit. This may indicate an additional mechanism for the generation of radio-emitting cosmic rays. Also, at given SFR, the radio luminosity depends on the stellar mass of the galaxy. Objects that were not classified as SFGs have higher 150-MHz radio luminosity than would be expected given their SFR, implying an important role for low-level active galactic nucleus activity.

  8. Relative growth rates of three woody legumes: implications in the process of ecological invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Crisóstomo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Acacia longifolia, an Australian leguminous tree, is one of the main invasive plant species in the coast of Portugal and a major threat to the native vegetation in the Reserva Natural das Dunas de São Jacinto. With the establishment of this exotic species, other native woody leguminous species such as Cytisus grandiflorus and Ulex europaeus have been displaced from their original areas. Several factors are involved in the process of biological invasion by exotic species. Plant physiology and development, characteristic of each species, can give certain advantages in the establishment and colonization of new areas. We tested if there are differences in the Relative Growth Rate (RGR of the exotic and native species because this could be relevant in the first stages of the invasion process. Our results showed that A. longifolia was the species with lowest RGR. Therefore, other factors apart from RGR might explain the invasion of coastal dunes by this species. We propose that A. longifolia might be a better competitor than the two native legumes and that this process might be mediated by the interaction with soil organisms.

  9. Factoring vs linear modeling in rate estimation: a simulation study of relative accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, G; Greenland, S

    1998-07-01

    A common strategy for modeling dose-response in epidemiology is to transform ordered exposures and covariates into sets of dichotomous indicator variables (that is, to factor the variables). Factoring tends to increase estimation variance, but it also tends to decrease bias and thus may increase or decrease total accuracy. We conducted a simulation study to examine the impact of factoring on the accuracy of rate estimation. Factored and unfactored Poisson regression models were fit to follow-up study datasets that were randomly generated from 37,500 population model forms that ranged from subadditive to supramultiplicative. In the situations we examined, factoring sometimes substantially improved accuracy relative to fitting the corresponding unfactored model, sometimes substantially decreased accuracy, and sometimes made little difference. The difference in accuracy between factored and unfactored models depended in a complicated fashion on the difference between the true and fitted model forms, the strength of exposure and covariate effects in the population, and the study size. It may be difficult in practice to predict when factoring is increasing or decreasing accuracy. We recommend, therefore, that the strategy of factoring variables be supplemented with other strategies for modeling dose-response.

  10. bZIP transcription factor SmJLB1 regulates autophagy-related genes Smatg8 and Smatg4 and is required for fruiting-body development and vegetative growth in Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Oliver; Herzog, Britta; Jakobshagen, Antonia; Pöggeler, Stefanie

    2013-12-01

    Autophagy is a precisely controlled degradation process in eukaryotic cells, during which the bulk of the cytoplasm is engulfed by a double membrane vesicle, the autophagosome. Fusion of the autophagosome with the vacuole leads to breakdown of its contents, such as proteins and organelles, and the recycling of nutrients. Earlier studies of autophagic genes of the core autophagic machinery in the filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora elucidated the impact of autophagy on fungal viability, vegetative growth and fruiting-body development. To gain further knowledge about the regulation of autophagy in S. macrospora, we analyzed the function of the bZIP transcription factor SmJLB1, a homolog of the Podospora anserina basic zipper-type transcription factor induced during incompatibility 4 (IDI-4) and the Aspergillus nidulans transcription factor jun-like bZIP A (JlbA). Generation of the homokaryotic deletion mutant demonstrated S. macrospora Smjlb1 is associated with autophagy-dependent processes. Deletion of Smjlb1 abolished fruiting-body formation and impaired vegetative growth. SmJLB1 is localized to the cytoplasm and to nuclei. Quantitative real-time PCR experiments revealed an upregulated expression of autophagy-related genes Smatg8 and Smatg4 in the Smjlb1 deletion mutant, suggesting a transcriptional repression function of SmJLB1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cultivar Differences in Plant Transpiration Rate at High Relative Air Humidity Are Not Related to Genotypic Variation in Stomatal Responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebraegziabher, Habtamu Giday; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    Plants grown at high relative air humidity (RH) often show disturbed water relations due to less responsive stomata. The attenuation of stomatal responsiveness as a result of high RH during leaf expansion depends on the cultivar. We hypothesized that tolerant cultivars to high RH experience a low...

  12. Reduced heart rate variability in pet dogs affected by anxiety-related behaviour problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormald, Dennis; Lawrence, Andrew J; Carter, Gabrielle; Fisher, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    We present here the first evidence of correlation between canine anxiety-related behavioural problems and heart rate variability (HRV). HRV is known to be related to a range of mental disorders in humans; however this has not been explored in dogs. Behavioural problems in dogs can result in suffering, property destruction and human injury. Dog behaviour problems were assessed by owner questionnaire and the extreme high and low scoring dogs were recruited into either affected (n=10) or unaffected (n=20) groups. HRV was assessed in dogs at their homes, while being held in lateral recumbency for 5min using manual restraint. Salivary cortisol samples were taken before and after HRV testing. Dogs were assessed as either being reactive to the procedure (barking, growling, struggling or shaking) or unreactive. There was no effect of reactivity or behaviour problems on salivary cortisol levels at baseline or in response to the treatment. There was a significant effect of reactivity on HR (F 1,26 =5.54; P=0.026), and no effect of behaviour problems (F 1,26 =1.07; P=0.311). There was no effect of reactivity on any of the HRV measures. The presence of behaviour problems had a significant effect on a range of measures of HRV, with unaffected dogs having higher standard deviation of RR intervals (F 1,26 =6.39; P=0.018), higher high frequency spectrum (F 1,26 =5.23; P=0.031) and higher low frequency spectrum (F 1,26 =9.25; P=0.005) power. There was no effect of behaviour problems on very low frequency spectrum power (F 1,26 =1.40; P=0.248). Together these results provide evidence for a fundamental physiological difference between dogs affected or unaffected with behaviour problems. This study provides evidence for further investigation into the role of HRV in the pathophysiology of canine anxiety-related behaviour problems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Random breath testing in Queensland and Western Australia: examination of how the random breath testing rate influences alcohol related traffic crash rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Jason; Mazerolle, Lorraine; King, Mark; Bates, Lyndel; Bennett, Sarah; Devaney, Madonna

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we explore the relationship between monthly random breath testing (RBT) rates (per 1000 licensed drivers) and alcohol-related traffic crash (ARTC) rates over time, across two Australian states: Queensland and Western Australia. We analyse the RBT, ARTC and licensed driver rates across 12 years; however, due to administrative restrictions, we model ARTC rates against RBT rates for the period July 2004 to June 2009. The Queensland data reveals that the monthly ARTC rate is almost flat over the five year period. Based on the results of the analysis, an average of 5.5 ARTCs per 100,000 licensed drivers are observed across the study period. For the same period, the monthly rate of RBTs per 1000 licensed drivers is observed to be decreasing across the study with the results of the analysis revealing no significant variations in the data. The comparison between Western Australia and Queensland shows that Queensland's ARTC monthly percent change (MPC) is 0.014 compared to the MPC of 0.47 for Western Australia. While Queensland maintains a relatively flat ARTC rate, the ARTC rate in Western Australia is increasing. Our analysis reveals an inverse relationship between ARTC RBT rates, that for every 10% increase in the percentage of RBTs to licensed driver there is a 0.15 decrease in the rate of ARTCs per 100,000 licenced drivers. Moreover, in Western Australia, if the 2011 ratio of 1:2 (RBTs to annual number of licensed drivers) were to double to a ratio of 1:1, we estimate the number of monthly ARTCs would reduce by approximately 15. Based on these findings we believe that as the number of RBTs conducted increases the number of drivers willing to risk being detected for drinking driving decreases, because the perceived risk of being detected is considered greater. This is turn results in the number of ARTCs diminishing. The results of this study provide an important evidence base for policy decisions for RBT operations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  14. Performance efficiency of feed utilization, relative growth rate, and survival rate of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) through the addition of phytase in the feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, D.; Samidjan, I.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding phytase enzyme in the feed on digestibility of feed, efficiency of feed utilization, relative growth rate and survival rate of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish samples in this research were Common carp with an average - weight of 3.34 ± 0,16 g/fish. The treatments were adding the phytase enzyme in the feed with the different level of doses. Those were A (0 U kg-1 feed), B (500 U kg-1 feed), C (1.000 U kg-1 feed g) and D (1.500 U kg-1 feed). Observation was conducted on digestibility of protein (ADCP), digestibility of phosphor (ADCF), efficiency of feed utilization (EFU), relative growth rate (RGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival rate (SR) and water quality parameters. The results show that the addition of phytase enzyme significantly (P0.05) affected on SR of common carp. Based on results, it was concluded that optimum doses of phytase enzyme feed in terms of digestibility of feed, efficiency utilization of Feed and growth rate of Common carp ranges from 943 to 1100 U kg-1 feed

  15. Transcription of Byzantine Chant - Problems, Possibilities, Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgård, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Discusses the problems and possibilities for transsription of Byzantine chant on the basis of medieval musical manuscripts. A relatively 'neutral' style of transcription is suggested for musicological purposes.......Discusses the problems and possibilities for transsription of Byzantine chant on the basis of medieval musical manuscripts. A relatively 'neutral' style of transcription is suggested for musicological purposes....

  16. Contribution of the drought tolerance-related Stress-responsive NAC1 transcription factor to resistance of barley to Ramularia leaf spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCGRANN, GRAHAM R D; STEED, ANDREW; BURT, CHRISTOPHER; GODDARD, RACHEL; LACHAUX, CLEA; BANSAL, ANURADHA; CORBITT, MARGARET; GORNIAK, KALINA; NICHOLSON, PAUL; BROWN, JAMES K M

    2015-01-01

    NAC proteins are plant transcription factors that are involved in tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses, as well as in many developmental processes. Stress-responsive NAC1 (SNAC1) transcription factor is involved in drought tolerance in barley and rice, but has not been shown previously to have a role in disease resistance. Transgenic over-expression of HvSNAC1 in barley cv. Golden Promise reduced the severity of Ramularia leaf spot (RLS), caused by the fungus Ramularia collo-cygni, but had no effect on disease symptoms caused by Fusarium culmorum, Oculimacula yallundae (eyespot), Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (powdery mildew) or Magnaporthe oryzae (blast). The HvSNAC1 transcript was weakly induced in the RLS-susceptible cv. Golden Promise during the latter stages of R. collo-cygni symptom development when infected leaves were senescing. Potential mechanisms controlling HvSNAC1-mediated resistance to RLS were investigated. Gene expression analysis revealed no difference in the constitutive levels of antioxidant transcripts in either of the over-expression lines compared with cv. Golden Promise, nor was any difference in stomatal conductance or sensitivity to reactive oxygen species-induced cell death observed. Over-expression of HvSNAC1 delayed dark-induced leaf senescence. It is proposed that mechanisms controlled by HvSNAC1 that are involved in tolerance to abiotic stress and that inhibit senescence also confer resistance to R. collo-cygni and suppress RLS symptoms. This provides further evidence for an association between abiotic stress and senescence in barley and the development of RLS. PMID:25040333

  17. De Novo Transcriptome Sequence Assembly and Identification of AP2/ERF Transcription Factor Related to Abiotic Stress in Parsley (Petroselinum crispum)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Meng-Yao; Tan, Hua-Wei; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Qian; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Tian, Chang; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Parsley is an important biennial Apiaceae species that is widely cultivated as herb, spice, and vegetable. Previous studies on parsley principally focused on its physiological and biochemical properties, including phenolic compound and volatile oil contents. However, little is known about the molecular and genetic properties of parsley. In this study, 23,686,707 high-quality reads were obtained and assembled into 81,852 transcripts and 50,161 unigenes for the first time. Functional annotation...

  18. Estimating Population Turnover Rates by Relative Quantification Methods Reveals Microbial Dynamics in Marine Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkian, Richard; Bird, Jordan T; Shumaker, Alexander; Lloyd, Karen G

    2018-01-01

    The difficulty involved in quantifying biogeochemically significant microbes in marine sediments limits our ability to assess interspecific interactions, population turnover times, and niches of uncultured taxa. We incubated surface sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina, USA, anoxically at 21°C for 122 days. Sulfate decreased until day 68, after which methane increased, with hydrogen concentrations consistent with the predicted values of an electron donor exerting thermodynamic control. We measured turnover times using two relative quantification methods, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and the product of 16S gene read abundance and total cell abundance (FRAxC, which stands for "fraction of read abundance times cells"), to estimate the population turnover rates of uncultured clades. Most 16S rRNA reads were from deeply branching uncultured groups, and ∼98% of 16S rRNA genes did not abruptly shift in relative abundance when sulfate reduction gave way to methanogenesis. Uncultured Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales increased at the onset of methanogenesis with population turnover times estimated from qPCR at 9.7 ± 3.9 and 12.6 ± 4.1 days, respectively. These were consistent with FRAxC turnover times of 9.4 ± 5.8 and 9.2 ± 3.5 days, respectively. Uncultured Syntrophaceae , which are possibly fermentative syntrophs of methanogens, and uncultured Kazan-3A-21 archaea also increased at the onset of methanogenesis, with FRAxC turnover times of 14.7 ± 6.9 and 10.6 ± 3.6 days. Kazan-3A-21 may therefore either perform methanogenesis or form a fermentative syntrophy with methanogens. Three genera of sulfate-reducing bacteria, Desulfovibrio , Desulfobacter , and Desulfobacterium , increased in the first 19 days before declining rapidly during sulfate reduction. We conclude that population turnover times on the order of days can be measured robustly in organic-rich marine sediment, and the transition from sulfate-reducing to methanogenic conditions stimulates

  19. Examining the relation between ratings of executive functioning and academic achievement: Findings from a cross-cultural study

    OpenAIRE

    Thorell, Lisa B.; Veleiro, Alberto; Siu, Angela F. Y.; Mohammadi, Hiwa

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation between academic performance and ratings of executive functioning in children aged 6?11 from four countries: Sweden, Spain, Iran, and China. Ratings of executive functioning were made by both parents and teachers using the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI). The results showed that the Chinese sample was generally rated as having more executive deficits compared to the other samples. The finding that executive functioning deficits are...

  20. Structure/property relations of aluminum under varying rates and stress states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Matthew T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Horstemeyer, Mark F [MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV; Whittington, Wilburn R [MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV; Solanki, Kiran N [MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV.

    2010-11-19

    In this work we analyze the plasticity, damage, and fracture characteristics of three different processed aluminum alloys (rolled 5083-H13, cast A356-T6, and extruded 6061-T6) under varying stress states (tension, compression, and torsion) and strain rates (0.001/, 1/s., and 1000/s). The stress state difference had more of a flow stress effect than the applied strain rates for those given in this study (0.001/sec up to 1000/sec). The stress state and strain rate also had a profound effect on the damage evolution of each aluminum alloy. Tension and torsional straining gave much greater damage nucleation rates than compression. Although the damage of all three alloys was found to be void nucleation dominated, the A356-T6 and 5083-H131 aluminum alloys incurred void damage via micron scale particles where the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy incurred void damage from two scales, micron-scale particles and nanoscale precipitates. Having two length scales of particles that participated in the damage evolution made the 6061-T6 incur a strain rate sensitive damage rate that was different than the other two aluminum alloys. Under tension, as the strain rate increased, the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy's void nucleation rate decreased, but the A356-T6 and 5083-H131 aluminum alloys void nucleation rate increased.

  1. Standard practice for calculation of corrosion rates and related information from electrochemical measurements

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1989-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the providing of guidance in converting the results of electrochemical measurements to rates of uniform corrosion. Calculation methods for converting corrosion current density values to either mass loss rates or average penetration rates are given for most engineering alloys. In addition, some guidelines for converting polarization resistance values to corrosion rates are provided. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  2. Lower heart rate variability is associated with cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Dupont

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Fatigue is the most common and distressing symptom reported by breast cancer survivors and yet the pathophysiology of cancer-related fatigue remains largely unknown. Fatigue is associated with lower parasympathetic and higher sympathetic nervous system activity in non-cancer samples, but only one study has demonstrated this same relationship in breast cancer survivors. This study evaluates the relationship between fatigue and basal autonomic nervous system activity as measured by heart rate variability (HRV in a sample of breast cancer survivors. Methods : Women who had been diagnosed with early stage breast cancer before the age of 50 were recruited from the UCLA tumor registry and completed psychological questionnaires, including measures of fatigue. A subset of these women (n=30 participated in a follow-up study in which they completed measures of fatigue, energy and mood four times per day for 5 days using electronic diaries, provided 3 days of saliva samples for cortisol assessment and underwent physiological assessment including electrocardiogram (ECG. HRV was assessed via ECG R-R wave spectral and time sequence analysis. Results : Questionnaire measures of fatigue were negatively associated with indices of parasympathetic nervous system activity, B= − 3.85, p = 0.04 for RMSSD (root of the mean squared difference of successive normal to normal waves and B= − 76.97, p = 0.04 for LF power % (low-frequency wave power percentage. Daily fatigue was also associated with lower basal HRV, B= − 15.1, p = 0.04 for RMSSD. However, fatigue indices were not associated with sympathetic nervous system activity as measured by low- to high-frequency wave ratio. Of note, fatigue was not associated with average daily cortisol output (AUC. Conclusions : Lower HRV has been associated with increased chronic inflammation, which is elevated in cancer survivors reporting persistent fatigue, thus providing insight into

  3. Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Yon Ho; Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jong-Keun; Oh, Chang-Mo

    2016-12-05

    Background: This study aimed to examine trends in smoking-related cancer mortality rates and to investigate the effect birth cohort on smoking-related cancer mortality in Korean men. Methods: The number of smoking-related cancer deaths and corresponding population numbers were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984-2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Birth-cohort specific mortality rates were illustrated by 5 year age groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality rates for oropharyngeal decreased from 2003 to 2013 (annual percent change (APC): -3.1 (95% CI, -4.6 to -1.6)) and lung cancers decreased from 2002 to 2013 (APC -2.4 (95% CI -2.7 to -2.2)). The mortality rates for esophageal declined from 1994 to 2002 (APC -2.5 (95% CI -4.1 to -0.8)) and from 2002 to 2013 (APC -5.2 (95% CI -5.7 to -4.7)) and laryngeal cancer declined from 1995 to 2013 (average annual percent change (AAPC): -3.3 (95% CI -4.7 to -1.8)). By the age group, the trends for the smoking-related cancer mortality except for oropharyngeal cancer have changed earlier to decrease in the younger age group. The birth-cohort specific mortality rates and age-period-cohort analysis consistently showed that all birth cohorts born after 1930 showed reduced mortality of smoking-related cancers. Conclusions: In Korean men, smoking-related cancer mortality rates have decreased. Our findings also indicate that current decreases in smoking-related cancer mortality rates have mainly been due to a decrease in the birth cohort effect, which suggest that decrease in smoking rates.

  4. Decreases in Smoking-Related Cancer Mortality Rates Are Associated with Birth Cohort Effects in Korean Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yon Ho Jee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to examine trends in smoking-related cancer mortality rates and to investigate the effect birth cohort on smoking-related cancer mortality in Korean men. Methods: The number of smoking-related cancer deaths and corresponding population numbers were obtained from Statistics Korea for the period 1984–2013. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to detect changes in trends in age-standardized mortality rates. Birth-cohort specific mortality rates were illustrated by 5 year age groups. Results: The age-standardized mortality rates for oropharyngeal decreased from 2003 to 2013 (annual percent change (APC: −3.1 (95% CI, −4.6 to −1.6 and lung cancers decreased from 2002 to 2013 (APC −2.4 (95% CI −2.7 to −2.2. The mortality rates for esophageal declined from 1994 to 2002 (APC −2.5 (95% CI −4.1 to −0.8 and from 2002 to 2013 (APC −5.2 (95% CI −5.7 to −4.7 and laryngeal cancer declined from 1995 to 2013 (average annual percent change (AAPC: −3.3 (95% CI −4.7 to −1.8. By the age group, the trends for the smoking-related cancer mortality except for oropharyngeal cancer have changed earlier to decrease in the younger age group. The birth-cohort specific mortality rates and age-period-cohort analysis consistently showed that all birth cohorts born after 1930 showed reduced mortality of smoking-related cancers. Conclusions: In Korean men, smoking-related cancer mortality rates have decreased. Our findings also indicate that current decreases in smoking-related cancer mortality rates have mainly been due to a decrease in the birth cohort effect, which suggest that decrease in smoking rates.

  5. A Systemic Review of Autologous Fat Grafting Survival Rate and Related Severe Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Ze Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical application of autologous fat grafting (AFG is quickly expanding. Despite the widely acceptance, long-term survival rate (SR of AFG remains a question not yet solved. Meanwhile, although rare, severe complications related to AFG including vision loss, stroke even death could be seen in the literature. Data Sources: A comprehensive research of PubMed database to June 2013 was performed according to guidelines of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Fat Graft Task Force Assessment Methodology. Articles were screened using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Study Selection: Data collected included patient characteristics, surgical technique, donor site, recipient site, graft amount, and quantified measurement methods. Patient cohorts were pooled, and SR was calculated. All the severe complications were also summarized according to the different clinical characteristics. Results: Of 550 articles, 16 clinical articles and 10 animal studies met the inclusion criteria and provided quantified measurement methods. Totally, 596 patients were included. SR varied from 34% to 82% in breast and 30-83% in the facial area. Nude mice were applied to investigate human fat grafting SR (38.3-52.5% after 15 weeks. Rabbits were commonly used to study animal AFG SR (14.00-14.56% after 1-year. Totally, 21 severe complications were reported, including death (2, stroke (10, vision loss (11, 8 of which accompanied with stroke, sepsis (3, multiple abscess (1 and giant fat necrotic cyst (2. Ten of these complications happened within 10 years. Conclusions: There is no unified measurement method to evaluate fat graft SR until now and no clinical evidence to show better SR according to different donor and recipient cite. Body mass index change between pre- and postoperation may be the bias factor in evaluating fat SR. Fat embolisms of the ophthalmic artery and the middle cerebral artery are the most severe complication of AFG and still lack

  6. Initial foot contact and related kinematics affect impact loading rate in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Van Caekenberghe, Ine; Fiers, Pieter; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed kinematic differences between different foot strike patterns and their relationship with peak vertical instantaneous loading rate (VILR) of the ground reaction force (GRF). Fifty-two runners ran at 3.2 m · s -1 while we recorded GRF and lower limb kinematics and determined foot strike pattern: Typical or Atypical rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS) of forefoot strike (FFS). Typical RFS had longer contact times and a lower leg stiffness than Atypical RFS and MFS. Typical RFS showed a dorsiflexed ankle (7.2 ± 3.5°) and positive foot angle (20.4 ± 4.8°) at initial contact while MFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-10.4 ± 6.3°) and more horizontal foot (1.6 ± 3.1°). Atypical RFS showed a plantar flexed ankle (-3.1 ± 4.4°) and a small foot angle (7.0 ± 5.1°) at initial contact and had the highest VILR. For the RFS (Typical and Atypical RFS), foot angle at initial contact showed the highest correlation with VILR (r = -0.68). The observed higher VILR in Atypical RFS could be related to both ankle and foot kinematics and global running style that indicate a limited use of known kinematic impact absorbing "strategies" such as initial ankle dorsiflexion in MFS or initial ankle plantar flexion in Typical RFS.

  7. Basal metabolic rate in relation to body composition and daily energy expenditure in the field vole, Microtus agrestis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerlo, P; Bolle, L; Visser, GH; Masman, D; Daan, S

    1997-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate in the field vole (Microtus agrestis) was studied in relation to body composition and daily energy expenditure in the field Daily energy expenditure was measured by means of doubly labelled water ((D2O)-O-18). In the same individuals, basal metabolic rate was subsequently

  8. Self-rated health mediates the association between functional status and health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeedian, Radka Ghorbani; Nagyova, Iveta; Klein, Daniel; Skorvanek, Matej; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Groothoff, Johan W.; van Dijk, Jitze

    Aims and objectives To explore whether self-rated health acts as a potential mediator in the association between functional status and health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease. Background Older persons (as most patients with Parkinson's disease are) who reported poor self-rated health

  9. Relations between Perceived Competence, Importance Ratings, and Self-Worth among African American School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Leslie K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how domain-specific importance ratings affect relations between perceived competence and self-worth among African American school-age children. Importance ratings have been found to affect the strength of the relationship between perceived competence and self-worth and have implications for…

  10. Eukaryotic transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staby, Lasse; O'Shea, Charlotte; Willemoës, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Gene-specific transcription factors (TFs) are key regulatory components of signaling pathways, controlling, for example, cell growth, development, and stress responses. Their biological functions are determined by their molecular structures, as exemplified by their structured DNA-binding domains...... regions with function-related, short sequence motifs and molecular recognition features with structural propensities. This review focuses on molecular aspects of TFs, which represent paradigms of ID-related features. Through specific examples, we review how the ID-associated flexibility of TFs enables....... It is furthermore emphasized how classic biochemical concepts like allostery, conformational selection, induced fit, and feedback regulation are undergoing a revival with the appreciation of ID. The review also describes the most recent advances based on computational simulations of ID-based interaction mechanisms...

  11. Initial Progress Rates as Related to Performance in a Personalized System of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberry, John K.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses research which explored the hypothesis that students who are fast starters in a personalized system of instruction psychology course would perform better and maintain faster course progress rates than slow starters. Findings indicate that students' starting pace is predictive of course performance and subsequent progress rates.…

  12. Effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on heart rate in relation to vagal cardioacceleration in conscious dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roossien, A; Brunstig, J.R; Nijmeijer, A; Zaagsma, Hans; Zijlstra, W.G

    Objective: The vagal cardiac accelerator (VCA) system takes part in the nervous control of the heart rate. In the present study we tried to adduce evidence that vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VLP) contributes to vagally induced cardioacceleration. Methods: The effect of VIP on heart rate and

  13. Relative Role of Gas Generation and Displacement Rates in Cavity Nucleation and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Foreman, A. J E.

    1984-01-01

    Problems of helium diffusion and clustering during irradiation are analysed. Using the “homogeneous” nucleation theory , the effect of damage rate on cavity density is calculated for different gas generation to damage rate ratios. The influence of gas mobility on cavity nucleation has been...

  14. Dose rate and fractionation: Relative importance in radiation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbell, N.J.; Rosenblatt, M.; Mauch, P.; Hellman, S.

    1987-01-01

    The optimal dose rate and fractionation schedules for total body irradiation (TBI) in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) are presently unknown. This study compares several fractionation and dose rate schedules that are currently in clinical use. C/sub 3/H/HeJ were given TBI and the bone marrow survival fraction was calculated using the CFU's assay. Irradiation was given as low dose rate (LDR) at 5 cGy/min or high dose rate (HDR) at 80 cGy/min, in single fraction (SF) and fractionated (FX) regimens. These results indicate no increase in survival for the normal bone marrow stem cells with fractionation either at high or low dose-rates. In fact, fractionation seemed to decrease the bone marrow survival over single fraction radiation

  15. Measurement of 237Np fission rate ratio relative to 235U fission rate in cores with various thermal neutron spectrum at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unesaki, Hironobu; Shiroya, Seiji; Iwasaki, Tomohiko; Fujiwara, Daisuke; Kitada, Takanori; Kuroda, Mitsuo; Kohashi, Akio; Kato, Takeshi; Ikeuchi, Yoshitaka

    2000-01-01

    Integral measurements of 237 Np fission rate ratio relative to 235 U fission rate have been performed at Kyoto University Citrical Assembly. The fission rates have been measured using the back-to back type double fission chamber at five thermal cores with different H/ 235 U ratio so that the neutron spectra of the cores were systematically varied. The measured fission rate ratio per atom was 0.00439 to 0.0298, with a typical uncertainty of 2 to 3%. The measured data were compared with the calculated results using SRAC/TWOTRAN and MVP based on JENDL-3.2, which gave the averaged C/E values of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. Obtained results of C/E using 237 Np cross sections from JENDL-3/2, ENDF/B-VI.5 and JEF2.2 show that the latter two gave smaller results than JENDL-3.2 by about 4%, which clearly reflects the discrepancy in the evaluated cross section among the libraries. This difference arises from both fast fission and resonance region. Although further improvement is recommended, 237 Np fission cross section in JENDL-3.2 is considered to be superior to those in the other libraries and can be adopted for use in design calculations for minor actinide transmutation system using thermal reactors with prediction precision of 237 Np fission rate with in 10%. (author)

  16. Factors contributing to the differences in work related injury rates between Danish and Swedish construction workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, S.; Baarts, C.; Dyreborg, J.

    2002-01-01

    of injury risk factors at group and individual level for Danish and Swedish workers. LTI-rates and injury risk factors were compared for Danish and Swedish workers during the construction of the combined rail and road link across the 16-km wide sound, Oresund, between Denmark and Sweden. The comparison...... showed that the LTI-rate of the Danish construction workers was approximately fourfold the LTI-rate of the Swedish construction workers. Factors at the micro-level (group and individual level) e.g. differences in education and experience, training and learning, and attitude were important...

  17. Grapevine rootstocks differentially affect the rate of ripening and modulate auxin-related genes in Cabernet Sauvignon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano eCorso

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigour. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behaviour of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  18. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh.

  19. Linear constraint relations in biochemical reaction systems: I. Classification of the calculability and the balanceability of conversion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, R T; Heijnen, J J; Hellinga, C; Romein, B; Luyben, K C

    1994-01-05

    Measurements provide the basis for process monitoring and control as well as for model development and validation. Systematic approaches to increase the accuracy and credibility of the empirical data set are therefore of great value. In (bio)chemical conversions, linear conservation relations such as the balance equations for charge, enthalpy, and/or chemical elements, can be employed to relate conversion rates. In a pactical situation, some of these rates will be measured (in effect, be calculated directly from primary measurements of, e.g., concentrations and flow rates), as others can or cannot be calculated from the measured ones. When certain measured rates can also be calculated from other measured rates, the set of equations, the accuracy and credibility of the measured rates can indeed be improved by, respectively, balancing and gross error diagnosis. The balanced conversion rates are more accurate, and form a consistent set of data, which is more suitable for further application (e.g., to calculate nonmeasured rates) than the raw measurements. Such an approach has drawn attention in previous studies. The current study deals mainly with the problem of mathematically classifying the conversion rates into balanceable and calculable rates, given the subset of measured rates. The significance of this problem is illustrated with some examples. It is shown that a simple matrix equation can be derived that contains the vector of measured conversion rates and the redundancy matrix R. Matrix R plays a predominant role in the classification problem. In supplementary articles, significance of the redundancy matrix R for an improved gross error diagnosis approach will be shown. In addition, efficient equations have been derived to calculate the balanceable and/or calculable rates. The method is completely based on matrix algebra (principally different from the graph-theoretical approach), and it is easily implemented into a computer program. (c) 1994 John Wiley & Sons

  20. Average Rate of Heat-Related Hospitalizations in 23 States, 2001-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows the 2001–2010 average rate of hospitalizations classified as “heat-related” by medical professionals in 23 states that participate in CDC’s...

  1. "The stone which the builders rejected...": Delay of reinforcement and response rate on fixed-interval and related schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearden, J H; Lejeune, Helga

    2006-02-28

    The article deals with response rates (mainly running and peak or terminal rates) on simple and on some mixed-FI schedules and explores the idea that these rates are determined by the average delay of reinforcement for responses occurring during the response periods that the schedules generate. The effects of reinforcement delay are assumed to be mediated by a hyperbolic delay of reinforcement gradient. The account predicts that (a) running rates on simple FI schedules should increase with increasing rate of reinforcement, in a manner close to that required by Herrnstein's equation, (b) improving temporal control during acquisition should be associated with increasing running rates, (c) two-valued mixed-FI schedules with equiprobable components should produce complex results, with peak rates sometimes being higher on the longer component schedule, and (d) that effects of reinforcement probability on mixed-FI should affect the response rate at the time of the shorter component only. All these predictions were confirmed by data, although effects in some experiments remain outside the scope of the model. In general, delay of reinforcement as a determinant of response rate on FI and related schedules (rather than temporal control on such schedules) seems a useful starting point for a more thorough analysis of some neglected questions about performance on FI and related schedules.

  2. The Transcriptional Repressor TupA in Aspergillus niger Is Involved in Controlling Gene Expression Related to Cell Wall Biosynthesis, Development, and Nitrogen Source Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schachtschabel, Doreen; Arentshorst, Mark; Nitsche, Benjamin M

    2013-01-01

    The Tup1-Cyc8 (Ssn6) complex is a well characterized and conserved general transcriptional repressor complex in eukaryotic cells. Here, we report the identification of the Tup1 (TupA) homolog in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger in a genetic screen for mutants with a constitutive expression...... of the agsA gene. The agsA gene encodes a putative alpha-glucan synthase, which is induced in response to cell wall stress in A. niger. Apart from the constitutive expression of agsA, the selected mutant was also found to produce an unknown pigment at high temperatures. Complementation analysis...

  3. Efficiency of nitrate uptake in spinach : impact of external nitrate concentration and relative growth rate on nitrate influx and efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Steege, MW; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, PK; Posthumus, F; Vaalburg, W

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of nitrate influx and efflux in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Subito), was studied in short-term label experiments with N-13- and N-15-nitrate. Nitrate fluxes were examined in relation to the N demand for growth, defined as relative growth rate (RGR) times plant N concentration.

  4. Variation in relative growth rate and growth traits in wild and cultivated Capsicum accessions grown under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, de E.A.M.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Voorrips, R.E.

    2006-01-01

    Differences in environmental conditions are known to influence plant growth and growth-related traits. The aim of this study was to identify the variation in relative growth rate (RGR), and its underlying physiological and morphological traits, in a group of ten wild and cultivated Capsicum

  5. Pulmonary Artery Wedge Pressure Relative to Exercise Work Rate in Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, Sam; Wright, Stephen P; Goodman, Jack M; Sasson, Zion; Mak, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    An augmented pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) response may explain exercise intolerance in some humans. However, routine use of exercise hemodynamic testing is limited by a lack of data from normal older men and women. Our objective was to evaluate the exercise PAWP response and the potential for sexual dimorphism in healthy, nondyspneic older adults. Thirty-six healthy volunteers (18 men [54 ± 7 yr] and 18 women [58 ± 6 yr]) were studied at rest (control) and during two stages of semi-upright cycle ergometry, at heart rates of 100 bpm (light exercise) and 120 bpm (moderate exercise). Right heart catheterization was performed to measure pulmonary pressures. The PAWP response to exercise was assessed in context of exercise work rate and body size. At control, PAWP was similar between men and women. Work rates were significantly smaller in women at comparable HR (P exercise, with no further increase at moderate exercise. When indexed to work rate alone or work rate adjusted to body weight and height, the PAWP response at light and moderate exercise was significantly elevated in women compared with men (P exercise. The similar rise in the PAWP response to submaximal exercise occurs despite lower work rate in healthy older women compared with men, even when adjusted for smaller body size. It is important to consider sex in the development of normal reference ranges for exercise hemodynamic testing.

  6. GAS REGULATION OF GALAXIES: THE EVOLUTION OF THE COSMIC SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATE, THE METALLICITY-MASS-STAR-FORMATION RATE RELATION, AND THE STELLAR CONTENT OF HALOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Pipino, Antonio; Peng Yingjie [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Renzini, Alvio [Department of Physics and Astronomy Galileo Galilei, Universita degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    A very simple physical model of galaxies is one in which the formation of stars is instantaneously regulated by the mass of gas in a reservoir with mass loss scaling with the star-formation rate (SFR). This model links together three different aspects of the evolving galaxy population: (1) the cosmic time evolution of the specific star-formation rate (sSFR) relative to the growth of halos, (2) the gas-phase metallicities across the galaxy population and over cosmic time, and (3) the ratio of the stellar to dark matter mass of halos. The gas regulator is defined by the gas consumption timescale ({epsilon}{sup -1}) and the mass loading {lambda} of the wind outflow {lambda}{center_dot}SFR. The simplest regulator, in which {epsilon} and {lambda} are constant, sets the sSFR equal to exactly the specific accretion rate of the galaxy; more realistic situations lead to an sSFR that is perturbed from this precise relation. Because the gas consumption timescale is shorter than the timescale on which the system evolves, the metallicity Z is set primarily by the instantaneous operation of the regulator system rather than by the past history of the system. The metallicity of the gas reservoir depends on {epsilon}, {lambda}, and sSFR, and the regulator system therefore naturally produces a Z(m{sub star}, SFR) relation if {epsilon} and {lambda} depend on the stellar mass m{sub star}. Furthermore, this relation will be the same at all epochs unless the parameters {epsilon} and {lambda} themselves change with time. A so-called fundamental metallicity relation is naturally produced by these conditions. The overall mass-metallicity relation Z(m{sub star}) directly provides the fraction f{sub star}(m{sub star}) of incoming baryons that are being transformed into stars. The observed Z(m{sub star}) relation of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies implies a strong dependence of stellar mass on halo mass that reconciles the different faint-end slopes of the stellar and halo mass

  7. Development of an HTS-Compatible Assay for Discovery of Melanoma-Related Microphthalmia Transcription Factor Disruptors Using AlphaScreen Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Fang, Pengfei; Chase, Peter; Tshori, Sagi; Razin, Ehud; Spicer, Timothy P; Scampavia, Louis; Hodder, Peter; Guo, Min

    2017-01-01

    Microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) is a master transcription factor expressed in melanocytes, essential for melanocyte survival, differentiation, and pigment formation, and is a key oncogenic factor in melanoma initiation, migration, and treatment resistance. Although identified as an important therapeutic target for melanoma, clinical inhibitors directly targeting the MITF protein are not available. Based on the functional state of MITF, we have designed an MITF dimerization-based AlphaScreen (MIDAS) assay that sensitively and specifically mirrors the dimerization of MITF in vitro. This assay is further exploited for identification of the MITF dimer disruptor for high-throughput screening. A pilot screen against a library of 1280 pharmacologically active compounds indicates that the MIDAS assay performance exhibits exceptional results with a Z' factor of 0.81 and a signal-to-background (S/B) ratio of 3.92 while identifying initial hit compounds that yield an ability to disrupt MITF-DNA interaction. The results presented demonstrate that the MIDAS assay is ready to screen large chemical libraries in order to discover novel modulators of MITF for potential melanoma treatment.

  8. WRKY2/34–VQ20 Modules in Arabidopsis thaliana Negatively Regulate Expression of a Trio of Related MYB Transcription Factors During Pollen Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihua Lei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Male gametogenesis in plants is tightly controlled and involves the complex and precise regulation of transcriptional reprogramming. Interactions between WRKY proteins and VQ motif-containing proteins are required to control these complicated transcriptional networks. However, our understanding of the mechanisms by which these complexes affect downstream gene expression is quite limited. In this study, we found that WRKY2 and WKRY34 repress MYB97, MYB101, and MYB120 expression during male gametogenesis. MYB expression was up-regulated in the wrky2-1 wrky34-1 vq20-1 triple mutant during male gametogenesis. The expression levels of six potential targets of the three MYBs increased the most in the wrky2-1 wrky34-1 vq20-1 triple mutant, followed by the wrky2-1 wrky34-1 double mutant, compared with in wild-type. Yeast one-hybrid and dual luciferase reporter assays indicated that WRKY2 and WRKY34 recognized the MYB97 promoter by binding to its W-boxes. MYB97 overexpression caused defects in pollen germination and pollen tube length, which impacted male fertility. Thus, WRKY2/34–VQ20 complexes appear to negatively regulate the expression of certain MYBs during plant male gametogenesis.

  9. Effect of food on immature development, consumption rate, and relative growth rate of Toxorhynchites splendens (Diptera: Culicidae, a predator of container breeding mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dominic Amalraj

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Food utilization by the larvae of Toxorhynchites splendens (Wiedemann was studied in the laboratory by offering larvae of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, Anopheles stephensi (Liston, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say. Quantitative analyses of data indicated that immature development was significantly faster with increase in food availability. The regression analysis showed that the degrees of the relationship between immature duration (Id and food availability were higher when offered early instars of prey (first and second instars than late instars. Consumption rate (Cr of the predator increased with increase in food availability and this relationship was highly significant when larvae of An. stephensi were offered as food. Consumption rate to food level decreased with increase in the age class of the prey. There was a significant negative correlation between Id and Cr. This aspect helps to increase population turnover of T. splendens in a shorter period when the prey is abundant. Conversely, the predator compensated the loss in daily food intake at low food level by extending Id thereby attains the minimum threshold pupal weight for adult emergence. There was an increase in the relative growth rate (RGR of the predator when An. stephensi was offered as prey and this was related to the high protein content of the prey per body weight. There was a positive correlation between Cr and RGR. This adaptive life characteristic strategy of this predator is useful for mass-rearing for large scale field release programmes in the control of container breeding mosquitoes is discussed.

  10. Proliferation Rates of Bovine Primary Muscle Cells Relate to Liveweight and Carcase Weight in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Chantal A.; Wadeson, Jenny; Leyton, Carolina P.; Siddell, Jason P.; Greenwood, Paul L.; White, Jason D.; McDonagh, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Muscling in cattle is largely influenced by genetic background, ultimately affecting beef yield and is of major interest to the beef industry. This investigation aimed to determine whether primary skeletal muscle cells isolated from different breeds of cattle with a varying genetic potential for muscling differ in their myogenic proliferative capacity. Primary skeletal muscle cells were isolated and cultured from the Longissimus muscle (LM) of 6 month old Angus, Hereford and Wagyu X Angus cattle. Cells were assessed for rate of proliferation and gene expression of PAX7, MYOD, MYF5, and MYOG. Proliferation rates were found to differ between breeds of cattle whereby myoblasts from Angus cattle were found to proliferate at a greater rate than those of Hereford and Wagyu X Angus during early stages of growth (5–20 hours in culture) in vitro (P cattle (P cattle (P cattle. PMID:25875203

  11. Comparison of 5 health care professionals’ratings of the clinical significance of drug related problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Christine; Hojsted, Jette; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel

    2014-01-01

    to a mutual agreement on the level of clinical significance. However, to what degree does the panel agree?Purpose To compare the agreement between different health care professionals who have evaluated the clinical significance of DRPs.Materials and methods DRPs were identified in 30 comprehensive medicines...... reviews conducted by a clinical pharmacist. Two hospital pharmacists, a general practitioner and two specialists in pain management from hospital care (the Panel) evaluated each DRP considering the potential clinical outcome for the patient. The DRPs were rated either nil, low, minor, moderate or highly...... clinically significant. Agreement was analysed using Kappa statistics. A Kappa value of 0.8 to 1.0 indicated nearly perfect agreement between ratings of the Panel members.Results The Panel rated 45 percent of the total 162 DRPs as of moderate clinical significance. However, the overall kappa score was 0...

  12. Age-related disappearance of Mayer-like heart rate waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarisch, W. R.; Ferguson, J. J.; Shannon, R. P.; Wei, J. Y.; Goldberger, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of age on the principal spectral components of heart rate obtained immediately after passive upright tilt was investigated in human subjects who underwent a 60-deg tilt over 9 sec. Two groups were examined, the first of which consisting of healthy male subjects aged 22-26 years, while the second was comprised of subjects aged 65-84 years on no medication; radiograms were recorded continuously beginning just prior to tilt until 3 min posttilt. The results of spectral analysis showed that elderly subjects did not exhibit the Mayer-like heart rate waves (the 0.07-0.09 Hz oscillations) that were present in the spectra of young subjects immediately after passive upright tilt. The findings are consistent with the concept of a 'dysautonomia of aging'. It is suggested that postural stress testing with spectral analysis of heart rate fluctuations may provide a useful way of assessing physiologic vs chronologic age.

  13. Relative effect of radiation dose rate on hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic lethality of total-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, L.J.; McNeill, J.; Karolis, C.; Thames, H.D. Jr.; Travis, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to determine the influence of dose rate on the toxicity of total-body irrdiation (TBI) with and without syngeneic bone-marrow rescue in mice. The results showed a much greater dose-rate dependence for death from nonhemopoietic toxicity than from bone-marrow ablation, with the ratio of LD 50 's increasing from 1.73 at 25 cGy/min to 2.80 at 1 cGy/min. At the higher dose rates, dose-limiting nonhemopoietic toxicity resulted from late organ injury, affecting the lungs, kidneys, and liver. At 1 cGy/min the major dose-limiting nonhemopoietic toxicity was acute gastrointestinal injury. The implications of these results in the context of TBI in preparation for bone-marrow transplantation are discussed. 15 refs., 4 figs

  14. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and various organ-uptake rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1989-01-01

    Fifty four elements and 65 radioactive compounds were examined to determine the organ uptake rates for rats 3, 24 and 48 h after i.v. injection of these compounds. They were prepared as carrier free nuclides, or containing a small amount of stable nuclide. Generally speaking, behaviors of K, Rb, Cs and Tl in all the organs were very similar to one another, but they differed from that of Na. Bivalent hard acids were avidly taken up into bone; therefore, uptake rates in soft tissues were very small. Hard acids of tri-, quadri- and pentavalence which were taken up into the soft tissue organs decreased more slowly from these organs than other ions. Soft acids such as Hg2+ were bound very firmly to the component in the kidney. Anions (with few exceptions), GeCl4 and SbCl3 were rapidly excreted in urine, so that the uptake rates in organs were low.

  15. Client and clinician-rated characteristics of problem gamblers with and without history of gambling-related illegal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jennifer D; Lister, Jamey J; Struble, Cara A; Cairncross, Molly; Carr, Meagan M; Ledgerwood, David M

    2018-03-12

    Individuals with gambling disorder are at an elevated risk for engaging in gambling-related illegal behaviors. The present study examined client (N = 88) and clinician ratings (N = 30) of client characteristics associated with a history of gambling-related illegal behaviors. We also examined client characteristics associated with history of arrest for a gambling-related crime. Gambling-related illegal behaviors and arrest were common (57.3% and 23.9%, respectively) in the present sample. Clients of younger age, and those with greater gambling-related financial consequences, lifetime alcohol problems, impulsivity, mood symptoms, and daily living role difficulties were more likely to report gambling-related illegal behaviors. Clients who had been arrested for a gambling-related crime were more likely to report daily living and role functioning difficulties and lifetime alcohol problems. Clinicians rated clients with a history of gambling-related illegal behaviors and/or gambling-related arrests as more impulsive, and clinicians also endorsed higher rates of treatment failure among these clients. Both client and clinician report suggested that clients with a history of illegal behaviors may have a variety of comorbid problems that may be a focus of clinical intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The work-related fatal injury study: numbers, rates and trends of work-related fatal injuries in New Zealand 1985-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyer, A M; Langley, J; Howard, M; Horsburgh, S; Wright, C; Alsop, J; Cryer, C

    2001-01-26

    To determine the number and rates of work-related fatal injuries by employment status, occupation, industry, age and gender in New Zealand 1985-1994. Potential cases of work-related injury deaths of persons aged 15-84 years were identified from the national electronic mortality data files. Main exclusions were deaths due to suicide and deaths due to motor vehicle crashes. The circumstances of the deaths of each fatal incident meeting inclusion criteria were then reviewed directly from coronial files to determine work-relatedness. The rate of work-related fatal injury in New Zealand was 5.03/100000 workers per year for the study period. There was a significant decline in crude rate over the study period. However, this was in substantial part accounted for by changes in occupation and industry mix. Older workers, male workers, self-employed workers, and particular occupational groups, all had substantially elevated rates. Agricultural and helicopter pilots, forestry workers and fishery workers had the highest rates. Farmers, forestry workers, and fishery workers also had high numbers of deaths, together accounting for nearly 40% of all deaths. This study has demonstrated that work-related fatal injury remains a pressing problem for New Zealand. Several areas in urgent need of prevention efforts were highlighted.

  17. Colloid clearance rate changes in children with homozygous-β-thalassemia in relation to blood transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitriou, P.A.; Karpathios, T.E.; Antipas, S.E.; Fretzayias, A.M.; Kasfiki, A.G.; Melissinos, K.G.; Matsaniotis, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The plasma clearance rate of heat denatured human serum albumin (DHAI-125, 5 mg/kg body weight) was studied in 20 children with homozygous-β-thalassemia before and 7-10 days after blood transfusion. A significant increase of the DHAI-125 clearance rate (P < 0.02) was found 7-10 days after blood transfusion while the spleen presented its minimum size. This finding may be relevant to the improved intrasplenic blood circulation after blood transfusion due to the release of the blood trapped within the spleen. (orig.)

  18. The influence of relatives on the efficiency and error rate of familial searching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rori V Rohlfs

    Full Text Available We investigate the consequences of adopting the criteria used by the state of California, as described by Myers et al. (2011, for conducting familial searches. We carried out a simulation study of randomly generated profiles of related and unrelated individuals with 13-locus CODIS genotypes and YFiler® Y-chromosome haplotypes, on which the Myers protocol for relative identification was carried out. For Y-chromosome sharing first degree relatives, the Myers protocol has a high probability (80~99% of identifying their relationship. For unrelated individuals, there is a low probability that an unrelated person in the database will be identified as a first-degree relative. For more distant Y-haplotype sharing relatives (half-siblings, first cousins, half-first cousins or second cousins there is a substantial probability that the more distant relative will be incorrectly identified as a first-degree relative. For example, there is a 3~18% probability that a first cousin will be identified as a full sibling, with the probability depending on the population background. Although the California familial search policy is likely to identify a first degree relative if his profile is in the database, and it poses little risk of falsely identifying an unrelated individual in a database as a first-degree relative, there is a substantial risk of falsely identifying a more distant Y-haplotype sharing relative in the database as a first-degree relative, with the consequence that their immediate family may become the target for further investigation. This risk falls disproportionately on those ethnic groups that are currently overrepresented in state and federal databases.

  19. Relative User Ratings of MMPI-2 Computer-Based Test Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John E.; Weed, Nathan C.

    2004-01-01

    There are eight commercially available computer-based test interpretations (CBTIs) for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), of which few have been empirically evaluated. Prospective users of these programs have little scientific data to guide choice of a program. This study compared ratings of these eight CBTIs. Test users…

  20. High strain rates spallation phenomena with relation to the equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekel, E.

    1997-11-01

    Theoretical spall strength, defined as the stress needed to separate a material along a plane surface instantaneously, is one order of magnitude larger then the measured spell strength at strain rates up to 10 6 s -1 . The discrepancy is explained by material initial flaws and cavities which grow and coalesce under stress and weaken the material. Measurements of spall strength of materials shocked by a high power laser shows a rapid increase in the spall strength with the strain rate at strain rates of about 10 7 s -1 . This indicates that the initial flaws does not have time to coalesce and the interatomic forces become dominant. In order to break the material more cavities must be created. This cavities are characterized by the interatomic forces and are created statistically: material under tensile stress is in a metastable condition and due to thermal fluctuations cavities are formed. Cavities larger than a certain critical size grow due to the stress. They grow until the material disintegrates at the spall plane. The theoretical results predict the increase in spall strength at high strain rates, as observed experimentally. (authors)

  1. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and tumor-uptake rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1985-01-01

    The bipositive ions and anions, with few exceptions, indicated a low tumor uptake rate. On the other hand, compounds of Hg, Au and Bi, which have a strong binding power to protein, showed a high tumor uptake rate. As Hg/sup 2 +/, Au/sup +/ and Bi/sup 3 +/ are soft acids according to the classification of Lewis acids, it was thought that these ions would bind strongly to soft bases (R-SH, R-S-) present in tumor tissue. For many hard acids such as /sup 85/Sr/sup 2 +/, /sup 67/Ga/sup 3 +/, /sup 181/Hf/sup 4 +/, and /sup 95/Nb/sup 5 +/, tumor uptake rates are shown as a function of ionic potentials of the metal ions. Considering the present data and previously reported results, it was presumed that hard acids of trivalence, quadrivalence and pentavalence would replace calcium in the calcium salts of hard bases. Ionic potentials of alkaline metals and Tl were small, but the tumor-uptake rate of these elements indicated various values. As Ge and Sb are bound by covalent bonds to chloride, GeCl/sub 4/ and SbCl/sub 3/ behaved differently from many metallic compounds in tumor tissue.

  2. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and tumor-uptake rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1985-01-01

    The bipositive ions and anions, with few exceptions, indicated a low tumor uptake rate. On the other hand, compounds of Hg, Au and Bi, which have a strong binding power to protein, showed a high tumor uptake rate. As Hg2+, Au+ and Bi3+ are soft acids according to the classification of Lewis acids, it was thought that these ions would bind strongly to soft bases (R-SH, R-S-) present in tumor tissue. For many hard acids such as 85Sr2+, 67Ga3+, 181Hf4+, and 95Nb5+, tumor uptake rates are shown as a function of ionic potentials (valency/ionic radii) of the metal ions. Considering the present data and previously reported results, it was presumed that hard acids of trivalence, quadrivalence and pentavalence would replace calcium in the calcium salts of hard bases (calcium salts of acid mucopolysaccharides, etc.). Ionic potentials of alkaline metals and Tl were small, but the tumor-uptake rate of these elements indicated various values. As Ge and Sb are bound by covalent bonds to chloride, GeCl4 and SbCl3 behaved differently from many metallic compounds in tumor tissue.

  3. Dynamics of Choice: Relative Rate and Amount Affect Local Preference at Three Different Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Carlos F.; Baum, William M.

    2009-01-01

    To examine extended control over local choice, the present study investigated preference in transition as food-rate ratio provided by two levers changed across seven components within daily sessions, and food-amount ratio changed across phases. Phase 1 arranged a food-amount ratio of 4:1 (i.e., the left lever delivered four pellets and the right…

  4. The Effects of a Local Negative Feedback Function between Choice and Relative Reinforcer Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Michael; Elliffe, Douglas; Marr, M. Jackson

    2010-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained on two-key concurrent variable-interval schedules with no changeover delay. In Phase 1, relative reinforcers on the two alternatives were varied over five conditions from 0.1 to 0.9. In Phases 2 and 3, we instituted a molar feedback function between relative choice in an interreinforcer interval and the probability of…

  5. The relation between the secrecy rate of biometric template protection and biometric recognition performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical result relating the maximum achievable security of the family of biometric template protection systems known as key-binding systems to the recognition performance of a biometric recognition system that is optimal in Neyman-Pearson sense is derived. The relation allows for the

  6. Nocturnal polyuria is related to absent circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guchtenaere, A; Vande Walle, C; Van Sintjan, P; Raes, A; Donckerwolcke, R; Van Laecke, E; Hoebeke, P; Vande Walle, J

    2007-12-01

    Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis is frequently associated with nocturnal polyuria and low urinary osmolality during the night. Initial studies found decreased vasopressin levels associated with low urinary osmolality overnight. Together with the documented desmopressin response, this was suggestive of a primary role for vasopressin in the pathogenesis of enuresis in the absence of bladder dysfunction. Recent studies no longer confirm this primary role of vasopressin. Other pathogenetic factors such as disordered renal sodium handling, hypercalciuria, increased prostaglandins and/or osmotic excretion might have a role. So far, little attention has been given to abnormalities in the circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate. We evaluated the circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate and diuresis in children with desmopressin resistant monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria. We evaluated 15 children (9 boys) 9 to 14 years old with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria resistant to desmopressin treatment. The control group consisted of 25 children (12 boys) 9 to 16 years old with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis without nocturnal polyuria. Compared to the control population, children with nocturnal polyuria lost their circadian rhythm not only for diuresis and sodium excretion but also for glomerular filtration rate. Patients with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria lack a normal circadian rhythm for diuresis and sodium excretion, and the circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate is absent. This absence of circadian rhythm of glomerular filtration rate and/or sodium handling cannot be explained by a primary role of vasopressin, but rather by a disorder in circadian rhythm of renal glomerular and/or tubular functions.

  7. Change in the structures, dynamics and disease-related mortality rates of the population of Qatari nationals: 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thani, Mohamed H; Sadoun, Eman; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud; Khalifa, Shamseldin A; Sayegh, Suzan; Badawi, Alaa

    2014-12-01

    Developing effective public health policies and strategies for interventions necessitates an assessment of the structure, dynamics, disease rates and causes of death in a population. Lately, Qatar has undertaken development resurgence in health and economy that resulted in improving the standard of health services and health status of the entire Qatari population (i.e., Qatari nationals and non-Qatari residents). No study has attempted to evaluate the population structure/dynamics and recent changes in disease-related mortality rates among Qatari nationals. The present study examines the population structure/dynamics and the related changes in the cause-specific mortality rates and disease prevalence in the Qatari nationals. This is a retrospective, analytic descriptive analysis covering a period of 5years (2007-2011) and utilizes a range of data sources from the State of Qatar including the population structure, disease-related mortality rates, and the prevalence of a range of chronic and infectious diseases. Factors reflecting population dynamics such as crude death (CDR), crude birth (CBR), total fertility (TFR) and infant mortality (IMR) rates were also calculated. The Qatari nationals is an expansive population with an annual growth rate of ∼4% and a stable male:female ratio. The CDR declined by 15% within the study period, whereas the CBR was almost stable. The total disease-specific death rate, however, was decreased among the Qatari nationals by 23% due to the decline in mortality rates attributed to diseases of the blood and immune system (43%), nervous system (44%) and cardiovascular system (41%). There was a high prevalence of a range of chronic diseases, whereas very low frequencies of the infectious diseases within the study population. Public health strategies, approaches and programs developed to reduce disease burden and the related death, should be tailored to target the population of Qatari nationals which exhibits characteristics that vary from

  8. ABA signaling is necessary but not sufficient for RD29B transcriptional memory during successive dehydration stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virlouvet, Laetitia; Ding, Yong; Fujii, Hiroaki; Avramova, Zoya; Fromm, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Plants subjected to a prior dehydration stress were seen to have altered transcriptional responses during a subsequent dehydration stress for up to 5 days after the initial stress. The abscisic acid (ABA) inducible RD29B gene of Arabidopsis thaliana was strongly induced after the first stress and displayed transcriptional memory with transcript levels nine-fold higher during the second dehydration stress. These increased transcript levels were due to an increased rate of transcription and are associated with an altered chromatin template during the recovery interval between the dehydration stresses. Here we use a combination of promoter deletion/substitutions, mutants in the trans-acting transcription factors and their upstream protein kinases, and treatments with exogenous ABA or dehydration stress to advance our understanding of the features required for transcriptional memory of RD29B. ABA Response Elements (ABREs) are sufficient to confer transcriptional memory on a minimal promoter, although there is a context effect from flanking sequences. Different mutations in Snf1 Related Protein Kinase 2 (SnRK2) genes positively and negatively affected the response, suggesting that this effect is important for transcriptional memory. Although exogenous ABA treatments could prime transcriptional memory, a second ABA treatment was not sufficient to activate transcriptional memory. Therefore, we concluded that transcriptional memory requires ABA and an ABA-independent factor that is induced or activated by a subsequent dehydration stress and directly or indirectly results in a more active RD29B chromatin template. These results advance our knowledge of the cis- and trans-acting factors that are required for transcriptional memory of RD29B. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 17β-estradiol-induced regulation of the novel 5-HT1A-related transcription factors NUDR and Freud-1 in SH SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeosun, Samuel O; Albert, Paul R; Austin, Mark C; Iyo, Abiye H

    2012-05-01

    Nuclear deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1 (NUDR/Deaf-1) and five prime repressor element under dual repression (Freud-1) are novel transcriptional regulators of the 5-HT(1A) receptor, a receptor that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various psychiatric illnesses. The antidepressant effect of 17β-Estradiol (17βE(2)) is purported to involve the downregulation of this receptor. We investigated the possible role of NUDR and Freud-1 in 17βE(2)-induced downregulation of the 5-HT(1A) receptor in the neuroblastoma cell line SH SY5Y. Cells were treated with 10 nM of 17βE(2) for 3 or 48 h, followed by a 24-h withdrawal period. Proteins were isolated and analyzed by western blotting. 17βE(2) treatment increased NUDR immunoreactivity while Freud-1 and the 5-HT(1A) receptor showed significant decreases. Upon withdrawal of 17βE(2), protein expression returned to control levels, except for NUDR, which remained significantly elevated in the 3-h treatment. Taken together, these data support a non-genomic downregulation of 5-HT(1A) receptor protein by 17βE(2), which does not involve NUDR and Freud-1. Rather, changes in both transcription factors seem to be compensatory/homeostatic responses to changes in 5-HT(1A) receptor induced by 17βE(2). These observations further highlight the importance of NUDR and Freud-1 in regulating 5-HT(1A) receptor expression.

  10. Abrogation of cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity in mice by xanthorrhizol is related to its effect on the regulation of gene transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwan Kim, Seong; Ok Hong, Kyoung; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kwan Hwang, Jae; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2004-01-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used anticancer drug, but at high dose, it can produce undesirable side effects such as hepatotoxicity. Because Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) has been traditionally used to treat liver disorders, the protective effect of xanthorrhizol, which is isolated from C. xanthorrhiza, on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity was evaluated in mice. The pretreatment of xanthorrhizol (200 mg/kg/day, po) for 4 days prevented the hepatotoxicity induced by cisplatin (45 mg/kg, ip) with statistical significance. Interestingly, it abrogated cisplatin-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), which consequently affected mRNA expression levels of NF-κB-dependent genes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), even in part. It also attenuated the cisplatin-suppressed DNA-binding activity of activator protein 1 (AP-1). Using differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR), seven upregulated genes including S100 calcium binding protein A9 (S100A9) mRNA and antigenic determinant for rec-A protein mRNA and five downregulated genes including caseinolytic protease X (ClpX) mRNA and ceruloplasmin (CP) mRNA by cisplatin were identified. Although these mRNA expression patterns were not totally consistent with gel shift patterns, altered expression levels by cisplatin were reversed by the pretreatment of xanthorrhizol. In conclusion, the ability of xanthorrhizol to regulate the DNA-binding activities of transcription factors, NF-κB and AP-1, could be one possible mechanism to elucidate the preventive effect of xanthorrhizol on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, genes identified in this study could be helpful to understand the mechanism of cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. Finally, the combination treatment of xanthorrhizol and cisplatin may provide more advantage than single treatment of cisplatin in cancer therapy

  11. Measurements of rates of some reactions related to radiolytic effect on aqueous iodide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, H.; Okuda, H.; Ishigure, K.

    1986-01-01

    A number of reactions takes place concurrently when aqueous iodide solution is subjected to radiation field. In order to help analyze this complicated radiation effect measurements of rate constants were undertaken for several important reactions. One of these concerns reduction of hypoiodous acid by hydrogen peroxide. For this reaction catalytic effect was found to be significant, and old rate data was revised. Measurements on reactions involving radicals were carried out by use of pulse radiolysis technique, which also include reexamination of results by previous workers. The reactions studied are (1) oxidation of iodide ion by hydroxyl radical (2) recombination reactions of atomic iodine and diiodide ion and (3) reduction of atomic and molecular iodine either by superoxide ion or by hydroperoxyl radical

  12. Signs of oral dryness in relation to salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and dry mouth complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farsi Najat MA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the signs of oral dryness in relation to different salivary variables and to correlate subjective complaints of oral dryness with salivary flow rate. Methods 312 unmedicated healthy individuals belonging to three age groups, (6–11, 12–17, and 18–40 years were examined clinically for signs of oral dryness. Resting and stimulated saliva were collected to determine flow rate, pH and buffering capacity. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on subjective sensation of dry mouth. Results Dry lip and dry mucosa were present in 37.5% and 3.2% of the sample respectively. The proportion of subjects who complained of oral dryness (19% showed a stimulated salivary flow rate significantly lower than non complainers. Dry lip was significantly related to low resting flow rate but pH and buffering capacity did not show any significant relation to dry lip. Dry mucosa was not related to any of the above mentioned parameters. Conclusion The finding that the stimulated salivary flow rate was reduced in subjects complaining of dry mouth is of great clinical relevance, since the reduction is expected to be reflected in compromising various salivary functions.

  13. Novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    technologies based on these two performance indicators. However and to the best of our knowledge, the direct links between these two performance indicators have not been explicitly proposed in the literature so far. In this paper, we propose novel relations

  14. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.

  15. Hungry for an intervention? : Adolescents' ratings of acceptability of eating-related intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, F Marijn; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Vet, Emely; Nureeva, Liliya; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Wardle, Jane; Gaspar, Tania; de Wit, John B F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effective interventions promoting healthier eating behavior among adolescents are urgently needed. One factor that has been shown to impact effectiveness is whether the target population accepts the intervention. While previous research has assessed adults' acceptance of eating-related

  16. Cost-related model for transit rates in electric power distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collstrand, F.

    1994-02-01

    The planned deregulation of the swedish electrical power market will require a new structure of the electrical energy rates. In this report different models of transit rates are studied. The report includes studies of literature and a proposal to a rate structure and is made specifically for Malmoe Energi AB. The differences between various methods of calculating the transfer cost are illustrated. Further, the build-up of the tariff structure and its base elements are discussed. The costs are divided on different categories of costumers and shows the cost for each customer. The new regulations should apply simultaneously to all networks, independent of the voltage level. The transit cost should be based on a number of basic elements: capital cost, operation and maintenance, losses, measuring and administration. Capital cost and operation and maintenance should be charged as power fees, the loss cost as an energy fee and the measuring and administration cost as a fixed fee. The customer bill should be split into two parts, one for the transit cost and one for the energy usage. 15 refs., 37 tabs., 6 figs

  17. Factors related to low birth rate among married women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Eun; Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Sun-Kyoung; Roh, Eun Ha

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors influencing low birth rate among married women using the National Survey data in Korea. We compared the different influences on women's first and subsequent childbirths. This study was a secondary analysis using the "National Survey on Fertility and Family Health and Welfare", which was a nationally representative survey conducted by the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs. We analyzed the data of 3,482 married women (aged between 19 and 39 years) using SPSS 20.0 program for descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and binary and ordinal logistic regression models. The factors influencing women's first childbirth included perceptions about the value of marriage and children and their education level. The factors influencing their subsequent childbirths included multifaceted variables of maternal age during the first childbirth, residential area, religion, monthly household income, perceptions about the value of marriage and children, and social media. It is necessary to improve women's awareness and positive perceptions about marriage and children in order to increase the birth rate in Korea. Moreover, consistently providing financial and political support for maternal and childcare concerns and using social media to foster more positive attitudes toward having children may enhance birth rates in the future.

  18. WRKY transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Madhunita; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are one of the largest families of transcriptional regulators found exclusively in plants. They have diverse biological functions in plant disease resistance, abiotic stress responses, nutrient deprivation, senescence, seed and trichome development, embryogenesis, as well as additional developmental and hormone-controlled processes. WRKYs can act as transcriptional activators or repressors, in various homo- and heterodimer combinations. Here we review recent progress on the function of WRKY transcription factors in Arabidopsis and other plant species such as rice, potato, and parsley, with a special focus on abiotic, developmental, and hormone-regulated processes. PMID:24492469

  19. THE REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF THE RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, STAR FORMATION RATE, AND GAS METALLICITY OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niino, Yuu

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the relation between stellar mass (M * ), star formation rate (SFR), and metallicity (Z) of galaxies, the so-called fundamental metallicity relation, in the galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7. We separate the galaxies into narrow redshift bins and compare the relation at different redshifts and find statistically significant (>99%) evolution. We test various observational effects that might cause seeming Z evolution and find it difficult to explain the evolution of the relation only by the observational effects. In the current sample of low-redshift galaxies, galaxies with different M * and SFR are sampled from different redshifts, and there is degeneracy between M * /SFR and redshift. Hence, it is not straightforward to distinguish a relation between Z and SFR from a relation between Z and redshift. The separation of the intrinsic relation from the redshift evolution effect is a crucial issue in the understanding of the evolution of galaxies.

  20. Cross-lagged relations between teacher and parent ratings of children's task avoidance and different literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K; Hirvonen, Riikka; Manolitsis, George; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2017-09-01

    Task avoidance is a significant predictor of literacy skills. However, it remains unclear whether the relation between the two is reciprocal and whether it is affected by the type of literacy outcome, who is rating children's task avoidance, and the children's gender. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the cross-lagged relations between teacher and parent ratings of children's task avoidance and different literacy skills. One hundred and seventy-two Greek children (91 girls, 81 boys) were followed from Grade 1 to Grade 3. Children were assessed on reading accuracy, reading fluency, and spelling to dictation. Parents and teachers rated the children's task-avoidant behaviour. Results of structural equation modelling showed that the cross-lagged relations varied as a function of the literacy outcome, who rated the children's task avoidance, and children's gender. Earlier reading and spelling performance predicted subsequent parent-rated task avoidance, but parent-rated task avoidance did not predict subsequent reading and spelling performance (with the exception of spelling in Grade 3). Teacher-rated task avoidance and reading fluency/spelling had a reciprocal relationship over time. In addition, the effects of teacher-rated task avoidance on future spelling were significantly stronger in boys than in girls. This suggests that poor reading and spelling performance can lead to subsequent task avoidance in both classroom and home situations. The fact that task avoidance permeates across different learning environments is alarming and calls for joint action from both parents and teachers to mitigate its negative impact on learning. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Intra-uterine insemination: pregnancy rate in relation to number, size of pre-ovulatory follicles and day of insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppaswamy, J; Smedley, Mamin; Carter, Lindsay

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the pregnancy rate in intra-uterine insemination (IUI) in relation to pre-ovulatory follicular number, size and day of insemination. A retrospective analysis of 216 completed IUI cycles was used in an attempt to identify significant variables predictive of treatment success. Couples with unexplained infertility and male factor infertility underwent IUI with or without ovarian stimulation. The mean number of IUI cycles per patient was 4.1, the overall pregnancy rate was 27.3% per patient, and the pregnancy rate per cycle was 6.9%. The pregnancy rate was 4.4% when one follicle was produced, whereas with more than two follicles, the rate increased to 21.2%. Hormonal stimulation using clomiphene citrate and/or human menopausal gonadotrophin/follicle stimulating hormone yielded a significant higher pregnancy rate compared to IUI in natural cycles (10.3% versus 3.3%). Although not statistically significant, the pregnancy rate decreased with advancing age of woman. The results suggest that IUI is a useful method of assisted conception in unexplained infertility and higher pregnancy rates can be achieved with good patient selection and ovarian stimulation.

  2. Breast meat quality of chickens with divergent growth rates and its relation to growth curve parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Muth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the increase of body weight of contemporary broilers during growth on functional meat quality and color characteristics of the chicken breast muscle are controversially debated. Therefore, male chickens (n = 264 of a fast-growing commercial broiler (Ross 308 and two slow-growing experimental meat-type chicken lines were compared at equal age and at similar body weight in order to investigate the effect of growth rate on selected functional breast meat traits and meat color. Additionally, the breast meat characteristics of birds with different growth profiles were compared within lines. When the body weight of commercial broilers reached about 40 to 60 % of their growth potential, they exhibited particularly high ultimate pH values compared with slow-growing lines. The ability of the meat of fast-growing broilers to retain water during cooking was impaired (5 to 16 percentage points increased cooking loss compared to slow-growing lines, which, in contrast to pH, was only marginally affected by body weight and/or age at slaughter. No unfavorable correlations of breast meat quality traits with the growth profile, represented by growth curve parameters derived from the Gompertz–Laird equation, were detected within any of the investigated chicken lines. It is noteworthy that the associations of ultimate pH and cooking loss with maximum growth speed indicate a non-linear relationship. Thus, some of the functional characteristics of breast meat of the fast-growing broiler resembled the white-striping defect described for poultry meat, but the hypothesis that selection on increased growth rates is detrimental for meat quality per se could not be confirmed. In fact, an elevated growth potential in particular, i.e., body weight at maturity, could have some beneficial effects for the water-holding capacity of breast meat, regardless of the genotypic growth rate.

  3. Metabolic rate and thyroid activity of hens in relation to the state of feathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, M

    1981-01-01

    Heat production, rectal temperature and thyroid activity were determined in NH X Lg hens that were 40 and 80% defeathered. Within individual groups there was a significant increase in heat production only in hens that were 80% defeathered. In comparison with the control group, defeathered chickens had higher metabolic rates during each examined period. During the third week of the experiment there was a temporary drop in the rectal temperature of the experimental birds. After nine weeks chicken with the greatest degree of defeathering had the highest thyroid weight and the highest levels of thyroxin in the blood plasma.

  4. Relative measurement of the excitation rate coefficients of the FeXI ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marotta, A.

    1982-01-01

    The collision rate coefficients for the iron atoms are measured through the hot plasma obtainment. The physical model used in this determination is the crown stationary model which consider that the excitation by electronic collisions is balanced by the spontaneous emission. This work was realized in a 15Kj theta pinch device, of high pulse reproductibility. The iron-pentacarbonyl [Fe(Co) 5 ] was used as the impurity source of a hydrogen gas. The temperature and density were determined by the scattering light analysis of a rubi laser using the Thomson scattering. (L.C.) [pt

  5. Bioaccessibility of metal cations in soil is linearly related to its water exchange rate constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Brian D; Peak, Derek; Siciliano, Steven D

    2011-05-01

    Site-specific risk assessments often incorporate the concepts of bioaccessibility (i.e., contaminant fraction released into gastrointestinal fluids) or bioavailability (i.e., contaminant fraction absorbed into systemic circulation) into the calculation of ingestion exposure. We evaluated total and bioaccessible metal concentrations for 19 soil samples under simulated stomach and duodenal conditions using an in vitro gastrointestinal model. We demonstrated that the median bioaccessibility of 23 metals ranged between exchange rates of metal cations (k(H₂O)) indicated that desorption kinetics may influence if not control metal bioaccessibility.

  6. Infliximab dependency is related to decreased surgical rates in adult Crohn's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, N.; Duricova, D.; Lenicek, M.

    2010-01-01

    last intended infusion: prolonged response (maintenance of complete/partial response), infliximab dependency (relapse requiring repeated infusions to regain complete/partial response or need of infliximab > 12 months to sustain response). Results Forty-seven percent obtained prolonged response, 29...... on maintenance versus on demand regime was 33 and 31%, respectively (P = 0.63). No relevant clinical or genetic predictors were identified. Conclusion The infliximab dependency response seems to be equivalent to the prolonged response in adult CD patients when comparing surgery rates. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol...

  7. Energy related germination and survival rates of water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds irradiated with protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, H.L.; Xue, J.M.; Lai, J.N.; Wang, J.Y.; Zhang, W.M.; Miao, Q.; Yan, S.; Zhao, W.J.; He, F.; Gu, H.Y.; Wang, Y.G.

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of ion energy on the germination and survival rates, water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds were irradiated with protons in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 x 10 9 -1 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 . The ion energy is from 1.1 MeV to 6.5 MeV. According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can irradiate the shoot apical meristem directly whereas the ions with the energy of 1.1 MeV cannot. The results showed that both the germination and survival rates decrease while increasing the ion fluence, and the fluence-respond curve for each energy has different character. Besides the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is generally considered as the main radiobiological target, the existence of a secondary target around SAM is proposed in this paper

  8. Radiation in relation to mutation rate, mutational damage and human ill-health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1976-09-01

    The effect of radiation in increasing the frequency of gene mutations is now reasonably understood. We discuss first how an increase in the mutation rate is reflected in the mutational damage expressed in populations. It is shown that the mutational damage, assessed by the loss of fitness in a population or the number of eventual gene extinctions, is equal to the number of new mutations arising per generation or the mutation rate. In a population of stable size, a dose of 1 rem given to 10 6 people leads to roughly 600 gene extinctions when summed over all ensuing generations if the dose is applied to only one generation; this number of extinctions will occur in each succeeding generation if the dose is given to every generation. However, the concept of genetic extinction, although quantifiable, is of limited value in assessing radiation risks since its impact on human ill-health is very speculative. In particular, no estimate can be made of the total cost of effects which are minor in each individual in which they arise, but which, because they are so minor, persist in the population for many generations. The best current estimate is for 14-140 obvious defects in the first few generations following exposure of 10 6 people to a dose of 1 rem. (auth.)

  9. Energy related germination and survival rates of water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds irradiated with protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, H.L. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xue, J.M. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Lai, J.N. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, J.Y. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, W.M. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Miao, Q. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yan, S. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhao, W.J. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); He, F. [School of Life Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gu, H.Y. [School of Life Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Y.G. [Key Laboratory of Heavy Ion Physics, MOE, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail: ygwang@pku.edu.cn

    2006-04-15

    In order to investigate the influence of ion energy on the germination and survival rates, water-imbibed Arabidopsis seeds were irradiated with protons in atmosphere. The ion fluence used in this experiment was in the range of 4 x 10{sup 9}-1 x 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. The ion energy is from 1.1 MeV to 6.5 MeV. According to the structure of the seed and TRIM simulation, the ions with the energy of 6.5 MeV can irradiate the shoot apical meristem directly whereas the ions with the energy of 1.1 MeV cannot. The results showed that both the germination and survival rates decrease while increasing the ion fluence, and the fluence-respond curve for each energy has different character. Besides the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which is generally considered as the main radiobiological target, the existence of a secondary target around SAM is proposed in this paper.

  10. The Power of Implicit Social Relation in Rating Prediction of Social Recommender Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reafee, Waleed; Salim, Naomie; Khan, Atif

    2016-01-01

    The explosive growth of social networks in recent times has presented a powerful source of information to be utilized as an extra source for assisting in the social recommendation problems. The social recommendation methods that are based on probabilistic matrix factorization improved the recommendation accuracy and partly solved the cold-start and data sparsity problems. However, these methods only exploited the explicit social relations and almost completely ignored the implicit social relations. In this article, we firstly propose an algorithm to extract the implicit relation in the undirected graphs of social networks by exploiting the link prediction techniques. Furthermore, we propose a new probabilistic matrix factorization method to alleviate the data sparsity problem through incorporating explicit friendship and implicit friendship. We evaluate our proposed approach on two real datasets, Last.Fm and Douban. The experimental results show that our method performs much better than the state-of-the-art approaches, which indicates the importance of incorporating implicit social relations in the recommendation process to address the poor prediction accuracy.

  11. An MRI rating scale for amyloid-related imaging abnormalities with edema or effusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkhof, F.; Daams, M.; Scheltens, P.; Brashear, H.R.; Arrighi, H.M.; Bechten, A.K.; Morris, K.; McGovern, M.; Wattjes, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Immune therapy against amyloid-Appears to be a promising target in Alzheimer disease. However, a dose-related risk for ARIA on FLAIR images thought to represent parenchymal vasogenic edema or sulcal effusion (termed "ARIA-E"), has been observed in clinical trials. To assess

  12. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-01-08

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.  Created: 1/8/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 1/8/2008.

  13. Factors related to the high fall rate in long-term care residents with dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosse, Nienke M.; de Groot, Maartje H.; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lamoth, Claudine J. C.

    Background: Falls in long-term care residents with dementia represent a costly but unresolved safety issue. The aim of the present study was to (1) determine the incidence of falls, fall-related injuries and fall circumstances, and (2) identify the relationship between patient characteristics and

  14. Mathematical observations on the relation between eclosion periods and the copulation rate of cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisho, Yasumasa

    2010-04-01

    In many species of cicadas the peak of eclosion of males precedes that of females. In this paper, we construct a stochastic model and consider whether this sexual difference of eclosion periods works against mating or not. We also discuss the relation between the peak period of copulations and the development of population number by using this model.

  15. Associations of relative income deprivation with perceived happiness and self-rated health among the Hong Kong Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chee Hon; Wong, Ho Kit; Yip, Paul Siu Fai

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the association of relative income deprivation (RID) with perceived happiness and self-rated health in Hong Kong. We measured RID on Yitzhaki indices constructed using multiple reference groups and used multilevel ordinal logistic regression models to assess its linkages with the two outcomes, using data from 6272 respondents from a large-scale representative household survey. Among the overall population, increased RID was found to be consistently associated with reduced perceived happiness, even after adjusting for respondents' level of absolute income and other socio-demographic covariates; however, there were no consistent associations between RID and self-rated health. In subgroup analysis, we observed significant linkages between RID and self-rated health only among men, the middle and older age ranges, and among those with less education and those not engaged in economic activities. Our findings suggest that RID is adversely associated with perceived happiness. However, its negative linkage with self-rated health is less clear. The weak tie between RID and self-rated health may relate to the Hong Kong context, where the public health system is relatively equitable and has multiple pro-poor health policies.

  16. Determination of the reference air kerma rate for 192Ir brachytherapy sources and the related uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, Eduard van; Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karine K.; Damen, Patricia M. G.

    2004-01-01

    Different methods exist to determine the air kerma calibration factor of an ionization chamber for the spectrum of a 192 Ir high-dose-rate (HDR) or pulsed-dose-rate (PDR) source. An analysis of two methods to obtain such a calibration factor was performed: (i) the method recommended by [Goetsch et al., Med. Phys. 18, 462-467 (1991)] and (ii) the method employed by the Dutch national standards institute NMi [Petersen et al., Report S-EI-94.01 (NMi, Delft, The Netherlands, 1994)]. This analysis showed a systematic difference on the order of 1% in the determination of the strength of 192 Ir HDR and PDR sources depending on the method used for determining the air kerma calibration factor. The definitive significance of the difference between these methods can only be addressed after performing an accurate analysis of the associated uncertainties. For an NE 2561 (or equivalent) ionization chamber and an in-air jig, a typical uncertainty budget of 0.94% was found with the NMi method. The largest contribution in the type-B uncertainty is the uncertainty in the air kerma calibration factor for isotope i, N k i , as determined by the primary or secondary standards laboratories. This uncertainty is dominated by the uncertainties in the physical constants for the average mass-energy absorption coefficient ratio and the stopping power ratios. This means that it is not foreseeable that the standards laboratories can decrease the uncertainty in the air kerma calibration factors for ionization chambers in the short term. When the results of the determination of the 192 Ir reference air kerma rates in, e.g., different institutes are compared, the uncertainties in the physical constants are the same. To compare the applied techniques, the ratio of the results can be judged by leaving out the uncertainties due to these physical constants. In that case an uncertainty budget of 0.40% (coverage factor=2) should be taken into account. Due to the differences in approach between the

  17. Self-Rated Health in Relation to Rape and Mental Health Disorders in a National Sample of College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to employ a multivariate approach to examine the correlates of self-rated health in a college sample of women, with particular emphasis on sexual assault history and related mental health outcomes. Participants: A national sample of 2,000 female college students participated in a structured phone interview…

  18. Relating leaf photosynthetic rate to whole-plant growth: drought and shade effects on seedlings of four Quercus species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quero Perez, J.L.; Villar, R.; Marañón, T.; Zamora, R.; Vega, D.; Sack, L.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the impacts of combined resource supplies on seedlings is critical to enable prediction of establishment growth, and forest dynamics. We investigated the effects of irradiance and water treatments on absolute growth, and relative growth rate (RGR) and its components, for seedlings of

  19. Relative expression of rRNA transcripts and 45S rDNA promoter methylation status are dysregulated in tumors in comparison with matched-normal tissues in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Gurbet; Sayar, Nilufer; Gozum, Gokcen; Bozkurt, Betul; Konu, Ozlen; Yulug, Isik G

    2015-06-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) expression, one of the most important factors regulating ribosome production, is primarily controlled by a CG-rich 45 S rDNA promoter. However, the DNA methylation state of the 45 S rDNA promoter, as well as its effect on rRNA gene expression in types of human cancers is controversial. In the present study we analyzed the methylation status of the rDNA promoter (-380 to +53 bp) as well as associated rRNA expression levels in breast cancer cell lines and breast tumor-normal tissue pairs. We found that the aforementioned regulatory region was extensively methylated (74-96%) in all cell lines and in 68% (13/19 tumor-normal pairs) of the tumors. Expression levels of rRNA transcripts 18 S, 28 S, 5.8 S and 45 S external transcribed spacer (45 S ETS) greatly varied in the breast cancer cell lines regardless of their methylation status. Analyses of rRNA transcript expression levels in the breast tumor and normal matched tissues showed no significant difference when normalized with TBP. On the other hand, using the geometric mean of the rRNA expression values (GM-rRNA) as reference enabled us to identify significant changes in the relative expression of rRNAs in the tissue samples. We propose GM-rRNA normalization as a novel strategy to analyze expression differences between rRNA transcripts. Accordingly, the 18S rRNA/GM-rRNA ratio was significantly higher whereas the 5.8S rRNA/GM-rRNA ratio was significantly lower in breast tumor samples than this ratio in the matched normal samples. Moreover, the 18S rRNA/GM-rRNA ratio was negatively correlated with the 45 S rDNA promoter methylation level in the normal breast tissue samples, yet not in the breast tumors. Significant correlations observed between the expression levels of rRNA transcripts in the normal samples were lost in the tumor samples. We showed that the expression of rRNA transcripts may not be based solely on promoter methylation. Carcinogenesis may cause dysregulation of the correlation

  20. The role of physical activity and heart rate variability for the control of work related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonello, Laís; Rodrigues, Fábio B; Souza, Jeniffer W S; Campbell, Carmen S G; Leicht, Anthony S; Boullosa, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and exercise are often used as tools to reduce stress and therefore the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Meanwhile, heart rate variability (HRV) has been utilized to assess both stress and PA or exercise influences. The objective of the present review was to examine the current literature in regards to workplace stress, PA/exercise and HRV to encourage further studies. We considered original articles from known databases (PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge) over the last 10 years that examined these important factors. A total of seven studies were identified with workplace stress strongly associated with reduced HRV in workers. Longitudinal workplace PA interventions may provide a means to improve worker stress levels and potentially cardiovascular risk with mechanisms still to be clarified. Future studies are recommended to identify the impact of PA, exercise, and fitness on stress levels and HRV in workers and their subsequent influence on cardiovascular health.

  1. Hydatidiform mole: age-related clinical presentation and high rate of severe complications in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangili, Giorgia; Giorgione, Veronica; Gentile, Cinzia; Bergamini, Alice; Pella, Francesca; Almirante, Giada; Candiani, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate differences in clinical presentation of hydatidiform mole between women ≥40 years and younger women. Retrospective study. A tertiary referral unit in northern Italy. Three hundred and sixty-five women with hydatidiform mole were divided into group A (Clinical presentation between groups A and B was analyzed, also considering partial hydatidiform mole and complete hydatidiform mole. Differences in clinical presentation according to woman's age. In group B the diagnosis of hydatidiform mole at ≥12 gestational weeks was more frequent (p presented with vaginal bleeding (p clinical features of hydatidiform mole in women ≥40 years are different from those seen in younger women. Failures in the early detection of hydatidiform mole in older women may expose them to a higher rate of severe complications. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Relation between emotional distress and heart rate variability in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoogwegt, Madelein T; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between Type D personality, depression, and anxiety, and heart rate variability (HRV) in 64 patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). HRV was obtained via 24-h Holter monitoring, and 24-h, 30-min daytime rest and 30-min nighttime sleep HRV were...... analyzed. In adjusted analyses, significant associations (standard deviation of normal-to-normal [NN] intervals [SDNN]: p = .043; standard deviation of NN intervals over 5-min periods [SDANN]: p = .010) and a trend (HRV triangular index: p = .09) were found for Type D personality, and trends were found...... = .043). A Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple testing led to reduction of the number of significant relationships, but there was still support for lower autonomic control patients with Type D personality and depression. Future research with larger sample sizes is warranted....

  3. The role of physical activity and heart rate variability for the control of work related stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís eTonello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA and exercise are often used as tools to reduce stress and therefore the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Meanwhile, heart rate variability (HRV has been utilised to assess both stress and PA or exercise influences. The objective of the present mini review was to examine the current literature in regards to workplace stress, PA/exercise and HRV to encourage further studies. We considered original articles from known databases (PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge over the last 10 years that examined these important factors. A total of 7 studies were identified with workplace stress strongly associated with reduced HRV in workers. Longitudinal workplace PA interventions may provide a means to improve worker stress levels and potentially cardiovascular risk with mechanisms still to be clarified. Future studies are recommended to identify the impact of PA, exercise and fitness on stress levels and HRV in workers and their subsequent influence on cardiovascular health.

  4. Unsteady-state human-body exergy consumption rate and its relation to subjective assessment of dynamic thermal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schweiker, Marcel; Kolarik, Jakub; Dovjak, Mateja

    2016-01-01

    of the present study confirmed previously indicated trends that lowest human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation close to neutrality. Moreover, higher acceptability was in general associated with lower human body exergy consumption rate. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Few examples studied applicability of exergy analysis on human thermal comfort. These examples relate the human-body exergy consumption rate with subjectively obtained thermal sensation votes and had been based on steady-state calculation methods. However, humans are rarely exposed to steady...... between the human-body exergy consumption rate and subjective assessment of thermal environment represented by thermal sensation as well as to extend the investigation towards thermal acceptability votes. Comparison of steady-state and unsteady-state model showed that results from both models were...

  5. Schistosomes infection rate in relation to environmental factors in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja'a, Y A; Assiragi, H M; Abu-Luhom, A A; Mohammed, A B; Albahr, M H; Ashaddadi, M A; Al Muflihi, A N

    2000-07-01

    An epidemiological comparative survey aimed at determination of prevalence and focal distribution of Schistosomes infection and intestinal parasites to provide a reference for evaluating the need for community intervention. All children of 14th October Primary School were involved. The children were from 7 villages that lie on the Assahul valley of lbb governorates in Yemen. The total number was 230 with (82%) boys and (18%) girls. Their age was between 5-18 years with a mean of 10.24 +/- 2.6 years. Millipore and modified Kato techniques were adopted to quantify urinary and intestinal Schistosomes eggs. Other ova, larvae, cysts were recorded whenever seen. It was revealed that there was a Schistosomes infection rate of 37%. The mansoni prevalence was 35%, hematobia was 5% and mixed infections were 3%. Light infection was classified among 17% of all children; moderate infection among 18% and no intense mansoni infection was determined. Whereas in the case of hematobia species, 2% were intense and 3% were light. Intensity in all children was 5% eggs/g feces in case of intestinal bilharzia and 1% egg/10 ml urine in case of urinary. With regard to the prevalence of any soil-transmitted parasites, it was found to be 69% (Ascariosis 68%, Trichuriosis 10%). Double infection was found in 10%. Hookworm eggs were not seen. Infection rates with other parasites were as follows: Giardiosis 18%, Amoebiosis 14%, ova of Hymenolepes nana were seen in 13%, Taeniosis affected 13% and E. Vermicularis 1%. Bivariate analysis revealed significant associations between Schistosomes infection with residence near the valley, male sex and frequent water contact activities. No significant association was found with the age of the child, parents' education, availability of latrine or household standpipe water. In conclusion, schistosomosis was moderate, whereas soil transmitted helminthosis were intense.

  6. Relative radiative decay rates of vacancies in L-subshells of heavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Leite, C.V. de; Pinho, A.G. de; Castro Faria, N.V. de.

    1977-01-01

    Relative radiative decay of vacancies in L-subshells were measured for a large number of heavy elements with a Si(Li) detection system. A graphical method was employed to analyze the x-ray spectra so obtained. Systematic results are presented together with other already published results obtained in our laboratories in recent years. This covers the interval 74<=Z<=93. Results are compared with theoretical predictions and experimental data from other authors and some general features are noted

  7. Transcription Factor Activating Protein-2β (TFAP-2β) genotype and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in relation to symptoms of depression in two independent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kent W; Sonnby, Karin; Nordquist, Niklas; Comasco, Erika; Leppert, Jerzy; Oreland, Lars; Sjöberg, Rickard L

    2014-04-01

    The Transcription Factor Activating Protein-2β (TFAP-2β) gene has been shown to influence monoaminergic neurotransmission, and several genes important for monoaminergic function have binding sites for TFAP-2β. Familial studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggest a hereditary-determined subtype of ADHD with comorbid depression. We examined a functional variation of the TFAP-2β gene in the context of co-occurring symptoms of ADHD and depression in two independent population-based samples of adolescents (Group A, n = 175 and Group B, n = 1,506) from Sweden. Results indicated 6.1 to 7.8% of adolescents screened positively for ADHD and depression symptoms. Symptoms of depression were more common among girls who screened positively for ADHD and did not carry the nine-repeat allele of the TFAP-2β intron 1 Variable Number Tandem Repeat (VNTR) polymorphism. The presence of the nine-repeat variant of the TFAP-2β intron 1 VNTR appears to protect girls with ADHD symptoms from the co-expression of symptoms of depression.

  8. Isolation and Identification of Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing-Related Micro-RNAs by Functionalized Silicon Nanowire Field-effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-I.; Pan, Chien-Yuan; Li, Keng-Hui; Huang, Ying-Chih; Lu, Chia-Wei; Tang, Chuan-Yi; Su, Ya-Wen; Tseng, Ling-Wei; Tseng, Kun-Chang; Lin, Chi-Yun; Chen, Chii-Dong; Lin, Shih-Shun; Chen, Yit-Tsong

    2015-11-01

    Many transcribed RNAs are non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), which bind to complementary sequences on messenger RNAs to regulate the translation efficacy. Therefore, identifying the miRNAs expressed in cells/organisms aids in understanding genetic control in cells/organisms. In this report, we determined the binding of oligonucleotides to a receptor-modified silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW-FET) by monitoring the changes in conductance of the SiNW-FET. We first modified a SiNW-FET with a DNA probe to directly and selectively detect the complementary miRNA in cell lysates. This SiNW-FET device has 7-fold higher sensitivity than reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in detecting the corresponding miRNA. Next, we anchored viral p19 proteins, which bind the double-strand small RNAs (ds-sRNAs), on the SiNW-FET. By perfusing the device with synthesized ds-sRNAs of different pairing statuses, the dissociation constants revealed that the nucleotides at the 3‧-overhangs and pairings at the terminus are important for the interactions. After perfusing the total RNA mixture extracted from Nicotiana benthamiana across the device, this device could enrich the ds-sRNAs for sequence analysis. Finally, this bionanoelectronic SiNW-FET, which is able to isolate and identify the interacting protein-RNA, adds an additional tool in genomic technology for the future study of direct biomolecular interactions.

  9. Corrosion product identification and relative rates of corrosion of candidate metals in an irradiated air-steam environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.; Swayambunathan, V.; Tani, B.S.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Previously reported work by others indicates that dicopper trihydroxide nitrate, Cu 2 NO 3 (OH) 3 , forms on copper and copper alloys subjected to irradiated moist air near room temperature. We have performed experiments over a range of temperature and humidity, and have found that this species is formed at temperatures up to at least 150 degree C if low to intermediate relative humidities are present. At 150 degree C and 100% relative humidity, only Cu 2 O and CuO were observed. The relative general corrosion rates of the copper materials tested in 1-month experiments at dose rates of 0.7 and 2.0 kGy/h were Cu > 70/30 Cu--Ni > Al-bronze. High-nickel alloy 825 showed no observable corrosion. 29 refs., 4 tabs

  10. ANALYSIS OF PREVALENCE, HOSPITALIZATION RATE AND MORTALITY LEVELS RELATED TO GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS IN THE MOSCOW REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Gurov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: According to prognosis made by World Health Organization experts, by mid-21st century gastrointestinal disorders will be among the leaders, partially due to lifestyle of a modern man (stress, unhealthy diet, lack of physical exercise, unhealthy habits, environmental pollution, genetically modified and low quality foods.Aim: To provide informational support of activities aimed at improvement of organization of medical care to patients with gastrointestinal disorders and at further development of specialized gastroenterological care to the population of the Moscow Region, its better availability and higher efficacy and quality.Materials and methods: We calculated and analyzed gastrointestinal morbidity in 2014 (according to referrals among the main age categories (children, adolescents, adults of the population of the Moscow Region, as well as hospitalization rates and in-hospital mortality. The information was taken from the Federal Statistical Surveillance report forms # 12 and # 14.Results: In 2014, the highest prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders was registered in adolescents, being by 42.7% higher than that in adults and by 11.7% higher than that in children. The leading causes of referrals in all age categories were gastritis and duodenitis, as well as gall bladder and bile tract disorders. The structure of morbidity was characterized by a high proportion of pancreatic disorders, stomach and duodenal ulcers in adults. The rate of hospitalizations due to gastrointestinal disorders was 17.8 cases per 1000 patients, being 17.4‰ in adults and 19.8‰ in children and adolescents. The main reasons for hospitalization in adults were diseases of pancreas (23.9% of all hospitalization due to gastrointestinal disorders, gall bladder and bile tract disorders (16.3%. In children and adolescents, the main reasons for hospitalizations were intestinal disorders (36.4%, gastritis and duodenitis (17.9%. In-hospital mortality from

  11. Determination of tropical deforestation rates and related carbon losses from 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achard, Frédéric; Beuchle, René; Mayaux, Philippe; Stibig, Hans-Jürgen; Bodart, Catherine; Brink, Andreas; Carboni, Silvia; Desclée, Baudouin; Donnay, François; Eva, Hugh D; Lupi, Andrea; Raši, Rastislav; Seliger, Roman; Simonetti, Dario

    2014-08-01

    We estimate changes in forest cover (deforestation and forest regrowth) in the tropics for the two last decades (1990-2000 and 2000-2010) based on a sample of 4000 units of 10 ×10 km size. Forest cover is interpreted from satellite imagery at 30 × 30 m resolution. Forest cover changes are then combined with pan-tropical biomass maps to estimate carbon losses. We show that there was a gross loss of tropical forests of 8.0 million ha yr(-1) in the 1990s and 7.6 million ha yr(-1) in the 2000s (0.49% annual rate), with no statistically significant difference. Humid forests account for 64% of the total forest cover in 2010 and 54% of the net forest loss during second study decade. Losses of forest cover and Other Wooded Land (OWL) cover result in estimates of carbon losses which are similar for 1990s and 2000s at 887 MtC yr(-1) (range: 646-1238) and 880 MtC yr(-1) (range: 602-1237) respectively, with humid regions contributing two-thirds. The estimates of forest area changes have small statistical standard errors due to large sample size. We also reduce uncertainties of previous estimates of carbon losses and removals. Our estimates of forest area change are significantly lower as compared to national survey data. We reconcile recent low estimates of carbon emissions from tropical deforestation for early 2000s and show that carbon loss rates did not change between the two last decades. Carbon losses from deforestation represent circa 10% of Carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production during the last decade (2000-2010). Our estimates of annual removals of carbon from forest regrowth at 115 MtC yr(-1) (range: 61-168) and 97 MtC yr(-1) (53-141) for the 1990s and 2000s respectively are five to fifteen times lower than earlier published estimates. © The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Method to determine transcriptional regulation pathways in organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Timothy S.; Collins, James J.; Hayete, Boris; Faith, Jeremiah

    2012-11-06

    The invention relates to computer-implemented methods and systems for identifying regulatory relationships between expressed regulating polypeptides and targets of the regulatory activities of such regulating polypeptides. More specifically, the invention provides a new method for identifying regulatory dependencies between biochemical species in a cell. In particular embodiments, provided are computer-implemented methods for identifying a regulatory interaction between a transcription factor and a gene target of the transcription factor, or between a transcription factor and a set of gene targets of the transcription factor. Further provided are genome-scale methods for predicting regulatory interactions between a set of transcription factors and a corresponding set of transcriptional target substrates thereof.

  13. Convergence among cave catfishes: long-branch attraction and a Bayesian relative rates test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, T P; García de León, F J; Hendrickson, D A; Hillis, D M

    2004-06-01

    Convergence has long been of interest to evolutionary biologists. Cave organisms appear to be ideal candidates for studying convergence in morphological, physiological, and developmental traits. Here we report apparent convergence in two cave-catfishes that were described on morphological grounds as congeners: Prietella phreatophila and Prietella lundbergi. We collected mitochondrial DNA sequence data from 10 species of catfishes, representing five of the seven genera in Ictaluridae, as well as seven species from a broad range of siluriform outgroups. Analysis of the sequence data under parsimony supports a monophyletic Prietella. However, both maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analyses support polyphyly of the genus, with P. lundbergi sister to Ictalurus and P. phreatophila sister to Ameiurus. The topological difference between parsimony and the other methods appears to result from long-branch attraction between the Prietella species. Similarly, the sequence data do not support several other relationships within Ictaluridae supported by morphology. We develop a new Bayesian method for examining variation in molecular rates of evolution across a phylogeny.

  14. Relative rates of albumin equilibration in the skin interstitium and lymph during increased permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, M.R.; Wallace, J.R.; Bell, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The initial equilibration of 125 I-labelled albumin between the vascular and extravascular compartments was studied in hindpaw heel skin of anesthetized rabbits. Bradykinin (0.3 μg/min) was infused into a small branch of the femoral artery. A second group of rabbits served as control. Following bradykinin, prenodal popliteal lymph flow was 4 times control flow. The lymph-to-plasma concentration ratios for total protein and albumin were, respectively, 60% and 50% larger than control. Tissue albumin concentration was twice control. After reaching a steady, elevated lymph flow, tracer albumin was infused to maintain plasma activity constant for 3 hrs. The plasma volume in tissue samples was measured using 131 I-labeled albumin injected 10 min before ending the experiment. Endogenous albumin was measured in plasma, lymph, and tissue samples using rocket electroimmunoassay. After 3 hrs of tracer infusion, lymph specific activity was 3 times greater than control. In the control group, plasma albumin equilibrated more rapidly with lymph than with tissue (p < 0.05). Following bradykinin, extravascular specific activity was 4 times control, resulting in lymph and tissue equilibrating with plasma at similar rates. Thus, increasing capillary permeability causes the extravascular albumin mass to behave as if distributed in a single compartment

  15. Highway crash rates and age-related driver limitations: Literature review and evaluation of data bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Young, J.R. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Lu, An [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a larger proportion of older individuals in the population. Moreover, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort a decade ago. However, they continue to take shorter trips than younger drivers and they avoid driving during congested hours. This recent demographic transformation in our society, the graying of America, coupled with the increasing mobility of the older population impose a serious highway safety issue that cannot be overlooked. Some of the major concerns are the identification of ``high-risk`` older drivers and the establishment of licensing guidelines and procedures that are based on conclusive scientific evidence. Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) objectives in this project can be characterized by the following tasks: Review and evaluate the 1980 American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators (AAMVA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) licensing guidelines. Determine whether the license restriction recommended in the 1980 AAMVA and NHTSA guidelines was based on scientific evidence or on judgement of medical advisors. Identify in the scientific literature any medical conditions which are found to be highly associated with highway crashes, and which are not mentioned in the 1980 guidelines. Summarize States` current licensing practices for drivers with age-related physical and mental limitations. Identify potential data sources to establish conclusive evidence on age-related functional impairments and highway crashes.

  16. Relative feeding rates on free and particle-bound bacteria by freshwater macrozooplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenberg, S.A.; Maccubbin, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Feeding suspensions of equivalent particle spectra were assembled with either free-living ( 3 H]thymidine. Clearance (ml ind -1 d -1 ) of attached bacteria was 3-29 x that of free bacteria for the cladocerans Acantholeberis, Chydorus, and Eubosmina. Pseudosida and Ceriodaphnia showed weaker discrimination or no selection, indicating a lower size threshold for filtration in these species. Feeding suspensions composed of isolated free bacteria yielded significantly higher or lower estimates of grazing than free bacteria with the full complement of particles, depending on species. Relative clearance (attached:free) tended to increase with body size within a species and varied for different particle environments. Bacteria associated with large particles may increase detrital energy flow to consumers in eutrophic environments

  17. Circulating CD34-positive cells, glomerular filtration rate and triglycerides in relation to hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuji; Sato, Shimpei; Koyamatsu, Jun; Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Nagayoshi, Mako; Kadota, Koichiro; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-11-01

    Serum triglycerides have been reported to be independently associated with the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is known to play a role in vascular disturbance. On the other hand, circulating CD34-positve cells, including endothelial progenitor cells, are reported to contribute to vascular repair. However, no studies have reported on the correlation between triglycerides and the number of CD34-positive cells. Since hypertension is well known factor for vascular impairment, the degree of correlation between serum triglycerides and circulating CD34-positve cells should account for hypertension status. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 274 elderly Japanese men aged ≥ 60 years (range 60-79 years) undergoing general health checkups. Multiple linear regression analysis of non-hypertensive subjects adjusting for classical cardiovascular risk factors showed that although triglyceride levels (1SD increments; 64 mg/dL) did not significantly correlate with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (β = -2.06, p = 0.163), a significant positive correlation was seen between triglycerides and the number of circulating CD34-positive cells (β = 0.50, p = 0.004). In hypertensive subjects, a significant inverse correlation between triglycerides and GFR was observed (β = -2.66, p = 0.035), whereas no significant correlation between triglycerides and the number of circulating CD34-positive cells was noted (β = -0.004, p = 0.974). Since endothelial progenitor cells (CD34-positive cells) have been reported to contribute to vascular repair, our results indicate that in non-hypertensive subjects, triglycerides may stimulate an increase in circulating CD34-positive cells (vascular repair) by inducing vascular disturbance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Age-related differences in the rate and diagnosis of 30-day readmission after hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Atsushi; Goto, Tadahiro; Faridi, Mohammad K; Camargo, Carlos A; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2018-01-01

    Background Little is known about the association between age and readmission within 30 days after hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke. Aim To examine the age-related differences in rate and principal reason of 30-day readmissions in patients hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke. Methods In this retrospective, population-based cohort study using State Inpatient Databases from eight US states, we identified all adults hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke. We grouped the patients into four age categories: readmission within 30 days of discharge from the index hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke and the principal diagnosis of 30-day readmission. Results We identified 620,788 hospitalizations for acute ischemic stroke. The overall 30-day readmission rate was 16.6% with an increase with advanced age. Compared to patients aged readmission rate was significantly higher in age 65-74 years (OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.16-1.21), in age 75-84 years (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.27-1.31), and in ≥ 85 years (OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.22-1.27; all Preadmission rate association between men and women (P interaction  readmissions were assigned stroke-related conditions or rehabilitation care. Compared to younger adults, older adults were more likely to present with non-stroke-related conditions (46.1% in readmission rate after acute ischemic stroke. Compared with younger adults, older adults were more likely to be readmitted for non-stroke-related conditions.

  19. A field survey of the partially edentate elderly: Investigation of factors related to the usage rate of removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, S; Matsuda, K; Ikebe, K; Enoki, K; Hatta, K; Fujiwara, K; Maeda, Y

    2015-11-01

    Although the shortened dental arch (SDA) concept has been known to all over the world, acceptance of the SDA concept as an oral health standard can be questionable from the patients' point of view, even if it is biologically reasonable. Furthermore, because the health insurance system covers removable partial dentures (RPDs) for all citizens in Japan, SDA patients seem to prefer to receive prosthetic treatment to replace the missing teeth. However, there were few field surveys to investigate the usage rate of RPDs in Japan. The purpose of this study was to determine the usage rate of RPDs in older Japanese subjects and to investigate the factors related to the usage of RPDs. Partially edentate participants (n = 390) were included in this study. Oral examinations were conducted to record several indices. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to evaluate the relationship between the number of missing teeth and the usage rate of RPDs. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression analysis were conducted to evaluate the factors related to the usage rate of RPDs. Usage of RPDs had a significantly positive association with the number of missing distal extension teeth and bilaterally missing teeth. The usage rate of RPDs increased as the number of missing distal extension teeth increased (P for trend < 0·001). The conclusion of this study was that participants with missing distal extension teeth had higher usage rates of RPDs than other participants, and the usage rate increased as the number of missing distal extension teeth increased. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Inverse dose-rate-effects on the expressions of extra-cellular matrix-related genes in low-dose-rate γ-ray irradiated murine cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugihara, Takashi; Tanaka, Kimio; Oghiso, Yoichi; Murano, Hayato

    2008-01-01

    Based on the results of previous microarray analyses of murine NIH3T3/PG13Luc cells irradiated with continuous low-dose-rate (LDR) γ-ray or end-high-dose-rate-irradiations (end-HDR) at the end of the LDR-irradiation period, the inverse dose-rate-effects on gene expression levels were observed. To compare differences of the effects between LDR-irradiation and HDR-irradiation, HDR-irradiations at 2 different times, one (ini-HDR) at the same time at the start of LDR-irradiation and the other (end-HDR), were performed. The up-regulated genes were classified into two types, in which one was up-regulated in LDR-, ini-HDR-, and end-HDR irradiation such as Cdkn1a and Ccng1, which were reported as p53-dependent genes, and the other was up-regulated in LDR- and ini-HDR irradiations such as pro-collagen TypeIa2/Colla2, TenascinC/Tnc, and Fibulin5/Fbln5, which were reported as extra-cellular matrix-related (ECM) genes. The time dependent gene expression patterns in LDR-irradiation were also classified into two types, in which one was an early response such as in Cdkn1a and Ccng1 and the other was a delayed response such as the ECM genes which have no linearity to total dose. The protein expression pattern of Cdkn1a increased dose dependently in LDR- and end-HDR-irradiations, but those of p53Ser15/18 and MDM2 in LDR-irradiations were different from end-HDR-irradiations. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of the ECM genes in embryonic fibroblasts from p53-deficient mice were not increased by LDR- and end-HDR-irradiation, so the delayed expressions of the ECM genes seem to be regulated by p53. Consequently, the inverse dose-rate-effects on the expression levels of the ECM genes in LDR- and end-HDR-irradiations may be explained from different time responses by p53 status. (author)

  1. The correlation between pH and flow rate of salivary smokers related to nicotine levels labelled on cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Saputri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Saliva is a biological fluid in oral cavity that plays a role in maintaining the environmental balance and oral commensal. Nicotine of cigarettes has been reported as a predisposing factor for changing of pH and salivary flow rate, thereby changing in biological salivary components. Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the correlation between salivary pH and salivary flow rate in smokers with nicotine levels labeled on cigarettes. Methods: Purposive sampling was conducted involving 40 male smokers. Before participating, they filled a questionnaire related to the history of their smoking habit. Using a spitting method for 5 minutes their saliva was collected. Results: Result of Pearson correlation test showed that there was a significant correlation between smoking intensity and salivary flow rate of those smokers (r = -0.486 and p0.512. There was no correlation between nicotine levels labeled on cigarettes and salivary pH of those smokers (r = -0.216, p>0.181. Nevertheless, there was a significant correlation between salivary flow rate and salivary pH of those smokers (r= 0.686, p<0.00,. Conclusion: There is a strong correlation between the intensity of smoking with salivary flow rate and its pH. However, there is no correlation between nicotine levels labeled on cigarettes and both salivary flow rate as well as salivary pH.

  2. Depression disorders rate and related factors in suicide attempters with drug or toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Shahrabi Farahani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a complicated phenomenon which is influenced by the interaction of psychological and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to investigate rate of depression disorders in suicide attempters with drug or toxins in the Baharloo hospital, Tehran, Iran, duration 1394.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, Beck Depression standardized questionnaire and demographic/socioeconomic information form was given to 248 suicide cases with drug or toxins to fill completely. For analyzing the data, Chi- Square and Multiple logistic regression tests were executed by spss19.Results: In this study, from 248 cases hospitalized due to suicide attempt with drugs or toxins, 87.2% diagnosed with depressive disorders. In chi2 analysis there was significant association between depression disorders and these variables “married status (p=0.001, housewife (p=0.002, family monthly income below 10000000 Rials[1] (p=0.005, substance use (p=0.001, psychiatric disorders history (p=0.001”. In full model multiple logistic regression analysis (total variables entered in model we found significant association between depressive disorders and "   gender, woman (p=0.03, OR=6.2, 95%CI= 1.33-3.44, aged 25-15 years (p=0.002, OR=22.7, 95%CI= 3.16-154.9, married status (p=0.007, OR=10.2, 95%CI= 1.87-55.5, worker or self-employment (p=0.02, OR=15.66, 95%CI= 1.41-172.25, (p=0.02, OR=14.97, 95%CI= 1.32-162.5  and family monthly income below ten million Rails (p<0.001, OR=11.30, 95%CI= 3.16-40.8 ".  Also, family monthly income below 10000000 Rials (p<0.001, OR=5.34, 95%CI= 2.05-13.91, married status and divorced or widow/widower (p<0.001, OR=3.93, 95%CI= 11.5-33.74, (p=0.01, OR=3.27, 95%CI= 16.57-83.71, age 15-25 and 26-35 (p=0.02, OR=9.15, 95%CI= 2.32-36.08,(p=0.01, OR=5.34, 95%CI= 1.36-21.03 are predictor factors for depression disorders leading to suicide attempt.Conclusion: Future planning should focus on premature

  3. The Continuum of Aging and Age-Related Diseases: Common Mechanisms but Different Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Franceschi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Geroscience, the new interdisciplinary field that aims to understand the relationship between aging and chronic age-related diseases (ARDs and geriatric syndromes (GSs, is based on epidemiological evidence and experimental data that aging is the major risk factor for such pathologies and assumes that aging and ARDs/GSs share a common set of basic biological mechanisms. A consequence is that the primary target of medicine is to combat aging instead of any single ARD/GSs one by one, as favored by the fragmentation into hundreds of specialties and sub-specialties. If the same molecular and cellular mechanisms underpin both aging and ARDs/GSs, a major question emerges: which is the difference, if any, between aging and ARDs/GSs? The hypothesis that ARDs and GSs such as frailty can be conceptualized as accelerated aging will be discussed by analyzing in particular frailty, sarcopenia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer and Parkinson as well as Down syndrome as an example of progeroid syndrome. According to this integrated view, aging and ARDs/GSs become part of a continuum where precise boundaries do not exist and the two extremes are represented by centenarians, who largely avoided or postponed most ARDs/GSs and are characterized by decelerated aging, and patients who suffered one or more severe ARDs in their 60s, 70s, and 80s and show signs of accelerated aging, respectively. In between these two extremes, there is a continuum of intermediate trajectories representing a sort of gray area. Thus, clinically different, classical ARDs/GSs are, indeed, the result of peculiar combinations of alterations regarding the same, limited set of basic mechanisms shared with the aging process. Whether an individual will follow a trajectory of accelerated or decelerated aging will depend on his/her genetic background interacting lifelong with environmental and lifestyle factors. If ARDs and GSs are

  4. Transcriptional activation of ribosomal RNA genes during compensatory renal hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, A.J.; Moonka, R.; Zelenetz, A.; Malt, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The overall rate of rDNA transcription increases by 50% during the first 24 hours of compensatory renal hypertrophy in the mouse. To study mechanisms of ribosome accumulation after uninephrectomy, transcription rates were measured in isolated kidneys by transcriptional runoff. 32 P-labeled nascent transcripts were hybridized to blots containing linearized, denatured cloned rDNA, and hybridization was quantitated autoradiographically and by direct counting. Overall transcriptional activity of rDNA was increased by 30% above control levels at 6 hrs after nephrectomy and by 50% at 12, 18, and 24 hrs after operation. Hybridizing RNA was insensitive to inhibiby alpha-amanitin, and no hybridization was detected to vector DNA. Thus, accelerated rDNA transcription is one regulatory element in the accretion of ribosomes in renal growth, and the regulatory event is an early event. Mechanisms of activation may include enhanced transcription of active genes or induction of inactive DNA

  5. Self-rated health in relation to rape and mental health disorders in a national sample of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinzow, Heidi M; Amstadter, Ananda B; McCauley, Jenna L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to employ a multivariate approach to examine the correlates of self-rated health in a college sample of women, with particular emphasis on sexual assault history and related mental health outcomes. A national sample of 2,000 female college students participated in a structured phone interview between January and June 2006. Interview modules assessed demographics, posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive episode, substance use, rape experiences, and physical health. Logistic regression analyses showed that poor self-rated health was associated with low income (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70), lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 2.47), lifetime major depressive episode (OR = 2.56), past year illicit drug use (OR = 2.48), and multiple rape history (OR = 2.25). These findings highlight the need for university mental health and medical service providers to assess for rape history, and to diagnose and treat related psychiatric problems in order to reduce physical morbidity.

  6. Selenium Biofortification in Radish Enhances Nutritional Quality via Accumulation of Methyl-Selenocysteine and Promotion of Transcripts and Metabolites Related to Glucosinolates, Phenolics, and Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Michela; Berto, Chiara; Malagoli, Mario; Trentin, Annarita; Sambo, Paolo; Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Pilon-Smits, Elizabeth A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Two selenium (Se) fertilization methods were tested for their effects on levels of anticarcinogenic selenocompounds in radish (Raphanus sativus), as well as other nutraceuticals. First, radish was grown on soil and foliar selenate applied 7 days before harvest at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg Se per plant. Selenium levels were up to 1200 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 120 mg Se/kg DW in roots. The thiols cysteine and glutathione were present at 2–3-fold higher levels in roots of Se treated plants, and total glucosinolate levels were 35% higher, due to increases in glucoraphanin. The only seleno-aminoacid detected in Se treated plants was Se-methyl-SeCys (100 mg/kg FW in leaves, 33 mg/kg FW in roots). The levels of phenolic aminoacids increased with selenate treatment, as did root total nitrogen and protein content, while the level of several polyphenols decreased. Second, radish was grown in hydroponics and supplied with 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 μM selenate for 1 week. Selenate treatment led to a 20–30% increase in biomass. Selenium concentration was 242 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 85 mg Se/kg DW in roots. Cysteine levels decreased with Se in leaves but increased in roots; glutatione levels decreased in both. Total glucosinolate levels in leaves decreased with Se treatment due to repression of genes involved in glucosinolates metabolism. Se-methyl-SeCys concentration ranged from 7–15 mg/kg FW. Aminoacid concentration increased with Se treatment in leaves but decreased in roots. Roots of Se treated plants contained elevated transcript levels of sulfate transporters (Sultr) and ATP sulfurylase, a key enzyme of S/Se assimilation. No effects on polyphenols were observed. In conclusion, Se biofortification of radish roots may be achieved via foliar spray or hydroponic supply. One to ten radishes could fulfill the daily human requirement (70 μg) after a single foliar spray of 5 mg selenate per plant or 1 week of 5–10 μM selenate supply in hydroponics. The radishes metabolized

  7. Selenium biofortification in radish enhances nutritional quality via accumulation of methyl-selenocysteine and promotion of transcripts and metabolites related to glucosinolates, phenolics and amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Schiavon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Two selenium (Se fertilization methods were tested for their effects on levels of anticarcinogenic selenocompounds in radish (Raphanus sativus, as well as other nutraceuticals. First, radish was grown on soil and foliar selenate applied 7d before harvest at 0, 5, 10 and 20 mg Se per plant. Selenium levels were up to 1,200 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 120 mg Se/kg DW in roots. The thiols cysteine and glutathione were present at 2-3 fold higher levels in roots of Se treated plants, and total glucosinolate levels were 35% higher, due to increases in glucoraphanin. The only seleno-aminoacid detected in Se treated plants was Se-methyl-SeCys (100 mg/kg FW in leaves, 33 mg/kg FW in roots. The levels of phenolic aminoacids increased with selenate treatment, as did root total nitrogen and protein content, while the level of several polyphenols decreased. Second, radish was grown in hydroponics and supplied with 0, 5, 10, 20, or 40 microM selenate for one week. Selenate treatment led to a 20-30% increase in biomass. Selenium concentration was 242 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 85 mg Se/kg DW in roots. Cysteine levels decreased with Se in leaves but increased in roots; glutatione levels decreased in both. Total glucosinolate levels in leaves decreased with Se treatment due to repression of genes involved in glucosinolates metabolism. Se-methyl-SeCys concentration ranged from 7-15 mg/kg FW. Aminoacid concentration increased with Se treatment in leaves but decreased in roots. Roots of Se treated plants contained elevated transcript levels of sulfate transporters (Sultr and ATP sulfurylase, a key enzyme of S/Se assimilation. No effects on polyphenols were observed. In conclusion, Se biofortification of radish roots may be achieved via foliar spray or hydroponic supply. One to ten radishes could fulfill the daily human requirement (70 microg after a single foliar spray of 5 mg selenate per plant or one week of 5-10 microM selenate supply in hydroponics. The radishes

  8. NEAR-INFRARED ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF INFRARED LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER MAGNITUDE-STAR FORMATION RATE RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriamanakoto, Z.; Väisänen, P.; Escala, A.; Kankare, E.; Kotilainen, J.; Mattila, S.; Ryder, S.

    2013-01-01

    We have established a relation between the brightest super star cluster (SSC) magnitude in a galaxy and the host star formation rate (SFR) for the first time in the near-infrared (NIR). The data come from a statistical sample of ∼40 luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) and starbursts utilizing K-band adaptive optics imaging. While expanding the observed relation to longer wavelengths, less affected by extinction effects, it also pushes to higher SFRs. The relation we find, M K ∼ –2.6log SFR, is similar to that derived previously in the optical and at lower SFRs. It does not, however, fit the optical relation with a single optical to NIR color conversion, suggesting systematic extinction and/or age effects. While the relation is broadly consistent with a size-of-sample explanation, we argue physical reasons for the relation are likely as well. In particular, the scatter in the relation is smaller than expected from pure random sampling strongly suggesting physical constraints. We also derive a quantifiable relation tying together cluster-internal effects and host SFR properties to possibly explain the observed brightest SSC magnitude versus SFR dependency

  9. Regional Distribution of Epifascial Swelling and Epifascial Lymph Drainage Rate Constants in Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema

    OpenAIRE

    MODI, STEPHANIE; STANTON, ANTHONY W. B.; MELLOR, RUSSELL H.; MICHAEL PETERS, A.; RODNEY LEVICK, J.; MORTIMER, PETER S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The view that breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a simple, direct mechanical result of axillary lymphatic obstruction (‘stopcock’ mechanism) appears incomplete, because parts of the swollen limb (e.g., hand) can remain nonswollen. The lymph drainage rate constant (k) falls in the swollen forearm but not in the spared hand, indicating regional differences in lymphatic function. Here the generality of the hypothesis that regional epifascial lymphatic failure underlies region...

  10. Effectiveness of OSHA Outreach Training on carpenters' work-related injury rates, Washington State 2000-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Lipscomb, Hester; Sinyai, Clayton; Adams, Darrin

    2017-01-01

    Despite the size and breadth of OSHA's Outreach Training program for construction, information on its impact on work-related injury rates is limited. In a 9-year dynamic cohort of 17,106 union carpenters in Washington State, the effectiveness of OSHA Outreach Training on workers' compensation claims rate was explored. Injury rates were calculated by training status overall and by carpenters' demographic and work characteristics using Poisson regression. OSHA Outreach Training resulted in a 13% non-significant reduction in injury claims rates overall. The protective effect was more pronounced for carpenters in their apprenticeship years, drywall installers, and with increasing time since training. In line with these observed effects and prior research, it is unrealistic to expect OSHA Outreach Training alone to have large effects on union construction workers' injury rates. Standard construction industry practice should include hazard awareness and protection training, coupled with more efficient approaches to injury control. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:45-57, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Depth-related influences on biodegradation rates of phenanthrene in polluted marine sediments of Puget Sound, WA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Yinjie J. . E-mail yjtang@lbl.gov; Carpenter, Shelly D.; Deming, Jody W.; Krieger-Brockett, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    A whole-core injection method was used to determine depth-related rates of microbial mineralization of 14 C-phenanthrene added to both contaminated and clean marine sediments of Puget Sound, WA. For 26-day incubations under micro-aerobic conditions, conversions of 14 C-phenanthrene to 14 CO 2 in heavily PAH-contaminated sediments from two sites in Eagle Harbor were much higher (up to 30%) than those in clean sediments from nearby Blakely Harbor ( 14 C-phenanthrene degradation rates in the surface sediment horizons (0-3 cm) were more rapid (2-3 times) than in the deeper sediment horizons examined (>6 cm), especially in the most PAH polluted EH9 site. Differences in mineralization were associated with properties of the sediments as a function of sediment depth, including grain-size distribution, PAH concentration, total organic matter and total bacterial abundance. When strictly anaerobic incubations (in N 2 /H 2 /CO 2 atmosphere) were used, the phenanthrene biodegradation rates at all sediment depths were two times slower than under micro-aerobic conditions, with methanogenesis observed after 24 days. The main rate-limiting factor for phenanthrene degradation under anaerobic conditions appeared to be the availability of suitable electron acceptors. Addition of calcium sulfate enhanced the first order rate coefficient (k 1 increased from 0.003 to 0.006 day -1 ), whereas addition of soluble nitrate, even at very low concentration ( 1 up to 0.11 day -1 )

  12. Enhanced land subsidence in Galveston Bay, Texas: Interaction between sediment accumulation rates and relative sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mukaimi, Mohammad E.; Dellapenna, Timothy M.; Williams, Joshua R.

    2018-07-01

    Galveston Bay is the second largest estuary along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, with a watershed containing one of largest concentrations of petroleum and chemical industries globally, as well as Houston, the fifth largest metropolitan area in the USA. Throughout the last century, extensive groundwater extraction to support these industries and an expanding population has resulted in significantly enhanced land subsidence (0.6-3.0 cm yr-1). The highest subsidence rates observed in the bay are within the lower 15 km of the San Jacinto River/Houston Ship Channel region (SJR/HSC), with distal areas in East and West Galveston Bays having subsidence rates on the order of 0.2 cm yr-1. In order to investigate the impacts of subsidence on sedimentation, a series of 22 vibracores were collected throughout the bay, and 210Pb and 137Cs radioisotope geochronologies and grain size distributions were determined. Sediment accumulation rates are highest (1.9 ± 0.5 cm yr-1) in the SJR/HSC, and decrease (sedimentation rates are significantly (p sedimentation rates are lower (as much as 50%) than estimated RSLR, indicating a sediment accretionary deficit. In areas (e.g., Scott Bay) within the SJR/HSC, the bay has deepened by more than 1.5 m, suggesting that sediment accumulation cannot keep pace with RSLR. Ultimately, this has resulted in a loss of coastal wetlands and a conversion of marine habitats from relatively shallow to deeper water settings.

  13. Relative mRNA expression of prostate-derived E-twenty-six factor and E-twenty-six variant 4 transcription factors, and of uridine phosphorylase-1 and thymidine phosphorylase enzymes, in benign and malignant prostatic tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAVAZZOLA, LUCIANE ROSTIROLA; CARVALHAL, GUSTAVO FRANCO; DEVES, CANDIDA; RENCK, DAIANA; ALMEIDA, RICARDO; SANTOS, DIóGENES SANTIAGO

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequent urological tumor, and the second most common cancer diagnosed in men. Incidence and mortality are variable and appear to depend on behavioral factors and genetic predisposition. The prostate-derived E-twenty-six factor (PDEF) and E-twenty-six variant 4 (ETV4) transcription factors, and the thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and uridine phosphorylase-1 (UP-1) enzymes, are reported to be components of the pathways leading to tumorigenesis and/or metastasis in a number of tumors. The present study aimed to analyze the mRNA expression levels of these proteins in prostatic cancerous and benign tissue, and their association with clinical and pathological variables. Using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the mRNA expression levels of PDEF, ETV4, TP and UP-1 were studied in 52 tissue samples (31 of benign prostatic hyperplasia and 21 of prostate adenocarcinomas) obtained from patients treated by transurethral resection of the prostate or by radical prostatectomy. Relative expression was assessed using the ∆-CT method. Data was analyzed using Spearman's tests for correlation. Pbenign and malignant prostatic tissues. Further studies are necessary to define the role of these proteins as therapeutic targets in prostate cancer. PMID:26137165

  14. Suicide rate in relation to the Human Development Index and other health related factors: A global ecological study from 91 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Khazaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been no worldwide ecological study on suicide as a global major public health problem. This study aimed to identify the variations in suicide specific rates using the Human Development Index (HDI and some health related variables among countries around the world. In this ecological study, we obtained the data from the World Bank Report 2013. The analysis was restricted to 91 countries for which both the epidemiologic data from the suicide rates and HDI were available. Overall, the global prevalence of suicide rate was 10.5 (95% confidence intervals: 8.8, 12.2 per 100,000 individuals, which significantly varied according to gender (16.3 in males vs. 4.6 in females, p < 0.001 and different levels of human development (11.64/100,000 individuals in very high development countries, 7.93/100,000 individuals in medium development countries, and 13.94/100,000 individuals in high development countries, p = 0.004. In conclusion, the suicide rate varies greatly between countries with different development levels. Our findings also suggest that male gender and HDI components are associated with an increased risk of suicide behaviors. Hence, detecting population subgroups with a high suicide risk and reducing the inequality of socioeconomic determinants are necessary to prevent this disorder around the world.

  15. Metallic stent implantation in patients with iliac artery occlusion: long-term patency rate and factors related to recurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Seok Kyun; Kim, Jae Kyu; Yoon, Woong; Kim, Jeong; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Choi, Soo JinNa [Chonnam National University Hospital School of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    To determine the long-term patency rate in 68 patients with iliac artery occlusion who underwent metallic stent implantation, and to analyze the factors related to recurrence. Sixty-eight patients with occlusive disease of the iliac artery underwent implantation of a self-expandable metallic stent. The clinical symptoms were intermittent claudication (n=48), resting pain (n=11), and gangrene (n=9). Stent patency was determined by follow-up angiography and color Doppler imaging, and the cumulative patency rate using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox's proportional hazard model was used to analyse recurrence-related factors involving clinical symptoms (Fontaine stage), risk factors, and anatomical factors such as lesion location, length, and the development of collaterals. The duration of follow-up varied from 1 day to 73 months (mean, 23.8 months). Arterial occlusion recurred in 16 of 68 patients (23.5%), and the cumulative patency rate was as follows: 95.4% at one month, 93.2% at six months, 80.1% at one year, 73.2% at two years, 68.9% at three years, and 62% at five years. According to a statistical analysis of risk factors, the recurrence (p=0.04) than in those without it, but in patients who smoked, hypertension, DM, and previous cerebrovascular disease were not statistically significant. With regard to anatomical factors, the recurrent rate for lesions involving the external iliac artery was 6.5 times higher (p=0.02) than for those involving the common iliac artery. Variations in the fontaine stage were not statistically significant indicators of recurrence. The recurrence rate after implantation of an iliac artery stent is higher in patients with heart disease than in those without it, and higher for occlusive lesions involving the external iliac artery than for those of the common iliac artery.

  16. Metallic stent implantation in patients with iliac artery occlusion: long-term patency rate and factors related to recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Seok Kyun; Kim, Jae Kyu; Yoon, Woong; Kim, Jeong; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Choi, Soo JinNa

    2003-01-01

    To determine the long-term patency rate in 68 patients with iliac artery occlusion who underwent metallic stent implantation, and to analyze the factors related to recurrence. Sixty-eight patients with occlusive disease of the iliac artery underwent implantation of a self-expandable metallic stent. The clinical symptoms were intermittent claudication (n=48), resting pain (n=11), and gangrene (n=9). Stent patency was determined by follow-up angiography and color Doppler imaging, and the cumulative patency rate using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox's proportional hazard model was used to analyse recurrence-related factors involving clinical symptoms (Fontaine stage), risk factors, and anatomical factors such as lesion location, length, and the development of collaterals. The duration of follow-up varied from 1 day to 73 months (mean, 23.8 months). Arterial occlusion recurred in 16 of 68 patients (23.5%), and the cumulative patency rate was as follows: 95.4% at one month, 93.2% at six months, 80.1% at one year, 73.2% at two years, 68.9% at three years, and 62% at five years. According to a statistical analysis of risk factors, the recurrence (p=0.04) than in those without it, but in patients who smoked, hypertension, DM, and previous cerebrovascular disease were not statistically significant. With regard to anatomical factors, the recurrent rate for lesions involving the external iliac artery was 6.5 times higher (p=0.02) than for those involving the common iliac artery. Variations in the fontaine stage were not statistically significant indicators of recurrence. The recurrence rate after implantation of an iliac artery stent is higher in patients with heart disease than in those without it, and higher for occlusive lesions involving the external iliac artery than for those of the common iliac artery

  17. Dynamics of plc gene transcription and α-toxin production during growth of Clostridium perfringens strains with contrasting α-toxin production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Lone; Schramm, Andreas; Rudi, Knut

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate transcription dynamics of the α-toxin-encoding plc gene relative to two housekeeping genes (gyrA and rplL) in batch cultures of three Clostridium perfringens strains with low, intermediate, and high levels of α-toxin production, respectively. The plc...... transcript level was always low in the low α-toxin producing strain. For the two other strains, plc transcription showed an inducible pattern and reached a maximum level in the late exponential growth phase. The transcription levels were however inversely correlated to α-toxin production for the two strains....... We propose that this discrepancy is due to differences in plc translation rates between the strains and that strain-specific translational rates therefore must be determined before α-toxin production can be extrapolated from transcript levels in C. perfringens....

  18. Examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates in male youth ice-hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, S; Baker, J; Horton, S; Wattie, N; Weir, P

    2014-12-01

    The relative age effect suggests that athletes born in the first two quartiles of a given selection year experience a selection advantage and therefore a greater opportunity for success. We describe two studies examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates of Ontario Minor Hockey Association male ice-hockey players from ages 10 to 15 years (n = 14 325). In Study 1, dropout was highest among players born in quartiles three and four [χ(2) (3) = 16.32, P < 0.05; w = 0.06], while Study 2 found dropped out players to have less movement between competition levels compared to retained players. This study confirms a relationship between relative age and dropout from ice-hockey and adds further depth to our understanding of this persistent phenomenon. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Depth-related influences on biodegradation rates of phenanthrene in polluted marine sediments of Puget Sound, WA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yinjie J. [Keasling Lab, Biophysics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Biophysics Division, 717 Potter Street, Bldlg 977 MC 3224, Berkeley, CA 94720-3224 (United States)]. E-mail yjtang@lbl.gov; Carpenter, Shelly D. [School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Deming, Jody W. [School of Oceanography, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Krieger-Brockett, Barbara [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    A whole-core injection method was used to determine depth-related rates of microbial mineralization of {sup 14}C-phenanthrene added to both contaminated and clean marine sediments of Puget Sound, WA. For 26-day incubations under micro-aerobic conditions, conversions of {sup 14}C-phenanthrene to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in heavily PAH-contaminated sediments from two sites in Eagle Harbor were much higher (up to 30%) than those in clean sediments from nearby Blakely Harbor (<3%). The averaged {sup 14}C-phenanthrene degradation rates in the surface sediment horizons (0-3 cm) were more rapid (2-3 times) than in the deeper sediment horizons examined (>6 cm), especially in the most PAH polluted EH9 site. Differences in mineralization were associated with properties of the sediments as a function of sediment depth, including grain-size distribution, PAH concentration, total organic matter and total bacterial abundance. When strictly anaerobic incubations (in N{sub 2}/H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmosphere) were used, the phenanthrene biodegradation rates at all sediment depths were two times slower than under micro-aerobic conditions, with methanogenesis observed after 24 days. The main rate-limiting factor for phenanthrene degradation under anaerobic conditions appeared to be the availability of suitable electron acceptors. Addition of calcium sulfate enhanced the first order rate coefficient (k {sub 1} increased from 0.003 to 0.006 day{sup -1}), whereas addition of soluble nitrate, even at very low concentration (<0.5 mM), inhibited mineralization. Long-term storage of heavily polluted Eagle Harbor sediment as intact cores under micro-aerobic conditions also appeared to enhance anaerobic biodegradation rates (k {sub 1} up to 0.11 day{sup -1})

  20. Differences in proleptic and epicormic shoot structures in relation to water deficit and growth rate in almond trees (Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrón, Claudia; Contador, Loreto; Lampinen, Bruce D; Metcalf, Samuel G; Guédon, Yann; Costes, Evelyne; DeJong, Theodore M

    2014-02-01

    Shoot characteristics differ depending on the meristem tissue that they originate from and environmental conditions during their development. This study focused on the effects of plant water status on axillary meristem fate and flowering patterns along proleptic and epicormic shoots, as well as on shoot growth rates on 'Nonpareil' almond trees (Prunus dulcis). The aims were (1) to characterize the structural differences between proleptic and epicormic shoots, (2) to determine whether water deficits modify shoot structures differently depending on shoot type, and (3) to determine whether shoot structures are related to shoot growth rates. A hidden semi-Markov model of the axillary meristem fate and number of flower buds per node was built for two shoot types growing on trees exposed to three plant water status treatments. The models segmented observed shoots into successive homogeneous zones, which were compared between treatments. Shoot growth rates were calculated from shoot extension measurements made during the growing season. Proleptic shoots had seven successive homogeneous zones while epicormic shoots had five zones. Shoot structures were associated with changes in growth rate over the season. Water deficit (1) affected the occurrence and lengths of the first zones of proleptic shoots, but only the occurrence of the third zone was reduced in epicormic shoots; (2) had a minor effect on zone flowering patterns and did not modify shoot or zone composition of axillary meristem fates; and (3) reduced growth rates, although patterns over the season were similar among treatments. Two meristem types, with different latency durations, produced shoots with different growth rates and distinct structures. Differences between shoot type structure responses to water deficit appeared to reflect their ontogenetic characteristics and/or resource availability for their development. Tree water deficit appeared to stimulate a more rapid progression through ontogenetic states.

  1. Effect of axial tibial torque direction on ACL relative strain and strain rate in an in vitro simulated pivot landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Youkeun K; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L; Wojtys, Edward M; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2012-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries most frequently occur under the large loads associated with a unipedal jump landing involving a cutting or pivoting maneuver. We tested the hypotheses that internal tibial torque would increase the anteromedial (AM) bundle ACL relative strain and strain rate more than would the corresponding external tibial torque under the large impulsive loads associated with such landing maneuvers. Twelve cadaveric female knees [mean (SD) age: 65.0 (10.5) years] were tested. Pretensioned quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit forces maintained an initial knee flexion angle of 15°. A compound impulsive test load (compression, flexion moment, and internal or external tibial torque) was applied to the distal tibia while recording the 3D knee loads and tibofemoral kinematics. AM-ACL relative strain was measured using a 3 mm DVRT. In this repeated measures experiment, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test the null hypotheses with p < 0.05 considered significant. The mean (±SD) peak AM-ACL relative strains were 5.4 ± 3.7% and 3.1 ± 2.8% under internal and external tibial torque, respectively. The corresponding mean (± SD) peak AM-ACL strain rates reached 254.4 ± 160.1%/s and 179.4 ± 109.9%/s, respectively. The hypotheses were supported in that the normalized mean peak AM-ACL relative strain and strain rate were 70 and 42% greater under internal than under external tibial torque, respectively (p = 0.023, p = 0.041). We conclude that internal tibial torque is a potent stressor of the ACL because it induces a considerably (70%) larger peak strain in the AM-ACL than does a corresponding external tibial torque. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  2. Ameliorative effects of low dose/low dose-rate irradiation on reactive oxygen species-related diseases model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Takaharu

    2008-01-01

    Living organisms have developed complex biological system which protects themselves against environmental radiation, and irradiation with proper dose, dose-rate and irradiation time can stimulate their biological responses against oxidative stress evoked by the irradiation. Because reactive oxygen species are involved in various human diseases, non-toxic low dose/low dose-rate radiation can be utilized for the amelioration of such diseases. In this study, we used mouse experimental models for fatty liver, nephritis, diabetes, and ageing to elucidate the ameliorative effect of low dose/low dose-rate radiation in relation to endogenous antioxidant activity. Single irradiation at 0.5 Gy ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced fatty liver. The irradiation increases hepatic anti-oxidative system involving glutathione and glutathione peroxidase, suggesting that endogenous radical scavenger is essential for the ameliorative effect of low dose radiation on carbon tetrachloride-induced fatty liver. Single irradiation at 0.5 Gy ameliorates ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced nephritis. The irradiation increases catalase and decreases superoxide dismutase in kidney. The result suggests that low dose radiation reduced generation of hydroxide radical generation by reducing cellular hydroperoxide level. Single irradiation at 0.5 Gy at 12 week of age ameliorates incidence of type I diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice through the suppression of inflammatory activity of splenocytes, and resultant apoptosis of β-cells in pancreas. The irradiation activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, which coordinately diminish intracellular reactive oxygen species. Continuous irradiation at 0.70 mGy/hr from 10 week of age elongates life span, and suppresses alopecia in type II diabetesmice. The irradiation improved glucose clearance without affecting insulin-resistance, and increased pancreatic catalase activity. The results suggest that continuous low dose-rate irradiation protect

  3. Longitudinal Assessment of Self-Harm Statements of Youth in Foster Care: Rates, Reporters, and Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Joy; Hambrick, Erin P; Tunno, Angela M; Jackson, Yo; Spangler, Amanda; Kanine, Rebecca M

    2015-12-01

    Self-harm in youth is a risk factor related to mental health and future morbidity, yet, relatively little is known about the rates and course of self-harm in youth residing in foster care. This study examined self-harm talk in foster youth based on caregiver and child report for 135 children between the ages of 8- and 11-years old. Longitudinal data on course of self-harm talk from both youth and caregivers also are provided. Caregivers identified that 24% of youth participants had disclosed a desire to die or to hurt themselves. Youth self-report revealed that 21% of children indicated a desire for self-harm, and rates of self-harm from both reporters decreased over time. While overall rates were similar across reporters, findings show discrepancies between youth self-report and caregiver report within individuals. Also, caregivers for youth in residential facilities were more likely to report youth self-harm talk than caregivers from foster home settings.

  4. Natural Selection and Recombination Rate Variation Shape Nucleotide Polymorphism Across the Genomes of Three Related Populus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Street, Nathaniel R; Scofield, Douglas G; Ingvarsson, Pär K

    2016-03-01

    A central aim of evolutionary genomics is to identify the relative roles that various evolutionary forces have played in generating and shaping genetic variation within and among species. Here we use whole-genome resequencing data to characterize and compare genome-wide patterns of nucleotide polymorphism, site frequency spectrum, and population-scaled recombination rates in three species of Populus: Populus tremula, P. tremuloides, and P. trichocarpa. We find that P. tremuloides has the highest level of genome-wide variation, skewed allele frequencies, and population-scaled recombination rates, whereas P. trichocarpa harbors the lowest. Our findings highlight multiple lines of evidence suggesting that natural selection, due to both purifying and positive selection, has widely shaped patterns of nucleotide polymorphism at linked neutral sites in all three species. Differences in effective population sizes and rates of recombination largely explain the disparate magnitudes and signatures of linked selection that we observe among species. The present work provides the first phylogenetic comparative study on a genome-wide scale in forest trees. This information will also improve our ability to understand how various evolutionary forces have interacted to influence genome evolution among related species. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  5. Response of insect relative growth rate to temperature and host-plant phenology: estimation and validation from field data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamadou Ciss

    Full Text Available Between 1975 to 2011, aphid Relative Growth Rates (RGR were modelled as a function of mean outdoor temperature and host plant phenology. The model was applied to the grain aphid Sitobion avenae using data on aphid counts in winter wheat at two different climate regions in France (oceanic climate, Rennes (western France; continental climate, Paris. Mean observed aphid RGR was higher in Paris compared to the Rennes region. RGR increased with mean temperature, which is explained by aphid reproduction, growth and development being dependent on ambient temperature. From the stem extension to the heading stage in wheat, there was either a plateau in RGR values (Rennes or an increase with a maximum at heading (Paris due to high intrinsic rates of increase in aphids and also to aphid immigration. From the wheat flowering to the ripening stage, RGR decreased in both regions due to the low intrinsic rate of increase in aphids and high emigration rate linked to reduced nutrient quality in maturing wheat. The model validation process showed that the fitted models have more predictive power in the Paris region than in the Rennes region.

  6. Residential Surrounding Greenness, Self-Rated Health and Interrelations with Aspects of Neighborhood Environment and Social Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Ester; Sutcliffe, Robynne; Dragano, Nico; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    Previous research suggests that green environments positively influence health. Several underlying mechanisms have been discussed; one of them is facilitation of social interaction. Further, greener neighborhoods may appear more aesthetic, contributing to satisfaction and well-being. Aim of this study was to analyze the association of residential surrounding greenness with self-rated health, using data from 4480 women and men aged 45-75 years that participated in the German population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study. We further aimed to explore the relationships of greenness and self-rated health with the neighborhood environment and social relations. Surrounding greenness was measured using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within 100 m around participants' residence. As a result, we found that with higher greenness, poor self-rated health decreased (adjusted OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.98; per 0.1 increase in NDVI), while neighborhood satisfaction (1.41, 1.23-1.61) and neighborhood social capital (1.22, 1.12-1.32) increased. Further, we observed inverse associations of neighborhood satisfaction (0.70, 0.52-0.94), perceived safety (0.36, 0.22-0.60), social satisfaction (0.43, 0.31-0.58), and neighborhood social capital (0.53, 0.44-0.64) with poor self-rated health. These results underline the importance of incorporating green elements into neighborhoods for health-promoting urban development strategies.

  7. Self-rated health in relation to rape and mental health disorders in a national sample of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstadter, Ananda B; McCauley, Jenna L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2011-04-01

    Overall health status is associated with long-term physical morbidity and mortality. Existing research on the correlates of mental health effects of rape suggests that rape victims are at higher risk for poor overall health status. Little is known, however, about how different rape tactics may relate to health status in rape victims. Our aim was to examine prevalence and correlates of self-rated health in a community sample of women, with particular emphasis on lifetime rape history (distinguishing between rape tactics), psychopathology, and substance use outcomes. A nationally representative sample of 3,001 U.S. women (age range: 18-86 years) residing in households with a telephone participated in a structured telephone interview. Poor self-rated health was endorsed by 11.4% of the sample. Final multivariable models showed that poor self-rated health was associated with older age (pdepressive episode (MDE; p=.01), and history of forcible rape (p=.01). Self-rated health was associated with three potentially modifiable variables (forcible rape, PTSD, and MDE). Therefore, trauma-focused interventions for rape victims should include collaboration on treatment or prevention modules that specifically address both mental and physical health. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  8. Marijuana usage in relation to harmfulness ratings, perceived likelihood of negative consequences, and defense mechanisms in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Como-Lesko, N; Primavera, L H; Szeszko, P R

    1994-08-01

    This study investigated high school students' marijuana usage patterns in relation to their harmfulness ratings of 15 licit and illicit drugs, perceived negative consequences from using marijuana, and types of defense mechanisms employed. Subjects were classified into one of five pattern-of-use groups based on marijuana usage: principled nonusers, nonusers, light users, moderate users, and heavy users. Principled nonusers (individuals who have never used marijuana and would not do so if it was legalized) rated marijuana, hashish, cocaine, and alcohol as significantly more harmful than heavy users. A cluster analysis of the drugs' harmfulness ratings best fit a three cluster solution and were named medicinal drugs, recreational drugs, and hard drugs. In general, principled nonusers rated negative consequences from using marijuana as significantly more likely to occur than other groups. Principled nonusers and heavy users utilized reversal from the Defense Mechanism Inventory, which includes repression and denial, significantly more than nonusers, indicating some trait common to the two extreme pattern-of-use groups.

  9. An absolute- and relative-rate study of the gas-phase reaction of OH radicals and Cl atoms with n-alkyl nitrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.J.; Sidebottom, H.W.; Donlon, M.

    1991-01-01

    combined with kinetic spectroscopy and a conventional photolytic relative-rate method. The Cl rate constants were measured using only the relative-rate method. Evidence is presented from the kinetic studies that reaction of OH radicals with alkyl nitrates may involve both addition and abstraction pathways...

  10. Policy impact of the Indonesian Central Bank certificate related on loan interest rate to the demand growth of property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirjodirdjo, B.; Asjari, H. Y.

    2018-04-01

    The Indonesian economic indicators shown a positive progress in the last three years, Foreign exchange reserves position of the end of March 2017 stood at US 121.8 billion higher than the position of the end of 2015 amounted to US 105.9 billion of the end of 2015. This reserve would ensure the resilience and maintaining sustainable Indonesian economic growth in the future. Although Indonesia’s foreign exchange is better, the structure of expenditure in the country is still less than ideal due the proportion of spending of consumer goods is far greater than the capital goods and tend to be unproductive spending. This needs to be regulated so that in the long term does not cause balance of payments deficit. Therefore, Indonesian Central Bank took a policy to raise interest rates for retail banks from 6% to 7.25% per annum gradually up to present. Policies relating to the interest rates on loans are intended to reduce the proportion of debt financing of consumer goods, however, these policies have implications to various economic sectors and one of those is property sector. A lot of research has been conducted related the impact of loan interest to the property sector but most of it is still in partial related to the ability the people to buy. However, this research has tried to see the implication of the macro Economic Policy of Indonesian Central Bank to the property sector as a systemic problem. This paper is going to present the study on the effects of these policies on the property sector, especially residence house. To obtain a comprehensive analysis and capture the relationship between interest rate policies and their impacts to the property sector, in this study the model developed and simulated using system dynamic methodology as an approach. Various scenarios are applied to the model to get an accurate information about how and when the effectiveness of the policy related to the property sector can be enforced. The result of this study can be delivered to

  11. Concerted transcription of auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis-related genes underlies improved adventitious rooting of microcuttings derived from far-red treated Eucalyptus globulus Labill mother plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedell, Carolina Michels; de Almeida, Márcia Rodrigues; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2015-12-01

    Economically important plant species, such as Eucalyptus globulus, are often rooting recalcitrant. We have previously shown that far-red light enrichment applied to E. globulus donor-plants improved microcutting rooting competence and increased rooting zone/shoot carbohydrate ratio. To better understand this developmental response, the relative expression profiles of genes involved in auxin signaling (ARF6, ARF8, AGO1), biosynthesis (YUC3) and transport (AUX1, PIN1, PIN2); sucrose cleavage (SUS1, CWINV1), transport (SUC5), hexose phosphorylation (HXK1, FLN1) and starch biosynthesis (SS3) were quantified during adventitious rooting of E. globulus microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far-red or white light. Expression of auxin transport-related genes increased in the first days of root induction. Far-red enrichment of donor plants induced ARF6, ARF8 and AGO1 in microcuttings. The first two gene products could activate GH3 and other rooting related genes, whereas AGO1 deregulation of the repressor ARF17 may relief rooting inhibition. Increased sink strength at the basal stem with sucrose unloading in root tissue mediated by SUC and subsequent hydrolysis by SUS1 were also supported by gene expression profile. Fructose phosphorylation and starch biosynthesis could also contribute to proper carbon allocation at the site of rooting, as evidenced by increased expression of related genes. These data are in good agreement with increased contents of hexoses and starch at the cutting base severed from far-red exposed donor plants. To sum up, pathways integrating auxin and carbohydrate metabolism were activated in microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far red light enrichment, thereby improving rooting response in E. globulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Large-Scale Variation in Forest Carbon Turnover Rate and its Relation to Climate - Remote Sensing vs. Global Vegetation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhais, N.; Thurner, M.; Beer, C.; Forkel, M.; Rademacher, T. T.; Santoro, M.; Tum, M.; Schmullius, C.

    2015-12-01

    While vegetation productivity is known to be strongly correlated to climate, there is a need for an improved understanding of the underlying processes of vegetation carbon turnover and their importance at a global scale. This shortcoming has been due to the lack of spatially extensive information on vegetation carbon stocks, which we recently have been able to overcome by a biomass dataset covering northern boreal and temperate forests originating from radar remote sensing. Based on state-of-the-art products on biomass and NPP, we are for the first time able to study the relation between carbon turnover rate and a set of climate indices in northern boreal and temperate forests. The implementation of climate-related mortality processes, for instance drought, fire, frost or insect effects, is often lacking or insufficient in current global vegetation models. In contrast to our observation-based findings, investigated models from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP), includin