WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative temperature insensitivity

  1. Calcitonin gene-related peptide alters the firing rates of hypothalamic temperature sensitive and insensitive neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimm Eleanor R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient hyperthermic shifts in body temperature have been linked to the endogenous hormone calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, which can increase sympathetic activation and metabolic heat production. Recent studies have demonstrated that these centrally mediated responses may result from CGRP dependent changes in the activity of thermoregulatory neurons in the preoptic and anterior regions of the hypothalamus (POAH. Results Using a tissue slice preparation, we recorded the single-unit activity of POAH neurons from the adult male rat, in response to temperature and CGRP (10 μM. Based on the slope of firing rate as a function of temperature, neurons were classified as either warm sensitive or temperature insensitive. All warm sensitive neurons responded to CGRP with a significant decrease in firing rate. While CGRP did not alter the firing rates of some temperature insensitive neurons, responsive neurons showed an increase in firing rate. Conclusion With respect to current models of thermoregulatory control, these CGRP dependent changes in firing rate would result in hyperthermia. This suggests that both warm sensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the POAH may play a role in producing this hyperthermic shift in temperature.

  2. New Temperature-Insensitive Electronically-Tunable Grounded Capacitor Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Abuelma'atti, Muhammad Taher; Khan, Muhammad Haroon

    1996-01-01

    A new circuit for simulating a grounded capacitor is presented. The circuit uses one operationalamplifier (OA), three operational-transconductance amplifiers (OTAs), and one capacitor. The realized capacitor is temperature-insensitive and electronically tunable. Experimental results are included.

  3. Temperature-insensitive laser frequency locking near absorption lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostinski, Natalie; Olsen, Ben A.; Marsland, Robert III; McGuyer, Bart H.; Happer, William

    2011-01-01

    Combined magnetically induced circular dichroism and Faraday rotation of an atomic vapor are used to develop a variant of the dichroic atomic vapor laser lock that eliminates lock sensitivity to temperature fluctuations of the cell. Operating conditions that eliminate first-order sensitivity to temperature fluctuations can be determined by low-frequency temperature modulation. This temperature-insensitive gyrotropic laser lock can be accurately understood with a simple model, that is in excellent agreement with observations in potassium vapor at laser frequencies in a 2 GHz range about the 770.1 nm absorption line. The methods can be readily adapted for other absorption lines.

  4. Temperature-insensitive fiber Bragg grating dynamic pressure sensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tuan; Zhao, Qida; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Chunshu; Huang, Guiling; Xue, Lifang; Dong, Xiaoyi

    2006-08-01

    Temperature-insensitive dynamic pressure measurement using a single fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based on reflection spectrum bandwidth modulation and optical power detection is proposed. A specifically designed double-hole cantilever beam is used to provide a pressure-induced axial strain gradient along the sensing FBG and is also used to modulate the reflection bandwidth of the grating. The bandwidth modulation is immune to spatially uniform temperature effects, and the pressure can be unambiguously determined by measuring the reflected optical power, avoiding the complex wavelength interrogation system. The system acquisition time is up to 85 Hz for dynamic pressure measurement, and the thermal fluctuation is kept less than 1.2% full-scale for a temperature range of -10 degrees C to 80 degrees C.

  5. Canceling effect leads temperature insensitivity of hydrolytic enzymes in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bahar S.; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Extracellular enzymes are important for decomposition of many macromolecules abundant in soil such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and proteins (Allison et al., 2010; Chen et al., 2012). The temperature sensitivity of enzymes responsible for organic matter decomposition is the most crucial parameter for prediction of the effects of global warming on carbon cycle. Temperature responses of biological systems are often expressed as a Q10 functions; The Q10 describes how the rate of a chemical reaction changes with a temperature increase for 10 °C The aim of this study was to test how the canceling effect will change with variation in temperature interval, during short-term incubation. We additionally investigated, whether canceling effect occurs in a broad range of concentrations (low to high) and whether it is similar for the set of hydrolytic enzymes within broad range of temperatures. To this end, we performed soil incubation over a temperature range of 0-40°C (with 5°C steps). We determined the activities of three enzymes involved in plant residue decomposition: β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase, which are commonly measured as enzymes responsible for degrading cellulose (Chen et al., 2012), and xylanase, which degrades xylooligosaccharides (short xylene chain) in to xylose, thus being responsible for breaking down hemicelluloses (German et al., 2011). Michaelis-Menten kinetics measured at each temperature allowed to calculate Q10 values not only for the whole reaction rates, but specifically for maximal reaction rate (Vmax) and substrate affinity (Km). Subsequently, the canceling effect - simultaneous increase of Vmax and Km with temperature was analyzed within 10 and 5 degree of temperature increase. Three temperature ranges (below 10, between 15 and 25, and above 30 °C) clearly showed non-linear but stepwise increase of temperature sensitivity of all three enzymes and allowed to conclude for predominance of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic

  6. A Smart Gas Sensor Insensitive to Humidity and Temperature Variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajmirzaheydarali, Mohammadreza; Ghafarinia, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    The accuracy of the quantitative sensing of volatile organic compounds by chemoresistive gas sensors suffers from the fluctuations in the background atmospheric conditions. This is caused by the drift-like terms introduced in the responses by these instabilities, which should be identified and compensated. Here, a mathematical model is presented for a specific chemoresistive gas sensor, which facilitates these identification and compensation processes. The resistive gas sensor was considered as a multi-input-single-output system. Along with the steady state value of the measured sensor resistance, the ambient humidity and temperature are the inputs to the system, while the concentration level of the target gas is the output. The parameters of the model were calculated based on the experimental database. The model was simulated by the utilization of an artificial neural network. This was connected to the sensor and could deliver the correct contamination level upon receiving the measured gas response, ambient humidity and temperature.

  7. Piezoelectric Non Linear Nanomechanical Temperature and Acceleration Insensitive Clocks (PENNTAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    relationship between the resonator Q and flicker noise when TED is largely mitigated , we measured a total of 25 resonators (11 full-anchor and 14...during this effort demonstrated the first fully integrated oven control system to mitigate the temperature effect on the reference clock. It showed...Reduction in AlN CMRs by Prolonged RF Excitation ............................................................ 13 2.6 Impact of Damping on Flicker

  8. Global phenological insensitivity to shifting ocean temperatures among seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogan, Katharine; Daunt, Francis; Wanless, Sarah; Phillips, Richard A.; Walling, Craig A.; Agnew, Philippa; Ainley, David G.; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Ballard, Grant; Barrett, Robert T.; Barton, Kerry J.; Bech, Claus; Becker, Peter; Berglund, Per-Arvid; Bollache, Loïc; Bond, Alexander L.; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Bradley, Russell W.; Burr, Zofia M.; Camphuysen, Kees; Catry, Paulo; Chiaradia, Andre; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Signe; Cuthbert, Richard; Dehnhard, Nina; Descamps, Sébastien; Diamond, Tony; Divoky, George; Drummond, Hugh; Dugger, Katie M.; Dunn, Michael J.; Emmerson, Louise; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Fort, Jérôme; Fraser, William; Genovart, Meritxell; Gilg, Olivier; González-Solís, Jacob; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Grémillet, David; Hansen, Jannik; Hanssen, Sveinn A.; Harris, Mike; Hedd, April; Hinke, Jefferson; Igual, José Manuel; Jahncke, Jaime; Jones, Ian; Kappes, Peter J.; Lang, Johannes; Langset, Magdalene; Lescroël, Amélie; Lorentsen, Svein-Hâkon; Lyver, Phil O'B.; Mallory, Mark; Moe, Børge; Montevecchi, William A.; Monticelli, David; Mostello, Carolyn; Newell, Mark; Nicholson, Lisa; Nisbet, Ian; Olsson, Olof; Oro, Daniel; Pattison, Vivian; Poisbleau, Maud; Pyk, Tanya; Quintana, Flavio; Ramos, Jaime A.; Ramos, Raül; Reiertsen, Tone Kirstin; Rodríguez, Cristina; Ryan, Peter; Sanz-Aguilar, Ana; Schmidt, Niels M.; Shannon, Paula; Sittler, Benoit; Southwell, Colin; Surman, Christopher; Svagelj, Walter S.; Trivelpiece, Wayne; Warzybok, Pete; Watanuki, Yutaka; Weimerskirch, Henri; Wilson, Peter R.; Wood, Andrew G.; Phillimore, Albert B.; Lewis, Sue

    2018-04-01

    Reproductive timing in many taxa plays a key role in determining breeding productivity1, and is often sensitive to climatic conditions2. Current climate change may alter the timing of breeding at different rates across trophic levels, potentially resulting in temporal mismatch between the resource requirements of predators and their prey3. This is of particular concern for higher-trophic-level organisms, whose longer generation times confer a lower rate of evolutionary rescue than primary producers or consumers4. However, the disconnection between studies of ecological change in marine systems makes it difficult to detect general changes in the timing of reproduction5. Here, we use a comprehensive meta-analysis of 209 phenological time series from 145 breeding populations to show that, on average, seabird populations worldwide have not adjusted their breeding seasons over time (-0.020 days yr-1) or in response to sea surface temperature (SST) (-0.272 days °C-1) between 1952 and 2015. However, marked between-year variation in timing observed in resident species and some Pelecaniformes and Suliformes (cormorants, gannets and boobies) may imply that timing, in some cases, is affected by unmeasured environmental conditions. This limited temperature-mediated plasticity of reproductive timing in seabirds potentially makes these top predators highly vulnerable to future mismatch with lower-trophic-level resources2.

  9. Compact temperature-insensitive modulator based on a silicon microring assistant Mach—Zehnder interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xue-Jian; Feng Xue; Zhang Deng-Ke; Huang Yi-Dong

    2012-01-01

    On the silicon-on-insulator platform, an ultra compact temperature-insensitive modulator based on a cascaded microring assistant Mach—Zehnder interferometer is proposed and demonstrated with numerical simulation. According to the calculated results, the tolerated variation of ambient temperature can be as high as 134 °C while the footprint of such a silicon modulator is only 340 μm 2 . (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  10. Broadband temperature-insensitivity of dispersion-engineered waveguides and resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijuan; He, Liuqing; Guo, Yuhao; Li, Guifang; Zhang, Lin

    2018-02-01

    Photonic circuits suffer from thermal drift of device performance, which is a key obstacle to the development of commercial optoelectronic products. Temperature-insensitive integrated waveguides and resonators have been demonstrated by using materials with a negative TOC at a single wavelength, which are not suitable for WDM devices and wideband nonlinear devices. Here, we propose a waveguide structure with temperature-insensitivity over a bandwidth of 780 nm (1280 to 2060 nm) with an ultra-small effective TOC within +/-1×10-6/K. Uniquely, the waveguide has small anomalous dispersion (from 66 to 329 ps/nm/km) over the same band and is suitable for frequency comb generation without being affected by intra-cavity thermal dynamics.

  11. A Robust, Gravity-Insensitive, High-Temperature Condenser for Water Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weibo; Conboy, Thomas; Ewert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative life support systems are vital for NASA's future long-duration human space exploration missions. A Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) system is being developed by NASA to dry and compress trash generated during space missions. The resulting water vapor is recovered and separated from the process gas flow by a gravity-insensitive condenser. Creare is developing a high-temperature condenser for this application. The entire condenser is constructed from metals that have excellent resistance to chemical attack from contaminants and is suitable for high-temperature operation. The metal construction and design configuration also offer greatest flexibility for potential coating and regeneration processes to reduce biofilm growth and thus enhancing the reliability of the condenser. The proposed condenser builds on the gravity-insensitive phase separator technology Creare developed for aircraft and spacecraft applications. This paper will first discuss the design requirements for the condenser in an HMC system that will be demonstrated on the International Space Station (ISS). Then, it will present the overall design of the condenser and the preliminary thermal test results of a subscale condenser. Finally, this paper will discuss the predicted performance of the full-size condenser and the development plan to mature the technology and enhance its long-term reliability for a flight system.

  12. Temperature Insensitive Current-Mode Four Quadrant Multiplier Using Single CFCTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuntrakool Sunti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A four quadrant multiplier of two current input signals using active building block, namely current follower cascaded transconductance amplifier (CFCTA is presented in this paper. The proposed multiplier consists of only single CFCTA without the use of any passive element. The presented circuit has low impedance at current input node and high impedance at current output node which is convenient for cascading in current mode circuit without the need of current buffer circuits. The output current can multiply two input currents with temperature insensitivity. Moreover, the magnitude of output current can be controlled electronically via DC bias current. With only single active building block, the presented multiplier is suitable for integrated circuit implementation for analog signal processing. Simulation results from a PSpice program are presented in order to demonstrate the multiplier proposed here.

  13. Metallic-packaging fiber Bragg grating sensor based on ultrasonic welding for strain-insensitive temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lianqing; Yang, Runtao; Zhang, Yumin; Dong, Mingli; Lou, Xiaoping

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a metallic-packaging fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor characterized by a strain insensitive design is demonstrated. The sensor is fabricated by the one-step ultrasonic welding technique using type-II fiber Bragg grating combined with an aluminum alloy substrate. Finite element analysis is used to perform theoretical evaluation. The result of the experiment illustrates that the metallic-packaging temperature sensor is insensitive to longitudinal strain. The sensor's temperature sensitivity is 36 pm/°C over the range of 50-110 °C, with the correlation coefficient (R2) being 0.999. The sensor's temporal response is 40 s at a sudden temperature change from 21 °C to 100 °C. The proposed sensor can be applied on reliable and precise temperature measurement.

  14. A low-cost and temperature-insensitive fibre Bragg grating sensor for monitoring localized strain concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C E; Thompson, A; Li, H C H; Dethlefsen, A F; Stoddart, P R

    2009-01-01

    A simple, self-diagnostic strain sensor is described, based on a strongly reflective optical fibre Bragg grating illuminated by a broadband source. The total reflected power from these gratings is shown to be a function of the strain gradient experienced by the grating. This is because a change in pitch within a section of the grating results in the emergence of reflected energy in other spectral regions, without any significant reduction in the peak intensity at the Bragg wavelength. Thus, the presence of a localized strain can be inferred directly from an intensity measurement without the need for an optical filter or other more complex interrogation schemes. For spectrally flat light sources, the measurement is relatively insensitive to environmental temperature changes. The sensing mechanism can also be considered 'self-diagnostic' as a signal is returned by the grating even under zero load unless the sensor has failed. Modelling results are presented to determine the minimum grating strength required to achieve this effect, while the technique has been experimentally verified by measuring the strain transfer on a loaded scarf repair joint at room and elevated temperatures. The scarf repair was loaded to failure and a reduction in strain transfer was observed as the failure grew along the bondline, in accordance with finite element modelling results

  15. Quantitative angle-insensitive flow measurement using relative standard deviation OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Buyun; Qi, Li; Wang, Ling; Yang, Qiang; Zhu, Zhuqing; Huo, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhongping

    2017-10-30

    Incorporating different data processing methods, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the ability for high-resolution angiography and quantitative flow velocity measurements. However, OCT angiography cannot provide quantitative information of flow velocities, and the velocity measurement based on Doppler OCT requires the determination of Doppler angles, which is a challenge in a complex vascular network. In this study, we report on a relative standard deviation OCT (RSD-OCT) method which provides both vascular network mapping and quantitative information for flow velocities within a wide range of Doppler angles. The RSD values are angle-insensitive within a wide range of angles, and a nearly linear relationship was found between the RSD values and the flow velocities. The RSD-OCT measurement in a rat cortex shows that it can quantify the blood flow velocities as well as map the vascular network in vivo .

  16. Single mode step-index polymer optical fiber for humidity insensitive high temperature fiber Bragg grating sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Fasano, Andrea; Stefani, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    We have fabricated the first single-mode step-index and humidity insensitive polymer optical fiber operating in the 850 nm wavelength ranges. The step-index preform is fabricated using injection molding, which is an efficient method for cost effective, flexible and fast preparation of the fiber...... preform. The fabricated single-mode step-index (SI) polymer optical fiber (POF) has a 4.8µm core made from TOPAS grade 5013S-04 with a glass transition temperature of 134°C and a 150 µm cladding made from ZEONEX grade 480R with a glass transition temperature of 138°C. The key advantages of the proposed...... SIPOF are low water absorption, high operating temperature and chemical inertness to acids and bases and many polar solvents as compared to the conventional poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and polystyrene based POFs. In addition, the fiber Bragg grating writing time is short compared to microstructured...

  17. Psychological outcomes and gender-related development in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Ahmed, S Faisal; Hughes, Ieuan A

    2003-04-01

    We evaluated psychological outcomes and gender development in 22 women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). Participants were recruited through a medical database (n = 10) or through a patient support group (n = 12). Controls included 14 males and 33 females, of whom 22 were matched to women with CAIS for age, race, and sex-of-rearing. Outcome measures included quality of life (self-esteem and psychological general well-being), gender-related psychological characteristics (gender identity, sexual orientation, and gender role behavior in childhood and adulthood), marital status, personality traits that show sex differences, and hand preferences. Women recruited through the database versus the support group did not differ systematically, and there were no statistically significant differences between the 22 women with CAIS and the matched controls for any psychological outcome. These findings argue against the need for two X chromosomes or ovaries to determine feminine-typical psychological development in humans and reinforce the important role of the androgen receptor in influencing masculine-typical psychological development. They also suggest that psychological outcomes in women with CAIS are similar to those in other women. However, additional attention to more detailed aspects of psychological well-being in CAIS is needed.

  18. Temperature compensated, humidity insensitive, high-Tg TOPAS FBGs for accelerometers and microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefani, Alessio; Yuan, W.; Markos, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present our latest work on Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) in microstructured polymer optical fibers (mPOFs) and their application as strain sensing transducers in devices, such as accelerometers and microphones. We demonstrate how the cross-sensitivity of the FBG to temperature...

  19. Phase-insensitive detectors for ac resistance bridges with application to temperature control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, M.G.

    1977-01-01

    A method of detecting AC resistance bridge error signals with low sensitivity to stray reactances is presented. The detector, which compares magnitudes of two bridge signals, can be used in a fast resistance temperature control to maintain constant resistance to better than 2 ppM at resistances down to 5 milliohms

  20. Prediction of temperature-insensitive molecular absorption lines in laser-assisted combustion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walewski, Joachim W.; Elmqvist, Anders

    2005-01-01

    In laser-assisted combustion diagnostics it is a recurring task to predict molecular transitions whose signal strength depends only weakly on variations in temperature. The signal strength is proportional to the Boltzmann fraction of the level probed and the amplitude of the absorption line profile. In the past investigations have been presented in which this task was attack by detailed numerical calculations of the temperature dependence of pertinent physical properties of the molecule. Another widely applied approach relies on an analytical formula for the Boltzmann fraction of hetero-nuclear diatomic molecules and the neglect of line shape effects. The analytical approach experiences a continuing popularity in laser-assisted combustion diagnostics, which is why we compared both approaches with each other. The objective of this comparison was to assess the accuracy of the analytical approach and to reveal its potential pitfalls. Our comparison revealed that the analytical approach suffers from mediocre accuracy, which makes it unfit for practical applications. One cause is the neglect of higher lying vibrational levels, which show a non-negligible population for typical flame temperatures. Another reason is the neglect of fine structure splitting in molecules with non-zero orbit angular momentum in the ground state. Another reason for the observed inaccuracy is the neglect of line shape effects quenching, which were found to have a significant effect on the temperature sensitivity of a line. Because of its insufficient accuracy due to both oversimplified models of the molecular energy levels and the neglect of line shape effects and quenching we discourage from applying the analytical approach and recommend the use of detailed numerical approaches that are free of the above limitations

  1. Development of the temperature measurement device for the positive ion insensitive to the probe contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Shigeyuki; Tsutsumi, Shiro; Takeya, Yoshio

    1978-01-01

    The contamination effect to the d.c. probe in the plasma diagnostics is quite serious in the low density plasma. It causes the distortion or hysterisis curves on the probe characteristics. In order to escape it, for the Langmuir probe measurements, methods of high speed sweeping of probe voltage and using the cleaned probe are reported. In this paper, we dealed with the results of experimental examinations of the possibilities and the limitation of the application of above sweeping to the ion temperature measurement. The essential difficulties of the ion parameter measurements to the d.c. probe of the electrons that very small signal currents and the strong capacitance of the electrodes makes the large time constant, is solved by the use of the neutralization circuits. By this neutralization, high speed voltage sweeping can be possible, and high time resolution of the parameters can be obtained. Using this merits, when the probe is boarded on the space craft, this high space resolution of this probe has additive merits about the possibilities of the aspect measurements of plasma flow and the probe. It is concluded that the high scan rate ion trap is useful of the space craft to the erronious probing by the use of uncleaned probe. (author)

  2. Temperature-Insensitive Bend Sensor Using Entirely Centered Erbium Doping in the Fiber Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Wadi Harun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A fiber based bend sensor using a uniquely designed Bend-Sensitive Erbium Doped Fiber (BSEDF is proposed and demonstrated. The BSEDF has two core regions, namely an undoped outer region with a diameter of about 9.38 μm encompassing a doped, inner core region with a diameter of 4.00 μm. The doped core region has about 400 ppm of an Er2O3 dopant. Pumping the BSEDF with a conventional 980 nm laser diode gives an Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE spectrum spanning from 1,510 nm to over 1,560 nm at the output power level of about −58 dBm. The ASE spectrum has a peak power of −52 dBm at a central wavelength of 1,533 nm when not spooled. Spooling the BSEDF with diameters of 10 cm to 2 cm yields decreasing peak powers from −57.0 dBm to −61.8 dBm, while the central wavelength remains unchanged. The output is highly stable over time, with a low temperature sensitivity of around ~0.005 dBm/°C, thus allowing for the development of a highly stable sensor system based in the change of the peak power alone.

  3. Solution-Grown CsPbBr3 /Cs4 PbBr6 Perovskite Nanocomposites: Toward Temperature-Insensitive Optical Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Yu, Dejian; Wang, Zeng; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Xiaoxuan; Nalla, Venkatram; Zeng, Haibo; Sun, Handong

    2017-09-01

    With regards to developing miniaturized coherent light sources, the temperature-insensitivity in gain spectrum and threshold is highly desirable. Quantum dots (QDs) are predicted to possess a temperature-insensitive threshold by virtue of the separated electronic states; however, it is never observed in colloidal QDs due to the poor thermal stability. Besides, for the classical II-VI QDs, the gain profile generally redshifts with increasing temperature, plaguing the device chromaticity. Herein, this paper addresses the above two issues simultaneously by embedding ligands-free CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals in a wider band gap Cs 4 PbBr 6 matrix by solution-phase synthesis. The unique electronic structures of CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals enable temperature-insensitive gain spectrum while the lack of ligands and protection from Cs 4 PbBr 6 matrix ensure the thermal stability and high temperature operation. Specifically, a color drift-free stimulated emission irrespective of temperature change (20-150 °C) upon two-photon pumping is presented and the characteristic temperature is determined to be as high as ≈260 K. The superior gain properties of the CsPbBr 3 /Cs 4 PbBr 6 perovskite nanocomposites are directly validated by a vertical cavity surface emitting laser operating at temperature as high as 100 °C. The results shed light on manipulating optical gain from the advantageous CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals and represent a significant step toward the temperature-insensitive frequency-upconverted lasers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Morphotropic NaNbO{sub 3}-BaTiO{sub 3}-CaZrO{sub 3} lead-free ceramics with temperature-insensitive piezoelectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Ruzhong, E-mail: piezolab@hfut.edu.cn, E-mail: rzzuo@hotmail.com; Qi, He; Fu, Jian [Institute of Electro Ceramics and Devices, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, 230009 (China)

    2016-07-11

    A morphotropic NaNbO{sub 3}-based lead-free ceramic was reported to have temperature-insensitive piezoelectric and electromechanical properties (d{sub 33} = 231 pC/N, k{sub p} = 35%, T{sub c} = 148 °C, and low-hysteresis strain ∼0.15%) in a relatively wide temperature range. This was fundamentally ascribed to the finding of a composition-axis vertical morphotropic phase boundary in which coexisting ferroelectric phases are only compositionally driven and thermally insensitive. Both phase coexistence and nano-scaled domain morphology deserved well enhanced electrical properties, as evidenced by means of synchrotron x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Our study suggests that the current lead-free ceramic would be a very promising piezoelectric material for actuator and sensor applications.

  5. The effects of prostaglandin E2 on the firing rate activity of thermosensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the ventromedial preoptic area of the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranels, Heather J; Griffin, John D

    2003-02-21

    In response to an immune system challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), recent work has shown that Fos immunoreactivity is displayed by neurons in the ventromedial preoptic area of the hypothalamus (VMPO). In addition, neurons in this region show distinct axonal projections to the anterior perifornical area (APFx) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). It has been hypothesized that neurons within the VMPO integrate their local responses to temperature with changes in firing activity that result from LPS induced production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). This may be an important mechanism by which the set-point regulation of thermoeffector neurons in the APFx and PVN is altered, resulting in hyperthermia. To characterize the firing rate activity of VMPO neurons, single-unit recordings were made of neuronal extracellular activity in rat hypothalamic tissue slices. Based on the slope of firing rate as a function of tissue temperature, neurons were classified as either warm sensitive or temperature insensitive. Neurons were then treated with PGE(2) (200 nM) while tissue temperature was held at a constant level ( approximately 36 degrees C). The majority of temperature insensitive neurons responded to PGE(2) with an increase in firing rate activity, while warm sensitive neurons showed a reduction in firing rate. This suggests that both warm sensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the VMPO may play critical and contrasting roles in the production of a fever during an acute phase response to infection.

  6. Temperature-Dependent Mollow Triplet Spectra from a Single Quantum Dot: Rabi Frequency Renormalization and Sideband Linewidth Insensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yu-Jia; He, Yu; He, Yu-Ming

    2014-01-01

    We investigate temperature-dependent resonance fluorescence spectra obtained from a single self- assembled quantum dot. A decrease of the Mollow triplet sideband splitting is observed with increasing temperature, an effect we attribute to a phonon-induced renormalization of the driven dot Rabi fr...

  7. Mechanical properties of silicone based composites as a temperature insensitive ballistic backing material for quantifying back face deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tara D; Bain, Erich D; Cole, Shawn T; Freeney, Reygan M; Halls, Virginia A; Ivancik, Juliana; Lenhart, Joseph L; Napadensky, Eugene; Yu, Jian H; Zheng, James Q; Mrozek, Randy A

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a new witness material for quantifying the back face deformation (BFD) resulting from high rate impact of ballistic protective equipment. Accurate BFD quantification is critical for the assessment and certification of personal protective equipment, such as body armor and helmets, and ballistic evaluation. A common witness material is ballistic clay, specifically, Roma Plastilina No. 1 (RP1). RP1 must be heated to nearly 38°C to pass calibration, and used within a limited time frame to remain in calibration. RP1 also exhibits lot-to-lot variability and is sensitive to time, temperature, and handling procedures, which limits the BFD accuracy and reproducibility. A new silicone composite backing material (SCBM) was developed and tested side-by-side with heated RP1 using quasi-static indentation and compression, low velocity impact, spherical projectile penetration, and both soft and hard armor ballistic BFD measurements to compare their response over a broad range of strain rates and temperatures. The results demonstrate that SCBM mimics the heated RP1 response at room temperature and exhibits minimal temperature sensitivity. With additional optimization of the composition and processing, SCBM could be a drop-in replacement for RP1 that is used at room temperature during BFD quantification with minimal changes to the current RP1 handling protocols and infrastructure. It is anticipated that removing the heating requirement, and temperature-dependence, associated with RP1 will reduce test variability, simplify testing logistics, and enhance test range productivity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Zeonex microstructured polymer optical fiber: fabrication friendly fibers for high temperature and humidity insensitive Bragg grating sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Fasano, Andrea; Markos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    In the quest of finding the ideal polymer optical fiber (POF) for Bragg grating sensing, we have fabricated and characterized an endlessly single mode microstructured POF (mPOF). This fiber is made from cyclo-olefin homopolymer Zeonex grade 480R which has a very high glass transition temperature...

  9. Arginine vasopressin antagonizes the effects of prostaglandin E2 on the spontaneous activity of warm-sensitive and temperature-insensitive neurons in the medial preoptic area in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Hui; Hou, Xiao-Yu; Tang, Yu; Luo, Rong; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Chang; Yang, Yong-Lu

    2018-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays an important role in thermoregulation and antipyresis. We have demonstrated that AVP could change the spontaneous activity of thermosensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the preoptic area. However, whether AVP influences the effects of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) on the spontaneous activity of neurons in the medial preoptic area (MPO) remains unclear. Our experiment showed that PGE 2 decreased the spontaneous activity of warm-sensitive neurons, and increased that of low-slope temperature-insensitive neurons in the MPO. AVP attenuated the inhibitory effect of PGE 2 on warm-sensitive neurons, and reversed the excitatory effect of PGE 2 on low-slope temperature-insensitive neurons, demonstrating that AVP antagonized the effects of PGE 2 on the spontaneous activity of these neurons. The effect of AVP was suppressed by an AVP V 1a receptor antagonist, suggesting that V 1a receptor mediated the action of AVP. We also demonstrated that AVP attenuated the PGE 2 -induced decrease in the prepotential's rate of rise in warm-sensitive neurons and the PGE 2 -induced increase in that in low-slope temperature-insensitive neurons through the V 1a receptor. Together, these data indicated that AVP antagonized the PGE 2 -induced change in the spontaneous activity of warm-sensitive and low-slope temperature-insensitive neurons in the MPO partly by reducing the PGE 2 -induced change in the prepotential of these neurons in a V 1a receptor-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Insensitive Munitions Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Insensitive Munitions Testing at RTC is conducted (IAW MILSTD-2105) at Test Area 4. Our engineers and technicians obtain data for hazards classification and safety...

  11. Recent progress in self-assembled quantum-dot optical devices for optical telecommunication: temperature-insensitive 10 Gb s-1 directly modulated lasers and 40 Gb s-1 signal-regenerative amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, M; Hatori, N; Ishida, M; Ebe, H; Arakawa, Y; Akiyama, T; Otsubo, K; Yamamoto, T; Nakata, Y

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents recent progress in the field of semiconductor lasers and optical amplifiers with InAs-based self-assembled quantum dots in the active region for optical telecommunication. Based on our design in terms of the maximum bandwidth for high-speed modulation and p-type doping in quantum dots for high temperature stability, we realized temperature-insensitive 10 Gb s -1 laser diodes on a GaAs substrate at 1.3 μm. The output waveform at 10 Gb s -1 maintained a clear eye opening, average output power and extinction ratio without current adjustments from 20 deg. C to 70 deg. C. We developed ultrawide-band high-power amplifiers in the 1.5 μm wavelength region on an InP substrate. The amplifier showed ultrafast gain response under gain saturation, and enabled signal regeneration at 40 Gb s -1 by suppressing the '1'-level noise due to the beating between the signal and amplified spontaneous emission. We present our amplifier module with polarization diversity to enable a stable polarization-insensitive performance, and also, discuss prospects for polarization-insensitive quantum dots by the close stacking technique

  12. Epigenetics-related genes in prostate cancer: expression profile in prostate cancer tissues, androgen-sensitive and -insensitive cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhibrahim, Zaki; Lindstrot, Andreas; Ochsenfahrt, Jacqueline; Fuchs, Kerstin; Wernert, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic changes have been suggested to drive prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to identify novel epigenetics-related genes in PCa tissues, and to examine their expression in metastatic PCa cell lines. We analyzed the expression of epigenetics-related genes via a clustering analysis based on gene function in moderately and poorly differentiated PCa glands compared to normal glands of the peripheral zone (prostate proper) from PCa patients using Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarrays. Our analysis identified 12 epigenetics-related genes with a more than 2-fold increase or decrease in expression and a p-value epigenetics-related genes that we identified in primary PCa tissues may provide further insight into the role that epigenetic changes play in PCa. Moreover, some of the genes that we identified may play important roles in primary PCa and metastasis, in primary PCa only, or in metastasis only. Follow-up studies are required to investigate the functional role and the role that the expression of these genes play in the outcome and progression of PCa using tissue microarrays.

  13. Involvement of Human Estrogen Related Receptor Alpha 1 (hERR 1) in Breast Cancer and Hormonally Insensitive Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    SV40 early-to-late switch involves titration of cellular transcriptional repressors, Genes Dev. 7: 2206-19, 1993. 6. Bonnelye, E., Vanacker , J. M ...transcriptional regulator of the human medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase gene, Mol Cell Biol. 17: 5400-9, 1997. 8. Vanacker , J. M ., Bonnelye, E...related receptor-alpha), Mol Endocrinol. 13: 764-73, 1999. 9. Vanacker , J. M ., Pettersson, K., Gustafsson, J. A., and Laudet, V. Transcriptional

  14. Effect of hypergravity on lignin formation and expression of lignin-related genes in inflorescence stems of an ethylene-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant ein3-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahara, Ichirou; Kobayashi, Mai; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Kamisaka, Seiichiro

    Our previous studies have shown that hypergravity inhibits growth and promotes lignin forma-tion in inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis thaliana by up-regulation of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis (Tamaoki et al. 2006, 2009). In the present study, we have examined whether ethylene is involved in these responses using an ethylene-insensitive Arabidopsis mutant ein3-1. Our results revealed that hypergravity treatment at 300 G for 24 h significantly inhibited growth of inflorescence stems, promoted both deposition of acetyl bromide extractable lignin and gene expression involved in lignin formation in inflorescence stems of wild type plants. Growth inhibition of inflorescence stems was also observed in ein3-1. However, the effects of hypergravity on the promotion of the deposition of acetyl bromide lignin and the expression of genes involved in lignin formation were not observed in ein3-1, indicating that ethylene sig-naling is involved in the up-regulation of the expression of lignin-related genes as well as the promotion of deposition of lignin by hypergravity in Arabidopsis inflorescence stems.

  15. Insensitive Enough Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Vallée

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available According to some philosophers, sentences like (1 “It is raining” and (2 “John is ready” are context sensitive sentences even if they do not contain indexicals or demonstratives. That view initiated a context sensitivity frenzy. Cappelen and Lepore (2005 summarize the frenzy by the slogan “Every sentence is context sensitive” (Insensitive Semantics, p. 6, note 5. They suggest a view they call Minimalism according to which the truth conditions of utterances of sentences like (1/(2 are exactly what Convention T gives you. I will distinguish different propositions, and refocus semantics on sentences. As distinct from what the protagonists in the ongoing debate think, I argue that the content or truth conditions of utterances of both context sensitive sentences and sentences like (1/(2 are not interesting from a semantic point of view, and that the problem sentences like (1/(2 raises is not about context sensitivity or context insensitivity of sentences, but relevance of the content of utterances.

  16. Insensitivity of Tree-Ring Growth to Temperature and Precipitation Sharpens the Puzzle of Enhanced Pre-Eruption NDVI on Mt. Etna (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ruedi; Kirchner, James W; Krusic, Paul J; Tognetti, Roberto; Houlié, Nicolas; Andronico, Daniele; Cullotta, Sebastiano; Egli, Markus; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Cherubini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    On Mt. Etna (Italy), an enhanced Normalized Difference in Vegetation Index (NDVI) signature was detected in the summers of 2001 and 2002 along a distinct line where, in November 2002, a flank eruption subsequently occurred. These observations suggest that pre-eruptive volcanic activity may have enhanced photosynthesis along the future eruptive fissure. If a direct relation between NDVI and future volcanic eruptions could be established, it would provide a straightforward and low-cost method for early detection of upcoming eruptions. However, it is unclear if, or to what extent, the observed enhancement of NDVI can be attributed to volcanic activity prior to the subsequent eruption. We consequently aimed at determining whether an increase in ambient temperature or additional water availability owing to the rise of magma and degassing of water vapour prior to the eruption could have increased photosynthesis of Mt. Etna's trees. Using dendro-climatic analyses we quantified the sensitivity of tree ring widths to temperature and precipitation at high elevation stands on Mt. Etna. Our findings suggest that tree growth at high elevation on Mt. Etna is weakly influenced by climate, and that neither an increase in water availability nor an increase in temperature induced by pre-eruptive activity is a plausible mechanism for enhanced photosynthesis before the 2002/2003 flank eruption. Our findings thus imply that other, yet unknown, factors must be sought as causes of the pre-eruption enhancement of NDVI on Mt. Etna.

  17. Large-scale proteome analysis of abscisic acid and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3-dependent proteins related to desiccation tolerance in Physcomitrella patens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotsui, Izumi; Serada, Satoshi; Naka, Tetsuji; Saruhashi, Masashi; Taji, Teruaki; Hayashi, Takahisa; Quatrano, Ralph S.; Sakata, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Desiccation tolerance is an ancestral feature of land plants and is still retained in non-vascular plants such as bryophytes and some vascular plants. However, except for seeds and spores, this trait is absent in vegetative tissues of vascular plants. Although many studies have focused on understanding the molecular basis underlying desiccation tolerance using transcriptome and proteome approaches, the critical molecular differences between desiccation tolerant plants and non-desiccation plants are still not clear. The moss Physcomitrella patens cannot survive rapid desiccation under laboratory conditions, but if cells of the protonemata are treated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) prior to desiccation, it can survive 24 h exposure to desiccation and regrow after rehydration. The desiccation tolerance induced by ABA (AiDT) is specific to this hormone, but also depends on a plant transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3). Here we report the comparative proteomic analysis of AiDT between wild type and ABI3 deleted mutant (Δabi3) of P. patens using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification). From a total of 1980 unique proteins that we identified, only 16 proteins are significantly altered in Δabi3 compared to wild type after desiccation following ABA treatment. Among this group, three of the four proteins that were severely affected in Δabi3 tissue were Arabidopsis orthologous genes, which were expressed in maturing seeds under the regulation of ABI3. These included a Group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein, a short-chain dehydrogenase, and a desiccation-related protein. Our results suggest that at least three of these proteins expressed in desiccation tolerant cells of both Arabidopsis and the moss are very likely to play important roles in acquisition of desiccation tolerance in land plants. Furthermore, our results suggest that the regulatory machinery of ABA- and ABI3-mediated gene expression for desiccation

  18. Large-scale proteome analysis of abscisic acid and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3-dependent proteins related to desiccation tolerance in Physcomitrella patens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yotsui, Izumi, E-mail: izumi.yotsui@riken.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Serada, Satoshi, E-mail: serada@nibiohn.go.jp [Laboratory of Immune Signal, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0085 (Japan); Naka, Tetsuji, E-mail: tnaka@nibiohn.go.jp [Laboratory of Immune Signal, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, 7-6-8 Saito-Asagi, Ibaraki, Osaka, 567-0085 (Japan); Saruhashi, Masashi, E-mail: s13db001@mail.saitama-u.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Taji, Teruaki, E-mail: t3teruak@nodai.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Hayashi, Takahisa, E-mail: t4hayash@nodai.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan); Quatrano, Ralph S., E-mail: rsq@wustl.edu [Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, 63130-4899 (United States); Sakata, Yoichi, E-mail: sakata@nodai.ac.jp [Department of BioScience, Tokyo University of Agriculture 1-1-1 Sakuragaoka, Setagayaku, Tokyo, 156-8502 (Japan)

    2016-03-18

    Desiccation tolerance is an ancestral feature of land plants and is still retained in non-vascular plants such as bryophytes and some vascular plants. However, except for seeds and spores, this trait is absent in vegetative tissues of vascular plants. Although many studies have focused on understanding the molecular basis underlying desiccation tolerance using transcriptome and proteome approaches, the critical molecular differences between desiccation tolerant plants and non-desiccation plants are still not clear. The moss Physcomitrella patens cannot survive rapid desiccation under laboratory conditions, but if cells of the protonemata are treated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) prior to desiccation, it can survive 24 h exposure to desiccation and regrow after rehydration. The desiccation tolerance induced by ABA (AiDT) is specific to this hormone, but also depends on a plant transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3). Here we report the comparative proteomic analysis of AiDT between wild type and ABI3 deleted mutant (Δabi3) of P. patens using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification). From a total of 1980 unique proteins that we identified, only 16 proteins are significantly altered in Δabi3 compared to wild type after desiccation following ABA treatment. Among this group, three of the four proteins that were severely affected in Δabi3 tissue were Arabidopsis orthologous genes, which were expressed in maturing seeds under the regulation of ABI3. These included a Group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein, a short-chain dehydrogenase, and a desiccation-related protein. Our results suggest that at least three of these proteins expressed in desiccation tolerant cells of both Arabidopsis and the moss are very likely to play important roles in acquisition of desiccation tolerance in land plants. Furthermore, our results suggest that the regulatory machinery of ABA- and ABI3-mediated gene expression for desiccation

  19. Large-scale proteome analysis of abscisic acid and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3-dependent proteins related to desiccation tolerance in Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsui, Izumi; Serada, Satoshi; Naka, Tetsuji; Saruhashi, Masashi; Taji, Teruaki; Hayashi, Takahisa; Quatrano, Ralph S; Sakata, Yoichi

    2016-03-18

    Desiccation tolerance is an ancestral feature of land plants and is still retained in non-vascular plants such as bryophytes and some vascular plants. However, except for seeds and spores, this trait is absent in vegetative tissues of vascular plants. Although many studies have focused on understanding the molecular basis underlying desiccation tolerance using transcriptome and proteome approaches, the critical molecular differences between desiccation tolerant plants and non-desiccation plants are still not clear. The moss Physcomitrella patens cannot survive rapid desiccation under laboratory conditions, but if cells of the protonemata are treated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) prior to desiccation, it can survive 24 h exposure to desiccation and regrow after rehydration. The desiccation tolerance induced by ABA (AiDT) is specific to this hormone, but also depends on a plant transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3). Here we report the comparative proteomic analysis of AiDT between wild type and ABI3 deleted mutant (Δabi3) of P. patens using iTRAQ (Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantification). From a total of 1980 unique proteins that we identified, only 16 proteins are significantly altered in Δabi3 compared to wild type after desiccation following ABA treatment. Among this group, three of the four proteins that were severely affected in Δabi3 tissue were Arabidopsis orthologous genes, which were expressed in maturing seeds under the regulation of ABI3. These included a Group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein, a short-chain dehydrogenase, and a desiccation-related protein. Our results suggest that at least three of these proteins expressed in desiccation tolerant cells of both Arabidopsis and the moss are very likely to play important roles in acquisition of desiccation tolerance in land plants. Furthermore, our results suggest that the regulatory machinery of ABA- and ABI3-mediated gene expression for desiccation

  20. The Pragmatics of Insensitive Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Almér

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In assessing the veridicality of utterances, we normally seem to assess the satisfaction of conditions that the speaker had been concerned to get right in making the utterance. However, the debate about assessor-relativism about epistemic modals, predicates of taste, gradable adjectives and conditionals has been largely driven by cases in which seemingly felicitous assessments of utterances are insensitive to aspects of the context of utterance that were highly relevant to the speaker’s choice of words.In this paper, we offer an explanation of why certain locutions invite insensitive assessments, focusing primarily on ’tasty’ and ’might’. We spell out some reasons why felicitous insensitive assessments are puzzling and argue briefly that recent attempts to accommodate such assessments (including attempts by John MacFarlane, Kai von Fintel and Anthony Gillies all fail to provide more than hints at a solution to the puzzle. In the main part of the paper, we develop an account of felicitous insensitive assessments by identifying a number of pragmatic factors that influence the felicity of assessments. Before closing, we argue that the role of these factors extends beyond cases considered in the debate about assessor-relativism and fits comfortably with standard contextualist analyses of the relevant locutions.ReferencesAlmér, A. & Björnsson, G. 2009. ‘Relativism, Contextualism and Insensitive Assessments’. Logique et Analyse 52: 363–372.Bach, K. 2011. ‘Perspectives on possibilities: Contextualism, Relativism, or what?’Bennett, J. 2003. A Philosophical Guide to Conditionals. Oxford U. P.http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0199258872.001.0001Björnsson, G. 2011. ‘Towards a Radically Pragmatic Theory of If-Conditionals’. Forthcoming in Making Semantics Pragmatic, (ed Ken Turner, in Current Research in the Semantics/Pragmatics Interface, Vol 24, Emerald.Björnsson, G. ms. ‘Do “Objectivist” Features of Moral Discourse and Thinking

  1. Punishment Insensitivity in Early Childhood: A Developmental, Dimensional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Sara R; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Estabrook, Ryne; Burns, James L; Kestler, Jacqueline; Berman, Grace; Henry, David B; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2015-08-01

    Impairment in learning from punishment ("punishment insensitivity") is an established feature of severe antisocial behavior in adults and youth but it has not been well studied as a developmental phenomenon. In early childhood, differentiating a normal: abnormal spectrum of punishment insensitivity is key for distinguishing normative misbehavior from atypical manifestations. This study employed a novel measure, the Multidimensional Assessment Profile of Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB), to examine the distribution, dimensionality, and external validity of punishment insensitivity in a large, demographically diverse community sample of preschoolers (3-5 years) recruited from pediatric clinics (N = 1,855). Caregivers completed surveys from which a seven-item Punishment Insensitivity scale was derived. Findings indicated that Punishment Insensitivity behaviors are relatively common in young children, with at least 50 % of preschoolers exhibiting them sometimes. Item response theory analyses revealed a Punishment Insensitivity spectrum. Items varied along a severity continuum: most items needed to occur "Often" in order to be severe and behaviors that were qualitatively atypical or intense were more severe. Although there were item-level differences across sociodemographic groups, these were small. Construct, convergent, and divergent validity were demonstrated via association to low concern for others and noncompliance, motivational regulation, and a disruptive family context. Incremental clinical utility was demonstrated in relation to impairment. Early childhood punishment insensitivity varies along a severity continuum and is atypical when it predominates. Implications for understanding the phenomenology of emergent disruptive behavior are discussed.

  2. SOS2-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE5, an SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE3-Type Protein Kinase, Is Important for Abscisic Acid Responses in Arabidopsis through Phosphorylation of ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE51[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaona; Hao, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuguo; Bai, Yili; Zhu, Wenbo; Qin, Yunxia; Yuan, Feifei; Zhao, Feiyi; Wang, Mengyao; Hu, Jingjiang; Xu, Hong; Guo, Aiguang; Zhao, Huixian; Zhao, Yang; Cao, Cuiling; Yang, Yongqing; Schumaker, Karen S.; Guo, Yan; Xie, Chang Gen

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an essential role in seed germination. In this study, we demonstrate that one SNF1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE3-type protein kinase, SOS2-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE5 (PKS5), is involved in ABA signal transduction via the phosphorylation of an interacting protein, ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5). We found that pks5-3 and pks5-4, two previously identified PKS5 superactive kinase mutants with point mutations in the PKS5 FISL/NAF (a conserved peptide that is necessary for interaction with SOS3 or SOS3-LIKE CALCIUM BINDING PROTEINs) motif and the kinase domain, respectively, are hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination. PKS5 was found to interact with ABI5 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and this interaction was further confirmed in planta using bimolecular fluorescence complementation. Genetic studies revealed that ABI5 is epistatic to PKS5. PKS5 phosphorylates a serine (Ser) residue at position 42 in ABI5 and regulates ABA-responsive gene expression. This phosphorylation was induced by ABA in vivo and transactivated ABI5. Expression of ABI5, in which Ser-42 was mutated to alanine, could not fully rescue the ABA-insensitive phenotypes of the abi5-8 and pks5-4abi5-8 mutants. In contrast, mutating Ser-42 to aspartate rescued the ABA insensitivity of these mutants. These data demonstrate that PKS5-mediated phosphorylation of ABI5 at Ser-42 is critical for the ABA regulation of seed germination and gene expression in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). PMID:25858916

  3. Molecular basis of androgen insensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkmann, A.; Jenster, G.; Ris-Stalpers, C.; van der Korput, H.; Brüggenwirth, H.; Boehmer, A.; Trapman, J.

    1996-01-01

    Male sexual differentiation and development proceed under direct control of androgens. Androgen action is mediated by the intracellular androgen receptor, which belongs to the superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. In the X-linked androgen insensitivity syndrome, defects in the

  4. Photonic crystal based polarization insensitive flat lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turduev, M; Bor, E; Kurt, H

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes a new design of an inhomogeneous artificially created photonic crystal lens structure consisting of annular dielectric rods to efficiently focus both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations of light into the same focal point. The locations of each individual cell that contains the annular dielectric rods are determined according to a nonlinear distribution function. The inner and outer radii of the annular photonic dielectric rods are optimized with respect to the polarization insensitive frequency response of the transmission spectrum of the lens structure. The physical background of the polarization insensitive focusing mechanism is investigated in both spatial and frequency domains. Moreover, polarization independent wavefront transformation/focusing has been explored in detail by investigating the dispersion relation of the structure. Corresponding phase index distribution of the lens is attained for polarization insensitive normalized frequency range of a / λ   =  0.280 and a / λ   =  0.300, where a denotes the lattice constant of the designed structure and λ denotes the wavelength of the incident light. We show the wave transformation performance and focal point movement dynamics for both polarizations of the lens structure by specially adjusting the length of the structure. The 3D finite-difference time domain numerical analysis is also performed to verifiy that the proposed design is able to focus the wave regardless of polarization into approximately the same focal point (difference between focal distances of both polarizations stays below 0.25 λ ) with an operating bandwidth of 4.30% between 1476 nm and 1541 nm at telecom wavelengths. The main superiorities of the proposed lens structure are being all dielectric and compact, and having flat front and back surfaces, rendering the proposed lens design more practical in the photonic integration process in various applications such as optical switch

  5. Genetics Home Reference: androgen insensitivity syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Androgen insensitivity syndrome is a condition that affects sexual development before birth and during puberty. People with this ... characteristics or signs of both male and female sexual development. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome occurs when the body ...

  6. Male patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmann, Philip; Christiansen, Peter; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2012-01-01

    To describe the natural history of phenotype, growth and gonadal function in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome.......To describe the natural history of phenotype, growth and gonadal function in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome....

  7. Androgen insensitivity syndrome: gonadal androgen receptor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulam, C.B.; Graham, M.L.; Spelsberg, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    To determine whether abnormalities of the androgen receptor previously observed in skin fibroblasts from patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome also occur in the gonads of affected individuals, androgen receptor activity in the gonads of a patient with testicular feminization syndrome was investigated. Using conditions for optimal recovery of androgen receptor from human testes established by previous studies, we detected the presence of a high-affinity (dissociation constant . 3.2 X 10(-10) mol/L), low-capacity (4.2 X 10(-12) mol/mg DNA), androgen-binding protein when tritium-labeled R1881 was incubated at 4 degrees C with nuclear extracts from the gonads of control patients or from a patient with testicular feminization syndrome but not when incubated at 37 degrees C. Thus this patient has an androgen receptor with a temperature lability similar to that of receptors from normal persons

  8. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on plants during mild water stress, 4: The insensitivity of soybean internal water relations to ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teramura, A.H.; Forseth, I.N.; Lydon, J.

    1984-01-01

    The combined effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280–320 nm) radiation and water stress were investigated on the water relations of greenhouse grown soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Essex]. On a weighted (Caldwell 1971), total daily dose basis, plants received either 0 or 3 000 effective J m 2 UV-B BE supplied by filtered FS-40 sunlamps. The latter dose simulated the solar UV-B radiation anticipated at College Park, Maryland, U.S.A. (39°N latitude) in the event that the global stratospheric ozone column is reduced by 25%. Plants were either well-watered or preconditioned by drought stress cycles. Diurnal measurements of water potential and stomatal conductance were made on the youngest fully expanded leaf. Various internal water relations parameters were determined for detached leaves. Plants were monitored before, during and after water stress. There were no significant differences in leaf water potential or stomatal conductance between treatments before plants were preconditioned to water stress. However, drought stress resulted in significantly lower midday and afternoon leaf water potentials and lower leaf conductances as compared to well-watered plants. UV-B radiation had no additional effect on leaf water potential; however, UV did result in lower leaf conductances in plants preconditioned to water stress. Turgid weight:dry weight ratio, elastic modulus, bound water and relative water content were unaffected by UV-B radiation. Osmotic potentials at full and zero turgor were significantly lower in the drought stressed treatments as compared to well-watered plants. (author)

  9. Formulation development and characterization of cellulose acetate nitrate based propellants for improved insensitive munitions properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate nitrate (CAN was used as an insensitive energetic binder to improve the insensitive munitions (IM properties of gun propellants to replace the M1 propellant used in 105 mm artillery charges. CAN contains the energetic nitro groups found in nitrocellulose (NC, but also acetyl functionalities, which lowered the polymer's sensitivity to heat and shock, and therefore improved its IM properties relative to NC. The formulation, development and small-scale characterization testing of several CAN-based propellants were done. The formulations, using insensitive energetic solid fillers and high-nitrogen modifiers in place of nitramine were completed. The small scale characterization testing, such as closed bomb testing, small scale sensitivity, thermal stability, and chemical compatibility were done. The mechanical response of the propellants under high-rate uni-axial compression at, hot, cold, and ambient temperatures were also completed. Critical diameter testing, hot fragment conductive ignition (HFCI tests were done to evaluate the propellants' responses to thermal and shock stimuli. Utilizing the propellant chemical composition, theoretical predictions of erosivity were completed. All the small scale test results were utilized to down-select the promising CAN based formulations for large scale demonstration testing such as the ballistic performance and fragment impact testing in the 105 mm M67 artillery charge configurations. The test results completed in the small and large scale testing are discussed.

  10. Three siblings with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-13

    Jan 13, 2013 ... male reference range. A diagnosis of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome was made, based on this clinical ... Laboratory test. Value Normal ..... scenario, incomplete resistance may lead to virilisation during puberty.24, ...

  11. Syndrome of achalasia, ACTH insensitivity and alacrima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosino, M.M.; Genieser, N.B.; Becker, M.H.; Bangaru, B.S.; Sklar, C.

    1986-05-01

    An unusual multisystem disorder characterized by the triad of selective ACTH insensitivity, achalasia and alacrima has recently been described. The following case fulfills the criteria for this syndrome which has not been previously reported in the radiographic literature.

  12. Measurement of relative permittivity of LTCC ceramic at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin Tan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Devices based on LTCC (low-temperature co-fired ceramic technology are more widely applied in high temperature environments, and the temperature-dependent properties of the LTCC material play an important role in measurements of the characteristics of these devices at high temperature. In this paper, the temperature-dependence of the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic is studied from room temperature to 500 °C. An expression for relative permittivity is obtained, which relates the relative permittivity to the resonant frequency, inductance, parasitic capacitance and electrode capacitance of the LTCC sample. Of these properties, the electrode capacitance is the most strongly temperature-dependent. The LTCC sample resonant frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance were measured (from room temperature to 500 °C with a high temperature measurement system comprising a muffle furnace and network analyzer. We found that the resonant frequency reduced and the inductance and parasitic capacitance increased slightly as the temperature increases. The relative permittivity can be calculated from experimental frequency, inductance and parasitic capacitance measurements. Calculating results show that the relative permittivity of DuPont 951 LTCC ceramic ceramic increases to 8.21 from room temperature to 500 °C.

  13. Heating-insensitive scale increase caused by convective precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerter, Jan; Moseley, Christopher; Berg, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The origin of intense convective extremes and their unusual temperature dependence has recently challenged traditional thermodynamic arguments, based on the Clausius-Clapeyron relation. In a sequence of studies (Lenderink and v. Mejgaard, Nat Geosc, 2008; Berg, Haerter, Moseley, Nat Geosc, 2013; and Moseley, Hohenegger, Berg, Haerter, Nat Geosc, 2016) the argument of convective-type precipitation overcoming the 7%/K increase in extremes by dynamical, rather than thermodynamic, processes has been promoted. How can the role of dynamical processes be approached for precipitating convective cloud? One-phase, non-precipitating Rayleigh-Bénard convection is a classical problem in complex systems science. When a fluid between two horizontal plates is sufficiently heated from below, convective rolls spontaneously form. In shallow, non-precipitating atmospheric convection, rolls are also known to form under specific conditions, with horizontal scales roughly proportional to the boundary layer height. Here we explore within idealized large-eddy simulations, how the scale of convection is modified, when precipitation sets in and intensifies in the course of diurnal solar heating. Before onset of precipitation, Bénard cells with relatively constant diameter form, roughly on the scale of the atmospheric boundary layer. We find that the onset of precipitation then signals an approximately linear (in time) increase in horizontal scale. This scale increase progresses at a speed which is rather insensitive to changes in surface temperature or changes in the rate at which boundary conditions change, hinting at spatial characteristics, rather than temperature, as a possible control on spatial scales of convection. When exploring the depth of spatial correlations, we find that precipitation onset causes a sudden disruption of order and a subsequent complete disintegration of organization —until precipitation eventually ceases. Returning to the initial question of convective

  14. A rare case of congenital insensitivity to pain with anhydrosiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govardhani Yanamadala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital insensitivity to pain syndrome with anhydrosis (CIPA is a rare inherited disorder. It is characterized by loss of pain and temperature sensation, lack of sweating and mild mental retardation. This disorder belongs to hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy family (type IV. Because of these abnormalities, patients require special anesthetic care. They include titration of intraoperative opioids, an anesthetic to ensure co-operation and immobility and intra-operative temperature monitoring. Here we report a 7-year-old female child with CIPA posted for restoration and cementation for dental caries along with sural nerve and skin biopsy.

  15. Estimates of the temperature flux-temperature gradient relation above a sea floor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cimatoribus, A.; van Haren, H.

    2016-01-01

    The relation between the ux of temperature (or buoyancy), the verti-cal temperature gradient and the height above the bottom, is investigatedin an oceanographic context, using high-resolution temperature measure-ments. The model for the evolution of a strati?ed layer by Balmforthet al. (1998) is

  16. Mental disease-related emergency admissions attributable to hot temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suji; Lee, Hwanhee; Myung, Woojae; Kim, E Jin; Kim, Ho

    2018-03-01

    The association between high temperature and mental disease has been the focus of several studies worldwide. However, no studies have focused on the mental disease burden attributable to hot temperature. Here, we aim to quantify the risk attributed to hot temperatures based on the exposure-lag-response relationship between temperature and mental diseases. From data on daily temperature and emergency admissions (EA) for mental diseases collected from 6 major cities (Seoul, Incheon, Daejeon, Daegu, Busan, and Gwangju in South Korea) over a period of 11years (2003-2013), we estimated temperature-disease associations using a distributed lag non-linear model, and we pooled the data by city through multivariate meta-analysis. Cumulative relative risk and attributable risks were calculated for extreme hot temperatures, defined as the 99th percentile relative to the 50th percentile of temperatures. The strongest association between mental disease and high temperature was seen within a period of 0-4days of high temperature exposure. Our results reveal that 14.6% of EA for mental disease were due to extreme hot temperatures, and the elderly were more susceptible (19.1%). Specific mental diseases, including anxiety, dementia, schizophrenia, and depression, also showed significant risk attributed to hot temperatures. Of all EA for anxiety, 31.6% were attributed to extremely hot temperatures. High temperature was responsible for an attributable risk for mental disease, and the burden was higher in the elderly. This finding has important implications for designing appropriate public health policies to minimize the impact of high temperature on mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the growth of Helminthosporium fulvum were investigated. Various temperature regimes of 10oC, 15oC, 20oC, 25oC, 30oC, 35oC and 40¢ªC were used to determine the temperature effect on the growth of H. fulvum. Maximum growth of H. fulvum was obtained at 25¢ªC ...

  18. Evaluative Conditioning is Insensitive to Blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Beckers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative conditioning has been claimed to have a number of functional characteristics that set it apart from other forms of associative learning in humans, such as insensitivity to extinction and contingency, independence of contingency awareness, and insensitivity to modulation. Despite its potential theoretical importance, until now few data are available concerning the susceptibility of evaluative conditioning to cue competition effects such as blocking. In the present study, we assessed the susceptibility of acquired preferences and evaluations to blocking in a candy game. Results suggest that evaluative conditioning is not susceptible to blocking. We discuss this observation in the light of theoretical accounts of evaluative conditioning and associative learning in humans.

  19. Effects of temperature and relative humidity on DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bind, Marie-Abele; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gasparrini, Antonio; Peters, Annette; Coull, Brent; Baccarelli, Andrea; Tarantini, Letizia; Koutrakis, Petros; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have found relationships between DNA methylation and various environmental contaminant exposures. Associations with weather have not been examined. Because temperature and humidity are related to mortality even on non-extreme days, we hypothesized that temperature and relative humidity may affect methylation. We repeatedly measured methylation on long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1), Alu, and 9 candidate genes in blood samples from 777 elderly men participating in the Normative Aging Study (1999-2009). We assessed whether ambient temperature and relative humidity are related to methylation on LINE-1 and Alu, as well as on genes controlling coagulation, inflammation, cortisol, DNA repair, and metabolic pathway. We examined intermediate-term associations of temperature, relative humidity, and their interaction with methylation, using distributed lag models. Temperature or relative humidity levels were associated with methylation on tissue factor (F3), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), toll-like receptor 2 (TRL-2), carnitine O-acetyltransferase (CRAT), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and glucocorticoid receptor, LINE-1, and Alu. For instance, a 5°C increase in 3-week average temperature in ICAM-1 methylation was associated with a 9% increase (95% confidence interval: 3% to 15%), whereas a 10% increase in 3-week average relative humidity was associated with a 5% decrease (-8% to -1%). The relative humidity association with ICAM-1 methylation was stronger on hot days than mild days. DNA methylation in blood cells may reflect biological effects of temperature and relative humidity. Temperature and relative humidity may also interact to produce stronger effects.

  20. Analysis of air temperature and relative humidity: study of microclimates

    OpenAIRE

    Elis Dener Lima Alves; Marcelo Sacardi Biudes

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the variability of climate elements in time and space is fundamental to the knowledge of the dynamics of microclimate. Thus, the objective was to analyze the variability of air temperature and relative humidity on the Cuiabá campus of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, and, through the clustering technique, to analyze the formation of groups to propose a zoning microclimate in the area study. To this end, collection data of air temperature and relative humidity at 15 points ...

  1. Caribbean male: macho and insensitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    185, 50, and 104 men aged 15-44 years were interviewed, respectively, in Barbados, St. Lucia, and Grenada in three attitudinal studies designed to get an objective look at male attitudes in the region on family planning and human sexuality. Qualitative information was obtained on fertility and contraceptive use, attitudes toward premarital sex, fidelity and relationships, and influences upon male behavior. Men wanted an average of 2.5 children in Barbados, 4 in St. Lucia, and 3.5 in Grenada. Monogamy was not paramount, with 56% of Grenadian men reporting having overlapping sexual relations. There was also a substantial tolerance for illegitimacy, especially among married men and men with post-secondary education. In St. Lucia, relationships are conducted on the man's terms. For example, men may have sexual relationships with multiple women, but it is unacceptable for women to have other men. Most men, however, agreed that fathers should have a say in the upbringing of their children and should visit and support them financially even if the parents do not live together. Many respondents had unstable relationships with their fathers, and a large proportion had not lived with them. 63% of respondents knew their fathers had outside women. Men were aware and supportive of family planning, and generally try to use contraception. 78% of men interviewed in Grenada and 75% of men interviewed in St. Lucia endorse birth control, while 52% of the respondents in St. Lucia practice family planning. Younger, relatively inexperienced men were most typically in need of more knowledge and greater practice of family planning. Family planning programs should be targeted accordingly.

  2. Risk of Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality in Relation to Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Robert; Ito, Kazuhiko; Matte, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of temperature on cardiovascular-related (CVD) morbidity and mortality among New York City (NYC) residents. Introduction Extreme temperatures are consistently shown to have an effect on CVD-related mortality [1, 2]. A large multi-city study of mortality demonstrated a cold-day and hot-day weather effect on CVD-related deaths, with the larger impact occurring on the coldest days [3]. In contrast, the association between weather and CVD-related morbidity is less clear [4, 5]. The purpose of this study is to characterize the effect of temperature on CVD-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and mortality on a large, heterogeneous population. Additionally, we conducted a sensitivity analysis to determine the impact of air pollutants, specifically fine particulates (PM2.5) and ozone (O3), along with temperature, on CVD outcomes. Methods We analyzed daily weather conditions, ED visits classified as CVD-related based on chief complaint text, hospitalizations, and natural cause deaths that occurred in NYC between 2002 and 2006. ED visits were obtained from data reported daily to the city health department for syndromic surveillance. Inpatient admissions were obtained from the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System, a data reporting system developed by New York State. Mortality data were obtained from the NYC Office of Vital Statistics. Data for PM2.5 and O3 were obtained from all available air quality monitors within the five boroughs of NYC. To estimate risk of CVD morbidity and mortality, we used generalized linear models using a Poisson distribution to calculate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A non-linear distributed lag was used to model mean temperature in order to allow for its effect on the same day and on subsequent days. Models were fit separately for cold season (October through March) and warm season (April through September) given season may modify the effect on CVD

  3. The mass-temperature relation for clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, J.; Oukbir, J.; van Kampen, E.

    1998-01-01

    A tight mass-temperature relation, M(r)/r proportional to T-x, is expected in most cosmological models if clusters of galaxies are homologous and the intracluster gas is in global equilibrium with the dark matter. We here calibrate this relation using eight clusters with well-defined global tempe...... redshift, the relation represents a new tool for determination of cosmological parameters, notably the cosmological constant Lambda....

  4. Growth hormone insensitivity syndrome: A sensitive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik Goswami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Growth Hormone Insensitivity have characteristic phenotypic features and severe short stature. The underlying basis are mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene which gives rise to a characteristic hormonal profile. Although a scoring system has been devised for the diagnosis of this disorder, it has not been indisputably validated. The massive expense incurred in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition with suboptimal therapeutic response necessitates a judicious approach in this regard in our country.

  5. Design and Experimental Verification of a 0.19 V 53 μW 65 nm CMOS Integrated Supply-Sensing Sensor With a Supply-Insensitive Temperature Sensor and an Inductive-Coupling Transmitter for a Self-Powered Bio-sensing System Using a Biofuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Atsuki; Ikeda, Kei; Ogawa, Yudai; Kai, Hiroyuki; Nishizawa, Matsuhiko; Nakazato, Kazuo; Niitsu, Kiichi

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we present a self-powered bio-sensing system with the capability of proximity inductive-coupling communication for supply sensing and temperature monitoring. The proposed bio-sensing system includes a biofuel cell as a power source and a sensing frontend that is associated with the CMOS integrated supply-sensing sensor. The sensor consists of a digital-based gate leakage timer, a supply-insensitive time-domain temperature sensor, and a current-driven inductive-coupling transmitter and achieves low-voltage operation. The timer converts the output voltage from a biofuel cell to frequency. The temperature sensor provides a pulse width modulation (PWM) output that is not dependent on the supply voltage, and the associated inductive-coupling transmitter enables proximity communication. A test chip was fabricated in 65 nm CMOS technology and consumed 53 μW with a supply voltage of 190 mV. The low-voltage-friendly design satisfied the performance targets of each integrated sensor without any trimming. The chips allowed us to successfully demonstrate proximity communication with an asynchronous receiver, and the measurement results show the potential for self-powered operation using biofuel cells. The analysis and experimental verification of the system confirmed their robustness.

  6. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality in Seoul, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Ji-Young; Anderson, G Brooke; Bell, Michelle L; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2011-01-01

    Studies indicate that the mortality effects of temperature may vary by population and region, although little is known about the vulnerability of subgroups to these risks in Korea. This study examined the relationship between temperature and cause-specific mortality for Seoul, Korea, for the period 2000-7, including whether some subgroups are particularly vulnerable with respect to sex, age, education and place of death. The authors applied time-series models allowing nonlinear relationships for heat- and cold-related mortality, and generated exposure-response curves. Both high and low ambient temperatures were associated with increased risk for daily mortality. Mortality risk was 10.2% (95% confidence interval 7.43, 13.0%) higher at the 90th percentile of daily mean temperatures (25 deg. C) compared to the 50th percentile (15 deg. C). Mortality risk was 12.2% (3.69, 21.3%) comparing the 10th (-1 deg. C) and 50th percentiles of temperature. Cardiovascular deaths showed a higher risk to cold, whereas respiratory deaths showed a higher risk to heat effect, although the differences were not statistically significant. Susceptible populations were identified such as females, the elderly, those with no education, and deaths occurring outside of a hospital for heat- and cold-related total mortality. Our findings provide supportive evidence of a temperature-mortality relationship in Korea and indicate that some subpopulations are particularly vulnerable.

  7. Nickel-titanium alloys: stress-related temperature transitional range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M; Beshers, D N

    2000-12-01

    The inducement of mechanical stress within nickel-titanium wires can influence the transitional temperature range of the alloy and therefore the expression of the superelastic properties. An analogous variation of the transitional temperature range may be expected during orthodontic therapy, when the archwires are engaged into the brackets. To investigate this possibility, samples of currently used orthodontic nickel-titanium wires (Sentalloy, GAC; Copper Ni-Ti superelastic at 27 degrees C, 35 degrees C, 40 degrees C, Ormco; Nitinol Heat-Activated, 3M-Unitek) were subjected to temperature cycles ranging between 4 degrees C and 60 degrees C. The wires were mounted in a plexiglass loading device designed to simulate clinical situations of minimum and severe dental crowding. Electrical resistivity was used to monitor the phase transformations. The data were analyzed with paired t tests. The results confirmed the presence of displacements of the transitional temperature ranges toward higher temperatures when stress was induced. Because nickel-titanium wires are most commonly used during the aligning stage in cases of severe dental crowding, particular attention was given to the performance of the orthodontic wires under maximum loading. An alloy with a stress-related transitional temperature range corresponding to the fluctuations of the oral temperature should express superelastic properties more consistently than others. According to our results, Copper Ni-Ti 27 degrees C and Nitinol Heat-Activated wires may be considered suitable alloys for the alignment stage.

  8. Statistical analysis of the effects of relative humidity and temperature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meteorological data from the Department of Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CMSAF), DWD Germany have been used to study and investigate the effect of relative humidity and temperature on refractivity in twenty six locations grouped into for climatic regions aloft Nigeria (Coastal, Guinea savannah, ...

  9. Quasi-pions with temperature dependent dispersion relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorenstein, M.I.

    1995-01-01

    We construct the procedure to calculate thermodynamical functions for a system of quasi-particles with temperature dependent dispersion relation. Two models for the hot quasi-pion system are considered to illustrate the importance of thermodynamical self consistency requirements. 8 refs., 9 figs

  10. Effect of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were used to determine the temperature effect on the growth of H. fulvum. Maximum growth of H. ... The fungus showed maximum growth at 92.5 and 100% relative humidity. .... recommended that fruits and vegetables should be stored at low ...

  11. The mass-temperature relation for clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, J.; Oukbir, J.; van Kampen, E.

    1998-01-01

    A tight mass-temperature relation, M(r)/r proportional to T-x, is expected in most cosmological models if clusters of galaxies are homologous and the intracluster gas is in global equilibrium with the dark matter. We here calibrate this relation using eight clusters with well-defined global...... with wide-held HST imaging could provide a sensitive test of the normalization and intrinsic scatter of the relation, resulting in a powerful and expedient way of measuring masses of clusters of galaxies. In addition, as M(r)/r las derived from lensing) is dependent on the cosmological model at high...

  12. Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome in Three Sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Verim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of sexual development (DSD are congenital anomalies due to atypical development of chromosomes, gonads and anatomy. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS, also known as testicular feminization (TF is a rare DSD disease. The majority of CAIS patients apply to hospital with the complaint of primary amenorrhea or infertility. Given that CAIS patients are all phenotypically female while having 46, XY karyotypes, CAIS diagnosis should be disclosed in an age-appropriate manner preferably by a mental health professional. Cases are reported here for three 46XY siblings consistent with CAIS.

  13. Temperature-Related Death and Illness. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarofim, Marcus C.; Saha, Shubhayu; Hawkins, Michelle D.; Mills, David M.; Hess, Jeremy; Horton, Radley; Kinney, Patrick; Schwartz, Joel; St. Juliana, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Based on present-day sensitivity to heat, an increase of thousands to tens of thousands of premature heat-related deaths in the summer and a decrease of premature cold-related deaths in the winter are projected each year as a result of climate change by the end of the century. Future adaptation will very likely reduce these impacts (see Changing Tolerance to Extreme Heat Finding). The reduction in cold-related deaths is projected to be smaller than the increase in heat-related deaths in most regions. Days that are hotter than usual in the summer or colder than usual in the winter are both associated with increased illness and death. Mortality effects are observed even for small differences from seasonal average temperatures. Because small temperature differences occur much more frequently than large temperature differences, not accounting for the effect of these small differences would lead to underestimating the future impact of climate change. An increase in population tolerance to extreme heat has been observed over time. Changes in this tolerance have been associated with increased use of air conditioning, improved social responses, and or physiological acclimatization, among other factors. Expected future increases in this tolerance will reduce the projected increase in deaths from heat. Older adults and children have a higher risk of dying or becoming ill due to extreme heat. People working outdoors, the socially isolated and economically disadvantaged, those with chronic illnesses, as well as some communities of color, are also especially vulnerable to death or illness.

  14. Effect of ambient temperature and relative humidity on interfacial temperature during early stages of drop evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatani, Yuki; Orejon, Daniel; Kita, Yutaku; Takata, Yasuyuki; Kim, Jungho; Sefiane, Khellil

    2016-04-01

    Understanding drop evaporation mechanisms is important for many industrial, biological, and other applications. Drops of organic solvents undergoing evaporation have been found to display distinct thermal patterns, which in turn depend on the physical properties of the liquid, the substrate, and ambient conditions. These patterns have been reported previously to be bulk patterns from the solid-liquid to the liquid-gas drop interface. In the present work the effect of ambient temperature and humidity during the first stage of evaporation, i.e., pinned contact line, is studied paying special attention to the thermal information retrieved at the liquid-gas interface through IR thermography. This is coupled with drop profile monitoring to experimentally investigate the effect of ambient temperature and relative humidity on the drop interfacial thermal patterns and the evaporation rate. Results indicate that self-generated thermal patterns are enhanced by an increase in ambient temperature and/or a decrease in humidity. The more active thermal patterns observed at high ambient temperatures are explained in light of a greater temperature difference generated between the apex and the edge of the drop due to greater evaporative cooling. On the other hand, the presence of water humidity in the atmosphere is found to decrease the temperature difference along the drop interface due to the heat of adsorption, absorption and/or that of condensation of water onto the ethanol drops. The control, i.e., enhancement or suppression, of these thermal patterns at the drop interface by means of ambient temperature and relative humidity is quantified and reported.

  15. Electron spectroscopy on high-temperature superconductors and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knupfer, M.

    1994-01-01

    In the last two classes of materials have been discovered which distinguish themselves due to a transition into the superconducting state at relatively high temperatures. These are the cuprate superconductors and the alkali metal doped fullerenes. In this work the electronic structure of representatives of these materials, undoped and Ca-doped YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 and A 3 C 60 (A=K, Rb), has been investigated using electron energy-loss spectroscopy and photoemission spectroscopy. (orig.) [de

  16. Coupled effects of the temperature and the relative humidity on gecko adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Zhilong; Yang, Yazheng; Chen, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    To explain the inconsistent results of experiments on temperature-dependent gecko adhesion, a theoretical peeling model is established wherein a nano-thin film is adopted to simulate a gecko spatula. The model considers not only the respective effects of temperature and environmental humidity on the peel-off force but also the coupled effect of both factors. Increasing temperature is found to lead to a decreasing peel-off force if the environmental humidity is uncontrolled. However, if the environmental humidity is constant, the peel-off force is insensitive to the temperature and remains almost constant. The synthetic theoretical analysis demonstrates that the seemingly contradictory results of temperature-dependent gecko adhesion experiments are actually consistent under their respective experimental conditions. This inconsistency is mainly due to the environmental humidity, which varies with the changing temperature if it is not artificially controlled. The results cannot only reasonably explain the different experimental results for the effect of temperature on gecko adhesion but can also facilitate the design of temperature-controlled or humidity-controlled adhesion sensors by tuning the environmental humidity or temperature. (paper)

  17. Carbon diffusion behavior in molybdenum at relatively low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraoka, Yutaka, E-mail: hiraoka@dap.ous.ac.j [Department of Applied Physics, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Imamura, Kyosuke [Graduate School of Science, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Kadokura, Takanori; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu [Materials Research Department, A.L.M.T. Corp., 2 Iwasekoshi-machi, Toyama 931-8543 (Japan)

    2010-01-07

    Purpose of this study is to investigate the carbon diffusion behavior in pure molybdenum at relatively low temperatures by means of fracture surface observation. Carbon addition was performed at a temperature of 1273-1373 K with the heating time being changed. Fracture surface of the specimen after carbon addition was examined using SEM and the carbon diffusion distance was estimated from the change of fracture mode as a function of the distance from the surface. Results are summarized as follows. First, the carbon diffusion distance increased approximately linearly with the increase of heating time from 1.2 to 10.8 ks. This relationship does not agree with that obtained at much higher temperatures. From Arrhenius plots of the slope of the straight line and the temperature, activation energy was calculated (155 kJ/mol). Secondly, the carbon diffusion distance estimated in this study was generally larger than that simulated using the data of Rudman, particularly at a longer heating time.

  18. Global phenological insensitivity to shifting ocean temperatures among seabirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keogan, Katharine; Daunt, Francis; Wanless, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Reproductive timing in many taxa plays a key role in determining breeding productivity 1 , and is often sensitive to climatic conditions 2 . Current climate change may alter the timing of breeding at different rates across trophic levels, potentially resulting in temporal mismatch between...... the resource requirements of predators and their prey 3 . This is of particular concern for higher-trophic-level organisms, whose longer generation times confer a lower rate of evolutionary rescue than primary producers or consumers 4 . However, the disconnection between studies of ecological change in marine...... systems makes it difficult to detect general changes in the timing of reproduction 5 . Here, we use a comprehensive meta-analysis of 209 phenological time series from 145 breeding populations to show that, on average, seabird populations worldwide have not adjusted their breeding seasons over time (−0...

  19. Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Presenting with Gynecomastia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Won Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gynecomastia is a benign enlargement of the male breast caused by the proliferation of glandular breast tissue. Determining the various causes of gynecomastia such as physiological causes, drugs, systemic diseases, and endocrine disorders is important. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS is a rare endocrine disorder presenting with gynecomastia and is a disorder of male sexual differentiation caused by mutations within the androgen receptor gene. All individuals with AIS have the 46 XY karyotype, although AIS phenotypes can be classified as mild, partial or complete and can differ among both males and females including ambiguous genitalia or infertility in males. We experienced a case of partial AIS presenting with gynecomastia and identified the androgen receptor gene mutation.

  20. A possible mechanism relating increased soil temperature to forest decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Nutrient cations are removed from the soil by uptake in biomass, and by leaching as a result of soil acidification. Such acidification results from acid deposition and/or from HNO 3 formed by mineralization and nitrification of humus, when at a rate in excess of the tree's nutritional requirements. This has been found to occur during and following periods of increased temperature and reduced rainfall. The cumulative loss of either Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ or K + by one or more of these processes, if greater than the amount released from the specific minerals in that soil, leads to nutrient deficiency, fine root mortality, poor growth, and eventually to die-back. Trees growing in soils derived from specific minerals in which there is a strong imbalance in the elements from which the exchangeable nutrients are formed, are vulnerable to nutrient deficiency. This paper discusses the relevance of earlier studies, when considered in relation to more recent findings. In Hawaii there have been frequent periods of increased temperature and drought resulting from the El Nino Southern Oscillation. This fact, when considered in relation to the relatively low K content, and its imbalance with Ca and Mg in the lava and volcanic ash on which the trees have grown, could result in K deficiency in the declining ohia trees. It is possible that the unusual periods of increased temperature and drought which have occurred in certain other localized areas may have led to the decline symptoms recently observed. In view of the threat of global warming, this possibility should be investigated. 39 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Relative air temperature analysis external building on Gowa Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustamin, Tayeb; Rahim, Ramli; Baharuddin; Jamala, Nurul; Kusno, Asniawaty

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to data analyze the relative temperature and humidity of the air outside the building. Data retrieval taken from weather monitoring device (monitoring) Vaisala, RTU (Remote Terminal Unit), Which is part of the AWS (Automatic Weather Stations) Then Processing data processed and analyzed by using Microsoft Excel program in the form of graph / picture fluctuation Which shows the average value, standard deviation, maximum value, and minimum value. Results of data processing then grouped in the form: Daily, and monthly, based on time intervals every 30 minutes. The results showed Outside air temperatures in March, April, May and September 2016 Which entered in the thermal comfort zone according to SNI standard (Indonesian National Standard) only at 06.00-10.00. In late March to early April Thermal comfort zone also occurs at 15.30-18.00. The highest maximum air temperature occurred in September 2016 at 11.01-11.30 And the lowest minimum value in September 2016, time 6:00 to 6:30. The result of the next analysis shows the level of data conformity with thermal comfort zone based on SNI (Indonesian National Standard) every month.

  2. Relative frequencies and significance of faecal coliforms as indicators related to water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auban, E G; Ripolles, A A; Domarco, M J

    1983-01-01

    The faecal coliforms at different sites of a hypereutrophic lake near Valencia (Albufera) were identified and their relative amounts established along an annual cycle. Using lauryl tryptose broth at 35 degrees C, followed by incubation at 44.4 degrees C in 2% brilliant green bile, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are practically the only coliforms present. A positive correlation was found between the water temperature and the relative amount of these two coliforms: K. pneumoniae predominates at high water temperatures, whereas E. coli shows preponderance during the cold period. The role of K. pneumoniae as the only faecal indicator under the circumstances described in the work is emphasized and discussed.

  3. Ocular Surface Temperature in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320. The ocular surface temperature (OST of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272. OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P>0.05. Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  4. High temperature electrochemistry related to light water reactor corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Gabor; Kerner, Zsolt; Balog, Janos; Schiller, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The present work deals with corrosion problems related to conditions which prevail in a WWER primary circuit. We had a two-fold aim: (A) electrochemical methods were applied to characterise the hydrothermally produced oxides of the cladding material (Zr-1%Nb) of nuclear fuel elements used in Russian made power reactors of WWER type, and (B) a number of possible reference electrodes were investigated with a view to high temperature applications. (A) Test specimens made of the cladding material, Zr-1%Nb, were immersed into an autoclave, filled with an aqueous solution typical to a WWER primary circuit, and were treated for different periods of time up to 28 weeks. The electrode potentials were measured and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) were taken regularly both as a function of oxidation time and temperature. This rendered information on the overall kinetics of oxide growth. By combining in situ and ex situ impedance measurements, with a particular view of the temperature dependence of EIS, we concluded that the high frequency region of impedance spectra is relevant to the presence of oxide layer on the alloy. This part of the spectra was treated in terms of a parallel CPE||R ox equivalent circuit (CPE denoting constant phase element, R ox ohmic resistor). The CPE element was understood as a dispersive resistance in terms of the continuous time random walk theory by Scher and Lax. This enabled us to tell apart electrical conductance and oxide growth with a model of charge transfer and recombination within the oxide layer as rate determining steps. (B) Three types of reference electrodes were tested within the framework of the LIRES EU5 project: (i) external Ag/AgCl, (ii) Pt/Ir alloy and (iii) Pd(Pt) double polarised active electrode. The most stable of the electrodes was found to be the Pt/Ir one. The Ag/AgCl electrode showed good stability after an initial period of some days, while substantial drifts were found for the Pd(Pt) electrode. EIS spectra of the

  5. Motion-insensitive rapid configuration relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Damien; Bieri, Oliver

    2017-08-01

    Triple echo steady state (TESS) uses the lowest steady state configuration modes for rapid relaxometry. Due to its unbalanced gradient scheme, however, TESS is inherently motion-sensitive. The purpose of this work is to merge TESS with a balanced acquisition scheme for motion-insensitive rapid configuration relaxometry, termed MIRACLE. The lowest order steady state free precession (SSFP) configurations are retrieved by Fourier transformation of the frequency response of N frequency-shifted balanced SSFP (bSSFP) scans and subsequently processed for relaxometry, as proposed with TESS. Accuracy of MIRACLE is evaluated from simulations, phantom studies as well as in vivo brain and cartilage imaging at 3T. Simulations and phantom results revealed no conceptual flaw, and artifact-free configuration imaging was achieved in vivo. Overall, relaxometry results were accurate in phantoms and in good agreement for cartilage and for T2 in the brain, but apparent low T1 values were observed for brain white matter; reflecting asymmetries in the bSSFP profile. Rapid T1 and T2 mapping with MIRACLE offers analogous properties as TESS while successfully mitigating its motion-sensitivity. As a result of the Fourier transformation, relaxometry becomes sensitive to the voxel frequency distribution, which may contain useful physiologic information, such as structural brain integrity. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. Magn Reson Med 78:518-526, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Poor environmental tracking can make extinction risk insensitive to the colour of environmental noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pol, Martijn; Vindenes, Yngvild; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Engen, Steinar; Ens, Bruno J.; Oosterbeek, Kees; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2011-01-01

    The relative importance of environmental colour for extinction risk compared with other aspects of environmental noise (mean and interannual variability) is poorly understood. Such knowledge is currently relevant, as climate change can cause the mean, variability and temporal autocorrelation of environmental variables to change. Here, we predict that the extinction risk of a shorebird population increases with the colour of a key environmental variable: winter temperature. However, the effect is weak compared with the impact of changes in the mean and interannual variability of temperature. Extinction risk was largely insensitive to noise colour, because demographic rates are poor in tracking the colour of the environment. We show that three mechanisms—which probably act in many species—can cause poor environmental tracking: (i) demographic rates that depend nonlinearly on environmental variables filter the noise colour, (ii) demographic rates typically depend on several environmental signals that do not change colour synchronously, and (iii) demographic stochasticity whitens the colour of demographic rates at low population size. We argue that the common practice of assuming perfect environmental tracking may result in overemphasizing the importance of noise colour for extinction risk. Consequently, ignoring environmental autocorrelation in population viability analysis could be less problematic than generally thought. PMID:21561978

  7. Losses of radionuclides related to high temperature ashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, G.

    1985-01-01

    When measuring radionuclides in samples from the environment of nuclear power plants, a sample preparation step, such as high temperature ashing is often necessary. Althoug much used, this method is subject to controversy because of the risk of losses of several elements. A study, including the ashing of synthetically prepared samples has been undertaken. Controlled and moderate temperature rise rate and a final temperature not exceeding 550 deg. C has been shown vital for recovery

  8. Relation between temperature and mortality in thirteen Spanish cities

    OpenAIRE

    Iñiguez, Carmen; Ballester, Ferran; Ferrándiz, Juan; Pérez Hoyos, Santiago; Sáez Zafra, Marc; López Estudillo, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examined the shape of the association between temperature and mortality in 13 Spanish cities representing a wide range of climatic and socio-demographic conditions. The temperature value linked with minimum mortality (MMT) and the slopes before and after the turning point (MMT) were calculated. Most cities showed a V-shaped temperature-mortality relationship. MMTs were generally higher in cities with warmer climates. Cold and heat effects also depended on climate: effects wer...

  9. Trends in mean maximum temperature, mean minimum temperature and mean relative humidity for Lautoka, Fiji during 2003 – 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed S. Ghani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work observes the trends in Lautoka’s temperature and relative humidity during the period 2003 – 2013, which were analyzed using the recently updated data obtained from Fiji Meteorological Services (FMS. Four elements, mean maximum temperature, mean minimum temperature along with diurnal temperature range (DTR and mean relative humidity are investigated. From 2003–2013, the annual mean temperature has been enhanced between 0.02 and 0.080C. The heating is more in minimum temperature than in maximum temperature, resulting in a decrease of diurnal temperature range. The statistically significant increase was mostly seen during the summer months of December and January. Mean Relative Humidity has also increased from 3% to 8%. The bases of abnormal climate conditions are also studied. These bases were defined with temperature or humidity anomalies in their appropriate time sequences. These established the observed findings and exhibited that climate has been becoming gradually damper and heater throughout Lautoka during this period. While we are only at an initial phase in the probable inclinations of temperature changes, ecological reactions to recent climate change are already evidently noticeable. So it is proposed that it would be easier to identify climate alteration in a small island nation like Fiji.

  10. The Limitations to Delay-Insensitivity in Asynchronous Circuits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Alain J

    1990-01-01

    ... produced are delay-insensitive (DI). A digital circuit is DI when its correct operation is independent of the delays in operators and in the wires connecting the operators, except that the delays are finite and positive...

  11. Insensitive detonator apparatus for initiating large failure diameter explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, III, William Leroy

    2015-07-28

    A munition according to a preferred embodiment can include a detonator system having a detonator that is selectively coupled to a microwave source that functions to selectively prime, activate, initiate, and/or sensitize an insensitive explosive material for detonation. The preferred detonator can include an explosive cavity having a barrier within which an insensitive explosive material is disposed and a waveguide coupled to the explosive cavity. The preferred system can further include a microwave source coupled to the waveguide such that microwaves enter the explosive cavity and impinge on the insensitive explosive material to sensitize the explosive material for detonation. In use the preferred embodiments permit the deployment and use of munitions that are maintained in an insensitive state until the actual time of use, thereby substantially preventing unauthorized or unintended detonation thereof.

  12. Statistical analysis of the effects of relative humidity and temperature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isreal

    and temperature on radio refractivity over Nigeria using satellite data ... refractive index of air causes adverse effects such as multipath ... decreased power levels at the receiver and to increased ... the southern and central part of Nigeria.

  13. Calculation of coolant temperature sensitivity related to thermohydraulic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C. da; Andrade Lima, F.R. de

    1985-01-01

    It is verified the viability to apply the generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) in the calculation of sensitivity for thermal-hydraulic problems. It was developed the TEMPERA code in FORTRAN-IV to transient calculations in the axial temperature distribution in a channel of PWR reactor and the associated importance function, as well as effects of variations of thermalhydraulic parameters in the coolant temperature. The results are compared with one which were obtained by direct calculation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Chemical equilibria relating the isotopic hydrogens at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyper, J.W.; Souers, P.C.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen fusion will require a fuel mixture of liquefied or frozen D 2 and T 2 . The composition of this fuel mixture is described by the equilibrium constant K/sub DT/. The theory of isotopic exchange reactions is discussed as applied to the hydrogen isotopes. A literature survey of the values of K/sub HD/, K/sub HT/, and K/sub DT/ found no values of K/sub DT/ for temperatures below 25 0 K and no values of K/sub HD/ and K/sub HT/ for temperatures below 50 0 K. The existing data are critically evaluated, and simplified formulas for the three equilibrium constants in the temperature range 50 to 300 0 K are derived from them. Harmonic approximation theory with rotational correction was used to calculate values of K/sub HD/, K/sub HT/, and K/sub DT/ in the temperature range 4.2 to 50 0 K. It is found that K/sub DT/ = 2.995 exp(-10.82/T) in the temperature range 16.7 to 33.3 0 K to an accuracy of 1%. Tables, graphs, and equations of K/sub HD/, K/sub HT/, and K/sub DT/ are given for the temperature range 4.2 to 50 0 K. 27 references, 14 tables, 8 figures

  15. Relation between Wet-Bulb Globe Temperature and Thermal Work Limit Indices with Body Core Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Jalali

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to heat stress in casting and smelting industries can cause adverse health effects on employees who working in such industries. The present study was set to assess the correlation and agreement of heat stress indices, including wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT, and thermal work limit (TWL, and the deep body temperature indices in workers of several casting and smelting industries located in the vicinity of Tehran, Iran. In This cross-sectional study 40 workers randomly selected and were examined. WBGT and TWL were the indices used for assessing heat stress, and the tympanic temperature and the oral temperature were measured as the heat strain indices. The correlation and agreement of indices were measured using SPSS vs.16. The results of the assessment of WBGT, TWL, the tympanic temperature, and oral temperature showed that 80, 17.5, 40, and 32.5 percent of workers exposed to heat stress higher than permissible limits proposed by standard bodies. Moreover, the present study showed that the significant correlation coefficient between heat stress and heat strain indices was in the range of 0.844- 0.869. Further, there was observed a good agreement between TWL and heat strain indices. The agreement between TWL and the oral temperature was 0.63 (P-value≤ 0.001 and between TWL and tympanic temperature was 0.612 (P-value≤ 0.001. However, the agreement between WBGT and heat strain indices was not satisfactory. These values were 0.154 (P-value ≥ 0.068 and 0.215 (P-value≥ 0.028 for the oral temperature and the tympanic temperature, respectively. The TWL index had a better agreement than WBGT with heat strain indices so TWL index is the better choice for assessing the heat stress in casting and metal smelting industries.

  16. Relation between Temperature and Mortality in Thirteen Spanish Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Sáez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the shape of the association between temperature and mortality in 13 Spanish cities representing a wide range of climatic and socio-demographic conditions. The temperature value linked with minimum mortality (MMT and the slopes before and after the turning point (MMT were calculated. Most cities showed a V-shaped temperature-mortality relationship. MMTs were generally higher in cities with warmer climates. Cold and heat effects also depended on climate: effects were greater in hotter cities but lesser in cities with higher variability. The effect of heat was greater than the effect of cold. The effect of cold and MMT was, in general, greater for cardio-respiratory mortality than for total mortality, while the effect of heat was, in general, greater among the elderly.

  17. Development of temperature related thermal neutron scattering database for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Longwei; Cai Xiangzhou; Jiang Dazhen; Chen Jingen; Guo Wei

    2013-01-01

    Based on ENDF/B-Ⅶ neutron library, the thermal neutron scattering library S(α, β) for molten salt reactor moderators was developed. The temperatures of this library were chose as the characteristic temperature of the molten salt reactor. The cross section of the thermal neutron scattering of ACE format was investigated, and this library was also validated by the benchmarks of ICSBEP. The uncertainties shown in the validation were in reasonable range when compared with the thermal neutron scattering library tmccs which included in the MCNP data library. It was proved that the thermal neutron scattering library processed in this study could be used in the molten salt reactor design. (authors)

  18. Global surface temperature in relation to northeast monsoon rainfall ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is observed that the meridional gradient in surface air temperature anomalies between Europe and ... Surface air tempera- ture is one of the factors that influence monsoon variability. The distribution of surface air temper- ature over land and sea determines the locations ..... Asia, north Indian Ocean, northeast Russia and.

  19. Recommended temperature and relative humidity for storage of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... RED GINGER (Alpinia purpurata (Vieill.) Schum). Upon arrival at the treatment shed (packing house), the stems should be placed in clean water; this practice increases durability by helping to reduce the temperature of the same and facilitate cleaning. The remaining leaves should be removed. The leaves ...

  20. Temperature and relative humidity dependence of radiochromic film dosimeter response to gamma electron radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Puhl, J.M.; Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    on some earlier studies, their response functions have been reported to be dependent on the temperature and relative humidity during irradiation. The present study investigates differences in response over practical ranges of temperature, relative humidity, dose, and for different recent batches of films...... humidity) and should be calibrated under environmental conditions (temperature) at which they will be used routinely....

  1. Fire Related Temperature Resistance of Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyalakshmi R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presented in this paper is on the effect of heat treatment on fly ash based geopolymer mortar synthesized from fly ash (Class F –Low lime using alkaline binary activator solution containing sodium hydroxide (18 M and sodium silicate solution (MR 2.0, cured at 80oC for 24 h. 7 days aged specimen heated at elevated temperature (200°C, 400°C, 600°C and 800°C for the sustained period of 2hrs. The TGA/DTA analysis and thermal conductivity measurement as per ASTM C113 were carried out besides the compressive strengths. The thermal stability of the fly ash mortar at elevated temperature was found to be high as reflected in the observed value of f800°C/f30°C being more than 1 and this ratio was raised to about 1.3 with the addition of 2% Zirconium di oxide (ZrO2. No visible cracks were found on the specimens with and without ZrO2 when 800°C was sustained for 4 hrs in smaller specimens of size: 50 mm diameter x 100 mm height and in also bigger size specimens: 22 cm × 11 cm × 7 cm specimens. TGA/DTA analysis of the geopolymer paste showed that the retention of mass was around 90%. The addition of ZrO2 improved thermal resistance. The micro structure of the matrix found to be intact even at elevated temperature that was evident from the FESEM studies.

  2. Recent developments in bend-insensitive and ultra-bend-insensitive fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, David; de Montmorillon, Louis-Anne; Provost, Lionel; Montaigne, Nelly; Gooijer, Frans; Aldea, Eugen; Jensma, Jaap; Sillard, Pierre

    2010-02-01

    Designed to overcome the limitations in case of extreme bending conditions, Bend- and Ultra-Bend-Insensitive Fibers (BIFs and UBIFs) appear as ideal solutions for use in FTTH networks and in components, pigtails or patch-cords for ever demanding applications such as military or sensing. Recently, however, questions have been raised concerning the Multi-Path-Interference (MPI) levels in these fibers. Indeed, they are potentially subject to interferences between the fundamental mode and the higher-order mode that is also bend resistant. This MPI is generated because of discrete discontinuities such as staples, bends and splices/connections that occur on distance scales that become comparable to the laser coherent length. In this paper, we will demonstrate the high MPI tolerance of all-solid single-trench-assisted BIFs and UBIFs. We will present the first comprehensive study combining theoretical and experimental points of view to quantify the impact of fusion splices on coherent MPI. To be complete, results for mechanical splices will also be reported. Finally, we will show how the single-trench- assisted concept combined with the versatile PCVD process allows to tightly control the distributions of fibers characteristics. Such controls are needed to massively produce BIFs and to meet the more stringent specifications of the UBIFs.

  3. Projecting future temperature-related mortality in three largest Australian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yuming; Li, Shanshan; Liu, De Li; Chen, Dong; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu

    2016-01-01

    We estimated net annual temperature-related mortality in Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne in Australia using 62 global climate model projections under three IPPC SRES CO_2 emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1). In all cities, all scenarios resulted in increases in summer temperature-related deaths for future decades, and decreases in winter temperature-related deaths. However, Brisbane and Sydney will increase the net annual temperature-related deaths in the future, while a slight decrease will happen in Melbourne. Additionally, temperature-related mortality will largely increase beyond the summer (including January, February, March, November and December) in Brisbane and Sydney, while temperature-related mortality will largely decrease beyond the winter in Melbourne. In conclusion, temperature increases for Australia are expected to result in a decreased burden of cold-related mortality and an increased burden of heat-related mortality, but the balance of these differences varied by city. In particular, the seasonal patterns in temperature-related deaths will be shifted. - Temperature increases result in a decreased burden of cold-related mortality and an increased burden of heat-related mortality, but the balance of these differences varied by city in Australia.

  4. Congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis: A case report from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carounanidy Udayashankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis, also known as hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the congenital lack of pain sensation, inability to sweat, episodes of recurrent hyperpyrexia, mental retardation, and self-mutilating behavior. It is an extremely rare disorder with only a handful of reports from India. A five- year- old boy, born to second-degree consanguineous parents after uneventful antenatal period, presented to us with history of recurrent unexplained fever, recurrent ulcers in the lower limbs, insensitivity to painful stimuli (like injections, vaccination and self-mutilating behavior from early childhood. Cutaneous examination showed multiple ulcers, loss of teeth, loss of tip of the tongue (due to biting, scarring of finger tips, xerosis and lichenification. Sensory examination showed complete loss of pain and temperature sensations, but fine touch and vibration were preserved. Deep tendon reflexes were normal. Evaluation for Hansen′s disease was non-contributory. An intradermal injection of histamine did not show any flare response. Based on clinical as well as compatible histological features a diagnosis of congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis was made. The ulcers were treated with appropriate antibiotics and daily dressings. The parents were counseled about appropriate care of the child.

  5. Graphene based humidity-insensitive films

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2017-09-08

    A humidity nonsensitive material based on reduced-graphene oxide (r-GO) and methods of making the same are provided, in an embodiment, the materia! has a resistance/humidity variation of about -15% to 15% based on different sintering time or temperature. In an aspect, the resistance variation to humidity can be close to zero or -0.5% to 0.5%, showing a humidity non sensitivity property. In an embodiment, a humidity nonsensitive material based on the r-GO and carbon nanotube (CNT) composites is provided, wherein the ratio of CNT to r-GO is adjusted. The ratio can be adjusted based on the combined contribution of carbon nanotube (positive resistance variation) and reduced- graphene oxide (negative resistance variation) behaviors.

  6. A polarization-insensitive plasmonic photoconductive terahertz emitter

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Xurong

    2017-11-16

    We present a polarization-insensitive plasmonic photoconductive terahertz emitter that uses a two-dimensional array of nanoscale cross-shaped apertures as the plasmonic contact electrodes. The geometry of the cross-shaped apertures is set to maximize optical pump absorption in close proximity to the contact electrodes. The two-dimensional symmetry of the cross-shaped apertures offers a polarization-insensitive interaction between the plasmonic contact electrodes and optical pump beam. We experimentally demonstrate a polarization-insensitive terahertz radiation from the presented emitter in response to a femtosecond optical pump beam and similar terahertz radiation powers compared to previously demonstrated polarization-sensitive photoconductive emitters with plasmonic contact electrode gratings at the optimum optical pump polarization.

  7. Modeling Air Temperature/Water Temperature Relations Along a Small Mountain Stream Under Increasing Urban Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedders, E. R.; Anderson, W. P., Jr.; Hengst, A. M.; Gu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Boone Creek is a headwater stream of low to moderate gradient located in Boone, North Carolina, USA. Total impervious surface coverage in the 5.2 km2 catchment drained by the 1.9 km study reach increases from 13.4% in the upstream half of the reach to 24.3% in the downstream half. Other markers of urbanization, including culverting, lack of riparian shade vegetation, and bank armoring also increase downstream. Previous studies have shown the stream to be prone to temperature surges on short timescales (minutes to hours) caused by summer runoff from the urban hardscaping. This study investigates the effects of urbanization on the stream's thermal regime at daily to yearly timescales. To do this, we developed an analytical model of daily average stream temperatures based on daily average air temperatures. We utilized a two-part model comprising annual and biannual components and a daily component consisting of a 3rd-order Markov process in order to fit the thermal dynamics of our small, gaining stream. Optimizing this model at each of our study sites in each studied year (78 total site-years of data) yielded annual thermal exchange coefficients (K) for each site. These K values quantify the strength of the relationship between stream and air temperature, or inverse thermal stability. In a uniform, pristine catchment environment, K values are expected to decrease downstream as the stream gains discharge volume and, therefore, thermal inertia. Interannual average K values for our study reach, however, show an overall increase from 0.112 furthest upstream to 0.149 furthest downstream, despite a near doubling of stream discharge between these monitoring points. K values increase only slightly in the upstream, less urban, half of the reach. A line of best fit through these points on a plot of reach distance versus K value has a slope of 2E-6. But the K values of downstream, more urbanized sites increase at a rate of 2E-5 per meter of reach distance, an order of magnitude

  8. Assessing the concept of structure sensitivity or insensitivity for sub-nanometer catalyst materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Andrew S.; Rötzer, Marian D.; Ridge, Claron J.; Yoon, Bokwon; Schweinberger, Florian F.; Landman, Uzi; Heiz, Ueli

    2016-10-01

    The nature of the nano-catalyzed hydrogenation of ethylene, yielding benchmark information pertaining to the concept of structure sensitivity/insensitivity and its applicability at the bottom of the catalyst particle size-range, is explored with experiments on size-selected Ptn (n = 7-40) clusters soft-landed on MgO, in conjunction with first-principles simulations. As in the case of larger particles both the direct ethylene hydrogenation channel and the parallel hydrogenation-dehydrogenation ethylidyne-producing route must be considered, with the fundamental uncovering that at the reaction exhibits characteristics consistent with structure sensitivity, in contrast to the structure insensitivity found for larger particles. In this size-regime, the chemical properties can be modulated and tuned by a single atom, reflected by the onset of low temperature hydrogenation at T > 150 K catalyzed by Ptn (n ≥ 10) clusters, with maximum room temperature reactivity observed for Pt13 using a pulsed molecular beam technique. Structure insensitive behavior, inherent for specific cluster sizes at ambient temperatures, can be induced in the more active sizes, e.g. Pt13, by a temperature increase, up to 400 K, which opens dehydrogenation channels leading to ethylidyne formation. This reaction channel was, however found to be attenuated on Pt20, as catalyst activity remained elevated after the 400 K step. Pt30 displayed behavior which can be understood from extrapolating bulk properties to this size range; in particular the calculated d-band center. In the non-scalable sub-nanometer size regime, however, precise control of particle size may be used for atom-by-atom tuning and manipulation of catalyzed hydrogenation activity and selectivity.

  9. Congenital insensitivity to pain: Case report of a rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Dahiya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs are a group of disorders characterized by insensitivity to noxious stimuli and autonomic dysfunction, associated with pathological abnormalities of the peripheral nerves. Five types of HSAN have been reported in literature, out of which Type V known as congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP is a rare autosomal recessive condition. Self-mutilation is an invariable feature of this disorder, involving the teeth and orofacial structures. This case report describes a case of a 6-year-old girl with CIP brought by her parents for prostheses to replace her self-extracted primary teeth.

  10. Projections of Seasonal Patterns in Temperature- Related Deaths for Manhattan, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Horton, Radley M.; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    Global average temperatures have been rising for the past half-century, and the warming trend has accelerated in recent decades. Further warming is expected over the next few decades, with significant regional variations. These warming trends will probably result in more frequent, intense and persistent periods of hot temperatures in summer, and generally higher temperatures in winter. Daily death counts in cities increase markedly when temperatures reach levels that are very high relative to what is normal in a given location. Relatively cold temperatures also seem to carry risk. Rising temperatures may result in more heat-related mortality but may also reduce cold-related mortality, and the net impact on annual mortality remains uncertain. Here we use 16 downscaled global climate models and two emissions scenarios to estimate present and future seasonal patterns in temperature-related mortality in Manhattan, New York. All 32 projections yielded warm-season increases and cold-season decreases in temperature-related mortality, with positive net annual temperature-related deaths in all cases. Monthly analyses showed that the largest percentage increases may occur in May and September. These results suggest that, over a range of models and scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions, increases in heat-related mortality could outweigh reductions in cold-related mortality, with shifting seasonal patterns.

  11. Relation between Euclidean and real time calculations of Green functions at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochkarev, A.

    1993-01-01

    We find a relation between the semiclassical approximation of the temperature (Matsubara) two-point correlator and the corresponding classical Green function in real time at finite temperature. The anharmonic oscillator at finite temperature is used to illustrate our statement, which is however of rather general origin

  12. Wafer defect detection by a polarization-insensitive external differential interference contrast module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativ, Amit; Feldman, Haim; Shaked, Natan T

    2018-05-01

    We present a system that is based on a new external, polarization-insensitive differential interference contrast (DIC) module specifically adapted for detecting defects in semiconductor wafers. We obtained defect signal enhancement relative to the surrounding wafer pattern when compared with bright-field imaging. The new DIC module proposed is based on a shearing interferometer that connects externally at the output port of an optical microscope and enables imaging thin samples, such as wafer defects. This module does not require polarization optics (such as Wollaston or Nomarski prisms) and is insensitive to polarization, unlike traditional DIC techniques. In addition, it provides full control of the DIC shear and orientation, which allows obtaining a differential phase image directly on the camera (with no further digital processing) while enhancing defect detection capabilities, even if the size of the defect is smaller than the resolution limit. Our technique has the potential of future integration into semiconductor production lines.

  13. Root Formation in Ethylene-Insensitive Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David G.; Gubrium, Erika K.; Barrett, James E.; Nell, Terril A.; Klee, Harry J.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments with ethylene-insensitive tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and petunia (Petunia × hybrida) plants were conducted to determine if normal or adventitious root formation is affected by ethylene insensitivity. Ethylene-insensitive Never ripe (NR) tomato plants produced more belowground root mass but fewer aboveground adventitious roots than wild-type Pearson plants. Applied auxin (indole-3-butyric acid) increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings of wild-type plants but had little or no effect on rooting of NR plants. Reduced adventitious root formation was also observed in ethylene-insensitive transgenic petunia plants. Applied 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid increased adventitious root formation on vegetative stem cuttings from NR and wild-type plants, but NR cuttings produced fewer adventitious roots than wild-type cuttings. These data suggest that the promotive effect of auxin on adventitious rooting is influenced by ethylene responsiveness. Seedling root growth of tomato in response to mechanical impedance was also influenced by ethylene sensitivity. Ninety-six percent of wild-type seedlings germinated and grown on sand for 7 d grew normal roots into the medium, whereas 47% of NR seedlings displayed elongated taproots, shortened hypocotyls, and did not penetrate the medium. These data indicate that ethylene has a critical role in various responses of roots to environmental stimuli. PMID:10482660

  14. Design of delay insensitive circuits using multi-ring structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens; Staunstrup, Jørgen; Dantzer-Sørensen, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The design and VLSI implementation of a delay insensitive circuit that computes the inner product of two vec·tors is described. The circuit is based on an iterative serial-parallel multiplication algorithm. The design is based on a data flow approach using pipelines and rings that are combined...

  15. Gender insensitivity and male bias in local advertising | Mate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender insensitivity and male bias in local advertising. Rekopantswe Mate. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/safere.v3i1.23952 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  16. A transparent bending-insensitive pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwon; Reuveny, Amir; Reeder, Jonathan; Lee, Sunghoon; Jin, Hanbit; Liu, Qihan; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Suo, Zhigang; Someya, Takao

    2016-05-01

    Measuring small normal pressures is essential to accurately evaluate external stimuli in curvilinear and dynamic surfaces such as natural tissues. Usually, sensitive and spatially accurate pressure sensors are achieved through conformal contact with the surface; however, this also makes them sensitive to mechanical deformation (bending). Indeed, when a soft object is pressed by another soft object, the normal pressure cannot be measured independently from the mechanical stress. Here, we show a pressure sensor that measures only the normal pressure, even under extreme bending conditions. To reduce the bending sensitivity, we use composite nanofibres of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our simulations show that these fibres change their relative alignment to accommodate bending deformation, thus reducing the strain in individual fibres. Pressure sensitivity is maintained down to a bending radius of 80 μm. To test the suitability of our sensor for soft robotics and medical applications, we fabricated an integrated sensor matrix that is only 2 μm thick. We show real-time (response time of ∼20 ms), large-area, normal pressure monitoring under different, complex bending conditions.

  17. Estimating relations between temperature, relative humidity as independed variables and selected water quality parameters in Lake Manzala, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan A.H. Sallam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, Lake Manzala is the largest and the most productive lake of northern coastal lakes. In this study, the continuous measurements data of the Real Time Water Quality Monitoring stations in Lake Manzala were statistically analyzed to measure the regional and seasonal variations of the selected water quality parameters in relation to the change of air temperature and relative humidity. Simple formulas are elaborated using the DataFit software to predict the selected water quality parameters of the Lake including pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Turbidity, and Chlorophyll as a function of air temperature, relative humidity and quantities and qualities of the drainage water that discharge into the lake. An empirical positive relation was found between air temperature and the relative humidity and pH, EC and TDS and negative relation with DO. There is no significant effect on the other two parameters of turbidity and chlorophyll.

  18. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: Relation to infarct size and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); Scheijmans, F.E.V. (Féline E.V.); T. van Seeters (Tom); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta K.); H.B. van der Worp (Bart); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos (Yvo); L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); Greve, D. (Droogh-de); H.P. Bienfait (Henri); M.A.A. van Walderveen (Marianne); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (Wouter); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); Bot, J.; M.C. Visser (Marieke); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); van Seeters, T.; A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute

  19. Relation between the concentration of defects and the temperature on a crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, A T.V.; Cilense, M [UNESP, Araraquara (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Garlipp, W [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    1982-01-01

    Following the basic thermodynamics principles, the relation between the concentration of defects and the temperature on a crystal was established. In the case of vacancies, the relation between the changes in the resistivity and the absolute quench temperature was also obtained.

  20. Ethylene signaling renders the jasmonate response of Arabidopsis insensitive to future suppression by salicylic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Reyes, Antonio; Du, Yujuan; Koornneef, Annemart; Proietti, Silvia; Körbes, Ana P; Memelink, Johan; Pieterse, Corné M J; Ritsema, Tita

    2010-02-01

    Cross-talk between jasmonate (JA), ethylene (ET), and Salicylic acid (SA) signaling is thought to operate as a mechanism to fine-tune induced defenses that are activated in response to multiple attackers. Here, 43 Arabidopsis genotypes impaired in hormone signaling or defense-related processes were screened for their ability to express SA-mediated suppression of JA-responsive gene expression. Mutant cev1, which displays constitutive expression of JA and ET responses, appeared to be insensitive to SA-mediated suppression of the JA-responsive marker genes PDF1.2 and VSP2. Accordingly, strong activation of JA and ET responses by the necrotrophic pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola prior to SA treatment counteracted the ability of SA to suppress the JA response. Pharmacological assays, mutant analysis, and studies with the ET-signaling inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene revealed that ET signaling renders the JA response insensitive to subsequent suppression by SA. The APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR transcription factor ORA59, which regulates JA/ET-responsive genes such as PDF1.2, emerged as a potential mediator in this process. Collectively, our results point to a model in which simultaneous induction of the JA and ET pathway renders the plant insensitive to future SA-mediated suppression of JA-dependent defenses, which may prioritize the JA/ET pathway over the SA pathway during multi-attacker interactions.

  1. Eye and Ear Temperature Using Infrared Thermography Are Related to Rectal Temperature in Dogs at Rest or With Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanghi, Brian M

    2016-01-01

    Rectal body temperature (BT) has been documented in exercising dogs to monitor thermoregulation, heat stress risk, and performance during physical activity. Eye (BT eye ) and ear (BT ear ) temperature measured with infrared thermography (IRT) were compared to rectal (BT rec ) temperature as the reference method and assess alternative sites to track hyperthermia, possibly to establish BT eye IRT as a passive and non-contact method. BT measures were recorded at 09:00, 11:30, 12:30, and 02:30 from Labrador Retrievers ( N  = 16) and Beagles ( N  = 16) while sedentary and with 30-min play-exercise (pre- and 0, 15, 30-min post-exercise). Total exercise locomotor activity counts were recorded to compare relative intensity of play-exercise between breeds. BT rec , BT eye , and BT ear were measured within 5 min of the target time. Each BT method was analyzed by analysis of variance for main effects of breed and time. Method differences were compared using Bland-Altman plots and linear regression. Sedentary BT differed by breed for BT rec ( p  dogs with sedentary or exercise activity. The relationship between BT eye and BT rec improved when monitoring exercise hyperthermia ( r  = 0.674) versus measures at rest ( r  = 0.381), whereas BT ear was significantly related to BT rec regardless of activity ( r  = 0.615-0.735). Although BT readings were significantly related, method bias ( p  temperature and enables effective monitoring of BT changes at rest, with exercise, and between breeds. However, ear, and not eye, temperature is a better reflection of rectal temperature.

  2. Seasonal Variations of Indoor Microbial Exposures and Their Relation to Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Exchange Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors, n = 127; outdoors, n = 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total...... inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m3) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m3). Indoor...... of inhalable dust and number of particles. Temperature and air exchange rates were positively associated with fungi and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and negatively with bacteria and the total inflammatory potential. Although temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates were significantly...

  3. OM4 bend insensitive multi-mode fibers’ usefulness for MCM integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzowski, Bartłomiej; Lisik, Zbigniew; Tosik, Grzegorz; Ciupa, Emilia

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The influence of high temperature exposure on OM4 fibers’ mechanical properties. ► Researching OM4 class fibers for use in innovative Optical Multi Chip Module. ► The influence of bending at a very small radius, up to 2 mm, on MM fibers. - Abstract: For future generations of electronic systems, a severe bottleneck is expected on the interconnection level and the use of optical interconnection is considered as one of the most promising solutions in this matter. Recent progress in fiber development resulted in new generation of optical fibers that are bend insensitive. This makes them ideal for Multi Chip Module (MCM) application. This paper focuses on OM4 bend insensitive multi-mode fibers’ usefulness for MCM integration, particularly the investigation of MM fiber loss is presented, which is influenced by bend diameter and the fiber's mechanical performance under influence of high temperature (400 °C–1000 °C adequate to MCM production process).

  4. Load Insensitive, Low Voltage Quadrature Oscillator Using Single Active Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a load insensitive quadrature oscillator using single differential voltage dual-X second generation current conveyor operated at low voltage is proposed. The proposed circuit employs single active element, three grounded resistors and two grounded capacitors. The proposed oscillator offers two load insensitive quadrature current outputs and three quadrature voltage outputs simultaneously. Effects of non-idealities along with the effects of parasitic are further studied. The proposed circuit enjoys the feature of low active and passive sensitivities. Additionally, a resistorless realization of the proposed quadrature oscillator is also explored. Simulation results using PSPICE program on cadence tool using 90 nm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS process parameters confirm the validity and practical utility of the proposed circuit.

  5. Evidence of auditory insensitivity to vocalization frequencies in two frogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Sandra; Mason, Matthew J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    discrimination from background noise and heterospecific calls. However, we present here evidence that two anurans, Brachycephalus ephippium and B. pitanga, are insensitive to the sound of their own calls. Both species produce advertisement calls outside their hearing sensitivity range and their inner ears...... by their high toxicity might help to explain why calling has not yet disappeared, and that visual communication may have replaced auditory in these colourful, diurnal frogs....

  6. Eye and Ear Temperature using Infrared Thermography are Related to Rectal Temperature in Dogs at Rest or With Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Michael Zanghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rectal body temperature (BT has been documented in exercising dogs to monitor thermoregulation, heat stress risk, and performance during physical activity. Eye (BTeye and ear (BTear temperature measured with infrared thermography (IRT were compared to rectal (BTrec temperature as the reference method and assess alternative sites to track hyperthermia, possibly to establish BTeye IRT as a passive and non-contact method. BT measures were recorded at 09:00, 11:30, 12:30, and 02:30 from Labrador Retrievers (N=16 and Beagles (N=16 while sedentary and with 30-min play-exercise (pre- and 0, 15, 30-min post-exercise. Total exercise locomotor activity counts were recorded to compare relative intensity of play-exercise between breeds. BTrec, BTeye, and BTear were measured within 5 min of the target time. Each BT method was analyzed by ANOVA for main effects of breed and time. Method differences were compared using Bland-Altman plots and linear regression. Sedentary BT differed by breed for BTrec (p<0.0001, BTear (p<0.0001, and BTeye (p=0.06 with Labs having on average 0.3-0.8oC higher BT compared to Beagles. Readings also declined over time for BTeye (p<0.0001 and BTear (p<0.0001, but not for BTrec (p=0.63 for both breeds. Total exercise (30-min activity counts did not differ (p=0.53 between breeds. Time and breed interaction was significant in response to exercise for both BTrec and BTear (p=0.035 and p=0.005, respectively, with a marginal interaction (p=0.09 for BTeye. All 3 methods detected hyperthermia with Labs having a higher increase compared to Beagles. Both BTear and BTeye were significantly (p<0.0001 related to BTrec in all dogs with sedentary or exercise activity. The relationship between BTeye and BTrec improved when monitoring exercise hyperthermia (r=0.674 versus measures at rest (r=0.381, whereas BTear was significantly related to BTrec regardless of activity (r=0.615-0.735. Although BT readings were significantly related, method bias (p<0

  7. Diagnostic values for skin temperature assessment to detect diabetes-related foot complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, Jaap J.; Prijs, Miranda; van Baal, Jeff G.; Liu, C.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Bus, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    Skin temperature assessment is a promising modality for early detection of diabetic foot problems, but its diagnostic value has not been studied. Our aims were to investigate the diagnostic value of different cutoff skin temperature values for detecting diabetes-related foot complications such as

  8. Diagnostic values for skin temperature assessment to detect diabetes-related foot complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Netten, Jaap J.; Prijs, Miranda; van Baal, Jeff G.; Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Skin temperature assessment is a promising modality for early detection of diabetic foot problems, but its diagnostic value has not been studied. Our aims were to investigate the diagnostic value of different cutoff skin temperature values for detecting diabetes-related foot

  9. Accurate thermodynamic relations of the melting temperature of nanocrystals with different shapes and pure theoretical calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jinhua; Fu, Qingshan; Xue, Yongqiang, E-mail: xyqlw@126.com; Cui, Zixiang

    2017-05-01

    Based on the surface pre-melting model, accurate thermodynamic relations of the melting temperature of nanocrystals with different shapes (tetrahedron, cube, octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron, nanowire) were derived. The theoretically calculated melting temperatures are in relative good agreements with experimental, molecular dynamic simulation and other theoretical results for nanometer Au, Ag, Al, In and Pb. It is found that the particle size and shape have notable effects on the melting temperature of nanocrystals, and the smaller the particle size, the greater the effect of shape. Furthermore, at the same equivalent radius, the more the shape deviates from sphere, the lower the melting temperature is. The value of melting temperature depression of cylindrical nanowire is just half of that of spherical nanoparticle with an identical radius. The theoretical relations enable one to quantitatively describe the influence regularities of size and shape on the melting temperature and to provide an effective way to predict and interpret the melting temperature of nanocrystals with different sizes and shapes. - Highlights: • Accurate relations of T{sub m} of nanocrystals with various shapes are derived. • Calculated T{sub m} agree with literature results for nano Au, Ag, Al, In and Pb. • ΔT{sub m} (nanowire) = 0.5ΔT{sub m} (spherical nanocrystal). • The relations apply to predict and interpret the melting behaviors of nanocrystals.

  10. Effective temperatures and the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation for particle suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Carlos I; Santamaría-Holek, I; Pérez-Madrid, A

    2015-09-14

    The short- and long-time breakdown of the classical Stokes-Einstein relation for colloidal suspensions at arbitrary volume fractions is explained here by examining the role that confinement and attractive interactions play in the intra- and inter-cage dynamics executed by the colloidal particles. We show that the measured short-time diffusion coefficient is larger than the one predicted by the classical Stokes-Einstein relation due to a non-equilibrated energy transfer between kinetic and configuration degrees of freedom. This transfer can be incorporated in an effective kinetic temperature that is higher than the temperature of the heat bath. We propose a Generalized Stokes-Einstein relation (GSER) in which the effective temperature replaces the temperature of the heat bath. This relation then allows to obtain the diffusion coefficient once the viscosity and the effective temperature are known. On the other hand, the temporary cluster formation induced by confinement and attractive interactions of hydrodynamic nature makes the long-time diffusion coefficient to be smaller than the corresponding one obtained from the classical Stokes-Einstein relation. Then, the use of the GSER allows to obtain an effective temperature that is smaller than the temperature of the heat bath. Additionally, we provide a simple expression based on a differential effective medium theory that allows to calculate the diffusion coefficient at short and long times. Comparison of our results with experiments and simulations for suspensions of hard and porous spheres shows an excellent agreement in all cases.

  11. In-situ Air Temperature and Relative Humidity in Greenbelt, MD, 2013-2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set describes the temperature and relative humidity at 12 locations around Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt MD at 15 minute intervals between...

  12. models of hourly dry bulb temperature and relative humidity of key

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    3: Worst cases of MFE for Dry bulb temperature and Relative humidity. Fig. 4: Best cases of ... the Second Joint International Conference of. University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria and University ... Erbs, D. G., “Models and Applications for Weather.

  13. Ice nucleation onto Arizona test dust at cirrus temperatures: effect of temperature and aerosol size on onset relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Z A; Abbatt, J P D

    2010-01-21

    The University of Toronto Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (UT-CFDC) was used to study ice formation onto monodisperse Arizona Test Dust (ATD) particles. The onset relative humidity with respect to ice (RH(i)) was measured as a function of temperature in the range 251-223 K for 100 nm ATD particles. It was found that for 0.1% of the particles to freeze, water saturation was required at all temperatures except 223 K where particles activated at RH(i) below water saturation. At this temperature, where deposition mode freezing is occurring, we find that the larger the particle size, the lower the onset RH(i). We also demonstrate that the total number of particles present may influence the onset RH(i) observed. The surface area for ice activation, aerosol size, and temperature must all be considered when reporting onset values of ice formation onto ATD mineral dust particles. In addition, we calculate nucleation rates and contact angles of ice germs with ATD aerosols which indicate that there exists a range of active sites on the surface with different efficiencies for activating ice formation.

  14. The effect of temperature and relative humidity on survival of unfed hyalomma impeltatum (acarina: ixodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Hagras, Ahmed E. E. [احمد الوزير هجرس; Babiker, A. A.; Khalil, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    This work investigates survival of unfed Hyalomma impeltatum in which 8089 larvae, 3946 nymphs, 2058 males and 2304 females held at different combinations of temperature (21, 25, 29 and 34°C) and relative humidity (RH) (32, 52, 75 and 97%) levels. Survival was significantly improved with rise in RH and fall in temperature in all stages. The magnitude of the effect of RH and temperature on survival varied significantly between stages. Changes in RH and temperature had a stronger impact on surv...

  15. Advanced technologies related to a high temperature superconductor for small laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yuichi; Mito, Toshiyuki; Yanagi, Nagato

    2006-01-01

    Advanced technologies related to a high temperature superconductor materials and small refrigerator are reviewed. Mini-RT/RT-1 is designed and constructed as a plasma examination device. The element technology of low temperature apparatus, the results of performance tests and application examples are explained. The superconductors such as Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 (Bi-2212) for the low temperature phase, Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 (Bi-2223) for the high temperature phase, and YBa 2 Cu 3 O y (YBCO or Y123) are described. Advanced 4K-Giford-Mcmahon (GM) refrigerator on the market put superconductor coil made of low temperature superconductor metals to practical use and extends its application field. Small laboratory is able to experiment on the high temperature superconductor materials. (S.Y.)

  16. NDIA 2018 IM and EM Technology Symposium: Innovative Insensitive Munition Solutions for Enhanced Warfighter Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-26

    2018 IM & EM TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM INNOVATIVE INSENSITIVE MUNITION SOLUTIONS FOR ENHANCED WARFIGHTER EFFECTIVENESS April 23 – 26, 2018 Doubletree by...IM & EM TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM On behalf of the Insensitive Munitions and Energetic Materials Committee and our MSIAC partner, I would like to...welcome you to the 2018 Insensitive Munitions and Energetic Materials Technology Symposium. This international gathering of the top chemists, system

  17. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) - Global, 4 km, Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1985-2005 (NODC Accession 0044419)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  18. Why are agricultural impacts of climate change so uncertain? The importance of temperature relative to precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobell, David B; Burke, Marshall B

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of climate change impacts are often characterized by large uncertainties that reflect ignorance of many physical, biological, and socio-economic processes, and which hamper efforts to anticipate and adapt to climate change. A key to reducing these uncertainties is improved understanding of the relative contributions of individual factors. We evaluated uncertainties for projections of climate change impacts on crop production for 94 crop-region combinations that account for the bulk of calories consumed by malnourished populations. Specifically, we focused on the relative contributions of four factors: climate model projections of future temperature and precipitation, and the sensitivities of crops to temperature and precipitation changes. Surprisingly, uncertainties related to temperature represented a greater contribution to climate change impact uncertainty than those related to precipitation for most crops and regions, and in particular the sensitivity of crop yields to temperature was a critical source of uncertainty. These findings occurred despite rainfall's important contribution to year-to-year variability in crop yields and large disagreements among global climate models over the direction of future regional rainfall changes, and reflect the large magnitude of future warming relative to historical variability. We conclude that progress in understanding crop responses to temperature and the magnitude of regional temperature changes are two of the most important needs for climate change impact assessments and adaptation efforts for agriculture

  19. Variation in mortality of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in relation to high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Youn-Hee; Kim, Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor temperature has been reported to have a significant influence on the seasonal variations of stroke mortality, but few studies have investigated the effect of high temperature on the mortality of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. The main study goal was to examine the effect of temperature, particularly high temperature, on ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. We investigated the association between outdoor temperature and stroke mortality in four metropolitan cities in Korea during 1992-2007. We used time series analysis of the age-adjusted mortality rate for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke deaths by using generalized additive and generalized linear models, and estimated the percentage change of mortality rate associated with a 1°C increase of mean temperature. The temperature-responses for the hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke mortality differed, particularly in the range of high temperature. The estimated percentage change of ischemic stroke mortality above a threshold temperature was 5.4 % (95 % CI, 3.9-6.9 %) in Seoul, 4.1 % (95 % CI, 1.6-6.6 %) in Incheon, 2.3 % (-0.2 to 5.0 %) in Daegu and 3.6 % (0.7-6.6 %) in Busan, after controlling for daily mean humidity, mean air pressure, day of the week, season, and year. Additional adjustment of air pollution concentrations in the model did not change the effects. Hemorrhagic stroke mortality risk significantly decreased with increasing temperature without a threshold in the four cities after adjusting for confounders. These findings suggest that the mortality of hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes show different patterns in relation to outdoor temperature. High temperature was harmful for ischemic stroke but not for hemorrhagic stroke. The risk of high temperature to ischemic stroke did not differ by age or gender.

  20. Temporal relation between temperature change and FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, SunHee; Krynyckyi, Borys R.; Machac, Josef; Kim, Chun K.

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that the prevalence of 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is related to outdoor temperature, i.e., more frequent during the colder periods of the year. The purpose of this study was to assess the temporal relationship between BAT FDG uptake and temperature. We correlated the prevalence of BAT with average temperatures (divided into five temperature ranges) of seven different durations. One thousand four hundred ninety-five consecutive FDG Positron emission tomography (PET) studies in 1,159 patients (566 male and 593 female, mean age = 60.4 years) were retrospectively reviewed. FDG uptake with distinct patterns compatible with BAT was identified by a consensus of two readers. The local daily average temperature from January 2000 to November 2003 (beginning 60 days before the date of first PET scan) were obtained, and 2-, 3-, 7-, 14-, 30-, and 60-day average temperatures before the date of a PET study were calculated. The prevalence of BAT FDG uptake was correlated with these various average temperatures. The daily, 2-day, 3-day, and 7-day average temperature had an inverse relation with the prevalence of BAT, i.e., the lower the temperature, the higher prevalence of BAT. When the temperature was averaged over 14 days or longer, this inverse relationship between the temperature and the prevalence of BAT was no longer preserved. Our data suggest that increased FDG uptake in BAT occurs more often as an acute response to cold weather (1-7 days) rather than to prolonged periods of average cold weather. (orig.)

  1. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: relation to infarct size and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Marjolein; Scheijmans, Féline E V; van Seeters, Tom; Biessels, Geert J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K; van der Worp, H Bart

    2016-11-21

    High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In 419 patients with acute ischemic stroke we assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and during the first 3 days with both infarct size and functional outcome. Infarct size was measured in milliliters on CT or MRI after 3 days. Poor functional outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≥3 at 3 months. Body temperature on admission was not associated with infarct size or poor outcome in adjusted analyses. By contrast, each additional 1.0 °C in body temperature on day 1 was associated with 0.31 ml larger infarct size (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.59), on day 2 with 1.13 ml larger infarct size(95% CI, 0.83-1.43), and on day 3 with 0.80 ml larger infarct size (95% CI, 0.48-1.12), in adjusted linear regression analyses. Higher peak body temperatures on days two and three were also associated with poor outcome (adjusted relative risks per additional 1.0 °C in body temperature, 1.52 (95% CI, 1.17-1.99) and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.22-1.77), respectively). Higher peak body temperatures during the first days after ischemic stroke, rather than on admission, are associated with larger infarct size and poor functional outcome. This suggests that prevention of high temperatures may improve outcome if continued for at least 3 days.

  2. Seasonal variations of indoor microbial exposures and their relation to temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael; Gustavsen, Sine; Hansen, Erik Wind; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2012-12-01

    Indoor microbial exposure has been related to adverse pulmonary health effects. Exposure assessment is not standardized, and various factors may affect the measured exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of selected microbial exposures and their associations with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors, n = 127; outdoors, n = 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m(3)) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m(3)). Indoor bacteria peaked in spring (median, 2,165 CFU/m(3)) and were lowest in summer (median, 240 CFU/m(3)). Concentrations of fungi were predominately higher outdoors than indoors, whereas bacteria, endotoxin, and inhalable dust concentrations were highest indoors. Bacteria and endotoxin correlated with the mass of inhalable dust and number of particles. Temperature and air exchange rates were positively associated with fungi and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and negatively with bacteria and the total inflammatory potential. Although temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates were significantly associated with several indoor microbial exposures, they could not fully explain the observed seasonal variations when tested in a mixed statistical model. In conclusion, the season significantly affects indoor microbial exposures, which are influenced by temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates.

  3. Relative viscosity of emulsions in simple shear flow: Temperature, shear rate, and interfacial tension dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Se Bin; Lee, Joon Sang [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei Unversity, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We simulate an emulsion system under simple shear rates to analyze its rheological characteristics using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). We calculate the relative viscosity of an emulsion under a simple shear flow along with changes in temperature, shear rate, and surfactant concentration. The relative viscosity of emulsions decreased with an increase in temperature. We observed the shear-thinning phenomena, which is responsible for the inverse proportion between the shear rate and viscosity. An increase in the interfacial tension caused a decrease in the relative viscosity of the decane-in-water emulsion because the increased deformation caused by the decreased interfacial tension significantly influenced the wall shear stress.

  4. Climate risk assessment in museums : degradation risks determined from temperature and relative humidity data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, M.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    The main subject of this thesis is the determination of climate risks to objects in museums on the basis of measured and/or simulated temperature and relative humidity data. The focus is on the quantification of climate related risks for the preservation quality of indoor climate in Dutch museums.

  5. Closely related freshwater macrophyte species, Ceratophyllum demersum and C. submersum, differ in temperature response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    1. The importance of temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration in determining species distributions was compared in two closely related freshwater macrophytes, Ceratophyllum demersum and C. submersum. The two species differed significantly in response to temperature in the short...... and distributional patterns corresponded well with the long-term (weeks) results obtained, but with some important deviations. The long-term responses of the two species to low temperature (12 °C) were more similar than expected. In contrast, high temperature (35 °C), which stimulated photosynthesis in C. submersum...... in the short term, inhibited photosynthesis in the long term and resulted in lower growth rates of C. submersum, both compared to C. demersum and to growth rates at intermediate temperatures (18 and 25 °C). 3. The long-term acclimation strategy differed between the two species. Ceratophyllum demersum achieved...

  6. High-temperature and high-humidity response of the Eberline Model PRS-2 and the Eberline Model NRD neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAtee, J.L.

    1981-03-01

    The high-humidity and high-temperature response of the Eberline Model PRS-2 portable scaler-ratemeter and the Eberline Model NRD neutron detector was studied in an environmental chamber. The BF 3 probe used in the NRD detector was found to produce count rate surges at temperatures > 50 0 C and at relative humidity > 50%. The PRS-2 scaler-ratemeter was found to be relatively insensitive to high temperatures and high humidity

  7. Study of thermoelectric power of Co-B liquid quenched amorphous alloys at relatively high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.M.N.R.; Rizvi, S.D.H.; Raza, S.M.; Rizvi, S.; Hussain, A.; Rehman, F.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of thermoelectric power TEP were carried out for the samples of Co-1 alloy with appropriate compositions of constitutions in the temperature range, 350K< T<760K. The analysis of data shows an inverse Gaussian profile. Ziman theoretical model was used to fit the resistivity data which shows an agreement. Dynamic recovery processes as well as formation of vacancies, interstials, intersection of basal dislocations and indeed pyramidal interlocking of dislocations for seeding scattering centers are responsible for residual TEP at relatively high temperatures Co-B LQA alloys also undergo into other structural changes at such temperatures. (author)

  8. Effect of the irradiation temperature and relative humidity on PVG dosifilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Haishun; Chen Wenxiu; Shen Yuxin

    1999-01-01

    The effect of environmental factors, such as irradiation temperature and relative humidity, on the PVG dosifilm irradiated by EB was tested. Experiments show that the temperature coefficient of irradiated PVG dosifilm was 0.008 deg. C -1 from 20 deg. C to 55 deg. C, and the humidity coefficient was 0.006 per r.h. (%) from r.h. 0% to 76%. The PVG dosifilm can be used as a routine dosimeter for dose measurement for low-energy EB processing. The absorbed dose values for various irradiation temperature and humidity can be corrected based on experimental data. (author)

  9. Delay Insensitive Ternary CMOS Logic for Secure Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S. P. Nair

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As digital circuit design continues to evolve due to progress of semiconductor processes well into the sub 100 nm range, clocked architectures face limitations in a number of cases where clockless asynchronous architectures generate less noise and produce less electro-magnetic interference (EMI. This paper develops the Delay-Insensitive Ternary Logic (DITL asynchronous design paradigm that combines design aspects of similar dual-rail asynchronous paradigms and Boolean logic to create a single wire per bit, three voltage signaling and logic scheme. DITL is compared with other delay insensitive paradigms, such as Pre-Charge Half-Buffers (PCHB and NULL Convention Logic (NCL on which it is based. An application of DITL is discussed in designing secure digital circuits resistant to side channel attacks based on measurement of timing, power, and EMI signatures. A Secure DITL Adder circuit is designed at the transistor level, and several variance parameters are measured to validate the efficiency of DITL in resisting side channel attacks. The DITL design methodology is then applied to design a secure 8051 ALU.

  10. Near-surface temperature inversion during summer at Summit, Greenland, and its relation to MODIS-derived surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Alden C.; Albert, Mary R.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2018-03-01

    As rapid warming of the Arctic occurs, it is imperative that climate indicators such as temperature be monitored over large areas to understand and predict the effects of climate changes. Temperatures are traditionally tracked using in situ 2 m air temperatures and can also be assessed using remote sensing techniques. Remote sensing is especially valuable over the Greenland Ice Sheet, where few ground-based air temperature measurements exist. Because of the presence of surface-based temperature inversions in ice-covered areas, differences between 2 m air temperature and the temperature of the actual snow surface (referred to as skin temperature) can be significant and are particularly relevant when considering validation and application of remote sensing temperature data. We present results from a field campaign extending from 8 June to 18 July 2015, near Summit Station in Greenland, to study surface temperature using the following measurements: skin temperature measured by an infrared (IR) sensor, 2 m air temperature measured by a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) meteorological station, and a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface temperature product. Our data indicate that 2 m air temperature is often significantly higher than snow skin temperature measured in situ, and this finding may account for apparent biases in previous studies of MODIS products that used 2 m air temperature for validation. This inversion is present during our study period when incoming solar radiation and wind speed are both low. As compared to our in situ IR skin temperature measurements, after additional cloud masking, the MOD/MYD11 Collection 6 surface temperature standard product has an RMSE of 1.0 °C and a mean bias of -0.4 °C, spanning a range of temperatures from -35 to -5 °C (RMSE = 1.6 °C and mean bias = -0.7 °C prior to cloud masking). For our study area and time series, MODIS surface temperature products agree with skin surface

  11. Summer outdoor temperature and occupational heat-related illnesses in Quebec (Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane; Smargiassi, Audrey; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Duguay, Patrice; Fournier, Michel; Zayed, Joseph; Labrèche, France

    2014-01-01

    Background: Predicted rise in global mean temperature and intensification of heat waves associated with climate change present an increasing challenge for occupational health and safety. Although important scientific knowledge has been gathered on the health effects of heat, very few studies have focused on quantifying the association between outdoor heat and mortality or morbidity among workers. Objective: To quantify the association between occupational heat-related illnesses and exposure to summer outdoor temperatures. Methods: We modeled 259 heat-related illnesses compensated by the Workers' Compensation Board of Quebec between May and September, from 1998 to 2010, with maximum daily summer outdoor temperatures in 16 health regions of Quebec (Canada) using generalized linear models with negative binomial distributions, and estimated the pooled effect sizes for all regions combined, by sex and age groups, and for different time lags with random-effect models for meta-analyses. Results: The mean daily compensation count was 0.13 for all regions of Quebec combined. The relationship between daily counts of compensations and maximum daily temperatures was log-linear; the pooled incidence rate ratio (IRR) of daily heat-related compensations per 1 °C increase in daily maximum temperatures was 1.419 (95% CI 1.326 to 1.520). Associations were similar for men and women and by age groups. Increases in daily maximum temperatures at lags 1 and 2 and for two and three-day lag averages were also associated with increases in daily counts of compensations (IRRs of 1.206 to 1.471 for every 1 °C increase in temperature). Conclusion: This study is the first to quantify the association between occupational heat-related illnesses and exposure to summer temperatures in Canada. The model (risk function) developed in this study could be useful to improve the assessment of future impacts of predicted summer outdoor temperatures on workers and vulnerable groups, particularly in

  12. Summer outdoor temperature and occupational heat-related illnesses in Quebec (Canada)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Smargiassi, Audrey [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ), Montreal, QC (Canada); Busque, Marc-Antoine; Duguay, Patrice [Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), Montreal, QC (Canada); Fournier, Michel [Direction de santé publique, Agence de la santé et des services sociaux de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Zayed, Joseph [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), Montreal, QC (Canada); Labrèche, France, E-mail: labreche.france@irsst.qc.ca [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-10-15

    Background: Predicted rise in global mean temperature and intensification of heat waves associated with climate change present an increasing challenge for occupational health and safety. Although important scientific knowledge has been gathered on the health effects of heat, very few studies have focused on quantifying the association between outdoor heat and mortality or morbidity among workers. Objective: To quantify the association between occupational heat-related illnesses and exposure to summer outdoor temperatures. Methods: We modeled 259 heat-related illnesses compensated by the Workers' Compensation Board of Quebec between May and September, from 1998 to 2010, with maximum daily summer outdoor temperatures in 16 health regions of Quebec (Canada) using generalized linear models with negative binomial distributions, and estimated the pooled effect sizes for all regions combined, by sex and age groups, and for different time lags with random-effect models for meta-analyses. Results: The mean daily compensation count was 0.13 for all regions of Quebec combined. The relationship between daily counts of compensations and maximum daily temperatures was log-linear; the pooled incidence rate ratio (IRR) of daily heat-related compensations per 1 °C increase in daily maximum temperatures was 1.419 (95% CI 1.326 to 1.520). Associations were similar for men and women and by age groups. Increases in daily maximum temperatures at lags 1 and 2 and for two and three-day lag averages were also associated with increases in daily counts of compensations (IRRs of 1.206 to 1.471 for every 1 °C increase in temperature). Conclusion: This study is the first to quantify the association between occupational heat-related illnesses and exposure to summer temperatures in Canada. The model (risk function) developed in this study could be useful to improve the assessment of future impacts of predicted summer outdoor temperatures on workers and vulnerable groups, particularly in

  13. Development of data logger for atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity for gas-filled detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.; Sahu, P.K.; Bhuyan, M.R.; Biswas, S.; Mohanty, B.

    2014-01-01

    At IoP-NISER an initiative has been taken to build and test micro-pattern gas detector such as Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) for several upcoming High-Energy Physics (HEP) experiment projects. Temperature (t), atmospheric pressure (p) and relative humidity (RH) monitor and recording is very important for gas filled detector development. A data logger to monitor and record the ambient parameters such as temperature, relative humidity and pressure has been developed. With this data logger continuous recording of t, p, RH and time stamp can be done with a programmable sampling interval. This data is necessary to correct the gain of a gas filled detector

  14. A robust parasitic-insensitive successive approximation capacitance-to-digital converter

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present a capacitive sensor digital interface circuit using true capacitance-domain successive approximation that is independent of supply voltage. Robust operation is achieved by using a charge amplifier stage and multiple comparison technique. The interface circuit is insensitive to parasitic capacitances, offset voltages, and charge injection, and is not prone to noise coupling. The proposed design achieves very low temperature sensitivity of 25ppm/oC. A coarse-fine programmable capacitance array allows digitizing a wide capacitance range of 16pF with 12.5-bit quantization limited resolution in a compact area of 0.07mm2. The fabricated prototype is experimentally verified using on-chip sensor and off-chip MEMS capacitive pressure sensor. © 2014 IEEE.

  15. A robust parasitic-insensitive successive approximation capacitance-to-digital converter

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham; Arsalan, Muhammad; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a capacitive sensor digital interface circuit using true capacitance-domain successive approximation that is independent of supply voltage. Robust operation is achieved by using a charge amplifier stage and multiple comparison technique. The interface circuit is insensitive to parasitic capacitances, offset voltages, and charge injection, and is not prone to noise coupling. The proposed design achieves very low temperature sensitivity of 25ppm/oC. A coarse-fine programmable capacitance array allows digitizing a wide capacitance range of 16pF with 12.5-bit quantization limited resolution in a compact area of 0.07mm2. The fabricated prototype is experimentally verified using on-chip sensor and off-chip MEMS capacitive pressure sensor. © 2014 IEEE.

  16. Crystallization speed of salbutamol as a function of relative humidity and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellnitz, Sarah; Narygina, Olga; Resch, Christian; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Urbanetz, Nora Anne

    2015-07-15

    Spray dried salbutamol sulphate and salbutamol base particles are amorphous as a result of spray drying. As there is always the risk of recrystallization of amorphous material, the aim of this work is the evaluation of the temperature and humidity dependent recrystallization of spray dried salbutamol sulphate and base. Therefore in-situ Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD) studies of the crystallization process at various temperature (25 and 35 °C) and humidity (60%, 70%, 80%, 90% relative humidity) conditions were performed. It was shown that the crystallization speed of salbutamol sulphate and base is a non-linear function of both temperature and relative humidity. The higher the relative humidity the higher is the crystallization speed. At 60% relative humidity salbutamol base as well as salbutamol sulphate were found to be amorphous even after 12 h, however samples changed optically. At 70% and 90% RH recrystallization of salbutamol base is completed after 3 h and 30 min and recrystallization of salbutamol sulphate after 4h and 1h, respectively. Higher temperature (35 °C) also leads to increased crystallization speeds at all tested values of relative humidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Statistical Modelling of Temperature and Moisture Uptake of Biochars Exposed to Selected Relative Humidity of Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Bastistella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available New experimental techniques, as well as modern variants on known methods, have recently been employed to investigate the fundamental reactions underlying the oxidation of biochar. The purpose of this paper was to experimentally and statistically study how the relative humidity of air, mass, and particle size of four biochars influenced the adsorption of water and the increase in temperature. A random factorial design was employed using the intuitive statistical software Xlstat. A simple linear regression model and an analysis of variance with a pairwise comparison were performed. The experimental study was carried out on the wood of Quercus pubescens, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Trigonostemon huangmosun, and Bambusa vulgaris, and involved five relative humidity conditions (22, 43, 75, 84, and 90%, two mass samples (0.1 and 1 g, and two particle sizes (powder and piece. Two response variables including water adsorption and temperature increase were analyzed and discussed. The temperature did not increase linearly with the adsorption of water. Temperature was modeled by nine explanatory variables, while water adsorption was modeled by eight. Five variables, including factors and their interactions, were found to be common to the two models. Sample mass and relative humidity influenced the two qualitative variables, while particle size and biochar type only influenced the temperature.

  18. Air temperature and relative humidity in Dome Fuji Station buildings, East Antarctic ice sheet, in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Kameda

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the living condition in Dome Fuji Station in 2003, air temperature and relative humidity in the station were measured. Thermocouples with data logger and a ventilated psychrometer were used for the measurements. Average air temperature from February 11, 2003 to January 14, 2004 (missing period: July 19 to August 17 in the Dome Fuji Station buildings were as follows: Generator room 24.7℃, Dining room 23.5℃, Observation room 21.1℃, Dormitory room 18.2℃, Corridor 18.2℃, Food storage 8.2℃ and Old ice coring site -51.3℃. Average outside air temperature (1.5m height from the snow surface during the period was -54.4℃. A remarkable increase of outside air temperature (+30℃ at maximum due to a blocking high event was observed from October 31, 2003 to November 10, 2003 at Dome Fuji, during which increase of air temperature from 5 to 8°C in the station buildings was recorded. Snow on the station buildings was partly melted and some of the melted water penetrated into the station. This was the only time snow melted during the wintering over party's stay at the station. Average relative humidity in the station buildings obtained using a small humidifier was about 25%; the relative humidity without using the humidifier ranged from 9.0 to 22.9%.

  19. Relation of temperature and humidity to the risk of recurrent gout attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Tuhina; Chen, Clara; Niu, Jingbo; Chaisson, Christine; Hunter, David J; Choi, Hyon; Zhang, Yuqing

    2014-08-15

    Gout attack risk may be affected by weather (e.g., because of volume depletion). We therefore examined the association of temperature and humidity with the risk of recurrent gout attacks by conducting an internet-based case-crossover study in the United States (in 2003-2010) among subjects with a diagnosis of gout who had 1 or more attacks during 1 year of follow-up. We examined the association of temperature and humidity over the prior 48 hours with the risk of gout attacks using a time-stratified approach and conditional logistic regression. Among 632 subjects with gout, there was a significant dose-response relationship between mean temperature in the prior 48 hours and the risk of subsequent gout attack (P = 0.01 for linear trend). Higher temperatures were associated with approximately 40% higher risk of gout attack compared with moderate temperatures. There was a reverse J-shaped relationship between mean relative humidity and the risk of gout attacks (P = 0.03 for quadratic trend). The combination of high temperature and low humidity had the greatest association (odds ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 3.30) compared with moderate temperature and relative humidity. Thus, high ambient temperature and possibly extremes of humidity were associated with an increased risk of gout attack, despite the likelihood that individuals are often in climate-controlled indoor environments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum: complementary interaction between vernalization-insensitive and photoperiod-insensitive mutations imparts very early flowering habit to spring wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Sharma, Vishakha; Chaudhary, Swati; Tyagi, Anshika; Mishra, Poonam; Priyadarshini, Anupama; Singh, Anupam

    2012-01-01

    Time to flowering in the winter growth habit bread wheat is dependent on vernalization (exposure to cold conditions) and exposure to long days (photoperiod). Dominant Vrn-1 (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1) alleles are associated with vernalization independent spring growth habit. The semidominant Ppd-D1a mutation confers photoperiod-insensitivity or rapid flowering in wheat under short day and long day conditions. The objective of this study was to reveal the nature of interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a mutations (active alleles of the respective genes vrn-1 and Ppd-D1b). Twelve Indian spring wheat cultivars and the spring wheat landrace Chinese Spring were characterized for their flowering times by seeding them every month for five years under natural field conditions in New Delhi. Near isogenic Vrn-1 Ppd-D1 and Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a lines constructed in two genetic backgrounds were also phenotyped for flowering time by seeding in two different seasons. The wheat lines of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a, Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Ppd-D1a and Vrn-A1a Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a) genotypes flowered several weeks earlier than that of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b, Vrn-A1b Ppd-D1b and Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1b) genotypes. The flowering time phenotypes of the isogenic vernalization-insensitive lines confirmed that Ppd-D1a hastened flowering by several weeks. It was concluded that complementary interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a active alleles imparted super/very-early flowering habit to spring wheats. The early and late flowering wheat varieties showed differences in flowering time between short day and long day conditions. The flowering time in Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a genotypes was hastened by higher temperatures under long day conditions. The ambient air temperature and photoperiod parameters for flowering in spring wheat were estimated at 25°C and 12 h, respectively.

  1. Effect of incubation temperatures for inactivation of Escherichia coli and related bacteria after gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakauma, Makoto; Ito, Hitoshi; Tada, Mikiro

    2000-01-01

    Irradiated fresh meat or fishery products have been expected to store and distribute under refrigerated temperature below 10degC. From previous reports, growth of coliform bacteria in these products were suppressed by gamma-irradiation below expected doses obtained at 30-37degC. This research was performed to observe the irradiation effect on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and related bacteria at different incubation temperatures of 10-40degC on plate agar after irradiation. From this study, D10 values of all strains decreased 17- 45% at 10degC compared with maximum D10 values at 30- 40degC. Radiation sensitivities were related to the ability to grow at low temperatures in which psychrotrophic type E. coli A4-1 indicated most sensitive to radiation, next of Salmonella enteritidis YK-2, E. coli S2, B4 whereas most resistant at Enterobacter agglomerans K3-1. (author)

  2. Effect of incubation temperatures for inactivation of Escherichia coli and related bacteria after gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakauma, Makoto; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Tada, Mikiro [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    2000-09-01

    Irradiated fresh meat or fishery products have been expected to store and distribute under refrigerated temperature below 10degC. From previous reports, growth of coliform bacteria in these products were suppressed by gamma-irradiation below expected doses obtained at 30-37degC. This research was performed to observe the irradiation effect on the inactivation of Escherichia coli and related bacteria at different incubation temperatures of 10-40degC on plate agar after irradiation. From this study, D10 values of all strains decreased 17- 45% at 10degC compared with maximum D10 values at 30- 40degC. Radiation sensitivities were related to the ability to grow at low temperatures in which psychrotrophic type E. coli A4-1 indicated most sensitive to radiation, next of Salmonella enteritidis YK-2, E. coli S2, B4 whereas most resistant at Enterobacter agglomerans K3-1. (author)

  3. Nonuniqueness of the two-temperature Saha equation and related considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, D.; Capitelli, M.

    2002-01-01

    The present paper contains considerations relative to the long debated thermodynamic derivation of two-temperature Saha equations. The main focus of our discourse is on the dependence of the multitemperature equilibrium conditions on the constraints imposed on the thermodynamic system. We also examine the following key issues related to that dependence: correspondence between constraints and equilibrium-equation forms that have appeared in the literature; presumed dominance of the free-electron translational temperature in the two-temperature expression of the equilibrium constant of the ionization reaction A A + +e - ; disagreement between the derivation methods based on, respectively, the extended second law of classical thermodynamics and axiomatic thermodynamics; and plausibility of the existence of entropic constraints

  4. Thermodynamic relations in high temperature and high pressure physics of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Munish

    1998-01-01

    Various possible simple relations based on the exact and approximate thermodynamic relations are derived. These relations can be used to investigate the variation of unit cell volume under the effect of pressure and temperature. Thermal expansivity and compressibility can be investigated directly at any pressure or temperature, or through the knowledge of equation of state (EOS). A relation to determine Anderson-Grueneisen parameter δ T under the effect of pressure is predicted. It is discussed that δ T is independent of pressure and thus Murnaghan equation of state works well in low pressure ranges, while the variation of δ T under high pressure should be taken into account. The product of coefficient of volume thermal expansion and bulk modulus remains constant, is correct at high pressure, provided that the pressure dependence of δ T is considered. (author)

  5. Population growth and development of Liposcelis pearmani (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) at constant temperatures and relative humidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminatou, B A; Gautam, S G; Opit, G P; Talley, J; Shakya, K

    2011-08-01

    Psocids of genus Liposcelis are now considered serious pests of stored products. We investigated the effects of eight temperatures (22.5, 25.0, 27.5, 30.0, 32.5, 35.0, 37.5, and 40.0°C) and four relative humidities (43, 55, 63, and 75%) on population growth and development of the psocid Liposcelis pearmani Lienhard. L. pearmani did not survive at 37.5 and 40.0°C, at all relative humidities tested; at 43% RH, at all temperatures tested; and at 55% RH, at 32.5 and 35°C. The greatest population growth was recorded at 32.5°C and 75% RH (32-fold growth). L. pearmani males have two to four nymphal instars, and the percentages of males with two, three, and four instars were 17, 63, and 20%, respectively. Female L. pearmani have two to five instars, and the percentages of females with two, three, four, and five instars were 5, 39, 55, and 1%, respectively. We developed temperature-dependent development equations for male and female eggs, individual nymphal, combined nymphal, and combined immature stages. Based on 30-d population growth, L. pearmani cannot survive at temperatures >35.0°C; does not thrive at low relative humidities (55%), at temperatures above 25°C; and has a high optimum relative humidity for population growth (75%). Therefore, we expect it to have a more limited distribution compared with other Liposcelis species. These data provide a better understanding of how temperature and RH may influence L. pearmani population dynamics and can be used in population growth models to help develop effective management strategies for this psocid, and to predict its occurrence.

  6. Overproduction of alpha chains provides a proton-insensitive component to the bluefish hemoglobin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Celia; Godette, Gerald; Stevens, Robert; Brenowitz, Michael; Henkens, Robert

    2005-12-09

    Expression of alpha and beta chains and their post-translational assembly into alpha(2)beta(2) tetramers is fundamental to the formation and function of most vertebrate hemoglobins. There is a strong evolutionary bias that favors expression of equal amounts of the two types of chains, because cooperativity, pH sensitivity, and anionic control of function occurs only for the alpha(2)beta(2) tetramers. Remarkably, an over-production of alpha chains, as in the pathological condition known as beta thalassemia in humans, is adaptive rather than pathological in the bluefish hemoglobin system. The thalassemia of the bluefish is a novel means of providing for oxygen uptake and delivery when low pH conditions incapacitate the highly pH-sensitive Root effect hemoglobins of the fish. Although fish often have pH-insensitive along with highly pH-sensitive hemoglobins, having pH-insensitive alpha chain monomers in circulation is an unusual structural variation. The role of bluefish alpha chains in oxygen transport is enabled by their remarkably lower oxygen affinity relative to human alpha chains. This is the first reported case of a thalassemic condition that is maintained in a species as an adaptive advantage.

  7. Inositol metabolism in WRK-1 cells. Relationship of hormone-sensitive to -insensitive pools of phosphoinositides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaco, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated the existence of two separate pools of phosphoinositides in WRK-1 cells; one is labile and hormone-sensitive with respect to turnover, while the other is stable. Hormonal stimulation results in a rapid increase in 32 Pi incorporation into the sensitive pool, while in the absence of hormone, incorporation of 32 Pi into this pool is slow. Results are quite different when [ 3 H]inositol is the precursor utilized. Incorporation of [ 3 H]inositol into hormone-sensitive phosphoinositides is not stimulated in the presence of hormone, suggesting entry of this exogenous precursor into the cycle by a route other than the resynthetic phase of the cycle. Furthermore, failure of hormone to induce loss of [ 3 H]phosphoinositide in pulse-chase experiments in the absence of lithium suggests reutilization of the [ 3 H]inositol moiety generated by phosphodiesteratic cleavage of hormone-sensitive phosphoinositide. Time course studies indicate that the relative rates of incorporation of [ 3 H]inositol into sensitive and insensitive phosphoinositide remain constant from 2 to 24 h. Several factors are capable of increasing [ 3 H]inositol incorporation into hormone-insensitive phosphoinositide including vasopressin, calcium ionophores, and manganese. On the other hand, vasopressin treatment appears to decrease incorporation of [ 3 H]inositol into the hormone-sensitive pool, probably by shifting the equilibrium between phosphoinositides and inositol phosphates, since the decrease in radioactivity observed in the phosphoinositides is equaled by the increase observed in that in the inositol phosphates

  8. Sporulation of Bremia lactucae affected by temperature, relative humidity, and wind in controlled conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, H.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Subbarao, K.V.; Scherm, H.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of temperature (5 to 25degreesC), relative humidity (81 to 100%), wind speed (0 to 1.0 in s(-1)), and their interactions on sporulation of Bremia lactucae on lettuce cotyledons were investigated in controlled conditions. Sporulation was affected significantly (P <0.0001) by

  9. Effect of frozen storage temperature on quality-related changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgaard, Maria Garver; Jørgensen, Bo M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of frozen storage temperature on quality-related parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle was studied in the interval from -10 to -80°C on samples stored for 1 to 18 months. The following quantities were measured: drip loss, water holding capacity and water distribution...

  10. Influence of temperature on autogenous deformation and relative humidity change in hardening cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with autogenous deformation and autogenous relative humidity change (RH change) in hardening cement paste. Theoretical considerations and experimental data are presented, which elucidate the influence of temperature on these properties. This is an important subject in the control...

  11. Circadian and age-related modulation of thermoception and temperature regulation: mechanisms and functional implications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Someren, E.J.W.; Raymann, RJEM; Scherder, E.J.A.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Swaab, D.F.

    2002-01-01

    At older ages, the circadian rhythm of body temperature shows a decreased amplitude, an advanced phase, and decreased stability. The present review evaluates to what extent these changes may result from age-related deficiencies at several levels of the thermoregulatory system, including

  12. Circadian and age-related modulation of thermoreception and temperature regulation: mechanisms and functional implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Someren, Eus J. W.; Raymann, Roy J. E. M.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Daanen, Hein A. M.; Swaab, Dick F.

    2002-01-01

    At older ages, the circadian rhythm of body temperature shows a decreased amplitude, an advanced phase, and decreased stability. The present review evaluates to what extent these changes may result from age-related deficiencies at several levels of the thermoregulatory system, including

  13. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome with paratesticular leiomyoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Oh, Hyung Woo; Lee, Mi Ja; Lim, Dong Hoon [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a rare, X-linked recessive disorder. Patients with AIS may develop primary amenorrhea due to androgen receptor resistance, resulting in a normal female phenotype and male (XY) karyotype. We report a case of a 30-year-old woman who was diagnosed with complete AIS. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral inguinal cryptorchidism and no ovaries and uterus. After gonadectomy, the inguinal mass was confirmed as testicular atrophy with hamartomatous proliferation of Leydig cells and paratesticular leiomyoma. Although these tumors have been reported in association with AIS, this is the first case of paratesticular leiomyoma with hamartomatous proliferation of Leydig cells in atrophic testes being reported in Korea.

  14. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome with paratesticular leiomyoma: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Oh, Hyung Woo; Lee, Mi Ja; Lim, Dong Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a rare, X-linked recessive disorder. Patients with AIS may develop primary amenorrhea due to androgen receptor resistance, resulting in a normal female phenotype and male (XY) karyotype. We report a case of a 30-year-old woman who was diagnosed with complete AIS. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral inguinal cryptorchidism and no ovaries and uterus. After gonadectomy, the inguinal mass was confirmed as testicular atrophy with hamartomatous proliferation of Leydig cells and paratesticular leiomyoma. Although these tumors have been reported in association with AIS, this is the first case of paratesticular leiomyoma with hamartomatous proliferation of Leydig cells in atrophic testes being reported in Korea

  15. Humidity insensitive TOPAS polymer fiber Bragg grating sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Scott Wu; Khan, Lutul; Webb, David J.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first experimental demonstration of a humidity insensitive polymer optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG), as well as the first FBG recorded in a TOPAS polymer optical fiber in the important low loss 850nm spectral region. For the demonstration we have fabricated FBGs with resonance...... wavelength around 850 nm and 1550 nm in single-mode microstructured polymer optical fibers made of TOPAS and the conventional poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Characterization of the FBGs shows that the TOPAS FBG is more than 50 times less sensitive to humidity than the conventional PMMA FBG in both...... wavelength regimes. This makes the TOPAS FBG very appealing for sensing applications as it appears to solve the humidity sensitivity problem suffered by the PMMA FBG....

  16. Influence of helium generation rate and temperature history on mechanical properties of model Fe-Cr-Ni alloys irradiated in FFTF at relatively low displacement rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A.; Edwards, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    In agreement with earlier studies conducted at higher displacement rates, evolution of mechanical properties of model Fe-Cr-Ni alloys irradiated at lower displacement rates in the 59 Ni isotopic doping experiment does not appear to be strongly affected by large differences in helium generation rate. This insensitivity to helium/dpa ratio is exhibited during both isothermal and non-isothermal irradiation. The overall behavior of the model alloys used in this study is dominated by the tendency to converge to a saturation strength level that is independent of thermomechanical starting state and helium/dpa ratio, but which is dependent on irradiation temperature and alloy composition

  17. Effect of the temperature and relative humidity in dosemeters used for personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio Filho, J.

    1982-12-01

    The systematics of the combined effect of temperature and humidity on photographic dosimeters of the type Agfa-Gevaert, Kodak type II, III and the thermoluminescent dosimeters LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100, Harshaw), D-CaSO 4 :Dy-0,4 (Teledyne), e CaSO 4 :Dy+NaCl (IPEN), used in personal monitoring in Brazil was investigated, in the temperature range of 20 0 C to 50 0 C and relative humidity of 65% to 95%, in order to determine the best manner of utilization of these detectors in Brazilian climatic conditions. The dosimeters were studied in different forms of packing-sheet such as aluminezed paper and polyethylene. For the determination of the systematics, the dosimeters were irradiated in three conditions: before, during and after of storage in climatic chambers to a maximum period of 60 days. It was found that the dosimetric filmes and thermoluminescent dosimeter CaSO 4 :Dy+NaCl without protection, presented a high dependence to temperature and humidity, and when protected presented good results. Therefore, the best manner of utilization of these monitors in environments with relative humidity and temperature greater them 75% and 30 0 C respectively, is achieved with the protection of aluminized paper. The LiF:Mg,Ti and D+CaSO 4 :Dy-0,4 dosimeters can be utilized in their original form because they presented low dependence with humidity and temperature in the range studied. (Author) [pt

  18. Vertical distribution and temperature relations of sheathing mycorrhizas of Betula spp. growing on coal spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingleby, K.; Last, F.T.; Mason, P.A.

    1985-10-01

    Naturally-occurring fine roots (<2 mm dia.) of Betula spp. were sampled to a depth of 30 cm at seven locations on each of two transects across a heap of coal spoil in parts subject to after-burn. In the top 20 cm of substrate, 87% of the root pieces occurred. Irrespective of depth, sheathing mycorrhizas were found on 83% of the roof pieces. While the percentages of Paxillus-type mycorrhizas decreased with soil depth, those of a Scleroderma-type significantly increased. Total numbers of mycorrhizas counted at the end-of-season were independent of substrate temperatures. However, numbers of Paxillus-type mycorrhizas were inversely related to both annual mean and spring substrate temperatures, whereas those of the Scleroderma- type were directly related. Vegetative cultures of Scleroderma citrinum grew on an agar medium at 30 C, whereas those of Paxillus involutus did not; at lower temperatures the two fungi responded similarly to temperature changes. The evidence suggests that the observed patterns of mycorrhizal development reflect the changing competitive abilities of Scleroderma and Paxillus and/or host influences at different temperatures in the range 8-16 C.

  19. Temperature and Heat-Related Mortality Trends in the Sonoran and Mojave Desert Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polioptro F. Martinez-Austria

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Extreme temperatures and heat wave trends in five cities within the Sonoran Desert region (e.g., Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona, in the United States and Ciudad Obregon and San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora; and Mexicali, Baja California, in Mexico and one city within the Mojave Desert region (e.g., Las Vegas, Nevada were assessed using field data collected from 1950 to 2014. Instead of being selected by watershed, the cities were selected because they are part of the same arid climatic region. The data were analyzed for maximum temperature increases and the trends were confirmed statistically using Spearman’s nonparametric test. Temperature trends were correlated with the mortality information related with extreme heat events in the region. The results showed a clear trend of increasing maximum temperatures during the months of June, July, and August for five of the six cities and statically confirmed using Spearman’s rho values. Las Vegas was the only city where the temperature increase was not confirmed using Spearman’s test, probably because it is geographically located outside of the Sonoran Desert or because of its proximity to the Hoover Dam. The relationship between mortality and temperature was analyzed for the cities of Mexicali, Mexico and Phoenix. Arizona.

  20. Threshold Evaluation of Emergency Risk Communication for Health Risks Related to Hazardous Ambient Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Hoppe, Brenda O; Convertino, Matteo

    2018-04-10

    Emergency risk communication (ERC) programs that activate when the ambient temperature is expected to cross certain extreme thresholds are widely used to manage relevant public health risks. In practice, however, the effectiveness of these thresholds has rarely been examined. The goal of this study is to test if the activation criteria based on extreme temperature thresholds, both cold and heat, capture elevated health risks for all-cause and cause-specific mortality and morbidity in the Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. A distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) combined with a quasi-Poisson generalized linear model is used to derive the exposure-response functions between daily maximum heat index and mortality (1998-2014) and morbidity (emergency department visits; 2007-2014). Specific causes considered include cardiovascular, respiratory, renal diseases, and diabetes. Six extreme temperature thresholds, corresponding to 1st-3rd and 97th-99th percentiles of local exposure history, are examined. All six extreme temperature thresholds capture significantly increased relative risks for all-cause mortality and morbidity. However, the cause-specific analyses reveal heterogeneity. Extreme cold thresholds capture increased mortality and morbidity risks for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and extreme heat thresholds for renal disease. Percentile-based extreme temperature thresholds are appropriate for initiating ERC targeting the general population. Tailoring ERC by specific causes may protect some but not all individuals with health conditions exacerbated by hazardous ambient temperature exposure. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Air and Ground Surface Temperature Relations in a Mountainous Basin, Wolf Creek, Yukon Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roadhouse, Emily A.

    The links between climate and permafrost are well known, but the precise nature of the relationship between air and ground temperatures remains poorly understood, particularly in complex mountain environments. Although previous studies indicate that elevation and potential incoming solar radiation (PISR) are the two leading factors contributing to the existence of permafrost at a given location, additional factors may also contribute significantly to the existence of mountain permafrost, including vegetation cover, snow accumulation and the degree to which individual mountain landscapes are prone to air temperature inversions. Current mountain permafrost models consider only elevation and aspect, and have not been able to deal with inversion effects in a systematic fashion. This thesis explores the relationship between air and ground surface temperatures and the presence of surface-based inversions at 27 sites within the Wolf Creek basin and surrounding area between 2001 and 2006, as a first step in developing an improved permafrost distribution TTOP model. The TTOP model describes the relationship between the mean annual air temperature and the temperature at the top of permafrost in terms of the surface and thermal offsets (Smith and Riseborough, 2002). Key components of this model are n-factors which relate air and ground climate by establishing the ratio between air and surface freezing (winter) and thawing (summer) degree-days, thus summarizing the surface energy balance on a seasonal basis. Here we examine (1) surface offsets and (2) freezing and thawing n-factor variability at a number of sites through altitudinal treeline in the southern Yukon. Thawing n-factors (nt) measured at individual sites remained relatively constant from one year to the next and may be related to land cover. During the winter, the insulating effect of a thick snow cover results in higher surface temperatures, while thin snow cover results in low surface temperatures more closely

  2. Near-surface temperature inversion during summer at Summit, Greenland, and its relation to MODIS-derived surface temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Adolph

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As rapid warming of the Arctic occurs, it is imperative that climate indicators such as temperature be monitored over large areas to understand and predict the effects of climate changes. Temperatures are traditionally tracked using in situ 2 m air temperatures and can also be assessed using remote sensing techniques. Remote sensing is especially valuable over the Greenland Ice Sheet, where few ground-based air temperature measurements exist. Because of the presence of surface-based temperature inversions in ice-covered areas, differences between 2 m air temperature and the temperature of the actual snow surface (referred to as skin temperature can be significant and are particularly relevant when considering validation and application of remote sensing temperature data. We present results from a field campaign extending from 8 June to 18 July 2015, near Summit Station in Greenland, to study surface temperature using the following measurements: skin temperature measured by an infrared (IR sensor, 2 m air temperature measured by a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA meteorological station, and a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS surface temperature product. Our data indicate that 2 m air temperature is often significantly higher than snow skin temperature measured in situ, and this finding may account for apparent biases in previous studies of MODIS products that used 2 m air temperature for validation. This inversion is present during our study period when incoming solar radiation and wind speed are both low. As compared to our in situ IR skin temperature measurements, after additional cloud masking, the MOD/MYD11 Collection 6 surface temperature standard product has an RMSE of 1.0 °C and a mean bias of −0.4 °C, spanning a range of temperatures from −35 to −5 °C (RMSE  =  1.6 °C and mean bias  =  −0.7 °C prior to cloud masking. For our study area and time series

  3. Quantitative trait loci controlling leaf appearance and curd initiation of cauliflower in relation to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Yaser; Briggs, William; Matschegewski, Claudia; Ordon, Frank; Stützel, Hartmut; Zetzsche, Holger; Groen, Simon; Uptmoor, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    QTL regions on chromosomes C06 and C09 are involved in temperature dependent time to curd induction in cauliflower. Temperature is the main environmental factor influencing curding time of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis). Temperatures above 20-22 °C inhibit development towards curding even in many summer cultivars. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling curding time and its related traits in a wide range of different temperature regimes from 12 to 27 °C, a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population segregating for curding time was developed and days to curd initiation (DCI), leaf appearance rate (LAR), and final leaf number (FLN) were measured. The population was genotyped with 176 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Composite interval mapping (CIM) revealed repeatedly detected QTL for DCI on C06 and C09. The estimated additive effect increased at high temperatures. Significant QTL × environment interactions (Q × E) for FLN and DCI on C06 and C09 suggest that these hotspot regions have major influences on temperature mediated curd induction. 25 % of the DH lines did not induce curds at temperatures higher than 22 °C. Applying a binary model revealed a QTL with LOD >15 on C06. Nearly all lines carrying the allele of the reliable early maturing parental line (PL) on that locus induced curds at high temperatures while only half of the DH lines carrying the allele of the unreliable PL reached the generative phase during the experiment. Large variation in LAR was observed. QTL for LAR were detected repeatedly in several environments on C01, C04 and C06. Negative correlations between LAR and DCI and QTL co-localizations on C04 and C06 suggest that LAR has also effects on development towards curd induction.

  4. OSMOTIC COEFFICIENTS, SOLUBILITIES, AND DELIQUESCENCE RELATIONS IN MIXED AQUEOUS SALT SOLUTIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.S. Gruszkiewicz; D.A. Palmer

    2006-01-01

    While thermodynamic properties of pure aqueous electrolytes are relatively well known at ambient temperature, there are far fewer data for binary systems extending to elevated temperatures and high concentrations. There is no general theoretically sound basis for prediction of the temperature dependence of ionic activities, and consequently temperature extrapolations based on ambient temperature data and empirical equations are uncertain and require empirical verification. Thermodynamic properties of mixed brines in a wide range of concentrations would enhance the understanding and precise modeling of the effects of deliquescence of initially dry solids in humid air in geological environments and in modeling the composition of waters during heating, cooling, evaporation or condensation processes. These conditions are of interest in the analysis of waters on metal surfaces at the proposed radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results obtained in this project will be useful for modeling the long-term evolution of the chemical environment, and this in turn is useful for the analysis of the corrosion of waste packages. In particular, there are few reliable experimental data available on the relationship between relative humidity and composition that reveals the eutonic points of the mixtures and the mixture deliquescence RH. The deliquescence RH for multicomponent mixtures is lower than that of pure component or binary solutions, but is not easy to predict quantitatively since the solutions are highly nonideal. In this work we used the ORNL low-temperature and high-temperature isopiestic facilities, capable of precise measurements of vapor pressure between ambient temperature and 250 C for determination of not only osmotic coefficients, but also solubilities and deliquescence points of aqueous mixed solutions in a range of temperatures. In addition to standard solutions of CaCl 2 , LiCl, and NaCl used as references, precise direct

  5. No relation between body temperature and arterial recanalization at three days in patients with acute ischaemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); H.B. Van Der Worp (H. Bart); A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos; L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); K.E. Droogh-De Greve; H.P. Bienfait (Henri); M.A.A. van Walderveen (Marianne); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (Wouter); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); J. Bot (Joseph); M.C. Visser (Marieke); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); T. van Seeters (Tom); A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle; J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recanalization of an occluded intracranial artery is influenced by temperature-dependent enzymes, including alteplase. We assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and recanalization. Methods: We included 278 patients with acute ischaemic stroke within nine

  6. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON THE STUDDED AGARICUS BLAZEI MURRILL MUSHROOM COMPOST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Rózsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Almond mushroom, Agaricus blazei Murrill, is the so-called secondary saprophyte, developing on partially processed substrate, in which microorganisms reduced complex ligno-cellulose compounds. Numerous authors have shown that due to the similar life cycle in the cultivation of almond mushroom technologies developed for white button mushroom may be applied. However, almond mushroom requires high temperature and high humidity as well as access to light to form fruiting bodies. In Brazil, due to the advantageous climatic conditions this species is frequently grown outdoors; however, in other countries - mainly due to its high temperature requirements - such cultivation system is risky and may only be successful during very warm summers. In this study, we analyzed four kind of compost studded by Agaricus blazei Murrill mushroom mycelium. We recorded every hour the air and compost temperature and the air relative humidity. The best studded compost was the classical, followed by synthetic and then by the mixt compost.

  7. Temperature and rainfall are related to fertility rate after spring artificial insemination in small ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J. A.; Arrébola, F.; Macías, A.; Laviña, A.; González-Casquet, O.; Benítez, F.; Palacios, C.

    2016-10-01

    A total number of 1092 artificial inseminations (AIs) performed from March to May were documented over four consecutive years on 10 Payoya goat farms (36° N) and 19,392 AIs on 102 Rasa Aragonesa sheep farms (41° N) over 10 years. Mean, maximum, and minimum ambient temperatures, mean relative humidity, mean solar radiation, and total rainfall on each insemination day were recorded. Overall, fertility rates were 58 % in goats and 45 % in sheep. The fertility rates of the highest and lowest deciles of each of the meteorological variables indicated that temperature and rainfall had a significant effect on fertility in goats. Specifically, inseminations that were performed when mean (68 %), maximum (68 %), and minimum (66 %) temperatures were in the highest decile, and rainfall was in the lowest decile (59 %), had a significantly ( P goats and sheep.

  8. Effect of drying temperatures on starch-related functional and thermal properties of acorn flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, P R; Beirão-da-Costa, M L

    2011-03-01

    The application of starchy flours from different origins in food systems depends greatly on information about the chemical and functional properties of such food materials. Acorns are important forestry resources in the central and southern regions of Portugal. To preserve these fruits and to optimize their use, techniques like drying are needed. The effects of different drying temperatures on starch-related functional properties of acorn flours obtained from dried fruits of Quercus rotundifolia (QR) and Quercus suber (QS) were evaluated. Flours were characterized for amylose and resistant starch (RS) contents, swelling ability, and gelatinization properties. Drying temperature mainly affected amylose content and viscoamylographic properties. Amylograms of flours from fruits dried at 60 °C displayed higher consistency (2102 B.U. and 1560 B.U., respectively, for QR and QS). The transition temperatures and enthalpy were less affected by drying temperature, suggesting few modifications in starch structure during drying. QR flours presented different functional properties to those obtained from QS acorn flours. The effect of drying temperatures were more evident in QR.

  9. House Owners’ Interests and Actions in Relation to Indoor Temperature, Air Quality and Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Hansen, Anders Rhiger

    2016-01-01

    in saving energy for the sake of the environment and for their own economy, and quite a lot of households indicate that they know their own energy consumption, though only few follow it closely. Thus being concerned about energy is not necessarily related to an interest in detailed feedback on one’s own......In order to make better and more realistic predictions of energy consumption in dwellings, more knowledge is needed about how individuals and households control the indoor environment. A questionnaire survey was conducted with the objective of studying the interest and actions taken in relation...... to indoor temperature, air quality and energy consumption by Danish house owners living in single-family detached houses with district heating. The house owners state that they are interested in, and concerned about, the indoor temperature and air quality and that it is an important element in caring...

  10. The Relation Between Atmospheric Humidity and Temperature Trends for Stratospheric Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueglistaler, S.; Liu, Y. S.; Flannaghan, T. J.; Haynes, P. H.; Dee, D. P.; Read, W. J.; Remsberg, E. E.; Thomason, L. W.; Hurst, D. F.; Lanzante, J. R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the relation between atmospheric temperature and water vapor-a fundamental component of the global climate system-for stratospheric water vapor (SWV). We compare measurements of SWV (and methane where available) over the period 1980-2011 from NOAA balloon-borne frostpoint hygrometer (NOAA-FPH), SAGE II, Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS)/Aura, and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) to model predictions based on troposphere-to-stratosphere transport from ERA-Interim, and temperatures from ERA-Interim, Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis (MERRA), Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), Radiosonde Atmospheric Temperature Products for Assessing Climate (RATPAC), HadAT2, and RICHv1.5. All model predictions are dry biased. The interannual anomalies of the model predictions show periods of fairly regular oscillations, alternating with more quiescent periods and a few large-amplitude oscillations. They all agree well (correlation coefficients 0.9 and larger) with observations for higherfrequency variations (periods up to 2-3 years). Differences between SWV observations, and temperature data, respectively, render analysis of the model minus observation residual difficult. However, we find fairly well-defined periods of drifts in the residuals. For the 1980s, model predictions differ most, and only the calculation with ERA-Interim temperatures is roughly within observational uncertainties. All model predictions show a drying relative to HALOE in the 1990s, followed by a moistening in the early 2000s. Drifts to NOAA-FPH are similar (but stronger), whereas no drift is present against SAGE II. As a result, the model calculations have a less pronounced drop in SWV in 2000 than HALOE. From the mid-2000s onward, models and observations agree reasonably, and some differences can be traced to problems in the temperature data. These results indicate that both SWV and temperature data may still suffer

  11. MAOHUZI6/ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE2 Regulate Ethylene Response of Roots and Coleoptiles and Negatively Affect Salt Tolerance in Rice1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Ma, Biao; He, Si-Jie; Xiong, Qing; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Yin, Cui-Cui; Chen, Hui; Lu, Xiang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene plays important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. The ethylene signaling pathway has been studied extensively, mainly in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, the molecular mechanism of ethylene signaling is largely unknown in rice (Oryza sativa). Previously, we have isolated a set of rice ethylene-response mutants. Here, we characterized the mutant maohuzi6 (mhz6). Through map-based cloning, we found that MHZ6 encodes ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (OsEIL1), a rice homolog of ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), which is the master transcriptional regulator of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Disruption of MHZ6/OsEIL1 caused ethylene insensitivity mainly in roots, whereas silencing of the closely related OsEIL2 led to ethylene insensitivity mainly in coleoptiles of etiolated seedlings. This organ-specific functional divergence is different from the functional features of EIN3 and EIL1, both of which mediate the incomplete ethylene responses of Arabidopsis etiolated seedlings. In Arabidopsis, EIN3 and EIL1 play positive roles in plant salt tolerance. In rice, however, lack of MHZ6/OsEIL1 or OsEIL2 functions improves salt tolerance, whereas the overexpressing lines exhibit salt hypersensitivity at the seedling stage, indicating that MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 negatively regulate salt tolerance in rice. Furthermore, this negative regulation by MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in salt tolerance is likely attributable in part to the direct regulation of HIGH-AFFINITY K+ TRANSPORTER2;1 expression and Na+ uptake in roots. Additionally, MHZ6/OsEIL1 overexpression promotes grain size and thousand-grain weight. Together, our study provides insights for the functional diversification of MHZ6/OsEIL1 and OsEIL2 in ethylene response and finds a novel mode of ethylene-regulated salt stress response that could be helpful for engineering salt-tolerant crops. PMID:25995326

  12. Projecting temperature-related years of life lost under different climate change scenarios in one temperate megacity, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yixue; Li, Guoxing; Zeng, Qiang; Liang, Fengchao; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2018-02-01

    Temperature has been associated with population health, but few studies have projected the future temperature-related years of life lost attributable to climate change. To project future temperature-related disease burden in Tianjin, we selected years of life lost (YLL) as the dependent variable to explore YLL attributable to climate change. A generalized linear model (GLM) and distributed lag non-linear model were combined to assess the non-linear and delayed effects of temperature on the YLL of non-accidental mortality. Then, we calculated the YLL changes attributable to future climate scenarios in 2055 and 2090. The relationships of daily mean temperature with the YLL of non-accident mortality were basically U-shaped. Both the daily mean temperature increase on high-temperature days and its drop on low-temperature days caused an increase of YLL and non-accidental deaths. The temperature-related YLL will worsen if future climate change exceeds 2 °C. In addition, the adverse effects of extreme temperature on YLL occurred more quickly than that of the overall temperature. The impact of low temperature was greater than that of high temperature. Men were vulnerable to high temperature compared with women. This analysis highlights that the government should formulate environmental policies to reach the Paris Agreement goal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Egg turning behavior and incubation temperature in Forster’s terns in relation to mercury contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gregory T.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Shaffer, Scott A.

    2018-01-01

    Egg turning behavior is an important determinant of egg hatchability, but it remains relatively understudied. Here, we examined egg turning rates and egg temperatures in Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri). We used artificial eggs containing a data logger with a 3-D accelerometer, a magnetometer, and a temperature thermistor to monitor parental incubation behavior of 131 tern nests. Overall, adults turned their eggs an average (±SD) of 3.8 ± 0.8 turns h-1, which is nearly two times higher than that of other seabirds. Egg turning rates increased with nest initiation date. We also examined egg turning rates and egg temperatures in relation to egg mercury contamination. Mercury contamination has been shown to be associated with reduced egg hatchability, and we hypothesized that mercury may decrease egg hatchability via altered egg turning behavior by parents. Despite the high variability in egg turning rates among individuals, the rate of egg turning was not related to mercury concentrations in sibling eggs. These findings highlight the need for further study concerning the potential determinants of egg turning behavior.

  14. Tea shoot production in relation to rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature in Pagilaran tea estate, Batang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudono, P.

    2000-01-01

    Tea shoot production pattern in PT Pagilaran tea estate, Batang, is studied in relation to rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature. Pagilaran tea estate is located at 700-1,500 m above the sea level, with temperature of 15-30 deg. C and rainfall ranging from 4,500 mm to 7,000 mm per year. However, the area is also characterized by two up to three dry months for every three years. Monthly data of rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature were collected and were related to tea shoot production using correlation and regression analysis. The results indicated that there was no significant different pattern of tea shoot production form the three estate units (Kayulandak, Pagilaran, and Andongsili). Monthly shoots production increases during October up to December, and then goes down in January up to February. It fluctuated at a lesser degree in the upper units (Kayulandak and Andongsili) which might be attributed to better soil moisture available in the area. They are right below a forests area which understandably serves as rainfall catchment area and maintains soil moisture of the area below in a better condition. Weak to moderate correlation was obtained when monthly tea shoot production was correlated to amount of rainfall (r = -0.3771), days of rainfall (r = -0.3512), maximum temperature (r = -0.3502), minimum temperature (r = -0.2786), and solar radiation (r=0.6607) of the same month. On regressing monthly tea shoot production to those variables, rainfall and duration of solar radiation turned out to be the two significant factors through the following equation y = 759.5616-0.1802 xi-1 + 0.1057 xi-2 + 0.5239 zi-1 (R at the power of 2 = 0.3398), where y = tea shoots production, x=amount of monthly rainfall, z=duration of solar radiation, and i refer to month [in

  15. Resistance–temperature relation and atom cluster estimation of In–Bi system melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Haoran; Wang Zhiming; Zhou Yongzhi; Li Cancan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A testing device was adopted to measure the electrical resistivity of In–Bi system melts. ► A basically linear relation exists between the resistivity and temperature of In x Bi 100−x melts in measured temperature range. ► Based on Novakovic's assumption, the content of InBi atomic cluster in In x Bi 100−x melt is estimated with ρ ≈ ρ InBi x InBi + ρ m (1 − x InBi ) equation. - Abstract: A testing device for the resistivity of high-temperature melt was adopted to measure the l resistivity of In–Bi system melts at different temperatures. It can be concluded from the analysis and calculation of the experimental results that the resistivity of In x Bi 100−x (x = 0–100) melt is in linear relationship with temperature within the experiment temperature range. The resistivity of the melt decreases with the increasing content of In. The fair consistency of resistivity of In–Bi system melt is found in the heating and cooling processes. On the basis of Novakovic's assumption, we approximately estimated the content of InBi atom clusters in In x Bi 100−x melts with the resistivity data by equation ρ ≈ ρ InBi x InBi + ρ m (1 − x InBi ). In the whole components interval, the content corresponds well with the mole fraction of InBi clusters calculated by Novakovic in the thermodynamic approach. The mole fraction of InBi type atom clusters in the melts reaches the maximum at the point of stoichiometric composition In 50 Bi 50 .

  16. The ABA-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor links redox, hormone and sugar signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Kerchev, Pavel I; Hancock, Robert D

    2012-02-01

    The cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) hub processes information from metabolism and the environment and so regulates plant growth and defense through integration with the hormone signaling network. One key pathway of redox control involves interactions with ABSCISIC ACID (ABA). Accumulating evidence suggests that the ABA-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor plays a key role in transmitting information concerning the abundance of ascorbate and hence the ability of cells to buffer oxidative challenges. ABI4 is required for the ascorbate-dependent control of growth, a process that involves enhancement of salicylic acid (SA) signaling and inhibition of jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. Low redox buffering capacity reinforces SA- JA- interactions through the mediation of ABA and ABI4 to fine-tune plant growth and defense in relation to metabolic cues and environmental challenges. Moreover, ABI4-mediated pathways of sugar sensitivity are also responsive to the abundance of ascorbate, providing evidence of overlap between redox and sugar signaling pathways.

  17. Relation between medium fluid temperature and centroid subchannel temperatures of a nuclear fuel bundle mock-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Tofani, P. de.

    1986-01-01

    The subchannel method used in nuclear fuel bundle thermal-hydraulic analysis lies in the statement that subchannel fluid temperatures are taken at mixed mean values. However, the development of mixing correlations and code assessment procedures are, sometimes in the literature, based upon the assumption of identity between lumped and local (subchannel centroid) temperature values. The present paper is concerned with the presentation of an approach for correlating lumped to centroid subchannel temperatures, based upon previously formulated models by the author, applied, applied to a nine heated tube bundle experimental data set. (Author) [pt

  18. Relation between medium fluid temperature and centroid subchannel temperatures of a nuclear fuel bundle mock-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Tofani, P. de.

    1986-01-01

    The subchannel method used in nuclear fuel bundle thermal-hydraulic analysis lies in the statement that subchannel fluid temperatures are taken at mixed mean values. However, the development of mixing correlations and code assessment procedures are, sometimes in the literature, based upon the assumption of identity between lumped and local (subchannel centroid) temperature values. The present paper is concerned with the presentation of an approach for correlating lumped to centroid subchannel temperatures, based upon previously formulated models by the author, applied to a nine heated tube bundle experimental data set. (Author) [pt

  19. Spatial memory performance in androgen insensitive male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryan A; Watson, Neil V

    2005-06-02

    Masculinization of the developing rodent brain critically depends on the process of aromatization of circulating testosterone (T) to its estrogenic metabolite 17beta-estradiol, which subsequently interacts with estrogen receptors to permanently masculinize the brain. However, it remains unclear what role other androgenic mechanisms may play in the process of masculinization. A novel way of examining this is through the study of male rats that express the tfm mutation of the androgen receptor (AR) gene; such males are fully androgen insensitive and manifest a female phenotype due to a failure of AR-mediated masculinization of peripheral structures. Because tfm-affected males develop secretory testes and have near-normal T titers during development, aromatization would be expected to proceed normally, and brain mechanisms may be developmentally masculinized despite the feminized periphery. We compared tfm-affected males (X(tfm)Y) with normal males and females in the Morris Water Maze, a task in which males typically perform better than females. Performance of tfm-affected males was intermediate between that of normal males and females. While an overall male superiority was found in the task, the X(tfm)Y group reached male-typical escape latencies faster than females. Furthermore, in the X(tfm)Y group, the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus was significantly larger than in females. These results support the suggestion that that AR mediated mechanisms contribute to the masculinization of spatial behaviours and hippocampal morphology, and this may be independent of estrogenic processes.

  20. The clinical and molecular spectrum of androgen insensitivity syndromes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiort, O.; Sinnecker, G.H.G.; Holterhus, P.M.; Nitsche, E.M.; Kruse, K. [Medical Univ. of Luebeck (Germany)

    1996-05-03

    Androgen insensitivity syndromes (AIS) are due to end-organ resistance to androgenic steroids in males leading to defective virilization of the external genitalia. The phenotype encompasses a wide array of genital ambiguity and may range from completely female to undervirilized but unequivocally male with infertility. This disorder is caused by mutations of the androgen receptor and is an X-linked recessive trait. We have studied 47 patients with AIS and have characterized the underlying molecular abnormality in the androgen receptor gene. Twenty patients had complete AIS and twenty-seven had partial AIS. Of the latter, 11 were of predominantly female phenotypic appearance and gender was assigned accordingly, while 16 were raised as males. Within the group of complete AIS, two patients had gross deletions within the gene, one had a small deletion, and one had an insertion. In the other patients with complete AIS, as well as all individuals with partial AIS, single nucleotide substitutions within the coding region were detected, each leading to an amino acid alteration. Seven codons were involved in more than one mutation in different cases. In addition, in one patient with spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, an elongation of a glutamine-repeat was characterized. We conclude that mutations in the androgen receptor gene may be present throughout the whole coding region. However, our study provides evidence that several mutational hot spots exist. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Endonucleases induced TRAIL-insensitive apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geel, Tessa M. [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Meiss, Gregor [Institute of Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Gun, Bernardina T. van der; Kroesen, Bart Jan; Leij, Lou F. de [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Zaremba, Mindaugas; Silanskas, Arunas [Institute of Biotechnology, Vilnius LT-02241 (Lithuania); Kokkinidis, Michael [IMBB/FORTH and University of Crete/Department of Biology, GR-71409 Heraklion/Crete (Greece); Pingoud, Alfred [Institute of Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Ruiters, Marcel H. [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Synvolux therapeutics, Groningen (Netherlands); McLaughlin, Pamela M. [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Rots, Marianne G., E-mail: m.g.rots@med.umcg.nl [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-09-10

    TRAIL induced apoptosis of tumor cells is currently entering phase II clinical settings, despite the fact that not all tumor types are sensitive to TRAIL. TRAIL resistance in ovarian carcinomas can be caused by a blockade upstream of the caspase 3 signaling cascade. We explored the ability of restriction endonucleases to directly digest DNA in vivo, thereby circumventing the caspase cascade. For this purpose, we delivered enzymatically active endonucleases via the cationic amphiphilic lipid SAINT-18{sup Registered-Sign }:DOPE to both TRAIL-sensitive and insensitive ovarian carcinoma cells (OVCAR and SKOV-3, respectively). Functional nuclear localization after delivery of various endonucleases (BfiI, PvuII and NucA) was indicated by confocal microscopy and genomic cleavage analysis. For PvuII, analysis of mitochondrial damage demonstrated extensive apoptosis both in SKOV-3 and OVCAR. This study clearly demonstrates that cellular delivery of restriction endonucleases holds promise to serve as a novel therapeutic tool for the treatment of resistant ovarian carcinomas.

  2. Particulate Matter Mass Concentration in Residential Prefabricated Buildings Related to Temperature and Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Building environmental audit and the assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in typical residential buildings is necessary process to ensure users’ health and well-being. The paper deals with the concentrations on indoor dust particles (PM10) in the context of hygrothermal microclimate in indoor environment. The indoor temperature, relative humidity and air movement are basic significant factors determining the PM10 concentration [μg/m3]. The experimental measurements in this contribution represent the impact of indoor physical parameters on the concentration of particulate matter mass concentration. The occurrence of dust particles is typical for the almost two-thirds of interiors of the buildings. Other parameters indoor environment, such as air change rate, volume of the room, roughness and porosity of the building material surfaces, static electricity, light ions and others, were set constant and they are not taken into account in this study. The mass concentration of PM10 is measured during summer season in apartment of residential prefabricated building. The values of global temperature [°C] and relative humidity of indoor air [%] are also monitored. The quantity of particulate mass matter is determined gravimetrically by weighing according to CSN EN 12 341 (2014). The obtained results show that the temperature difference of the internal environment does not have a significant effect on the concentration PM10. Vice versa, the difference of relative humidity exhibits a difference of the concentration of dust particles. Higher levels of indoor particulates are observed for low values of relative humidity. The decreasing of relative air humidity about 10% caused 10µg/m3 of PM10 concentration increasing. The hygienic limit value of PM10 concentration is not exceeded at any point of experimental measurement.

  3. Microstructural changes and strain hardening effects in abrasive contacts at different relative velocities and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojacz, H., E-mail: rojacz@ac2t.at [AC2T research GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2C, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Mozdzen, G. [Aerospace & Advanced Composites GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2F, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Weigel, F.; Varga, M. [AC2T research GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2C, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2016-08-15

    Strain hardening is commonly used to reach the full potential of materials and can be beneficial in tribological contacts. 2-body abrasive wear was simulated in a scratch test, aimed at strain hardening effects in various steels. Different working conditions were examined at various temperatures and velocities. Strain hardening effects and microstructural changes were analysed with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), micro hardness measurements and nanoindentation. Statistical analysing was performed quantifying the influence of different parameters on microstructures. Results show a crucial influence of temperature and velocity on the strain hardening in tribological contacts. Increased velocity leads to higher deformed microstructures and higher increased surface hardness at a lower depth of the deformed zones at all materials investigated. An optimised surface hardness can be achieved knowing the influence of velocity (strain rate) and temperature for a “tailor-made” surface hardening in tribological systems aimed at increased wear resistance. - Highlights: •Hardening mechanisms and their intensity in tribological contacts are dependent on relative velocity and temperature. •Beneficial surface hardened zones are formed at certain running-in conditions; the scientific background is presented here. •Ferritic-pearlitic steels strain hardens via grain size reduction and decreasing interlamellar distances in pearlite. •Austenitic steels show excellent surface hardening (120% hardness increase) by twinning and martensitic transformation. •Ferritic steels with hard phases harden in the ferrite phase as per Hall-Petch equation and degree of deformation.

  4. Microstructural changes and strain hardening effects in abrasive contacts at different relative velocities and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojacz, H.; Mozdzen, G.; Weigel, F.; Varga, M.

    2016-01-01

    Strain hardening is commonly used to reach the full potential of materials and can be beneficial in tribological contacts. 2-body abrasive wear was simulated in a scratch test, aimed at strain hardening effects in various steels. Different working conditions were examined at various temperatures and velocities. Strain hardening effects and microstructural changes were analysed with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), micro hardness measurements and nanoindentation. Statistical analysing was performed quantifying the influence of different parameters on microstructures. Results show a crucial influence of temperature and velocity on the strain hardening in tribological contacts. Increased velocity leads to higher deformed microstructures and higher increased surface hardness at a lower depth of the deformed zones at all materials investigated. An optimised surface hardness can be achieved knowing the influence of velocity (strain rate) and temperature for a “tailor-made” surface hardening in tribological systems aimed at increased wear resistance. - Highlights: •Hardening mechanisms and their intensity in tribological contacts are dependent on relative velocity and temperature. •Beneficial surface hardened zones are formed at certain running-in conditions; the scientific background is presented here. •Ferritic-pearlitic steels strain hardens via grain size reduction and decreasing interlamellar distances in pearlite. •Austenitic steels show excellent surface hardening (120% hardness increase) by twinning and martensitic transformation. •Ferritic steels with hard phases harden in the ferrite phase as per Hall-Petch equation and degree of deformation.

  5. Time--temperature relation of embryonic development in the northwestern salamander, Ambystoma gracile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, H A

    1976-04-01

    A field and laboratory study on temperature-related embryonic development of Ambystoma gracile was made on a population from northwestern Washington. Natural spawning began in the beaver pond during early March, and the duration of embryonic development (stages 1 to 46) was about 62 days. Average water temperature in the pond during embryonic development was 8.5/sup 0/C (range, 4.4 to 14.3/sup 0/C). The laboratory data of embryonic development at constant temperatures show that the limits of temperature tolerance are about 5 to 22.5/sup 0/C. Rate of development was measured by determining time required to develop from first cleavage (stage 2) to gill circulation (stage 37); representative rates are 12.7 days at 20/sup 0/C, 27 days at 12/sup 0/C, and 89 days at 7/sup 0/C. Embryos of A. gracile have the slowest rate of development when compared with embryos of four other species of Ambystoma (maculatum, mexicanum, tigrinum, and jeffersonianum) and with embryos of three Pacific Northwest frogs (Ascaphus truei, Rana aurora, and Hyla regilla).

  6. Heat-related deaths in hot cities: estimates of human tolerance to high temperature thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Sharon L; Chowell, Gerardo; Yang, Shuo; Petitti, Diana B; Morales Butler, Emmanuel J; Ruddell, Benjamin L; Ruddell, Darren M

    2014-03-20

    In this study we characterized the relationship between temperature and mortality in central Arizona desert cities that have an extremely hot climate. Relationships between daily maximum apparent temperature (ATmax) and mortality for eight condition-specific causes and all-cause deaths were modeled for all residents and separately for males and females ages heat. For this condition-specific cause of death, the heat thresholds in all gender and age groups (ATmax = 90-97 °F; 32.2-36.1 °C) were below local median seasonal temperatures in the study period (ATmax = 99.5 °F; 37.5 °C). Heat threshold was defined as ATmax at which the mortality ratio begins an exponential upward trend. Thresholds were identified in younger and older females for cardiac disease/stroke mortality (ATmax = 106 and 108 °F; 41.1 and 42.2 °C) with a one-day lag. Thresholds were also identified for mortality from respiratory diseases in older people (ATmax = 109 °F; 42.8 °C) and for all-cause mortality in females (ATmax = 107 °F; 41.7 °C) and males Heat-related mortality in a region that has already made some adaptations to predictable periods of extremely high temperatures suggests that more extensive and targeted heat-adaptation plans for climate change are needed in cities worldwide.

  7. Corresponding Relation between Warm Season Precipitation Extremes and Surface Air Temperature in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Wei; LI; Jian; YU; Ru-Cong

    2013-01-01

    Hourly data of 42 rain gauges over South China during 1966–2005 were used to analyze the corresponding relation between precipitation extremes and surface air temperature in the warm season(May to October).The results show that below 25℃,both daily and hourly precipitation extremes in South China increase with rising temperature.More extreme events transit to the two-time Clausius-Clapeyron(CC)relationship at lower temperatures.Daily as well as hourly precipitation extremes have a decreasing tendency nearly above 25℃,among which the decrease of hourly extremes is much more significant.In order to investigate the efects of rainfall durations,hourly precipitation extremes are presented by short duration and long duration precipitation,respectively.Results show that the dramatic decrease of hourly rainfall intensities above 25℃ is mainly caused by short duration precipitation,and long duration precipitation extremes rarely occur in South China when surface air temperature surpasses 28℃.

  8. Radiation damage relative to transmission electron microscopy of biological specimens at low temperature: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, R.M.; Taylor, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    When biological specimens are irradiated by the electron beam in the electron microscope, the specimen structure is damaged as a result of molecular excitation, ionization, and subsequent chemical reactions. The radiation damage that occurs in the normal process of electron microscopy is known to present severe limitations for imaging high resolution detail in biological specimens. The question of radiation damage at low temperatures has therefore been investigated with the view in mind of reducing somewhat the rate at which damage occurs. The radiation damage protection found for small molecule (anhydrous) organic compounds is generally rather limited or even non-existent. However, large molecule, hydrated materials show as much as a 10-fold reduction at low temperature in the rate at which radiation damage occurs, relative to the damage rate at room temperature. In the case of hydrated specimens, therefore, low temperature electron microscopy offers an important advantage as part of the overall effort required in obtaining high resolution images of complex biological structures. (author)

  9. Dynamic changes in ear temperature in relation to separation distress in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Stefanie; Assis, Luciana; Pike, Thomas W; Mills, Daniel S

    2016-12-01

    Infrared thermography can visualize changes in body surface temperature that result from stress-induced physiological changes and alterations of blood flow patterns. Here we explored its use for remote stress monitoring (i.e. removing need for human presence) in a sample of six pet dogs. Dogs were tested in a brief separation test involving contact with their owner, a stranger, and social isolation for two one-minute-periods. Tests were filmed using a thermographic camera set up in a corner of the room, around 7m from where the subjects spent most of the time. Temperature was measured from selected regions of both ear pinnae simultaneously. Temperatures of both ear pinnae showed a pattern of decrease during separation and increase when a person (either the owner or a stranger) was present, with no lateralized temperature differences between the two ears. Long distance thermographic measurement is a promising technique for non-invasive remote stress assessment, although there are some limitations related to dogs' hair structure over the ears, making it unsuitable for some subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of draught related to air velocity, air temperature and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griefahn, B; Künemund, C; Gehring, U

    2001-08-01

    This experimental study was designed to test the hypotheses that the effects of draught increase with higher air velocity, with lower air temperature, and with lower workload. Thirty healthy young males were exposed to horizontal draught during 55 min while they operated an arm ergometer in a standing posture. Air velocity, air temperature, and workload were varied in 3 steps each, between 11 and 23 degrees C, 0.1 and 0.3 m/s, and 104 to 156 W/m2, respectively. The 27 combinations were distributed over subjects in a fractional factorial 3(3)-design. The participants were clothed for thermal neutrality. Workload was measured at the end of the sessions by respirometry. Draught-induced annoyance was determined every 5 min, separately for 10 body sites. Corresponding skin temperature was also recorded. The hypotheses were verified for the influence of air velocity and air temperature. Regarding workload, local heat production is probably decisive, meaning that draft-induced local annoyance is inversely related to workload in active but independent from workload in non-active body areas. To improve the situation for the workers concerned it is suggested to apply protective gloves that cover an as great area of the forearms as possible and to limit airflows to mean velocities of less than 0.2 m/s (with turbulence intensities of 50%).

  11. Traction and lubricant film temperature as related to the glass transition temperature and solidification. [using infrared spectroscopy on EHD contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, J. L.; Peterkin, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Does a traction fluid have to be a glass or solid under operating conditions. Infrared spectra on dynamic EHD contacts of several types of fluid were used to determine the surface and oil-film temperatures. Polarized spectral runs were made to study molecular alignment. Static glass transition pressures at appropriate temperatures were between 0.1 and 2.0 GPa, with the traction fluid showing the highest. In the EHD contact region, the traction fluid showed both the highest film temperatures as well as the greatest degree of molecular alignment. A plot of the difference between the film and surface temperatures vs shear rate resulted in a master plot valid for all the fluids. From this work, the authors propose a model of 'fluid' traction, where friction between parallel rough molecules provides the traction.

  12. Obesity improves myocardial ischaemic tolerance and RISK signalling in insulin-insensitive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Donner

    2013-03-01

    Obesity with associated metabolic disturbances worsens ischaemic heart disease outcomes, and rodent studies confirm that obesity with insulin-resistance impairs myocardial resistance to ischemia-reperfusion (I-R injury. However, the effects of obesity per se are unclear, with some evidence for paradoxic cardioprotection (particularly in older subjects. We tested the impact of dietary obesity on I-R tolerance and reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK signalling in hearts from middle-aged (10 months old insulin-insensitive rats. Hearts from Wistar rats on either a 32-week control (CD or high carbohydrate obesogenic (OB diet were assessed for I-R resistance in vivo (45 minutes left anterior descending artery occlusion and 120 minutes reperfusion and ex vivo (25 minutes ischemia and 60 minutes reperfusion. Expression and δ-opioid receptor (δ-OR phospho-regulation of pro-survival (Akt/PKB, Erk1/2, eNOS and pro-injury (GSK3β enzymes were also examined. OB rats were heavier (764±25 versus 657±22 g for CD; P<0.05, hyperleptinaemic (11.1±0.7 versus 5.0±0.7 for CD; P<0.01 and comparably insulin-insensitive (HOMA-IR of 63.2±3.3 versus 63.2±1.6 for CD. In vivo infarction was more than halved in OB (20±3% versus CD rats (45±6% P<0.05, as was post-ischaemic lactate dehydrogenase efflux (0.4±0.3 mU/ml versus 5.6±0.5 mU/ml; P<0.02 and ex vivo contractile dysfunction (62±2% versus 44±6% recovery of ventricular force; P<0.05. OB hearts exhibited up to 60% higher Akt expression, with increased phosphorylation of eNOS (+100%, GSK3β (+45% and Erk1/2 (+15%. Pre-ischaemic δ-OR agonism with BW373U86 improved recoveries in CD hearts in association with phosphorylation of Akt (+40%, eNOS (+75% and GSK3β (+30%, yet failed to further enhance RISK-NOS activation or I-R outcomes in OB hearts. In summary, dietary obesity in the context of age-related insulin-insensitivity paradoxically improves myocardial I-R tolerance, in association with moderate hyperleptinaemic and

  13. Calibration of Relative Humidity Devices in Low-pressure, Low-temperature CO2 Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzer, Maria; Polkko, Jouni; Nikkanen, Timo; Hieta, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti

    2017-04-01

    Calibration of relative humidity devices requires in minimum two humidity points - dry (0%RH) and (near)saturation (95-100%RH) - over the expected operational temperature and pressure range of the device. In terrestrial applications these are relatively easy to achieve using for example N2 gas as dry medium, and water vapor saturation chambers for producing saturation and intermediate humidity points. But for example in applications intended for meteorological measurements on Mars there is a need to achieve at least dry and saturation points in low-temperature, low-pressure CO2 environment. We have developed a custom-made, small, relatively low-cost calibration chamber able to produce both dry points and saturation points in Martian range pressure CO2, in temperatures down to -70°C. The system utilizes a commercially available temperature chamber for temperature control, vacuum vessels and pumps. The main pressure vessel with the devices under test inside is placed inside the temperature chamber, and the pressure inside is controlled by pumps and manual valves and monitored with a commercial pressure reference with calibration traceable to national standards. Air, CO2, or if needed another gas like N2, is used for filling the vessel until the desired pressure is achieved. Another pressure vessel with a dedicated pressure pump is used as the saturation chamber. This vessel is placed in the room outside the temperature chamber, partly filled with water and used for achieving saturated water vapor in room-temperature low-pressure environment. The saturation chamber is connected to the main pressure vessel via valves. In this system dry point, low-pressure CO2 environment is achieved by filling the main pressure vessel with dry CO2 gas until the desired pressure is achieved. A constant flow of gas is maintained with the pump and valves and monitored with the pressure reference. The saturation point is then achieved by adding some water vapor from the saturation

  14. RELATION BETWEEN MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE OF PHENOL FORMALDEHYDE RESIN FOR GAS SEPARATION MEMBRANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONIKA ŠUPOVÁ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper has been to characterize the relation between the pyrolysis temperature of phenol-formaldehyde resin, the development of a porous structure, and the mechanical properties for the application of semipermeable membranes for gas separation. No previous study has dealt with this problem in its entirety. Phenol-formaldehyde resin showed an increasing trend toward micropore porosity in the temperature range from 500 till 1000°C, together with closure of mesopores and macropores. Samples cured and pyrolyzed at 1000°C pronounced hysteresis of desorption branch. The ultimate bending strength was measured using a four-point arrangement that is more suitable for measuring of brittle materials. The chevron notch technique was used for determination the fracture toughness. The results for mechanical properties indicated that phenol-formaldehyde resin pyrolyzates behaved similarly to ceramic materials. The data obtained for the material can be used for calculating the technical design of gas separation membranes.

  15. Physiological ecology of desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) eggs: temperature and water relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, A.

    1980-12-01

    The soil environment imposes constraints on the timing of oviposition and the location of suitable sites for egg burrows of the desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis). The effects of temperature and water potential on the developmental period and hatching success of eggs were determined. Eggs hatch normally between 28/sup 0/ and 38/sup 0/C at environmental water potentials between -50 and -1500 kPa. Predictions were derived for the timing and placement of egg clutches based on soil water potential and temperature profiles measured in the field and on the results of laboratory incubation experiments. The results suggest that egg burrows should be located at depths >22 cm in washes or possibly in sparsely vegetated areas away from creosote bushes. The biogeography of desert iguanas within the United States is discussed in relation to soil environments and tolerances of eggs. The physical factors affecting incubation may limit the geographical range of desert iguanas.

  16. The Temperature-Density Relation in the Intergalactic Medium at Redshift langzrang = 2.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudie, Gwen C.; Steidel, Charles C.; Pettini, Max

    2012-10-01

    We present new measurements of the temperature-density (T-ρ) relation for neutral hydrogen in the 2.0 law index of (Γ - 1) = 0.15 ± 0.02. Using analytic arguments, these measurements imply an "equation of state" for the IGM at langzrang = 2.4 of the form T=T_0 \\left(\\rho /\\bar{\\rho }\\right)^{\\gamma -1} with a temperature at mean density of T 0 = [1.94 ± 0.05] × 104 K and a power-law index (γ - 1) = 0.46 ± 0.05. Based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  17. Applications of Modulated Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimetry to Polymer Blends and Related Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourston, Douglas J.; Song, Mo

    It has been shown in this chapter that the MTDSC technique is a very useful tool in the study of several aspects of polymer blends and related materials including structured latexes and interpenetrating polymer networks. It is important to note that the dC p/dT versus temperature signal may be used not only qualitatively as a sensitive detector of transitions impossible to spot by other thermal techniques such as conventional DSC and DMTA, but it may also be used to significant advantage in a quantitative way. It has been shown that it is sensitive to the diffuse interface between phases. Thus, from dC p/dT versus temperature signals, the weight fraction of the diffuse interface can be quantified. There are many situations where this will prove to be very valuable.

  18. Temperature and relative humidity influence the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of Camembert-type cheese ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Sicard, M; Trelea, I C; Picque, D; Corrieu, G

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on microbial and biochemical ripening kinetics, Camembert-type cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk seeded with Kluyveromyces marxianus, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium camemberti, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. Microorganism growth and biochemical changes were studied under different ripening temperatures (8, 12, and 16°C) and RH (88, 92, and 98%). The central point runs (12°C, 92% RH) were both reproducible and repeatable, and for each microbial and biochemical parameter, 2 kinetic descriptors were defined. Temperature had significant effects on the growth of both K. marxianus and G. candidum, whereas RH did not affect it. Regardless of the temperature, at 98% RH the specific growth rate of P. camemberti spores was significantly higher [between 2 (8°C) and 106 times (16°C) higher]. However, at 16°C, the appearance of the rind was no longer suitable because mycelia were damaged. Brevibacterium aurantiacum growth depended on both temperature and RH. At 8°C under 88% RH, its growth was restricted (1.3 × 10(7) cfu/g), whereas at 16°C and 98% RH, its growth was favored, reaching 7.9 × 10(9) cfu/g, but the rind had a dark brown color after d 20. Temperature had a significant effect on carbon substrate consumption rates in the core as well as in the rind. In the rind, when temperature was 16°C rather than 8°C, the lactate consumption rate was approximately 2.9 times higher under 88% RH. Whatever the RH, temperature significantly affected the increase in rind pH (from 4.6 to 7.7 ± 0.2). At 8°C, an increase in rind pH was observed between d 6 and 9, whereas at 16°C, it was between d 2 and 3. Temperature and RH affected the increasing rate of the underrind thickness: at 16°C, half of the cheese thickness appeared ripened on d 14 (wrapping day). However, at 98% RH, the underrind was runny. In conclusion, some descriptors, such as yeast growth and the pH in the rind, depended solely on

  19. Managing Temperature Effects in Nanoscale Adaptive Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wolpert, David

    2012-01-01

    This book discusses new techniques for detecting, controlling, and exploiting the impacts of temperature variations on nanoscale circuits and systems.  It provides a holistic discussion of temperature management, including physical phenomena (reversal of the MOSFET temperature dependence) that have recently become problematic, along with circuit techniques for detecting, controlling, and adapting to these phenomena. A detailed discussion is also included of the general aspects of thermal-aware system design and management of temperature-induced faults. A new sensor system is described that can determine the temperature dependence as well as the operating temperature to improve system reliability.  A new method is presented to control a circuit’s temperature dependence by individually tuning pull-up and pull-down networks to their temperature-insensitive operating points. This method extends the range of supply voltages that can be made temperature-insensitive, achieving insensitivity at nominal voltage fo...

  20. Relation between 1m depth temperature and average geothermal gradient at 75cm depth in geothermal fields

    OpenAIRE

    江原, 幸雄

    2009-01-01

    Shallow ground temperatures such as 1m depth temperature have been measured to delineate thermal anomalies of geothermal fields and also to estimate heat discharge rates from geothermal fields. As a result, a close linear relation between 1m depth temperature and average geothermal gradient at 75cm depth has been recognized in many geothermal fields and was used to estimate conductive heat discharge rates. However, such a linear relation may show that the shallow thermal regime in geothermal ...

  1. Recent advances in thermal analysis and stability evaluation of insensitive plastic bonded explosives (PBXs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Qi-Long; Zeman, Svatopluk; Elbeih, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We summarize currently used insensitive polymer based explosives and their ingredients. ► We examine the calculation methods that are suitable for kinetic evaluation of polymer based explosives. ► The calculation method for thermal stability parameters of polymer based explosives are summarized, which mainly include shelf life, explosion delay, critical temperature, thermostability threshold, 500 day cookoff temperature and approximate time to explosion. ► The polymer bases could greatly affect the thermal properties of PBXs, including their thermal stability, kinetic parameters and thermodynamic properties. ► PBXs, containing some innovative energetic fillers such as CL-20, NTO, Fox-12 and BCHMX, are only at design stage, which need more research work in the future. - Abstract: In this paper, several fundamental investigations published over the past decades with regard to the thermal analysis of polymer-based explosives (PBXs) have been briefly reviewed. A number of explosive fillers and polymer bases that were used as their main ingredients of PBXs are summarized herein. In addition, the calculation methods for their decomposition kinetics and thermal stability parameters are also introduced in detail. It was concluded that only PBXs based on HMX, RDX and TATB have been widely investigated, and that some other PBXs containing innovative fillers, such as CL-20, TNAZ, NTO and BCHMX are at the design stage. The isoconversional methods and model fitting procedures are usually used to analyze the discrete thermolysis processes of PBXs. In addition, their thermal stability parameters such as shelf life, explosion delay, critical temperature, thermostability threshold, 500-day cookoff temperature and approximate time to explosion could be calculated easily from the kinetic data.

  2. An Investigation of the Relation Between Contact Thermometry and Dew-Point Temperature Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyon, R.; Böse, N.; Mitter, H.; Mutter, D.; Vicente, T.

    2012-09-01

    Precision optical dew-point hygrometers are the most commonly used transfer standards for the comparison of dew-point temperature realizations at National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and for disseminating traceability to calibration laboratories. These instruments have been shown to be highly reproducible when properly used. In order to obtain the best performance, the resistance of the platinum resistance thermometer (PRT) embedded in the mirror is usually measured with an external, traceable resistance bridge or digital multimeter. The relation between the conventional calibration of miniature PRTs, prior to their assembly in the mirrors of state-of-the-art optical dew-point hygrometers and their subsequent calibration as dew-point temperature measurement devices, has been investigated. Standard humidity generators of three NMIs were used to calibrate hygrometers of different designs, covering the dew-point temperature range from -75 °C to + 95 °C. The results span more than a decade, during which time successive improvements and modifications were implemented by the manufacturer. The findings are presented and discussed in the context of enabling the optimum use of these transfer standards and as a basis for determining contributions to the uncertainty in their calibration.

  3. Room-temperature Electrochemical Synthesis of Carbide-derived Carbons and Related Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Nanomaterials Group. Materials Science and Engineering Dept.

    2015-02-28

    This project addresses room-temperature electrochemical etching as an energy-efficient route to synthesis of 3D nanoporous carbon networks and layered 2D carbons and related structures, as well as provides fundamental understanding of structure and properties of materials produced by this method. Carbide-derived-carbons (CDCs) are a growing class of nanostructured carbon materials with properties that are desirable for many applications, such as electrical energy and gas storage. The structure of these functional materials is tunable by the choice of the starting carbide precursor, synthesis method, and process parameters. Moving from high-temperature synthesis of CDCs through vacuum decomposition above 1400°C and chlorination above 400°C, our studies under the previous DOE BES support led to identification of precursor materials and processing conditions for CDC synthesis at temperatures as low as 200°C, resulting in amorphous and highly reactive porous carbons. We also investigated synthesis of monolithic CDC films from carbide films at 250-1200°C. The results of our early studies provided new insights into CDC formation, led to development of materials for capacitive energy storage, and enabled fundamental understanding of the electrolyte ions confinement in nanoporous carbons.

  4. Static flexural properties of hedgehog spines conditioned in coupled temperature and relative humidity environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Emily B; Hsiung, Bor-Kai; Swift, Nathan B; Tan, Kwek-Tze

    2017-11-01

    Hedgehogs are agile climbers, scaling trees and plants to heights exceeding 10m while foraging insects. Hedgehog spines (a.k.a. quills) provide fall protection by absorbing shock and could offer insights for the design of lightweight, material-efficient, impact-resistant structures. There has been some study of flexural properties of hedgehog spines, but an understanding of how this keratinous biological material is affected by various temperature and relative humidity treatments, or how spine color (multicolored vs. white) affects mechanics, is lacking. To bridge this gap in the literature, we use three-point bending to analyze the effect of temperature, humidity, spine color, and their interactions on flexural strength and modulus of hedgehog spines. We also compare specific strength and stiffness of hedgehog spines to conventional engineered materials. We find hedgehog spine flexural properties can be finely tuned by modifying environmental conditioning parameters. White spines tend to be stronger and stiffer than multicolored spines. Finally, for most temperature and humidity conditioning parameters, hedgehog spines are ounce for ounce stronger than 201 stainless steel rods of the same diameter but as pliable as styrene rods with a slightly larger diameter. This unique combination of strength and elasticity makes hedgehog spines exemplary shock absorbers, and a suitable reference model for biomimicry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A METALLICITY-SPIN TEMPERATURE RELATION IN DAMPED Lyα SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanekar, Nissim; Smette, Alain; Briggs, Frank H.; Chengalur, Jayaram N.

    2009-01-01

    We report evidence for an anti-correlation between spin temperature T s and metallicity [Z/H], detected at 3.6σ significance in a sample of 26 damped Lyα absorbers (DLAs) at redshifts 0.09 s = (-0.68 ± 0.17) x [Z/H] + (2.13 ± 0.21) from a linear regression analysis. Our results indicate that the high T s values found in DLAs do not arise from differences between the optical and radio sightlines, but are likely to reflect the underlying gas temperature distribution. The trend between T s and [Z/H] can be explained by the larger number of radiation pathways for gas cooling in galaxies with high metal abundances, resulting in a high cold gas fraction, and hence, a low spin temperature. Conversely, low-metallicity galaxies have fewer cooling routes, yielding a larger warm gas fraction and a high T s . Most DLAs at z > 1.7 have low metallicities, [Z/H] s and [Z/H] is consistent with the presence of a mass-metallicity relation in DLAs, suggested by the tight correlation between DLA metallicity and the kinematic widths of metal lines. Most high-z DLAs are likely to arise in galaxies with low masses (M vir 10.5 M sun ), low metallicities ([Z/H] <-1), and low cold gas fractions.

  6. Phonon dispersion relation of uranium nitrate above and below the Neel temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolling, G.; Holden, T.M.; Evensson, E.C.; Buyers, W.J.L.; Lander, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron coherent inelastic scattering measurements have been made of the phonon dispersion relation of uranium nitride both above and below the Neel temperature T/sub N/ = 50 K. Within the precision of the measurements, about 1% in frequency and 10% in line width and in scattered neutron intensity, no significant changes in these phonon properties were observed as a function of temperature other than those arising from population factor changes and a small stiffening of the lattice as the temperature decreases. At 4.2 K, two acoustic and two optic branches have been determined for each of the [001], [110] and [111] directions. The optic mode measurements revealed (a) a 20% variation in frequency across the Brillouin zone and (b) an interesting disposition of the LO and TO modes, such that nu/sub LO/ > nu/sub TO/ along [001] and [110], while the reverse is true along the [111] directions. Within the experimental resolution, the LO and TO modes are degenerate near q = 0. We have been unable to obtain any satisfactory description of these results on the basis of conventional theoretical treatments (e.g. rigid-ion or shell models). Other possible interpretations of the results are discussed

  7. Phonon dispersion relation of uranium nitride above and below the Neel temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolling, G.; Holden, T.M.; Svensson, E.C.; Buyers, W.J.L.; Lander, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron coherent inelastic scattering measurements have been made of the phonon dispersion relation of uranium nitride both above and below the Neel temperature T N = 50 K. Within the precision of the measurements, about 1% in frequency and 10% in line width and in scattered neutron intensity, no significant changes in these phonon properties were observed as a function of temperature other than those arising from population factor changes and a small stiffening of the lattice as the temperature decreases. At 4.2 K, two acoustic and two optic branches have been determined for each of the [001], [110] and [111] directions. The optic mode measurements revealed (a) a 20% variation in frequency across the Brillouin zone and (b) and interesting disposition of the LO and TO modes, such that ν LO > ν TO along [001] and [11-], while the reverse is true along the [111] directions. Within the experimental resolution, the LO and TO modes are degenerate near q = 0. We have been unable to obtain any satisfactory description of these results on the basis of conventional theoretical treatments (e.g. rigid-ion or shell models). Other possible interpretations of the results are discussed. (author)

  8. Exploring the relation between spatial configuration of buildings and remotely sensed temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, S. W.; Zheng, B.; Kaplan, S.; Huang, H.

    2013-12-01

    While the relationship between fractional cover of buildings and the UHI has been well studied, relationships of how spatial arrangements (e.g., clustered, dispersed) of buildings influence urban warming are not well understood. Since a diversity of spatial patterns can be observed under the same percentage of buildings cover, it is of great interest and importance to investigate the amount of variation in certain urban thermal feature such as surface temperature that is accounted for by the inclusion of spatial arrangement component. The various spatial arrangements of buildings cover can give rise to different urban thermal behaviors that may not be uncovered with the information of buildings fraction only, but can be captured to some extent using spatial analysis. The goal of this study is to examine how spatial arrangements of buildings influence and shape surface temperature in different urban settings. The study area selected is the Las-Vegas metropolitan area in Nevada, located in the Mojave Desert. An object-oriented approach was used to identify buildings using a Geoeye-1 image acquired on October 12, 2011. A spatial autocorrelation technique (i.e., Moran's I) that can measure spatial pattern (clustered, dispersed) was used to determine spatial configuration of buildings. A daytime temperature layer in degree Celsius, generated from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image, was integrated with Moran's I values of building cover and building fractions to achieve the goals set in the study. To avoid uncertainty and properly evaluate if spatial pattern of buildings has an impact on urban warming, the relation between Moran's I values and surface temperatures was observed at different levels according to their fractions (e.g., 0-0.1, 0.5-0.6, 0.9-1). There is a negative correlation exists between spatial pattern of buildings and surface temperatures implying that dispersed building arrangements elevate surface temperatures

  9. Heat-Related Deaths in Hot Cities: Estimates of Human Tolerance to High Temperature Thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Harlan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we characterized the relationship between temperature and mortality in central Arizona desert cities that have an extremely hot climate. Relationships between daily maximum apparent temperature (ATmax and mortality for eight condition-specific causes and all-cause deaths were modeled for all residents and separately for males and females ages <65 and ≥65 during the months May–October for years 2000–2008. The most robust relationship was between ATmax on day of death and mortality from direct exposure to high environmental heat. For this condition-specific cause of death, the heat thresholds in all gender and age groups (ATmax = 90–97 °F; 32.2‒36.1 °C were below local median seasonal temperatures in the study period (ATmax = 99.5 °F; 37.5 °C. Heat threshold was defined as ATmax at which the mortality ratio begins an exponential upward trend. Thresholds were identified in younger and older females for cardiac disease/stroke mortality (ATmax = 106 and 108 °F; 41.1 and 42.2 °C with a one-day lag. Thresholds were also identified for mortality from respiratory diseases in older people (ATmax = 109 °F; 42.8 °C and for all-cause mortality in females (ATmax = 107 °F; 41.7 °C and males <65 years (ATmax = 102 °F; 38.9 °C. Heat-related mortality in a region that has already made some adaptations to predictable periods of extremely high temperatures suggests that more extensive and targeted heat-adaptation plans for climate change are needed in cities worldwide.

  10. Spatio-temporal variability of the North Sea cod recruitment in relation to temperature and zooplankton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Nicolas

    Full Text Available The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L. stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and zooplankton food availability.

  11. Demersal fish assemblages off southern New Zealand in relation to depth and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, W.; McClatchie, S.; Probert, P. K.; Hurst, R. J.

    1998-12-01

    We examined the relationship between demersal fish assemblage and depth, temperature, latitude and longitude off southern New Zealand (46-54°S and 165-180°E) in water depths of 80-787 m. Catch weight data were analysed by two-way indicator analysis (TWIA), groupaverage agglomerative clustering (UPGMA) and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). The spatial pattern of demersal fish off southern New Zealand conforms to the concept of species groups or fish assemblages related to environmental gradients. Shallow-water assemblages were dominated by species from the families Gempylidae, Squalidae, Triakidae and Moridae, mainly represented by Thyrsites atun, Squalus acanthias, Galeorhinus australis, and Pseudophycis bachus. Deep water assemblages were dominated by Chimaeridae, Argentinidae, Merlucciidae and Macrouridae, mainly represented by Hydrolagus novaezelandiae, Argentina elongata, Macruronus novaezelandiae, and Lepidorhynchus denticulatus. Total catch weight was often dominated by Merlucciidae, Macrouridae and Gempylidae. Fish assemblages were related to discrete ranges of depth (300 m) and temperature (9.5°C), but the range of sediment types was too narrow to show any correlation.

  12. The relative importance of water temperature and residence time in predicting cyanobacteria abundance in regulated rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, YoonKyung; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Lee, Hyuk; Kang, Taegu; Kim, Joon Ha

    2017-11-01

    Despite a growing awareness of the problems associated with cyanobacterial blooms in rivers, and particularly in regulated rivers, the drivers of bloom formation and abundance in rivers are not well understood. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical model to assess the relative importance of predictors of summer cyanobacteria abundance, and to test whether the relative importance of each predictor varies by site, using monitoring data from 16 sites in the four major rivers of South Korea. The results suggested that temperature and residence time, but not nutrient levels, are important predictors of summer cyanobacteria abundance in rivers. Although the two predictors were of similar significance across the sites, the residence time was marginally better in accounting for the variation in cyanobacteria abundance. The model with spatial hierarchy demonstrated that temperature played a consistently significant role at all sites, and showed no effect from site-specific factors. In contrast, the importance of residence time varied significantly from site to site. This variation was shown to depend on the trophic state, indicated by the chlorophyll-a and total phosphorus levels. Our results also suggested that the magnitude of weir inflow is a key factor determining the cyanobacteria abundance under baseline conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Defects related room temperature ferromagnetism in Cu-implanted ZnO nanorod arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Li, D.K.; Wu, H.Z.; Liang, F.; Xie, W.; Zou, C.W.; Shao, L.X.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in Cu-implanted ZnO nanorod arrays. • Cu-implanted ZnO nanorods show a saturation magnetization value of 1.82 μ B /Cu. • The origin of ferromagnetism can be explained by the defects related bound magnetic polarons. -- Abstract: Room temperature ferromagnetism (FM) was observed in Cu-implanted ZnO nanorod arrays. The implantation dose for Cu ions was 1 × 10 16 cm −2 and the implantation energy was 100 keV. The ion implantation induced defects and disorder has been observed by the XRD, PL and TEM experiments. The PL spectrum revealed a dominant luminescence peaks at 390 nm and a broad and strong green emission at 500–700 nm, which is considered to be related to the ionized oxygen vacancy. Cu-implanted ZnO nanorods annealed at 500 °C show a saturation magnetization value of 1.82 μ B /Cu and a positive coercive field of 68 Oe. The carrier concentration is not much improved after annealing and in the order of 10 16 cm −3 , which suggests that FM does not depend upon the presence of a significant carrier concentration. The origin of ferromagnetism behavior can be explained on the basis of electrons and defects that form bound magnetic polarons, which overlap to create a spin-split impurity band

  14. Relating high-temperature flow stress of AISI 316 stainless steel to strain and strain rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteazzi, S.; Paitti, G.; Boerman, D.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have performed an experimental determination of tensile stress-strain curves for different strain rates (4.67 x 10 - 5 , 4.67 x 10 - 2 s - 1 ) and for a variety of temperature conditions (773-1073 K) of AISI 316H stainless steel (annealed conditions) and also a computer analysis of the experimental curves using a fitting program which takes into consideration different constitutive relations describing the plastic flow behaviour of the metals. The results show that the materials tested are clearly affected by strain rate only at the highest temperature investigated (1073 K) and that the plastic strain is the more significant variable. Of the constitutive equations considered, Voce's relation gives the best fit for the true stress-time-strain curves. However, the Ludwik and Ludwigson equations also provide a description of the experimental data, whereas Hollomon's equation does not suitably characterize AISI 316H stainless steel and can be applied with some accuracy only at 1073 K. (author)

  15. Projection of temperature-related mortality due to cardiovascular disease in beijing under different climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Boya; Li, Guoxing; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2018-04-01

    Human health faces unprecedented challenges caused by climate change. Thus, studies of the effect of temperature change on total mortality have been conducted in numerous countries. However, few of those studies focused on temperature-related mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) or considered future population changes and adaptation to climate change. We present herein a projection of temperature-related mortality due to CVD under different climate change, population, and adaptation scenarios in Beijing, a megacity in China. To this end, 19 global circulation models (GCMs), 3 representative concentration pathways (RCPs), 3 socioeconomic pathways, together with generalized linear models and distributed lag non-linear models, were used to project future temperature-related CVD mortality during periods centered around the years 2050 and 2070. The number of temperature-related CVD deaths in Beijing is projected to increase by 3.5-10.2% under different RCP scenarios compared with that during the baseline period. Using the same GCM, the future daily maximum temperatures projected using the RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 scenarios showed a gradually increasing trend. When population change is considered, the annual rate of increase in temperature-related CVD deaths was up to fivefold greater than that under no-population-change scenarios. The decrease in the number of cold-related deaths did not compensate for the increase in that of heat-related deaths, leading to a general increase in the number of temperature-related deaths due to CVD in Beijing. In addition, adaptation to climate change may enhance rather than ameliorate the effect of climate change, as the increase in cold-related CVD mortality greater than the decrease in heat-related CVD mortality in the adaptation scenarios will result in an increase in the total number of temperature-related CVD mortalities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Temperature Observation Time and Type Influence Estimates of Heat-Related Mortality in Seven U.S. Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert E; Hondula, David M; Patel, Anjali P

    2016-06-01

    Extreme heat is a leading weather-related cause of mortality in the United States, but little guidance is available regarding how temperature variable selection impacts heat-mortality relationships. We examined how the strength of the relationship between daily heat-related mortality and temperature varies as a function of temperature observation time, lag, and calculation method. Long time series of daily mortality counts and hourly temperature for seven U.S. cities with different climates were examined using a generalized additive model. The temperature effect was modeled separately for each hour of the day (with up to 3-day lags) along with different methods of calculating daily maximum, minimum, and mean temperature. We estimated the temperature effect on mortality for each variable by comparing the 99th versus 85th temperature percentiles, as determined from the annual time series. In three northern cities (Boston, MA; Philadelphia, PA; and Seattle, WA) that appeared to have the greatest sensitivity to heat, hourly estimates were consistent with a diurnal pattern in the heat-mortality response, with strongest associations for afternoon or maximum temperature at lag 0 (day of death) or afternoon and evening of lag 1 (day before death). In warmer, southern cities, stronger associations were found with morning temperatures, but overall the relationships were weaker. The strongest temperature-mortality relationships were associated with maximum temperature, although mean temperature results were comparable. There were systematic and substantial differences in the association between temperature and mortality based on the time and type of temperature observation. Because the strongest hourly temperature-mortality relationships were not always found at times typically associated with daily maximum temperatures, temperature variables should be selected independently for each study location. In general, heat-mortality was more closely coupled to afternoon and maximum

  17. Oral temperatures of the elderly in nursing homes in summer and winter in relation to activities of daily living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K.; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Maeda, Akira

    This study was conducted to clarify the seasonal difference in body temperature in summer and winter, and to document the thermal environment of the elderly living in nursing homes. The subjects were 57 healthy elderly people aged >=63 years living in two nursing homes in Japan. One of the homes was characterized by subjects with low levels of activities of daily living (ADL). Oral temperatures were measured in the morning and afternoon, with simultaneous recording of ambient temperature and relative humidity. Oral temperatures in summer were higher than in winter, with statistically significant differences (Pchanges in ambient temperature.

  18. Projections of temperature-related excess mortality under climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparrini, Antonio; Guo, Yuming; Sera, Francesco; Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana Maria; Huber, Veronika; Tong, Shilu; de Sousa Zanotti Stagliorio Coelho, Micheline; Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilario; Lavigne, Eric; Matus Correa, Patricia; Valdes Ortega, Nicolas; Kan, Haidong; Osorio, Samuel; Kyselý, Jan; Urban, Aleš; Jaakkola, Jouni J K; Ryti, Niilo R I; Pascal, Mathilde; Goodman, Patrick G; Zeka, Ariana; Michelozzi, Paola; Scortichini, Matteo; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Hurtado-Diaz, Magali; Cesar Cruz, Julio; Seposo, Xerxes; Kim, Ho; Tobias, Aurelio; Iñiguez, Carmen; Forsberg, Bertil; Åström, Daniel Oudin; Ragettli, Martina S; Guo, Yue Leon; Wu, Chang-Fu; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel; Bell, Michelle L; Dang, Tran Ngoc; Van, Dung Do; Heaviside, Clare; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Hajat, Shakoor; Haines, Andy; Armstrong, Ben

    2017-12-01

    Climate change can directly affect human health by varying exposure to non-optimal outdoor temperature. However, evidence on this direct impact at a global scale is limited, mainly due to issues in modelling and projecting complex and highly heterogeneous epidemiological relationships across different populations and climates. We collected observed daily time series of mean temperature and mortality counts for all causes or non-external causes only, in periods ranging from Jan 1, 1984, to Dec 31, 2015, from various locations across the globe through the Multi-Country Multi-City Collaborative Research Network. We estimated temperature-mortality relationships through a two-stage time series design. We generated current and future daily mean temperature series under four scenarios of climate change, determined by varying trajectories of greenhouse gas emissions, using five general circulation models. We projected excess mortality for cold and heat and their net change in 1990-2099 under each scenario of climate change, assuming no adaptation or population changes. Our dataset comprised 451 locations in 23 countries across nine regions of the world, including 85 879 895 deaths. Results indicate, on average, a net increase in temperature-related excess mortality under high-emission scenarios, although with important geographical differences. In temperate areas such as northern Europe, east Asia, and Australia, the less intense warming and large decrease in cold-related excess would induce a null or marginally negative net effect, with the net change in 2090-99 compared with 2010-19 ranging from -1·2% (empirical 95% CI -3·6 to 1·4) in Australia to -0·1% (-2·1 to 1·6) in east Asia under the highest emission scenario, although the decreasing trends would reverse during the course of the century. Conversely, warmer regions, such as the central and southern parts of America or Europe, and especially southeast Asia, would experience a sharp surge in heat-related

  19. Power Relative to Body Mass Best Predicts Change in Core Temperature During Exercise-Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Oliver R; Willmott, Ashley G B; James, Carl A; Hayes, Mark; Maxwell, Neil S

    2017-02-01

    Gibson, OR, Willmott, AGB, James, CA, Hayes, M, and Maxwell, NS. Power relative to body mass best predicts change in core temperature during exercise-heat stress. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 403-414, 2017-Controlling internal temperature is crucial when prescribing exercise-heat stress, particularly during interventions designed to induce thermoregulatory adaptations. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the rate of rectal temperature (Trec) increase, and various methods for prescribing exercise-heat stress, to identify the most efficient method of prescribing isothermic heat acclimation (HA) training. Thirty-five men cycled in hot conditions (40° C, 39% R.H.) for 29 ± 2 minutes. Subjects exercised at 60 ± 9% V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, with methods for prescribing exercise retrospectively observed for each participant. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated for each prescriptive variable against the rate of change in Trec (° C·h), with stepwise multiple regressions performed on statistically significant variables (p ≤ 0.05). Linear regression identified the predicted intensity required to increase Trec by 1.0-2.0° C between 20- and 45-minute periods and the duration taken to increase Trec by 1.5° C in response to incremental intensities to guide prescription. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) relationships with the rate of change in Trec were observed for prescriptions based on relative power (W·kg; r = 0.764), power (%Powermax; r = 0.679), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (r = 0.577), V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (%V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak; r = 0.562), heart rate (HR) (%HRmax; r = 0.534), and thermal sensation (r = 0.311). Stepwise multiple regressions observed relative power and RPE as variables to improve the model (r = 0.791), with no improvement after inclusion of any anthropometric variable. Prescription of exercise under heat stress using power (W·kg or %Powermax) has the strongest relationship with the rate of change in

  20. Biases of the MET Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensor (HMP45) Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrouac, Jenni [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Theisen, Adam [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Data Quality (DQ) Office was alerted to a potential bias in the surface meteorological instrumentation (MET) temperature when compared with a nearby Mesonet station. This led to an investigation into this problem that was expanded to include many of the other extended facilities (EF) and both the temperature and relative humidity (RH) variables. For this study, the Mesonet was used as the standard reference due to results that showed an increased accuracy in high-humidity environments along with the fact that the Mesonet had previous documented a problem with the HMP45C sensors. Some differences between the sites were taken into account during the analysis: 1. ARM MET sensors were upgraded from an HMP35 to an HMP45 throughout 2007 2. Mesonet switched to aspirated shields in 2009 – To mitigate the differences between aspirated and non-aspirated measurements, data were only analyzed when the wind speed was higher than 3 m/s. This reduced the uncertainty for the non-aspirated measurements from 1.51 ºC to 0.4 ºC. 3. ARM MET is mounted 0.5m higher than the Mesonet station (2.0m versus 1.5m) – This is assumed to have a negligible effect on the differences. 4. Sites were not co-located – For some locations, the distances between sites were as much as 45 km. As part of the investigation into the differences, the Mesonet had reported that the HMP45 sensors had a low-temperature bias in high-humidity environments. This was verified at two different sites where the ARM measurements were compared with the Mesonet measurements. The Mesonet provided redundant temperature measurements from two different sensors at each site. These measurements compared fairly well, while the ARM sensor showed a bias overnight when the humidities were higher. After reviewing the yearly average differences in the data and analyzing the RH data during fog events when we assume it should be

  1. Temperature and Relative Humidity Vertical Profiles within Planetary Boundary Layer in Winter Urban Airshed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendl, Jan; Hovorka, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The planetary boundary layer is a dynamic system with turbulent flow where horizontal and vertical air mixing depends mainly on the weather conditions and geomorphology. Normally, air temperature from the Earth surface decreases with height but inversion situation may occur, mainly during winter. Pollutant dispersion is poor during inversions so air pollutant concentration can quickly rise, especially in urban closed valleys. Air pollution was evaluated by WHO as a human carcinogen (mostly by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and health effects are obvious. Knowledge about inversion layer height is important for estimation of the pollution impact and it can give us also information about the air pollution sources. Temperature and relative humidity vertical profiles complement ground measurements. Ground measurements were conducted to characterize comprehensively urban airshed in Svermov, residential district of the city of Kladno, about 30 km NW of Prague, from the 2nd Feb. to the 3rd of March 2016. The Svermov is an air pollution hot-spot for long time benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) limit exceedances, reaching the highest B[a]P annual concentration in Bohemia - west part of the Czech Republic. Since the Svermov sits in a shallow valley, frequent vertical temperature inversion in winter and low emission heights of pollution sources prevent pollutant dispersal off the valley. Such orography is common to numerous small settlements in the Czech Republic. Ground measurements at the sports field in the Svermov were complemented by temperature and humidity vertical profiles acquired by a Vaisala radiosonde positioned at tethered He-filled balloon. Total number of 53 series of vertical profiles up to the height of 300 m was conducted. Meteorology parameters were acquired with 4 Hz frequency. The measurements confirmed frequent early-morning and night formation of temperature inversion within boundary layer up to the height of 50 m. This rather shallow inversion had significant

  2. Several aspects of the temperature history in relation to the cyclic behaviour of an austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentet, D.; Feaugas, X.; Risbet, M.; Lejeail, Y.; Pilvin, P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: · Dynamic strain ageing consequences on the temperature history memorization effect. · Temperature is mainly focused at a temperature range equal to 293-923 K. · Two peaks are observed on the curve describing saturation stress amplitude. · Cyclic behaviour is a function of the temperature range explored. · Cyclic temperature history is mainly associated with chromium segregation. - Abstract: A consistent mechanical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) database is proposed to discuss the consequences of dynamic strain ageing (DSA) on the temperature history memory effect observed under the cyclic loading of a 316LN austenitic stainless steel. Two DSA mechanisms have been identified in relation with two temperature regimes: the first of which may be related to the Suzuki effect (in the low temperature regime) and the second is linked to solute segregation at dislocation node (in the high temperature regime). The temperature history memory effect is a function of the temperature range and can be explained in terms of chromium segregation and the potentiality to obtain 'stability' in dipolar dislocation structures. Both aspects are discussed based on the measurement of internal stress changes.

  3. Strain-insensitive preferred orientation of porphyroclasts in Mont Mary mylonites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchioni, Giorgio; Di Toro, Giulio; Mancktelow, Neil S.

    2001-08-01

    The shape preferred orientation (SPO) of porphyroclasts was determined in high temperature mylonites. The porphyroclasts approach rhomboidal (sillimanite) or elliptical (garnet, plagioclase, sillimanite) shapes, and exhibit aspect ratios (R) as high as 11. Particles with R>3 are dominantly rhomboidal. The long axis of the best-fit ellipse defines a very strong SPO inclined at 5-10° to the mylonitic foliation, in an antithetic sense with respect to the shear direction. This angle is independent of R. The inclination of the long sides of rhomboidal sillimanite increases from 10 to 20° with decreasing R. In contrast, the short sides have a constant orientation of 15 to 17° irrespective of R and are parallel to extensional crenulation cleavage. Low aspect ratio (mainly elliptical) objects show low intensity SPO close to the shear plane. The two SPOs appear strain-insensitive. In the case of Reffect of the slower rotation rate of elongate objects with long axes close to the shear plane and the continuous supply, by synkinematic fracturing and grain size refinement, of new porphyroclast populations. In the case of R>3, a stable position is acquired. This is not explained by any of the current theoretical and experimental models of SPO.

  4. Extreme temperature and oil contamination shape the relative abundance of copepod species in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinh, Khuong Van; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    is of north Atlantic origin. Pyrene is one of the most toxic components of crude oil to marine copepods. The temperatures of 2, 6 and 10°C represent the mean sea water temperature, the 4°C increase in mean temperature by 2100 as predicted by IPCC scenario RCP8.5 (2013) and the extreme sea water temperature...

  5. Temperature-dependent deliquescence relative humidities and water activities using humidity controlled thermogravimetric analysis with application to malonic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Keith D; Schroeder, Jason R; Kissinger, Jared A

    2014-04-03

    We utilize a new experimental technique, humidity-controlled thermogravimetric analysis (HTGA), to determine temperature-dependent deliquescence relative humidities (DRH) and to determine the equilibrium concentration of a solution at a given temperature and relative humidity. To that end, we have investigated the malonic acid/water system determining the DRH and concentration/RH relationship in the temperature range 303-278 K. Excellent agreement is found with literature values for the DRH of malonic acid as a function of temperature and for the concentration/RH relationship at several temperatures. Thus, we extend the DRH and concentration/RH relationship to a broader temperature range and are using the HTGA experiments to investigate other organic acids.

  6. Effects of high temperature on photosynthesis and related gene expression in poplar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High temperature, whether transitory or constant, causes physiological, biochemical and molecular changes that adversely affect tree growth and productivity by reducing photosynthesis. To elucidate the photosynthetic adaption response and examine the recovery capacity of trees under heat stress, we measured gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, electron transport, water use efficiency, and reactive oxygen-producing enzyme activities in heat-stressed plants. Results We found that photosynthesis could completely recover after less than six hours of high temperature treatment, which might be a turning point in the photosynthetic response to heat stress. Genome-wide gene expression analysis at six hours of heat stress identified 29,896 differentially expressed genes (15,670 up-regulated and 14,226 down-regulated), including multiple classes of transcription factors. These interact with each other and regulate the expression of photosynthesis-related genes in response to heat stress, controlling carbon fixation and changes in stomatal conductance. Heat stress of more than twelve hours caused reduced electron transport, damaged photosystems, activated the glycolate pathway and caused H2O2 production; as a result, photosynthetic capacity did not recover completely. Conclusions This study provides a systematic physiological and global gene expression profile of the poplar photosynthetic response to heat stress and identifies the main limitations and threshold of photosynthesis under heat stress. It will expand our understanding of plant thermostability and provides a robust dataset for future studies. PMID:24774695

  7. Temperature and relative humidity influence the ripening descriptors of Camembert-type cheeses throughout ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Sicard, M; Perrot, N; Trelea, I C; Picque, D; Corrieu, G

    2015-02-01

    Ripening descriptors are the main factors that determine consumers' preferences of soft cheeses. Six descriptors were defined to represent the sensory changes in Camembert cheeses: Penicillium camemberti appearance, cheese odor and rind color, creamy underrind thickness and consistency, and core hardness. To evaluate the effects of the main process parameters on these descriptors, Camembert cheeses were ripened under different temperatures (8, 12, and 16°C) and relative humidity (RH; 88, 92, and 98%). The sensory descriptors were highly dependent on the temperature and RH used throughout ripening in a ripening chamber. All sensory descriptor changes could be explained by microorganism growth, pH, carbon substrate metabolism, and cheese moisture, as well as by microbial enzymatic activities. On d 40, at 8°C and 88% RH, all sensory descriptors scored the worst: the cheese was too dry, its odor and its color were similar to those of the unripe cheese, the underrind was driest, and the core was hardest. At 16°C and 98% RH, the odor was strongly ammonia and the color was dark brown, and the creamy underrind represented the entire thickness of the cheese but was completely runny, descriptors indicative of an over ripened cheese. Statistical analysis showed that the best ripening conditions to achieve an optimum balance between cheese sensory qualities and marketability were 13±1°C and 94±1% RH. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Munitions having an insensitive detonator system for initiating large failure diameter explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, III, William Leroy

    2015-08-04

    A munition according to a preferred embodiment can include a detonator system having a detonator that is selectively coupled to a microwave source that functions to selectively prime, activate, initiate, and/or sensitize an insensitive explosive material for detonation. The preferred detonator can include an explosive cavity having a barrier within which an insensitive explosive material is disposed and a waveguide coupled to the explosive cavity. The preferred system can further include a microwave source coupled to the waveguide such that microwaves enter the explosive cavity and impinge on the insensitive explosive material to sensitize the explosive material for detonation. In use the preferred embodiments permit the deployment and use of munitions that are maintained in an insensitive state until the actual time of use, thereby substantially preventing unauthorized or unintended detonation thereof.

  9. Searching for the variables that control human rule-governed "insensitivity".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Adam E; Kyonka, Elizabeth G E

    2017-09-01

    Verbal rules or instructions often exert obvious and meaningful control over human behavior. Sometimes instructions benefit the individual by enabling faster acquisition of a skill or by obviating an aversive consequence. However, research has also suggested a clear disadvantage: "insensitivity" to changing underlying contingencies. The two experiments described here investigated the variables that control initial rule-following behavior and rule-following insensitivity. When the initial rule was inaccurate, behavior was consistent with the rule for approximately half of participants and all participants' behavior was mostly insensitive to changing contingencies. When the initial rule was accurate, behavior of all participants was consistent with it and behavior for nearly all participants was insensitive to changes in underlying contingencies. These findings have implications for how best to establish and maintain rule-following behavior in applied settings when deviant behavior would be more reinforcing to the individual. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  10. Peat decomposability in managed organic soils in relation to land use, organic matter composition and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Cédric; Müller, Moritz; Schulin, Rainer; Leifeld, Jens

    2018-02-01

    Organic soils comprise a large yet fragile carbon (C) store in the global C cycle. Drainage, necessary for agriculture and forestry, triggers rapid decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM), typically increasing in the order forest accrual of labile crop residues. A comparison with published CO2 rates from incubated mineral soils indicated no difference in SOM decomposability between these soil classes, suggesting that accumulation of recent, labile plant materials that presumably account for most of the evolved CO2 is not systematically different between mineral and organic soils. In our data set, temperature sensitivity of decomposition (Q10 on average 2.57 ± 0.05) was the same for all land uses but lowest below 60 cm in croplands and grasslands. This, in turn, indicates a relative accumulation of recalcitrant peat in topsoils.

  11. Nonequilibrium phase formation in oxides prepared at low temperature: Fergusonite-related phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, S.A.; Davies, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    Sol-gel methods have been developed to prepare YNbO 4 , YTaO 4 , and other rare-earth niobates and tantalates with fergusonite-related crystal structures. At low temperatures, all of the fergusonites, with the exception of SmTaO 4 , crystallize in a metastable tetragonal (T') structure similar to that of tetragonal zirconia. Although all of the equilibrium forms of these oxides adopt a crystal structure containing an ordered distribution of the trivalent and pentavalent cations, a random cation distribution is obtained in the metastable T' phase. Metastable phase formation is often ascribed solely to kinetically limited topotactic crystallization. However, the changes in the grain size and unit-cell volumes that accompany the metastable-to-equilibrium fergusonite conversions imply that other physical phenomena induced by small-particle synthesis, namely the Gibbs-Thompson pressure effect and the increased contribution of surface energy, cannot be ignored

  12. Polarization Insensitive Wavelength Conversion Based on Four-Wave Mixing in a Silicon Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Peucheret, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of a 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK data signal based on four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements.......We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of a 10 Gb/s NRZ-OOK data signal based on four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements....

  13. 40 Gbit/s NRZ Packet-Length Insensitive Header Extraction for Optical Label Switching Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seoane, Jorge; Kehayas, E; Avramopoulos, H.

    2006-01-01

    A simple method for 40 Gbit/s NRZ header extraction based on envelope detection for optical label switching networks is presented. The scheme is insensitive to packet length and spacing and can be single-chip integrated cost-effectively......A simple method for 40 Gbit/s NRZ header extraction based on envelope detection for optical label switching networks is presented. The scheme is insensitive to packet length and spacing and can be single-chip integrated cost-effectively...

  14. Polarization Insensitive One-to-Six WDM Multicasting in a Silicon Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Peucheret, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We present polarization insensitive one-to-six WDM multicasting based on nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with angled-pump scheme. Bit-error rate measurements are performed and error-free operation is achieved.......We present polarization insensitive one-to-six WDM multicasting based on nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with angled-pump scheme. Bit-error rate measurements are performed and error-free operation is achieved....

  15. Temperature insensitive hysteresis free highly sensitive polymer optical fiber Bragg grating humidity sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Nielsen, Kristian; Stefani, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    The effect of humidity on annealing of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microstructured polymer optical fiber Bragg gratings (mPOFBGs) and the resulting humidity responsivity are investigated. Typically annealing of PMMA POFs is done in an oven without humidity control around 80°C...

  16. Relative effects of climate change and wildfires on stream temperatures: A simulation modeling approach in a Rocky Mountain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Holsinger; Robert E. Keane; Daniel J. Isaak; Lisa Eby; Michael K. Young

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are warming globally from the direct effects of climate change on air temperature and hydrology and the indirect effects on near-stream vegetation. In fire-prone landscapes, vegetative change may be especially rapid and cause significant local stream temperature increases but the importance of these increases relative to broader changes associated...

  17. Physical mechanisms related to the degradation of LPCVD tungsten contacts at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenai, K.; Lewis, N.; Smith, G.A.; McConnell, M.D.; Burrell, M.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal stability of LPCVD (low pressure chemical vapor deposition) tungsten contacts to n-type silicon is studied at elevated temperatures in excess of 650 degrees C. The process variants studied include silicon doping, tungsten thickness, and post tungsten deposition dielectric stress temperatures. Detailed measurements of Kelvin contact resistance were made at room temperature as well as at elevated temperatures up to 165 degrees C. The tungsten contact resistance degradation at elevated stress temperatures is correlated with worm hole formation in silicon and the formation and diffusion of tungsten silicide. Extensive analytical measurements were used to characterize the material transformation at elevated stress temperatures to understand the physical mechanisms causing contact degradation

  18. O2-insensitive photosynthesis in C3 plants: its occurrence and a possible explanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharkey, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Leaves of C 3 plants which exhibit a normal O 2 inhibition of CO 2 fixation at less than saturating light intensity were found to exhibit O 2 -insensitive photosynthesis at high light. This behavior was observed in Phaseolus vulgaris L., Xanthium strumarium L., and Scrophularia desertorum (Shaw.) Munz. O 2 -insensitive photosynthesis has been reported in nine other C 3 species and usually occurred when the intercellular CO 2 pressure was about double the normal pressure. A lack of O 2 inhibition of photosynthesis was always accompanied by a failure of increased CO 2 pressure to stimulate photosynthesis to the expected degree. O 2 -insensitive photosynthesis also occurred after plants had been water stressed. Under such conditions, however, photosynthesis became O 2 and CO 2 insensitive at physiological CO 2 pressures. Postillumination CO 2 exchange kinetics showed that O 2 and CO 2 insensitivity was not the result of elimination of photorespiration. It is proposed that O 2 and CO 2 insensitivity occurs when the concentration of phosphate in the chloroplast stroma cannot be both high enough to allow photophosphorylation and low enough to allow starch and sucrose synthesis at the rates required by the rest of the photosynthetic component processes. Under these conditions, the energy diverted to photorespiration does not adversely affect the potential for CO 2 assimilation

  19. Analysis of the system efficiency of an intermediate temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell at elevated temperature and relative humidity conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Seung Won; Cha, Dowon; Kim, Hyung Soon; Kim, Yongchan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • System efficiency of PEMFC is evaluated at elevated temperature and humidity. • Operating parameters are optimized using response surface methodology. • The optimal operating parameters are T = 90.6 °C, RH = 100.0%, and ζ = 2.07. • The power output and system efficiency are 1.28 W and 15.8% at the optimum. • The system efficiency can be effectively improved by increasing relative humidity. - Abstract: Humidification of the membrane is very important in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), to maintain high ionic conductivity. At an elevated temperature, a large amount of thermal energy is required for humidification because of the exponentially increased saturation vapor pressure. In this study, the system efficiency of a PEMFC was evaluated by considering the heat required for preheating/humidification and compression work. Three-dimensional steady-state simulations were conducted using Fluent 14 to simulate the electrochemical reactions. The operating conditions were optimized using response surface methodology by considering both the fuel cell output and system efficiency. In addition, the effects of operating parameters such as the temperature, relative humidity, and stoichiometric ratio were investigated. The system efficiency can be improved more effectively by increasing relative humidity rather than increasing operating temperature because the ionic conductivity of the membrane was strongly influenced by the relative humidity.

  20. Regional Projections of Extreme Apparent Temperature Days in Africa and the Related Potential Risk to Human Health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Garland, Rebecca M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional climate modelling was used to produce high resolution climate projections for Africa, under a “business as usual scenario”, that were translated into potential health impacts utilizing a heat index that relates apparent temperature...

  1. Influence of relative humidity and temperature on quantity of electric charge of static protective clothing used in petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Liu, Baoquan; Li, Yipeng; Zhang, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the working principle of static protective clothing and its testing method of quantity of electric charge are introduced, and the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quantity of electric charge (q e ) of static protective clothing is studied by measuring q e of different clothing samples. The result shows that temperature and relative humidity can influence q e of static protective clothing to some extent and the influence of relative humidity is bigger than that of temperature. According to experimental results, the relationship of q e and relative humidity and temperature was analysed, and the safety boundary of quantity of electric charge is discussed. In order to reduce the occurrence of electrostatic accidents and ensure safe production and operation of petrochemical industry, some suggestions on choosing and using of static protective clothing are given for guaranteeing its static protective performance.

  2. Influence of relative humidity and temperature on quantity of electric charge of static protective clothing used in petrochemical industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Quanzhen; Liu, Baoquan; Li, Yipeng; Zhang, Tingting

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the working principle of static protective clothing and its testing method of quantity of electric charge are introduced, and the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quantity of electric charge (qe) of static protective clothing is studied by measuring qe of different clothing samples. The result shows that temperature and relative humidity can influence qe of static protective clothing to some extent and the influence of relative humidity is bigger than that of temperature. According to experimental results, the relationship of qe and relative humidity and temperature was analysed, and the safety boundary of quantity of electric charge is discussed. In order to reduce the occurrence of electrostatic accidents and ensure safe production and operation of petrochemical industry, some suggestions on choosing and using of static protective clothing are given for guaranteeing its static protective performance.

  3. Peat decomposability in managed organic soils in relation to land use, organic matter composition and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bader

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic soils comprise a large yet fragile carbon (C store in the global C cycle. Drainage, necessary for agriculture and forestry, triggers rapid decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM, typically increasing in the order forest < grassland < cropland. However, there is also large variation in decomposition due to differences in hydrological conditions, climate and specific management. Here we studied the role of SOM composition on peat decomposability in a variety of differently managed drained organic soils. We collected a total of 560 samples from 21 organic cropland, grassland and forest soils in Switzerland, monitored their CO2 emission rates in lab incubation experiments over 6 months at two temperatures (10 and 20 °C and related them to various soil characteristics, including bulk density, pH, soil organic carbon (SOC content and elemental ratios (C / N, H / C and O / C. CO2 release ranged from 6 to 195 mg CO2-C g−1 SOC at 10 °C and from 12 to 423 mg g−1 at 20 °C. This variation occurring under controlled conditions suggests that besides soil water regime, weather and management, SOM composition may be an underestimated factor that determines CO2 fluxes measured in field experiments. However, correlations between the investigated chemical SOM characteristics and CO2 emissions were weak. The latter also did not show a dependence on land-use type, although peat under forest was decomposed the least. High CO2 emissions in some topsoils were probably related to the accrual of labile crop residues. A comparison with published CO2 rates from incubated mineral soils indicated no difference in SOM decomposability between these soil classes, suggesting that accumulation of recent, labile plant materials that presumably account for most of the evolved CO2 is not systematically different between mineral and organic soils. In our data set, temperature sensitivity of decomposition (Q10 on average 2.57

  4. Observed changes in relative humidity and dew point temperature in coastal regions of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P.; Sabziparvar, A. A.; Tabari, Hossein

    2012-12-01

    The analysis of trends in hydroclimatic parameters and assessment of their statistical significance have recently received a great concern to clarify whether or not there is an obvious climate change. In the current study, parametric linear regression and nonparametric Mann-Kendall tests were applied for detecting annual and seasonal trends in the relative humidity (RH) and dew point temperature ( T dew) time series at ten coastal weather stations in Iran during 1966-2005. The serial structure of the data was considered, and the significant serial correlations were eliminated using the trend-free pre-whitening method. The results showed that annual RH increased by 1.03 and 0.28 %/decade at the northern and southern coastal regions of the country, respectively, while annual T dew increased by 0.29 and 0.15°C per decade at the northern and southern regions, respectively. The significant trends were frequent in the T dew series, but they were observed only at 2 out of the 50 RH series. The results showed that the difference between the results of the parametric and nonparametric tests was small, although the parametric test detected larger significant trends in the RH and T dew time series. Furthermore, the differences between the results of the trend tests were not related to the normality of the statistical distribution.

  5. Low-temperature relative reflectivity measurements of reflective and scintillating foils used in rare event searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenkämper, A.; Ulrich, A.; Defay, X.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Mondragón, E.; Münster, A.; Oppenheimer, C.; Potzel, W.; Roth, S.; Schönert, S.; Steiger, H.; Trinh Thi, H. H.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Zöller, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work we investigate the reflectivity of highly reflective multilayer polymer foils used in the CRESST experiment. The CRESST experiment searches directly for dark matter via operating scintillating CaWO4 crystals as targets for elastic dark matter-nucleon scattering. In order to suppress background events, the experiment employs the so-called phonon-light technique which is based on the simultaneous measurement of the heat signal in the main CaWO4 target crystal and of the emitted scintillation light with a separate cryogenic light detector. Both detectors are surrounded by a highly reflective and scintillating multilayer polymer foil to increase the light collection efficiency and to veto surface backgrounds. While this study is motivated by the CRESST experiment, the results are also relevant for other rare event searches using scintillating cryogenic bolometers in the field of the search of dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ). In this work a dedicated experiment has been set up to determine the relative reflectivity at 300 K and 20 K of three multilayer foils ("VM2000", "VM2002", "Vikuiti") produced by the company 3M. The intensity of a light beam reflected off the foil is measured with a CCD camera. The ratio of the intensities at 300 K and 20 K corresponds to the relative reflectivity change. The measurements performed in this work show no variation of the reflectivity with temperature at a level of ∼1%.

  6. Densification of boron carbide at relatively low temperatures by hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telle, R.

    1988-01-01

    The poor sinterability of B 4 C limits its widespread application because both high temperatures and high pressures are required for a complete densification. Moreover, B 4 C suffers from a low strength and fracture toughness, possesses, however, a high potential because of its extreme hardness. Reaction hot pressing of B 4 C-WC-TiC-Si-Co mixtures resulting in B 4 C-TiB 2 -W 2 B 5 composites of high density exhibit remarkable mechanical properties. The influence of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) on the microstructure and the mechanical properties is investigated in cooperation with participants of the COST 503 activities and related to the strengthening and toughening mechanisms. Difficulties during densification by HIP arise from the evaporation of adsorbed volatiles as well as from the strong swelling of the powder compact due to the sintering reaction. Several HIP cycle designs were tested in order to prevent the bloating of the capsule and to control internal stresses due to the misfit of the thermal expansion of the entire phases. In comparison to single phase B 4 C ceramics, bending strength was improved to 1030 MPa, K Ic to 5.2 MPa/m, while hardness was comparable with HV1=38 GPa. Wear test were performed and related to the toughening mechanisms. (orig.) With 56 refs., 9 tabs., 64 figs

  7. Expression responses of five cold tolerant related genes to two temperature dropping treatments in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengze; Chang, Yaqing; Pang, Zhenguo; Ding, Jun; Ji, Nanjing

    2015-03-01

    Environmental conditions, including ambient temperature, play important roles in survival, growth development, and reproduction of the Japanese sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Low temperatures result in slowed growth and skin ulceration disease. In a previous study, we investigated the effect of low temperature on gene expression profiles in A. japonicus by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Genes encoding Ferritin, Lysozyme, Hsp70, gp96, and AjToll were selected from a subtracted cDNA library of A. japonicus under acute cold stress. The transcriptional expression profiles of these genes were investigated in different tissues (coelomocyte, respiratory tree, intestine, longitudinal muscle) after exposure to acute and mild temperature dropping treatments. The results show that (1) the five cold-tolerance-related genes were found in all four tissues and the highest mRNA levels were observed in coelomocyte and respiratory tree; (2) under the temperature dropping treatments, three types of transcriptional regulation patterns were observed: primary suppression followed by up-regulation at -2°C, suppressed expression throughout the two treatments, and more rarely an initial stimulation followed by suppression; and (3) gene expression suppression was more severe under acute temperature dropping than under mild temperature dropping treatment. The five cold-tolerance-related genes that were distributed mainly in coelomocyte and respiratory tissues were generally down-regulated by low temperature stress but an inverse up-regulation event was found at the extreme temperature (-2°C).

  8. Daily changes of radon concentration in soil gas under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, Evelise G.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de, E-mail: evelise.lara@gmail.com, E-mail: heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Rocha, Zildete; Rios, Francisco Javier, E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br, E-mail: javier@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work aims at relating the daily change in the radon concentration in soil gas in a Red Yellow Acrisol (SiBCS) under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity. The {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, U content and permeability were also performed. The measurements of radon soil gas were carried out by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. The {sup 226}Ra activity concentration was made by Gamma Spectrometry (HPGe); the permeability was carried out using the RADON-JOK permeameter and ICP-MS analysis to {sup 232}Th and U content. The soil permeability is 5.0 x 10{sup -12}, which is considered average. The {sup 226}Ra (22.2 ± 0.3 Bq.m{sup -3}); U content (73.4 ± 3.6 Bq.kg{sup -1}) and {sup 232}Th content (55.3 ± 4.0 Bq.kg{sup -1}) were considered above of average concentrations, according to mean values for soils typical (~ 35.0 Bq.kg{sup -1}) by UNSCEAR. The results showed a difference of 26.0% between the highest and the lowest concentration of radon in soil gas: at midnight (15.5 ± 1.0 kBq.m{sup -3}) and 3:00 pm, the highest mean radon concentration (21.0 ± 1.0 kBq.m{sup -3}). The room temperature and surface soil temperature showed equivalent behavior and the surface soil temperature slightly below room temperature during the entire monitoring time. Nevertheless, the relative humidity showed the highest cyclical behavior, showing a higher relationship with the radon concentration in soil gas. (author)

  9. Daily changes of radon concentration in soil gas under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara, Evelise G.; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de

    2015-01-01

    This work aims at relating the daily change in the radon concentration in soil gas in a Red Yellow Acrisol (SiBCS) under influence of atmospheric factors: room temperature, soil surface temperature and relative humidity. The 226 Ra, 232 Th, U content and permeability were also performed. The measurements of radon soil gas were carried out by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. The 226 Ra activity concentration was made by Gamma Spectrometry (HPGe); the permeability was carried out using the RADON-JOK permeameter and ICP-MS analysis to 232 Th and U content. The soil permeability is 5.0 x 10 -12 , which is considered average. The 226 Ra (22.2 ± 0.3 Bq.m -3 ); U content (73.4 ± 3.6 Bq.kg -1 ) and 232 Th content (55.3 ± 4.0 Bq.kg -1 ) were considered above of average concentrations, according to mean values for soils typical (~ 35.0 Bq.kg -1 ) by UNSCEAR. The results showed a difference of 26.0% between the highest and the lowest concentration of radon in soil gas: at midnight (15.5 ± 1.0 kBq.m -3 ) and 3:00 pm, the highest mean radon concentration (21.0 ± 1.0 kBq.m -3 ). The room temperature and surface soil temperature showed equivalent behavior and the surface soil temperature slightly below room temperature during the entire monitoring time. Nevertheless, the relative humidity showed the highest cyclical behavior, showing a higher relationship with the radon concentration in soil gas. (author)

  10. The effects of temperature, relative humidity, light, and resource quality on flight initiation in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Douglas W; Whitesell, Matthew E; Wade, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the environmental conditions that induce a flight response in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), including resource quality, temperature, relative humidity, and light. Over 72-h trial periods, we observed the proportion of individuals emigrating by flight to range from 0.0 in extreme heat or cold to 0.82 with starvation. Resource quality, presence of a light source, and temperature all directly influenced the initiation of the flight response. We did not detect any effect of relative humidity or sudden change in temperature on the incidence of flight. We discuss our findings in the context of Tribolium ecology and evolution.

  11. Variation of Surface Air Temperature in Relation to El Nino and Cataclysmic Volcanic Eruptions, 1796-1882

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1999-01-01

    During the contemporaneous interval of 1796-1882 a number of significant decreases in temperature are found in the records of Central England and Northern Ireland. These decreases appear to be related to the occurrences of El Nino and/or cataclysmic volcanic eruptions. For example, a composite of residual temperatures of the Central England dataset, centering temperatures on the yearly onsets of 20 El Nino of moderate to stronger strength, shows that, on average, the change in temperature varied by about +/- 0.3 C from normal being warmer during the boreal fall-winter leading up to the El Nino year and cooler during the spring-summer of the El Nino year. Also, the influence of El Nino on Central England temperatures appears to last about 1-2 years. Similarly, a composite of residual temperatures of the Central England dataset, centering temperatures on the month of eruption for 26 cataclysmic volcanic eruptions, shows that, on average, the change in temperature decreased by about 0.1 - 0.2 C, typically, 1-2 years after the eruption, although for specific events, like Tambora, the decrease was considerably greater. Additionally, tropical eruptions appear to produce greater changes in temperature than extratropical eruptions, and eruptions occurring in boreal spring-summer appear to produce greater changes in temperature than those occurring in fall-winter.

  12. Yolk-albumen testosterone in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination: relation with development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Victoria; Bowden, Rachel M; Crews, David

    2013-06-01

    The leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination as well as temperature-influenced polymorphisms. Research suggests that in oviparous reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination, steroid hormones in the yolk might influence sex determination and sexual differentiation. From captive leopard geckos that were all from the same incubation temperature regime, we gathered freshly laid eggs, incubated them at one of two female-biased incubation temperatures (26 or 34°C), and measured testosterone content in the yolk-albumen at early or late development. No differences in the concentration of testosterone were detected in eggs from different incubation temperatures. We report testosterone concentrations in the yolk-albumen were higher in eggs of late development than early development at 26°C incubation temperatures, a finding opposite that reported in other TSD reptiles studied to date. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Evidence for a weakening strength of temperature-corn yield relation in the United States during 1980–2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Guoyong

    2017-12-01

    Temperature is known to be correlated with crop yields, causing reduction of crop yield with climate warming without adaptations or CO2 fertilization effects. The historical temperature-crop yield relation has often been used for informing future changes. This relationship, however, may change over time following alternations in other environmental factors. Results show that the strength of the relationship between the interannual variability of growing season temperature and corn yield (RGST_CY) has declined in the United States between 1980 and 2010 with a loss in the statistical significance. The regression slope which represents the anomalies in corn yield that occur in association with 1 degree temperature anomaly has decreased significantly from -6.9%/K of the first half period to -2.4%/K~-3.5%/K of the second half period. This implies that projected corn yield reduction will be overestimated by a fact of 2 in a given warming scenario, if the corn-temperature relation is derived from the earlier historical period. Changes in RGST_CY are mainly observed in Midwest Corn Belt and central High Plains, and are well reproduced by 11 process-based crop models. In Midwest rain-fed systems, the decrease of negative temperature effects coincides with an increase in water availability by precipitation. In irrigated areas where water stress is minimized, the decline of beneficial temperature effects is significantly related to the increase in extreme hot days. The results indicate that an extrapolation of historical yield response to temperature may bias the assessment of agriculture vulnerability to climate change. Efforts to reduce climate impacts on agriculture should pay attention not only to climate change, but also to changes in climate-crop yield relations. There are some caveats that should be acknowledged as the analysis is restricted to the changes in the linear relation between growing season mean temperature and corn yield for the specific study period.

  14. Oxygen isotope variability in snow from western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica and its relation to temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsen, M.M.; Wal, R.S.W. van de; Broeke, M.R. van den; As, D. van; Reijmer, C.H.; Meijer, H.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents (delta) 18 O records from snow pits from four locations in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica that contain at least four annual cycles. The aim of the study was to analyse in detail these records as well as the prevailing temperatures during accumulation in order to infer to what extent isotopic composition in this area can be interpreted as temperature information. The original seasonal amplitudes of the isotope records were reconstructed by use of a simple back-diffusion model. Automatic weather station data were used to describe the accumulation history and the near-surface temperatures; the temperatures at the atmospheric level of snow formation were inferred from a regional climate model. The results show that the strongly intermittent nature of the accumulation in this area can result in the exclusion of entire seasons from the isotope records. The temperature records also reveal that the oxygen isotope records in these snow pits are biased towards higher temperatures, since snowfall conditions are associated with higher temperatures. This effect is greatest at low temperatures. A comparison between the seasonal extreme isotopic and temperature values points out that on timescales of seasons to several years, isotopic variability cannot be interpreted with confidence as temperature changes at the accumulation sites

  15. Relation between soil temperature and biophysical parameters in Indian mustard seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, T.; Chakravarty, N. V. K.

    2013-12-01

    Temporal changes in surface soil temperature were studied in winter crop. Significant changes in bare and cropped soil temperature were revealed. Air temperature showed a statistically positive and strong relationship (R2 = 0.79** to 0.92**) with the soil temperature both at morning and afternoon hours. Linear regression analysis indicated that each unit increase in ambient temperature would lead to increase in minimum and maximum soil temperatures by 1.04 and 1.02 degree, respectively. Statistically positive correlation was revealed among biophysical variables with the cumulative surface soil temperature. Linear and non-linear regression analysis indicated 62-69, 72-86 and 72-80% variation in Leaf area index, dry matter production and heat use efficiency in Indian mustard crop as a function of soil degree days. Below 60% variation in yield in Indian mustard was revealed as a function of soil temperature. In contrast, non-significant relationship between oil content and soil temperature was found, which suggests that oil accumulation in oilseed crops was not affected significantly by the soil temperature as an independent variable.

  16. High resolution dynamical downscaling of air temperature and relative humidity: performance assessment of WRF for Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Isilda; Pereira, Mário; Moreira, Demerval; Carvalheiro, Luís; Bugalho, Lourdes; Corte-Real, João

    2017-04-01

    Air temperature and relative humidity are two of the atmospheric variables with higher impact on human and natural systems, contributing to define the stress/comfortable conditions, affecting the productivity and health of the individuals as well as diminishing the resilience to other environmental hazards. Atmospheric regional models, driven by large scale forecasts from global circulation models, are the best way to reproduce such environmental conditions in high space-time resolution. This study is focused on the performance assessment of the WRF mesoscale model to perform high resolution dynamical downscaling for Portugal with three two-way nested grids, at 60 km, 20 km and 5 km horizontal resolution. The simulations of WRF models were produced with different initial and boundary forcing conditions. The NCEP-FNL Operational Global Analysis data available on 1-degree by 1-degree grid every six hours and ERA-Interim reanalyses dataset were used to drive the models. Two alternative configurations of the WRF model, including planetary boundary, layer schemes, microphysics, land-surface models, radiation schemes, were used and tested within the 5 km spatial resolution domain. Simulations of air temperature and relative humidity were produced for January and July of 2016 and compared with the observed datasets provided by the Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera (IPMA) for 83 weather stations. Different performance measures of bias, precision, and accuracy were used, namely normalized bias, standard deviation, mean absolute error, root mean square error, bias of root mean square error as well as correlation based measures (e.g., coefficient of determination) and goodness of fit measures (index of agreement). Main conclusions from the obtained results reveal: (i) great similarity between the spatial patterns of the simulated and observed fields; (ii) only small differences between simulations produced with ERA-Interim and NCEP-FNL, in spite of some differences

  17. Temperature-related mortality estimates after accounting for the cumulative effects of air pollution in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanišić Stojić, Svetlana; Stanišić, Nemanja; Stojić, Andreja

    2016-07-11

    To propose a new method for including the cumulative mid-term effects of air pollution in the traditional Poisson regression model and compare the temperature-related mortality risk estimates, before and after including air pollution data. The analysis comprised a total of 56,920 residents aged 65 years or older who died from circulatory and respiratory diseases in Belgrade, Serbia, and daily mean PM10, NO2, SO2 and soot concentrations obtained for the period 2009-2014. After accounting for the cumulative effects of air pollutants, the risk associated with cold temperatures was significantly lower and the overall temperature-attributable risk decreased from 8.80 to 3.00 %. Furthermore, the optimum range of temperature, within which no excess temperature-related mortality is expected to occur, was very broad, between -5 and 21 °C, which differs from the previous findings that most of the attributable deaths were associated with mild temperatures. These results suggest that, in polluted areas of developing countries, most of the mortality risk, previously attributed to cold temperatures, can be explained by the mid-term effects of air pollution. The results also showed that the estimated relative importance of PM10 was the smallest of four examined pollutant species, and thus, including PM10 data only is clearly not the most effective way to control for the effects of air pollution.

  18. Atypical hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV with neither mental retardation nor pain insensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chae Lim; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kim, Byoung Joon; Lee, Jong-Hyuck; Sung, Ki-Sun; Kim, Jong-Won; Park, Youn-Soo

    2013-12-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe mental retardation and self-mutilation-related complications. Recently, we investigated a 16-year-old Korean boy with normal intelligence. He had preserved pain sensation but was suspected of having hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV because of the recurrent bone fractures and painless joint destruction in the absence of any predisposing medical conditions. Genetic analysis of the NTRK1 gene revealed compound heterozygous mutations including c.851-33T>A and c.2303C>T (p.Pro768Leu) in the NTRK1 gene. The p.Pro768Leu mutation has been identified in 2 Japanese patients with a mild phenotype. Therefore, although it is rare, hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV should be considered in patients with recurrent bone fractures and painless joint destruction who do not have any predisposing conditions even when they do not have typical clinical features such as mental retardation or pain insensitivity.

  19. VIP receptors from porcine liver: High yield solubilization in a GTP-insensitive form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voisin, T.; Couvineau, A.; Guijarro, L.; Laburthe, M.

    1990-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptors were solubilized from porcine liver membranes using CHAPS. The binding of 125 I-VIP to solubilized receptors was reversible, saturable and specific. Scatchard analysis indicated the presence of one binding site with a Kd of 6.5 ± 0.3 nM and a Bmax of 1.20 ± 0.15 pmol/mg protein. Solubilized and membrane-bound receptors displayed the same pharmacological profile since VIP and VIP-related peptides inhibited 125 I-VIP binding to both receptor preparations with the same rank order of potency e.g. VIP>helodermin>rat GRF>rat PHI>secretin>human GRF. GTP inhibited 125 I-VIP binding to membrane-bound receptors but not to solubilized receptors supporting functional uncoupling of VIP receptor and G protein during solubilization. Affinity labeling of solubilized and membrane-bound VIP receptors with 125 I-VIP revealed the presence of a single molecular component with Mr 55,000 in both cases. It is concluded that VIP receptors from porcine liver can be solubilized with a good yield, in a GTP-insensitive, G protein-free form. This represents a major advance towards the purification of VIP receptors

  20. Study on Relative COP Changes with Increasing Heat Input Temperatures of Double Effect Steam Absorption Chillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Majid Mohd Amin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Absorption chillers at cogeneration plants generate chilled water using steam supplied by heat recovery steam generators. The chillers are mainly of double effect type. The COP of double effect varies from 0.7 to 1.2 depending on operation and maintenance practices of the chillers. Heat input to the chillers during operations could have impact on the COP of the chillers. This study is on relative COP changes with increasing the heat input temperatures for a steam absorption chiller at a gas fueled cogeneration plant. Reversible COP analysis and zero order model were used for evaluating COP of the chiller for 118 days operation period. Results indicate increasing COP trends for both the reversible COP and zero model COP. Although the zero model COP are within the range of double effect absorption chiller, it is not so for the actual COP. The actual COP is below the range of normal double effect COP. It is recommended that economic replacement analysis to be undertaken to assess the feasibility either to repair or replace the existing absorption chiller.

  1. Iron based superconductors and related compounds synthesized by solid state metathesis and high temperature reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankovsky, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The results of this thesis can be divided into three major topics, which can also be seen as different approaches of solid state chemistry to reveal interesting features of known and unknown compounds and to develop alternative synthesis routes. Firstly, known compounds with related structural motifs to the superconducting iron-arsenides were investigated regarding their structural and physical properties. In case of La 3 Pd 4 Ge 4 the influence of Fe doping on the properties was studied, whereas in the series ZrMAs (M=Ti,V) the physical properties have not yet been reported at all and were investigated for the first time. Secondly, an alternative synthesis route has been developed for the synthesis of superconducting LaFeAsO 1-x F x . This solid state metathesis reaction distinctly increased the quality of the samples compared to conventionally prepared products. Furthermore, the reaction pathway was investigated and clarified, which helps to understand the processes during high temperature solid state metathesis reactions in general. Thirdly, this alternative synthesis route was expanded to other systems and new compounds like co-substituted LaFe 1-x Mn x AsO 1-y F y were prepared and thoroughly investigated. This led to a complex study of the interplay of magnetism, electronic and structural conditions and the occurrence of superconducting properties. The investigation and understanding of such complex coherences will probably be decisive for the further understanding of the superconducting mechanism in iron based superconductors.

  2. The influence of oxygen, partial vacuum, temperature, relative humidity combined with gamma radiation on the mosquito, Culex pipiens complex l. I. Effect of exposure to temperature and relative humidity alone.

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, Mahmood [محمود حافظ; Abdel-Rahmen, A. M.; Osman, A. Z.; Wakid, A. M.; Hafez, M. K.

    1993-01-01

    The results revealed that a temperature of 10°C was the most effective temperature on pupal mortality of Culex pipiens complex L. followed by 32°C then 20 and 26°C. There was a gradual increase in pupal mortality with increasing the time of exposure to temperatures. The pupal mortality increased with decreasing the relative humidity levels at the same time of exposure. Exposure for short time periods did not affect significantly the pupal mortality. Increasing the exposure time increased m...

  3. The role of alternative cyanide-insensitive respiration in plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raskin, Ilya

    1997-09-29

    This DOE funded research concentrated on the investigation of the role of respiration and oxidative stress in plant biology. Initially the authors concentrated on the possible role of cyanide-insensitive respiration in counteracting the deleterious effects of chilling stress. Although plants are considered to be poikilotherms, there are a few examples of thermogenesis, in which the tissue temperature increases well above ambient. They suggested that differences between thermogenic and non-thermogenic plants may be quantitative rather than qualitative, and that heat from increased respiration may have a local protective effect on the mitochondria, slowing or reducing the effects of chilling. They proposed that this is accomplished by a large increase in respiration, predominantly via the alternative pathway. They measured the increases in respiration, particularly via the alternative pathway, in response to chilling. They have also quantified the associated increases in heat evolution in response to chilling in a number of plant species using a microcalorimeter. For example, after 8 h exposure to 8 C, heat evolution in chilling-sensitive species increased 47--98%, compared to 7--22% for the chilling-resistant species. No increase in heat evolution was observed in the extremely chilling-sensitive ornamental Episcka cupreata (Hook). Increases in heat evolution were observed when plants were chilled in constant light or in the dark, but not when plants were chilled at high humidity. Heat evolution by mitochondria isolated from potato tuber slices were also measured. These values, together with measurements of the heat capacity of isolated mitochondria and counting of the mitochondria by flow cytometry, allow calculation of theoretical maximal rates of heating and the heat produced per mitochondrion. The obtained data was consistent with the protective role of respiratory heat production in cold-stressed plants.

  4. Determination of Factors Related to Students' Understandings of Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationships between high school students' learning approaches and logical thinking abilities and their understandings of heat, temperature and internal energy concepts. Learning Approach Questionnaire, Test of Logical Thinking and Three-Tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Test were used…

  5. Western US high June 2015 temperatures and their relation to global warming and soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philip, Sjoukje Y.; Kew, Sarah F.; Hauser, Mathias; Guillod, Benoit P.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Whan, Kirien; Uhe, Peter; Oldenborgh, van Geert Jan

    2018-01-01

    The Western US states Washington (WA), Oregon (OR) and California (CA) experienced extremely high temperatures in June 2015. The temperature anomalies were so extreme that they cannot be explained with global warming alone. We investigate the hypothesis that soil moisture played an important role

  6. Design rules for high temperature plant - the implications of recent research in relation to current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.

    1977-01-01

    An historical summary is presented of design rules for high temperature plant, leading to the rules applicable to high temperature reactors, particularly the liquid metal fast breeder reactor. Special attention is given to creep rupture properties of ferritic and austenitic materials used for the construction of components such as boilers and pressure vessels. (author)

  7. Western US high June 2015 temperatures and their relation to global warming and soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sjoukje Y.; Kew, Sarah F.; Hauser, Mathias; Guillod, Benoit P.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Whan, Kirien; Uhe, Peter; Oldenborgh, Geert Jan van

    2018-04-01

    The Western US states Washington (WA), Oregon (OR) and California (CA) experienced extremely high temperatures in June 2015. The temperature anomalies were so extreme that they cannot be explained with global warming alone. We investigate the hypothesis that soil moisture played an important role as well. We use a land surface model and a large ensemble from the weather@home modelling effort to investigate the coupling between soil moisture and temperature in a warming world. Both models show that May was anomalously dry, satisfying a prerequisite for the extreme heat wave, and they indicate that WA and OR are in a wet-to-dry transitional soil moisture regime. We use two different land surface-atmosphere coupling metrics to show that there was strong coupling between temperature, latent heat flux and the effect of soil moisture deficits on the energy balance in June 2015 in WA and OR. June temperature anomalies conditioned on wet/dry conditions show that both the mean and extreme temperatures become hotter for dry soils, especially in WA and OR. Fitting a Gaussian model to temperatures using soil moisture as a covariate shows that the June 2015 temperature values fit well in the extrapolated empirical temperature/drought lines. The high temperature anomalies in WA and OR are thus to be expected, given the dry soil moisture conditions and that those regions are in the transition from a wet to a dry regime. CA is already in the dry regime and therefore the necessity of taking soil moisture into account is of lower importance.

  8. Anti-bombing insensitivity life of molybdenum cathode doped with La2O3 and Y2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinshu; Wang Yiman; Zhou Meiling

    2006-01-01

    Anti-bombing insensitivity of La 2 O 3 -Y 2 O 3 -Mo secondary emitter has been studied in this paper. The variation of maximum secondary emission coefficient δ max with time was measured. The cathode after life experiment was analyzed by means of HRM, SEM, EDS and XRD. The results showed that δ max of La 2 O 3 -Y 2 O 3 -Mo cathode operating at 1100 deg. C under continuous electron bombardment of 300 W/cm 2 was still about 2.5 after 1000 h operation, indicating that this kind of cathode had good anti-bombing insensitivity. In the internal part of the cathode, RE 2 O 3 (rare earth oxide) and molybdenum grains distributed alternately and there existed a certain relationship between crystallographic orientation of RE 2 O 3 and that of molybdenum. It was found that a RE 2 O 3 layer was formed on the surface after operation. The high δ max of La 2 O 3 -Y 2 O 3 -Mo cathode was related to the RE 2 O 3 layer on the surface and the amount of nanosized La 2 O 3 particles on the Y 2 O 3 layer

  9. Model Insensitive and Calibration Independent Method for Determination of the Downstream Neutral Hydrogen Density Through Ly-alpha Glow Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, P.; Judge, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Our knowledge of the various heliospheric phenomena (location of the solar wind termination shock, heliopause configuration and very local interstellar medium parameters) is limited by uncertainties in the available heliospheric plasma models and by calibration uncertainties in the observing instruments. There is, thus, a strong motivation to develop model insensitive and calibration independent methods to reduce the uncertainties in the relevant heliospheric parameters. We have developed such a method to constrain the downstream neutral hydrogen density inside the heliospheric tail. In our approach we have taken advantage of the relative insensitivity of the downstream neutral hydrogen density profile to the specific plasma model adopted. We have also used the fact that the presence of an asymmetric neutral hydrogen cavity surrounding the sun, characteristic of all neutral densities models, results in a higher multiple scattering contribution to the observed glow in the downstream region than in the upstream region. This allows us to approximate the actual density profile with one which is spatially uniform for the purpose of calculating the downstream backscattered glow. Using different spatially constant density profiles, radiative transfer calculations are performed, and the radial dependence of the predicted glow is compared with the observed I/R dependence of Pioneer 10 UV data. Such a comparison bounds the large distance heliospheric neutral hydrogen density in the downstream direction to a value between 0.05 and 0.1/cc.

  10. Total Hip Arthroplasty in an Inveterate Femoral Neck Fracture in a Patient with Congenital Insensitivity to Pain with Anhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Augusto; Ursino, Nicola; Ripamonti, Carlo A M; Fiorentini, Carlo E; Scelsi, Michele; D'Ambrosi, Riccardo; Portinaro, Nicola M

    2017-12-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is an extremely rare disorder characterized by autonomic and sensory nerves malfunction with insensitivity to both deep and superficial painful stimuli, inability to sweat and produce tears, and mild to moderate mental retardation with self-mutilating behavior. Related consequences of inveterate musculoskeletal injuries represent a major issue for these patients, since pain cannot act as a protection mechanism. For the same reason, the patients are at risk during postoperative rehabilitation, which should be taken into account when selecting an orthopaedic implant. To our knowledge, only one case of total hip arthroplasty has been reported in the literature to date. A 21-year-old Caucasian male patient affected with CIPA arrived at our attention complaining about a functional limitation of the left hip. No history of trauma was reported. The X-rays showed an inveterate femoral neck fracture with a severe necrosis and resorption of the femoral head. We decided to perform a total hip arthroplasty with a cemented stem and a cemented dual mobility cup. The postoperative course and rehabilitation were satisfactory, with excellent clinical results, measured with the Harris Hip Score at 1 year.

  11. Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Thomas J; Lu, Ying; Jüttner, René; Smith, Ewan St J; Hu, Jing; Brand, Antje; Wetzel, Christiane; Milenkovic, Nevena; Erdmann, Bettina; Heppenstall, Paul A; Laurito, Charles E; Wilson, Steven P; Lewin, Gary R

    2008-01-01

    In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P) in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes "normal" mammalian nociception.

  12. Selective inflammatory pain insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Park

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In all mammals, tissue inflammation leads to pain and behavioral sensitization to thermal and mechanical stimuli called hyperalgesia. We studied pain mechanisms in the African naked mole-rat, an unusual rodent species that lacks pain-related neuropeptides (e.g., substance P in cutaneous sensory fibers. Naked mole-rats show a unique and remarkable lack of pain-related behaviors to two potent algogens, acid and capsaicin. Furthermore, when exposed to inflammatory insults or known mediators, naked mole-rats do not display thermal hyperalgesia. In contrast, naked mole-rats do display nocifensive behaviors in the formalin test and show mechanical hyperalgesia after inflammation. Using electrophysiology, we showed that primary afferent nociceptors in naked mole-rats are insensitive to acid stimuli, consistent with the animal's lack of acid-induced behavior. Acid transduction by sensory neurons is observed in birds, amphibians, and fish, which suggests that this tranduction mechanism has been selectively disabled in the naked mole-rat in the course of its evolution. In contrast, nociceptors do respond vigorously to capsaicin, and we also show that sensory neurons express a transient receptor potential vanilloid channel-1 ion channel that is capsaicin sensitive. Nevertheless, the activation of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons in naked mole-rats does not produce pain-related behavior. We show that capsaicin-sensitive nociceptors in the naked mole-rat are functionally connected to superficial dorsal horn neurons as in mice. However, the same nociceptors are also functionally connected to deep dorsal horn neurons, a connectivity that is rare in mice. The pain biology of the naked mole-rat is unique among mammals, thus the study of pain mechanisms in this unusual species can provide major insights into what constitutes "normal" mammalian nociception.

  13. Arabidopsis ZED1-related kinases mediate the temperature-sensitive intersection of immune response and growth homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhicai; Cui, Dayong; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Jingbo; Liu, Cheng; Xin, Wei; Li, Yuan; Liu, Na; Ren, Dongtao; Tang, Dingzhong; Hu, Yuxin

    2017-07-01

    Activation of the immune response in plants antagonizes growth and development in the absence of pathogens, and such an autoimmune phenotype is often suppressed by the elevation of ambient temperature. However, molecular regulation of the ambient temperature-sensitive intersection of immune response and growth is largely elusive. A genetic screen identified an Arabidopsis mutant, zed1-D, by its high temperature-dependent growth retardation. A combination of molecular, cytological and genetic approaches was used to investigate the molecular basis behind the temperature-sensitive growth and immune response in zed1-D. A dominant mutation in HOPZ-ETI-DEFICIENT 1 (ZED1) is responsible for a high temperature-dependent autoimmunity and growth retardation in zed1-D. The autoimmune phenotype in zed1-D is dependent on the HOPZ-ACTIVATED RESISTANCE 1 (ZAR1). ZED1 and some ZED1-related kinases (ZRKs) are induced by elevated temperature and function cooperatively to suppress the immune response by modulating the transcription of SUPPRESSOR OF NPR1-1 CONSTITUTIVE 1 (SNC1) in the absence of pathogens. Our data reveal a previously unidentified role of ZRKs in the ambient temperature-sensitive immune response in the absence of pathogens, and thus reveals a possible molecular mechanism underlying the temperature-mediated intersection of immune response and growth in plants. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Relative importance of temperature and diet to larval development and adult size of the winter stonefly, Soyedina carolinensis (Plecoptera: Nemouridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, B.W.; Vannote, R.L.; Dodds, P.J.

    1986-02-01

    Soyedina carolinensis Claassen, a leaf shredding stonefly, was reared in a series of three laboratory experiments from early instar to adult on different species of deciduous leaves and at various constant and fluctuating temperature regimes. Experiment 1, which involved rearing larvae on fourteen different leaf diets at ambient stream temperatures, showed that diet significantly affected larval growth and adult size but did not affect overall developmental time. Experiment 2, which involved rearing larvae on five different leaf diets at each of three fluctuating temperature regimes, showed that: adding 6/sup 0/C to the normal temperature regime of WCC was lethal to 99% of the larvae regardless of diet; and warming WCC by 3/sup 0/C did not affect developmental time but did significantly reduce adult size relative to adults reared at WCC temperatures on certain diets. Experiment 3, which involved rearing larvae on five different leaf diets at each of five constant temperatures showed that: temperature significantly affected the mortality, growth, and development time of larvae whereas diet only affected larval growth and mortality; temperatures at or near 10/sup 0/C yielded maximum larval growth and survival for most diets; at 5/sup 0/C, larval mortality was high and growth was low resulting in a few small adults for most diets; larval mortality was at or near 100% at 15/sup 0/C regardless of diet; and no larvae survived at 20 and 25/sup 0/C.

  15. Frequency, moisture content, and temperature dependent dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with radio-frequency/microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuozhuo; Guo, Wenchuan

    2017-08-24

    To develop advanced drying methods using radio-frequency (RF) or microwave (MW) energy, dielectric properties of potato starch were determined using an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyzer at frequencies between 20 and 4,500 MHz, moisture contents between 15.1% and 43.1% wet basis (w.b.), and temperatures between 25 and 75 °C. The results showed that both dielectric constant (ε') and loss factor (ε″) were dependent on frequency, moisture content, and temperature. ε' decreased with increasing frequency at a given moisture content or temperature. At low moisture contents (≤25.4% w.b.) or low temperatures (≤45 °C), ε″ increased with increasing frequency. However, ε″ changed from decrease to increase with increasing frequency at high moisture contents or temperatures. At low temperatures (25-35 °C), both ε' and ε″ increased with increasing moisture content. At low moisture contents (15.1-19.5% w.b.), they increased with increasing temperature. The change trends of ε' and ε″ were different and dependent on temperature and moisture content at their high levels. The penetration depth (d p ) decreased with increasing frequency. RF treatments may provide potential large-scale industrial drying application for potato starch. This research offers useful information on dielectric properties of potato starch related to drying with electromagnetic energy.

  16. Health symptoms in relation to temperature, humidity, and self-reported perceptions of climate in New York City residential environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Ashlinn; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2017-07-01

    Little monitoring has been conducted of temperature and humidity inside homes despite the fact that these conditions may be relevant to health outcomes. Previous studies have observed associations between self-reported perceptions of the indoor environment and health. Here, we investigate associations between measured temperature and humidity, perceptions of indoor environmental conditions, and health symptoms in a sample of New York City apartments. We measured temperature and humidity in 40 New York City apartments during summer and winter seasons and collected survey data from the households' residents. Health outcomes of interest were (1) sleep quality, (2) symptoms of heat illness (summer season), and (3) symptoms of respiratory viral infection (winter season). Using mixed-effects logistic regression models, we investigated associations between the perceptions, symptoms, and measured conditions in each season. Perceptions of indoor temperature were significantly associated with measured temperature in both the summer and the winter, with a stronger association in the summer season. Sleep quality was inversely related to measured and perceived indoor temperature in the summer season only. Heat illness symptoms were associated with perceived, but not measured, temperature in the summer season. We did not find an association between any measured or perceived condition and cases of respiratory infection in the winter season. Although limited in size, the results of this study reveal that indoor temperature may impact sleep quality, and that thermal perceptions of the indoor environment may indicate vulnerability to heat illness. These are both important avenues for further investigation.

  17. Positron Annihilation Studies of High-Temperature Superconductors and Related Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Simon

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. The work described in this thesis is concerned with the study of the electronic structure of the high T_{c} superconductor YBa _2Cu_3O _7 and related oxide compounds using the technique of two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation. These compounds differ widely in their physical properties, ranging from materials such as nickel oxide, which is an insulator, to YBa_2Cu _3O_7 or ReO _3 which are superconducting over a certain temperature range. We have studied some of these compounds with a view to clarifying whether YBa _2Cu_3O_7 possessed a Fermi surface. The numerous theories that have been proposed to explain the observed superconducting phase of these materials can be classified into two main groups. The theories in the first group predict the existence of a quasi two dimensional Fermi surface whereas the remaining models do not but are based on an approach similar to that used to explain the observed electronic structure of the transition monoxides. The data obtained from our study of NiO, CoO and twinned crystals of YBa_2Cu _3O_7 was of low statistics and it was not possible to deduce anything of significance. However, we were able to deduce that, consistent with the predictions of theory, the positron was preferentially annihilating on the copper-oxygen chains. The data obtained from our measurement on untwinned crystals of YBa_2Cu_3 O_7 was of much higher statistics and we found one of clearest imaginable manifestations of a Fermi surface in the form of a ridge in the anisotropy of our data. The ridge is even more apparent in the LCW -folded spectra. The form and profile of the ridge are in substantial agreement with the theoretical predictions of a Gamma-X electron ridge section from the Cu-O chains.

  18. Paleotemperatures derived from noble gases dissolved in groundwater and in relation to soil temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stute, M.; Sonntag, C.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe dissolved in groundwater at two sites (Bocholt, Germany, and the Great Hungarian Plain) were taken to prove the reliability of noble gas temperatures as indicators of paleotemperatures. Noble gas temperatures of groundwater of Holocene age were found to reflect the annual mean soil temperature in the recharge are with an accuracy close to the precision of measurement (1σ approx. ±0.5 deg. C). Noble gas temperature data demonstrate the influence of vegetation cover on the soil temperature in the infiltration area. Groundwater formed in forests at the Bocholt site shows noble gas temperatures that are 2.2 deg. C lower than the groundwater formed in fields or meadows. The temperature data obtained from groundwater of the Great Hungarian Plain for the last glaciation are ≥ 8.6 deg. C lower than data from recent groundwater for maximum glaciation (approx. 18,000 years ago) and 4.7 ± 1 deg. C lower for the preceding interstadial (approx. 28,000-35,000 years ago). These data permit independent reconstruction of paleoclimatic conditions. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  19. Role of Imaging in the Diagnosis and Management of Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Nezzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome is an X-linked recessive androgen receptor disorder characterized by a female phenotype with an XY karyotype. Individuals affected by this syndrome have normal female external genitalia but agenesis of the Müllerian duct derivatives, that is, absence of the Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and the proximal part of the vagina, with presence of endoabdominal, labial, or inguinal testes. The estimated prevalence is between 1 and 5 in 100,000 genetic males. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome can be diagnosed as a result of mismatch between the prenatal sex prediction and the phenotype at birth, can be detected by chance, or remain undetected until investigations for primary amenorrhea. Imaging can be important both to diagnose the pathology and to localize gonads prior to surgical treatment. In this paper, we present three cases of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome in adult women of 34, 22, and 38 years old.

  20. Impact of a program to diminish gender insensitivity and sexual harassment at a medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C D; Bergen, M R; Korn, D

    2000-05-01

    To measure the effect of an intervention to reduce gender insensitivity and sexual harassment at one medical school. Stanford University School of Medicine undertook a multifaceted program to educate faculty and students regarding gender issues and to diminish sexual harassment. The authors developed a survey instrument to assess the faculty's perceptions regarding environment (five scales) and incidences of sexual harassment. Faculty were surveyed twice during the interventions (1994 and 1995). Between the two years, the authors measured significant improvements in mean ratings for positive climate (p = .004) and cohesion (p = .006) and decreases in the faculty's perceptions of sexual harassment (p = 0006), gender insensitivity (p = .001), and gender discrimination (p = .004). The faculty also reported fewer observations of harassing behavior during the study period. An intervention program to diminish gender insensitivity and sexual harassment can measurably improve a medical school's environment.

  1. Size effects on the Kauzmann temperature and related thermodynamic parameters of Ag nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao, Z M; Zheng, W T; Jiang, Q

    2007-01-01

    Based on the Sutton-Chen many-body potential function, several thermodynamic parameters of Ag are simulated by molecular dynamics. The parameters simulated are size dependences of the Kauzmann temperature T K and melting temperature T m , and size and temperature dependences of melting enthalpy H m and melting entropy S m . The simulation results and the results of the thermodynamic theory models of T K and T m show good agreement, indicating that as the size of the Ag particles decreases, the T K and T m functions decrease. However, the ratio of T K and T m of Ag nanoparticles is size-independent

  2. The relation between temperature and concentration gradients in superfluid sup 3 He- sup 4 He solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Zadorozhko, A A; Rudavskij, E Y; Chagovets, V K; Sheshin, G A

    2003-01-01

    The temperature and concentration gradients nabla T and nabla x in a superfluid sup 3 He- sup 4 He mixture with an initial concentration 9,8 % of sup 3 He are measured in a temperature range 70-500 mK. The gradients are produced by a steady thermal flow with heating from below. It is shown that the value of nabla x/nabla T observed in the experiment is in good agreement with the theoretical model derived from the temperature and concentration dependences of osmotic pressure. The experimental data permitted us to obtain a thermal diffusion ratio of the solution responsible for the thermal diffusion coefficient.

  3. Measurement of Temperature and Relative Humidity with Polymer Optical Fiber Sensors Based on the Induced Stress-Optic Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Maria José

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a system capable of measuring temperature and relative humidity with polymer optical fiber (POF) sensors. The sensors are based on variations of the Young’s and shear moduli of the POF with variations in temperature and relative humidity. The system comprises two POFs, each with a predefined torsion stress that resulted in a variation in the fiber refractive index due to the stress-optic effect. Because there is a correlation between stress and material properties, the variation in temperature and humidity causes a variation in the fiber’s stress, which leads to variations in the fiber refractive index. Only two photodiodes comprise the sensor interrogation, resulting in a simple and low-cost system capable of measuring humidity in the range of 5–97% and temperature in the range of 21–46 °C. The root mean squared errors (RMSEs) between the proposed sensors and the reference were 1.12 °C and 1.36% for the measurements of temperature and relative humidity, respectively. In addition, fiber etching resulted in a sensor with a 2 s response time for a relative humidity variation of 10%, which is one of the lowest recorded response times for intrinsic POF humidity sensors. PMID:29558387

  4. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Bay of Bengal: Main characteristics and related mechanisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Suresh, I.; Gautham, S.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Lengaigne, M.; Rao, R.R.; Neetu, S.; Hegde, A.

    Surface layer temperature inversion (SLTI), a warm layer sandwiched between surface and subsurface colder waters, has been reported to frequently occur in conjunction with barrier layers in the Bay of Bengal (BoB), with potentially commensurable...

  5. Laboratory and field temperature preference and avoidance data of fish related to the establishment of standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, J.R.; Cherry, D.S.; Dickson, K.L.; Cairns, J. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Temperature preferences for important fish species in the New River in the vicinity of Appalachian Power Company's Glen Lyn, Virginia plant were determined independently by both field and laboratory studies. A relationship was demonstrated between the temperature preference data generated by the two approaches. Based on the temperature preference data the responses of fish to the thermal discharges can be predicted. From these data and from other data on the fish community structure, it was possible to determine that the thermal discharge was causing no appreciable harm to the fish community. Based on these studies it was concluded that the most reasonable approach to establishing thermal standards is to couple temperature preference studies with site specific studies. (U.S.)

  6. Temperature-dependent respiration-growth relations in ancestral maize cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce N. Smith; Jillian L. Walker; Rebekka L. Stone; Angela R. Jones; Lee D. Hansen

    2001-01-01

    Shoots from 4- to 6-day old seedlings of seven ancestral or old cultivars of Zea mays L. were placed in a calorimeter. Dark metabolic heat rate (q) and CO2 production rate (RCO2) were measured at nine temperatures (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 °C). Temperature dependencies of q and RCO2 were used to model response of both growth and substrate carbon conversion...

  7. Antibiotic stability related to temperature variations in elastomeric pumps used for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Rachel; Van Neyghem, Niklas; Cochet, Camille; Gardiol, Céline; Decosterd, Laurent; Buclin, Thierry; de Valliere, Serge

    2017-05-01

    Elastomeric pumps can be used for the continuous administration of antimicrobials in the outpatient setting. A potentially limiting factor in their use is the stability of antimicrobials. To investigate under real-life conditions the temperature variations of antibiotic solutions contained in elastomeric pumps, and to examine under such conditions the stability of five antibiotics. Healthy volunteers carried the elastomeric pumps in carry pouches during their daily activities. A thermologger measured the temperatures every 15 min over 24 h. Antibiotic concentrations were measured by HPLC coupled to tandem MS. During daytime, the temperature of solutions in the pumps increased steadily, warming to >30°C. During the night, when the pumps were kept attached to the waist, the temperatures reached up to 33°C. The use of white carry pouches avoided excessive temperature increases. Over seven experiments, cefazolin, cefepime, piperacillin and tazobactam were found to be stable over 24 h. Flucloxacillin showed a mean decrease in concentration of 11% ( P  = 0.001). Real-life situations can cause significant temperature rises in elastomeric pumps, thereby potentially increasing the risk of antibiotic degradation. Patients should be instructed to avoid situations causing excessive temperature increases. Despite these temperature variations, cefazolin, cefepime, piperacillin and tazobactam were found to be stable over 24 h. A moderate degradation was noticed for flucloxacillin, albeit most probably not to an extent that might impair anti-infective efficacy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Temperature effects on sulfate permease in a thermophile and related mesophile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.L.; Woodin, T.

    1986-01-01

    The activity and stability of a specific membrane function, sulfate permease, from Penicillium duponti (PD) a thermophilic fungus capable of growth between 30 and 58 0 and from Pencilium chrysogenum (PC) a mesophial capable of growth between 4 and 33 0 were compared to determine whether such activity reflects actual or optimal growth temperature. Permease was assayed by incubating derepressed mycelia (grown in media containing 1.0 mg/l cysteic acid instead of 1.0 g/l SO 4 ) with radioactive sulfate, collecting mycelia at 30 sec intervals and counting the 35 S incorporated into mycelial pellets. Mycelia from cells grown at 8 0 (PC only), 30 0 (PC and PD) or 50 0 (PD only) were assayed. The temperature optimum from PC cells grown at either 8 or 30 0 is 25 0 , while the temperature optimum from PD cells grown at either 30 or 50 0 is 45 0 . However the specific activity of the permease, the shape of the temperature optimum curve and the stability of the permease vary dramatically with the growth temperature and growth stage of the mycelia. There is an apparent ability to compensate for growth at lower temperature by either an increase in permease specific activity in 30 0 grown PD cells or a broadening of the temperature optimum curve for 8 0 grown PC. Transfer of cells grown in complete media (citrate No. 3 containing 4% glucose and 1 g/l sodium sulfate) to media lacking sulfate also results in derepression for sulfate permease. The time course and maximum amount of derepression observed reflects fungal growth temperature

  9. Investigation into relative temperature measurement of pulsed constrained gas flow using passive acoustic means

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Joseph Brian

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed The requirement to measure the real time, dynamic temperature of exhaust system gases is becoming more and more important in the areas of aeronautics, automotive (cars, trucks, etc), marine and industrial/environmental applications, in particular on a cycleby-cycle (CBC) basis. Monitoring exhaust gas temperatures of any power-plant can give important diagnostic information for the monitoring of fuel mixture, combustion efficiency etc. This 'diagnostic' information can b...

  10. SUPERPHENIX: Reactor core temperatures survey by minicomputers - original aspects related to safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin, C.; Josue, M.; Pinoteau, J.

    1986-01-01

    The system for core temperatures fast processing (TRIC) utilized in SUPERPHENIX is part of the reactor protection system. Due to the number of temperature measurements taken into account, to the specific data processing and to the rapidity required in the treatment, the use of digital computing devices is justified. The present paper describes the conception of the system in order to satisfy the special requirements for the computers used in power reactors protection systems

  11. Polarization insensitive wavelength conversion in a dispersion-engineered silicon waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Peucheret, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate polarization-insensitive all optical wavelength conversion of a 10-Gb/s DPSK data signal based on four-wave mixing in a silicon waveguide with an angled-pump scheme. Dispersion engineering is applied to the silicon waveguide to obtain similar four-wave mixing convers...... conversion performances for both the TE and TM modes. Bit-error rate measurements are performed and error-free operation is achieved. We also demonstrate polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion with a large separation between the idler and signal using a dual-pump configuration....

  12. Flexible manipulation of terahertz wave reflection using polarization insensitive coding metasurfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiu-Sheng, Li; Ze-Jiang, Zhao; Jian-Quan, Yao

    2017-11-27

    In order to extend to 3-bit encoding, we propose notched-wheel structures as polarization insensitive coding metasurfaces to control terahertz wave reflection and suppress backward scattering. By using a coding sequence of "00110011…" along x-axis direction and 16 × 16 random coding sequence, we investigate the polarization insensitive properties of the coding metasurfaces. By designing the coding sequences of the basic coding elements, the terahertz wave reflection can be flexibly manipulated. Additionally, radar cross section (RCS) reduction in the backward direction is less than -10dB in a wide band. The present approach can offer application for novel terahertz manipulation devices.

  13. Punishment Insensitivity and Impaired Reinforcement Learning in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Nichols, Sara R.; Voss, Joel; Zobel, Elvira; Carter, Alice S.; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, James; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Youth and adults with psychopathic traits display disrupted reinforcement learning. Advances in measurement now enable examination of this association in preschoolers. The current study examines relations between reinforcement learning in preschoolers and parent ratings of reduced responsiveness to socialization, conceptualized as a…

  14. Thermodynamic phase profiles of optically thin midlatitude cloud and their relation to temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, C. M.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; Haeffelin, M.; Morille, Y.; Noel, V.; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Turner, David D.; Lo, Chaomei; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2010-06-03

    Winter cloud phase and temperature profiles derived from ground-based lidar depolarization and radiosonde measurements are analyzed for two midlatitude locations: the United States Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains (SGP) site and the Site Instrumental de Recherche par Télédétection Atmosphérique (SIRTA) in France. Because lidars are attenuated in optically thick clouds, the dataset only includes optically thin clouds (optical thickness < 3). At SGP, 57% of the clouds observed with the lidar in the temperature range 233-273 K are either completely liquid or completely glaciated, while at SIRTA only 42% of the observed clouds are single phase, based on a depolarization ratio threshold of 11% for differentiating liquid from ice. Most optically thin mixed phase clouds show an ice layer at cloud top, and clouds with liquid at cloud top are less frequent. The relationship between ice phase occurrence and temperature only slightly changes between cloud base and top. At both sites liquid is more prevalent at colder temperatures than has been found previously in aircraft flights through frontal clouds of greater optical thicknesses. Liquid in clouds persists to colder temperatures at SGP than SIRTA. This information on the average temperatures of mixed phase clouds at both locations complements earlier passive satellite remote sensing measurements that sample cloud phase near cloud top and for a wider range of cloud optical thicknesses.

  15. Dynamic Mechanical Properties and Constitutive Relation of an Aluminized Polymer Bonded Explosive at Low Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer bonded explosives (PBXs are widely used as energetic fillings in various warheads, which maybe are utilized under extreme environments, such as low or high temperatures. In this paper, the dynamic response of an aluminized polymer bonded explosive was tested at a range of temperatures from −55°C to −2°C and a fixed loading strain rate (~700 s−1 with the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB. The PBX tested is aluminized, which contains 76 wt% RDX, 20 wt% aluminum powder, and 4 wt% polymer binder, respectively. The results show that the effect of temperature on the strength of the PBX is obvious at the tested strain rates. Based on the experimental results and prophase studies, a constitutive model was obtained, in which the effect of temperature and strain rate were considered. The modeling curves fit well with the experimental results, not only at low temperature under 0°C, but also at room temperature (20°C. The model may be used to predict the dynamic performances of the PBXs in various environments.

  16. Synergistic interactions within disturbed habitats between temperature, relative humidity and UVB radiation on egg survival in a diadromous fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J H Hickford

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic impacts, including urbanization, deforestation, farming, and livestock grazing have altered riparian margins worldwide. One effect of changes to riparian vegetation is that the ground-level light, temperature, and humidity environment has also been altered. Galaxias maculatus, one of the most widely distributed fishes of the southern hemisphere, lays eggs almost exclusively beneath riparian vegetation in tidally influenced reaches of rivers. We hypothesized that the survival of these eggs is greatly affected by the micro-environment afforded by vegetation, particularly relating to temperature, humidity and UVB radiation. We experimentally reduced riparian vegetation height and altered shading characteristics, tracked egg survival, and used small ground-level temperature, humidity and UVB sensors to relate survival to ground-level effects around egg masses. The ground-level physical environment was markedly different from the surrounding ambient conditions. Tall dense riparian vegetation modified ambient conditions to produce a buffered temperature regime with constant high relative humidity, generally above 90%, and negligible UVB radiation at ground-level. Where vegetation height was reduced, frequent high temperatures, low humidity, and high UVB irradiances reduced egg survival by up to 95%. Temperature effects on egg survival were probably indirect, through reduced humidity, because developing eggs are known to survive in a wide range of temperatures. In this study, it was remarkable how such small variations in relatively small sites could have such a large effect on egg survival. It appears that modifications to riparian vegetation and the associated changes in the physical conditions of egg laying sites are major mechanisms affecting egg survival. The impacts associated with vegetational changes through human-induced disturbances are complex yet potentially devastating. These effects are particularly important because they

  17. A Note on the Spatio Temporal Variations in the Temperature and Relative Humidity over Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eludoyin, A. O.; Akinbode, O. M.; Archibong, E. O.

    2007-07-01

    This study was carried out in one of the Administrative State Capitals in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to serve as a baseline data for highlighting the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socioeconomic activities on urban air temperature and relative humidity. The main objective of the study is to assess the impact of urban growth on the microclimate of the administrative city. Temperature and relative humidity data from 1992 to 2001 were obtained from the three existing meteorological stations in Akure, the Administrative Capital of Ondo State, Nigeria, namely the Federal Ministry of Aviation, Akure Airport station (FMA), Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and the Federal School of Agriculture (SOA). Air temperature and relative humidity measurements along primary roads and in the built up areas were obtained from seventeen stations, using sling psychrometer. The data were subsequently analysed for spatial and temporal variations. The results obtained indicated that while the maximum, average and minimum temperatures showed significant annual variations, the spatial variations among the existing meteorological stations were not significant. The city is characterized by increasing annual mean temperatures whose maximum was significantly higher than that of Ondo town — another important town within the state. The annual mean temperatures ranged between 26.2°C and 30.4°C. Minimum and maximum temperatures varied from 12.3°C to 26°C and 22.5°C to 39.6°C, respectively while the relative humidity ranged between 27.5% and 98.2%. Urban `heat island' intensity was exhibited around central business district of the Oba market. 2007 American Institute of Physics

  18. NMR of insensitive nuclei enhanced by dynamic nuclear polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miéville, Pascal; Jannin, Sami; Helm, Lothar; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    Despite the powerful spectroscopic information it provides, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy suffers from a lack of sensitivity, especially when dealing with nuclei other than protons. Even though NMR can be applied in a straightforward manner when dealing with abundant protons of organic molecules, it is very challenging to address biomolecules in low concentration and/or many other nuclei of the periodic table that do not provide as intense signals as protons. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) is an important technique that provides a way to dramatically increase signal intensities in NMR. It consists in transferring the very high electron spin polarization of paramagnetic centers (usually at low temperature) to the surrounding nuclear spins with appropriate microwave irradiation. DNP can lead to an enhancement of the nuclear spin polarization by up to four orders of magnitude. We present in this article some basic concepts of DNP, describe the DNP apparatus at EPFL, and illustrate the interest of the technique for chemical applications by reporting recent measurements of the kinetics of complexation of 89Y by the DOTAM ligand.

  19. The relative importance among anthropogenic forcings of land use/land cover change in affecting temperature extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Dirmeyer, Paul A.

    2018-05-01

    Land use/land cover change (LULCC) exerts significant influence on regional climate extremes, but its relative importance compared with other anthropogenic climate forcings has not been thoroughly investigated. This study compares land use forcing with other forcing agents in explaining the simulated historical temperature extreme changes since preindustrial times in the CESM-Last Millennium Ensemble (LME) project. CESM-LME suggests that the land use forcing has caused an overall cooling in both warm and cold extremes, and has significantly decreased diurnal temperature range (DTR). Due to the competing effects of the GHG and aerosol forcings, the spatial pattern of changes in 1850-2005 climatology of temperature extremes in CESM-LME can be largely explained by the land use forcing, especially for hot extremes and DTR. The dominance of land use forcing is particularly evident over Europe, eastern China, and the central and eastern US. Temporally, the land-use cooling is relatively stable throughout the historical period, while the warming of temperature extremes is mainly influenced by the enhanced GHG forcing, which has gradually dampened the local dominance of the land use effects. Results from the suite of CMIP5 experiments partially agree with the local dominance of the land use forcing in CESM-LME, but inter-model discrepancies exist in the distribution and sign of the LULCC-induced temperature changes. Our results underline the overall importance of LULCC in historical temperature extreme changes, implying land use forcing should be highlighted in future climate projections.

  20. Optical properties of indium phosphide nanowire ensembles at various temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohn, Andrew J; Onishi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P [Baskin School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Nanostructured Energy Conversion Technology and Research (NECTAR), Advanced Studies Laboratories, University of California Santa Cruz-NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Ensembles that contain two types (zincblende and wurtzite) of indium phosphide nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces were studied by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy at various low temperatures. The obtained spectra are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of differing lattice types, geometries, and crystallographic orientations present within an ensemble of nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces. In the photoluminescence spectra, a typical Varshni dependence of band gap energy on temperature was observed for emissions from zincblende nanowires and in the high temperature regime energy transfer from excitonic transitions and band-edge transitions was identified. In contrast, the photoluminescence emissions associated with wurtzite nanowires were rather insensitive to temperature. Raman spectra were collected simultaneously from zincblende and wurtzite nanowires coexisting in an ensemble. Raman peaks of the wurtzite nanowires are interpreted as those related to the zincblende nanowires by a folding of the phonon dispersion.

  1. Optical properties of indium phosphide nanowire ensembles at various temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohn, Andrew J; Onishi, Takehiro; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P

    2010-01-01

    Ensembles that contain two types (zincblende and wurtzite) of indium phosphide nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces were studied by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopy at various low temperatures. The obtained spectra are discussed with the emphasis on the effects of differing lattice types, geometries, and crystallographic orientations present within an ensemble of nanowires grown on non-single crystalline surfaces. In the photoluminescence spectra, a typical Varshni dependence of band gap energy on temperature was observed for emissions from zincblende nanowires and in the high temperature regime energy transfer from excitonic transitions and band-edge transitions was identified. In contrast, the photoluminescence emissions associated with wurtzite nanowires were rather insensitive to temperature. Raman spectra were collected simultaneously from zincblende and wurtzite nanowires coexisting in an ensemble. Raman peaks of the wurtzite nanowires are interpreted as those related to the zincblende nanowires by a folding of the phonon dispersion.

  2. Stress relaxation insensitive designs for metal compliant mechanism threshold accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vilorio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present two designs for metal compliant mechanisms for use as threshold accelerometers which require zero external power. Both designs rely on long, thin flexures positioned orthogonally to a flat body. The first design involves cutting or stamping a thin spring-steel sheet and then bending elements to form the necessary thin flexors. The second design uses precut spring-steel flexure elements mounted into a mold which is then filled with molten tin to form a bimetallic device. Accelerations necessary to switch the devices between bistable states were measured using a centrifuge. Both designs showed very little variation in threshold acceleration due to stress relaxation over a period of several weeks. Relatively large variations in threshold acceleration were observed for devices of the same design, most likely due to variations in the angle of the flexor elements relative to the main body of the devices. Keywords: Structural health monitoring, Sensor, Accelerometer, Zero power, Shock, Threshold

  3. Yolk-sac larval development of the substrate-brooding cichlid Archocentrus nigrofasciatus in relation to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Nikolaos; Vasilopoulos, Michael; Mente, Eleni; Hotos, George; Katselis, George; Vidalis, Kosmas

    2015-09-01

    In order to conserve and culture the cichlid fish Archocentrus nigrofasciatus, more information about its reproductive biology and its larval behavior and morphogenesis is necessary. Currently, temperatures ranging from 21 to 27 °C are used in ornamental aquaculture hatcheries. Lower temperatures are preferred to reduce the costs of water heating, and 23 °C is usually the selected temperature. However, there is limited information on culturing protocols for ornamental species and most of the information generated on this topic remains scarce. Thus, the present study examines the morphological development of Archocentrus nigrofasciatus during the yolk-sac period up to the age of 100 h post-hatching in relation to 2 temperature regimes used in ornamental aquaculture: a temperature of 27 °C (thermal optimum) and a decreased temperature of 23 °C (thermal tolerance). The results of this study suggest that the 27 °C temperature generates intense morphological changes in yolk-sac development in a shorter period. This has advantages as it reduces the time of yolk-sac larval development, and, thus, minimizes the transition phase to exogenous feeding and maximizes the efficiency at which yolk is converted into body tissues. The present paper provides necessary information to produce freshwater ornamental fish with better practices so as to increase larval survival and capitalize on time for growth. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. The influence of air temperature and relative humidity on dynamics of water potential in Betula pendula (Betulaceae trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Тikhova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Linear multiple models were developed to describe diurnal and seasonal dynamics of water potential (Ψ of the foliated shoots in the plants of Betula genus related to air temperature and relative humidity in the middle taiga (southern Karelia. The results of the study revealed unidirectional changes, but different effect strength of air temperature and relative humidity on Ψ of the foliated shoots of common silver birch (Betula pendula Roth and curly (Karelian birch (Betula pendula Roth var. carelica. It was shown that increasing air temperature 1°С results in similar decreasing of Ψ value equal to 0.037–0.038 MPa in both of the birches (p > 0.05. Since the diurnal air temperature range achieves 10–15 °С, the contribution of this factor may be up to 0.57 MPa. On the contrary, the contribution of relative air humidity to Ψ value differs significantly in distinct birch forms (p < 0.05. In this case the change range of Ψ value in silver birch and curly birch may be up to 0.46 (0.015 MPa/1 % RH and 0.52 МПа (0.017 MPa/1 % RH, respectively. The results indicate that curly birch responds to the increase of relative air humidity with higher magnification of Ψ in comparison with common silver birch.

  5. Photochemical transformation of the insensitive munitions compound 2,4-dinitroanisole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Balaji, E-mail: anandharaob@ornl.gov [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Wei [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cai, Qingsong; Anderson, Todd [Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environment and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Gu, Baohua, E-mail: gub1@ornl.gov [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The insensitive munitions compound 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) is increasingly being used as a replacement for traditional, sensitive munitions compounds (e.g., trinitrotoluene [TNT]), but the environmental fate and photo-transformation of DNAN in natural water systems are currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the photo-transformation rates of DNAN with both ultraviolet (UV) and sunlight irradiation under different environmentally relevant conditions. Sunlight photo-transformation of DNAN in water was found to follow predominantly pseudo-first-order decay kinetics with an average half-life (t{sub 1/2}) of approximately 0.70 d and activation energy (E{sub a}) of 53 kJ mol{sup −1}. Photo-transformation rates of DNAN were dependent on the wavelength of the light source: irradiation with UV-B light (280–315 nm) resulted in a greater quantum yield of transformation (ϕ{sub UV-B} = 3.7 × 10{sup −4}) than rates obtained with UV-A light (ϕ{sub UV-A} = 2.9 × 10{sup −4} at 316–400 nm) and sunlight (ϕ{sub sun} = 1.1 × 10{sup −4}). Photo-oxidation was the dominant mechanism for DNAN photo-transformation, based on the formation of nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup −}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup −}) as major N species and 2,4-dinitrophenol as the minor species. Environmental factors (e.g., temperature, pH, and the presence or absence of naturally dissolved organic matter) displayed modest to little effects on the rate of DNAN photo-transformation. These observations indicate that sunlight-induced photo-transformation of DNAN may represent a significant abiotic degradation pathway in surface water, which may have important implications in evaluating the potential impacts and risks of DNAN in the environment. - Highlights: ► DNAN photo-transformation kinetics was dependent on light source and temperature. ► Photolysis produced harmful by-products that included dinitrophenol and nitrate. ► Photo-oxidation was determined to be the likely pathway of DNAN

  6. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 2 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2008 (NODC Accession Number 0054501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  7. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 4 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1981-10-31 to 2010-12-31 (NODC Accession 0087989)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  8. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 3 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2009 (NODC Accession 0068999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  9. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 2 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2008 (NODC Accession 0054501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  10. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 5 - Global, 4 km Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1982-2012 (NCEI Accession 0126774)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Version 5 of the Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a global, 4 km, sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics dataset for...

  11. The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) Version 1 - Global, 4 km, Sea Surface Temperature and Related Thermal Stress Metrics for 1985-2005 (NODC Accession 0044419)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coral Reef Temperature Anomaly Database (CoRTAD) is a collection of sea surface temperature (SST) and related thermal stress metrics, developed specifically for...

  12. Predicting Indian Summer Monsoon onset through variations of surface air temperature and relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolbova, Veronika; Surovyatkina, Elena; Kurths, Jurgen

    2015-04-01

    Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall has an enormous effect on Indian agriculture, economy, and, as a consequence, life and prosperity of more than one billion people. Variability of the monsoonal rainfall and its onset have a huge influence on food production, agricultural planning and GDP of the country, which on 22% is determined by agriculture. Consequently, successful forecasting of the ISM onset is a big challenge and large efforts are being put into it. Here, we propose a novel approach for predictability of the ISM onset, based on critical transition theory. The ISM onset is defined as an abrupt transition from sporadious rainfall to spatially organized and temporally sustained rainfall. Taking this into account, we consider the ISM onset as is a critical transition from pre-monsoon to monsoon, which take place in time and also in space. It allows us to suggest that before the onset of ISM on the Indian subcontinent should be areas of critical behavior where indicators of the critical transitions can be detected through an analysis of observational data. First, we identify areas with such critical behavior. Second, we use detected areas as reference points for observation locations for the ISM onset prediction. Third, we derive a precursor for the ISM onset based on the analysis of surface air temperature and relative humidity variations in these reference points. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of this precursor on two observational data sets. The proposed approach allows to determine ISM onset in advance in 67% of all considered years. Our proposed approach is less effective during the anomalous years, which are associated with weak/strong monsoons, e.g. El-Nino, La-Nina or positive Indian Ocean Dipole events. The ISM onset is predicted for 23 out of 27 normal monsoon years (85%) during the past 6 decades. In the anomalous years, we show that time series analysis in both areas during the pre-monsoon period reveals indicators whether the

  13. Interactive effects of biochar ageing in soils related to feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and historic charcoal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkötter, Julian; Marschner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is suggested for soil amelioration and carbon sequestration, based on its assumed role as the key factor for the long-term fertility of Terra preta soils. Several studies have shown that certain biochar properties can undergo changes through ageing processes, especially regarding charge characteristics. However, only a few studies determined the changes of different biochars under the same incubation conditions and in different soils. The objective of this study was to characterize the changes of pine chip (PC)- and corn digestate (CD)-derived biochars pyrolyzed at 400 or 600 °C during 100 days of laboratory incubation in a historical kiln soil and an adjacent control soil. Separation between soil and biochar was ensured by using mesh bags. Especially, changes in charge characteristics depended on initial biochar properties affected by feedstock and pyrolysis temperature and on soil properties affected by historic charcoal production. While the cation exchange capacity (CEC) markedly increased for both CD biochars during incubation, PC biochars showed no or only slight increases in CEC. Corresponding to the changes in CEC, ageing of biochars also increased the amount of acid functional groups with increases being in average about 2-fold higher in CD biochars than in PC biochars. Further and in contrast to other studies, the surface areas of biochars increased during ageing, likely due to ash leaching and degradation of tar residues. Changes in CEC and surface acidity of CD biochars were more pronounced after incubation in the control soil, while surface area increase was higher in the kiln soil. Since the two acidic forest soils used in this this study did not greatly differ in physical or chemical properties, the main process for inducing these differences in the buried biochar most likely is related to the differences in dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Although the kiln soil contained about 50% more soil organic carbon due to the presence of charcoal

  14. Membrane fouling related to microbial community and extracellular polymeric substances at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Wen; Wen, Zhi-Dan; Li, Bao; Liang, Hong

    2013-09-01

    An anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor was established to investigate the role of microorganisms and microbial metabolites in membrane fouling at different temperatures. The results showed that the membrane fouling cycle at 303, 293, and 283 K were 30, 29, and 5.5 days, respectively. Polysaccharides dominated the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) at 303 and 293 K, instead, proteins was the predominant composition of metabolites at 283 K. The correlation coefficient (r(2)) was calculated to identify the relationship between temperature (T), filtration resistance (R) and compositions of EPS and SMP. In biocake, the EPS polysaccharides (EPSc) was the most correlative factor to temperature (T) and filtration resistance (R); in mixed liquor, the ratio of SMP polysaccharides to proteins (SMPc/p) was the most correlative factor. The microbial community structure and the dominant species was the major reason causing the change of EPS and SMP composition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical activity profile of 2014 FIFA World Cup players, with regard to different ranges of air temperature and relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, Paweł; Konefał, Marek; Andrzejewski, Marcin; Kosowski, Jakub; Rokita, Andrzej; Chmura, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The present study attempts to assess changes in soccer players' physical activity profiles under the simultaneous influence of the different combinations of ambient temperature and relative humidity characterising matches of the 2014 FIFA World Cup hosted by Brazil. The study material consisted of observations of 340 players representing 32 national teams taking part in the tournament. The measured indices included total distances covered; distances covered with low, moderate, or high intensity; numbers of sprints performed, and peak running speeds achieved. The analysis was carried out using FIFA official match data from the Castrol Performance Index system. Ultimately, consideration was given to a combination of three air temperature ranges, i.e. below 22 °C, 22-28 °C, and above 28 °C; and two relative humidity ranges below 60 % and above 60 %. The greatest average distance recorded (10.54 ± 0.91 km) covered by players at an air temperature below 22 °C and a relative humidity below 60 %, while the shortest (9.83 ± 1.08 km) characterised the same air temperature range, but conditions of relative humidity above 60 % ( p ≤ 0.001). Two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences ( p ≤ 0.001) in numbers of sprints performed by players, depending on whether the air temperature range was below 22 °C (40.48 ± 11.17) or above 28 °C (30.72 ± 9.40), but only where the relative humidity was at the same time below 60 %. Results presented indicate that the conditions most comfortable for physical activity on the part of players occur at 22 °C, and with relative humidity under 60 %.

  16. Metabolic efficiency in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to temperature dependent growth and biomass yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhartsev, Maksim; Yang, Xuelian; Reuss, Matthias; Pörtner, Hans Otto

    2015-08-01

    Canonized view on temperature effects on growth rate of microorganisms is based on assumption of protein denaturation, which is not confirmed experimentally so far. We develop an alternative concept, which is based on view that limits of thermal tolerance are based on imbalance of cellular energy allocation. Therefore, we investigated growth suppression of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the supraoptimal temperature range (30-40°C), i.e. above optimal temperature (Topt). The maximal specific growth rate (μmax) of biomass, its concentration and yield on glucose (Yx/glc) were measured across the whole thermal window (5-40°C) of the yeast in batch anaerobic growth on glucose. Specific rate of glucose consumption, specific rate of glucose consumption for maintenance (mglc), true biomass yield on glucose (Yx/glc(true)), fractional conservation of substrate carbon in product and ATP yield on glucose (Yatp/glc) were estimated from the experimental data. There was a negative linear relationship between ATP, ADP and AMP concentrations and specific growth rate at any growth conditions, whilst the energy charge was always high (~0.83). There were two temperature regions where mglc differed 12-fold, which points to the existence of a 'low' (within 5-31°C) and a 'high' (within 33-40°C) metabolic mode regarding maintenance requirements. The rise from the low to high mode occurred at 31-32°C in step-wise manner and it was accompanied with onset of suppression of μmax. High mglc at supraoptimal temperatures indicates a significant reduction of scope for growth, due to high maintenance cost. Analysis of temperature dependencies of product formation efficiency and Yatp/glc revealed that the efficiency of energy metabolism approaches its lower limit at 26-31°C. This limit is reflected in the predetermined combination of Yx/glc(true), elemental biomass composition and degree of reduction of the growth substrate. Approaching the limit implies a reduction of the safety margin

  17. Plastic Flow Characteristics of Uranium-Niobium as a Function of Strain Rate and Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cady, C.M.; Gray, G.T. III; Hecker, S.S; Thoma, D.J.; Korzekwa, D.R.; Patterson, R.A.; Dunn, P.S.; Bingert, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    The stress-strain response of uranium-niobium alloys as a function of temperature, strain-rate and stress-state was investigated. The yield and flow stresses of the U-Nb alloys were found to exhibit a pronounced strain rate sensitivity, while the hardening rates were found to be insensitive to strain rate and temperature. The overall stress-strain response of the U-6Nb exhibits a sinusoidal hardening response, which is consistent with multiple deformation modes and is thought to be related to shape-memory behavior

  18. Influence of the relative humidity and the temperature on the in-vivo friction behaviour of human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.; Schipper, D. J.; Masen, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Both temperature and relative humidity are known to influence the frictional behaviour of human skin. However, literature does not completely cover to what extent both parameters play a role. Measurements were conducted using an in-house built reciprocating tribometer inside an enclosure in which

  19. Modeling the effects of temperature and relative humidity on gas exchange of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia spp.) stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara-Arauza, J.C.; Yahia, E.M.; Cedeno, L.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    A model to estimate gas profile of modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) prickly pear cactus stems was developed and calibrated. The model describes the transient gas exchange taking in consideration the effect of temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) on film permeability (FPgas), respiration rate

  20. Switching an O2 sensitive glucose oxidase bioelectrode into an almost insensitive one by cofactor redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremey, Emilie; Suraniti, Emmanuel; Courjean, Olivier; Gounel, Sébastien; Stines-Chaumeil, Claire; Louerat, Frédéric; Mano, Nicolas

    2014-06-04

    In the 5-8 mM glucose concentration range, of particular interest for diabetes management, glucose oxidase bioelectrodes are O2 dependent, which decrease their efficiencies. By replacing the natural cofactor of glucose oxidase, we succeeded in turning an O2 sensitive bioelectrode into an almost insensitive one.

  1. Can Parents' Involvement in Children's Education Offset the Effects of Early Insensitivity on Academic Functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Jennifer D.; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2014-01-01

    Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,312) were analyzed to examine whether the adverse effects of early insensitive parenting on children's academic functioning can be offset by parents' later involvement in children's education. Observations of mothers' early…

  2. A Chroma-based Tempo-insensitive Distance Measure for Cover Song Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Højvang; Ellis, Dan P. W.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    In the context of music, a cover version is a remake of a song, often with significant stylistic variation. In this paper we describe a distance measure between sampled audio files that is designed to be insensitive to instrumentation, time shift, temporal scaling and transpositions. The algorithm...

  3. DEFECTS IN INSULIN-SECRETION IN NIDDM - B-CELL GLUCOSE INSENSITIVITY OR GLUCOSE TOXICITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANHAEFTEN, TW

    In NIDDM, first-phase insulin release to glucose is (almost) absent. However, in contrast to older studies which suggested that in NIDDM the B-cell is ''blind'' for glucose, recent evidence indicates that the B-cell is not insensitive for glucose as far as second phase release is concerned. This

  4. Using metrics for proof rules for recursively defined delay-insensitive specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallon, WC; Udding, JT

    1997-01-01

    An advantage of algebraic specifications of delay insensitive asynchronous processes over most other formalisms is that it allows the recursive definition of processes, and correctness proofs of an implementation through fixpoint induction. On the other hand, proofs by fixpoint induction are

  5. Progressing Insensitive Munitions: Benefits and Techniques for Proactively Addressing Environmental Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    X Worm Tubifex tubifex X X X Black worm Lumbriculus X Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea X Estuarine/marine water column Mysid shrimp Americamysis...Objective: Characterize traditional and insensitive munitions (IMs) impacts on amphibian larvae to manage a candidate for T&E status that inhabit

  6. 320 Gb/s Nyquist OTDM received by polarization-insensitive time-domain OFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Kong, Deming; Palushani, Evarist

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated the generation of a 320 Gb/s Nyquist-OTDM signal by rectangular filtering on an RZ-OTDM signal with the filter bandwidth (320 GHz) equal to the baud rate (320 Gbaud) and the reception of such a Nyquist-OTDM signal using polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier tra...

  7. Differences between the succinate dehydrogenase sequences of isopyrazam sensitive Zymoseptoria tritici and insensitive Fusarium graminearum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubos, Tiphaine; Pasquali, Matias; Pogoda, Friederike; Casanova, Angèle; Hoffmann, Lucien; Beyer, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Forty-one Zymoseptoria tritici strains isolated in Luxembourg between 2009 and 2010 were highly sensitive towards the new succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) isopyrazam, with concentrations inhibiting fungal growth by 50% (EC50) ranging from 0.0281 to 4.53μM, whereas 41 Fusarium graminearum strains isolated in Europe and Northern America between 1969 and 2009 were insensitive with the average rate of inhibition converging towards 28% with increasing isopyrazam concentration. Seven isolates of both species covering the range of isopyrazam sensitivities observed in the present study were selected for the sequencing of the subunits B, C and D of the succinate dehydrogenase (sdh) gene. Predicted sdh amino acid sequences of subunits B, C and D were identical among F. graminearum strains. By comparing with fungal strains where resistance towards SDHIs was previously reported, three variations were unique to F. graminearum; B-D130N located in the iron-sulfur cluster [2Fe-2S], B-A275T located in the [3Fe-4S] cluster and an additional S at amino acid position 83-84 of sdhC, probably modifying structurally the ubiquinone binding site and therefore the biological activity of the fungicide. No variation was found among the Z. tritici strains in subunits B and D. Two variations were observed within the subunit C sequences of Z. tritici strains: C-N33T and C-N34T. The difference in EC50 values between Z. tritici strains with the NN and TT configuration was non-significant at P=0.289. Two outliers in the Z. tritici group with significantly higher EC50 values that were not related to mutations in the sdhB, sdhC, or sdhD were detected. The role of isopyrazam for the control of F. graminearum and Z. tritici in Luxembourg is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The chemistry of high temperature phosphate solutions in relation to steam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, D.; Lewis, G.G.; Wetton, E.A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The problems associated with the use of phosphate for chemical treatment of the P.W.R. secondary circuit have prompted renewed interest in the physical chemistry of these solutions. Solubility and phase studies have been carried out at 250, 300 and 350 0 C with solutions having sodium to phosphate ratios from 1.0 to above 3.0. A solid phase of ratio about 2.8 exists in equilibrium with a wide range of saturated solution compositions at each temperature. Invariant points at which three phases are in equilibrium have been identified and at the two higher temperatures a region of liquid-liquid immiscibility occurs. Phase diagrams have been constructed for each temperature from which it is possible to predict the compositional changes occurring during the isothermal evaporation process. The corrosivity of these phosphate solutions to a range of steel alloys is being studied, the results reported in the present work, however, are confined to mild steel in the temperature and phosphate composition ranges of the phase studies. The corrosion of mild steel is generally considerably less than in sodium hydroxide solutions of equivalent concentration. The dependence of corrosion rate on sodium and phosphate concentrations in not readily explicable in terms of the solubility and phase studies and it is thought that the solubility of iron in the phosphate solutions is an important rate-determining factor since several complex compounds containing sodium, phosphorus and ferrous iron are present in the corrosion films. (author)

  9. Effet De La Temperature Et De L\\'humidite Relative Sur Le ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    killed grasshoppers appeared to be most effective resulting in up to an average of 90 % mortality and more than 62 % infection at 25 °C. Temperature significantly affected mortality and infection rates and so did incubation period. The optimum ...

  10. Is the distribution of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in the oceans related to temperature?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the global natural fixation of nitrogen occurs in the oceans supporting a considerable part of the new primary production. Virtually all nitrogen fixation in the ocean occurs in the tropics and subtropics where the surface water temperature is 25°C or higher. It is attributed

  11. Temperature-related degradation and colour changes of historic paintings containing vivianite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermáková, Zdeňka; Švarcová, Silvie; Hradilová, J.; Bezdička, Petr; Lančok, Adriana; Vašutová, V.; Blažek, Jan; Hradil, David

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 140, APR (2015), s. 101-110 ISSN 1873-3557 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/12/2211 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : Degradation * High-temperature X-ray diffraction * Model experiments * Mossbauer spectroscopy * Vivianite Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  12. Identification, cloning and characterization of sis7 and sis10 sugar-insensitive mutants of Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biddle Kelly D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The levels of soluble sugars, such as glucose and sucrose, help regulate many plant metabolic, physiological and developmental processes. Genetic screens are helping identify some of the loci involved in plant sugar response and reveal extensive cross-talk between sugar and phytohormone response pathways. Results A forward genetic screen was performed to identify mutants with increased resistance to the inhibitory effects of high levels of exogenous sugars on early Arabidopsis seedling development. The positional cloning and characterization of two of these sugar insensitive (sis mutants, both of which are also involved in abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis or response, are reported. Plants carrying mutations in SIS7/NCED3/STO1 or SIS10/ABI3 are resistant to the inhibitory effects of high levels of exogenous Glc and Suc. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicate transcriptional upregulation of ABA biosynthesis genes by high concentrations of Glc in wild-type germinating seeds. Gene expression profiling revealed that a significant number of genes that are expressed at lower levels in germinating sis7-1/nced3-4/sto1-4 seeds than in wild-type seeds are implicated in auxin biosynthesis or transport, suggesting cross-talk between ABA and auxin response pathways. The degree of sugar insensitivity of different sis10/abi3 mutant seedlings shows a strong positive correlation with their level of ABA insensitivity during seed germination. Conclusion Mutations in the SIS7/NCED3/STO1 gene, which is primarily required for ABA biosynthesis under drought conditions, confer a sugar-insensitive phenotype, indicating that a constitutive role in ABA biosynthesis is not necessary to confer sugar insensitivity. Findings presented here clearly demonstrate that mutations in ABI3 can confer a sugar-insensitive phenotype and help explain previous, mixed reports on this topic by showing that ABA and sugar insensitivity exhibit a strong positive correlation in

  13. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF HOT JUPITERS: INSENSITIVITY TO INITIAL CONDITIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Beibei; Showman, Adam P.

    2013-01-01

    The ongoing characterization of hot Jupiters has motivated a variety of circulation models of their atmospheres. Such models must be integrated starting from an assumed initial state, which is typically taken to be a wind-free, rest state. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of hot-Jupiter atmospheric circulation to initial conditions with shallow-water models and full three-dimensional models. Those models are initialized with zonal jets, and we explore a variety of different initial jet profiles. We demonstrate that, in both classes of models, the final, equilibrated state is independent of initial condition—as long as frictional drag near the bottom of the domain and/or interaction with a specified planetary interior are included so that the atmosphere can adjust angular momentum over time relative to the interior. When such mechanisms are included, otherwise identical models initialized with vastly different initial conditions all converge to the same statistical steady state. In some cases, the models exhibit modest time variability; this variability results in random fluctuations about the statistical steady state, but we emphasize that, even in these cases, the statistical steady state itself does not depend on initial conditions. Although the outcome of hot-Jupiter circulation models depend on details of the radiative forcing and frictional drag, aspects of which remain uncertain, we conclude that the specification of initial conditions is not a source of uncertainty, at least over the parameter range explored in most current models.

  14. Tolerance to high soil temperature in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is related to shoot and root growth and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, Moses Kwame; Bdolach, Eyal; Fait, Aaron; Lazarovitch, Naftali; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2016-09-01

    Roots play important roles in regulating whole-plant carbon and water relations in response to extreme soil temperature. Three foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) lines (448-Ames 21521, 463-P1391643 and 523-P1219619) were subjected to two different soil temperatures (28 and 38 °C). The gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, root morphology and central metabolism of leaves and roots were studied at the grain-filling stage. High soil temperature (38 °C) significantly influenced the shoot transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, root growth and metabolism of all lines. The root length and area were significantly reduced in lines 448 and 463 in response to the stress, while only a small non-specific reduction was observed in line 523 in response to the treatment. The shift of root metabolites in response to high soil temperature was also genotype specific. In response to high soil temperature, glutamate, proline and pyroglutamate were reduced in line 448, and alanine, aspartate, glycine, pyroglutamate, serine, threonine and valine were accumulated in line 463. In the roots of line 523, serine, threonine, valine, isomaltose, maltose, raffinose, malate and itaconate were accumulated. Root tolerance to high soil temperature was evident in line 523, in its roots growth potential, lower photosynthesis and stomatal conductance rates, and effective utilization and assimilation of membrane carbon and nitrogen, coupled with the accumulation of protective metabolites. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  15. Midday depression of CO/sub 2/ assimilation in leaves of Arbutus unedo L. : diurnal changes in photosynthetic capacity related to changes in temperature and humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raschke, K.; Resemann, A.

    1986-01-01

    Parts of the attached leaves of the sclerophyllous shrub Arbutus unedo were subjected to simulated mediterranean days. Gas exchange was recorded in order to recognize the causes of the midday depression in CO/sub 2/ assimilation. Depressions could be induced in part of a leaf: they were local responses. The CO/sub 2/-saturation curves of photosynthesis, determined during the morning and afternoon maxima of CO/sub 2/ assimilation and during the minimum at midday, established that depressions in CO/sub 2/ assimilation were in one-half of the investigated cases totally caused by reversible reductions in the photosynthetic capacity of the leaves, and in other half almost totally caused by such reductions. There was no correlation between the water loss with the degree of reduction of the photosynthetic capacity. However, depressions occurred if an apparent threshold in the water-vapor pressure difference between leaf and air was exceeded. In another set of experiments, leaves were subjected to variations in temperature and humidity independent of the time of the day, under otherwise constant conditions. Photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance proved to be almost insensitive to changes in temperature (in a range extending from 20 to 37/sup 0/C) as long as the water vapor-pressure difference was held constant. If it was not, the rate of photosynthesis began to decline with increasing temperature after a threshold water-vapor pressure difference was exceeded. The position of the resulting apparent temperature optimum of photosynthesis depended on the humidity of the air. The authors suggest that the ability of A. unedo to respond to a dry atmosphere with a reversible reduction of its photosynthetic capacity (by a still unknown mechanism) is the result of a co-evolution with the development of a strong stomatal sensitivity to changes in humidity. 26 references, 14 figures.

  16. Population growth and development of the psocid Liposcelis rufa (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) at constant temperatures and relative humidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, S G; Opit, G P; Giles, K L

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the effects of eight temperatures (22.5, 25.0, 27.5, 30.0, 32.5, 35.0, 37.5, and 40.0 degrees C) and four relative humidities (43, 55, 63, and 75%) on population growth and development of the psocid Liposcelis rufa Broadhead (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae). L. rufa did not survive at 43% RH, at all temperatures tested; at 55% RH, at the highest four temperatures; and at 63% RH and 40.0 degrees C. The greatest population growth was recorded at 35.0 degrees C and 75% RH (73-fold growth). At 40.0 degrees C, L. rufa populations declined or barely grew. L. rufa males have two to four nymphal instars, and the percentages of males with two, three, and four instars were 31, 54, and 15%, respectively. Female L. rufa have two to five instars, and the percentages of females with two, three, four, and five instars were 2, 44, 42, and 12%, respectively. The life cycle was shorter for males than females. We developed temperature-dependent developmental equations for male and female eggs, individual nymphal, combined nymphal, and combined immature stages. The ability of L. rufa to reproduce at a relative humidity of 55% and temperatures of 22.5-30.0 degrees C and at relative humidities of 63-75% and temperatures of 22.5-37.5 degrees C, in addition to being able to survive at 40.0 degrees C, suggests that this species would be expected to have a broader distribution than other Liposcelis species. These data provide a better understanding of L. rufa population dynamics and can be used to help develop effective management strategies for this psocid.

  17. Internal development of vegetative buds of Norway spruce trees in relation to accumulated chilling and forcing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viherä-Aarnio, Anneli; Sutinen, Sirkka; Partanen, Jouni; Häkkinen, Risto

    2014-05-01

    The timing of budburst of temperate trees is known to be controlled by complicated interactions of temperature and photoperiod. To improve the phenological models of budburst, better knowledge of the internal bud development preceding budburst in relation to environmental cues is needed. We studied the effect of accumulated chilling and forcing temperatures on the internal development of vegetative buds preceding budburst in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.]. Branches from 17-year-old trees of southern Finnish origin were transferred eight times at 1- to 2-week intervals from October to December 2007 from the field at Punkaharju (61°48'N, 29°20'E) to the greenhouse with forcing conditions (day length 12 h, +20 °C). After seven different durations of forcing, the developmental phase and primordial shoot growth of the buds were analysed at the stereomicroscopic level. Air temperature was recorded hourly throughout the study period. The accumulated chilling unit sum had a significant effect on the temperature sum that was required to attain a certain developmental phase; a higher amount of chilling required a lower amount of forcing. The variation in the rate of development of different buds within each sample branch in relation to the chilling unit and forcing temperature sum was low. Regarding primordial shoot growth, there was also an inverse relation between accumulated chilling and forcing, i.e., a higher accumulated chilling unit sum before forcing required a lower temperature sum to initiate primordial shoot growth and resulted in a stronger effect of accumulated forcing. A second-order regression model with an interaction of chilling and forcing explained the variation of primordial shoot growth with high precision (R(2) = 0.88). However, further studies are required to determine the final parameter values to be used in phenological modelling. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  18. Laboratory Studies of Temperature and Relative Humidity Dependence of Aerosol Nucleation during the TANGENT 2017 IOP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Q.; Tiszenkel, L.; Stangl, C. M.; Krasnomowitz, J.; Johnston, M. V.; Lee, S.

    2017-12-01

    In this poster, we will present recent measurements of temperature and relative humidity dependence of aerosol nucleation of sulfuric acid under the conditions representative of the ground level to the free troposphere. Aerosol nucleation is critically dependent on temperature, but the current global aerosol models use nucleation algorithms that are independent of temperature and relative humidity due to the lack of experimental data. Thus, these models fail to simulate nucleation in a wide range of altitude and latitude conditions. We are currently conducting the Tandem Aerosol Nucleation and Growth Environment Tube (TANGENT) the intense observation period (IOP) experiments to investigate the aerosol nucleation and growth properties independently, during nucleation and growth. Nucleation takes place from sulfuric acid, water and some base compounds in a fast flow nucleation tube (FT-1). Nucleation precursors are detected with two chemical ionization mass spectrometers (CIMS) and newly nucleated particles are measured with a particle size magnifier (PSM) and a scanning mobility particle sizers (SMPS). Then these particles grow further in the second flow tube (FT-2) in the presence of oxidants of biogenic organic compounds. Chemical compositions of grown particles are further analyzed with a nano-aerosol mass spectrometer (NAMS). Our experimental results will provide a robust algorithm for aerosol nucleation and growth rates as a function of temperature and relative humidity.

  19. The potential impacts of climate variability and change on temperature-related morbidity and mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeehin, M A; Mirabelli, M

    2001-05-01

    Heat and heat waves are projected to increase in severity and frequency with increasing global mean temperatures. Studies in urban areas show an association between increases in mortality and increases in heat, measured by maximum or minimum temperature, heat index, and sometimes, other weather conditions. Health effects associated with exposure to extreme and prolonged heat appear to be related to environmental temperatures above those to which the population is accustomed. Models of weather-mortality relationships indicate that populations in northeastern and midwestern U.S. cities are likely to experience the greatest number of illnesses and deaths in response to changes in summer temperature. Physiologic and behavioral adaptations may reduce morbidity and mortality. Within heat-sensitive regions, urban populations are the most vulnerable to adverse heat-related health outcomes. The elderly, young children, the poor, and people who are bedridden or are on certain medications are at particular risk. Heat-related illnesses and deaths are largely preventable through behavioral adaptations, including the use of air conditioning and increased fluid intake. Overall death rates are higher in winter than in summer, and it is possible that milder winters could reduce deaths in winter months. However, the relationship between winter weather and mortality is difficult to interpret. Other adaptation measures include heat emergency plans, warning systems, and illness management plans. Research is needed to identify critical weather parameters, the associations between heat and nonfatal illnesses, the evaluation of implemented heat response plans, and the effectiveness of urban design in reducing heat retention.

  20. Effect of relative humidity and temperature control on in-cabin thermal comfort state: Thermodynamic and psychometric analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, A.; Omar, M.A.; Mayyas, A.; Dongri, Shan

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the effect of manipulating the Relative Humidity RH of in-cabin environment on the thermal comfort and human occupants' thermal sensation. The study uses thermodynamic and psychometric analyses, to incorporate the effect of changing RH along with the dry bulb temperature on human comfort. Specifically, the study computes the effect of changing the relative humidity on the amount of heat rejected from the passenger compartment and the effect of relative humidity on occupants comfort zone. A practical system implementation is also discussed in terms of an evaporative cooler design. The results show that changing the RH along with dry bulb temperature inside vehicular cabins can improve the air conditioning efficiency by reducing the heat removed while improving the Human comfort sensations as measured by the Predicted Mean Value PMV and the Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied PPD indices. - Highlights: → Investigates the effect of controlling the RH and dry bulb temperature on in-cabin thermal comfort and sensation. → Conducts the thermodynamic and psychometric analyses for changing the RH and temperature for in-cabin air conditioning. → Discusses a possible system implementation through an evaporative cooler design.

  1. Positron annihilation in Si and Si-related materials in thermal equilibrium at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uedono, A.; Muramatsu, M.; Ubukata, T.; Tanino, H.; Shiraishi, T.; Tanigawa, S.; Takasu, S.

    2001-01-01

    Annihilation characteristics of positrons in the carbon/Si structure in thermal equilibrium at high temperature were studied using a monoenergetic positron beam. Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation were measured as a function of incident positron energy in the temperature range between 298 K and 1473 K. Above 1173 K, the value of S corresponding to the annihilation of positrons near the carbon/Si interface started to increase, which was attributed to the carbonization of Si and the introduction of open-space defects due to the diffusion of Si atoms toward the carbon layer. The behavior of Ps in a thermally grown SiO 2 film was also studied at 298-1523 K. (orig.)

  2. Effect of Temperature and Age of Concrete on Strength – Porosity Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zadražil

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strengths of unsealed samples of concrete at the age of 180 days and have been measured at temperatures 20 °C, 300 °C, 600 °C and 900 °C. All of tests were performed for cold material. We compared our results with those obtained in [10] for the same type of concrete (age 28, resp. 90 days and measured at temperature ranging from 20 °C to 280 °C. Dependencies of compressive strength and porosity were correlated together and compared for the samples of age 28, 90 and 180 days. Behaviour of concrete of the age 90, resp. 180 days confirms generally accepted hypothesis that with increasing porosity strength of the concrete decreases. It has to be stressed out, howerer, that concrete samples of the age 28 days exhibit totally opposite dependency. 

  3. Relative effects of temperature, light, and humidity on clinging behavior of metacercariae-infected ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Botnevik, C.F.; Malagocka, Joanna; Jensen, Annette Bruun

    2016-01-01

    The lancet fluke, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, is perhaps the best-known example of parasite manipulation of host behavior, which is manifested by a radically changed behavior that leaves infected ants attached to vegetation at times when transmission to an herbivore host is optimal. Despite...... the publicity surrounding this parasite, curiously little is known about factors inducing and maintaining behavioral changes in its ant intermediate host. This study examined the importance of 3 environmental factors on the clinging behavior of red wood ants, Formica polyctena , infected with D. dendriticum...... . This behavior, hypothesized to involve cramping of the mandibular muscles in a state of tetany, was observed in naturally infected F. polyctena under controlled temperature, light, and humidity conditions. We found that low temperature significantly stimulated and maintained tetany in infected ants while light...

  4. Improvements relating to the low temperature carbonisation of coal, shale, and other suitable fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackford, J E

    1930-03-10

    In the low-temperature carbonization of coal, shale, and other suitable fuel is interposed between the fuel to be carbonized and the container, conveyor, grate, or other surface or surfaces with which the fuel normally contacts during the heat treatment. A medium decomposes during the said heat treatment, to produce a dry carbon at the surface or surfaces contacted without passing through an intermediate plastic or liquid phase during decomposition.

  5. Fragility of chalcogenide glass in relation to characteristic temperature T0/Tg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, A. M.; Shanker Rao, T.; Lilly Shanker Rao, T.; Venkataraman, K.

    2018-03-01

    The present study reports the mutual relationship between the fragility index m and the characteristic temperature T0/Tg. The fragility of the chalcogenide amorphous glass of Ge10Se50Te40 is calculated by utilizing glass transition temperature (Tg) measured by DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry) at different heating rates (β) in the range 5 to 20 K/min. Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT) equation is fitted to the data of Tg. In addition to the VFT method, three other methods are also used to evaluate m. The fragility index m of the Ge10Se50Te40 system showed the trend of decrease with increasing heating rate but remained stable around 22 for the heating rate 10 K/min. The value of m for the glass is near the lower limit (m ≈ 16) this indicates the alloy is a strong glass forming material in accordance of Angell’s interpretation of fragility. The calculated values of characteristic temperature T0/Tg is very close to 1 which also indicates that clearly the system is most fragile.

  6. Population Growth and Development of the Psocid Liposcelis fusciceps (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) at Constant Temperatures and Relative Humidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, S G; Opit, G P; Shakya, K

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the effects of seven temperatures (22.5, 25.0, 27.5, 30.0, 32.5, 35.0, and 37.5°C) and four relative humidities (43, 55, 63, and 75%) on population growth and development of the psocid Liposcelis fusciceps Badonnel (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae). Results demonstrated that L. fusciceps did not survive at 43% RH, at all temperatures tested. At 55% RH, L. fusciceps did not survive at the highest three temperatures and no psocids survived at 37.5°C and 63% RH. The highest population growth was recorded at 30.0°C and 75% RH where populations increased 16-fold from an initial population of five females. L. fusciceps males have two to four nymphal instars, and the percentages of males with two, three, and four instars were 28, 70, and 2%, respectively. Female L. fusciceps have two to five instars, and the percentages of females with two, three, four, and five instars were 2, 33, 63, and 2%, respectively. The total developmental time for males was shorter than females. We developed temperature-dependent development equations for male and female eggs, individual nymphal, combined nymphal, and combined immature stages. Based on 30-d population growth, L. fusciceps can survive and multiply at a relative humidity of 55% at 22.5-30.0°C, but does better at 27.5-32.5°C and a higher relative humidity of 75%. Relative humidities of ≤ 63% and temperatures of ≥ 32.5°C are detrimental to L. fusciceps. These data provide a better understanding of L. fusciceps population dynamics and can be used to develop effective management strategies for this psocid. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Loss of peroxisomes causes oxygen insensitivity of the histochemical assay of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity to detect cancer cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, Wilma M.; Vreeling-Sindelárová, Heleen; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2007-01-01

    Oxygen insensitivity of carcinoma cells and oxygen sensitivity of non-cancer cells in the histochemical assay of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enables detection of carcinoma cells in unfixed cell smears or cryostat sections of biopsies. The metabolic background of oxygen insensitivity is

  8. Incidence of lesions on Fungiidae corals in the eastern Red Sea is related to water temperature and coastal pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Furby, K.A.

    2014-07-01

    As sea surface temperatures rise and the global human population increases, large-scale field observations of marine organism health and water quality are increasingly necessary. We investigated the health of corals from the family Fungiidae using visual observations in relation to water quality and microbial biogeochemistry parameters along 1300 km of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. At large scales, incidence of lesions caused by unidentified etiology showed consistent signs, increasing significantly from the northern to southern coast and positively correlated to annual mean seawater temperatures. Lesion abundance also increased to a maximum of 96% near the populous city of Jeddah. The presence of lesioned corals in the region surrounding Jeddah was strongly correlated with elevated concentrations of ammonium and changes in microbial communities that are linked to decreased water quality. This study suggests that both high seawater temperatures and nutrient pollution may play an indirect role in the formation of lesions on corals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Incidence of lesions on Fungiidae corals in the eastern Red Sea is related to water temperature and coastal pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Furby, K.A.; Apprill, A.; Cervino, J.M.; Ossolinski, J.E.; Hughen, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    As sea surface temperatures rise and the global human population increases, large-scale field observations of marine organism health and water quality are increasingly necessary. We investigated the health of corals from the family Fungiidae using visual observations in relation to water quality and microbial biogeochemistry parameters along 1300 km of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. At large scales, incidence of lesions caused by unidentified etiology showed consistent signs, increasing significantly from the northern to southern coast and positively correlated to annual mean seawater temperatures. Lesion abundance also increased to a maximum of 96% near the populous city of Jeddah. The presence of lesioned corals in the region surrounding Jeddah was strongly correlated with elevated concentrations of ammonium and changes in microbial communities that are linked to decreased water quality. This study suggests that both high seawater temperatures and nutrient pollution may play an indirect role in the formation of lesions on corals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Probabilistic measures of climate change vulnerability, adaptation action benefits, and related uncertainty from maximum temperature metric selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeber, Jefferson T.; Wagner, Tyler

    2018-01-01

    Predictions of the projected changes in species distributions and potential adaptation action benefits can help guide conservation actions. There is substantial uncertainty in projecting species distributions into an unknown future, however, which can undermine confidence in predictions or misdirect conservation actions if not properly considered. Recent studies have shown that the selection of alternative climate metrics describing very different climatic aspects (e.g., mean air temperature vs. mean precipitation) can be a substantial source of projection uncertainty. It is unclear, however, how much projection uncertainty might stem from selecting among highly correlated, ecologically similar climate metrics (e.g., maximum temperature in July, maximum 30‐day temperature) describing the same climatic aspect (e.g., maximum temperatures) known to limit a species’ distribution. It is also unclear how projection uncertainty might propagate into predictions of the potential benefits of adaptation actions that might lessen climate change effects. We provide probabilistic measures of climate change vulnerability, adaptation action benefits, and related uncertainty stemming from the selection of four maximum temperature metrics for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), a cold‐water salmonid of conservation concern in the eastern United States. Projected losses in suitable stream length varied by as much as 20% among alternative maximum temperature metrics for mid‐century climate projections, which was similar to variation among three climate models. Similarly, the regional average predicted increase in brook trout occurrence probability under an adaptation action scenario of full riparian forest restoration varied by as much as .2 among metrics. Our use of Bayesian inference provides probabilistic measures of vulnerability and adaptation action benefits for individual stream reaches that properly address statistical uncertainty and can help guide conservation

  11. Probabilistic measures of climate change vulnerability, adaptation action benefits, and related uncertainty from maximum temperature metric selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeber, Jefferson T; Wagner, Tyler

    2018-06-01

    Predictions of the projected changes in species distributions and potential adaptation action benefits can help guide conservation actions. There is substantial uncertainty in projecting species distributions into an unknown future, however, which can undermine confidence in predictions or misdirect conservation actions if not properly considered. Recent studies have shown that the selection of alternative climate metrics describing very different climatic aspects (e.g., mean air temperature vs. mean precipitation) can be a substantial source of projection uncertainty. It is unclear, however, how much projection uncertainty might stem from selecting among highly correlated, ecologically similar climate metrics (e.g., maximum temperature in July, maximum 30-day temperature) describing the same climatic aspect (e.g., maximum temperatures) known to limit a species' distribution. It is also unclear how projection uncertainty might propagate into predictions of the potential benefits of adaptation actions that might lessen climate change effects. We provide probabilistic measures of climate change vulnerability, adaptation action benefits, and related uncertainty stemming from the selection of four maximum temperature metrics for brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), a cold-water salmonid of conservation concern in the eastern United States. Projected losses in suitable stream length varied by as much as 20% among alternative maximum temperature metrics for mid-century climate projections, which was similar to variation among three climate models. Similarly, the regional average predicted increase in brook trout occurrence probability under an adaptation action scenario of full riparian forest restoration varied by as much as .2 among metrics. Our use of Bayesian inference provides probabilistic measures of vulnerability and adaptation action benefits for individual stream reaches that properly address statistical uncertainty and can help guide conservation actions. Our

  12. Susceptibility to mortality related to temperature and heat and cold wave duration in the population of Stockholm County, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joacim Rocklöv

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ambient temperatures can cause an increase in mortality. A better understanding is needed of how health status and other factors modify the risk associated with high and low temperatures, to improve the basis of preventive measures. Differences in susceptibility to temperature and to heat and cold wave duration are relatively unexplored. Objectives: We studied the associations between mortality and temperature and heat and cold wave duration, stratified by age and individual and medical factors. Methods: Deaths among all residents of Stockholm County between 1990 and 2002 were linked to discharge diagnosis data from hospital admissions, and associations were examined using the time stratified case-crossover design. Analyses were stratified by gender, age, pre-existing disease, country of origin, and municipality level wealth, and adjusted for potential confounding factors. Results: The effect on mortality by heat wave duration was higher for lower ages, in areas with lower wealth, for hospitalized patients younger than age 65. Odds were elevated among females younger than age 65, in groups with a previous hospital admission for mental disorders, and in persons with previous cardiovascular disease. Gradual increases in summer temperatures were associated with mortality in people older than 80 years, and with mortality in groups with a previous myocardial infarction and with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in the population younger than 65 years. During winter, mortality was associated with a decrease in temperature particularly in men and with the duration of cold spells for the population older than 80. A history of hospitalization for myocardial infarction increased the odds associated with cold temperatures among the population older than 65. Previous mental disease or substance abuse increased the odds of death among the population younger than 65. Conclusion: To increase effectiveness, we suggest preventive efforts

  13. Global gene expression profiling related to temperature-sensitive growth abnormalities in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryusuke Matsuda

    Full Text Available Triploid wheat hybrids between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii sometimes show abnormal growth phenotypes, and the growth abnormalities inhibit generation of wheat synthetic hexaploids. In type II necrosis, one of the growth abnormalities, necrotic cell death accompanied by marked growth repression occurs only under low temperature conditions. At normal temperature, the type II necrosis lines show grass-clump dwarfism with no necrotic symptoms, excess tillers, severe dwarfism and delayed flowering. Here, we report comparative expression analyses to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in the triploid wheat hybrids. We compared gene and small RNA expression profiles in crown tissues to characterize the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity. No up-regulation of defense-related genes was observed under the normal temperature, and down-regulation of wheat APETALA1-like MADS-box genes, considered to act as flowering promoters, was found in the grass-clump dwarf lines. Some microRNAs, including miR156, were up-regulated, whereas the levels of transcripts of the miR156 target genes SPLs, known to inhibit tiller and branch number, were reduced in crown tissues of the grass-clump dwarf lines at the normal temperature. Unusual expression of the miR156/SPLs module could explain the grass-clump dwarf phenotype. Dramatic alteration of gene expression profiles, including miRNA levels, in crown tissues is associated with the temperature-dependent phenotypic plasticity in type II necrosis/grass-clump dwarf wheat hybrids.

  14. Temperature-related changes in respiration and Q10 coefficient of Guava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bron Ilana Urbano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Guava (Psidium guajava L. is a tropical fruit that presents fast post-harvest ripening; therefore it is a very perishable product. Inappropriate storage temperature and retail practices can accelerate fruit quality loss. The objective of this study was to evaluate the respiratory activity (RA, the ethylene production (EP and Q10 of guava fruit at different storage temperatures. 'Paluma' guava fruits were harvested at maturity stage 1 (dark-green skin and stored at either 1, 11, 21, 31 or 41ºC; RA and EP were determined after 12, 36, 84 and 156 h of storage. RA and EP rates at 1 and 11ºC were the lowest - 0.16 and 0.43 mmol CO2 kg-1 h-1 and 0.003 and 0.019 µmol C2H4 kg-1 h-1, respectively. When guavas were stored at 21ºC, a gradual increase occurred in RA and EP, reaching 2.24 mmol CO2 kg-1 h-1 and 0.20 µmol C2H4 kg-1 h-1, after 156 h of storage. The highest RA and EP were recorded for guavas stored at 31ºC. In spite of high RA, guavas stored at 41ºC presented EP similar to guavas stored at 11ºC, an indicator of heat-stress injury. Considering the 1-11ºC range, the mean Q10 value was around 3.0; the Q10 value almost duplicated at 11-21ºC range (5.9. At 21-31ºC and 31-41ºC, Q10 was 1.5 and 0.8, respectively. Knowing Q10, respiratory variation and ripening behavior in response to different temperatures, fruit storage and retail conditions can be optimized to reduce quality losses.

  15. Temperature responses of some North Atlantic Cladophora species (Chlorophyceae) in relation to their geographic distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambridge, M.; Breeman, A. M.; van Oosterwijk, R.; van den Hoek, C.

    1984-09-01

    The temperature responses for growth and survival have been experimentally tested for 6 species of the green algal genus Cladophora (Chlorophyceae; Cladophorales) (all isolated from Roscoff, Brittany, France, one also from Connecticut, USA), selected from 4 distribution groups, in order to determine which phase in the annual temperature regime might prevent the spread of a species beyond its present latitudinal range on the N. Atlantic coasts. For five species geographic limits could be specifically defined as due to a growth limit in the growing season or to a lethal limit in the adverse season. These species were: (1) C. coelothrix (Amphiatlantic tropical to warm temperate), with a northern boundary on the European coasts formed by a summer growth limit near the 12°C August isotherm. On the American coasts sea temperatures should allow its occurrence further north. (2) C. vagabunda (Amphiatlantic tropical to temperate), with a northern boundary formed by a summer growth limit near the 15°C August isotherm on both sides of the Atlantic. (3) C. dalmatica, as for C. vagabunda. (4) C. hutchinsiae (Mediterranean-Atlantic warm temperate), with a northern boundary formed by a summer growth limit near the 12°C August isotherm, and possibly also a winter lethal limit near the 6°C February isotherm; and a southern boundary formed by a southern lethal limit near the 26°C August isotherm. It is absent from the warm temperate American coast because its lethal limits, 5° and 30°C, are regularly reached there. (5) Preliminary data for C. rupestris (Amphiatlantic temperate), suggest the southeastern boundary on the African coast to be a summer lethal limit near the 26°C August isotherm; the southwestern boundary on the American coast lies on the 20°C August isotherm. For one species, C. albida, the experimental growth and survival range was wider than expected from its geographic distribution, and reasons to account for this are suggested.

  16. SABER (TIMED) and MLS (UARS) Temperature Observations of Mesospheric and Stratospheric QBO and Related Tidal Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Frank T.; Mayr, Hans G.; Reber, Carl A.; Russell, James; Mlynczak, Marty; Mengel, John

    2006-01-01

    More than three years of temperature observations from the SABER (TIMED) and MLS WARS) instruments are analyzed to study the annual and inter-annual variations extending from the stratosphere into the upper mesosphere. The SABER measurements provide data from a wide altitude range (15 to 95 km) for the years 2002 to 2004, while the MLS data were taken in the 16 to 55 km altitude range a decade earlier. Because of the sampling properties of SABER and MLS, the variations with local solar time must be accounted for when estimating the zonal mean variations. An algorithm is thus applied that delineates with Fourier analysis the year-long variations of the migrating tides and zonal mean component. The amplitude of the diurnal tide near the equator shows a strong semiannual periodicity with maxima near equinox, which vary from year to year to indicate the influence from the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO) in the zonal circulation. The zonal mean QBO temperature variations are analyzed over a range of latitudes and altitudes, and the results are presented for latitudes from 48"s to 48"N. New results are obtained for the QBO, especially in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, and at mid-latitudes. At Equatorial latitudes, the QBO amplitudes show local peaks, albeit small, that occur at different altitudes. From about 20 to 40 km, and within about 15" of the Equator, the amplitudes can approach 3S K for the stratospheric QBO or SQBO. For the mesospheric QBO or MQBO, we find peaks near 70 km, with temperature amplitudes reaching 3.5"K, and near 85 km, the amplitudes approach 2.5OK. Morphologically, the amplitude and phase variations derived from the SABER and MLS measurements are in qualitative agreement. The QBO amplitudes tend to peak at the Equator but then increase again pole-ward of about 15" to 20'. The phase progression with altitude varies more gradually at the Equator than at mid-latitudes. A comparison of the observations with results from the Numerical Spectral

  17. Optimization of temperature differences in a utilizer in relation to the lowest sum of capital and operating cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustrin, I.; Tuma, M.

    1992-01-01

    Our environment and nature are currently overburdened with the emission of noxious substances. Steam boilers fired with coal are therefore not very popular. Wherever possible, they are being replaced by devices which are less harmful for the environment because they use different fuel. This paper discusses replacing a steam boiler with a gas turbine and an utilizer. A mathematical model for performing the optimization of capital and operating costs is presented. The model optimizes the degree of preheating of the flue gases i.e. the temperature of the entering flue gases. The smallest temperature difference (pinch point) was not estimated by the pinch technology because the presented example is relatively simple and the pinch point temperature difference was chosen according to the values reported in various literature sources. The optimization is supplemented with an analysis of the thermal and exergetical efficiencies of the utilizer under different conditions (average temperature difference between the hot gases and water or steam, exit temperature of the hot gases), which condition the choice of the type of utilizer

  18. Length-dependent thermoelectric characteristics of silicon nanowires on plastics in a relatively low temperature regime in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jinyong; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2013-01-01

    We report on the thermoelectric characteristics of p-type silicon nanowires (NWs) on plastics in the relatively low temperature regime below 47 ° C, and for temperature differences of less than 10 K in ambient air. Thermal profile images are utilized to directly determine the temperature difference in the NWs generated by Joule heating in air. The Seebeck coefficient of the NWs increases from 294 to 414 μV K −1 as the NW length varies from 40 to 280 μm. For a temperature difference of 7 K, the maximal Seebeck voltage can be estimated to be 2.7 mV for NWs with a length of 280 μm. In contrast, the output power is maximized for NWs length of 240 μm. The maximized output power obtained experimentally in this study is 2.1 pW at a temperature difference of 6 K. The thermoelectric characteristics are analyzed and discussed. (paper)

  19. Archaeal and bacterial H-GDGTs are abundant in peat and their relative abundance is positively correlated with temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naafs, B. D. A.; McCormick, D.; Inglis, G. N.; Pancost, R. D.; T-GRES Peat Database Collaborators

    2018-04-01

    Glycerol monoalkyl glycerol tetraether lipids (GMGTs; also called 'H-GDGTs') differ from the more commonly studied glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGTs) in that they have an additional covalent bond that links the two alkyl chains. Six different archaeal isoprenoidal H-GDGTs (H-isoGDGTs) and one branched H-GDGT (H-brGDGT), presumably produced by bacteria, have previously been found. However, the function of H-GDGTs in both domains of life is unknown. It is thought that the formation of this additional covalent bond results in enhanced membrane stability, accounting for the high abundance of H-GDGTs in extreme environments such as geothermal settings, but so far there has been little evidence to support this hypothesis. Here we report the distribution of H-GDGTs in a global peat database (n = 471) with a broad range in mean annual air temperature (MAAT) and pH. This is the first finding of H-GDGTs in soils (specifically, peat), highlighting that H-GDGTs are widespread in mesophilic settings. In addition, we report the presence of two new H-brGDGTs with one (H-1034) and two (H-1048) additional methyl groups, respectively. Our results suggest that the relative abundance of both bacterial and archaeal H-GDGTs compared to regular GDGTs is related to temperature with the highest relative abundance of H-GDGTs in tropical peats. Although other factors besides temperature likely also play a role, these results do support the hypothesis that H-GDGTs are an adaptation to temperature to maintain membrane stability. The observation that both bacterial and archaeal membrane lipids respond to temperature indicates the same adaption across the lipid divide between these two domains of life, suggesting parallel or convergent evolution (potentially facilitated by lateral gene transfer).

  20. Temperature affects brain and pituitary gene expression related to reproduction and growth in the male blue gouramis, Trichogaster trichopterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Dalia; Degani, Gad

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the effect of temperature on reproduction and growth-related factors in blue gourami males under nonreproductive and reproductive conditions. Males that were maintained under nonreproductive conditions did not build nest and the gonado-somatic index (% GSI) was significantly higher in fish maintained at 27°C compared with fish maintained at 23°C. The relative mRNA levels of brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 (GnRH3), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1), pituitary β-luteinizing hormone (βLH), and prolactin were significantly higher when the fish were maintained at 27°C than at 23°C or 31°C. β-Follicle-stimulating hormone (βFSH) mRNA levels were significantly lower when maintained at 31°C than at the other temperatures. Nests were observed only in males under reproductive conditions. In these fish, higher mRNA levels of GnRH3, PACAP, βFSH, βLH and prolactin were detected at 27°C, and higher mRNA levels of IGF-1 were detected at 23°C, when compared with other temperature of maintenance or with fish that did not build nest. In conclusion, we propose that temperature has more effect on the transcription of genes, associated with reproduction, than on those pertaining to growth. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  1. Analysis of nanopore arrangement of porous alumina layers formed by anodizing in oxalic acid at relatively high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaraska, Leszek; Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Jaskuła, Marian; Sulka, Grzegorz D.

    2014-06-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) layers were formed by a simple two-step anodization in 0.3 M oxalic acid at relatively high temperatures (20-30 °C) and various anodizing potentials (30-65 V). The effect of anodizing conditions on structural features of as-obtained oxides was carefully investigated. A linear and exponential relationships between cell diameter, pore density and anodizing potential were confirmed, respectively. On the other hand, no effect of temperature and duration of anodization on pore spacing and pore density was found. Detailed quantitative and qualitative analyses of hexagonal arrangement of nanopore arrays were performed for all studied samples. The nanopore arrangement was evaluated using various methods based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) images, Delaunay triangulations (defect maps), pair distribution functions (PDF), and angular distribution functions (ADF). It was found that for short anodizations performed at relatively high temperatures, the optimal anodizing potential that results in formation of nanostructures with the highest degree of pore order is 45 V. No direct effect of temperature and time of anodization on the nanopore arrangement was observed.

  2. Effect of temperature and relative-humidity on the development of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Vigna unguiculata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Tiago C. Costa; Geremias, Leandro D; Parra, Jose R.P.

    2009-01-01

    This research aimed to study the influence of temperature and relative-humidity (RH) on the development of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard during the egg-adult period, in cowpea, to provide essential information for future biological control projects against the pest. An inverse relation was observed between temperature increase in the range from 15 deg C to 32 deg C and development duration. Larval survival was not affected in the temperature range studied, while a high mortality of pupae was observed at 32 deg C (59.9%). RH did not affect the development time of the immature stages, although it influenced their survival. The lower developmental temperature threshold obtained for the egg-adult period was low (7.3 deg C) when compared with other species of Liriomyza, and was rather low for the larval stage (3.4 deg C ). Based on the thermal requirements for L. sativae, it was possible to estimate the occurrence of 24.5 annual generations at a melon producing region in state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. For laboratory rearing aimed at biological control pest programs, the best rearing conditions are 30 deg C and 50% RH for the larval stage and 90% RH for the pupal stage. (author)

  3. [Effect of temperature and relative-humidity on the development of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in Vigna unguiculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Tiago C Costa; Geremias, Leandro D; Parra, José R P

    2009-01-01

    This research aimed to study the influence of temperature and relative-humidity (RH) on the development of Liriomyza sativae Blanchard during the egg-adult period, in cowpea, to provide essential information for future biological control projects against the pest. An inverse relation was observed between temperature increase in the range from 15 degrees Celsius to 32 degrees Celsius and development duration. Larval survival was not affected in the temperature range studied, while a high mortality of pupae was observed at 32 degrees Celsius (59.9%). RH did not affect the development time of the immature stages, although it influenced their survival. The lower developmental temperature threshold obtained for the egg-adult period was low (7.3 degrees Celsius) when compared with other species of Liriomyza, and was rather low for the larval stage (3.4 degrees Celsius). Based on the thermal requirements for L. sativae, it was possible to estimate the occurrence of 24.5 annual generations at a melon producing region in state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. For laboratory rearing aimed at biological control pest programs, the best rearing conditions are 30 degrees Celsius and 50% RH for the larval stage and 90% RH for the pupal stage.

  4. Short-term salinity tolerance of northern pike, Esox lucius , fry, related to temperature and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The short-term tolerances of northern pike, Esox lucius L., fry reared in a freshwater hatchery, to salinity were examined in the laboratory. Survival of two size groups of pike fry (mean length 21 +/- 2 mm SD and 37 +/- 4 mm SD) was examined over 72- to 96-h periods at 9-14 ppt salinity in combi......The short-term tolerances of northern pike, Esox lucius L., fry reared in a freshwater hatchery, to salinity were examined in the laboratory. Survival of two size groups of pike fry (mean length 21 +/- 2 mm SD and 37 +/- 4 mm SD) was examined over 72- to 96-h periods at 9-14 ppt salinity...... in combination with temperatures of 10, 14 and 18 degrees C. A parametric survival model found a significant correlation between survival of pike fry and temperature and salinity, respectively. L(C)50 values after 72 h were between 11.2 and 12.2 ppt, being lowest at 10 degrees C. Pike fry did not survive more...

  5. Is the distribution of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in the oceans related to temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stal, Lucas J

    2009-07-01

    Approximately 50% of the global natural fixation of nitrogen occurs in the oceans supporting a considerable part of the new primary production. Virtually all nitrogen fixation in the ocean occurs in the tropics and subtropics where the surface water temperature is 25°C or higher. It is attributed almost exclusively to cyanobacteria. This is remarkable firstly because diazotrophic cyanobacteria are found in other environments irrespective of temperature and secondly because primary production in temperate and cold oceans is generally limited by nitrogen. Cyanobacteria are oxygenic phototrophic organisms that evolved a variety of strategies protecting nitrogenase from oxygen inactivation. Free-living diazotrophic cyanobacteria in the ocean are of the non-heterocystous type, namely the filamentous Trichodesmium and the unicellular groups A-C. I will argue that warm water is a prerequisite for these diazotrophic organisms because of the low-oxygen solubility and high rates of respiration allowing the organism to maintain anoxic conditions in the nitrogen-fixing cell. Heterocystous cyanobacteria are abundant in freshwater and brackish environments in all climatic zones. The heterocyst cell envelope is a tuneable gas diffusion barrier that optimizes the influx of both oxygen and nitrogen, while maintaining anoxic conditions inside the cell. It is not known why heterocystous cyanobacteria are absent from the temperate and cold oceans and seas.

  6. Relating ring width of Mediterranean evergreen species to seasonal and annual variations of precipitation and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Nijland

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth in Mediterranean landscapes is limited by the typical summer-dry climate. Forests in these areas are only marginally productive and may be quite susceptible to modern climate change. To improve our understanding of forest sensitivity to annual and seasonal climatic variability, we use tree-ring measurements of two Mediterranean evergreen tree species: Quercus ilex L. and Arbutus unedo L. We sampled 34 stems of these species on three different types of substrates in the Peyne study area in southern France. The resulting chronologies were analysed in combination with 38 yr of monthly precipitation and temperature data to reconstruct the response of stem growth to climatic variability. Results indicate a strong positive response to May and June precipitation, as well as a significant positive influence of early-spring temperatures and a negative growth response to summer heat. Comparison of the data with more detailed productivity measurements in two contrasting years confirms these observations and shows a strong productivity limiting effect of low early-summer precipitation. The results show that tree-ring data from Q.ilex and A.unedo can provide valuable information about the response of these tree species to climate variability, improving our ability to predict the effects of climate change in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  7. Relating ring width of Mediterranean evergreen species to seasonal and annual variations of precipitation and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijland, W.; Jansma, E.; Addink, E. A.; Domínguez Delmás, M.; de Jong, S. M.

    2011-05-01

    Plant growth in Mediterranean landscapes is limited by the typical summer-dry climate. Forests in these areas are only marginally productive and may be quite susceptible to modern climate change. To improve our understanding of forest sensitivity to annual and seasonal climatic variability, we use tree-ring measurements of two Mediterranean evergreen tree species: Quercus ilex L. and Arbutus unedo L. We sampled 34 stems of these species on three different types of substrates in the Peyne study area in southern France. The resulting chronologies were analysed in combination with 38 yr of monthly precipitation and temperature data to reconstruct the response of stem growth to climatic variability. Results indicate a strong positive response to May and June precipitation, as well as a significant positive influence of early-spring temperatures and a negative growth response to summer heat. Comparison of the data with more detailed productivity measurements in two contrasting years confirms these observations and shows a strong productivity limiting effect of low early-summer precipitation. The results show that tree-ring data from Q.ilex and A.unedo can provide valuable information about the response of these tree species to climate variability, improving our ability to predict the effects of climate change in Mediterranean ecosystems.

  8. Relation of extended Van Hove singularities to high-temperature superconductivity within strong-coupling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, R.J.; Norman, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Recent angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) experiments have indicated that the electronic dispersion in some of the cuprates possesses an extended saddle point near the Fermi level which gives rise to a density of states that diverges like a power law instead of the weaker logarithmic divergence usually considered. We investigate whether this strong singularity can give rise to high transition temperatures by computing the critical temperature T c and isotope effect coefficient α within a strong-coupling Eliashberg theory which accounts for the full energy variation of the density of states. Using band structures extracted from ARPES measurements, we demonstrate that, while the weak-coupling solutions suggest a strong influence of the strength of the Van Hove singularity on T c and α, strong-coupling solutions show less sensitivity to the singularity strength and do not support the hypothesis that band-structure effects alone can account for either the large T c 's or the different T c 's within the copper oxide family. This conclusion is supported when our results are plotted as a function of the physically relevant self-consistent coupling constant, which shows universal behavior at very strong coupling

  9. Relations between temperature coefficients of permittivity and elastic compliances in PZT ceramics near the morphotropic phase boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudys, M

    1991-01-01

    Variations of temperature coefficients of permittivity epsilon(33)(T), elastic compliances at constant electric fields s(11)(E), and constant polarization s(11)(P) with a Zr/Ti ratio of Pb(Zr(x)Ti(1-x))O(3) and Pb[(Sb(1/3)Mn(2/3))(0.05)Zr(x)Ti (0.95-x)]O(3) solid solutions, were investigated. Relations between temperature coefficients of epsilon(33)(T ), S(11)(E), and S(11) (P) were theoretically derived; a discrepancy was found between theoretical relations and experimental results. On the basis of the observed discrepancy, it is proposed that some extrinsic effects arising from the motion of interphase boundaries between the tetragonal and the rhombohedral phases which exist in grains contribute to values of both elastic compliances.

  10. Association between temperature and emergency room visits for cardiorespiratory diseases, metabolic syndrome-related diseases, and accidents in metropolitan Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Lin, Yu-Kai

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated risks of the emergency room visits (ERV) for cerebrovascular diseases, heart diseases, ischemic heart disease, hypertensive diseases, chronic renal failure (CRF), diabetes mellitus (DM), asthma, chronic airway obstruction not elsewhere classified (CAO), and accidents associated with the ambient temperature from 2000 to 2009 in metropolitan Taipei. The distributed lag non-linear model was used to estimate the cumulative relative risk (RR) and confidence interval (CI) of cause-specific ERV associated with daily temperature from lag 0 to lag 3 after controlling for potential confounders. This study identified that temperatures related to the lowest risk of ERV was 26 °C for cerebrovascular diseases, 18 °C for CRF, DM, and accidents, and 30 °C for hypertensive diseases, asthma, and CAO. These temperatures were used as the reference temperatures to measure RR for the corresponding diseases. A low temperature (14°C) increased the ERV risk for cerebrovascular diseases, hypertensive diseases, and asthma, with respective cumulative 4-day RRs of 1.56 (95% CI: 1.23, 1.97), 1.78 (95% CI: 1.37, 2.34), and 2.93 (95% CI: 1.26, 6.79). The effects were greater on, or after, lag one. At 32°C, the cumulative 4-day RR for ERV was significant for CRF (RR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.33, 4.19) and accidents (RR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.33) and the highest RR was seen on lag 0 for CRF (RR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.58), DM (RR = 1.69; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.61), and accidents (RR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.27). Higher temperatures are associated with the increased ERV risks for CRF, DM, and accidents and lower temperatures with the increased ERV risks for cerebrovascular diseases, hypertensive diseases, and asthma in the subtropical metropolitan.

  11. Single-point relative process using Laser-Doppler velocimetry for calibration of flow sensors at temperatures above 100 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Due to technical difficulties, the calibration of flow sensors of heat meters above 100 C cannot be performed by the gravimetric standard method. A novel method using a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) was therefore developed, based on the gravimetric method below 100 C and on Reynolds' similarity law. This method allows a turbine meter to be calibrated as a secondary flowrate standard with a relative uncertainty below 0,2% for temperatures of up to 180 C. (orig.) [de

  12. Relative thermoluminescent efficiencies proton/gamma and helium/gamma of high temperature peaks in TLD-100 dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores M, E.; Avila, O.; Rodriguez V, M.; Massillon, J.L.G.; Buenfil A, E.; Ruiz T, C.; Brandan, M.E.; Gamboa De Buen, I.

    2007-01-01

    This work presents measures of relative thermoluminescent efficiency of those high temperature peaks of TLD-100 dosemeters exposed to protons of 1.5 MeV and to helium nuclei of 3 and 7.5 MeV. A rigorous reading and of deconvolution protocol was used for the calculation of the TL efficiencies. Additionally an Excel program that facilitated the deconvolution adjustment process of the glow curves was elaborated. (Author)

  13. Relation between time-temperature transformation and continuous heating transformation diagrams of metallic glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Inoue, Akihisa

    2005-01-01

    The time-temperature transformation (TTT) diagrams for the onset of devitrification of the Ge-Ni-La and Cu-Hf-Ti glassy alloys were calculated from the isothermal differential calorimetry data using an Arrhenius equation. The continuous heating transformation (CHT) diagrams for the onset of devitrification of the glassy alloys were subsequently recalculated from TTT diagrams. The recalculation method used for conversion of the TTT into CHT diagrams produces reasonable results and is not sensitive to the type of the devitrification reaction (polymorphous or primary transformation). The diagrams allow to perform a comparison of the stabilities of glassy alloys on a long-term scale. The relationship between these diagrams is discussed

  14. ESTABLISHING EMPIRICAL RELATION TO PREDICT TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE OF VORTEX TUBE USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRABAKARAN J.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Vortex tube is a device that produces cold and hot air simultaneously from the source of compressed air. In this work an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of three controllable input variables namely diameter of the orifices, diameter of the nozzles and inlet pressure over the temperature difference in the cold side as output using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Experiments are conducted using central composite design with three factors at three levels. The influence of vital parameters and interaction among these are investigated using analysis of variance (ANOVA. The proposed mathematical model in this study has proven to fit and in line with experimental values with a 95% confidence interval. It is found that the inlet pressure and diameter of nozzle are significant factors that affect the performance of vortex tube.

  15. A review of creep behavior of high temperature composites in relation to molybdenum disilicide composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadananda, K.; Feng, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review of creep behavior of composites is presented. It is shown that even for a two component system, creep of a composite depends on complex combination of several factors, including the constitutive behavior of the component phases at stress and temperature, and mechanical, chemical, diffusional and thermodynamic stability of the two-phase interfaces. The existing theoretical models based on continuum mechanics are presented. These models are evaluated using the extensive experimental data on molydisilicide--silicon carbide composites by the authors. The analysis shows that the rule of mixture based on isostrain and isostress provides two limiting bounds wherein all other predictions fall. For molydisilicide, the creep is predominantly governed by the creep of the majority phase, i.e. the matrix while fibers deform predominately elastically

  16. Empirical model for estimating dengue incidence using temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity: a 19-year retrospective analysis in East Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Vishnampettai G; Roy, Priyamvada; Das, Shukla; Mogha, Narendra Singh; Bansal, Ajay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aedes mosquitoes are responsible for transmitting the dengue virus. The mosquito lifecycle is known to be influenced by temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity. This retrospective study was planned to investigate whether climatic factors could be used to predict the occurrence of dengue in East Delhi. The number of monthly dengue cases reported over 19 years was obtained from the laboratory records of our institution. Monthly data of rainfall, temperature, and humidity collected from a local weather station were correlated with the number of monthly reported dengue cases. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyse whether the climatic parameters differed significantly among seasons. Four models were developed using negative binomial generalized linear model analysis. Monthly rainfall, temperature, humidity, were used as independent variables, and the number of dengue cases reported monthly was used as the dependent variable. The first model considered data from the same month, while the other three models involved incorporating data with a lag phase of 1, 2, and 3 months, respectively. The greatest number of cases was reported during the post-monsoon period each year. Temperature, rainfall, and humidity varied significantly across the pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon periods. The best correlation between these three climatic factors and dengue occurrence was at a time lag of 2 months. This study found that temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity significantly affected dengue occurrence in East Delhi. This weather-based dengue empirical model can forecast potential outbreaks 2-month in advance, providing an early warning system for intensifying dengue control measures.

  17. Relative thermoluminescent efficiencies proton/gamma and helium/gamma of peaks of high temperature in TLD-100 dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores M, E.

    2007-01-01

    The increase of the applications of ion beams in radiotherapy treatments has generated interest in the study of the thermoluminescent materials (TL) that allow to determine the applied doses. A way to quantify the TL response from these materials to ions is by means of the relative thermoluminescent efficiency. In the group of Thermoluminescent dosimetry of the Institute of Physics of the UNAM (IFUNAM) the thermoluminescent response of the TLD-100 dosemeters has been studied, which present a glow curve characteristic with several peaks that correspond to traps and luminescent centers in the material. The stable peaks know each other as 4, 5, 6a, 6b, 7, 8, 9 and 10. The efficiencies should be measured using the response so much to the radiation of interest (in this case protons and helium ions) as the response to gamma radiation. In previous works with ions of low energy taken place in the Pelletron accelerator of the IFUNAM was only measured the TL efficiency for the peak 5 and the total signal. It had not been possible to measure the efficiency of the peaks of high temperature (6a-10) because, for the gamma radiation, the peaks of high temperature show very small signals; however, recently Massillon carries out measures of efficiency TL of peaks of high temperature for ions of intermediate energy using a protocol special of reading and of deconvolution that allows to measure the signals coming from the peaks of high temperature. In this work is implemented this same protocol to complete the study of TL efficiencies at low energy of protons and helium and to determine if the values of efficiency depend on the used reading protocol. For it is reported it measures of the relative efficiency of the peaks of high temperature from the TLD-100 exposed to protons of 1.5 MeV and nuclei of helium of 3 and 7.5 MeV. (Author)

  18. Factors affecting the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil at high temperatures and its relation to cleanability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashokkumar, Saranya, E-mail: saras@food.dtu.dk [Accoat A/S, Munkegardsvej 16, 3490 Kvistgard (Denmark); Food Production Engineering, DTU FOOD, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Adler-Nissen, Jens [Food Production Engineering, DTU FOOD, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Moller, Per [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, DTU Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Plot of cos {theta} versus temperature for metal and ceramic surfaces where cos {theta} rises linearly with increase in temperature. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cos {theta} of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increase in temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Slopes are much higher for quasicrystalline and polymers than for ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase in surface roughness and surface flaws increases surface wettability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact angle values gave information for grouping easy-clean polymers from other materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contact angle measurements cannot directly estimate the cleanability of a surface. - Abstract: The main aim of the work was to investigate the wettability of different surface materials with vegetable oil (olive oil) over the temperature range of 25-200 Degree-Sign C to understand the differences in cleanability of different surfaces exposed to high temperatures in food processes. The different surface materials investigated include stainless steel (reference), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), silicone, quasicrystalline (Al, Fe, Cr) and ceramic coatings: zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}), zirconium nitride (ZrN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN). The ceramic coatings were deposited on stainless steel with two different levels of roughness. The cosine of the contact angle of olive oil on different surface materials rises linearly with increasing temperature. Among the materials analyzed, polymers (PTFE, silicone) gave the lowest cos {theta} values. Studies of the effect of roughness and surface flaws on wettability revealed that the cos {theta} values increases with increasing roughness and surface flaws. Correlation analysis indicates that the measured contact angle values gave useful information for grouping easy-clean polymer materials from the other materials; for the latter group, there is no direct relation between

  19. Tolerance of photoperiod insensitive mutant of Sesbania rostrata to salinity and pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, Saradha; Joshua, D.C.; Shaikh, M.S.; Athalye, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    The photoperiod insensitive mutant, TSR-1 of Sesbania rostrata was compared with the parent variety for its response to soil salinity and different levels of pH in hydroponics. The plant growth and stem nodulation were not significantly affected by salinity. However, salinity in soil without farmyard manure stimulated plant growth. Radiotracer studies showed that the translocation of Na to stem and leaves was much less compared to uptake in both parent and mutant. The growth of TSR-1 was comparable to or marginally better than that of the parent variety in the pH range of 3.5-8.0. Root nodulation was less with low pH. The nitrogen content was not adversely affected by pH, but it was reduced with 200 mM NaCl. This mutant in addition to being short-day insensitive, is tolerant to low to moderate salinity levels and pH like its parent. (author)

  20. Optimal Design of an Achromatic Angle-Insensitive Phase Retarder Used in MWIR Imaging Polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo-Guo, Kang; Qiao-Feng, Tan; Guo-Fan, Jin

    2009-01-01

    Dielectric gratings with period in the range from λ/10 to λ/4 with λ being the illumination wavelength not only exclude higher order diffractions but also exhibit strong dispersion of effective indices which are proportional to the wavelength. Moreover, they are insensitive to the incident angle of the illumination wave. With these features, we can design a true zero-order achromatic and angle-insensitive phase retarder which can be used as the polarization state analyzer in middle wave infrared (MWIR) imaging polarimetry. A design method using effective medium theory is described, and the performance of the designed phase retarder is evaluated by rigorous coupled wave analysis theory. The calculation results demonstrate that the retardance deviates from 45° by < ±1.6° within a field of view ±10° over the MWIR bandwidth (3–5 μm). (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  1. A natural frameshift mutation in Campanula EIL2 correlates with ethylene insensitivity in flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Olsen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The phytohormone ethylene plays a central role in development and senescence of climacteric flowers. In ornamental plant production, ethylene sensitive plants are usually protected against negative effects of ethylene by application of chemical inhibitors. In Campanula, flowers...... are sensitive to even minute concentrations of ethylene. RESULTS: Monitoring flower longevity in three Campanula species revealed C. portenschlagiana (Cp) as ethylene sensitive, C. formanekiana (Cf) with intermediate sensitivity and C. medium (Cm) as ethylene insensitive. We identified key elements in ethylene...... signal transduction, specifically in Ethylene Response Sensor 2 (ERS2), Constitutive Triple Response 1 (CTR1) and Ethylene Insensitive 3- Like 1 and 2 (EIL1 and EIL2) homologous. Transcripts of ERS2, CTR1 and EIL1 were constitutively expressed in all species both throughout flower development...

  2. Polarization-insensitive quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Lirong; Yu Yi; Tian Peng; Huang Dexiu

    2009-01-01

    The optical gain of a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier is usually seriously dependent on polarization; we propose a quantum-dot coupled tensile-strained quantum-well structure to obtain polarization insensitivity. The tensile-strained quantum well not only serves as a carrier injection layer of quantum dots but also offers gain to the transverse-magnetic mode. Based on the polarization-dependent coupled carrier rate-equation model, we study carrier competition among quantum well and quantum dots, and study the polarization dependence of the quantum-dot coupled quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier. We also analyze polarization-dependent photon-mediated carrier distribution among quantum well and quantum dots. It is shown that polarization-insensitive gain can be realized by optimal design

  3. The molecular basis of acid insensitivity in the African naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ewan St John; Omerbašić, Damir; Lechner, Stefan G; Anirudhan, Gireesh; Lapatsina, Liudmila; Lewin, Gary R

    2011-12-16

    Acid evokes pain by exciting nociceptors; the acid sensors are proton-gated ion channels that depolarize neurons. The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is exceptional in its acid insensitivity, but acid sensors (acid-sensing ion channels and the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 ion channel) in naked mole-rat nociceptors are similar to those in other vertebrates. Acid inhibition of voltage-gated sodium currents is more profound in naked mole-rat nociceptors than in mouse nociceptors, however, which effectively prevents acid-induced action potential initiation. We describe a species-specific variant of the nociceptor sodium channel Na(V)1.7, which is potently blocked by protons and can account for acid insensitivity in this species. Thus, evolutionary pressure has selected for an Na(V)1.7 gene variant that tips the balance from proton-induced excitation to inhibition of action potential initiation to abolish acid nociception.

  4. Polarization insensitive metamaterial absorber based on E-shaped all-dielectric structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we designed a metamaterial absorber performed in microwave frequency band. This absorber is composed of E-shaped dielectrics which are arranged along different directions. The E-shaped all-dielectric structure is made of microwave ceramics with high permittivity and low loss. Within about 1 GHz frequency band, more than 86% absorption efficiency was observed for this metamaterial absorber. This absorber is polarization insensitive and is stable for incident angles. It is figured out that the polarization insensitive absorption is caused by the nearly located varied resonant modes which are excited by the E-shaped all-dielectric resonators with the same size but in the different direction. The E-shaped dielectric absorber contains intensive resonant points. Our research work paves a way for designing all-dielectric absorber.

  5. Dye and pigment-free structural colors and angle-insensitive spectrum filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Lingjie Jay; Hollowell, Andrew E.; Wu, Yi-Kuei

    2017-01-17

    Optical spectrum filtering devices displaying minimal angle dependence or angle insensitivity are provided. The filter comprises a localized plasmonic nanoresonator assembly having a metal material layer defining at least one nanogroove and a dielectric material disposed adjacent to the metal material layer. The dielectric material is disposed within the nanogroove(s). The localized plasmonic nanoresonator assembly is configured to funnel and absorb a portion of an electromagnetic spectrum in the at least one nanogroove via localized plasmonic resonance to generate a filtered output having a predetermined range of wavelengths that displays angle insensitivity. Thus, flexible, high efficiency angle independent color filters having very small diffraction limits are provided that are particularly suitable for use as pixels for various display devices or for use in anti-counterfeiting and cryptography applications. The structures can also be used for colored print applications and the elements can be rendered as pigment-like particles.

  6. Polarization Insensitivity in Double-Split Ring and Triple-Split Ring Terahertz Resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qian-Nan; Lan Feng; Tang Xiao-Pin; Yang Zi-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    A modified double-split ring resonator and a modified triple-split ring resonator, which offer polarization-insensitive performance, are investigated, designed and fabricated. By displacing the two gaps of the conventional double-split ring resonator away from the center, the second resonant frequency for the 0° polarized wave and the resonant frequency for the 90° polarized wave become increasingly close to each other until they are finally identical. Theoretical and experimental results show that the modified double-split ring resonator and the modified triple-split ring resonator are insensitive to different polarized waves and show strong resonant frequency dips near 433 and 444 GHz, respectively. The results of this work suggest new opportunities for the investigation and design of polarization-dependent terahertz devices based on split ring resonators. (paper)

  7. Observing Local Realism Violations with a Combination of Sensitive and Insensitive Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurke, B.; Stoler, D.

    1997-01-01

    Several systems are exhibited in which the establishment of local realism violation is achieved even when some of the detectors employed are insensitive. The insensitive detectors are homodyne detectors whose task is to determine if the amplitude of a coherent state is α or -α . This determination can be achieved with low quantum efficiency detectors when |α| is large. The other detectors employed determine whether there is an even number or an odd number of photons in a state. These detectors are sensitive since they are required to resolve the difference of one photon. For the examples given, the local realism violation is not diminished as |α| is increased. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Humidity insensitive step-index polymer optical fibre Bragg grating sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woyessa, Getinet; Fasano, Andrea; Stefani, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    We have fabricated and characterised a humidity insensitive step index(SI) polymer optical fibre(POF) Bragg grating sensors. The fibre was made based on the injection molding technique, which is an efficient method for fast, flexible and cost effective preparation of the fibre preform. The fabric...... poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) based SIPOFs. The fibre has a minimum loss of similar to 6dB/m at 770nm....

  9. Long-term sensitization of mechanosensitive and -insensitive afferents in mice with persistent colorectal hypersensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Bin; La, Jun-ho; Schwartz, Erica S.; Tanaka, Takahiro; McMurray, Timothy P.; Gebhart, G. F.

    2012-01-01

    Afferent input contributes significantly to the pain and colorectal hypersensitivity that characterize irritable bowel syndrome. In the present study, we investigated the contributions of mechanically sensitive and mechanically insensitive afferents (MIAs; or silent afferents) to colorectal hypersensitivity. The visceromotor response to colorectal distension (CRD; 15–60 mmHg) was recorded in mice before and for weeks after intracolonic treatment with zymosan or saline. After CRD tests, the di...

  10. The arcuate artery in renal transplants: An insensitive indicator of rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntire, J.N.; Angtuaco, T.L.; Boyd, C.; Flanigan, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors performed 65 duplex US examinations in 28 patients within 2 years of transplantation. During this time 15 episodes of rejection were diagnosed by US and confirmed clinically. Of the remaining 50 examinations, 14 showed negligible or absent diastolic flow (suggesting rejection) in the arcuate arteries with normal diastolic flow in the main renal, segmental, and interlobar branches. No other criteria for rejection were present in these patients. It is concluded that the arcuate artery is an insensitive indicator of transplant rejection

  11. Eksplozivne materije za neosetljiva ubojna sredstva / Explosive substances for insensitive munitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radun Jeremić

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available U skladu sa sve strožim zahtevima za očuvanje životne sredine i većom bezbednošću, tendencije u razvoju suvremenih ubojnih sredstava (UbS, pored povećanja pouzdanosti i efikasnosti, usmerene su i na povećanje sigurnosti pri njihovoj proizvodnji, skladištenju, manipulaciji i upotrebi. Na taj način dobijena je nova kategorija UbS, tzv. neosetljiva UbS, kod kojih je verovatnoća neželjenog aktiviranja pod dejstvom spoljnih impulsa svedena na minimum. Suština rešavanja ovog problema je primena eksplozivnih materija koje su mnogo manje osetljive na spoljne uticaje u odnosu na standardne. Osnovni zahtev koji se pri tome postavlja je da taktičko-tehničke karakteristike ostanu na nivou ili budu bolje u odnosu na postojeća UbS. U radu je ukratko objašnjen koncept razvoja neosetljivih UbS i dat pregled najznačajnijih rezultata istraživanja u oblasti eksplozivnih materija koje zadovoljavaju zahteve za primenu u neosetljivim UbS. / According to severe environment protection and safety requirements, tendencies in development of modern munitions, besides of increasing reliability and efficiency, are directed to decreasing of danger during their processing, storing, handling and operating. In that manner the new category of munitions has been obtained, named insensitive munitions, with a minimum probability of unplanned activating. The best method for solving this problem is using of explosive substances that are more insensitive according to standard ones. The main requirement is the tactical and technical characteristics stay at the level or to be better according to the existing munitions. In this paper the developing concept of insensitive munitions is shortly explained and presented a review of most important research results of explosive materials that fulfill requirements for applying in insensitive munitions.

  12. Laser ignitibility of insensitive secondary explosive 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Xiao; McLuckie, Warren G

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbon black (CB) is an efficient optical sensitizer compatible with 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7). • A CB doped insensitive explosive FOX-7 can be ignited by a low-power diode laser. • Laser ignitibility of the optically sensitized FOX-7 is mainly affected by laser power among the other parameters. • Inhomogeneities in the explosive affect laser ignition reliability. - Abstract: An experimental investigation into laser ignitibility of insensitive secondary explosives, 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) has been carried out, using a diode laser of continuous wave at the laser wavelength of 974 nm. The direct optical ignition of an insensitive explosive will add more safety features to insensitive munitions (IM) or explosive devices. In this study, effects of laser parameters on the ignitibility were analysed in terms of laser ignition threshold, the times to initiate the ignition and full combustion, and burning sustainability. The results have shown that carbon black (CB) as an optical sensitizer is compatible with FOX-7, and significantly enhances laser ignitibility of the explosive when a small amount of CB is uniformly doped in FOX-7. The delay times for ignition and subsequent development of sustainable burning of the material are mainly determined by ignition laser power, although the other laser parameters have effects. The minimum laser power required to ignite the optically sensitized FOX-7 was found below 10 W and a fast ignition was initiated in as short as 70 μs by a laser power of 40 W. Also the effect of the mixture uniformity of FOX-7/CB on laser ignition performance was evaluated in this study

  13. The association of four common polymorphisms from four candidate genes (COX-1, COX-2, ITGA2B, ITGA2 with aspirin insensitivity: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Weng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evidence is mounting suggesting that a strong genetic component underlies aspirin insensitivity. To generate more information, we aimed to evaluate the association of four common polymorphisms (rs3842787, rs20417, rs201184269, rs1126643 from four candidate genes (COX-1, COX-2, ITGA2B, ITGA2 with aspirin insensitivity via a meta-analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, there were 4 (353/595, 6 (344/698, 10 (588/878 and 7 (209/676 articles (patients/controls qualified for rs3842787, rs20417, rs20118426 and rs1126643, respectively. The data were extracted in duplicate and analyzed by STATA software (Version 11.2. The risk estimate was expressed as odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI. Analyses of the full data set indicated significant associations of rs20417 (OR; 95% CI; P: 1.86; 1.44-2.41; <0.0005 and rs1126643 (2.37; 1.44-3.89; 0.001 with aspirin insensitivity under allelic model. In subgroup analyses, the risk estimate for rs1126643 was greatly potentiated among patients with aspirin semi-resistance relative to those with aspirin resistance, especially under dominant model (aspirin semi-resistance: 5.44; 1.42-20.83; 0.013 versus aspirin resistance: 1.96; 1.07-3.6; 0.03. Further grouping articles by ethnicity observed a stronger prediction of all, but rs20417, examined polymorphisms for aspirin insensitivity in Chinese than in Caucasians. Finally, meta-regression analyses observed that the differences in percentage of coronary artery disease (P = 0.034 and averaged platelet numbers (P = 0.012 between two groups explained a large part of heterogeneity for rs20417 and rs1126643, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide strong evidence that COX-2 and ITGA2 genetic defects might increase the risk of having aspirin insensitivity, especially for aspirin semi-resistance and in Chinese populations.

  14. Transport of temperature-velocity covariance in gas-solid flow and its relation to the axial dispersion coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Shankar; Sun, Bo

    2015-11-01

    The presence of solid particles in a steady laminar flow generates velocity fluctuations with respect to the mean fluid velocity that are termed pseudo-turbulence. The level of these pseudo-turbulent velocity fluctuations has been characterized in statistically homogeneous fixed particle assemblies and freely evolving suspensions using particle-resolved direct numerical simulation (PR-DNS) by Mehrabadi et al. (JFM, 2015), and it is found to be a significant contribution to the total kinetic energy associated with the flow. The correlation of these velocity fluctuations with temperature (or a passive scalar) generates a flux term that appears in the transport equation for the average fluid temperature (or average scalar concentration). The magnitude of this transport of temperature-velocity covariance is quantified using PR-DNS of thermally fully developed flow past a statistically homogeneous fixed assembly of particles, and the budget of the average fluid temperature equation is presented. The relation of this transport term to the axial dispersion coefficient (Brenner, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A, 1980) is established. The simulation results are then interpreted in the context of our understanding of axial dispersion in gas-solid flow. NSF CBET 1336941.

  15. Future shift of the relative roles of precipitation and temperature in controlling annual runoff in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Kai; Sun, Ge; McNulty, Steven G.; Caldwell, Peter V.; Cohen, Erika C.; Sun, Shanlei; Aldridge, Heather D.; Zhou, Decheng; Zhang, Liangxia; Zhang, Yang

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the relative roles of climatic variables in altering annual runoff in the conterminous United States (CONUS) in the 21st century, using a monthly ecohydrological model (the Water Supply Stress Index model, WaSSI) driven with historical records and future scenarios constructed from 20 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models. The results suggest that precipitation has been the primary control of runoff variation during the latest decades, but the role of temperature will outweigh that of precipitation in most regions if future climate change follows the projections of climate models instead of the historical tendencies. Besides these two key factors, increasing air humidity is projected to partially offset the additional evaporative demand caused by warming and consequently enhance runoff. Overall, the projections from 20 climate models suggest a high degree of consistency on the increasing trends in temperature, precipitation, and humidity, which will be the major climatic driving factors accounting for 43-50, 20-24, and 16-23 % of the runoff change, respectively. Spatially, while temperature rise is recognized as the largest contributor that suppresses runoff in most areas, precipitation is expected to be the dominant factor driving runoff to increase across the Pacific coast and the southwest. The combined effects of increasing humidity and precipitation may also surpass the detrimental effects of warming and result in a hydrologically wetter future in the east. However, severe runoff depletion is more likely to occur in the central CONUS as temperature effect prevails.

  16. TRPA1 channels in Drosophila and honey bee ectoparasitic mites share heat sensitivity and temperature-related physiological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangda Peng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1 is conserved between many arthropods, and in some has been shown to function as a chemosensor for noxious compounds. Activation of arthropod TRPA1 channels by temperature fluctuations has been tested in only a few insect species, and all of them were shown to be activated by heat. The recent identification of chemosensitive TRPA1 channels from two honey bee ectoparasitic mite species (VdTRPA1 and TmTRPA1 have provided an opportunity to study the temperature-dependent activation and the temperature-associated physiological functions of TRPA1 channels in non-insect arthropods. We found that both mite TRPA1 channels are heat sensitive and capable of rescuing the temperature-related behavioral defects of a Drosophila melanogaster trpA1 mutant. These results suggest that heat-sensitivity of TRPA1 could be conserved between many arthropods despite its amino acid sequence diversity. Nevertheless, the ankyrin repeats (ARs 6 and 7 are well-conserved between six heat-sensitive arthropod TRPA1 channels and have critical roles for the heat activation of VdTRPA1.

  17. Later endogenous circadian temperature nadir relative to an earlier wake time in older people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J. F.; Dijk, D. J.; Klerman, E. B.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of the circadian timing system to the age-related advance of sleep-wake timing was investigated in two experiments. In a constant routine protocol, we found that the average wake time and endogenous circadian phase of 44 older subjects were earlier than that of 101 young men. However, the earlier circadian phase of the older subjects actually occurred later relative to their habitual wake time than it did in young men. These results indicate that an age-related advance of circadian phase cannot fully account for the high prevalence of early morning awakening in healthy older people. In a second study, 13 older subjects and 10 young men were scheduled to a 28-h day, such that they were scheduled to sleep at many circadian phases. Self-reported awakening from scheduled sleep episodes and cognitive throughput during the second half of the wake episode varied markedly as a function of circadian phase in both groups. The rising phase of both rhythms was advanced in the older subjects, suggesting an age-related change in the circadian regulation of sleep-wake propensity. We hypothesize that under entrained conditions, these age-related changes in the relationship between circadian phase and wake time are likely associated with self-selected light exposure at an earlier circadian phase. This earlier exposure to light could account for the earlier clock hour to which the endogenous circadian pacemaker is entrained in older people and thereby further increase their propensity to awaken at an even earlier time.

  18. Phase relations study on the melting and crystallization regions of the Bi-2223 high temperature superconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Polasek

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The melting and solidification behavior of Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3 O10 (Bi-2223 precursors has been studied. Nominal compositions corresponding to excess of liquid, Ca2CuO3 and CuO have been investigated. Each sample was made by packing a precursor powder into a silver crucible, in order to approximately simulate the situation found in 2223 silver-sheathed tapes. The samples were partially melted and then slow-cooled, being quenched from different temperatures and analyzed through X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS. The precursors decomposed peritectically during melting, forming liquid and solid phases. Very long plates with compositions falling in the vicinity of the 2223 primary phase field formed upon slow-cooling. The 2223 phase may have been formed and the results suggest that long grains of this phase might be obtained by melting and crystallization if the exact peritectic region and the optimum processing conditions are found.

  19. Finite temperature effects on the X-ray absorption spectra of energy related materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Tod; Prendergast, David

    2014-03-01

    We elucidate the role of room-temperature-induced instantaneous structural distortions in the Li K-edge X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of crystalline LiF, Li2SO4, Li2O, Li3N and Li2CO3 using high resolution X-ray Raman spectroscopy (XRS) measurements and first-principles density functional theory calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole (XCH) approach. Based on thermodynamic sampling via ab-initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we find calculated XAS in much better agreement with experiment than those computed using the rigid crystal structure alone. We show that local instantaneous distortion of the atomic lattice perturbs the symmetry of the Li 1 s core-excited-state electronic structure, broadening spectral line-shapes and, in some cases, producing additional spectral features. This work was conducted within the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Vehicle Technologies Program under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  20. Development of high temperature metallic melting processes related to detritiation of exhausted control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dworschak, H.; Mannone, F.; Modica, G.

    1994-01-01

    A rather critical problem to be faced in developing a safe strategy for the management of tritiated solid wastes is dealing with the outgassing property of tritium. Releases of tritium under elemental or oxide form may occur from waste items at different temperatures and rates depending upon the nature of tritium bonds into the waste matrix as well as on its 'contamination history'. Apart from the commercial value of tritium, its release from waste packages anyhow represents a risk of tritium exposure that cannot be accepted by skippers, by store and disposal site operators as well as by the general public. Consequently it is mandatory to carry out the detritiation of such wastes before their packaging and storage or disposal. In the boron carbide control rods from the Lingen BWR after about three years of operation, tritium generated by neutron reaction was essentially retained in the B 4 C matrix. The objectives of the study are to demonstrate the feasibility of two processes aimed at reducing to the maximum practicable extent the level of tritium contamination in such waste management are facilitated

  1. Radiative, two-temperature simulations of low-luminosity black hole accretion flows in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sądowski, Aleksander; Wielgus, Maciek; Narayan, Ramesh; Abarca, David; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Chael, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    We present a numerical method that evolves a two-temperature, magnetized, radiative, accretion flow around a black hole, within the framework of general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics. As implemented in the code KORAL, the gas consists of two sub-components - ions and electrons - which share the same dynamics but experience independent, relativistically consistent, thermodynamical evolution. The electrons and ions are heated independently according to a prescription from the literature for magnetohydrodynamical turbulent dissipation. Energy exchange between the particle species via Coulomb collisions is included. In addition, electrons gain and lose energy and momentum by absorbing and emitting synchrotron and bremsstrahlung radiation and through Compton scattering. All evolution equations are handled within a fully covariant framework in the relativistic fixed-metric space-time of the black hole. Numerical results are presented for five models of low-luminosity black hole accretion. In the case of a model with a mass accretion rate dot{M}˜ 4× 10^{-8} dot{M}_Edd, we find that radiation has a negligible effect on either the dynamics or the thermodynamics of the accreting gas. In contrast, a model with a larger dot{M}˜ 4× 10^{-4} dot{M}_Edd behaves very differently. The accreting gas is much cooler and the flow is geometrically less thick, though it is not quite a thin accretion disc.

  2. Contrasting dynamic spin susceptibility models and their relation to high-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettler, H.; Norman, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    We compare the normal-state resistivities ρ and the critical temperatures T c for superconducting d x 2 -y 2 pairing due to antiferromagnetic (AF) spin fluctuation exchange in the context of two phenomenological dynamical spin susceptibility models for the cuprate high-T c materials, one based on fits to NMR data on Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) proposed by Millis, Monien, and Pines (MMP) and Monthoux and Pines (MP), and the other based on fits to neutron scattering data on YBCO proposed by Radtke, Ullah, Levin, and Norman (RULN). Assuming comparable electronic bandwidths and resistivities in both models, we show that the RULN model gives a much lower d-wave T c (approx-lt 20 K) than the MMP model (with T c ∼100 K). We demonstrate that these profound differences in the T c close-quote s arise from fundamental differences in the spectral weight distributions of the two model susceptibilities at high (>100 meV) frequencies and are not primarily caused by differences in the calculational techniques employed by MP and RULN. Further neutron scattering experiments, to explore the spectral weight distribution at all wave vectors over a sufficiently large excitation energy range, will thus be of crucial importance to resolve the question whether AF spin fluctuation exchange can provide a viable mechanism to account for high-T c superconductivity. Limitations of the Migdal-Eliashberg approach in such models will be discussed. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  3. On violation of local closure of transport relation in high-temperature magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuya, N.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I.; Sugita, S.; Itoh, K.; Yagi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid propagation of heat modulation and a hysteresis in the gradient-flux relation are found in a global nonlinear simulation of drift-interchange mode turbulence in toroidal helical plasmas. A global mode is excited nonlinearly and induces the turbulence flux in a limited radial region. The nonlinear couplings take a finite temporal duration for redistributing the energy. The mode also has a seesaw effect: increase of the amplitude of the global mode, at the other radii, works to absorb the energy form microscopic modes to suppress the turbulence. Successive excitations of microscopic modes cause the accelerated propagation of change of the heat flux like turbulence spreading after the onset of modulation. Owing to these processes, the hysteresis appears in the gradient-flux relation, which is compared with experiments

  4. Sea surface temperature inter-hemispheric dipole and its relation to tropical precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Cheng; Li, Jianping; Ding, Ruiqiang; Jin, Fei-Fei

    2013-01-01

    Using different SST datasets, the variability of zonal mean SSTs is investigated. Besides the global warming mode, the variability is dominated by one equatorially symmetric mode and one antisymmetric mode. The former is most pronounced in the Pacific and dominated by interannual variability, corresponding to the ENSO signature. The latter features an inter-hemispheric dipole-like pattern and is referred to as the SST inter-hemispheric dipole (SSTID). The SSTID and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation are found to be related but distinct in the spatial pattern. Observational analysis shows that the SSTID significantly influences tropical rainfall and contributes to the north–south asymmetry of tropical precipitation on multidecadal timescales. The observed SSTID and its relation to the tropical rainfall are realistically reproduced in a control simulation with the UKMO-HadCM3 climate model. Results from the UKMO-HadCM3 simulation suggest that the SSTID is related to the variability of the global ocean northward cross-equatorial heat transport. (letter)

  5. Usefulness of creep work-time relation for determining stress intensity limit of high-temperature components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Ryu, Woo Seog; Lee, Kyung Yong

    2003-01-01

    In order to determine creep stress intensity limit of high-temperature components, the usefulness of the creep work and time equation, defined as W c t p = B (where W c = σ ε is the total creep work done during creep, and p and B are constants), was investigated using the experimental data. For this purpose, the creep tests for generating 1.0% strain for commercial type 316 stainless steel were conducted with different stresses; 160 MPa, 150 MPa, 145 MPa, 140 MPa and 135 MPa at 593 .deg. C. The plots of log W c - log t showed a good linear relation up to 10 5 hr, and the results of the creep work-time relation for p, B and stress intensity values showed good agreement to those of Isochronous Stress-Strain Curves (ISSC) presented in ASME BPV NH. The relation can be simply obtained with only several short-term 1% strain data without ISSC which can be obtained by long-term creep data. Particularly, this relation is useful in estimating stress intensity limit for new and emerging class of high-temperature creeping materials

  6. Incorporating mesh-insensitive structural stress into the fatigue assessment procedure of common structural rules for bulk carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Min Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a fatigue assessment procedure using mesh-insensitive structural stress method based on the Common Structural Rules for Bulk Carriers by considering important factors, such as mean stress and thickness effects. The fatigue assessment result of mesh-insensitive structural stress method have been compared with CSR procedure based on equivalent notch stress at major hot spot points in the area near the ballast hold for a 180 K bulk carrier. The possibility of implementing mesh-insensitive structural stress method in the fatigue assessment procedure for ship structures is discussed.

  7. High temperature breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation in a computer simulated Cu-Zr melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, X. J., E-mail: xjhan@sjtu.edu.cn; Li, J. G., E-mail: lijg@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dongchuan Rd. 800, 200240 Shanghai (China); Schober, H. R., E-mail: h.schober@fz-juelich.de [Peter Grünberg Institut, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-03-28

    Transport properties and the Stokes-Einstein (SE) relation in liquid Cu{sub 8}Zr{sub 3} are studied by molecular dynamics simulation with a modified embedded atom potential. The critical temperature T{sub c} of mode coupling theory (MCT) is derived as 930 K from the self-diffusion coefficient D and viscosity η. The SE relation breaks down around T{sub SE} = 1900 K, which is far above T{sub c}. At temperatures below T{sub SE}, the product of D and η fluctuates around a constant value, similar to the prediction of MCT near T{sub c}. The influence of the microscopic atomic motion on macroscopic properties is investigated by analyzing the time dependent liquid structure and the self-hole filling process. The self-holes for the two components are preferentially filled by atoms of the same component. The self-hole filling dynamics explains the different breakdown behaviors of the SE relation in Zr-rich liquid CuZr{sub 2} compared to Cu-rich Cu{sub 8}Zr{sub 3}. At T{sub SE}, a kink is found in the temperature dependence of both partial and total coordination numbers for the three atomic pair combinations and of the typical time of self-hole filling. This indicates a strong correlation between liquid structure, atomic dynamics, and the breakdown of SE relation. The previously suggested usefulness of the parameter d(D{sub 1}/D{sub 2})/dT to predict T{sub SE} is confirmed. Additionally we propose a viscosity criterion to predict T{sub SE} in the absence of diffusion data.

  8. Photosynthetic capacity of tropical montane tree species in relation to leaf nutrients, successional strategy and growth temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenge, Mirindi Eric; Wallin, Göran; Gårdesten, Johanna; Niyonzima, Felix; Adolfsson, Lisa; Nsabimana, Donat; Uddling, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Photosynthetic capacity of tree leaves is typically positively related to nutrient content and little affected by changes in growth temperature. These relationships are, however, often poorly supported for tropical trees, for which interspecific differences may be more strongly controlled by within-leaf nutrient allocation than by absolute leaf nutrient content, and little is known regarding photosynthetic acclimation to temperature. To explore the influence of leaf nutrient status, successional strategy and growth temperature on the photosynthetic capacity of tropical trees, we collected data on photosynthetic, chemical and morphological leaf traits of ten tree species in Rwanda. Seven species were studied in a forest plantation at mid-altitude (~1,700 m), whereas six species were studied in a cooler montane rainforest at higher altitude (~2,500 m). Three species were common to both sites, and, in the montane rainforest, three pioneer species and three climax species were investigated. Across species, interspecific variation in photosynthetic capacity was not related to leaf nutrient content. Instead, this variation was related to differences in within-leaf nitrogen allocation, with a tradeoff between investments into compounds related to photosynthetic capacity (higher in pioneer species) versus light-harvesting compounds (higher in climax species). Photosynthetic capacity was significantly lower at the warmer site at 1,700 m altitude. We conclude that (1) within-leaf nutrient allocation is more important than leaf nutrient content per se in controlling interspecific variation in photosynthetic capacity among tree species in tropical Rwanda, and that (2) tropical montane rainforest species exhibit decreased photosynthetic capacity when grown in a warmer environment.

  9. Thermal behavior of human eye in relation with change in blood perfusion, porosity, evaporation and ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Aasma; Khanday, M A

    2016-12-01

    Extreme environmental and physiological conditions present challenges for thermal processes in body tissues including multi-layered human eye. A mathematical model has been formulated in this direction to study the thermal behavior of the human eye in relation with the change in blood perfusion, porosity, evaporation and environmental temperatures. In this study, a comprehensive thermal analysis has been performed on the multi-layered eye using Pennes' bio-heat equation with appropriate boundary and interface conditions. The variational finite element method and MATLAB software were used for the solution purpose and simulation of the results. The thermoregulatory effect due to blood perfusion rate, porosity, ambient temperature and evaporation at various regions of human eye was illustrated mathematically and graphically. The main applications of this model are associated with the medical sciences while performing laser therapy and other thermoregulatory investigation on human eye. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relations between combustion, deposition, flue gas temperatures and corrosion in straw-fired boilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Additives trials in three different plants, Sønderborg waste incineration plant and Ensted woodchip and straw firing boiler, are described. Both aluminium silicate containing additives and ammonium sulphate was tested. At Sønderborg, there was a drastic decrease in Cl deposition when...... using an aluminium silicate additive, however the relative chlorine content of the deposits was unchanged. At Ensted woodchip plant, a dosage level of additives was reached which reduced the chlorine flux. For straw firing where the chlorine level in the fuel is higher and the fuel load is greater...

  11. EFFET DE LA TEMPERATURE ET DE L'HUMIDITE RELATIVE SUR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    L'infection artificielle des criquets par le champignon a été réalisée au laboratoire ... de l'insecte et continue au-delà de 24 h à 25 °C et à 100 % d'humidité relative. ..... Jours après infestation. M o rta lité. (%). 17 °C. 20 °C. 25 °C. 30 °C. 17 °C té ..... species complex (Zygomycetes : ... with potassium hydroxide, sulphuric acid,.

  12. X-ray absorption spectroscopy on high-temperature superconductors and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrin, E.J.H.A.

    1995-07-01

    The electronic structure of the cuprate high-temperature superconductors La 2-x Sr x CuO 4+δ , Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 8 and Tl 2 Ba 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 has been investigated using polarization-dependent near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). In addition, La 2-x Sr x NiO 4+δ has been included in the actual study as an isostructural analogue to the La 2-x Sr x CuO 4+δ system. It appears that the electronic structure of these compounds corresponds to that of a p-type doped charge-transfer insulator including electron-electron interactions on the Cu(Ni) sites and a strong hybridization between Cu(Ni) and O atoms. It is concluded that the low-energy excitations in these compounds can be described on the basis of an effective one-band Mott-Hubbard model. The polarization-dependence of the above spectra gives evidence for the strong in-plane character of the intrinsic and the doped holes. The small amount and the doping-dependence of the out-of-plane character of these charge carriers rule out models for a microscopic mechanism of superconductivity based on a large amount of hole states in the corresponding Apex-O2p z /Cu3d 3z 2 -r 2 orbitals. On the other hand, the reduction of this anisotropy in the overdoped compounds together with similar findings in the macroscopic properties seems to indicate a detrimental influence of non-planar orbitals on the superconducting properties. The differences in the energetic ordering and atomic character of the states close to the Fermi level between the undoped compounds La 2 CuO 4+δ , La 2 NiO 4+δ , and NiO have been determined from the NEXAFS data. It is found that these differences can be explained by the different size of the tetragonal crystal field splitting E Z compared to that of the Hund's rule interaction J H in these systems. This gives evidence for the high-spin d 8 ground state of the undoped nickelates (i.e. J H >E Z ). It is suggested that the polarons in La 2-x Sr x NiO 4+δ can be seen as non

  13. Development of ε-insensitive smooth support vector regression for predicting minimum miscibility pressure in CO2 flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Mollaiy-Berneti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful design of a carbon dioxide (CO2 flooding in enhanced oil recovery projects mostly depends on accurate determination of CO2-crude oil minimum miscibility pressure (MMP. Due to the high expensive and time-consuming of experimental determination of MMP, developing a fast and robust method to predict MMP is necessary. In this study, a new method based on ε-insensitive smooth support vector regression (ε-SSVR is introduced to predict MMP for both pure and impure CO2 gas injection cases. The proposed ε-SSVR is developed using dataset of reservoir temperature, crude oil composition and composition of injected CO2. To serve better understanding of the proposed, feed-forward neural network and radial basis function network applied to denoted dataset. The results show that the suggested ε-SSVR has acceptable reliability and robustness in comparison with two other models. Thus, the proposed method can be considered as an alternative way to monitor the MMP in miscible flooding process.

  14. Effects of the instability enhanced friction on relative ion densities in a two-ion species low-temperature plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Mirko

    2011-10-01

    The instability enhanced friction theory of Baalrud & Hegna (Phys. Plasmas 18, 023505 (2011)) predicts that for comparable ion densities the ions nearly reach a common velocity near the sheath edge in a low temperature plasma. The theory was experimentally confirmed by Yip, Hershkowitz, & Severn (Phys. Rev. Letters 104, 225003 (2010)). We will explore the effects of the theory on relative ion densities in a numerical simulation of an Ar/Xe plasma. Results for a 0D plasma model (Lieberman, Lichtenberg, Principles of Plasma Discharges and Materials Processing, 2005) will be presented.

  15. Inhibitors of the mitochondrial cytochrome b-c1 complex inhibit the cyanide-insensitive respiration of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrens, J F; Bickar, D; Lehninger, A L

    1986-06-01

    The cyanide-insensitive respiration of bloodstream trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma brucei (75 +/- 8 nmol O2 min-1(mg protein)-1) is completely inhibited by the mitochondrial ubiquinone-like inhibitors 2-hydroxy-3-undecyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (UHNQ) and 5-n-undecyl-6-hydroxy-4,7-dioxobenzothiazole (UHDBT). The Ki values for UHDBT (30 nM) and UHNQ (2 microM) are much lower than the reported Ki for salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) (5 microM), a widely used inhibitor of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase. UHNQ also stimulated the glycerol-3-phosphate-dependent reduction of phenazine methosulfate, demonstrating that the site of UHNQ inhibition is on the terminal oxidase of the cyanide-insensitive respiration of T. brucei. These results suggest that a ubiquinone-like compound may act as an electron carrier between the two enzymatic components of the cyanide-insensitive glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase.

  16. An improvement of the retrieval of temperature and relative humidity profiles from a combination of active and passive remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yunfei; Ma, Shuqing; Xing, Fenghua; Li, Siteng; Dai, Yaru

    2018-03-01

    This paper focuses on an improvement of the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and relative humidity profiles through combining active and passive remote sensing. Ground-based microwave radiometer and millimeter-wavelength cloud radar were used to acquire the observations. Cloud base height and cloud thickness determinations from cloud radar were added into the atmospheric profile retrieval process, and a back-propagation neural network method was used as the retrieval tool. Because a substantial amount of data are required to train a neural network, and as microwave radiometer data are insufficient for this purpose, 8 years of radiosonde data from Beijing were used as the database. The monochromatic radiative transfer model was used to calculate the brightness temperatures in the same channels as the microwave radiometer. Parts of the cloud base heights and cloud thicknesses in the training data set were also estimated using the radiosonde data. The accuracy of the results was analyzed through a comparison with L-band sounding radar data and quantified using the mean bias, root-mean-square error (RMSE), and correlation coefficient. The statistical results showed that an inversion with cloud information was the optimal method. Compared with the inversion profiles without cloud information, the RMSE values after adding cloud information reduced to varying degrees for the vast majority of height layers. These reductions were particularly clear in layers with clouds. The maximum reduction in the RMSE for the temperature profile was 2.2 K, while that for the humidity profile was 16%.

  17. Response of insect relative growth rate to temperature and host-plant phenology: estimation and validation from field data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamadou Ciss

    Full Text Available Between 1975 to 2011, aphid Relative Growth Rates (RGR were modelled as a function of mean outdoor temperature and host plant phenology. The model was applied to the grain aphid Sitobion avenae using data on aphid counts in winter wheat at two different climate regions in France (oceanic climate, Rennes (western France; continental climate, Paris. Mean observed aphid RGR was higher in Paris compared to the Rennes region. RGR increased with mean temperature, which is explained by aphid reproduction, growth and development being dependent on ambient temperature. From the stem extension to the heading stage in wheat, there was either a plateau in RGR values (Rennes or an increase with a maximum at heading (Paris due to high intrinsic rates of increase in aphids and also to aphid immigration. From the wheat flowering to the ripening stage, RGR decreased in both regions due to the low intrinsic rate of increase in aphids and high emigration rate linked to reduced nutrient quality in maturing wheat. The model validation process showed that the fitted models have more predictive power in the Paris region than in the Rennes region.

  18. PEM fuel cells operated at 0% relative humidity in the temperature range of 23-120 oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jianlu; Tang, Yanghua; Song, Chaojie; Cheng, Xuan; Zhang, Jiujun; Wang, Haijiang

    2007-01-01

    Operation of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell without external humidification (or 0% relative humidity, abbreviated as 0% RH) of the reactant gases is highly desirable, because it can eliminate the gas humidification system and thus decrease the complexity of the PEM fuel cell system and increase the system volume power density (W/l) and weight power density (W/kg). In this investigation, a PEM fuel cell was operated in the temperature range of 23-120 o C, in particular in a high temperature PEM fuel cell operation range of 80-120 o C, with dry reactant gases, and the cell performance was examined according to varying operation parameters. An ac impedance method was used to compare the performance at 0% RH with that at 100% RH; the results suggested that the limited proton transfer process to the Pt catalysts, mainly in the inonomer within the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) could be responsible for the performance drop. It was demonstrated that operating a fuel cell using a commercially available membrane (Nafion (registered) 112) is feasible under certain conditions without external humidification. However, the cell performance at 0% RH decreased with increasing operation temperature and reactant gas flow rate and decreasing operation pressure

  19. Isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene expression in relation to patulin production by Penicillium expansum under different temperature and atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, N; Vlaemynck, G; Van Pamel, E; Van Weyenberg, S; Herman, L; Devlieghere, F; De Meulenaer, B; Van Coillie, E

    2016-03-02

    Penicillium expansum growth and patulin production occur mainly at post-harvest stage during the long-term storage of apples. Low temperature in combination with reduced oxygen concentrations is commonly applied as a control strategy to extend apple shelf life and supply the market throughout the year. Our in vitro study investigated the effect of temperature and atmosphere on expression of the idh gene in relation to the patulin production by P. expansum. The idh gene encodes the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase enzyme, a key enzyme in the patulin biosynthesis pathway. First, a reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) method was optimized to measure accurately the P. expansum idh mRNA levels relative to the mRNA levels of three reference genes (18S, β-tubulin, calmodulin), taking into account important parameters such as PCR inhibition and multiple reference gene stability. Subsequently, two P. expansum field isolates and one reference strain were grown on apple puree agar medium (APAM) under three conditions of temperature and atmosphere: 20 °C - air, 4 °C - air and 4 °C - controlled atmosphere (CA; 3% O2). When P. expansum strains reached a 0.5 and 2.0 cm colony diameter, idh expression and patulin concentrations were determined by means of the developed RT-qPCR and an HPLC-UV method, respectively. The in vitro study showed a clear reduction in patulin production and down-regulation of the idh gene expression when P. expansum was grown under 4 °C - CA. The results suggest that stress (low temperature and oxygen level) caused a delay of the fungal metabolism rather than a complete inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. A good correlation was found between the idh expression and patulin production, corroborating that temperature and atmosphere affected patulin production by acting at the transcriptional level of the idh gene. Finally, a reliable RT-qPCR can be considered as an alternative tool to investigate the effect of control strategies on the toxin formation in

  20. Season and outdoor temperature in relation to detection and control of hypertension in a large rural Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Danting; Du, Huaidong; Zhang, Xinwei; Qian, Yijian; Chen, Lingli; Chen, Yaping; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming; Yu, Min

    2014-12-01

    In many Western populations, blood pressure varies moderately with season and outdoor temperature. Relatively little is known about effects of seasonal changes in blood pressure on the detection and control of hypertension in general populations, especially in low- and middle-income countries. We analysed cross-sectional data of 57 375 (42% men) participants aged 30-79 (mean 52.3) years who were enrolled during 2004-08, as part of the China Kadoorie Biobank, from a rural county in the south-east costal Zhejiang Province. Analyses related daily mean outdoor temperature, obtained from local Meteorological Bureau, to mean systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), rate of newly detected hypertension and, among those with self-reported physician-diagnosed hypertension, rate of adequate blood pressure control, using multiple linear and logistic regression models. The overall mean blood pressure was 135.9 mmHg for SBP and 80.5 mmHg for DBP. Daily outdoor temperature ranged between -2.9 and 33.7°C, with July being the hottest month (mean 29.4°C) and January the coldest (mean 4.0°C). Comparing January (the coldest month) with July (the warmest), the differences in the adjusted SBP/DBP were 19.2/7.7 mmHg. Each 10°C lower ambient temperature was associated with 6.9/2.9 mmHg higher SBP/DBP,14.1% higher prevalence of newly detected hypertension and, among those with pre-diagnosed hypertension, 13.0% lower hypertension control rate. In rural China, lower outdoor temperature is strongly associated with higher mean blood pressure and hypertension prevalence as well as poorer hypertension control, and should be considered when conducting population-based hypertension surveys and providing treatment for hypertensive patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  1. Recent changes in solar irradiance and infrared irradiance related with air temperature and cloudiness at the King Sejong Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Y.; Kim, J.; Cho, H.; Lee, B.

    2006-12-01

    The polar region play a critical role in the surface energy balance and the climate system of the Earth. The important question in the region is that what is the role of the Antarctic atmospheric heat sink of global climate. Thus, this study shows the trends of global solar irradiance, infrared irradiance, air temperature and cloudiness measured at the King Sejong station, Antarctica, during the period of 1996-2004 and determines their relationship and variability of the surface energy balance. Annual average of solar radiation and cloudiness is 81.8 Wm-2 and 6.8 oktas and their trends show the decrease of -0.24 Wm-2yr-1(-0.30 %yr-1) and 0.02 oktas yr-1(0.30 %yr-1). The change of solar irradiance is directly related to change of cloudiness and decrease of solar irradiance presents radiative cooling at the surface. Monthly mean infrared irradiance, air temperature and specific humidity shows the decrease of -2.11 Wm^{- 2}yr-1(-0.75 %yr-1), -0.07 'Cyr-1(-5.15 %yr-1) and -0.044 gkg-1yr-1(-1.42 %yr-1), respectively. Annual average of the infrared irradiance is 279.9 Wm-2 and correlated with the air temperature, specific humidity and cloudiness. A multiple regression model for estimation of the infrared irradiance using the components has been developed. Effects of the components on the infrared irradiance changes show 52 %, 19 % and 10 % for air temperature, specific humidity and cloudiness, respectively. Among the components, air temperature has a great influence on infrared irradiance. Despite the increase of cloudiness, the decrease in the infrared irradiance is due to the decrease of air temperature and specific humidity which have a cooling effect. Therefore, the net radiation of the surface energy balance shows radiative cooling of negative 11-24 Wm^{- 2} during winter and radiative warming of positive 32-83 Wm-2 during the summer. Thus, the amount of shortage and surplus at the surface is mostly balanced by turbulent flux of sensible and latent heat.

  2. Broadband Polarization-Insensitive Wavelength Conversion Based on Non-Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing in a Silicon Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate broadband polarization-insensitive one-to-two wavelength conversion of a 10-Gb/s DPSK data signal based on non-degenerate four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements.......We experimentally demonstrate broadband polarization-insensitive one-to-two wavelength conversion of a 10-Gb/s DPSK data signal based on non-degenerate four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with bit-error rate measurements....

  3. Future shift of the relative roles of precipitation and temperature in controlling annual runoff in the conterminous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Duan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relative roles of climatic variables in altering annual runoff in the conterminous United States (CONUS in the 21st century, using a monthly ecohydrological model (the Water Supply Stress Index model, WaSSI driven with historical records and future scenarios constructed from 20 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 climate models. The results suggest that precipitation has been the primary control of runoff variation during the latest decades, but the role of temperature will outweigh that of precipitation in most regions if future climate change follows the projections of climate models instead of the historical tendencies. Besides these two key factors, increasing air humidity is projected to partially offset the additional evaporative demand caused by warming and consequently enhance runoff. Overall, the projections from 20 climate models suggest a high degree of consistency on the increasing trends in temperature, precipitation, and humidity, which will be the major climatic driving factors accounting for 43–50, 20–24, and 16–23 % of the runoff change, respectively. Spatially, while temperature rise is recognized as the largest contributor that suppresses runoff in most areas, precipitation is expected to be the dominant factor driving runoff to increase across the Pacific coast and the southwest. The combined effects of increasing humidity and precipitation may also surpass the detrimental effects of warming and result in a hydrologically wetter future in the east. However, severe runoff depletion is more likely to occur in the central CONUS as temperature effect prevails.

  4. Variation in some quality attributes of Atlantic salmon fillets from aquaculture related to geographic origin and water temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Gine Ørnholt; Frosch, Stina; Jørgensen, Bo Munk

    2017-01-01

    an efficient use of the information gathered in the different links of the value chain, a deeper knowledge of the correlations between the various quality attributes and factors like the geographical origin of the salmon, the company and the water temperature of the fish farm, is needed. In the present study......It is well know that factors like fat content and texture affect the yield when making products from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The relation between these factors and other quality attributes like water holding capacity and protein content, however, has received limited attention. To enable...... a multivariate approach was taken to investigate the variation in some quality parameters (fat, protein, texture, water holding capacity, weight) amongst salmon samples (n = 136) from Norwegian aquaculture in order to establish which parameters were accounting for most of the variation seen in relation...

  5. The response of Arctic vegetation to the summer climate: relation between shrub cover, NDVI, surface albedo and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, Daan; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank [Nature Conservation and Plant Ecology Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela [Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Bartholomeus, Harm [Centre for Geo-Information, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Maximov, Trofim C, E-mail: daan.blok@wur.nl [Biological Problems of the Cryolithozone, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Division, 41, Lenin Prospekt, Yakutsk, The Republic of Sakha, Yakutia 677980 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Recently observed Arctic greening trends from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data suggest that shrub growth is increasing in response to increasing summer temperature. An increase in shrub cover is expected to decrease summer albedo and thus positively feed back to climate warming. However, it is unknown how albedo and NDVI are affected by shrub cover and inter-annual variations in the summer climate. Here, we examine the relationship between deciduous shrub fractional cover, NDVI and albedo using field data collected at a tundra site in NE Siberia. Field data showed that NDVI increased and albedo decreased with increasing deciduous shrub cover. We then selected four Arctic tundra study areas and compiled annual growing season maximum NDVI and minimum albedo maps from MODIS satellite data (2000-10) and related these satellite products to tundra vegetation types (shrub, graminoid, barren and wetland tundra) and regional summer temperature. We observed that maximum NDVI was greatest in shrub tundra and that inter-annual variation was negatively related to summer minimum albedo but showed no consistent relationship with summer temperature. Shrub tundra showed higher albedo than wetland and barren tundra in all four study areas. These results suggest that a northwards shift of shrub tundra might not lead to a decrease in summer minimum albedo during the snow-free season when replacing wetland tundra. A fully integrative study is however needed to link results from satellite data with in situ observations across the Arctic to test the effect of increasing shrub cover on summer albedo in different tundra vegetation types.

  6. The response of Arctic vegetation to the summer climate: relation between shrub cover, NDVI, surface albedo and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, Daan; Heijmans, Monique M P D; Berendse, Frank; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Bartholomeus, Harm; Maximov, Trofim C

    2011-01-01

    Recently observed Arctic greening trends from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data suggest that shrub growth is increasing in response to increasing summer temperature. An increase in shrub cover is expected to decrease summer albedo and thus positively feed back to climate warming. However, it is unknown how albedo and NDVI are affected by shrub cover and inter-annual variations in the summer climate. Here, we examine the relationship between deciduous shrub fractional cover, NDVI and albedo using field data collected at a tundra site in NE Siberia. Field data showed that NDVI increased and albedo decreased with increasing deciduous shrub cover. We then selected four Arctic tundra study areas and compiled annual growing season maximum NDVI and minimum albedo maps from MODIS satellite data (2000-10) and related these satellite products to tundra vegetation types (shrub, graminoid, barren and wetland tundra) and regional summer temperature. We observed that maximum NDVI was greatest in shrub tundra and that inter-annual variation was negatively related to summer minimum albedo but showed no consistent relationship with summer temperature. Shrub tundra showed higher albedo than wetland and barren tundra in all four study areas. These results suggest that a northwards shift of shrub tundra might not lead to a decrease in summer minimum albedo during the snow-free season when replacing wetland tundra. A fully integrative study is however needed to link results from satellite data with in situ observations across the Arctic to test the effect of increasing shrub cover on summer albedo in different tundra vegetation types.

  7. The epigenetic memory of temperature during embryogenesis modifies the expression of bud burst-related genes in Norway spruce epitypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneros, Elena; Yakovlev, Igor; Viejo, Marcos; Olsen, Jorunn E; Fossdal, Carl Gunnar

    2017-09-01

    Epigenetic memory affects the timing of bud burst phenology and the expression of bud burst-related genes in genetically identical Norway spruce epitypes in a manner usually associated with ecotypes. In Norway spruce, a temperature-dependent epigenetic memory established during embryogenesis affects the timing of bud burst and bud set in a reproducible and predictable manner. We hypothesize that the clinal variation in these phenological traits, which is associated with adaptation to growth under frost-free conditions, has an epigenetic component. In Norway spruce, dehydrins (DHNs) have been associated with extreme frost tolerance. DHN transcript levels decrease gradually prior to flushing, a time when trees are highly sensitive to frost. Furthermore, EARLY BUD BREAK 1 genes (EBB1) and the FT-TFL1-LIKE 2-gene (PaFTL2) were previously suggested to be implied in control of bud phenology. Here we report an analysis of transcript levels of 12 DHNs, 3 EBB1 genes and FTL2 in epitypes of the same genotype generated at different epitype-inducing temperatures, before and during spring bud burst. Earlier flushing of epitypes originating from embryos developed at 18 °C as compared to 28 °C, was associated with differential expression of these genes between epitypes and between buds and last year's needles. The majority of these genes showed significantly different expressions between epitypes in at least one time point. The general trend in DHN expression pattern in buds showed the expected reduction in transcript levels when approaching flushing, whereas, surprisingly, transcript levels peaked later in needles, mainly at the moment of bud burst. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the epigenetic memory of temperature during embryogenesis affects bud burst phenology and expression of the bud burst-related DHN, EBB1 and FTL2 genes in genetically identical Norway spruce epitypes.

  8. Population growth and development of the psocid Liposcelis brunnea (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) at constant temperatures and relative humidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opit, G P; Throne, J E

    2009-06-01

    We studied the effects of temperature and relative humidity on population growth and development of the psocid Liposcelis brunnea Motschulsky. L. brunnea did not survive at 43% RH, but populations increased from 22.5 to 32.5 degrees C and 55-75% RH. Interestingly, we found population growth was higher at 63% RH than at 75% RH, and the greatest population growth was recorded at 32.5 degrees C and 63% RH. At 35 degrees C, L. brunnea nymphal survivorship was 33%, and populations declined or barely grew. L. brunnea males have two to four nymphal instars, and the percentages of males with two, three, and four instars were 13, 82, and 5%, respectively. Female L. brunnea have three to five instars, and the percentages of females with three, four, and five instars were 18, 78, and 4%, respectively. The life cycle was shorter for males than females. We developed temperature-dependent development equations for male and female eggs, individual nymphal, combined nymphal, and combined immature stages and nymphal survivorship. The ability of L. brunnea to multiply rather rapidly at 55% RH may allow it to thrive under conditions of low relative humidity where other Liposcelis species may not. These data give us a better understanding of L. brunnea population dynamics and can be used to help develop effective management strategies for this psocid.

  9. Cellular basis of morphological variation and temperature-related plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster strains with divergent wing shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Libéria Souza; Mattos, Daniel; Matta, Bruna Palma; Bitner-Mathé, Blanche Christine

    2014-12-01

    Organ shape evolves through cross-generational changes in developmental patterns at cellular and/or tissue levels that ultimately alter tissue dimensions and final adult proportions. Here, we investigated the cellular basis of an artificially selected divergence in the outline shape of Drosophila melanogaster wings, by comparing flies with elongated or rounded wing shapes but with remarkably similar wing sizes. We also tested whether cellular plasticity in response to developmental temperature was altered by such selection. Results show that variation in cellular traits is associated with wing shape differences, and that cell number may play an important role in wing shape response to selection. Regarding the effects of developmental temperature, a size-related plastic response was observed, in that flies reared at 16 °C developed larger wings with larger and more numerous cells across all intervein regions relative to flies reared at 25 °C. Nevertheless, no conclusive indication of altered phenotypic plasticity was found between selection strains for any wing or cellular trait. We also described how cell area is distributed across different intervein regions. It follows that cell area tends to decrease along the anterior wing compartment and increase along the posterior one. Remarkably, such pattern was observed not only in the selected strains but also in the natural baseline population, suggesting that it might be canalized during development and was not altered by the intense program of artificial selection for divergent wing shapes.

  10. Relations between stellar mass and electron temperature-based metallicity for star-forming galaxies in a wide mass range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Wei-Bin; Zhao Gang; Ruan Gui-Ping; Zhou Li; Liang Yan-Chun; Shao Xu; Liu Xiao-Wei; Hammer Francois; Flores Hector; Zhang Yong

    2014-01-01

    We select 947 star-forming galaxies from SDSS-DR7 with [O III]λ4363 emission lines detected at a signal-to-noise ratio larger than 5σ. Their electron temperatures and direct oxygen abundances are then determined. We compare the results from different methods. t 2 , the electron temperature in the low ionization region, estimated from t 3 , that in the high ionization region, is compared using three analysis relations between t 2 – t 3 . These show obvious differences, which result in some different ionic oxygen abundances. The results of t 3 , t 2 , O ++ /H + and O + /H + derived by using methods from IRAF and literature are also compared. The ionic abundances O ++ /H + are higher than O + /H + for most cases. The different oxygen abundances derived from T e and the strong-line ratios show a clear discrepancy, which is more obvious following increasing stellar mass and strong-line ratio R 23 . The sample of galaxies from SDSS with detected [O III]λ4363 have lower metallicites and higher star formation rates, so they may not be typical representatives of the whole population of galaxies. Adopting data objects from Andrews and Martini, Liang et al. and Lee et al. data, we derive new relations of stellar mass and metallicity for star-forming galaxies in a much wider stellar mass range: from 10 6 M ⊙ to 10 11 M ⊙ . (research papers)

  11. The effect of cold work, heat treatment, and composition on the austenite to R-phase transformation temperature of Ni-Ti shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoma, P.E.; Angst, D.R.; Schachner, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of cold work (CW) and heat treatment (HT) on the austenite to R-Phase (A→R) transformation temperature (TT) of a near equiatomic and three other Ti rich NiTi SMA is examined. For the SMA having a near equiatomic composition, the A→R TT increases with increasing CW at low HT temperatures. For the SMA having the maximum possible Ti content, the A→R TT decreases with increasing CW at low HT temperatures. For all compositions, the A→R TT is not sensitive to CW at high HT temperatures. At a Ti content slightly below the maximum possible, the A→R TT is relatively insensitive to CW and HT temperature. For all of the SMA investigated, the A→R TT increases with increasing Ti content for a specific CW and HT temperature, and this effect is greatest at low CW and at high HT temperatures. (orig.)

  12. Review of the Safety Concern Related to CANDU Moderator Temperature Distribution and Status of KAERI Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Bo W.; Kim, Hyoung T. [Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research Division, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tongbeum [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Im, Sunghyuk [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Following a large break LOCA and before Emergency Coolant Injection (ECI) initiation, pressure tubes (PT) significantly heat up as a result of the initial power pulse and degraded coolant flow. Consequently, some pressure tubes balloon and come into contact with the calandria tubes (CT). Following the PT/CT contact, the pressure tubes cool as they transfer some of the absorbed heat to the moderator via conduction at contact locations. As long as sustained calandria tube dryout does not occur, the calandria tube surface temperature remains below the creep threshold temperature and no further deformation is expected. Consequently, a sufficient condition to ensure fuel channel integrity following a large LOCA, is the avoidance of sustained calandria tubes dryout. If the moderator available subcooling at the onset of a large LOCA is greater than the subcooling requirements, a sustained calandria tube dryout is avoided. The subcooling requirements are determined from a set of experiments known as fuel channel contact experiments. The difference between available subcooling and required subcooling is called subcooling margins. The moderator flow circulation patterns are complicated slow flows that significantly vary from buoyancy dominated to inertia dominated patterns. Accurate predictions of flow patterns are essential for accurate calculation of moderator temperature distributions and the related moderator subcooling. Following a large break LOCA and before Emergency Coolant Injection (ECI) initiation, pressure tubes (PT) significantly heat up as a result of the initial power pulse and degraded coolant flow. Consequently, some pressure tubes balloon and come into contact with the calandria tubes (CT). Following the PT/CT contact, the pressure tubes cool as they transfer some of the absorbed heat to the moderator via conduction at contact locations. As long as sustained calandria tube dryout does not occur, the calandria tube surface temperature remains below the creep

  13. Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: A Rare Case of Disorder of Sex Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonsa Pizzo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS could be considered as a disease that causes resistance to androgens actions, influencing both the morphogenesis and differentiation of the body structures, and systems in which this hormone exerts its effects. It depends on an X-linked mutations in the Androgen Receptor (AR gene that express a variety of phenotypes ranging from male infertility to completely normal female external genitalia. The clinical phenotypes of AIS could vary and be classified into three categories, as complete (CAIS, partial (PAIS, and mild (MAIS forms, according to the severity of androgen resistance. We will describe a case of CAIS in a 16-year-old patient.

  14. Challenges in clinical and laboratory diagnosis of androgen insensitivity syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Daniela M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Androgen is a generic term usually applied to describe a group of sex steroid hormones. Androgens are responsible for male sex differentiation during embryogenesis at the sixth or seventh week of gestation, triggering the development of the testes and penis in male fetuses, and are directed by the testicular determining factor: the gene SRY (sex determining region on Y chromosome located on the short arm of chromosome Y. The differentiation of male external genitalia (penis, scrotum and penile urethra occurs between the 9th and 13th weeks of pregnancy and requires adequate concentration of testosterone and the conversion of this to another more potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone, through the action of 5α-reductase in target tissues. Case presentation This report describes the case of a teenage girl presenting with a male karyotype, and aims to determine the extension of the mutation that affected the AR gene. A Caucasian girl aged 15 was referred to our laboratory for genetic testing due to primary amenorrhea. Physical examination, karyotype testing and molecular analysis of the androgen receptor were critical in making the correct diagnosis of complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Conclusions Sex determination and differentiation depend on a cascade of events that begins with the establishment of chromosomal sex at fertilization and ends with sexual maturation at puberty, subsequently leading to fertility. Mutations affecting the AR gene may cause either complete or partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. The case reported here is consistent with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome, misdiagnosed at birth, and consequently our patient was raised both socially and educationally as a female. It is critical that health care providers understand the importance of properly diagnosing a newborn manifesting ambiguous genitalia. Furthermore, a child with a pseudohermaphrodite phenotype should always undergo adequate

  15. SCC Initiation Testing of Alloy 600 in High Temperature Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etien, Robert A.; Richey, Edward; Morton, David S.; Eager, Julie

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) initiation tests have been conducted on Alloy 600 at temperatures from 304 to 367°C. Tests were conducted with in-situ monitored smooth tensile specimens under a constant load in hydrogenated environments. A reversing direct current electric potential drop (EPD) system was used for all of the tests to detect SCC initiation. Tests were conducted to examine the effects of stress (and strain), coolant hydrogen, and temperature on SCC initiation time. The thermal activation energy of SCC initiation was measured as 103 ± 18 kJ/mol in hydrogenated water, which is similar to the thermal activation energy for SCC growth. Results suggest that the fundamental mechanical parameter which controls SCC initiation is plastic strain not stress. SCC initiation was shown to have a different sensitivity than SCC growth to dissolved hydrogen level. Specifically, SCC initiation time appears to be relatively insensitive to hydrogen level in the nickel stability region.

  16. Water temperature and fish growth: otoliths predict growth patterns of a marine fish in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountrey, Adam N; Coulson, Peter G; Meeuwig, Jessica J; Meekan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Ecological modeling shows that even small, gradual changes in body size in a fish population can have large effects on natural mortality, biomass, and catch. However, efforts to model the impact of climate change on fish growth have been hampered by a lack of long-term (multidecadal) data needed to understand the effects of temperature on growth rates in natural environments. We used a combination of dendrochronology techniques and additive mixed-effects modeling to examine the sensitivity of growth in a long-lived (up to 70 years), endemic marine fish, the western blue groper (Achoerodus gouldii), to changes in water temperature. A multi-decadal biochronology (1952-2003) of growth was constructed from the otoliths of 56 fish collected off the southwestern coast of Western Australia, and we tested for correlations between the mean index chronology and a range of potential environmental drivers. The chronology was significantly correlated with sea surface temperature in the region, but common variance among individuals was low. This suggests that this species has been relatively insensitive to past variations in climate. Growth increment and age data were also used in an additive mixed model to predict otolith growth and body size later this century. Although growth was relatively insensitive to changes in temperature, the model results suggested that a fish aged 20 in 2099 would have an otolith about 10% larger and a body size about 5% larger than a fish aged 20 in 1977. Our study shows that species or populations regarded as relatively insensitive to climate change could still undergo significant changes in growth rate and body size that are likely to have important effects on the productivity and yield of fisheries. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Generalization of Coffin-Manson relation in connection with the low-cycle fatigue in the temperature range 20-300 o C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, V.

    1992-01-01

    The low-cycle fatigue phenomenon in the framework of plastic deformation is studied considering the temperature parameter. The experimental results obtained for the plastic strain Δε p (1-7%), in the temperature range 20-300 o C are examined. The conclusion is that the lifetime, expressed by the number of stress cycles, N f , is given by the relation N f = C exp(-A/T)(Δε p ) β+αΔT , where T is the absolute temperature, Δε p is double of plastic deformation amplitude, and C, A, β, and α are material constants. This relation can be interpreted as being the generalization of a relation, known in literature as the 'Coffin-Manson relation', but which does not include the temperature parameter. The validation of this relation can be done either on the results presented in this paper or an those published in literature. (Author)

  18. Ultrathin triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle compact metamaterial absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Shuai; Yang, Shizhong; Tao, Lu; Yang, Lisheng; Cao, Hailin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the design, realization, and characterization of an ultrathin triple-band polarization-insensitive wide-angle metamaterial absorber are reported. The metamaterial absorber comprises a periodic array of modified six-fold symmetric snowflake-shaped resonators with strip spiral line load, which is printed on a dielectric substrate backed by a metal ground plane. It is shown that the absorber exhibits three distinct near-unity absorption peaks, which are distributed across C, X, Ku bands, respectively. Owing to the six-fold symmetry, the absorber is insensitive to the polarization of the incident radiation. In addition, the absorber shows excellent absorption performance over wide oblique incident angles for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. Simulated surface current and field distributions at the three absorption peaks are demonstrated to understand the absorption mechanism. Particularly, the absorption modes come from the fundamental and high-order dipole resonances. Furthermore, the experimental verification of the designed absorber is conducted, and the measured results are in reasonable agreement with the simulated ones. The proposed ultrathin (∼0.018λ 0 , λ 0 corresponding to the lowest peak absorption frequency) compact (0.168λ 0 ×0.168λ 0 corresponding to the area of a unit cell) absorber enables potential applications such as stealth technology, electromagnetic interference and spectrum identification.

  19. A two-stage extraction procedure for insensitive munition (IM) explosive compounds in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Deborah; Gurtowski, Luke; Nestler, Catherine C; Johnson, Jared; Larson, Steven

    2016-12-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is developing a new category of insensitive munitions (IMs) that are more resistant to detonation or promulgation from external stimuli than traditional munition formulations. The new explosive constituent compounds are 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), nitroguanidine (NQ), and nitrotriazolone (NTO). The production and use of IM formulations may result in interaction of IM component compounds with soil. The chemical properties of these IM compounds present unique challenges for extraction from environmental matrices such as soil. A two-stage extraction procedure was developed and tested using several soil types amended with known concentrations of IM compounds. This procedure incorporates both an acidified phase and an organic phase to account for the chemical properties of the IM compounds. The method detection limits (MDLs) for all IM compounds in all soil types were regulatory risk-based Regional Screening Level (RSL) criteria for soil proposed by the U.S. Army Public Health Center. At defined environmentally relevant concentrations, the average recovery of each IM compound in each soil type was consistent and greater than 85%. The two-stage extraction method decreased the influence of soil composition on IM compound recovery. UV analysis of NTO established an isosbestic point based on varied pH at a detection wavelength of 341 nm. The two-stage soil extraction method is equally effective for traditional munition compounds, a potentially important point when examining soils exposed to both traditional and insensitive munitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A flow time model for melt-cast insensitive explosive process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemin, Jean-Philippe; Brunet, Luc [Nexter Munitions, 7 Route de Guerry, 18023 Bourges Cedex (France); Bonnefoy, Olivier; Thomas, Gerard [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne, Centre SPIN/LPMG, UMR CNRS 5148, 158 Cours Fauriel, 42023 Saint-Etienne Cedex 2 (France)

    2007-06-15

    Diphasic flows of concentrated suspensions of melt-cast insensitive explosives exhibit specific rheological properties. In order to limit the handling of pyrotechnical products presenting a risk with respect to the mechanical and thermal shocks, a lot of work has been undertaken for many years in the civil engineering sector. The objective of this study is to propose a predictive model of the flow time of a concentrated suspension through a nozzle located at the bottom of a tank. Similar to our industrial process, the suspension is made out of insensitive energetic materials and flows under gravity. Experimental results are compared to three models (Quemada, Krieger-Dougherty, and Mooney) predicting the viscosity {mu} of a suspension as a function of the solid volume fraction {phi}, the maximum packing density {phi}{sub m} and the viscosity {mu}{sub 0} of the interstitial liquid. De Larrard's model is used to calculate {phi}{sub m}. The value of viscosity measured for the pure liquid is close to the one predicted by the Bernoulli theorem, where liquids are considered as incompressible and inviscid. Finally, it was found that the Quemada's model gives a fair agreement between predictions and experiments. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Insensitive high-energy energetic structural material of tungsten-polytetrafluoroethylene-aluminum composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energetic structural material is a kind of materials that are inert under normal conditions but could produce exothermic chemical reaction when subjected to impact. This report shows a kind of energetic structural material of tungsten (W-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE-aluminum (Al with density of 4.12 g/cm3, excellent ductility and dynamic compressive strength of 96 MPa. Moreover, 50W-35PTFE-15Al (wt% can exhibit a high reaction energy value of more than 2 times of TNT per unit mass and 5 times of TNT per unit volume, respectively, but with excellent insensitivity compared with traditional explosives. Under thermal conditions, the W-PTFE-Al composite can keep stable at 773 K. Under impact loading, when the strain rate up to ∼4820 s−1 coupled with the absorbed energy per unit volume of 120 J/cm3, deflagration occurs and combustion lasts for 500 μs. During impact compressive deformation, the PTFE matrix is elongated into nano-fibers, thus significantly increases the reaction activity of W-PTFE-Al composites. The nano-fiber structure is necessary for the reaction of W-PTFE-Al composites. The formation of PTFE nano-fibers must undergo severe plastic deformation, and therefore the W-PTFE-Al composites exhibit excellent insensitivity and safety. Furthermore, the reaction mechanisms of W-PTFE-Al composites in argon and in air are revealed.

  2. Identification of genetically diverse genotypes for photoperiod insensitivity in soybean using RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Bhatia, V S; Yadav, Sanjeev; Athale, Rashmi; Lakshmi, N; Guruprasad, K N; Chauhan, G S

    2008-10-01

    Most of the Indian soybean varieties were found to be highly sensitive to photoperiod, which limits their cultivation in only localized area. Identification of genetically diverse source of photoperiod insensitive would help to broaden the genetic base for this trait. Present study was undertaken with RAPD markers for genetic diversity estimation in 44 accessions of soybean differing in response to photoperiod sensitivity. The selected twenty-five RAPD primers produced a total of 199 amplicons, which generated 89.9 % polymorphism. The number of amplification products ranged from 2 to 13 for different primers. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.0 for monomorphic loci to 0.5 with an average of 0.289. Genetic diversity between pairs of genotypes was 37.7% with a range of 3.9 to 71.6%. UPGMA cluster analysis placed all the accessions of soybean into four major clusters. No discernable geographical patterns were observed in clustering however; the smaller groups corresponded well with pedigree. Mantel's test (r = 0.915) indicates very good fit for clustering pattern. Two genotypes, MACS 330 and 111/2/1939 made a very divergent group from other accessions of soybean and highly photoperiod insensitive that may be potential source for broadening the genetic base of soybean for this trait.

  3. Divalent phosphate is a counterion for carboxyatractyloside-insensitive adenine nucleotide transport in rat liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosek, M.T.; Aprille, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Unidirectional, carboxyatractyloside(CAT)-insensitive adenine nucleotide (AdN) fluxes have been studied in isolated rat liver mitochondria (mito). Previous work has shown that ATP x Mg transport in one direction is coupled to ATP x Mg or P/sub i/ transport in the opposite direction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether divalent HPO 4 2- or monovalent H 2 PO 4 - is the transported phosphate species. The authors used the monofluorophosphate (PO 3 F 2- ) and difluorophosphate (PO 2 F 2 - ) analogues as potential counterions forAdN efflux. After a preincubation on ice with 14 C-ADP to label the matrix AdN, efflux was measured at 30 0 C, pH 7.4, in 225mM sucrose, 10mM KCl, 5mM MgCl 2 , 5mM glutamate, 5mM malate, 10mM Tris, 0.5mM P/sub i/, 1mM ATP, and 5μM CAT. With no other additions efflux was -0.62 +/- 0.20 nmole/minute/mg protein. The data supports the hypothesis that divalent but not monovalent phosphate can act as a counterion for ATPx Mg transport over this CAT-insensitive carrier

  4. Update Review and Clinical Presentation in Congenital Insensitivity to Pain and Anhidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Pérez-López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis (CIPA or hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV is an extremely rare syndrome. Three clinical findings define the syndrome: insensitivity to pain, impossibility to sweat, and mental retardation. This pathology is caused by a genetic mutation in the NTRK1 gene, which encodes a tyrosine receptor (TrkA for nerve growth factor (NGF. Methods. The consultation of a child female in our center with CIPA and a tibia fracture in pseudoarthrosis encouraged us to carefully review literature and examine the therapeutic possibilities. A thorough review of literature published in Pubmed was done about CIPA and other connected medical issues mentioned in the paper. Conclusions. The therapeutic approach of CIPA remains unclear. The preventive approach remains the only possible treatment of CIPA. We propose two new important concepts in the therapeutic approach for these patients: (1 early surgical treatment for long bone fractures to prevent pseudoarthrosis and to allow early weight bearing, decreasing the risk of further osteopenia, and (2 bisphosphonates to avoid the progression of osteopenia and to reduce the number of consecutive fractures.

  5. Observation of Anomalous Properties associated with the Low Temperature Structural Distortion in β-FeSe and Related Superconductorsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu M. K.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of Superconductivity in the tetragonal phase FeSe provides a unique platform for the detailed investigation of the correlation between the physical properties and crystal structure to better understand the possible origin of superconductivity in the new iron-based superconductors. We have carried out a series of properties characterizations by measuring magnetic susceptibility, Raman, NMR and femtosecond spectroscopy on single crystals and epitaxial thin films of the FeSe and Te-doped Fe(SeTe samples. Our results show clearly the presence of anomalies in all the characterized properties at the temperature where a structural distortion from tetragonal to orthorhombic (or monoclinic appears for all superconducting samples, but not in the non-superconducting ones. This structural distortion was observed not accompanied by a magnetic ordering as commonly occurs in the parent compounds of FeAs-based superconductors. All the observations suggest that the low temperature structural distortion is essential for the occurrence of superconductivity in the FeSe and related compounds. Details of the experimental results will be presented and discussed.

  6. Analysis of proton exchange membrane fuel cell polarization losses at elevated temperature 120 C and reduced relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Hui; Kunz, H. Russell [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Fenton, James M. [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Polarization losses of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells at 120 C and reduced relative humidity (RH) were analyzed. Reduced RH affects membrane and electrode ionic resistance, catalytic activity and oxygen transport. For a cell made of Nafion {sup registered} 112 membrane and electrodes that have 35 wt.% Nafion {sup registered} and 0.3 mg/cm{sup 2} platinum supported on carbon, membrane resistance at 20%RH was 0.407 {omega} cm{sup 2} and electrode resistance 0.203 {omega} cm{sup 2}, significantly higher than 0.092 and 0.041 {omega} cm{sup 2} at 100%RH, respectively. In the kinetically controlled region, 20%RH resulted in 96 mV more cathode activation loss than 100%RH. Compared to 100%, 20%RH also produced significant oxygen transport loss across the ionomer film in the electrode, 105 mV at 600 mA/cm{sup 2}. The significant increase in polarization losses at elevated temperature and reduced RH indicates the extreme importance of designing electrodes for high temperature PEM fuel cells since membrane development has always taken most emphasis. (author)

  7. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON GRAIN MOISTURE, GERMINATION AND VIGOUR OF THREE WHEAT CULTIVARS DURING ONE YEAR STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Strelec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in grain moisture, germination and vigour of three wheat cultivars packed in paper bags and stored for one year under four different conditions of environmental temperature and relative humidity (RH were investigated. During the first ninety days of storage significant reduction in grain moisture content of 4, 2.5 and 0.9 %, respectively, under 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C and RH of 45 % occurred. Subsequently grain moisture remained constant until the end of storage. Seeds of examined cultivars lost their germination ability and vigour only under elevated storage temperatures. Germination and vigour loss after one year of storage differed between cultivars being higher for seeds kept under 40°C, RH = 45% (35-85 % and 55-94 %, respectively, than under 25°C, RH = 45 % (10-20 % and 15-22 %, respectively. Obtained data indicate significant influence of storage conditions on moisture content, germination and vigour changes during storage of wheat seeds, as well as varietal dependence of seed viability.

  8. Wood Modification at High Temperature and Pressurized Steam: a Relational Model of Mechanical Properties Based on a Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermally modified wood has high dimensional stability and biological durability.But if the process parameters of thermal modification are not appropriate, then there will be a decline in the physical properties of wood.A neural network algorithm was employed in this study to establish the relationship between the process parameters of high-temperature and high-pressure thermal modification and the mechanical properties of the wood. Three important parameters: temperature, relative humidity, and treatment time, were considered as the inputs to the neural network. Back propagation (BP neural network and radial basis function (RBF neural network models for prediction were built and compared. The comparison showed that the RBF neural network model had advantages in network structure, convergence speed, and generalization capacity. On this basis, the inverse model, reflecting the relationship between the process parameters and the mechanical properties of wood, was established. Given the desired mechanical properties of the wood, the thermal modification process parameters could be inversely optimized and predicted. The results indicated that the model has good learning ability and generalization capacity. This is of great importance for the theoretical and applicational studies of the thermal modification of wood.

  9. Importance of Sulfate Aerosol in Evaluating the Relative Contributions of Regional Emissions to the Historical Global Temperature Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andronova, N.; Schlesinger, M.

    2004-01-01

    During the negotiations of the Kyoto Protocol the delegation of Brazil presented an approach for distributing the burden of emissions reductions among the Parties based on the effect of their cumulative historical emissions on the global-average near-surface temperature. The Letter to the Parties does not limit the emissions to be considered to be only greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Thus, in this paper we explore the importance of anthropogenic SOx emissions that are converted to sulfate aerosol in the atmosphere, together with the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions, in attributing historical temperature change. We use historical emissions and our simple climate model to estimate the relative contributions to global warming of the regional emissions by four Parties: OECD90, Africa and Latin America, Asia, and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. Our results show that for most Parties the large warming contributed by their GHG emissions is largely offset by the correspondingly large cooling by their SOx emissions. Thus, OECD90 has become the dominant contributor to recent global warming following its large reduction in SOx emissions after 1980

  10. The midday depression of CO2 assimilation in leaves of Arbutus unedo L.: diurnal changes in photosynthetic capacity related to changes in temperature and humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, K; Resemann, A

    1986-09-01

    experiments, leaves were subjected to variations in temperature and humidity independent of the time of the day, under otherwise constant conditions. Photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance proved to be almost insensitive to changes in temperature (in a range extending from 20 to 37° C) as long as the water vapor-pressure difference was held constant. If it was not, the rate of photosynthesis began to decline with increasing temperature after a threshold water-vapor pressure difference was exceeded. The position of the resulting apparent temperature optimum of photosynthesis depended on the humidity of the air. We suggest that the ability of A. unedo to respond to a dry atmosphere with a reversible reduction of its photosynthetic capacity (by a still unknown mechanism) is the result of a co-evolution with the development of a strong stomatal sensitivity to changes in humidity.

  11. Measurements of temperature characteristics and estimation of terahertz negative differential conductance in resonant-tunneling-diode oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asada

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The temperature dependences of output power, oscillation frequency, and current-voltage curve are measured for resonant-tunneling-diode terahertz (THz oscillators. The output power largely changes with temperature owing to the change in Ohmic loss. In contrast to the output power, the oscillation frequency and current-voltage curve are almost insensitive to temperature. The measured temperature dependence of output power is compared with the theoretical calculation including the negative differential conductance (NDC as a fitting parameter assumed to be independent of temperature. Very good agreement was obtained between the measurement and calculation, and the NDC in the THz frequency region is estimated. The results show that the absolute values of NDC in the THz region significantly decrease relative to that at DC, and increases with increasing frequency in the measured frequency range.

  12. Response of the physiological parameters of mango fruit (transpiration, water relations and antioxidant system) to its light and temperature environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léchaudel, Mathieu; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Vidal, Véronique; Sallanon, Huguette; Joas, Jacques

    2013-04-15

    Depending on the position of the fruit in the tree, mango fruit may be exposed to high temperature and intense light conditions that may lead to metabolic and physiological disorders and affect yield and quality. The present study aimed to determine how mango fruit adapted its functioning in terms of fruit water relations, epicarp characteristics and the antioxidant defence system in peel, to environmental conditions. The effect of contrasted temperature and light conditions was evaluated under natural solar radiation and temperature by comparing well-exposed and shaded fruit at three stages of fruit development. The sun-exposed and shaded peels of the two sides of the well-exposed fruit were also compared. Depending on fruit position within the canopy and on the side of a well-exposed fruit, the temperature gradient over a day affected fruit characteristics such as transpiration, as revealed by the water potential gradient as a function of the treatments, and led to a significant decrease in water conductance for well-exposed fruits compared to fruits within the canopy. Changes in cuticle thickness according to fruit position were consistent with those of fruit water conductance. Osmotic potential was also affected by climatic environment and harvest stage. Environmental conditions that induced water stress and greater light exposure, like on the sunny side of well-exposed fruit, increased the hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde and total and reduced ascorbate contents, as well as SOD, APX and MDHAR activities, regardless of the maturity stage. The lowest values were measured in the peel of the shaded fruit, that of the shaded side of well-exposed fruit being intermediate. Mango fruits exposed to water-stress-induced conditions during growth adapt their functioning by reducing their transpiration. Moreover, oxidative stress was limited as a consequence of the increase in antioxidant content and enzyme activities. This adaptive response of mango fruit to its

  13. Calculation of the relative chemical stabilities of proteins as a function of temperature and redox chemistry in a hot spring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Dick

    Full Text Available Uncovering the chemical and physical links between natural environments and microbial communities is becoming increasingly amenable owing to geochemical observations and metagenomic sequencing. At the hot spring known as Bison Pool in Yellowstone National Park, the cooling of the water in the outflow channel is associated with an increase in oxidation potential estimated from multiple field-based measurements. Representative groups of proteins whose sequences were derived from metagenomic data also exhibit an increase in average oxidation state of carbon in the protein molecules with distance from the hot-spring source. The energetic requirements of reactions to form selected proteins used in the model were computed using amino-acid group additivity for the standard molal thermodynamic properties of the proteins, and the relative chemical stabilities of the proteins were investigated by varying temperature, pH and oxidation state, expressed as activity of dissolved hydrogen. The relative stabilities of the proteins were found to track the locations of the sampling sites when the calculations included a function for hydrogen activity that increases with temperature and is higher, or more reducing, than values consistent with measurements of dissolved oxygen, sulfide and oxidation-reduction potential in the field. These findings imply that spatial patterns in the amino acid compositions of proteins can be linked, through energetics of overall chemical reactions representing the formation of the proteins, to the environmental conditions at this hot spring, even if microbial cells maintain considerably different internal conditions. Further applications of the thermodynamic calculations are possible for other natural microbial ecosystems.

  14. Lead Research and Development Activity for DOE's High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program (Topic 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Fenton, PhD; Darlene Slattery, PhD; Nahid Mohajeri, PhD

    2012-09-05

    The Department of Energy’s High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program was begun in 2006 with the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) as the lead organization. During the first three years of the program, FSEC was tasked with developing non-Nafion® proton exchange membranes with improved conductivity for fuel cells. Additionally, FSEC was responsible for developing protocols for the measurement of in-plane conductivity, providing conductivity measurements for the other funded teams, developing a method for through-plane conductivity and organizing and holding semiannual meetings of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG). The FSEC membrane research focused on the development of supported poly[perfluorosulfonic acid] (PFSA) – Teflon membranes and a hydrocarbon membrane, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The fourth generation of the PFSA membrane (designated FSEC-4) came close to, but did not meet, the Go/No-Go milestone of 0.1 S/cm at 50% relative humidity at 120 °C. In-plane conductivity of membranes provided by the funded teams was measured and reported to the teams and DOE. Late in the third year of the program, DOE used this data and other factors to decide upon the teams to continue in the program. The teams that continued provided promising membranes to FSEC for development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) that could be tested in an operating fuel cell. FSEC worked closely with each team to provide customized support. A logic flow chart was developed and discussed before MEA fabrication or any testing began. Of the five teams supported, by the end of the project, membranes from two of the teams were easily manufactured into MEAs and successfully characterized for performance. One of these teams exceeded performance targets, while the other requires further optimization. An additional team developed a membrane that shows great promise for significantly reducing membrane costs and increasing membrane lifetime.

  15. On the relative roles of hydrology, salinity, temperature, and root productivity in controlling soil respiration from coastal swamps (freshwater)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Whitbeck, Julie L.; Howard, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Soil CO2 emissions can dominate gaseous carbon losses from forested wetlands (swamps), especially those positioned in coastal environments. Understanding the varied roles of hydroperiod, salinity, temperature, and root productivity on soil respiration is important in discerning how carbon balances may shift as freshwater swamps retreat inland with sea-level rise and salinity incursion, and convert to mixed communities with marsh plants. Methods We exposed soil mesocosms to combinations of permanent flooding, tide, and salinity, and tracked soil respiration over 2 1/2 growing seasons. We also related these measurements to rates from field sites along the lower Savannah River, Georgia, USA. Soil temperature and root productivity were assessed simultaneously for both experiments. Results Soil respiration from mesocosms (22.7-1678.2 mg CO2 m-2 h-1) differed significantly among treatments during four of the seven sampling intervals, where permanently flooded treatments contributed to low rates of soil respiration and tidally flooded treatments sometimes contributed to higher rates. Permanent flooding reduced the overall capacity for soil respiration as soils warmed. Salinity did reduce soil respiration at times in tidal treatments, indicating that salinity may affect the amount of CO2 respired with tide more strongly than under permanent flooding. However, soil respiration related greatest to root biomass (mesocosm) and standing root length (field); any stress reducing root productivity (incl. salinity and permanent flooding) therefore reduces soil respiration. Conclusions Overall, we hypothesized a stronger, direct role for salinity on soil respiration, and found that salinity effects were being masked by varied capacities for increases in respiration with soil warming as dictated by hydrology, and the indirect influence that salinity can have on plant productivity.

  16. Interactive effects of ambient temperature and light sources at high relative humidity on growth performance and blood physiological variables in broilers grown to 42 day of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interactive effects of ambient temperature and light sources at high relative humidity on growth performance and blood physiological reactions in broilers grown to 42 day of age were investigated. The experiment consisted of 2 levels (Moderate=21.1, High=26.7 °C) of temperatures and 2 light sour...

  17. Indoor Temperatures in Patient Waiting Rooms in Eight Rural Primary Health Care Centers in Northern South Africa and the Related Potential Risks to Human Health and Wellbeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caradee Y. Wright

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased temperatures affect human health and vulnerable groups including infants, children, the elderly and people with pre-existing diseases. In the southern African region climate models predict increases in ambient temperature twice that of the global average temperature increase. Poor ventilation and lack of air conditioning in primary health care clinics, where duration of waiting time may be as long as several hours, pose a possible threat to patients seeking primary health care. Drawing on information measured by temperature loggers installed in eight clinics in Giyani, Limpopo Province of South Africa, we were able to determine indoor temperatures of waiting rooms in eight rural primary health care facilities. Mean monthly temperature measurements inside the clinics were warmer during the summer months of December, January and February, and cooler during the autumn months of March, April and May. The highest mean monthly temperature of 31.4 ± 2.7 °C was recorded in one clinic during February 2016. Maximum daily indoor clinic temperatures exceeded 38 °C in some clinics. Indoor temperatures were compared to ambient (outdoor temperatures and the mean difference between the two showed clinic waiting room temperatures were higher by 2–4 °C on average. Apparent temperature (AT incorporating relative humidity readings made in the clinics showed ‘realfeel’ temperatures were >4 °C higher than measured indoor temperature, suggesting a feeling of ‘stuffiness’ and discomfort may have been experienced in the waiting room areas. During typical clinic operational hours of 8h00 to 16h00, mean ATs fell into temperature ranges associated with heat–health impact warning categories of ‘caution’ and ‘extreme caution’.

  18. Indoor Temperatures in Patient Waiting Rooms in Eight Rural Primary Health Care Centers in Northern South Africa and the Related Potential Risks to Human Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Street, Renée A; Cele, Nokulunga; Kunene, Zamantimande; Balakrishna, Yusentha; Albers, Patricia N; Mathee, Angela

    2017-01-06

    Increased temperatures affect human health and vulnerable groups including infants, children, the elderly and people with pre-existing diseases. In the southern African region climate models predict increases in ambient temperature twice that of the global average temperature increase. Poor ventilation and lack of air conditioning in primary health care clinics, where duration of waiting time may be as long as several hours, pose a possible threat to patients seeking primary health care. Drawing on information measured by temperature loggers installed in eight clinics in Giyani, Limpopo Province of South Africa, we were able to determine indoor temperatures of waiting rooms in eight rural primary health care facilities. Mean monthly temperature measurements inside the clinics were warmer during the summer months of December, January and February, and cooler during the autumn months of March, April and May. The highest mean monthly temperature of 31.4 ± 2.7 °C was recorded in one clinic during February 2016. Maximum daily indoor clinic temperatures exceeded 38 °C in some clinics. Indoor temperatures were compared to ambient (outdoor) temperatures and the mean difference between the two showed clinic waiting room temperatures were higher by 2-4 °C on average. Apparent temperature (AT) incorporating relative humidity readings made in the clinics showed 'realfeel' temperatures were >4 °C higher than measured indoor temperature, suggesting a feeling of 'stuffiness' and discomfort may have been experienced in the waiting room areas. During typical clinic operational hours of 8h00 to 16h00, mean ATs fell into temperature ranges associated with heat-health impact warning categories of 'caution' and 'extreme caution'.

  19. A KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY STRATEGY FOR RELATING SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES TO FREQUENCIES OF TROPICAL STORMS AND GENERATING PREDICTIONS OF HURRICANES UNDER 21ST-CENTURY GLOBAL WARMING SCENARIOS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY STRATEGY FOR RELATING SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES TO FREQUENCIES OF TROPICAL STORMS AND GENERATING PREDICTIONS OF HURRICANES UNDER 21ST-CENTURY...

  20. Repeated functional convergent effects of NaV1.7 on acid insensitivity in hibernating mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Tong-Zuo; Li, Gong-Hua; He, Kai; Huang, Jing-Fei; Jiang, Xue-Long; Murphy, Robert W; Shi, Peng

    2014-02-07

    Hibernating mammals need to be insensitive to acid in order to cope with conditions of high CO2; however, the molecular basis of acid tolerance remains largely unknown. The African naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) and hibernating mammals share similar environments and physiological features. In the naked mole-rat, acid insensitivity has been shown to be conferred by the functional motif of the sodium ion channel NaV1.7. There is now an opportunity to evaluate acid insensitivity in other taxa. In this study, we tested for functional convergence of NaV1.7 in 71 species of mammals, including 22 species that hibernate. Our analyses revealed a functional convergence of amino acid sequences, which occurred at least six times independently in mammals that hibernate. Evolutionary analyses determined that the convergence results from both parallel and divergent evolution of residues in the functional motif. Our findings not only identify the functional molecules responsible for acid insensitivity in hibernating mammals, but also open new avenues to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of acid insensitivity in mammals.

  1. A New Pepstatin-Insensitive Thermopsin-Like Protease Overproduced in Peptide-Rich Cultures of Sulfolobus solfataricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gogliettino

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we gain insight into the extracellular proteolytic system of Sulfolobus solfataricus grown on proteinaceous substrates, providing further evidence that acidic proteases were specifically produced in response to peptide-rich media. The main proteolytic component was the previously isolated SsMTP (Sulfolobus solfataricus multi-domain thermopsin-like protease, while the less abundant (named SsMTP-1 one was purified, characterized and identified as the sso1175 gene-product. The protein revealed a multi-domain organization shared with the cognate SsMTP with a catalytic domain followed by several tandemly-repeated motifs. Moreover, both enzymes were found spread across the Crenarchaeota phylum and belonging to the thermopsin family, although segregated into diverse phylogenetic clusters. SsMTP-1 showed a 75-kDa molecular mass and was stable in the temperature range 50–90 °C, with optimal activity at 70 °C and pH 2.0. Serine, metallo and aspartic protease inhibitors did not affect the enzyme activity, designating SsMTP-1 as a new member of the pepstatin-insensitive aspartic protease family. The peptide-bond-specificity of SsMTP-1 in the cleavage of the oxidized insulin B chain was uncommon amongst thermopsins, suggesting that it could play a distinct, but cooperative role in the protein degradation machinery. Interestingly, predictions of the transmembrane protein topology of SsMTP and SsMTP-1 strongly suggest a possible contribution in signal-transduction pathways.

  2. Long-term projections of temperature-related mortality risks for ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and acute ischemic heart disease under changing climate in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiantian; Horton, Radley M; Bader, Daniel A; Liu, Fangchao; Sun, Qinghua; Kinney, Patrick L

    2018-03-01

    Changing climates have been causing variations in the number of global ischemic heart disease and stroke incidences, and will continue to affect disease occurrence in the future. To project temperature-related mortality for acute ischemic heart disease, and ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke with concomitant climate warming. We estimated the exposure-response relationship between daily cause-specific mortality and daily mean temperature in Beijing. We utilized outputs from 31 downscaled climate models and two representative concentration pathways (RCPs) for the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s. This strategy was used to estimate future net temperature along with heat- and cold-related deaths. The results for predicted temperature-related deaths were subsequently contrasted with the baseline period. In the 2080s, using the RCP8.5 and no population variation scenarios, the net total number of annual temperature-related deaths exhibited a median value of 637 (with a range across models of 434-874) for ischemic stroke; this is an increase of approximately 100% compared with the 1980s. The median number of projected annual temperature-related deaths was 660 (with a range across models of 580-745) for hemorrhagic stroke (virtually no change compared with the 1980s), and 1683 (with a range across models of 1351-2002) for acute ischemic heart disease (a slight increase of approximately 20% compared with the 1980s). In the 2080s, the monthly death projection for hemorrhagic stroke and acute ischemic heart disease showed that the largest absolute changes occurred in summer and winter while the largest absolute changes for ischemic stroke occurred in summer. We projected that the temperature-related mortality associated with ischemic stroke will increase dramatically due to climate warming. However, projected temperature-related mortality pertaining to acute ischemic heart disease and hemorrhagic stroke should remain relatively stable over time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. AR mutations in 28 patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome (Prader grade 0-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Gong, Chunxiu; Wang, Xiou; Qin, Miao

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the androgen receptor (AR) gene mutation profiles of Chinese patients exhibiting severe androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) phenotypes. The present study enrolled 28 patients with genetically diagnosed AIS, who presented with severe phenotypes (Prader grade 0-3). Patients and some family members were screened via amplification and sequencing of their AR exons 1-8, including the corresponding intronic flanking regions. Luteinizing (LH), follicle-stimulating (FSH), and testosterone (T) hormone levels were found to be slightly, but not significantly, higher in patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) than in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) (P>0.05). We identified 24 different AR mutations, including 12 that were novel. Ten patients (cases 2, 3, 10, 28, 11, 12, 19, 20, 24, and 25) were found to carry five recurrent mutations (p.Y572S, p.P914S, p.S176R, p.Y782N, and p.R841H); of these, p.Y572S, p.S176R, and p.Y782N were novel. Among the mutations identified in patients with CAIS, six (66.7%) were characterized as single-nucleotide missense mutations, and six (66.7%) were found to be located in the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD). Among the mutations identified in patients with PAIS, 15 (93.8%) were found to be missense, and 11 (68.8%) were found to be located in the LBD. Patients 10 and 28 were determined to harbor the same missense mutation (p.P914S), but were diagnosed with CAIS and PAIS, respectively. Sex hormone levels were slightly, but not significantly, elevated in patients with CAIS compared to those with PAIS. Missense mutations spanning AR exons 1-8 were the predominant form of identified mutations, and these were mostly located in the AR LBD. Approximately 50% of the identified mutations were novel, and have enriched the AR gene-mutation database. Patients harboring identical mutations were in some instances found to exhibit divergent phenotypes.

  4. Primary growth hormone insensitivity (Laron syndrome and acquired hypothyroidism: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneli Ginevra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary growth hormone resistance or growth hormone insensitivity syndrome, also known as Laron syndrome, is a hereditary disease caused by deletions or different types of mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene or by post-receptor defects. This disorder is characterized by a clinical appearance of severe growth hormone deficiency with high levels of circulating growth hormone in contrast to low serum insulin-like growth factor 1 values. Case presentation We report the case of a 15-year-old Caucasian girl who was diagnosed with Silver-Russell syndrome at the age of four and a half years. Recombinant growth hormone was administered for 18 months without an appropriate increase in growth velocity. At the age of seven years, her serum growth hormone levels were high, and an insulin-like growth factor 1 generation test did not increase insulin-like growth factor 1 levels (baseline insulin-like growth factor 1 levels, 52 μg/L; reference range, 75 μg/L to 365 μg/L; and peak, 76 μg/L and 50 μg/L after 12 and 84 hours, respectively, from baseline. The genetic analysis showed that the patient was homozygous for the R217X mutation in the growth hormone receptor gene, which is characteristic of Laron syndrome. On the basis of these results, the diagnosis of primary growth hormone insensitivity syndrome was made, and recombinant insulin-like growth factor 1 therapy was initiated. The patient's treatment was well tolerated, but unexplained central hypothyroidism occurred at the age of 12.9 years. At the age of 15 years, when the patient's sexual development was almost completed and her menstrual cycle occurred irregularly, her height was 129.8 cm, which is 4.71 standard deviations below the median for normal girls her age. Conclusion The most important functional tests for the diagnosis of growth hormone insensitivity are the insulin-like growth factor 1 generation test and genetic analysis. Currently, the only effective

  5. A half-century of studies of growth hormone insensitivity/Laron syndrome: A historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Arlan L

    2016-06-01

    A growth hormone (GH) dependent substance responsible for sulfate uptake by costal cartilage of hypophysectomized rats, labeled sulfation factor, was reported in 1957. In 1962 the radioimmunoassay for GH was described. The clinical picture of severe GH deficiency but with high serum concentrations of GH was reported in 3 siblings in 1966 and followed by a 1968 report of 22 patients belonging to 14 consanguineous oriental Jewish families in Israel. Defective sulfation factor generation was demonstrated in 15 of these individuals and in a 1971 report; FFA response to IV GH and growth response to GH injections suggested competitive saturation of peripheral tissue receptors by an abnormal GH. However, studies published in 1973 demonstrated normal fractionation of their circulating GH, and normal binding of GH from 22 patients to various antisera used for radioimmunoassay. In 1976, the Israeli investigators reported that circulating GH from 7 patients reacted normally in the recently developed radioreceptor assay for GH. In 1984, using hepatic microsome pellets, they demonstrated that the defect was a failure of GH binding to receptors. Characterization of the human GH receptor (GHR) gene, reported in 1989, included the initial description of a genetic defect of the GHR in 2 of 9 Israeli patients. At about the same time began the identification in Ecuador of what was to become the largest population of GH insensitivity in the world, ~100 individuals, and the only substantial population with a common mutation of the GH receptor. Treatment studies with recombinant IGF-I began in 1990. Growth response was modest compared to that of GH treated GH deficient subjects. The spectrum of GH insensitivity has expanded beyond GH receptor deficiency to include postreceptor abnormalities: IGF-I gene mutation (1996); IGF-I receptor mutation (2003); signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b mutation (2003); and mutation of the GH-dependent acid labile subunit (2004). Rare

  6. Primary growth hormone insensitivity (Laron syndrome) and acquired hypothyroidism: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotta, Oana R; Santarpia, Libero; Curtò, Lorenzo; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Corneli, Ginevra; Trimarchi, Francesco; Cannavò, Salvatore

    2011-07-11

    Primary growth hormone resistance or growth hormone insensitivity syndrome, also known as Laron syndrome, is a hereditary disease caused by deletions or different types of mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene or by post-receptor defects. This disorder is characterized by a clinical appearance of severe growth hormone deficiency with high levels of circulating growth hormone in contrast to low serum insulin-like growth factor 1 values. We report the case of a 15-year-old Caucasian girl who was diagnosed with Silver-Russell syndrome at the age of four and a half years. Recombinant growth hormone was administered for 18 months without an appropriate increase in growth velocity. At the age of seven years, her serum growth hormone levels were high, and an insulin-like growth factor 1 generation test did not increase insulin-like growth factor 1 levels (baseline insulin-like growth factor 1 levels, 52 μg/L; reference range, 75 μg/L to 365 μg/L; and peak, 76 μg/L and 50 μg/L after 12 and 84 hours, respectively, from baseline). The genetic analysis showed that the patient was homozygous for the R217X mutation in the growth hormone receptor gene, which is characteristic of Laron syndrome. On the basis of these results, the diagnosis of primary growth hormone insensitivity syndrome was made, and recombinant insulin-like growth factor 1 therapy was initiated. The patient's treatment was well tolerated, but unexplained central hypothyroidism occurred at the age of 12.9 years. At the age of 15 years, when the patient's sexual development was almost completed and her menstrual cycle occurred irregularly, her height was 129.8 cm, which is 4.71 standard deviations below the median for normal girls her age. The most important functional tests for the diagnosis of growth hormone insensitivity are the insulin-like growth factor 1 generation test and genetic analysis. Currently, the only effective treatment is daily administration of recombinant insulin-like growth

  7. Microbial communities related to biodegradation of dispersed Macondo oil at low seawater temperature with Norwegian coastal seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd G; Throne-Holst, Mimmi; Netzer, Roman; Stoeckel, Donald M; Atlas, Ronald M

    2015-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) accident in 2010 created a deepwater plume of small oil droplets from a deepwater well in the Mississippi Canyon lease block 252 (‘Macondo oil’). A novel laboratory system was used in the current study to investigate biodegradation of Macondo oil dispersions (10 μm or 30 μm median droplet sizes) at low oil concentrations (2 mg l−1) in coastal Norwegian seawater at a temperature of 4–5°C. Whole metagenome analyses showed that oil biodegradation was associated with the successive increased abundances of Gammaproteobacteria, while Alphaproteobacteria (Pelagibacter) became dominant at the end of the experiment. Colwellia and Oceanospirillales were related to n-alkane biodegradation, while particularly Cycloclasticus and Marinobacter were associated with degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons (HCs). The larger oil droplet dispersions resulted in delayed sequential changes of Oceanospirillales and Cycloclasticus, related with slower degradation of alkanes and aromatic HCs. The bacterial successions associated with oil biodegradation showed both similarities and differences when compared with the results from DWH field samples and laboratory studies performed with deepwater from the Gulf of Mexico. PMID:26485443

  8. Influence of day length and temperature on the content of health-related compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindal, Anne Linn Hykkerud; Mølmann, Jørgen; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Johansen, Tor J

    2013-11-13

    Vegetables grown at different latitudes are exposed to various temperatures and day lengths, which can affect the content of health- and sensory-related compounds in broccoli florets. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted under controlled growth conditions, with contrasting temperatures (15/9 and 21/15 °C) and day lengths (12 and 24 h), to investigate the effect on glucosinolates, vitamin C, flavonols, and soluble sugars. Aliphatic glucosinolates, quercetin, and kaempferol were at their highest levels at high temperatures combined with a 12 h day. Levels of total glucosinolates, d-glucose, and d-fructose were elevated by high temperatures. Conversely, the content of vitamin C was highest with a 12 h day length combined with 15/9 °C. Our results indicate that temperature and day length influence the contents of health-related compounds in broccoli florets in a complex way, suggesting no general superiority of any of the contrasting growth conditions.

  9. Tumour-associated neutrophils and loss of epithelial PTEN can promote corticosteroid-insensitive MMP-9 expression in the chronically inflamed lung microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannitamby, Amanda; Seow, Huei Jiunn; Anderson, Gary; Vlahos, Ross; Thompson, Michelle; Steinfort, Daniel; Irving, Louis B; Bozinovski, Steven

    2017-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is increased in a number of pathological lung conditions, where the proteinase contributes to deleterious remodelling of the airways. While both lung cancer and COPD are associated with increased MMP-9 expression, the cellular and molecular drivers of MMP-9 remain unresolved. In this study, MMP-9 transcript measured within the tumour region from patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and coexisting COPD was found to be uniformly increased relative to adjacent tumour-free tissue. MMP-9 gene expression and immunohistochemistry identified tumour-associated neutrophils, but not macrophages, as a predominant source of this proteinase. In addition, PTEN gene expression was significantly reduced in tumour and there was evidence of epithelial MMP-9 expression. To explore whether PTEN can regulate epithelial MMP-9 expression, a small interfering (si)RNA knockdown strategy was used in Beas-2B bronchial epithelial cells. PTEN knockdown by siRNA selectively increased MMP-9 expression in response to lipopolysaccharide in a corticosteroid-insensitive manner. In summary, tumour-associated neutrophils represent an important source of MMP-9 in NSCLC, and loss of epithelial PTEN may further augment steroid-insensitive expression. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Anti-bombing insensitivity life of molybdenum cathode doped with La{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jinshu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China)]. E-mail: wangjsh@bjut.edu.cn; Wang Yiman [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China); Zhou Meiling [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100022 (China)

    2006-03-15

    Anti-bombing insensitivity of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Mo secondary emitter has been studied in this paper. The variation of maximum secondary emission coefficient {delta} {sub max} with time was measured. The cathode after life experiment was analyzed by means of HRM, SEM, EDS and XRD. The results showed that {delta} {sub max} of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Mo cathode operating at 1100 deg. C under continuous electron bombardment of 300 W/cm{sup 2} was still about 2.5 after 1000 h operation, indicating that this kind of cathode had good anti-bombing insensitivity. In the internal part of the cathode, RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} (rare earth oxide) and molybdenum grains distributed alternately and there existed a certain relationship between crystallographic orientation of RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} and that of molybdenum. It was found that a RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer was formed on the surface after operation. The high {delta} {sub max} of La{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Mo cathode was related to the RE{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer on the surface and the amount of nanosized La{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles on the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer.

  11. Unconscious and out of control: subliminal priming is insensitive to observer expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, Erin K; Lam, Melanie Y; Franks, Ian M; Enns, James T; Chua, Romeo

    2013-09-01

    We asked whether the influence of an invisible prime on movement is dependent on conscious movement expectations. Participants reached to a central target, which triggered a directional prime-mask arrow sequence. Participants were instructed that the visible arrows (masks) would most often signal a movement modification in a specific (biased) direction. Kinematic analyses revealed that responses to the visible mask were influenced by participants' intentional bias, as movements were fastest when the more probable mask was displayed. In addition, responses were influenced by the invisible prime without regard to its relationship to the more probable mask. Analysis of the time of initial trajectory modifications revealed that both primes influenced responses in a similar manner after accounting for participants' bias. These results imply that invisible stimuli automatically activate their associated responses and that unconscious priming of the motor system is insensitive to the conscious expectations of the participant making the pointing movements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cyclin D1 in ASM Cells from Asthmatics Is Insensitive to Corticosteroid Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jodi C; Seidel, Petra; Schlosser, Tobias; Ramsay, Emma E; Ge, Qi; Ammit, Alaina J

    2012-01-01

    Hyperplasia of airway smooth muscle (ASM) is a feature of the remodelled airway in asthmatics. We examined the antiproliferative effectiveness of the corticosteroid dexamethasone on expression of the key regulator of G(1) cell cycle progression-cyclin D1-in ASM cells from nonasthmatics and asthmatics stimulated with the mitogen platelet-derived growth factor BB. While cyclin D1 mRNA and protein expression were repressed in cells from nonasthmatics in contrast, cyclin D1 expression in asthmatics was resistant to inhibition by dexamethasone. This was independent of a repressive effect on glucocorticoid receptor translocation. Our results corroborate evidence demonstrating that corticosteroids inhibit mitogen-induced proliferation only in ASM cells from subjects without asthma and suggest that there are corticosteroid-insensitive proliferative pathways in asthmatics.

  13. Electromagnetic Power Harvester Using Wide-Angle and Polarization-Insensitive Metasurfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanming Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new wide-angle and polarization-insensitive metasurface (MS instead of traditional antenna is built as the primary ambient energy harvester in this paper. The MS is a two-dimensional energy harvesting array that is composed of subwavelength electrical small ring resonator that is working at 2.5 GHz (LTE/WiFi. In the case of different polarization and incidence angles, we demonstrate the metasurface can achieve high harvesting efficiency of 90%. The fabricated prototype of 9 × 9 MS energy harvesting array is measured, and the experimental results validate that the proposed MS has a good performance more than 80% of energy harvesting efficiency for arbitrary polarization and wide-angle incident waves. The good agreement of the simulation with the experiment results verifies the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed MS structure, which will provide a new source of supply in wireless sensor networks (WSN.

  14. Clinical features for diagnosis and management of patients with PRDM12 congenital insensitivity to pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Stella; Malik Sharif, Saghira; Chen, Ya-Chun; Valente, Enza-Maria; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Sheridan, Eamonn; Bennett, Christopher; Woods, Geoffrey

    2016-08-01

    Congenital insensitivity to pain (CIP) is a rare extreme phenotype characterised by an inability to perceive pain present from birth due to lack of, or malfunction of, nociceptors. PRDM12 has recently been identified as a new gene that can cause CIP. The full phenotype and natural history have not yet been reported. We have ascertained five adult patients and report their clinical features. Based on our findings, and those of previous patients, we describe the natural history of the PRDM12-CIP disorder, and derive diagnostic and management features to guide the clinical management of patients. PRDM12-CIP is a distinct and diagnosable disorder, and requires specific clinical management to minimise predictable complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Design and validation of a photon insensitive multidetector neutron spectrometer based on Dysprosium activation foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Ros, J.M.; Bedogni, R.; Palermo, I.; Esposito, A.; Delgado, A.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.

    2011-01-01

    This communication describes a photon insensitive passive neutron spectrometer consisting of Dysprosium (Dy) activation foils located along three perpendicular axes within a single moderating polyethylene sphere. The Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.6 was used to optimize the spatial arrangement of the detectors and to derive the spectrometer response matrix. Nearly isotropic response in terms of neutron fluence for energies up to 20 MeV was obtained by combining the readings of the detectors located at the same radius value. The spectrometer was calibrated using a previously characterized 14 MeV neutron beam produced in the ENEA Frascati Neutron Generator (FNG). The overall uncertainty of the spectrometer response matrix at 14 MeV, assessed on the basis of this experiment, was ±3%.

  16. Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone resistance or insensitivity): the personal experience 1958-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Zvi

    2004-03-01

    Clinical and laboratory investigations starting in 1958 of a group of dwarfed children resembling isolated GH deficiency but who had very high serum levels of GH led to the description of the syndrome of primary GH resistance or insensitivity (Laron syndrome) and subsequently to the discovery of its molecular defects residing in the GH receptor and leading to an inability of IGF-I generation. With the biosynthesis of IGF-I in 1986, therapeutic trials started. Continuously more and more patients are being diagnosed in many parts of the world with a variety of molecular defects. This syndrome proved to be a unique model that enables the study of the consequences of GH receptor defects, the physiopathology of GH-IGF-I disruption, and comparison of the GH-independent IGF-I effects. This review presents the personal experience gained from the study follow-up and treatment of the 60 patients followed up for many years in the Israeli cohort.

  17. Comparative skeletal features between Homo floresiensis and patients with primary growth hormone insensitivity (Laron Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Israel; Kornreich, Liora; Laron, Zvi

    2007-10-01

    Comparison between the skeletal remains of Homo floresiensis and the auxological and roentgenological findings in a large Israeli cohort of patients with Laron Syndrome (LS, primary or classical GH insensitivity or resistance) revealed striking morphological similarities, including extremely small stature and reduced cranial volume. LS is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a molecular defect of the Growth Hormone (GH) receptor or in the post-receptor cascades. Epidemiological studies have shown that LS occurs more often in consanguineous families and isolates, and it has been described in several countries in South East Asia. It is our conclusion that the findings from the island of Flores, which were attributed to a new species of the genus Homo, may in fact represent a local, highly inbred, Homo sapiens population in whom a mutation for the GH receptor had occurred. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Kennedy's disease and partial androgen insensitivity syndrome. Report of 4 cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera Yepes, Rocío; Virgili Casas, Maria; Povedano Panades, Monica; Guerrero Gual, Mireia; Villabona Artero, Carles

    2015-05-01

    Kennedy's disease, also known as bulbospinal muscular atrophy, is a rare, X-linked recessive neurodegenerative disorder affecting adult males. It is caused by expansion of an unstable cytosine-adenine-guanine tandem-repeat in exon 1 of the androgen-receptor gene on chromosome Xq11-12, and is characterized by spinal motor neuron progressive degeneration. Endocrinologically, these patients often have the features of hypogonadism associated to the androgen insensitivity syndrome, particularly its partial forms. We report 4 cases with the typical neurological presentation, consisting of slowly progressing generalized muscle weakness with atrophy and bulbar muscle involvement; these patients also had several endocrine manifestations; the most common non-neurological manifestation was gynecomastia. In all cases reported, molecular analysis showed an abnormal cytosine-adenine-guanine triplet repeat expansion in the androgen receptor gene. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Bilateral Gonadal Cysts and Late Diagnosis of Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Treated by Laparoscopic Gonadectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tourlakis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome is a rare syndrome in which the uterus is absent and testes rather than ovaries are present. Patients usually visit a gynecologist due to primary amenorrhea. Case. A forty-eight-year-old woman with lower abdominal pain and anamnesis of uterus agenesis was operated on due to bilateral cystic masses. A 5 × 3 × 1.2 cm left adnexal cyst revealed the presence of a serous cyst with a hypoplastic ductus deferens. A smaller cyst of the right adnexa revealed immature testis tissue with Leydig-cell hyperplasia. After karyotype and hormonal examinations, laparoscopic gonadectomy was performed. Conclusion. Attention should be paid in all cyst-removing operations in cases of uterus agenesis, due to the high incidence of malignancy. Not of less importance is the issue of informing the patient in the most appropriate way.

  20. Design and performance analysis of delay insensitive multi-ring structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1993-01-01

    A set of simple design and performance analysis techniques that have been successfully used to design a number of nontrivial delay insensitive circuits is described. Examples are building blocks for digital filters and a vector multiplier using a serial-parallel multiply and accumulate algorithm....... The vector multiplier circuit has been laid out, submitted for fabrication and successfully tested. Throughout the analysis elements from this design are used to illustrate the design and performance analysis techniques. The design technique is based on a data flow approach using pipelines and rings...... that are composed into larger multiring structures by joining and forking of signals. By limiting to this class of structures, it is possible, even for complex designs, to analyze the performance and establish an understanding of the bottlenecks....