WorldWideScience

Sample records for relative sizes distances

  1. Hotspot advance speed - hotspot size/core-hotspot distance relation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We examined the evolution of extragalactic radio sources using the observed corehotspot distance and hotspot size. Analysis indicates a fairly strong positive correlation in the ratio of core-hotspot distance to hotspot size between that of the approaching arm and the receding arm with a correlation coefficient of r ~ 0.7.

  2. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  3. Size of Douglas-fir trees in relation to distance from a mixed red alder - Douglas-fir stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.E. Miller; D.L. Reukema; T.A. Max

    1993-01-01

    Variation in diameter, height, and stem volume of 57-year-old Douglas-fir(Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) was related to distance of these trees from a 27 m wide strip in the same Douglas-fir plantation that had been interplanted with red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). Within the...

  4. Matrimonial distance, inbreeding coefficient and population size: Dhangar data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, P P; Malhotra, K C

    1979-01-01

    Data on the distance between the birthplaces of spouses (matrimonial distance) were collected from 2,260 married individuals belonging to 21 endogamous castes of the Dhangar (shepherd) cast-cluster of Maharashtra, India. The general form of the distribution of matrimonial distances is one which is extremely positively skewed and leptokurtic. The percentage of intra-village marriages generally decreases from the southern areas of Maharashtra to the northern areas of the state, as does the inbreeding coefficient. This situation is in conformity with the socio-cultural norms regulating matrimonial choice in south and north India. An attempt has been made to relate the degree of inbreeding to the mean matrimonial distance and population size. The mean matrimonial distance is more useful in predicting the degree of inbreeding than population size.

  5. Font size and viewing distance of handheld smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bababekova, Yuliya; Rosenfield, Mark; Hue, Jennifer E; Huang, Rae R

    2011-07-01

    The use of handheld smart phones for written communication is becoming ubiquitous in modern society. The relatively small screens found in these devices may necessitate close working distances and small text sizes, which can increase the demands placed on accommodation and vergence. Font size and viewing distance were measured while subjects used handheld electronic devices in two separate trials. In the first study (n=129), subjects were asked to show a typical text message on their own personal phone and to hold the device "as if they were about to read a text message." A second trial was conducted in a similar manner except subjects (n=100) were asked to view a specific web page from the internet. For text messages and internet viewing, the mean font size was 1.1 M (range, 0.7 to 2.1 M) and 0.8 M (range, 0.3 to 1.4 M), respectively. The mean working distance for text messages and internet viewing was 36.2 cm (range, 17.5 to 58.0 cm) and 32.2 cm (range, 19 to 60 cm), respectively. The mean font size for both conditions was comparable with newspaper print, although some subjects viewed text that was considerably smaller. However, the mean working distances were closer than the typical near working distance of 40 cm for adults when viewing hardcopy text. These close distances place increased demands on both accommodation and vergence, which could exacerbate symptoms. Practitioners need to consider the closer distances adopted while viewing material on smart phones when examining patients and prescribing refractive corrections for use at near, as well as when treating patients presenting with asthenopia associated with nearwork. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Optometry

  6. Social Distance and Intergenerational Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, I. Jane; Booth, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Questionnaires were administered to a sample of adults to assess the extent of social distance between people of different ages. The findings suggest that the greater the age difference (younger or older) between people, the greater the social distance they feel. (Author)

  7. LDPC Codes with Minimum Distance Proportional to Block Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes characterized by minimum Hamming distances proportional to block sizes have been demonstrated. Like the codes mentioned in the immediately preceding article, the present codes are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. The previously mentioned codes have low decoding thresholds and reasonably low error floors. However, the minimum Hamming distances of those codes do not grow linearly with code-block sizes. Codes that have this minimum-distance property exhibit very low error floors. Examples of such codes include regular LDPC codes with variable degrees of at least 3. Unfortunately, the decoding thresholds of regular LDPC codes are high. Hence, there is a need for LDPC codes characterized by both low decoding thresholds and, in order to obtain acceptably low error floors, minimum Hamming distances that are proportional to code-block sizes. The present codes were developed to satisfy this need. The minimum Hamming distances of the present codes have been shown, through consideration of ensemble-average weight enumerators, to be proportional to code block sizes. As in the cases of irregular ensembles, the properties of these codes are sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. A code having too few such nodes tends to have an iterative decoding threshold that is far from the capacity threshold. A code having too many such nodes tends not to exhibit a minimum distance that is proportional to block size. Results of computational simulations have shown that the decoding thresholds of codes of the present type are lower than those of regular LDPC codes. Included in the simulations were a few examples from a family of codes characterized by rates ranging from low to high and by thresholds that adhere closely to their respective channel capacity thresholds; the simulation results from these examples showed that the codes in question have low

  8. Nanoparticle heterodimers: The role of size and interparticle gap distance on the optical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokkath, Junais Habeeb

    2018-05-01

    Composite plasmonic nanostructures with controlled size, shape and relative arrangement is a subject of significant current research interest. Much of this is stimulated by the prospects by generating enormous near-field enhancements of the surface and interparticle gap regions for potential applications in surface-enhanced spectroscopies. In this manuscript, using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations, we investigate how the optical response in size matched homodimers and size mismatched heterodimers composed of Aluminum modify while varying the size and interparticle gap distances in the sub-nanometer range. Both systems show interesting optical response evolution. In particular, the size mismatched heterodimers show even more complex optical response evolution due to a symmetry-breaking in the system.

  9. Within- and cross-modal distance information disambiguate visual size-change perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W Battaglia

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Perception is fundamentally underconstrained because different combinations of object properties can generate the same sensory information. To disambiguate sensory information into estimates of scene properties, our brains incorporate prior knowledge and additional "auxiliary" (i.e., not directly relevant to desired scene property sensory information to constrain perceptual interpretations. For example, knowing the distance to an object helps in perceiving its size. The literature contains few demonstrations of the use of prior knowledge and auxiliary information in combined visual and haptic disambiguation and almost no examination of haptic disambiguation of vision beyond "bistable" stimuli. Previous studies have reported humans integrate multiple unambiguous sensations to perceive single, continuous object properties, like size or position. Here we test whether humans use visual and haptic information, individually and jointly, to disambiguate size from distance. We presented participants with a ball moving in depth with a changing diameter. Because no unambiguous distance information is available under monocular viewing, participants rely on prior assumptions about the ball's distance to disambiguate their -size percept. Presenting auxiliary binocular and/or haptic distance information augments participants' prior distance assumptions and improves their size judgment accuracy-though binocular cues were trusted more than haptic. Our results suggest both visual and haptic distance information disambiguate size perception, and we interpret these results in the context of probabilistic perceptual reasoning.

  10. Modelling the relation between income and commuting distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carra, Giulia; Mulalic, Ismir; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the distribution of commuting distances and its relation to income. Using data from Denmark, the UK and the USA, we show that the commuting distance is (i) broadly distributed with a slow decaying tail that can be fitted by a power law with exponent γ ≈ 3 and (ii) an average growing...

  11. Power and sample-size estimation for microbiome studies using pairwise distances and PERMANOVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Brendan J; Gross, Robert; Bittinger, Kyle; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Lewis, James D; Collman, Ronald G; Bushman, Frederic D; Li, Hongzhe

    2015-08-01

    The variation in community composition between microbiome samples, termed beta diversity, can be measured by pairwise distance based on either presence-absence or quantitative species abundance data. PERMANOVA, a permutation-based extension of multivariate analysis of variance to a matrix of pairwise distances, partitions within-group and between-group distances to permit assessment of the effect of an exposure or intervention (grouping factor) upon the sampled microbiome. Within-group distance and exposure/intervention effect size must be accurately modeled to estimate statistical power for a microbiome study that will be analyzed with pairwise distances and PERMANOVA. We present a framework for PERMANOVA power estimation tailored to marker-gene microbiome studies that will be analyzed by pairwise distances, which includes: (i) a novel method for distance matrix simulation that permits modeling of within-group pairwise distances according to pre-specified population parameters; (ii) a method to incorporate effects of different sizes within the simulated distance matrix; (iii) a simulation-based method for estimating PERMANOVA power from simulated distance matrices; and (iv) an R statistical software package that implements the above. Matrices of pairwise distances can be efficiently simulated to satisfy the triangle inequality and incorporate group-level effects, which are quantified by the adjusted coefficient of determination, omega-squared (ω2). From simulated distance matrices, available PERMANOVA power or necessary sample size can be estimated for a planned microbiome study. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Investigating Student Understanding of the Universe: Perceptions of Astronomical Sizes and Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarillo, Carmelita; Coble, K.; Hayes, V.; Nickerson, M.; Cochran, G. L.; Bailey, J. M.; McLin, K. M.; Cominsky, L. R.

    2011-05-01

    Student perceptions regarding astronomical sizes and distances are being analyzed for Chicago State University's Basic Astronomy course. This area is of great interest to further understand the students’ learning processes and to produce more effective instruction. Insights from cognitive psychology have shown that perceptions are related to prior experiences and current knowledge. Students enter into this course with different mental representations, and these representations can affect their learning. Through a repeated measures design, perceptions are analyzed through several instruments. The instruments implemented are pre-tests surveys (before lab), exams (after lab), lab comments, and interviews. Preliminary analysis reveals that students who have difficulty with astronomical sizes and distances have been more strongly influenced by culture and the media whereas those who had less difficulty expanded on their personal prior experiences. This project is part of a larger study; also see our posters on the structure of the universe, dark matter, the age and expansion of the universe. This work was supported by NASA ROSES E/PO Grant #NNXlOAC89G, as well as by the Illinois Space Grant Consortium and National Science Foundation CCLI Grant #0632563 at Chicago State University and the Fermi E/PO program at Sonoma State University.

  13. A Critique of Size-Related Anomalies.

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, Jonathan B

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that the size-related regularities in asset prices should not be regarded as anomalies. Indeed, the opposite result is demonstrated. Namely, a truly anomalous regularity would be if an inverse relation between size and return was not observed. We show theoretically (1) that the size-related regularities should be observed in the economy and (2) why size will in general explain the part of the cross-section of expected returns left unexplained by an incorrectly specified as...

  14. Role of a texture gradient in the perception of relative size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozawa, Junko

    2010-01-01

    Two theories regarding the role of a texture gradient in the perception of the relative size of objects are compared. Relational theory states that relative size is directly specified by the projective ratio of the numbers of texture elements spanned by objects. Distance calibration theory assumes that relative size is a product of visual angle and distance, once the distance is specified by the texture. Experiment 1 involved three variables: background (no texture, texture gradient patterns), the ratio of heights of the comparison stimulus to a standard (three levels), and angular vertical separation of the standard stimulus below the horizon (two levels). The effect of the retinal length of the comparison stimulus was examined in experiment 2. In both experiments, participants judged both the apparent size and distance of a comparison stimulus relative to a standard stimulus. Results suggest that the cues selected by observers to judge relative size were to some degree different from those used to judge relative distance. Relative size was strongly affected by a texture gradient and the retinal length of a comparison stimulus whereas relative distance perception was affected by relative height. When dominant cues that specify size are different from those which specify distance, relational theory might provide a better account of relative size perception than distance calibration theory.

  15. The effects of size, clutter, and complexity on vanishing-point distances in visual imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, T L; Baird, J C

    1993-01-01

    The portrayal of vanishing-point distances in visual imagery was examined in six experiments. In all experiments, subjects formed visual images of squares, and the squares were to be oriented orthogonally to subjects' line of sight. The squares differed in their level of surface complexity, and were either undivided, divided into 4 equally sized smaller squares, or divided into 16 equally sized smaller squares. Squares also differed in stated referent size, and ranged from 3 in. to 128 ft along each side. After subjects had formed an image of a specified square, they transformed their image so that the square was portrayed to move away from them. Eventually, the imaged square was portrayed to be so far away that if it were any further away, it could not be identified. Subjects estimated the distance to the square that was portrayed in their image at that time, the vanishing-point distance, and the relationship between stated referent size and imaged vanishing-point distance was best described by a power function with an exponent less than 1. In general, there were trends for exponents (slopes on log axes) to increase slightly and for multiplicative constants (y intercepts on log axes) to decrease as surface complexity increased. No differences in exponents or in multiplicative constants were found when the vanishing-point was approached from either subthreshold or suprathreshold directions. When clutter in the form of additional imaged objects located to either side of the primary imaged object was added to the image, the exponent of the vanishing-point function increased slightly and the multiplicative constant decreased. The success of a power function (and the failure of the size-distance invariance hypothesis) in describing the vanishing-point distance function calls into question the notions (a) that a constant grain size exists in the imaginal visual field at a given location and (b) that grain size specifies a lower limit in the storage of information in

  16. Characteristics Of Basaltic Sand: Size, Shape, And Composition As A Function Of Transport Process And Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, R. A.; Needell, Z. A.; Rose, T. R.

    2012-04-01

    Overview: The chemical and physical characteristics of sedimentary material can provide valuable clues about transport processes, distance traveled, and provenance, all of which are aspects of Martian geography that we would like to better understand. For a typical sedimentary deposit on Earth, for example, it has been shown that the ratio of feldspar to quartz can be used to assess the maturity (or transport distance) of a terrestrial deposit, because feldspar is more vulnerable to weathering than quartz. Further, chemical analysis can also be used to determine potential sediment sources, and grain-size sorting can be used to distinguish aeolian sediments (typically well-sorted) from fluvial sediments (poorly sorted in high energy environments). It is also common to use the shapes of individual quartz particles to determine transport process and distance, all of which can help us better understand the history of a sample of sedimentary material and the geological processes that created and emplaced it. These traditional sedimentological concepts are now being applied to our interpretation of Martian surface materials. Sullivan et al. [2008], for example, used grain-size and shape to assess eolian processes and to qualify transport distances of deposits found at the Spirit landing site in Gusev Crater. Stockstill-Cahill et al. [62008 used variations in mineral abundances observed in multispectral data to determine the provenance of dark dunes found in Amazonis Planitia craters. While applying our understanding of terrestrial sedimentary materials to Martian surface materials is intuitively sound and logical, the problem is that most of our current understanding is based on sediments derived from felsic materials (e.g., granite) primarily because that is the composition of most of the landmass on the Earth. However, the Martian surface is composed primarily of mafic material, or basalt, which generates much different sedimentary particles as it weathers. Instead of

  17. Genetic distances between the Utah Mormons and related populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, T; Jorde, L B; Skolnick, M H

    1984-01-01

    Gene frequency data, consisting of six red cell antigen loci, nine electrophoretic systems, and HLA-A and -B are reported for the Utah Mormon population. These are compared statistically to gene frequencies from at U.S. population, 13 European populations, and seven populations from three religious isolates. The Mormon gene frequencies are similar to those of their northern European ancestors. This is explained by the large founding size of the Mormon population and high rates of gene flow. In contrast, the religious isolates (Amish, Hutterites, and Mennonites) show marked divergence from their ancestral populations and each other, due to isolation and random genetic drift. The HLA loci and electrophoretic loci presented here yield sets of genetic distances that are highly correlated (r = .734) and that both correspond closely to the actual geographic distances among the European populations. The genetic distances based on red cell antigen loci correspond less closely to the geographic distances and exhibit lower correlations with both the HLA and electrophoretic loci (r = .524 and r = .565, respectively). PMID:6591796

  18. On the sizes of expander graphs and minimum distances of graph codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2014-01-01

    We give lower bounds for the minimum distances of graph codes based on expander graphs. The bounds depend only on the second eigenvalue of the graph and the parameters of the component codes. We also give an upper bound on the size of a degree regular graph with given second eigenvalue....

  19. Health-related doctoral distance education programmes: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health-related doctoral distance education programmes: A review of ethical scholarship considerations. ... Universities should encourage and support supervisors and students to publish research findings in academic journals and to present these at conferences. However, communities that participated in a research project ...

  20. Moving related to separation : who moves and to what distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Clara H.; Malmberg, Gunnar

    We address the issue of moving from the joint home on the occasion of separation. Our research question is: To what extent can the occurrence of moves related to separation, and the distance moved, be explained by ties to the location, resources, and other factors influencing the likelihood of

  1. Impact of Target Distance, Target Size, and Visual Acuity on the Video Head Impulse Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Paul D; Rodriguez, Amanda I; Barin, Kamran; Janky, Kristen L

    2018-05-01

    The video head impulse test (vHIT) assesses the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Few have evaluated whether environmental factors or visual acuity influence the vHIT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of target distance, target size, and visual acuity on vHIT outcomes. Thirty-eight normal controls and 8 subjects with vestibular loss (VL) participated. vHIT was completed at 3 distances and with 3 target sizes. Normal controls were subdivided on the basis of visual acuity. Corrective saccade frequency, corrective saccade amplitude, and gain were tabulated. In the normal control group, there were no significant effects of target size or visual acuity for any vHIT outcome parameters; however, gain increased as target distance decreased. The VL group demonstrated higher corrective saccade frequency and amplitude and lower gain as compared with controls. In conclusion, decreasing target distance increases gain for normal controls but not subjects with VL. Preliminarily, visual acuity does not affect vHIT outcomes.

  2. Iterative CT reconstruction with small pixel size: distance-driven forward projector versus Joseph's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, K.; Rassner, U.; Davidson, H. C.; Schöndube, H.; Stierstorfer, K.; Hornegger, J.; Noo, F.

    2015-03-01

    Over the last few years, iterative reconstruction methods have become an important research topic in x-ray CT imaging. This effort is motivated by increasing evidence that such methods may enable significant savings in terms of dose imparted to the patient. Conceptually, iterative reconstruction methods involve two important ingredients: the statistical model, which includes the forward projector, and a priori information in the image domain, which is expressed using a regularizer. Most often, the image pixel size is chosen to be equal (or close) to the detector pixel size (at field-of-view center). However, there are applications for which a smaller pixel size is desired. In this investigation, we focus on reconstruction with a pixel size that is twice smaller than the detector pixel size. Using such a small pixel size implies a large increase in computational effort when using the distance-driven method for forward projection, which models the detector size. On the other hand, the more efficient method of Joseph will create imbalances in the reconstruction of each pixel, in the sense that there will be large differences in the way each projection contributes to the pixels. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the impact of these imbalances on image quality in comparison with utilization of the distance-driven method. The evaluation involves computational effort, bias and noise metrics, and LROC analysis using human observers. The results show that Joseph's method largely remains attractive.

  3. Clustering for high-dimension, low-sample size data using distance vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Terada, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    In high-dimension, low-sample size (HDLSS) data, it is not always true that closeness of two objects reflects a hidden cluster structure. We point out the important fact that it is not the closeness, but the "values" of distance that contain information of the cluster structure in high-dimensional space. Based on this fact, we propose an efficient and simple clustering approach, called distance vector clustering, for HDLSS data. Under the assumptions given in the work of Hall et al. (2005), w...

  4. Testing General Relativity with the Shadow Size of Sgr A(*).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Tim; Broderick, Avery E; Plewa, Philipp M; Chatzopoulos, Sotiris; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Eisenhauer, Frank; Fish, Vincent L; Genzel, Reinhard; Gerhard, Ortwin; Johnson, Michael D

    2016-01-22

    In general relativity, the angular radius of the shadow of a black hole is primarily determined by its mass-to-distance ratio and depends only weakly on its spin and inclination. If general relativity is violated, however, the shadow size may also depend strongly on parametric deviations from the Kerr metric. Based on a reconstructed image of Sagittarius A^{*} (Sgr A^{*}) from a simulated one-day observing run of a seven-station Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) array, we employ a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm to demonstrate that such an observation can measure the angular radius of the shadow of Sgr A^{*} with an uncertainty of ∼1.5  μas (6%). We show that existing mass and distance measurements can be improved significantly when combined with upcoming EHT measurements of the shadow size and that tight constraints on potential deviations from the Kerr metric can be obtained.

  5. Distance and Size Perception in Astronauts during Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Clément

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to microgravity during spaceflight is known to elicit orientation illusions, errors in sensory localization, postural imbalance, changes in vestibulo-spinal and vestibulo-ocular reflexes, and space motion sickness. The objective of this experiment was to investigate whether an alteration in cognitive visual-spatial processing, such as the perception of distance and size of objects, is also taking place during prolonged exposure to microgravity. Our results show that astronauts on board the International Space Station exhibit biases in the perception of their environment. Objects’ heights and depths were perceived as taller and shallower, respectively, and distances were generally underestimated in orbit compared to Earth. These changes may occur because the perspective cues for depth are less salient in microgravity or the eye-height scaling of size is different when an observer is not standing on the ground. This finding has operational implications for human space exploration missions.

  6. Soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Rogério Teixeira; Junior, Ruy Casão; Werner, Simone Silmara; Junior, Luiz Antônio Zanão; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2016-07-01

    Crops close to small water bodies may exhibit changes in yield if the water mass causes significant changes in the microclimate of areas near the reservoir shoreline. The scientific literature describes this effect as occurring gradually, with higher intensity in the sites near the shoreline and decreasing intensity with distance from the reservoir. Experiments with two soybean cultivars were conducted during four crop seasons to evaluate soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir and determine the effect of air temperature and water availability on soybean crop yield. Fifteen experimental sites were distributed in three transects perpendicular to the Itaipu reservoir, covering an area at approximately 10 km from the shoreline. The yield gradient between the site closest to the reservoir and the sites farther away in each transect did not show a consistent trend, but varied as a function of distance, crop season, and cultivar. This finding indicates that the Itaipu reservoir does not affect the yield of soybean plants grown within approximately 10 km from the shoreline. In addition, the variation in yield among the experimental sites was not attributed to thermal conditions because the temperature was similar within transects. However, the crop water availability was responsible for higher differences in yield among the neighboring experimental sites related to water stress caused by spatial variability in rainfall, especially during the soybean reproductive period in January and February.

  7. Equivalence Testing of Complex Particle Size Distribution Profiles Based on Earth Mover's Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meng; Jiang, Xiaohui; Absar, Mohammad; Choi, Stephanie; Kozak, Darby; Shen, Meiyu; Weng, Yu-Ting; Zhao, Liang; Lionberger, Robert

    2018-04-12

    Particle size distribution (PSD) is an important property of particulates in drug products. In the evaluation of generic drug products formulated as suspensions, emulsions, and liposomes, the PSD comparisons between a test product and the branded product can provide useful information regarding in vitro and in vivo performance. Historically, the FDA has recommended the population bioequivalence (PBE) statistical approach to compare the PSD descriptors D50 and SPAN from test and reference products to support product equivalence. In this study, the earth mover's distance (EMD) is proposed as a new metric for comparing PSD particularly when the PSD profile exhibits complex distribution (e.g., multiple peaks) that is not accurately described by the D50 and SPAN descriptor. EMD is a statistical metric that measures the discrepancy (distance) between size distribution profiles without a prior assumption of the distribution. PBE is then adopted to perform statistical test to establish equivalence based on the calculated EMD distances. Simulations show that proposed EMD-based approach is effective in comparing test and reference profiles for equivalence testing and is superior compared to commonly used distance measures, e.g., Euclidean and Kolmogorov-Smirnov distances. The proposed approach was demonstrated by evaluating equivalence of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion PSDs that were manufactured under different conditions. Our results show that proposed approach can effectively pass an equivalent product (e.g., reference product against itself) and reject an inequivalent product (e.g., reference product against negative control), thus suggesting its usefulness in supporting bioequivalence determination of a test product to the reference product which both possess multimodal PSDs.

  8. Probing the cosmic distance duality relation using time delay lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Akshay; Mahajan, Shobhit; Mukherjee, Amitabha [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Jain, Deepak [Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College, University of Delhi, Sector-3, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); Holanda, R.F.L., E-mail: montirana1992@gmail.com, E-mail: djain@ddu.du.ac.in, E-mail: shobhit.mahajan@gmail.com, E-mail: amimukh@gmail.com, E-mail: holanda@uepb.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000, Aracaju—SE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The construction of the cosmic distance-duality relation (CDDR) has been widely studied. However, its consistency with various new observables remains a topic of interest. We present a new way to constrain the CDDR η( z ) using different dynamic and geometric properties of strong gravitational lenses (SGL) along with SNe Ia observations. We use a sample of 102 SGL with the measurement of corresponding velocity dispersion σ{sub 0} and Einstein radius θ {sub E} . In addition, we also use a dataset of 12 two image lensing systems containing the measure of time delay Δ t between source images. Jointly these two datasets give us the angular diameter distance D {sub A} {sub ol} of the lens. Further, for luminosity distance, we use the 740 observations from JLA compilation of SNe Ia. To study the combined behavior of these datasets we use a model independent method, Gaussian Process (GP). We also check the efficiency of GP by applying it on simulated datasets, which are generated in a phenomenological way by using realistic cosmological error bars. Finally, we conclude that the combined bounds from the SGL and SNe Ia observation do not favor any deviation of CDDR and are in concordance with the standard value (η=1) within 2σ confidence region, which further strengthens the theoretical acceptance of CDDR.

  9. Probing the distance-duality relation with high- z data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, R.F.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, 58429-500, Campina Grande—PB (Brazil); Busti, V.C. [Departamento de Física Matemática, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CEP 05508-090, São Paulo—SP (Brazil); Lima, F.S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58429-900, Campina Grande—PB (Brazil); Alcaniz, J.S., E-mail: holanda@uepb.edu.br, E-mail: viniciusbusti@gmail.com, E-mail: limasdl@bol.com.br, E-mail: alcaniz@on.br [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatório Nacional, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro—RJ (Brazil)

    2017-09-01

    Measurements of strong gravitational lensing jointly with type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) observations have been used to test the validity of the cosmic distance duality relation (CDDR), D{sub L}( z )/[(1+ z ){sup 2D{sub A}}( z )]=η=1, where D{sub L}(z) and D{sub A}(z) are the luminosity and the angular diameter distances to a given redshift z , respectively. However, several lensing systems lie in the interval 1.4 ≤ z ≤ 3.6 i.e., beyond the redshift range of current SNe Ia compilations ( z ≈ 1.50), which prevents this kind of test to be fully explored. In this paper, we circumvent this problem by testing the CDDR considering observations of strong gravitational lensing along with SNe Ia and (a subsample from) the latest gamma-ray burst distance modulus data, whose redshift range is 0.033 ≤ z ≤ 9.3. We parameterize their luminosity distances with a second degree polynomial function and search for possible deviations from the CDDR validity by using four different η( z ) functions: η( z )=1+η{sub 0z}, η( z )=1+η{sub 0z}/(1+ z ), η( z )=(1+ z ){sup η{sub 0}} and η( z )=1+η{sub 0ln}(1+ z ). Unlike previous tests done at redshifts lower than 1.50, the likelihood for η{sub 0} depends strongly on the η( z ) function considered, but we find no significant deviation from the CDDR validity (η{sub 0}=0). However, our analyses also point to the fact that caution is needed when one fits data in higher redshifts to test the CDDR as well as a better understanding of the mass distribution of lenses also is required for more accurate results.

  10. Protograph based LDPC codes with minimum distance linearly growing with block size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    We propose several LDPC code constructions that simultaneously achieve good threshold and error floor performance. Minimum distance is shown to grow linearly with block size (similar to regular codes of variable degree at least 3) by considering ensemble average weight enumerators. Our constructions are based on projected graph, or protograph, structures that support high-speed decoder implementations. As with irregular ensembles, our constructions are sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. A code with too few such nodes tends to have an iterative decoding threshold that is far from the capacity threshold. A code with too many such nodes tends to not exhibit a minimum distance that grows linearly in block length. In this paper we also show that precoding can be used to lower the threshold of regular LDPC codes. The decoding thresholds of the proposed codes, which have linearly increasing minimum distance in block size, outperform that of regular LDPC codes. Furthermore, a family of low to high rate codes, with thresholds that adhere closely to their respective channel capacity thresholds, is presented. Simulation results for a few example codes show that the proposed codes have low error floors as well as good threshold SNFt performance.

  11. Web page sorting algorithm based on query keyword distance relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han; Cui, Hong Gang; Tang, Hao

    2017-08-01

    In order to optimize the problem of page sorting, according to the search keywords in the web page in the relationship between the characteristics of the proposed query keywords clustering ideas. And it is converted into the degree of aggregation of the search keywords in the web page. Based on the PageRank algorithm, the clustering degree factor of the query keyword is added to make it possible to participate in the quantitative calculation. This paper proposes an improved algorithm for PageRank based on the distance relation between search keywords. The experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  12. Local Deep Hashing Matching of Aerial Images Based on Relative Distance and Absolute Distance Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suting Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerial images have features of high resolution, complex background, and usually require large amounts of calculation, however, most algorithms used in matching of aerial images adopt the shallow hand-crafted features expressed as floating-point descriptors (e.g., SIFT (Scale-invariant Feature Transform, SURF (Speeded Up Robust Features, which may suffer from poor matching speed and are not well represented in the literature. Here, we propose a novel Local Deep Hashing Matching (LDHM method for matching of aerial images with large size and with lower complexity or fast matching speed. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is to utilize the deep network model in the local area of the aerial images, and study the local features, as well as the hash function of the images. Firstly, according to the course overlap rate of aerial images, the algorithm extracts the local areas for matching to avoid the processing of redundant information. Secondly, a triplet network structure is proposed to mine the deep features of the patches of the local image, and the learned features are imported to the hash layer, thus obtaining the representation of a binary hash code. Thirdly, the constraints of the positive samples to the absolute distance are added on the basis of the triplet loss, a new objective function is constructed to optimize the parameters of the network and enhance the discriminating capabilities of image patch features. Finally, the obtained deep hash code of each image patch is used for the similarity comparison of the image patches in the Hamming space to complete the matching of aerial images. The proposed LDHM algorithm evaluates the UltraCam-D dataset and a set of actual aerial images, simulation result demonstrates that it may significantly outperform the state-of-the-art algorithm in terms of the efficiency and performance.

  13. Investigation of influence of falling rock size and shape on traveling distance due to earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochigi, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    In evaluation of seismic stability of surrounding slope in a nuclear power plant, as a part of residual risk evaluation, it is essential to confirm the effects of surrounding slope failure on a important structure, when slope failure probability is not sufficiently small for extremely large earthquake. So evaluation of slope failure potential based on a falling rocks analyses considering slope failure using discontinuous model such as distinct element method(DEM) will be employed in near future. But, these slope collapse analysis by discontinuous model needs determination of input data of falling rock size and shape, and some problems about determination method of these size and shape condition and analysis accuracy are remained. In this study, the results of slope collapse experiment by shaking table and numerical simulation of this experiment by DEM is conducted to clarify the influence of falling rock size and shape on traveling distance. As a results, it is indicated that more massive and larger rock model gives safety side evaluation for traveling distance. (author)

  14. Age-related distance esotropia: Clinical features and therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de Liaño Sánchez, P; Olavarri González, G; Merino Sanz, P; Escribano Villafruela, J C

    2016-12-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of a group of patients with age-related distance esotropia (ARDE). A retrospective study was conducted on a consecutive case series of 16 adult patients diagnosed with ARDE between 2008 and 2015. The clinical features evaluated included mean age and gender, primary position deviations at distance and near, measured in prism dioptres (pd), treatment offered in each case, and post-surgical deviations. Ductions and versions were full, with no evidence of lateral rectus paresis. None of these patients had any obvious underlying neurological disorder, such as, high myopia or thyroid disease. A good result is considered to be the disappearance of diplopia in all positions of gaze. A total of 16 patients (11 females [68.8%]) were identified. The mean age at diagnosis was 78.19±6.77 years. The mean initial esodeviation was 2.25±3.08 pd at near (-4 to +8 pd) and 9.5±4.18 pd at distance (2 to 18 pd). Treatment was not necessary in 5 cases because the symptoms were intermittent or well-tolerated. Of the 11 patients with symptoms, one was corrected with an external base therapeutic prism. Botulinum toxin was administered in another patient, without satisfactory results. Unilateral medial rectus muscle recession was performed on one patient, and unilateral lateral rectus plication on 7 patients, indicating prisms before surgery. One patient refused surgery despite continuous diplopia in far vision. After a mean follow-up of 16.5 months, all operated patients were asymptomatic. Not all patients with ARDE require treatment, as the tolerance to diplopia varies from one subject to another. Both medial rectus weakening and lateral rectus strengthening provides excellent results. Crown Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Hit size effectiveness in relation to the microdosimetric site size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, M.N.; Wuu, C.S.; Zaider, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of site size (that is, the diameter of the microdosimetric volume) on the hit size effectiveness function (HSEF), q(y), for several endpoints relevant in radiation protection. A Bayesian and maximum entropy approach is used to solve the integral equations that determine, given microdosimetric spectra and measured initial slopes, the function q(y). All microdosimetric spectra have been calculated de novo. The somewhat surprising conclusion of this analysis is that site size plays only a minor role in selecting the hit size effectiveness function q(y). It thus appears that practical means (e.g. conventional proportional counters) are already at hand to actually implement the HSEF as a radiation protection tool. (Author)

  16. Geographic distance and ecosystem size determine the distribution of smallest protists in lacustrine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepère, Cécile; Domaizon, Isabelle; Taïb, Najwa; Mangot, Jean-François; Bronner, Gisèle; Boucher, Delphine; Debroas, Didier

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of aquatic microbial diversity and the underlying mechanisms causing differences in community composition is a challenging and central goal for ecologists. Recent insights into protistan diversity and ecology are increasing the debate over their spatial distribution. In this study, we investigate the importance of spatial and environmental factors in shaping the small protists community structure in lakes. We analyzed small protists community composition (beta-diversity) and richness (alpha-diversity) at regional scale by different molecular methods targeting the gene coding for 18S rRNA gene (T-RFLP and 454 pyrosequencing). Our results show a distance-decay pattern for rare and dominant taxa and the spatial distribution of the latter followed the prediction of the island biogeography theory. Furthermore, geographic distances between lakes seem to be the main force shaping the protists community composition in the lakes studied here. Finally, the spatial distribution of protists was discussed at the global scale (11 worldwide distributed lakes) by comparing these results with those present in the public database. UniFrac analysis showed 18S rRNA gene OTUs compositions significantly different among most of lakes, and this difference does not seem to be related to the trophic status. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Relation between Distance Education Students' Motivation and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulimaris, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study, within the frame of self-determination theory (SDT), was triple: a) to examine the structural validity of the "Situational Motivation Scale" (SIMS) in the field of distance education, b) to investigate the correlation between the subscales of the motivation and satisfaction of students who attend distance…

  18. Power and sample-size estimation for microbiome studies using pairwise distances and PERMANOVA

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Brendan J.; Gross, Robert; Bittinger, Kyle; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Lewis, James D.; Collman, Ronald G.; Bushman, Frederic D.; Li, Hongzhe

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The variation in community composition between microbiome samples, termed beta diversity, can be measured by pairwise distance based on either presence–absence or quantitative species abundance data. PERMANOVA, a permutation-based extension of multivariate analysis of variance to a matrix of pairwise distances, partitions within-group and between-group distances to permit assessment of the effect of an exposure or intervention (grouping factor) upon the sampled microbiome. Within-...

  19. THE RELATION BETWEEN DISTANCE EDUCATION STUDENTS MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios GOULIMARIS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study, within the frame of self-determination theory (SDT, was triple: a to examine the structural validity of the “Situational Motivation Scale” (SIMS in the field of distance education, b to investigate the correlation between the subscales of the motivation and satisfaction of students who attend distance education classes and c to examine the possibility of predicting the subscales of satisfaction from the subscales of motivation in the open and distance education. The sample consisted of 144 students who participated in the course of “Arts II: Overview of Greek Music and Dance” of the Hellenic Open University. For the purposes of the study, two scales were used: a The modified Greek version (Papaioannou et al., 2007 of the “Situational Motivation Scale” (SIMS (Guay et al., 2000, b The modified Greek version (Theodorakis, & Bebetsos, 2003; Bebetsos, & Theodorakis, 2003 of the “Scale of Satisfaction” (Chelladurai & Riemer, 1997. The results of the research are considered positive for the adjustment of the instrument measuring the motivation of students in distance education. Identified regulation and intrinsic motivation presented high values, as much as the two subscales of satisfaction: personal outcome and leadership. Extrinsic motivation presented middle levels and the subscale amotivation, very low levels. The subscale personal outcome is connected positively to the self-determined forms of motivation and negatively to those which are less self-determined. Finally, it has been found that intrinsic motivation and amotivation are subscales which predict personal outcome and leadership. In conclusion, the findings of this research allow a better understanding of the motivation process, which explains the satisfaction of the students, while attending a class.

  20. The Relation Between Distance Education Students' Motivation And Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios GOULIMARIS

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study, within the frame of self-determination theory (SDT, was triple: a to examine the structural validity of the “Situational Motivation Scale” (SIMS in the field of distance education, b to investigate the correlation between the subscales of the motivation and satisfaction of students who attend distance education classes and c to examine the possibility of predicting the subscales of satisfaction from the subscales of motivation in the open and distance education. The sample consisted of 144 students who participated in the course of “Arts II: Overview of Greek Music and Dance” of the Hellenic Open University. For the purposes of the study, two scales were used: a The modified Greek version (Papaioannou et al., 2007 of the “Situational Motivation Scale” (SIMS (Guay et al., 2000, b The modified Greek version (Theodorakis, & Bebetsos, 2003; Bebetsos, & Theodorakis, 2003 of the “Scale of Satisfaction” (Chelladurai & Riemer, 1997. The results of the research are considered positive for the adjustment of the instrument measuring the motivation of students in distance education. Identified regulation and intrinsic motivation presented high values, as much as the two subscales of satisfaction: personal outcome and leadership. Extrinsic motivation presented middle levels and the subscale amotivation, very low levels. The subscale personal outcome is connected positively to the self-determined forms of motivation and negatively to those which are less self-determined. Finally, it has been found that intrinsic motivation and amotivation are subscales which predict personal outcome and leadership. In conclusion, the findings of this research allow a better understanding of the motivation process, which explains the satisfaction of the students, while attending a class.

  1. Meet the Parents? The Causal Effect of Family Size on the Geographic Distance between Adult Children and Older Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Holmlund, Helena; Rainer, Helmut; Siedler, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    An emerging question in demographic economics is whether there is a link between family size and the geographic distance between adult children and elderly parents. Given current population trends, understanding how different configurations of fam- ily size and sibship influence patterns of child-parent proximity is vitally important, as it impacts on issues such as intergenerational care and everyday mobility. It may be the case, for example, that larger families enable the responsibility of...

  2. Improved GPS-based Satellite Relative Navigation Using Femtosecond Laser Relative Distance Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjik Oh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study developed an approach for improving Carrier-phase Differential Global Positioning System (CDGPS based realtime satellite relative navigation by applying laser baseline measurement data. The robustness against the space operational environment was considered, and a Synthetic Wavelength Interferometer (SWI algorithm based on a femtosecond laser measurement model was developed. The phase differences between two laser wavelengths were combined to measure precise distance. Generated laser data were used to improve estimation accuracy for the float ambiguity of CDGPS data. Relative navigation simulations in real-time were performed using the extended Kalman filter algorithm. The GPS and laser-combined relative navigation accuracy was compared with GPS-only relative navigation solutions to determine the impact of laser data on relative navigation. In numerical simulations, the success rate of integer ambiguity resolution increased when laser data was added to GPS data. The relative navigational errors also improved five-fold and two-fold, relative to the GPS-only error, for 250 m and 5 km initial relative distances, respectively. The methodology developed in this study is suitable for application to future satellite formation-flying missions.

  3. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...

  4. Differences in the size-internal velocity relation of galactic and extragalactic HII regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    The nature of the size-internal velocity relation in extragalactic HII regions is examined in order to improve their use as distance determinants. The relation between the linear size and the internal velocity was compared for HII regions in the Galaxy and in external galaxies. Data for the former are from the researcher's own studies at high spatial resolution, while the latter have been the subject of spectroscopy that includes almost the entire objects. The Galactic HII regions are corrected to values of the internal velocity that would be observed if they were at extragalactic distances. A very different size-internal velocity relation was found for the two types of objects in the sense that the extragalactic objects are some ten times larger at the same internal velocity. This is interpreted to mean that the extragalactic HII regions are actually complexes of small HII regions comparable in size to their Galactic counterparts

  5. Hierarchical structure of genetic distances: Effects of matrix size, spatial distribution and correlation structure among gene frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Melo Rodrigues

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Geographic structure of genetic distances among local populations within species, based on allozyme data, has usually been evaluated by estimating genetic distances clustered with hierarchical algorithms, such as the unweighted pair-group method by arithmetic averages (UPGMA. The distortion produced in the clustering process is estimated by the cophenetic correlation coefficient. This hierarchical approach, however, can fail to produce an accurate representation of genetic distances among populations in a low dimensional space, especially when continuous (clinal or reticulate patterns of variation exist. In the present study, we analyzed 50 genetic distance matrices from the literature, for animal taxa ranging from Platyhelminthes to Mammalia, in order to determine in which situations the UPGMA is useful to understand patterns of genetic variation among populations. The cophenetic correlation coefficients, derived from UPGMA based on three types of genetic distance coefficients, were correlated with other parameters of each matrix, including number of populations, loci, alleles, maximum geographic distance among populations, relative magnitude of the first eigenvalue of covariance matrix among alleles and logarithm of body size. Most cophenetic correlations were higher than 0.80, and the highest values appeared for Nei's and Rogers' genetic distances. The relationship between cophenetic correlation coefficients and the other parameters analyzed was defined by an "envelope space", forming triangles in which higher values of cophenetic correlations are found for higher values in the parameters, though low values do not necessarily correspond to high cophenetic correlations. We concluded that UPGMA is useful to describe genetic distances based on large distance matrices (both in terms of elevated number of populations or alleles, when dimensionality of the system is low (matrices with large first eigenvalues or when local populations are separated

  6. Gender and Relational-Distance Effects in Arrests for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, William; DeMaris, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    This study tests two hypotheses regarding factors affecting arrest of the perpetrator in domestic violence incidents. Black's relational-distance thesis is that the probability of arrest increases with increasing relational distance between perpetrator and victim. Klinger's leniency principle suggests that the probability of arrest is lower for…

  7. Does the Waggle Dance Help Honey Bees to Forage at Greater Distances than Expected for their Body Size?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis L.W. Ratnieks

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A honey bee colony has been likened to an oil company. Some members of the company or colony prospect for valuable liquid resources. When these are discovered other group members can be recruited to exploit the resource. The recruitment of nestmates to a specific location where there is a patch of flowers should change the economics of scouting, that is, the search for new resource patches. In particular, communication is predicted to make scouting at longer distances worthwhile because a profitable resource patch, once discovered, will enhance the foraging not only of the discoverer but also of nestmates that can be directed to the patch. By virtue of having large colonies and dance communication, honey bees are predicted to be able to profitably scout, and hence forage, at greater distances from the nest than either solitary bees or social bees without communication. We test this hypothesis by first examining existing data on foraging distance to evaluate whether honey bees do indeed forage at greater distances than other bees given their body size. Second, we present a simple cost-benefit analysis of scouting which indicates that communication causes longer range scouting to be more profitable. Overall, our analyses are supportive, but not conclusive, that honey bees forage further than would be expected given their size and that the waggle dance is a cause of the honey bee’s exceptional foraging range.

  8. Two new tests to the distance duality relation with galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-da-Costa, Simony [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatório Nacional, Street General José Cristino, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Busti, Vinicius C. [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); Holanda, Rodrigo F.L., E-mail: simonycosta.nic@gmail.com, E-mail: vcbusti@astro.iag.usp.br, E-mail: holanda@uepb.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, Street Baraúnas, Campina Grande (Brazil)

    2015-10-01

    The cosmic distance duality relation is a milestone of cosmology involving the luminosity and angular diameter distances. Any departure of the relation points to new physics or systematic errors in the observations, therefore tests of the relation are extremely important to build a consistent cosmological framework. Here, two new tests are proposed based on galaxy clusters observations (angular diameter distance and gas mass fraction) and H(z) measurements. By applying Gaussian Processes, a non-parametric method, we are able to derive constraints on departures of the relation where no evidence of deviation is found in both methods, reinforcing the cosmological and astrophysical hypotheses adopted so far.

  9. Holding an object one is looking at : Kinesthetic information on the object's distance does not improve visual judgments of its size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenner, Eli; Van Damme, Wim J.M.; Smeets, Jeroen B.J.

    1997-01-01

    Visual judgments of distance are often inaccurate. Nevertheless, information on distance must be procured if retinal image size is to be used to judge an object's dimensions. In the present study, we examined whether kinesthetic information about an object's distance - based on the posture of the

  10. Quantifying the Ebbinghaus figure effect: Target size, context size, and target-context distance determine the presence and direction of the illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester eKnol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, visual illusions, like the Ebbinghaus figure, have become widespread to investigate functional segregation of the visual system. This segregation reveals itself, so it is claimed, in the insensitivity of movement to optical illusions. This claim, however, faces contradictory results (and interpretations in the literature. These contradictions may be due to methodological weaknesses in, and differences across studies, some of which may hide a lack of perceptual illusion effects. Indeed, despite the long history of research with the Ebbinghaus figure, standardized configurations to predict the illusion effect are missing. Here, we present a complete geometrical description of the Ebbinghaus figure with three target sizes compatible with Fitts’ task. Each trial consisted of a stimulus and an isolated probe. The probe was controlled by the participant’s response through a staircase procedure. The participant was asked whether the probe or target appeared bigger. The factors target size, context size, target-context distance, and a control condition resulted in a 3×3×3+3 factorial design. The results indicate that the illusion magnitude, the perceptual distinctiveness, and the response time depend on the context size, distance, and especially, target size. In 33% of the factor combinations there was no illusion effect. The illusion magnitude ranged from zero to (exceptionally ten percent of the target size. The small (or absent illusion effects on perception and its possible influence on motor tasks might have been overlooked or misinterpreted in previous studies. Our results provide a basis for the application of the Ebbinghaus figure in psychophysical and motor control studies.

  11. Relative efficiency and sample size for cluster randomized trials with variable cluster sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiying; Williams, O Dale; Aban, Inmaculada; Kabagambe, Edmond Kato; Tiwari, Hemant K; Cutter, Gary

    2011-02-01

    The statistical power of cluster randomized trials depends on two sample size components, the number of clusters per group and the numbers of individuals within clusters (cluster size). Variable cluster sizes are common and this variation alone may have significant impact on study power. Previous approaches have taken this into account by either adjusting total sample size using a designated design effect or adjusting the number of clusters according to an assessment of the relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes. This article defines a relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes using noncentrality parameters, investigates properties of this measure, and proposes an approach for adjusting the required sample size accordingly. We focus on comparing two groups with normally distributed outcomes using t-test, and use the noncentrality parameter to define the relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes and show that statistical power depends only on this parameter for a given number of clusters. We calculate the sample size required for an unequal cluster sizes trial to have the same power as one with equal cluster sizes. Relative efficiency based on the noncentrality parameter is straightforward to calculate and easy to interpret. It connects the required mean cluster size directly to the required sample size with equal cluster sizes. Consequently, our approach first determines the sample size requirements with equal cluster sizes for a pre-specified study power and then calculates the required mean cluster size while keeping the number of clusters unchanged. Our approach allows adjustment in mean cluster size alone or simultaneous adjustment in mean cluster size and number of clusters, and is a flexible alternative to and a useful complement to existing methods. Comparison indicated that we have defined a relative efficiency that is greater than the relative efficiency in the literature under some conditions. Our measure

  12. 3D finite element modeling of epiretinal stimulation: Impact of prosthetic electrode size and distance from the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xiaohong; Huang, Yu; Feng, Fuchen; Huang, Chenhui; Chan, Leanne Lai Hang; Wang, Guoxing

    2015-05-01

    A novel 3-dimensional (3D) finite element model was established to systematically investigate the impact of the diameter (Φ) of disc electrodes and the electrode-to-retina distance on the effectiveness of stimulation. The 3D finite element model was established based on a disc platinum stimulating electrode and a 6-layered retinal structure. The ground electrode was placed in the extraocular space in direct attachment with sclera and treated as a distant return electrode. An established criterion of electric-field strength of 1000 Vm-1 was adopted as the activation threshold for RGCs. The threshold current (TC) increased linearly with increasing Φ and electrode-to-retina distance and remained almost unchanged with further increases in diameter. However, the threshold charge density (TCD) increased dramatically with decreasing electrode diameter. TCD exceeded the electrode safety limit for an electrode diameter of 50 µm at an electrode-to-retina distance of 50 to 200 μm. The electric field distributions illustrated that smaller electrode diameters and shorter electrode-to-retina distances were preferred due to more localized excitation of RGC area under stimulation of different threshold currents in terms of varied electrode size and electrode-to-retina distances. Under the condition of same-amplitude current stimulation, a large electrode exhibited an improved potential spatial selectivity at large electrode-to-retina distances. Modeling results were consistent with those reported in animal electrophysiological experiments and clinical trials, validating the 3D finite element model of epiretinal stimulation. The computational model proved to be useful in optimizing the design of an epiretinal stimulating electrode for prosthesis.

  13. Germinant size of jack pine in relation to seed size and geographic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Yeatman

    1966-01-01

    The initial size of conifer seedlings is closely related to seed size (Hadders 1963), and seed size is a maternal characteristic that is highly subject to environmental modification (Mergen et al. 1964; Righter 1945). The effect of seed weight must be accounted for in critical studies of seedlings which attempt to attribute differences in growth to specific genetic or...

  14. Ecological correlates of relative brain size in some South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative brain size (size of the brain once body size effects have been removed) has been calculated for 16 species of rodent from South Africa and is shown to vary with six species having a positive RBS (that is a brain larger than expected) and 10 a negative RBS. Arboreal species such as Paraxerus cepapi and ...

  15. Distance metric learning for complex networks: Towards size-independent comparison of network structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbary, Sadegh; Motallebi, Sadegh; Rashidian, Sina; Habibi, Jafar; Movaghar, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Real networks show nontrivial topological properties such as community structure and long-tail degree distribution. Moreover, many network analysis applications are based on topological comparison of complex networks. Classification and clustering of networks, model selection, and anomaly detection are just some applications of network comparison. In these applications, an effective similarity metric is needed which, given two complex networks of possibly different sizes, evaluates the amount of similarity between the structural features of the two networks. Traditional graph comparison approaches, such as isomorphism-based methods, are not only too time consuming but also inappropriate to compare networks with different sizes. In this paper, we propose an intelligent method based on the genetic algorithms for integrating, selecting, and weighting the network features in order to develop an effective similarity measure for complex networks. The proposed similarity metric outperforms state of the art methods with respect to different evaluation criteria.

  16. Longer wings for faster springs - wing length relates to spring phenology in a long-distance migrant across its range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Steffen; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Emmenegger, Tamara; Amrhein, Valentin; Csörgő, Tibor; Gursoy, Arzu; Ilieva, Mihaela; Kverek, Pavel; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Pirrello, Simone; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Salewski, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In migratory birds, morphological adaptations for efficient migratory flight often oppose morphological adaptations for efficient behavior during resident periods. This includes adaptations in wing shape for either flying long distances or foraging in the vegetation and in climate-driven variation of body size. In addition, the timing of migratory flights and particularly the timely arrival at local breeding sites is crucial because fitness prospects depend on site-specific phenology. Thus, adaptations for efficient long-distance flights might be also related to conditions at destination areas. For an obligatory long-distance migrant, the common nightingale, we verified that wing length as the aerodynamically important trait, but not structural body size increased from the western to the eastern parts of the species range. In contrast with expectation from aerodynamic theory, however, wing length did not increase with increasing migration distances. Instead, wing length was associated with the phenology at breeding destinations, namely the speed of local spring green-up. We argue that longer wings are beneficial for adjusting migration speed to local conditions for birds breeding in habitats with fast spring green-up and thus short optimal arrival periods. We suggest that the speed of spring green-up at breeding sites is a fundamental variable determining the timing of migration that fine tune phenotypes in migrants across their range.

  17. Extending multivariate distance matrix regression with an effect size measure and the asymptotic null distribution of the test statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArtor, Daniel B; Lubke, Gitta H; Bergeman, C S

    2017-12-01

    Person-centered methods are useful for studying individual differences in terms of (dis)similarities between response profiles on multivariate outcomes. Multivariate distance matrix regression (MDMR) tests the significance of associations of response profile (dis)similarities and a set of predictors using permutation tests. This paper extends MDMR by deriving and empirically validating the asymptotic null distribution of its test statistic, and by proposing an effect size for individual outcome variables, which is shown to recover true associations. These extensions alleviate the computational burden of permutation tests currently used in MDMR and render more informative results, thus making MDMR accessible to new research domains.

  18. Relative brain size and morphology of some South African bats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-04-03

    Apr 3, 1987 ... closely related to basal metabolic rate than ecological factors (Hofman 1983 .... CBS values for the two rhinolophid species, and a single value for the ..... Relative brain size and demographic strategies in didelphid marsupials.

  19. Unimodal tree size distributions possibly result from relatively strong conservatism in intermediate size classes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Bin

    Full Text Available Tree size distributions have long been of interest to ecologists and foresters because they reflect fundamental demographic processes. Previous studies have assumed that size distributions are often associated with population trends or with the degree of shade tolerance. We tested these associations for 31 tree species in a 20 ha plot in a Dinghushan south subtropical forest in China. These species varied widely in growth form and shade-tolerance. We used 2005 and 2010 census data from that plot. We found that 23 species had reversed J shaped size distributions, and eight species had unimodal size distributions in 2005. On average, modal species had lower recruitment rates than reversed J species, while showing no significant difference in mortality rates, per capita population growth rates or shade-tolerance. We compared the observed size distributions with the equilibrium distributions projected from observed size-dependent growth and mortality. We found that observed distributions generally had the same shape as predicted equilibrium distributions in both unimodal and reversed J species, but there were statistically significant, important quantitative differences between observed and projected equilibrium size distributions in most species, suggesting that these populations are not at equilibrium and that this forest is changing over time. Almost all modal species had U-shaped size-dependent mortality and/or growth functions, with turning points of both mortality and growth at intermediate size classes close to the peak in the size distribution. These results show that modal size distributions do not necessarily indicate either population decline or shade-intolerance. Instead, the modal species in our study were characterized by a life history strategy of relatively strong conservatism in an intermediate size class, leading to very low growth and mortality in that size class, and thus to a peak in the size distribution at intermediate sizes.

  20. (Psychological) Distance Makes the Heart Grow Fonder: Effects of Psychological Distance and Relative Intelligence on Men's Attraction to Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Young, Ariana F; Eastwick, Paul W

    2015-11-01

    Interpersonal attraction may be shaped by (a) one's psychological distance from a target (the subjective experience that a target is close to or far from the self) and (b) the perceived standing of a target on a trait relative to the self (as better or worse than the self). We propose that when evaluating a psychologically distant target, individuals may rely on abstract schemas (e.g., the desirability of a partner's traits) and prefer targets who possess more (vs. less) desirable qualities than themselves. However, when evaluating psychologically near targets, concrete contextual details of the environment (e.g., how a target's behavior affects self-evaluations in the moment) may determine individuals' attraction toward targets. Six studies revealed that when evaluating psychologically distant targets, men showed greater attraction toward women who displayed more (vs. less) intelligence than themselves. In contrast, when targets were psychologically near, men showed less attraction toward women who outsmarted them. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  1. Benefits, barriers, and intentions/desires of nurses related to distance learning in rural island communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R; Richardson, Karol; Mobley, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    This study assessed distance learning needs among nurses on the Neighbor Islands in Hawaii. An exploratory study was conducted using a descriptive qualitative design. Of the 37 nurses who completed the study, 7 were nurse administrators and 30 were staff nurses. There were 18 focus groups of nurses recruited from six public hospitals on the Neighbor Islands. Three major themes related to distance learning emerged in this study: benefits, barriers, and intentions/desires. Each major theme had several linkages to categories and subcategories. Overall findings were as follows: (1) cost was mentioned more often in three major thematic areas (benefit, barriers, and intentions/desires); (2) the need to revisit and address current curriculum approaches and practices in distance learning programs was identified; and (3) strong recommendations were made for programs and organizational support for distance learning in hospital settings. These findings have implications for nursing research, education, and practice. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Social distance influences the outcome evaluation of cooperation and conflict: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yezi; Lu, Jiamei; Wang, Yiwen; Feng, Zhouqi; Yuan, Bo

    2017-04-24

    Previous research shows that social distance plays an important role in promoting cooperation and that subtle cues that reduce social distance increase the tendency to cooperate. However, it is unclear how social distance influences our outcome evaluation of cooperative and conflict feedback. The present study investigated the influence of social distance on cooperative and conflict behavior and the evaluation process of the cooperative and conflict outcomes, using the event-related potentials (ERPs) technique. We recorded ERPs from 14 normal adults playing a social game task against a friend and a stranger. The results showed that the FRN (Feedback Related Negativity) and P300 were affected by the opponent's choice to cooperate or aggress; however, only the P300 was affected by social distance. Specifically, when the opponent chose to cooperate, the feedback elicited a smaller FRN and a larger P300 amplitude; and compared with playing against friends, the P300 had a larger amplitude when participants gaming with strangers. Our results indicate that at the early stage of the evaluation of cooperation and conflict outcomes, individuals may initially and quickly encode the valence of outcomes, judging whether an outcome is consistent with their expectations. However, at the late stage, which involves a top-down cognitive appraisal process, some social factors, such as social distance, may moderate processing of attention resource allocation of feedback about outcomes, and of higher-level motivation/affective appraisal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders P; Adriaensen, Frank; Artemyev, Alexandr; Bańbura, Jerzy; Barba, Emilio; Biard, Clotilde; Blondel, Jacques; Bouslama, Zihad; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Camprodon, Jordi; Cecere, Francesco; Charmantier, Anne; Charter, Motti; Cichoń, Mariusz; Cusimano, Camillo; Czeszczewik, Dorota; Demeyrier, Virginie; Doligez, Blandine; Doutrelant, Claire; Dubiec, Anna; Eens, Marcel; Eeva, Tapio; Faivre, Bruno; Ferns, Peter N; Forsman, Jukka T; García-Del-Rey, Eduardo; Goldshtein, Aya; Goodenough, Anne E; Gosler, Andrew G; Góźdź, Iga; Grégoire, Arnaud; Gustafsson, Lars; Hartley, Ian R; Heeb, Philipp; Hinsley, Shelley A; Isenmann, Paul; Jacob, Staffan; Järvinen, Antero; Juškaitis, Rimvydas; Korpimäki, Erkki; Krams, Indrikis; Laaksonen, Toni; Leclercq, Bernard; Lehikoinen, Esa; Loukola, Olli; Lundberg, Arne; Mainwaring, Mark C; Mänd, Raivo; Massa, Bruno; Mazgajski, Tomasz D; Merino, Santiago; Mitrus, Cezary; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Morales-Fernaz, Judith; Morin, Xavier; Nager, Ruedi G; Nilsson, Jan-Åke; Nilsson, Sven G; Norte, Ana C; Orell, Markku; Perret, Philippe; Pimentel, Carla S; Pinxten, Rianne; Priedniece, Ilze; Quidoz, Marie-Claude; Remeš, Vladimir; Richner, Heinz; Robles, Hugo; Rytkönen, Seppo; Senar, Juan Carlos; Seppänen, Janne T; da Silva, Luís P; Slagsvold, Tore; Solonen, Tapio; Sorace, Alberto; Stenning, Martyn J; Török, János; Tryjanowski, Piotr; van Noordwijk, Arie J; von Numers, Mikael; Walankiewicz, Wiesław; Lambrechts, Marcel M

    2014-09-01

    Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg-laying. Parent birds should be selected to choose nest sites and to build optimally sized nests, yet our current understanding of clutch size-nest size relationships is limited to small-scale studies performed over short time periods. Here, we quantified the relationship between clutch size and nest size, using an exhaustive database of 116 slope estimates based on 17,472 nests of 21 species of hole and non-hole-nesting birds. There was a significant, positive relationship between clutch size and the base area of the nest box or the nest, and this relationship did not differ significantly between open nesting and hole-nesting species. The slope of the relationship showed significant intraspecific and interspecific heterogeneity among four species of secondary hole-nesting species, but also among all 116 slope estimates. The estimated relationship between clutch size and nest box base area in study sites with more than a single size of nest box was not significantly different from the relationship using studies with only a single size of nest box. The slope of the relationship between clutch size and nest base area in different species of birds was significantly negatively related to minimum base area, and less so to maximum base area in a given study. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that bird species have a general reaction norm reflecting the relationship between nest size and clutch size. Further, they suggest that scientists may influence the clutch size decisions of hole-nesting birds through the provisioning of nest boxes of varying sizes.

  4. Excessive Progression in Weekly Running Distance and Risk of Running-related Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R.O.; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    Study Design An explorative, 1-year prospective cohort study. Objective To examine whether an association between a sudden change in weekly running distance and running-related injury varies according to injury type. Background It is widely accepted that a sudden increase in running distance...... is strongly related to injury in runners. But the scientific knowledge supporting this assumption is limited. Methods A volunteer sample of 874 healthy novice runners who started a self-structured running regimen were provided a global-positioning-system watch. After each running session during the study...... period, participants were categorized into 1 of the following exposure groups, based on the progression of their weekly running distance: less than 10% or regression, 10% to 30%, or more than 30%. The primary outcome was running-related injury. Results A total of 202 runners sustained a running...

  5. Small population size of Pribilof Rock Sandpipers confirmed through distance-sampling surveys in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Dementyev, Maksim N.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    The Rock Sandpiper (Calidris ptilocnemis) is endemic to the Bering Sea region and unique among shorebirds in the North Pacific for wintering at high latitudes. The nominate subspecies, the Pribilof Rock Sandpiper (C. p. ptilocnemis), breeds on four isolated islands in the Bering Sea and appears to spend the winter primarily in Cook Inlet, Alaska. We used a stratified systematic sampling design and line-transect method to survey the entire breeding range of this population during springs 2001-2003. Densities were up to four times higher on the uninhabited and more northerly St. Matthew and Hall islands than on St. Paul and St. George islands, which both have small human settlements and introduced reindeer herds. Differences in density, however, appeared to be more related to differences in vegetation than to anthropogenic factors, raising some concern for prospective effects of climate change. We estimated the total population at 19 832 birds (95% CI 17 853–21 930), ranking it among the smallest of North American shorebird populations. To determine the vulnerability of C. p. ptilocnemis to anthropogenic and stochastic environmental threats, future studies should focus on determining the amount of gene flow among island subpopulations, the full extent of the subspecies' winter range, and the current trajectory of this small population.

  6. Immobilization thresholds of electrofishing relative to fish size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, C.R.; Miranda, L.E.

    2003-01-01

    Fish size and electrical waveforms have frequently been associated with variation in electrofishing effectiveness. Under controlled laboratory conditions, we measured the electrical power required by five electrical waveforms to immobilize eight fish species of diverse sizes and shapes. Fish size was indexed by total body length, surface area, volume, and weight; shape was indexed by the ratio of body length to body depth. Our objectives were to identify immobilization thresholds, elucidate the descriptors of fish size that were best associated with those immobilization thresholds, and determine whether the vulnerability of a species relative to other species remained constant across electrical treatments. The results confirmed that fish size is a key variable controlling the immobilization threshold and further suggested that the size descriptor best related to immobilization is fish volume. The peak power needed to immobilize fish decreased rapidly with increasing fish volume in small fish but decreased slowly for fish larger than 75-100 cm 3. Furthermore, when we controlled for size and shape, different waveforms did not favor particular species, possibly because of the overwhelming effect of body size. Many of the immobilization inconsistencies previously attributed to species might simply represent the effect of disparities in body size.

  7. Changes in the Floating Plastic Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea in Relation to the Distance to Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Stéphanie; Elineau, Amanda; Bruzaud, Stéphane; Crebassa, Jean-Claude; Dumontet, Bruno; Martí, Elisa; Gorsky, Gabriel; Cózar, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The composition, size distribution, and abundance of floating plastic debris in surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea were analyzed in relation to distance to land. We combined data from previously published reports with an intensive sampling in inshore waters of the Northwestern Mediterranean. The highest plastic concentrations were found in regions distant from from land as well as in the first kilometer adjacent to the coastline. In this nearshore water strip, plastic concentrations were significantly correlated with the nearness to a coastal human population, with local areas close to large human settlements showing hundreds of thousands of plastic pieces per km2. The ratio of plastic to plankton abundance reached particularly high values for the coastal surface waters. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamides were the predominant plastic polymers at all distances from coast (86 to 97% of total items), although the diversity of polymers was higher in the 1-km coastal water strip due to a higher frequency of polystyrene or polyacrylic fibers. The plastic size distributions showed a gradual increase in abundance toward small sizes indicating an efficient removal of small plastics from the surface. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of small fragments (plastic debris in areas closest to Mediterranean coast. The presence of a high concentration of plastic including tiny plastic items could have significant environmental, health and economic impacts. PMID:27556233

  8. Changes in the Floating Plastic Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea in Relation to the Distance to Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Petit, Stéphanie; Elineau, Amanda; Bruzaud, Stéphane; Crebassa, Jean-Claude; Dumontet, Bruno; Martí, Elisa; Gorsky, Gabriel; Cózar, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The composition, size distribution, and abundance of floating plastic debris in surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea were analyzed in relation to distance to land. We combined data from previously published reports with an intensive sampling in inshore waters of the Northwestern Mediterranean. The highest plastic concentrations were found in regions distant from from land as well as in the first kilometer adjacent to the coastline. In this nearshore water strip, plastic concentrations were significantly correlated with the nearness to a coastal human population, with local areas close to large human settlements showing hundreds of thousands of plastic pieces per km2. The ratio of plastic to plankton abundance reached particularly high values for the coastal surface waters. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamides were the predominant plastic polymers at all distances from coast (86 to 97% of total items), although the diversity of polymers was higher in the 1-km coastal water strip due to a higher frequency of polystyrene or polyacrylic fibers. The plastic size distributions showed a gradual increase in abundance toward small sizes indicating an efficient removal of small plastics from the surface. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of small fragments (plastic debris in areas closest to Mediterranean coast. The presence of a high concentration of plastic including tiny plastic items could have significant environmental, health and economic impacts.

  9. The Diagnostic Reproducibility of Tomosynthesis for the Correlation between Acromiohumeral Distance and Rotator Cuff Size or Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yoonah; Lee, Seunghun; Lee, Bong Gun; Joo, Young Bin; Song, Soon-Young

    2018-01-01

    To correlate the acromiohumeral distance (AHD) using tomosynthesis and rotator cuff (RC) pathology and various anatomical indices and to assess the diagnostic reproducibility of tomosynthesis for the evaluation of subacromial impingement. A retrospective review of 63 patients with clinically suspected subacromial impingement was conducted. Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently measured the following quantitative data: the AHD on plain radiographs and the AHD at three compartments (anterior, middle, and posterior) using tomosynthesis, computed tomography (CT) arthrography, or magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography. To investigate the association between the AHD and RC pathology and various anatomical indices, we reviewed the arthroscopic operation record as the referenced standard. The size of rotator cuff tear (RCT) in full-thickness tears displayed a significant inverse correlation with the middle and the posterior tomosynthetic AHDs ( p tomosynthesis, and CT or MR arthrography ( p tomosynthesis is reproducible compared with other modalities.

  10. A Relative-Localization Algorithm Using Incomplete Pairwise Distance Measurements for Underwater Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Y. Foo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of localizing underwater assets involves the relative localization of each unit using only pairwise distance measurements, usually obtained from time-of-arrival or time-delay-of-arrival measurements. In the fluctuating underwater environment, a complete set of pair-wise distance measurements can often be difficult to acquire, thus hindering a straightforward closed-form solution in deriving the assets' relative coordinates. An iterative multidimensional scaling approach is presented based upon a weighted-majorization algorithm that tolerates missing or inaccurate distance measurements. Substantial modifications are proposed to optimize the algorithm, while the effects of refractive propagation paths are considered. A parametric study of the algorithm based upon simulation results is shown. An acoustic field-trial was then carried out, presenting field measurements to highlight the practical implementation of this algorithm.

  11. Distance-based relative orbital elements determination for formation flying system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanchao; Xu, Ming; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The present paper deals with determination of relative orbital elements based only on distance between satellites in the formation flying system, which has potential application in engineering, especially suited for rapid orbit determination required missions. A geometric simplification is performed to reduce the formation configuration in three-dimensional space to a plane. Then the equivalent actual configuration deviating from its nominal design is introduced to derive a group of autonomous linear equations on the mapping between the relative orbital elements differences and distance errors. The primary linear equations-based algorithm is initially proposed to conduct the rapid and precise determination of the relative orbital elements without the complex computation, which is further improved by least-squares method with more distance measurements taken into consideration. Numerical simulations and comparisons with traditional approaches are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. To assess the performance of the two proposed algorithms, accuracy validation and Monte Carlo simulations are implemented in the presence of noises of distance measurements and the leader's absolute orbital elements. It is demonstrated that the relative orbital elements determination accuracy of two approaches reaches more than 90% and even close to the actual values for the least-squares improved one. The proposed approaches can be alternates for relative orbit determination without assistance of additional facilities in engineering for their fairly high efficiency with accuracy and autonomy.

  12. ALS-based hummock size-distance relationship assessment of Mt Shasta debris avalanche deposit, Northern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortini, Riccardo; Carn, Simon; van Wyk de Vries, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The failure of destabilized volcano flanks is a likely occurrence during the lifetime of a stratovolcano, generating large debris avalanches and drastically changing landforms around volcanoes. The significant hazards associated with these events in the Cascade range were demonstrated, for example, by the collapse of Mt St Helens (WA), which triggered its devastating explosive eruption in 1980. The rapid modification of the landforms due to these events makes it difficult to estimate the magnitude of prehistoric avalanches. However, the widespread preservation of hummocks along the course of rockslide-debris avalanches is highly significant for understanding the physical characteristics of these landslides. Mt Shasta is a 4,317 m high, snow-capped, steep-sloped stratovolcano located in Northern California. The current edifice began forming on the remnants of an ancestral Mt Shasta that collapsed ~300-380k years ago producing one of the largest debris avalanches known on Earth. The debris avalanche deposit (DAD) covers a surface of ~450 km2 across the Shasta valley, with an estimated volume of ~26 km3. We analyze ALS data on hummocks from the prehistoric Shasta valley DAD in northern California (USA) to derive the relationship between hummock size and distance from landslide source, and interpret the geomorphic significance of the intercept and slope coefficients of the observed functional relationships. Given the limited extent of the ALS survey (i.e. 40 km2), the high-resolution dataset is used for validation of the morphological parameters extracted from freely available, broader coverage DTMs such as the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The ALS dataset also permits the identification of subtle topographic features not apparent in the field or in coarser resolution datasets, including a previously unmapped fault, of crucial importance for both seismic and volcanic hazard assessment in volcanic areas. We present evidence from the Shasta DAD of neotectonic

  13. Chronotype, sleep quality and sleep duration in adult distance education: Not related to study progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Research in traditional education shows chronotype, sleep duration and sleep quality to be related to learning performance. Research in adult students participating in distance education (DE) is scarce. This study aims to provide knowledge on these relationships in this educational setting. In an

  14. Size matters: abundance matching, galaxy sizes, and the Tully-Fisher relation in EAGLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Ismael; Navarro, Julio F.; Abadi, Mario G.; Sales, Laura V.; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom

    2017-02-01

    The Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) links the stellar mass of a disc galaxy, Mstr, to its rotation speed: it is well approximated by a power law, shows little scatter, and evolves weakly with redshift. The relation has been interpreted as reflecting the mass-velocity scaling (M ∝ V3) of dark matter haloes, but this interpretation has been called into question by abundance-matching (AM) models, which predict the galaxy-halo mass relation to deviate substantially from a single power law and to evolve rapidly with redshift. We study the TFR of luminous spirals and its relation to AM using the EAGLE set of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological simulations. Matching both relations requires disc sizes to satisfy constraints given by the concentration of haloes and their response to galaxy assembly. EAGLE galaxies approximately match these constraints and show a tight mass-velocity scaling that compares favourably with the observed TFR. The TFR is degenerate to changes in galaxy formation efficiency and the mass-size relation; simulations that fail to match the galaxy stellar mass function may fit the observed TFR if galaxies follow a different mass-size relation. The small scatter in the simulated TFR results because, at fixed halo mass, galaxy mass and rotation speed correlate strongly, scattering galaxies along the main relation. EAGLE galaxies evolve with lookback time following approximately the prescriptions of AM models and the observed mass-size relation of bright spirals, leading to a weak TFR evolution consistent with observation out to z = 1. ΛCDM models that match both the abundance and size of galaxies as a function of stellar mass have no difficulty reproducing the observed TFR and its evolution.

  15. Relation between the ion size and pore size for an electric double-layer capacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largeot, Celine; Portet, Cristelle; Chmiola, John; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Gogotsi, Yury; Simon, Patrice

    2008-03-05

    The research on electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC), also known as supercapacitors or ultracapacitors, is quickly expanding because their power delivery performance fills the gap between dielectric capacitors and traditional batteries. However, many fundamental questions, such as the relations between the pore size of carbon electrodes, ion size of the electrolyte, and the capacitance have not yet been fully answered. We show that the pore size leading to the maximum double-layer capacitance of a TiC-derived carbon electrode in a solvent-free ethyl-methylimmidazolium-bis(trifluoro-methane-sulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI) ionic liquid is roughly equal to the ion size (approximately 0.7 nm). The capacitance values of TiC-CDC produced at 500 degrees C are more than 160 F/g and 85 F/cm(3) at 60 degrees C, while standard activated carbons with larger pores and a broader pore size distribution present capacitance values lower than 100 F/g and 50 F/cm(3) in ionic liquids. A significant drop in capacitance has been observed in pores that were larger or smaller than the ion size by just an angstrom, suggesting that the pore size must be tuned with sub-angstrom accuracy when selecting a carbon/ion couple. This work suggests a general approach to EDLC design leading to the maximum energy density, which has been now proved for both solvated organic salts and solvent-free liquid electrolytes.

  16. Relative size predicts competitive outcome through 2 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liow, Lee Hsiang; Di Martino, Emanuela; Krzeminska, Malgorzata; Ramsfjell, Mali; Rust, Seabourne; Taylor, Paul D; Voje, Kjetil L

    2017-08-01

    Competition is an important biotic interaction that influences survival and reproduction. While competition on ecological timescales has received great attention, little is known about competition on evolutionary timescales. Do competitive abilities change over hundreds of thousands to millions of years? Can we predict competitive outcomes using phenotypic traits? How much do traits that confer competitive advantage and competitive outcomes change? Here we show, using communities of encrusting marine bryozoans spanning more than 2 million years, that size is a significant determinant of overgrowth outcomes: colonies with larger zooids tend to overgrow colonies with smaller zooids. We also detected temporally coordinated changes in average zooid sizes, suggesting that different species responded to a common external driver. Although species-specific average zooid sizes change over evolutionary timescales, species-specific competitive abilities seem relatively stable, suggesting that traits other than zooid size also control overgrowth outcomes and/or that evolutionary constraints are involved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  17. TESTING THE DISTANCE-DUALITY RELATION WITH GALAXY CLUSTERS AND TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda, R. F. L.; Lima, J. A. S.; Ribeiro, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, we propose a new and model-independent cosmological test for the distance-duality (DD) relation, η = D L (z)(1 + z) -2 /D A (z) = 1, where D L and D A are, respectively, the luminosity and angular diameter distances. For D L we consider two sub-samples of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) taken from Constitution data whereas D A distances are provided by two samples of galaxy clusters compiled by De Filippis et al. and Bonamente et al. by combining Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect and X-ray surface brightness. The SNe Ia redshifts of each sub-sample were carefully chosen to coincide with the ones of the associated galaxy cluster sample (Δz A (z) ape D L (z), we have tested the DD relation by assuming that η is a function of the redshift parameterized by two different expressions: η(z) = 1 + η 0 z and η(z) = 1 + η 0 z/(1 + z), where η 0 is a constant parameter quantifying a possible departure from the strict validity of the reciprocity relation (η 0 = 0). In the best scenario (linear parameterization), we obtain η 0 = -0.28 +0.44 -0.44 (2σ, statistical + systematic errors) for the De Filippis et al. sample (elliptical geometry), a result only marginally compatible with the DD relation. However, for the Bonamente et al. sample (spherical geometry) the constraint is η 0 = -0.42 +0.34 -0.34 (3σ, statistical + systematic errors), which is clearly incompatible with the duality-distance relation.

  18. Changes in the Floating Plastic Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea in Relation to the Distance to Land.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Pedrotti

    Full Text Available The composition, size distribution, and abundance of floating plastic debris in surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea were analyzed in relation to distance to land. We combined data from previously published reports with an intensive sampling in inshore waters of the Northwestern Mediterranean. The highest plastic concentrations were found in regions distant from from land as well as in the first kilometer adjacent to the coastline. In this nearshore water strip, plastic concentrations were significantly correlated with the nearness to a coastal human population, with local areas close to large human settlements showing hundreds of thousands of plastic pieces per km2. The ratio of plastic to plankton abundance reached particularly high values for the coastal surface waters. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamides were the predominant plastic polymers at all distances from coast (86 to 97% of total items, although the diversity of polymers was higher in the 1-km coastal water strip due to a higher frequency of polystyrene or polyacrylic fibers. The plastic size distributions showed a gradual increase in abundance toward small sizes indicating an efficient removal of small plastics from the surface. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of small fragments (< 2 mm was higher within the 1-km coastal water strip, suggesting a rapid fragmentation down along the shoreline, likely related with the washing ashore on the beaches. This study constitutes a first attempt to determine the impact of plastic debris in areas closest to Mediterranean coast. The presence of a high concentration of plastic including tiny plastic items could have significant environmental, health and economic impacts.

  19. Testing the Distance-Duality Relation in the Rh = ct Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Wang, F. Y.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we test the cosmic distance duality (CDD) relation using the luminosity distances from joint light-curve analysis (JLA) type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sample and angular diameter distance sample from galaxy clusters. The Rh = ct and ΛCDM models are considered. In order to compare the two models, we constrain the CCD relation and the SNe Ia light-curve parameters simultaneously. Considering the effects of Hubble constant, we find that η ≡ DA(1 + z)2/DL = 1 is valid at the 2σ confidence level in both models with H0 = 67.8 ± 0.9 km/s/Mpc. However, the CDD relation is valid at 3σ confidence level with H0 = 73.45 ± 1.66 km/s/Mpc. Using the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), we find that the ΛCDM model is very strongly preferred over the Rh = ct model with these data sets for the CDD relation test.

  20. Childhood cancer incidence in relation to distance from the former nuclear testing site in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaridze, D G; Li, N; Men, T; Duffy, S W

    1994-11-15

    Rates of childhood cancer between 1981 and 1990 in the 4 administrative zones of Kazakhstan were studied to assess the relationship, if any, with distance from nuclear testing sites. Risk of various cancers among children aged 14 years or younger were estimated in relation to distance from (1) a site where testing in air was performed before 1963, (2) a site where underground testing took place thereafter, and (3) a reservoir, known as "Atom Lake," created by 4 nuclear explosions in 1965. Risk of acute leukaemia rose significantly with increasing proximity of residence to the testing areas, although the absolute value of the risk gradient was relatively small. The relative risk for those living less than 200 km from the air-testing site was 1.76 compared with those living 400 km or more away from the site. Similar relative risks were observed for the underground site and "Atom Lake." There was also some evidence of increased risk of brain tumours in association with proximity to the test sites. In 2 of the 4 zones studied, there was substantial regional variation in acute leukaemia rates which was not attributable to distance from the test site. The findings may be affected by potential confounders, notably urban/rural status and ethnic factors.

  1. Relative brain size and morphology of some South African bats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measures of relative brain size and brain macromorphology are described for four species of Microchiroptera, two from the Vespertilionidae and two from the Rhinolophidae, and two species from the Pteropodidae (Megachiroptera). Four brain parameters (brain length, hemisphere length, brain width and brain height) were ...

  2. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate composition of small catfish, Mystus bleekeri, from Nala Daik, Sialkot, Pakistan was investigated and fluctuation in relation to body size and condition factor was carried out. Mean percentages for water, fat, protein and ash contents in the whole wet body weight of wild M. bleekeri were 77.87, 3.26, 15.01 and ...

  3. RELATIVE DISTANCE: THE KEY TO THE SHAPE OF HEPATIC BUILDING BLOCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan M Ruijter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The delineation and the shape of the smallest structural units of the liver is still the subject of debate. However,the blood flow from an upstream terminal branch of the portal vein to a downstream central vein is thought to induce a functional zonation in hepatocyte gene expression. This property was used to determine boundary conditions for the shape of the hepatic building blocks. Histochemical techniques that specifically label periportally or pericentrally expressed enzymes can be used to distinguish periportal and pericentral areas in a liver section. Pairs of images from aligned serial sections, one stained for a portal and the next for a central enzyme, are used. Segmentation and skeletonisation of these images results in the skeletons of the portal and central areas. Distance transformation with respect to these skeletons gives for each point in the image pair the distance to the nearest terminal branches of the portal vein and the central vein. For each point the relative position on the porto-central radius can then be calculated as its distance to a portal vein divided by the sum of its portal and its central distance. In the resulting relative radius image, the area occupied by 'zones' of equivalent relative radius can be measured. According to the principle of Delesse the relative area of a zone in the image is equal to the relative volume of that zone in the tissue. For structural units of plate-like, cylindrical or spherical shape, the relative volume of a zone is equal to the relative radius of that zone to the power 1, 2 or 3, respectively. Thus, the exponent in the relative area - relative radius relation gives information on the shape of the structural unit. Measurement of the areas of each relative radius zone and determination of the area - radius relation in images of random sections of adult mouse liver results in an exponent of 1.1. This suggests that the smallest structural unit of the mouse liver has the shape of a

  4. Relative ordering of square-norm distance correlations in open quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tao; Song Xue-Ke; Ye Liu

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the square-norm distance correlation dynamics of the Bell-diagonal states under different local decoherence channels, including phase flip, bit flip, and bit-phase flip channels by employing the geometric discord (GD) and its modified geometric discord (MGD), as the measures of the square-norm distance correlations. Moreover, an explicit comparison between them is made in detail. The results show that there is no distinct dominant relative ordering between them. Furthermore, we obtain that the GD just gradually deceases to zero, while MGD initially has a large freezing interval, and then suddenly changes in evolution. The longer the freezing interval, the less the MGD is. Interestingly, it is shown that the dynamic behaviors of the two geometric discords under the three noisy environments for the Werner-type initial states are the same. (general)

  5. Distance saturation product predicts health-related quality of life among sarcoidosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Julie M; Malaisamy, Subramanian; Dalal, Bhavinkumar D; Samarakoon, Priyan C; Parikh, Swapna R; Samavati, Lobelia

    2012-06-13

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic disease with different phenotypic manifestations. Health-related quality of life is an important aspect in sarcoidosis, yet difficult to measure. The objective of this study was to identify clinical markers predictive of poor quality of life in sarcoidosis patients that can be followed over time and targeted for intervention. We assessed the quality of life of 162 patients with confirmed sarcoidosis in a prospective, cross-sectional study using the Sarcoidosis Health Questionnaire (SHQ) and Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). We evaluated the validity of these questionnaires and sought to identify variables that would best explain the performance scores of the patients. On multivariate regression analyses, the very best composite model to predict total scores from both surveys was a model containing the distance-saturation product and Borg Dyspnea Scale score at the end of a 6-min walk test. This model could better predict SF-36 scores (R² = 0.33) than SHQ scores (R² = 0.24). Substitution of distanced walked in 6 min for the distance-saturation product in this model resulted in a lesser ability to predict both scores (R² = 0.26 for SF-36; R² = 0.22 for SHQ). Both the SHQ and SF-36 surveys are valuable tools in the assessment of health-related quality of life in sarcoidosis patients. The best model to predict quality of life among these patients, as determined by regression analyses, included the distance-saturation product and Borg score after the 6-min walk test. Both variables represent easily obtainable clinical parameters that can be followed over time and targeted for intervention.

  6. Effective source size as related to 252Cf neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Nobuo; Enomoto, Shigemasa; Tachikawa, Noboru; Nojiri, Toshiaki.

    1977-01-01

    The effective source size in 252 Cf thermal neutron radiography, relating to its geometrical unsharpness in image formation, is experimentally studied. A neutron radiographic system consists of a 160 μg 252 Cf neutron source, water moderator and divergent cadmium lined collimator. Thermal neutron image detection is performed with using a LiF scintillator and a high speed X-ray film to employ direct exposure method. The modulation transfer function, used for describing image quality, is derived from radiographic image corresponding to a cadmium plate with sharp edge. The modulation transfer function for the system is expressed by the product of the function for both geometrical and inherent unsharpness, and allows isolation of geometrical unsharpness as related to the effective size of the thermal neutron source. It is found to be 80 -- 90% of the collimator inlet diameter. (auth.)

  7. Voluntary resistance running with short distance enhances spatial memory related to hippocampal BDNF signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Chul; Okamoto, Masahiro; Liu, Yu Fan; Inoue, Koshiro; Matsui, Takashi; Nogami, Haruo; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-10-15

    Although voluntary running has beneficial effects on hippocampal cognitive functions if done abundantly, it is still uncertain whether resistance running would be the same. For this purpose, voluntary resistance wheel running (RWR) with a load is a suitable model, since it allows increased work levels and resultant muscular adaptation in fast-twitch muscle. Here, we examined whether RWR would have potential effects on hippocampal cognitive functions with enhanced hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as does wheel running without a load (WR). Ten-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to sedentary (Sed), WR, and RWR (to a maximum load of 30% of body weight) groups for 4 wk. We found that in RWR, work levels increased with load, but running distance decreased by about half, which elicited muscular adaptation for fast-twitch plantaris muscle without causing any negative stress effects. Both RWR and WR led to improved spatial learning and memory as well as gene expressions of hippocampal BDNF signaling-related molecules. RWR increased hippocampal BDNF, tyrosine-related kinase B (TrkB), and cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein levels, whereas WR increased only BDNF. With both exercise groups, there were correlations between spatial memory and BDNF protein (r = 0.41), p-CREB protein (r = 0.44), and work levels (r = 0.77). These results suggest that RWR plays a beneficial role in hippocampus-related cognitive functions associated with hippocampal BDNF signaling, even with short distances, and that work levels rather than running distance are more determinant of exercise-induced beneficial effects in wheel running with and without a load.

  8. Relation between intraocular pressure and size of transverse sinuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantarci, Mecit; Onbas, Omer; Alper, Fatih; Okur, Adnan; Dane, Senol; Gumustekin, Kenan; Aslankurt, Murat; Yazici, Ahmet Taylan

    2005-01-01

    There are asymmetries in the sizes of transverse sinus and intraocular pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between the asymmetry of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressures of right and left eyes. In this study, subjects were 63 male and 42 female medical school students, aged 18-21 years (mean±SD; 19.72±0.67 years). Subjects with neurological and ophthalmologic disease, particularly dural sinus thrombosis, myopia, trauma and glaucoma, were excluded the study. Subjects were divided into five groups according to the magnitudes of the right- and left-transverse sinuses in MR venography results. There is a functional relation between intraocular pressures of the right and left eyes and asymmetry of the transverse sinus. If the transverse sinus on one side is larger and its venous drainage is greater, the intraocular pressure of the eye on this side is lower. It can be speculated that the transverse sinus size may be associated with pathogenesis of diseases with increased intraocular pressure such as glaucoma. We aim to determine the relation between the size and drainage of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma in our next study. (orig.)

  9. Relation between intraocular pressure and size of transverse sinuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantarci, Mecit; Onbas, Omer; Alper, Fatih; Okur, Adnan [Atatuerk University, Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Dane, Senol; Gumustekin, Kenan [Atatuerk University, Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Aslankurt, Murat [Atatuerk University, Department of Ophtalmatology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Yazici, Ahmet Taylan [Beyoglu Goez Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-01-01

    There are asymmetries in the sizes of transverse sinus and intraocular pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between the asymmetry of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressures of right and left eyes. In this study, subjects were 63 male and 42 female medical school students, aged 18-21 years (mean{+-}SD; 19.72{+-}0.67 years). Subjects with neurological and ophthalmologic disease, particularly dural sinus thrombosis, myopia, trauma and glaucoma, were excluded the study. Subjects were divided into five groups according to the magnitudes of the right- and left-transverse sinuses in MR venography results. There is a functional relation between intraocular pressures of the right and left eyes and asymmetry of the transverse sinus. If the transverse sinus on one side is larger and its venous drainage is greater, the intraocular pressure of the eye on this side is lower. It can be speculated that the transverse sinus size may be associated with pathogenesis of diseases with increased intraocular pressure such as glaucoma. We aim to determine the relation between the size and drainage of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma in our next study. (orig.)

  10. A Multiple Criteria Decision Making Method Based on Relative Value Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyur Huan-jyh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new multiple criteria decision-making method called ERVD (election based on relative value distances. The s-shape value function is adopted to replace the expected utility function to describe the risk-averse and risk-seeking behavior of decision makers. Comparisons and experiments contrasting with the TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution method are carried out to verify the feasibility of using the proposed method to represent the decision makers’ preference in the decision making process. Our experimental results show that the proposed approach is an appropriate and effective MCDM method.

  11. Size effect related to damping caused by water submersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    An important effect of water submersion on the dynamic response of a structure is the increase in effective damping. The dynamic response of submerged structures is of interest in the nuclear power industry for reasons of operational safety during seismic and other dynamic excitations. In this paper, the added damping contribution that results from the viscosity of water and the dependence of the contribution on structural size are examined. Other factors considered are the applicable range of viscous damping with respect to displacement amplitude and, as far as damping is concerned, how far neighboring members must be from each other to respond as if in open water. An expression is derived for relating the damping value to structural size. Estimated added-damping values for representative fuel elements, fuel bundles, and main steam-pressure-relief-valve lines are given based on our derived expression for added damping

  12. Gender difference and age-related changes in performance at the long-distance duathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph A; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Pfeifer, Susanne; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Senn, Oliver

    2013-02-01

    The differences in gender- and the age-related changes in triathlon (i.e., swimming, cycling, and running) performances have been previously investigated, but data are missing for duathlon (i.e., running, cycling, and running). We investigated the participation and performance trends and the gender difference and the age-related decline in performance, at the "Powerman Zofingen" long-distance duathlon (10-km run, 150-km cycle, and 30-km run) from 2002 to 2011. During this period, there were 2,236 finishers (272 women and 1,964 men, respectively). Linear regression analyses for the 3 split times, and the total event time, demonstrated that running and cycling times were fairly stable during the last decade for both male and female elite duathletes. The top 10 overall gender differences in times were 16 ± 2, 17 ± 3, 15 ± 3, and 16 ± 5%, for the 10-km run, 150-km cycle, 30-km run and the overall race time, respectively. There was a significant (p triathlons, the age-related decline in the duathlon performance was more pronounced in running than in cycling. Athletes and coaches can use these findings to plan the career in long-distance duathletes with the age of peak performance between 25 and 39 years for both women and men.

  13. Relative tooth size at birth in primates: Life history correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy D; Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Bucher, Wade R; Vinyard, Christopher J; Bonar, Christopher J; Evans, Sian; Williams, Lawrence E; DeLeon, Valerie B

    2017-11-01

    Dental eruption schedules have been closely linked to life history variables. Here we examine a sample of 50 perinatal primates (28 species) to determine whether life history traits correlate with relative tooth size at birth. Newborn primates were studied using serial histological sectioning. Volumes of deciduous premolars (dp 2 -dp 4 ), replacement teeth (if any), and permanent molars (M 1-2/3 ) of the upper jaw were measured and residuals from cranial length were calculated with least squares regressions to obtain relative dental volumes (RDVs). Relative dental volumes of deciduous or permanent teeth have an unclear relationship with relative neonatal mass in all primates. Relative palatal length (RPL), used as a proxy for midfacial size, is significantly, positively correlated with larger deciduous and permanent postcanine teeth. However, when strepsirrhines alone are examined, larger RPL is correlated with smaller RDV of permanent teeth. In the full sample, RDVs of deciduous premolars are significantly negatively correlated with relative gestation length (RGL), but have no clear relationship with relative weaning age. RDVs of molars lack a clear relationship with RGL; later weaning is associated with larger molar RDV, although correlations are not significant. When strepsirrhines alone are analyzed, clearer trends are present: longer gestations or later weaning are associated with smaller deciduous and larger permanent postcanine teeth (only gestational length correlations are significant). Our results indicate a broad trend that primates with the shortest RGLs precociously develop deciduous teeth; in strepsirrhines, the opposite trend is seen for permanent molars. Anthropoids delay growth of permanent teeth, while strepsirrhines with short RGLs are growing replacement teeth concurrently. A comparison of neonatal volumes with existing information on extent of cusp mineralization indicates that growth of tooth germs and cusp mineralization may be selected for

  14. Contingent orienting or contingent capture: a size singleton matching the target-distractor size relation cannot capture attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Feng; Yin, Yue; Qi, Yue; Zhang, Kan

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we examined whether a peripheral size-singleton distractor that matches the target-distractor size relation can capture attention and disrupt central target identification. Three experiments consistently showed that a size singleton that matches the target-distractor size relation cannot capture attention when it appears outside of the attentional window, even though the same size singleton produces a cuing effect. In addition, a color singleton that matches the target color, instead of a size singleton that matches the target-distractor size relation, captures attention when it is outside of the attentional window. Thus, a size-relation-matched distractor is much weaker than a color-matched distractor in capturing attention and cannot capture attention when the distractor appears outside of the attentional window.

  15. THE SIZE-VIRIAL RADIUS RELATION OF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2013-01-01

    I use the abundance matching ansatz, which has proven to be successful in reproducing galaxy clustering and other statistics, to derive estimates of the virial radius, R 200 , for galaxies of different morphological types and a wide range of stellar masses. I show that over eight orders of magnitude in stellar mass galaxies of all morphological types follow an approximately linear relation between half-mass radius of their stellar distribution, r 1/2 , and virial radius, r 1/2 ≈ 0.015 R 200 , with scatter of ≈0.2 dex. Such scaling is in remarkable agreement with the expectation of models that assume that galaxy sizes are controlled by halo angular momentum, r 1/2 ∝λR 200 , where λ is the spin of galaxy parent halo. The scatter about the relation is comparable with the scatter expected from the distribution of λ. Moreover, I show that when the stellar and gas surface density profiles of galaxies of different morphological types are rescaled by the radius r n = 0.015 R 200 , the rescaled profiles follow approximately universal exponential (for late types) and de Vaucouleurs (for early types) form with scatter of only ≈30%-50% at R ≈ 1-3r n . Remarkably, both late- and early-type galaxies have similar mean stellar surface density profiles at R ∼> 1r n . The main difference between their stellar distributions is thus at R n . The results of this study imply that galaxy sizes and radial distribution of baryons are shaped primarily by properties of their parent halos and that the sizes of both late-type disks and early-type spheroids are controlled by halo angular momentum.

  16. Size matters: pitch dimensions constrain inter-team distances and surface area difference in small-sided soccer games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, Wouter; van der Plaats, Jorrit; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Pitch size varies in official soccer matches and differently sized pitches are adopted for tactical purposes in small-sided training games. Since interactive team behaviour emerges under con- straints, the authors evaluate the effect of pitch size (task) manipulations on interactive team behaviour

  17. Heavy metal content of lichens in relation to distance from a nickel smelter in Sudbury, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieboer, E; Ahmed, H M; Puckett, K J; Richardson, D H.S.

    1972-01-01

    The Sudbury region of Ontario has large deposits of nickel, iron, and copper, and thus a number of smelting plants which produce sulfur dioxide and heavy metal pollution. Since lichens are good indicators of SO/sub 2/ pollution levels, the pattern of heavy metal content in lichen species in the area of a copper smelter in Sudbury was correlated with distance from the smelter to ascertain whether lichens might also be good indicators of the amount of heavy metal fallout. The lichens were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. All seven species of lichens contained copper, iron, zinc, nickel, manganese, and lead. Cadmium and cobalt were detected in two species. Neither gold nor silver could be identified in lichen material with the tests used. A pollution model was developed and compared to field results. The simple dilution of the stack effluent was consistent with the fact that the lichen metal content was related to the reciprocal of the distance from the pollution source. The lichens from the area could tolerate simultaneously high concentrations of several heavy metals that are known to be toxic to other plants. The mechanism of metal uptake was not clearly established. The study showed that lichens and other epiphytes are potentially the most useful indicators of heavy metal fallout around industrial plants.

  18. Mother-Offspring Relations: Prey Quality and Maternal Size Affect Egg Size of an Acariphagous Lady Beetle in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric W. Riddick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated mother-offspring relations in a lady beetle Stethorus punctillum Weise that utilizes spider mites as prey. Our objectives were to determine if (1 prey quality affects egg size, (2 maternal size correlates with egg size, and (3 egg size affects hatching success. We fed predators spider mites Tetranychus urticae Koch from lima bean Phaseolus lunatus L. foliage in the laboratory. Mothers of unknown body size offered high rather than low quality spider mites since birth produced larger eggs. Mothers of known body size offered only high quality spider mites, produced eggs of variable size, but mean egg size correlated positively with hind femur length. Mothers laid their eggs singly, rather than in batches, and eggs were large relative to femur size. Egg size did not affect hatch success; mean hatch rate exceeded 95% regardless of egg size. In conclusion, the quality of prey consumed by S. punctillum mothers while in the larval stage can affect their size as adults and, consequently, the size of their eggs. The behavior of laying eggs singly, the positive relationship between maternal size and mean egg size, and the high rate of egg hatch suggest that S. punctillum mothers invest heavily in offspring.

  19. Relative distance between tracers as a measure of diffusivity within moving aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pönisch, Wolfram; Zaburdaev, Vasily

    2018-02-01

    Tracking of particles, be it a passive tracer or an actively moving bacterium in the growing bacterial colony, is a powerful technique to probe the physical properties of the environment of the particles. One of the most common measures of particle motion driven by fluctuations and random forces is its diffusivity, which is routinely obtained by measuring the mean squared displacement of the particles. However, often the tracer particles may be moving in a domain or an aggregate which itself experiences some regular or random motion and thus masks the diffusivity of tracers. Here we provide a method for assessing the diffusivity of tracer particles within mobile aggregates by measuring the so-called mean squared relative distance (MSRD) between two tracers. We provide analytical expressions for both the ensemble and time averaged MSRD allowing for direct identification of diffusivities from experimental data.

  20. The Quasar Accretion Disk Size-Black Hole Mass Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Christopher W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Morgan, Nicholas D.; Falco, Emilio E.

    2010-04-01

    We use the microlensing variability observed for 11 gravitationally lensed quasars to show that the accretion disk size at a rest-frame wavelength of 2500 Å is related to the black hole mass by log(R 2500/cm) = (15.78 ± 0.12) + (0.80 ± 0.17)log(M BH/109 M sun). This scaling is consistent with the expectation from thin-disk theory (R vprop M 2/3 BH), but when interpreted in terms of the standard thin-disk model (T vprop R -3/4), it implies that black holes radiate with very low efficiency, log(η) = -1.77 ± 0.29 + log(L/L E), where η =L/(\\dot{M}c^2). Only by making the maximum reasonable shifts in the average inclination, Eddington factors, and black hole masses can we raise the efficiency estimate to be marginally consistent with typical efficiency estimates (η ≈ 10%). With one exception, these sizes are larger by a factor of ~4 than the size needed to produce the observed 0.8 μm quasar flux by thermal radiation from a thin disk with the same T vprop R -3/4 temperature profile. While scattering a significant fraction of the disk emission on large scales or including a large fraction of contaminating line emission can reduce the size discrepancy, resolving it also appears to require that accretion disks have flatter temperature/surface brightness profiles. Based on observations obtained with the Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) 1.3 m, which is operated by the SMARTS Consortium, the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium, the WIYN Observatory which is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO), the 6.5 m Magellan Baade telescope, which is a collaboration between the observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (OCIW), University of Arizona, Harvard University, University of Michigan, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and observations made

  1. Tactile-Sight: A Sensory Substitution Device Based on Distance-Related Vibrotactile Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Cancar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensory substitution is a research field of increasing interest with regard to technical, applied and theoretical issues. Among the latter, it is of central interest to understand the form in which humans perceive the environment. Ecological psychology, among other approaches, proposes that we can detect higher-order informational variables (in the sense that they are defined over substantial spatial and temporal intervals that specify our interaction with the environment. When using a vibrotactile sensory substitution device, it is reasonable to ask if stimulation on the skin may be exploitable to detect higher-order variables. Motivated by this question, a portable vibrotactile sensory substitution device was built, using distance-based information as a source and driving a large number of vibrotactile actuators (72 in the reported version, 120 max. The portable device was designed to explore real environments, allowing natural unrestricted movement for the user while providing contingent real-time vibrotactile information. Two preliminary experiments were performed. In the first one, participants were asked to detect the time to contact of an approaching ball in a simulated (desktop environment. Reasonable performance was observed in all experimental conditions, including the one with only tactile stimulation. In the second experiment, a portable version of the device was used in a real environment, where participants were asked to hit an approaching ball. Participants were able to coordinate their arm movements with vibrotactile stimulation in appropriate timing. We conclude that vibrotactile flow can be generated by distance-based activation of the actuators and that this stimulation on the skin allows users to perceive time-to-contact related environmental properties.

  2. Social distance towards female sex workers and its relations to authoritarianism, social dominance orientation and self-respect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karić Tijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explored the in-group and outer-group social distance towards sex workers and its relations to authoritarianism, social dominance orientation and self-respect. The sample consisted of 92 participants from the general population and 45 female sex workers (age 18-50. The instruments used were the Bogardus social distance scale, the Authoritarianism scale UPA-S, the Social dominance orientation scale and the Rosenberg self-respect scale. The results indicate a rather high social distance towards sex workers, including the distance by the general population being higher than the distance of the sex workers towards their own group. The correlation of authoritarianism and social distance was significant, as was the correlation between authoritarian aggressiveness and stoicism and social distance. The relationship between social dominance orientation and self-respect and social distance in our research has been statistically insignificant, however it demonstrates the expected trends. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179002: Efekti egzistencijalne nesigurnosti na pojedinca i porodicu u Srbiji

  3. Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds

    OpenAIRE

    Moller Anders P.; Adriaensen Frank; Artemyev Alexandr; Banbura Jerzy; Barba Emilio; Biard Clotilde; Blondel Jacques; Bouslama Zihad; Bouvier Jean-Charles; Camprodon Jordi; Cecere Francesco; Charmantier Anne; Charter Motti; Cichon Mariusz; Cusimano Camillo

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 The Authors. Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg-laying. Parent birds should be selected to choose nest sites and to build optimally sized nests, yet our current understanding of clutch size-nest size relationships is limited...

  4. Reconstructing relative genome size of vascular plants through geological time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Barry H; Hilton, Jason; Bateman, Richard M; Upchurch, Garland R; Lake, Janice A; Leitch, Ilia J; Cromwell, Avery; Knight, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    The strong positive relationship evident between cell and genome size in both animals and plants forms the basis of using the size of stomatal guard cells as a proxy to track changes in plant genome size through geological time. We report for the first time a taxonomic fine-scale investigation into changes in stomatal guard-cell length and use these data to infer changes in genome size through the evolutionary history of land plants. Our data suggest that many of the earliest land plants had exceptionally large genome sizes and that a predicted overall trend of increasing genome size within individual lineages through geological time is not supported. However, maximum genome size steadily increases from the Mississippian (c. 360 million yr ago (Ma)) to the present. We hypothesise that the functional relationship between stomatal size, genome size and atmospheric CO2 may contribute to the dichotomy reported between preferential extinction of neopolyploids and the prevalence of palaeopolyploidy observed in DNA sequence data of extant vascular plants. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. Physician job satisfaction related to actual and preferred job size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Borleffs, Jan C C; Stewart, Roy E; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna

    2017-05-11

    Job satisfaction is essential for physicians' well-being and patient care. The work ethic of long days and hard work that has been advocated for decades is acknowledged as a threat for physicians' job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and preferred job size of physicians and to investigate how these and the differences between them influence physicians' job satisfaction. Data were retrieved from a larger, longitudinal study among physicians starting medical training at Groningen University in 1982/83/92/93 (N = 597). Data from 506 participants (85%) were available for this study. We used regression analysis to investigate the influence of job size on physicians' job satisfaction (13 aspects) and ANOVA to examine differences in job satisfaction between physicians wishing to retain, reduce or increase job size. The majority of the respondents (57%) had an actual job size less than 1.0 FTE. More than 80% of all respondents preferred not to work full-time in the future. Respondents' average actual and preferred job sizes were .85 FTE and .81 FTE, respectively. On average, respondents who wished to work less (35% of respondents) preferred a job size reduction of 0.18 FTE and those who wished to work more (12%) preferred an increase in job size of 0.16 FTE. Job size influenced satisfaction with balance work-private hours most (β = -.351). Physicians who preferred larger job sizes were - compared to the other groups of physicians - least satisfied with professional accomplishments. A considerable group of physicians reported a gap between actual and preferred job size. Realizing physicians' preferences as to job size will hardly affect total workforce, but may greatly benefit individual physicians as well as their patients and society. Therefore, it seems time for a shift in work ethic.

  6. Editorial ~ Does "Lean Thinking" Relate to Network-based Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S. Cookson

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Pointing to the “objectivised, rationalized, technologically-based interaction,” Peters (1973 referred to the then prevailing correspondence forms of distance education as “the most industrialized form of education” (p. 313. With such features as assembly line methods; division of labor; centralized processes of teaching materials development, production and dispatching; student admissions enrollment systems; automated registration, course allocation, and student support, and personnel management systems, distance education institutions demonstrated management structures and practices utilized in industrial and business organizations. Large numbers of courses and students were thus “processed” in correspondence, radio, and television-based distance education systems.

  7. Size does matter: Cre-mediated somatic deletion efficiency depends on the distance between the target lox-sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppoolse, E.R.; Vroomen, de M.J.; Gennip, van F.; Hersmus, B.J.M.; Haaren, van M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Cre/lox recombination in vivo has become an important tool to induce chromosomal rearrangements like deletions. Using a combination of Ds transposition and Cre/lox recombination in two independent experiments on chromosomes 6 and 7 of tomato, two sets of somatic deletions up to a size of 200 kb were

  8. The relations between forest fragmentation and bird community body size and biodiversity and bird community body size.

    OpenAIRE

    Hopman, F.

    2017-01-01

    Bachelor thesis Future Planet Studies, major biologie ABSTRACT Animal species with a larger body-size tend to have larger home ranges than small-bodied animals. Therefore it is likely that they are more affected by habitat fragmentation than small-bodied species. Body size of birds also seems to have a negative relation with species richness. This research has therefore looked into whether birds with a larger body-size are more sensitive to habitat fragmentation caused by forest...

  9. Symbolic Number Comparison Is Not Processed by the Analog Number System: Different Symbolic and Non-symbolic Numerical Distance and Size Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Krajcsi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available HIGHLIGHTSWe test whether symbolic number comparison is handled by an analog noisy system.Analog system model has systematic biases in describing symbolic number comparison.This suggests that symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are processed by different systems.Dominant numerical cognition models suppose that both symbolic and non-symbolic numbers are processed by the Analog Number System (ANS working according to Weber's law. It was proposed that in a number comparison task the numerical distance and size effects reflect a ratio-based performance which is the sign of the ANS activation. However, increasing number of findings and alternative models propose that symbolic and non-symbolic numbers might be processed by different representations. Importantly, alternative explanations may offer similar predictions to the ANS prediction, therefore, former evidence usually utilizing only the goodness of fit of the ANS prediction is not sufficient to support the ANS account. To test the ANS model more rigorously, a more extensive test is offered here. Several properties of the ANS predictions for the error rates, reaction times, and diffusion model drift rates were systematically analyzed in both non-symbolic dot comparison and symbolic Indo-Arabic comparison tasks. It was consistently found that while the ANS model's prediction is relatively good for the non-symbolic dot comparison, its prediction is poorer and systematically biased for the symbolic Indo-Arabic comparison. We conclude that only non-symbolic comparison is supported by the ANS, and symbolic number comparisons are processed by other representation.

  10. Universal relation for size dependent thermodynamic properties of metallic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shiyun; Qi, Weihong; Cheng, Yajuan; Huang, Baiyun; Wang, Mingpu; Li, Yejun

    2011-06-14

    The previous model on surface free energy has been extended to calculate size dependent thermodynamic properties (i.e., melting temperature, melting enthalpy, melting entropy, evaporation temperature, Curie temperature, Debye temperature and specific heat capacity) of nanoparticles. According to the quantitative calculation of size effects on the calculated thermodynamic properties, it is found that most thermodynamic properties of nanoparticles vary linearly with 1/D as a first approximation. In other words, the size dependent thermodynamic properties P(n) have the form of P(n) = P(b)(1 -K/D), in which P(b) is the corresponding bulk value and K is the material constant. This may be regarded as a scaling law for most of the size dependent thermodynamic properties for different materials. The present predictions are consistent literature values. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  11. Subalpine bumble bee foraging distances and densities in relation to flower availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Susan E

    2009-06-01

    Bees feed almost exclusively on nectar and pollen from flowers. However, little is known about how food availability limits bee populations, especially in high elevation areas. Foraging distances and relationships between forager densities and resource availability can provide insights into the potential for food limitation in mobile consumer populations. For example, if floral resources are limited, bee consumers should fly farther to forage, and they should be more abundant in areas with more flowers. I estimated subalpine bumble bee foraging distances by calculating forager recapture probabilities at increasing distances from eight marking locations. I measured forager and flower densities over the flowering season in six half-hectare plots. Because subalpine bumble bees have little time to build their colonies, they may forage over short distances and forager density may not be constrained by flower density. However, late in the season, when floral resources dwindle, foraging distances may increase, and there may be stronger relationships between forager and flower densities. Throughout the flowering season, marked bees were primarily found within 100 m (and never >1,000 m) from their original marking location, suggesting that they typically did not fly far to forage. Although the density of early season foraging queens increased with early-season flower density, the density of mid- and late-season workers and males did not vary with flower density. Short foraging distances and no relationships between mid- and late-season forager and flower densities suggest that high elevation bumble bees may have ample floral resources for colony growth reproduction.

  12. Long-term passive distance-bounded relative motion in the presence of TeX perturbations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, J.; Guo, J.; Gill, E.K.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents closed-form solutions for the problem of long-term satellite relative motion in the presence of J2 perturbations, and introduces a design methodology for long-term passive distance-bounded relative motion. There are two key ingredients of closed-form solutions.One is the model of

  13. Is family size related to adolescence mental hospitalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylmänen, Paula; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko; Riala, Kaisa

    2010-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between family size and psychiatric disorders of underage adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The study sample consisted of 508 adolescents (age 12-17) admitted to psychiatric impatient care between April 2001 and March 2006. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition-based psychiatric diagnoses and variables measuring family size were obtained from the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL). The family size of the general Finnish population was used as a reference population. There was a significant difference between the family size of the inpatient adolescents and the general population: 17.0% of adolescents came from large families (with 6 or more children) while the percentage in the general population was 3.3. A girl from a large family had an about 4-fold risk of psychosis other than schizophrenia. However, large family size was not associated with a risk for schizophrenia. Large family size was overrepresented among underage adolescents admitted for psychiatric hospitalization in Northern Finland. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Accessing doctors at times of need-measuring the distance tolerance of rural residents for health-related travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrail, Matthew Richard; Humphreys, John Stirling; Ward, Bernadette

    2015-05-29

    Poor access to doctors at times of need remains a significant impediment to achieving good health for many rural residents. The two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method has emerged as a key tool for measuring healthcare access in rural areas. However, the choice of catchment size, a key component of the 2SFCA method, is problematic because little is known about the distance tolerance of rural residents for health-related travel. Our study sought new evidence to test the hypothesis that residents of sparsely settled rural areas are prepared to travel further than residents of closely settled rural areas when accessing primary health care at times of need. A questionnaire survey of residents in five small rural communities of Victoria and New South Wales in Australia was used. The two outcome measures were current travel time to visit their usual doctor and maximum time prepared to travel to visit a doctor, both for non-emergency care. Kaplan-Meier charts were used to compare the association between increased distance and decreased travel propensity for closely-settled and sparsely-settled areas, and ordinal multivariate regression models tested significance after controlling for health-related travel moderating factors and town clustering. A total of 1079 questionnaires were completed with 363 from residents in closely-settled locations and 716 from residents in sparsely-settled areas. Residents of sparsely-settled communities travel, on average, 10 min further than residents of closely-settled communities (26.3 vs 16.9 min, p time prepared to travel (54.1 vs 31.9 min, p time remained significant after controlling for demographic and other constraints to access, such as transport availability or difficulties getting doctor appointments, as well as after controlling for town clustering and current travel times. Improved geographical access remains a key issue underpinning health policies designed to improve the provision of rural primary health care

  15. ON THE DISTANCE OF THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS USING CEPHEID NIR AND OPTICAL-NIR PERIOD-WESENHEIT RELATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inno, L.; Bono, G.; Buonanno, R.; Genovali, K.; Matsunaga, N.; Caputo, F.; Laney, C. D.; Marconi, M.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Primas, F.; Romaniello, M.

    2013-01-01

    We present the largest near-infrared (NIR) data sets, JHKs, ever collected for classical Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). We selected fundamental (FU) and first overtone (FO) pulsators, and found 4150 (2571 FU, 1579 FO) Cepheids for Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and 3042 (1840 FU, 1202 FO) for Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Current sample is 2-3 times larger than any sample used in previous investigations with NIR photometry. We also discuss optical VI photometry from OGLE-III. NIR and optical-NIR Period-Wesenheit (PW) relations are linear over the entire period range (0.0 FU ≤ 1.65) and their slopes are, within the intrinsic dispersions, common between the MCs. These are consistent with recent results from pulsation models and observations suggesting that the PW relations are minimally affected by the metal content. The new FU and FO PW relations were calibrated using a sample of Galactic Cepheids with distances based on trigonometric parallaxes and Cepheid pulsation models. By using FU Cepheids we found a true distance moduli of 18.45 ± 0.02(random) ± 0.10(systematic) mag (LMC) and 18.93 ± 0.02(random) ± 0.10(systematic) mag (SMC). These estimates are the weighted mean over 10 PW relations and the systematic errors account for uncertainties in the zero point and in the reddening law. We found similar distances using FO Cepheids (18.60 ± 0.03(random) ± 0.10(systematic) mag (LMC) and 19.12 ± 0.03(random) ± 0.10(systematic) mag (SMC)). These new MC distances lead to the relative distance, Δμ = 0.48 ± 0.03 mag (FU, log P = 1) and Δμ = 0.52 ± 0.03 mag (FO, log P = 0.5), which agrees quite well with previous estimates based on robust distance indicators.

  16. Broiler farm size in relation tot sustainability aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horne, van P.L.M.; Leenstra, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands the number of broiler farms has been reduced by 50%, while farm size doubled between 1990 and 2008. A debate on the positive and negative aspects of large farms emerge. Many entrepreneurs in the broiler sector use increase in scale as strategy to reduce production cost. However, a

  17. phosphorus sorption in relation to soil grain size and geochemical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    use and landscape in the Simiyu and Kagera River basins were determined using the Langmuir ... determination of key soil properties that .... deviation) of selected soil properties in the Simiyu (S) and Kagera (K) basins. Particle size. % dry weight. Sample. %. Sand. % Silt. % Clay. pH. Al2O3. Fe2O3. CaO. Na2O. K2O. S1.

  18. Effect of the relationship between particle size, inter-particle distance, and metal loading of carbon supported fuel cell catalysts on their catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Patricia Gon; Pires, Felipe I.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Perez, Joelma; Antolini, Ermete

    2012-09-01

    The effect of the relationship between particle size ( d), inter-particle distance ( x i ), and metal loading ( y) of carbon supported fuel cell Pt or PtRu catalysts on their catalytic activity, based on the optimum d (2.5-3 nm) and x i / d (>5) values, was evaluated. It was found that for y fuel cell electrode than that using catalysts with y ethanol oxidation on PtRu/C catalysts with same particle size and same degree of alloying but different metal loading. Tests in direct ethanol fuel cells showed that, compared to 20 wt% PtRu/C, the negative effect of the lower x i / d on the catalytic activity of 30 and 40 wt% PtRu/C catalysts was superior to the positive effect of the thinner catalyst layer.

  19. How Distance to a Non-Residential Parent Relates to Child Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz; Stratton, Leslie S.

    Family courts now encourage both parents to maintain contact with their children following separation/divorce, driven by the belief that such contact benefits the child. We test this assumption with a population sample of children from nonnuclear families in Denmark, using distance between non......-residential parents and their children to proxy for contact. The results indicate significantly better educational and behavioral outcomes for children at a greater distance. Failing to control for endogeneity biases the results in favor of more proximate parents. These findings suggest that policy efforts to keep...

  20. Oocyte size, egg index, and body lipid content in relation to body size in the solitary bee Megachile rotundata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Kevin M; Delphia, Casey M; O'Neill, Ruth P

    2014-01-01

    Females of solitary, nest-provisioning bees have relatively low fecundity, but produce large eggs as part of their overall strategy of investing substantially in each offspring. In intraspecific comparisons of several species of solitary, nest-provisioning bees and wasps, the size of the mature eggs produced increases with female body size. We further examined oocyte size-body size correlations in the solitary bee Megachile rotundata (F.), an important crop pollinator. We hypothesized that larger females carry larger basal oocytes (i.e., those next in line to be oviposited) but that body size-oocyte size correlations would be absent soon after emergence, before their first eggs fully matured. Because egg production is likely affected by the quantity of stored lipids carried over from the bees' immature stages, we also tested the hypothesis that female body size is correlated with the body lipid content at adult emergence, the time during which oocyte growth accelerates. We found significant correlations of body size with oocyte size variables chosen to reflect: (1) the magnitude of the investment in the next egg to be laid (i.e., the length and volume of the basal oocyte) and (2) the longer term potential to produce mature oocytes (i.e., the summed lengths and volumes of the three largest oocytes in each female). Positive correlations existed throughout the nesting season, even during the first week following adult emergence. The ability to produce and carry larger oocytes may be linked to larger females starting the nesting season with greater lipid stores (which we document here) or to greater space within the abdomen of larger females. Compared to other species of solitary bees, M. rotundata appears to have (1) smaller oocytes than solitary nest-provisioning bees in general, (2) comparable oocyte sizes relative to congeners, and (3) larger oocytes than related brood parasitic megachilids.

  1. Multicultural attitudes mediate the relation between personality and perceived ethnic outgroup distance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stupar, S.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Te Lindert, A.; Fontaine, J. R. J.

    2014-01-01

    We focus in the current study on associations between personality, multicultural attitudes, and perceived ethnic outgroup distance in the Netherlands. Data were collected among four different ethnic groups (from low to high in terms of ethnic hierarchy): Turkish/Moroccan-Dutch,

  2. Using Future Research Methods in Analysing Policies Relating to Open Distance Education in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoe, Mpine Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Many African countries have developed policies to reform their education system in order to widen participation in higher education. To achieve this, open, online and distance education based models have been advocated as the most viable delivery tools in expanding access to higher education. However, the policy analysis of Kenya, Rwanda and…

  3. Physician job satisfaction related to actual and preferred job size

    OpenAIRE

    Schmit Jongbloed, Lodewijk J.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    Background: Job satisfaction is essential for physicians' well-being and patient care. The work ethic of long days and hard work that has been advocated for decades is acknowledged as a threat for physicians' job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and preferred job size of physicians and to investigate how these and the differences between them influence physicians' job satisfaction. Method: Data were retrieved from a larger, longitudinal study a...

  4. Exact covariant results related to the redshift, aberration and luminosity distance for arbitrary spacetime and instantaneous observers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvao, Maurcio O.; Lago, Bruno L.; Reis, Ribamar R.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Full text: We start by emphasizing the importance of formalizing the the concepts of a (classical) relativistic instantaneous observer, observer, frame of reference (as distinct from a coordinate system or tetrad) and a local Lorentz boost. Then, as a first result, we apply their concrete definitions to obtain exact covariant expressions for the redshift and aberration, as well as for the redshift transformation under local Lorentz boosts. Afterwards we revisit the notion of luminosity distance, providing some clarifications which render its definition manifestly valid in a completely general setting (not only for comoving observers in the Robertson-Walker spacetime); therefrom we see clearly that (not unexpectedly) the luminosity distance is dependent on the instantaneous observers and we derive its corresponding exact, covariant transformation law. By Etherington's reciprocity theorem, analogous transformation laws can be obtained for other relativistic distances, e.g. the angular size one. The exact covariant transformation law for the luminosity distance has a particularly relevant application for the determination of the impact of peculiar motions on type Ia supernovae observations and data analysis, which is supposed to be one of the main systematic effects plaguing that probe. The redshift and aberration results, on the other hand, might be of interest for precise redshift drift and astrometric (e.g. Gaia) measurements, respectively. We conclude by listing some open avenues for generalizations. (author)

  5. Relation between particle size and properties of some bituminous coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.D.; Cheng, M.; Goulet, J.-C.; Furimsky, E. (CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Energy Research Laboratories)

    1990-02-01

    Coal fractions of different size distributions exhibited different H/C ratio, ash and sulphur contents, and surface structures. This was confirmed using two low-sulphur and two high-sulphur bituminous coals. The effect was much less pronounced for low-sulphur coals than for high-sulphur coals. A significant difference in properties was noted between the two high-sulphur coals in spite of similar basic compositional parameters. This was confirmed by the fractal dimensionality factor D of Illinois No. 6 coal, which exceeded the theoretical value. 14 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Turnover in intracranial aneurysm phantoms: its relation to neck size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Tae Sub; Lee, Young Jun; Rhim, Yoon Chul

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the physiologic background of aneurysms poorly visualized during 3D-TOF MRA, contrast-enhanced MRA (CEMRA) and DSA due to hemodynamic isolation. Using handmade elastic silicon phantoms to represent terminal basilar tip aneurysms, 3D-TOF MRA, CEMRA and DSA were used to determine blood turnover. Aneurysmal neck size was 2 mm and 10 mm, and the use of a pulsatile pump also helped recreate human physiologic parameters. We compared the results with those of computational fluid dynamics. DSA images of the narrow-necked aneurysm showed that a small volume of contrast medium washed into it during the systolic phase. As the width of its neck increased, the turnover volume of fragments of contrast bolus also increased. At CEMRA, the broad-necked aneurysm was visualized as the main bolus of Gd-DTPA passed through it, and at delayed CEMRA, the narrow-necked aneurysm was visualized faintly after the passage of bolus Gd-DTPA. The results correlated closely with those of 3D-TOF MRA and computational fluid dynamics. The visualization of intracranial aneurysms at 3D-TOF MRA, CEMRA and DSA was greatly dependent upon blood turnover, which varied according to aneurysmal neck size. A narrow-necked aneurysm might be missed at 3D-TOF MRA, CEMRA and DSA due to hemodynamic isolation

  7. On the impact of helium abundance on the Cepheid period-luminosity and Wesenheit relations and the distance ladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, R.; Brocato, E.; Raimondo, G.; Marconi, M.

    2017-08-01

    This work analyses the effect of the helium content on synthetic period-luminosity relations (PLRs) and period-Wesenheit relations (PWRs) of Cepheids and the systematic uncertainties on the derived distances that a hidden population of He-enhanced Cepheids may generate. We use new stellar and pulsation models to build a homogeneous and consistent framework to derive the Cepheid features. The Cepheid populations expected in synthetic colour-magnitude diagrams of young stellar systems (from 20 to 250 Myr) are computed in several photometric bands for Y = 0.25 and 0.35, at a fixed metallicity (Z = 0.008). The PLRs appear to be very similar in the two cases, with negligible effects (few per cent) on distances, while PWRs differ somewhat, with systematic uncertainties in deriving distances as high as ˜ 7 per cent at log P Statistical effects due to the number of variables used to determine the relations contribute to a distance systematic error of the order of few percent, with values decreasing from optical to near-infrared bands. The empirical PWRs derived from multiwavelength data sets for the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is in a very good agreement with our theoretical PWRs obtained with a standard He content, supporting the evidence that LMC Cepheids do not show any He effect.

  8. Oocyte size, egg index, and body lipid content in relation to body size in the solitary bee Megachile rotundata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. O’Neill

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Females of solitary, nest-provisioning bees have relatively low fecundity, but produce large eggs as part of their overall strategy of investing substantially in each offspring. In intraspecific comparisons of several species of solitary, nest-provisioning bees and wasps, the size of the mature eggs produced increases with female body size. We further examined oocyte size–body size correlations in the solitary bee Megachile rotundata (F., an important crop pollinator. We hypothesized that larger females carry larger basal oocytes (i.e., those next in line to be oviposited but that body size–oocyte size correlations would be absent soon after emergence, before their first eggs fully matured. Because egg production is likely affected by the quantity of stored lipids carried over from the bees’ immature stages, we also tested the hypothesis that female body size is correlated with the body lipid content at adult emergence, the time during which oocyte growth accelerates. We found significant correlations of body size with oocyte size variables chosen to reflect: (1 the magnitude of the investment in the next egg to be laid (i.e., the length and volume of the basal oocyte and (2 the longer term potential to produce mature oocytes (i.e., the summed lengths and volumes of the three largest oocytes in each female. Positive correlations existed throughout the nesting season, even during the first week following adult emergence. The ability to produce and carry larger oocytes may be linked to larger females starting the nesting season with greater lipid stores (which we document here or to greater space within the abdomen of larger females. Compared to other species of solitary bees, M. rotundata appears to have (1 smaller oocytes than solitary nest-provisioning bees in general, (2 comparable oocyte sizes relative to congeners, and (3 larger oocytes than related brood parasitic megachilids.

  9. Aerobic capacity related to cardiac size in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Wollmer, P; Karlsson, M

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base.......Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base....

  10. MORPHOLOGY OF GALAXY CLUSTERS: A COSMOLOGICAL MODEL-INDEPENDENT TEST OF THE COSMIC DISTANCE-DUALITY RELATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiaolei; Zhang Tongjie; Zhan Hu; Wang Xin

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at comparing different morphological models of galaxy clusters, we use two new methods to make a cosmological model-independent test of the distance-duality (DD) relation. The luminosity distances come from the Union2 compilation of Supernovae Type Ia. The angular diameter distances are given by two cluster models (De Filippis et al. and Bonamente et al.). The advantage of our methods is that they can reduce statistical errors. Concerning the morphological hypotheses for cluster models, it is mainly focused on the comparison between the elliptical β-model and spherical β-model. The spherical β-model is divided into two groups in terms of different reduction methods of angular diameter distances, i.e., the conservative spherical β-model and corrected spherical β-model. Our results show that the DD relation is consistent with the elliptical β-model at 1σ confidence level (CL) for both methods, whereas for almost all spherical β-model parameterizations, the DD relation can only be accommodated at 3σ CL, particularly for the conservative spherical β-model. In order to minimize systematic uncertainties, we also apply the test to the overlap sample, i.e., the same set of clusters modeled by both De Filippis et al. and Bonamente et al. It is found that the DD relation is compatible with the elliptically modeled overlap sample at 1σ CL; however, for most of the parameterizations the DD relation cannot be accommodated even at 3σ CL for any of the two spherical β-models. Therefore, it is reasonable that the marked triaxial ellipsoidal model is a better geometrical hypothesis describing the structure of the galaxy cluster compared with the spherical β-model if the DD relation is valid in cosmological observations.

  11. Lesion size in relation to ablation site during radiofrequency ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H H; Chen, X; Pietersen, A

    1998-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of the convective cooling of the tip of the ablation electrode during temperature controlled radiofrequency ablation. In vivo two different application sites in the left ventricle of anaesthetised pigs were ablated and in vitro ablation was perfor......This study was designed to investigate the effect of the convective cooling of the tip of the ablation electrode during temperature controlled radiofrequency ablation. In vivo two different application sites in the left ventricle of anaesthetised pigs were ablated and in vitro ablation...... was performed during two different flow-velocities in a tissue bath, while electrode contact pressure and position were unchanged. Target temperature was 80 degrees C. Obtained tip temperature, power consumption and lesion dimensions were measured. In vivo lesion volume, depth and width were found significantly.......61 in vitro). We conclude that during temperature controlled radiofrequency ablation lesion size differs for septal and apical left ventricular applications. Differences in convective cooling might play an important role in this respect. This is supported by our in vitro experiments, where increased...

  12. Women Build Long Bones With Less Cortical Mass Relative to Body Size and Bone Size Compared With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepsen, Karl J; Bigelow, Erin M R; Schlecht, Stephen H

    2015-08-01

    The twofold greater lifetime risk of fracturing a bone for white women compared with white men and black women has been attributed in part to differences in how the skeletal system accumulates bone mass during growth. On average, women build more slender long bones with less cortical area compared with men. Although slender bones are known to have a naturally lower cortical area compared with wider bones, it remains unclear whether the relatively lower cortical area of women is consistent with their increased slenderness or is reduced beyond that expected for the sex-specific differences in bone size and body size. Whether this sexual dimorphism is consistent with ethnic background and is recapitulated in the widely used mouse model also remains unclear. We asked (1) do black women build bones with reduced cortical area compared with black men; (2) do white women build bones with reduced cortical area compared with white men; and (3) do female mice build bones with reduced cortical area compared with male mice? Bone strength and cross-sectional morphology of adult human and mouse bone were calculated from quantitative CT images of the femoral midshaft. The data were tested for normality and regression analyses were used to test for differences in cortical area between men and women after adjusting for body size and bone size by general linear model (GLM). Linear regression analysis showed that the femurs of black women had 11% lower cortical area compared with those of black men after adjusting for body size and bone size (women: mean=357.7 mm2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 347.9-367.5 mm2; men: mean=400.1 mm2; 95% CI, 391.5-408.7 mm2; effect size=1.2; pbone size (women: mean=350.1 mm2; 95% CI, 340.4-359.8 mm2; men: mean=394.3 mm2; 95% CI, 386.5-402.1 mm2; effect size=1.3; pbone size (female: mean=0.73 mm2; 95% CI, 0.71-0.74 mm2; male: mean=0.70 mm2; 95% CI, 0.68-0.71 mm2; effect size=0.74; p=0.04, GLM). Female femurs are not simply a more slender version of male

  13. Distance from the growth plate and Its relation to the outcome of unicameral bone cyst treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Saadallah George; Culliford, David J; Gent, Edward David; Clarke, Nicholas M P

    2011-04-01

    Interventions to treat unicameral bone cysts vary. Nonetheless, regardless of the intervention modality, the outcome is not certain. The purpose of this study was to determine if the distance between the growth plate and the cyst can be used to predict the outcome of the treatment. Retrospectively, we assessed the outcome of 39 interventions in nineteen children that were performed between 1994 and 2003. Seventeen different modalities of treatment were employed. There were three female and sixteen male patients. The average age was 8 years. Nine cysts were in the greater trochanter area, three were in the femoral capital area and seven were in the proximal humerus. According to the cyst's distance from the growth plate, at the intervention time, there were 18 cases within less than 2 cm and 21 cases of more than 2 cm. Complete healing was achieved in 10 children (employing seven different modalities). In nine of them, the cysts were more than 2 cm away from the growth plate. In one child, the cyst was within less than 2 cm of the growth plate, however, treatment here involved epiphyseodesis. This study confirmed that, regardless of intervention modality, complete healing was not achievable in those cysts that are within less than 2 cm of an active growth plate. Complete healing was possible in those cysts that are more than 2 cm away from the growth plate. The 2-cm distance from the growth plate could be used as a predictor of treatment outcome of unicameral bone cysts.

  14. Phosphorus sorption in relation to soil grain size and geochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By using stepwise regression, the combination of Al, Fe, clay and Ca predicted more than 94% of the variation in the P sorption capacity of soils samples from Simiyu and Kagera basins. These four soil properties, which are strongly related to P sorption, could therefore be used as quick tests for predicting the P sorption ...

  15. Nurse practitioner preferences for distance education methods related to learning style, course content, and achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrusyszyn, M A; Cragg, C E; Humbert, J

    2001-04-01

    The relationships among multiple distance delivery methods, preferred learning style, content, and achievement was sought for primary care nurse practitioner students. A researcher-designed questionnaire was completed by 86 (71%) participants, while 6 engaged in follow-up interviews. The results of the study included: participants preferred learning by "considering the big picture"; "setting own learning plans"; and "focusing on concrete examples." Several positive associations were found: learning on own with learning by reading, and setting own learning plans; small group with learning through discussion; large group with learning new things through hearing and with having learning plans set by others. The most preferred method was print-based material and the least preferred method was audio tape. The most suited method for content included video teleconferencing for counseling, political action, and transcultural issues; and video tape for physical assessment. Convenience, self-direction, and timing of learning were more important than delivery method or learning style. Preferred order of learning was reading, discussing, observing, doing, and reflecting. Recommended considerations when designing distance courses include a mix of delivery methods, specific content, outcomes, learner characteristics, and state of technology.

  16. The relation between sexual orientation and penile size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, A F; Hershberger, S

    1999-06-01

    The relation between sexual orientation and penile dimensions in a large sample of men was studied. Subjects were 5122 men interviewed by the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction from 1938 to 1963. They were dichotomously classified as either homosexual (n = 935) or heterosexual (n = 4187). Penile dimensions were assessed using five measures of penile length and circumference from Kinsey's original protocol. On all five measures, homosexual men reported larger penises than did heterosexual men. Explanations for these differences are discussed, including the possibility that these findings provide additional evidence that variations in prenatal hormonal levels (or other biological mechanisms affecting reproductive structures) affect sexual orientation development.

  17. A period-luminosity relation for Mira variables in globular clusters and its impact on the distance scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzies, J.W.; Whitelock, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    JHKL photometry is presented for 31 red variables in 15 galactic globular clusters. The photometry of the Mira variables is used to find absolute bolometric magnitudes and an Msub(bol)-log P relation which differs from the one found for LMC Miras. This can be understood only if there is some systematic error in the globular cluster and/or LMC distance scales or if there is some fundamental difference between the cluster Miras and those in the LMC. (author)

  18. Underutilisation of public access defibrillation is related to retrieval distance and time-dependent availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Charles D; Anfield, Steve; Hodgetts, Gillian A

    2018-05-14

    Public access defibrillation doubles the chances of neurologically intact survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Although there are increasing numbers of defibrillators (automated external defibrillator (AEDs)) available in the community, they are used infrequently, despite often being available. We aimed to match OHCAs with known AED locations in order to understand AED availability, the effects of reduced AED availability at night and the operational radius at which they can be effectively retrieved. All emergency calls to South Central Ambulance Service from April 2014 to April 2016 were screened to identify cardiac arrests. Each was mapped to the nearest AED, according to the time of day. Mapping software was used to calculate the actual walking distance for a bystander between each OHCA and respective AED, when travelling at a brisk walking speed (4 mph). 4012 cardiac arrests were identified and mapped to one of 2076 AEDs. All AEDs were available during daytime hours, but only 713 at night (34.3%). 5.91% of cardiac arrests were within a retrieval (walking) radius of 100 m during the day, falling to 1.59% out-of-hours. Distances to rural AEDs were greater than in urban areas (P<0.0001). An AED could potentially have been retrieved prior to actual ambulance arrival in 25.3% cases. Existing AEDs are underused; 36.4% of OHCAs are located within 500 m of an AED. Although more AEDs will improve availability, greater use can be made of existing AEDs, particularly by ensuring they are all available on a 24/7 basis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Effect of the relationship between particle size, inter-particle distance, and metal loading of carbon supported fuel cell catalysts on their catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gon Corradini, Patricia; Pires, Felipe I.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Perez, Joelma, E-mail: jperez@iqsc.usp.br [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, USP (Brazil); Antolini, Ermete [Scuola di Scienza dei Materiali (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    The effect of the relationship between particle size (d), inter-particle distance (x{sub i}), and metal loading (y) of carbon supported fuel cell Pt or PtRu catalysts on their catalytic activity, based on the optimum d (2.5-3 nm) and x{sub i}/d (>5) values, was evaluated. It was found that for y < 30 wt%, the optimum values of both d and x{sub i}/d can be always obtained. For y {>=} 30 wt%, instead, the positive effect of a thinner catalyst layer of the fuel cell electrode than that using catalysts with y < 30 wt% is concomitant to a decrease of the effective catalyst surface area due to an increase of d and/or a decrease of x{sub i}/d compared to their optimum values, with in turns gives rise to a decrease in the catalytic activity. The effect of the x{sub i}/d ratio has been successfully verified by experimental results on ethanol oxidation on PtRu/C catalysts with same particle size and same degree of alloying but different metal loading. Tests in direct ethanol fuel cells showed that, compared to 20 wt% PtRu/C, the negative effect of the lower x{sub i}/d on the catalytic activity of 30 and 40 wt% PtRu/C catalysts was superior to the positive effect of the thinner catalyst layer.

  20. Effect of the relationship between particle size, inter-particle distance, and metal loading of carbon supported fuel cell catalysts on their catalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gon Corradini, Patricia; Pires, Felipe I.; Paganin, Valdecir A.; Perez, Joelma; Antolini, Ermete

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the relationship between particle size (d), inter-particle distance (x i ), and metal loading (y) of carbon supported fuel cell Pt or PtRu catalysts on their catalytic activity, based on the optimum d (2.5–3 nm) and x i /d (>5) values, was evaluated. It was found that for y i /d can be always obtained. For y ≥ 30 wt%, instead, the positive effect of a thinner catalyst layer of the fuel cell electrode than that using catalysts with y i /d compared to their optimum values, with in turns gives rise to a decrease in the catalytic activity. The effect of the x i /d ratio has been successfully verified by experimental results on ethanol oxidation on PtRu/C catalysts with same particle size and same degree of alloying but different metal loading. Tests in direct ethanol fuel cells showed that, compared to 20 wt% PtRu/C, the negative effect of the lower x i /d on the catalytic activity of 30 and 40 wt% PtRu/C catalysts was superior to the positive effect of the thinner catalyst layer.

  1. Rapid changes in the size of different functional organ and muscle groups during refueling in a long-distance migrating shorebird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, T; Gudmundsson, GA; Lilliendahl, K; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur A.

    1999-01-01

    The adaptive value of size changes in different organ and muscle groups was studied in red knots (Calidris canutus islandica) in relation to their migration. Birds were sampled on five occasions: at arrival in Iceland in May 1994, two times during subsequent refueling, at departure toward, and on

  2. 13 CFR 121.305 - What size eligibility requirements exist for obtaining financial assistance relating to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What size eligibility requirements exist for obtaining financial assistance relating to particular procurements? 121.305 Section 121.305 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS SIZE REGULATIONS Size...

  3. Environment and geographic distance differ in relative importance for determining fungal community of rhizosphere and bulk soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaoping; Adams, Jonathan M; Shi, Yu; Yang, Teng; Sun, Ruibo; He, Dan; Ni, Yingying; Chu, Haiyan

    2017-09-01

    Rhizospheric fungi play major roles in both natural and agricultural ecosystems. However, little is known about the determinants of their diversity and biogeographic patterns. Here, we compared fungal communities in rhizosphere and bulk soils of wheat fields in the North China Plain. The rhizosphere had a lower fungal diversity (observed OTUs and Chao1) than bulk soil, and a distinct fungal community structure in rhizosphere compared with bulk soil. The relative importance of environmental factors and geographic distance for fungal distribution differed between rhizosphere and bulk soil. Environmental factors were the primary cause of variations in total fungal community and major fungal phyla in bulk soil. By contrast, fungal communities in soils loosely attached to roots were predictable from both environmental factors and influences of geographic distance. Communities in soils tightly attached to roots were mainly determined by geographic distance. Our results suggest that both contemporary environment processes (present-day abiotic and biotic environment characters) and historical processes (spatial isolation, dispersal limitation occurred in the past) dominate variations of fungal communities in wheat fields, but their relative importance of all these processes depends on the proximity of fungal community to the plant roots. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Ciguatoxic Potential of Brown-Marbled Grouper in Relation to Fish Size and Geographical Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) P-CTX profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures restricting fish trade and fish size preference of the consumers. P-CTX levels in flesh and size dependency of toxicity indicate that the risk of ciguatera after eating E. fuscoguttatus varies with its geographical origin. For a large-sized grouper, it is necessary to establish legal size limits and control measures to protect public health and prevent overfishing. More risk assessment studies are required for E. fuscoguttatus to determine the size threshold above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26324735

  5. Firm Size as Moderator to Non-Linear Leverage-Performance Relation: An Emerging Market Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Farooq

    2017-08-01

    such losses are more prominent for small size firms. Results also show that the leverage-performance relation is nonlinear for medium and large size firms. However, these firms are not targeting optimal level and overleveraging that ultimately decrease their profits. So, financial managers of small size firms should avoid debt financing while for large and medium size firms, managers need to adjust their debt ratio to its optimal level.

  6. Captures of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Relation to Trap Orientation and Distance From Brush Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Dale W

    2016-04-01

    Eradication programs for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) rely on pheromone-baited traps to trigger insecticide treatments and monitor program progress. A key objective of monitoring in these programs is the timely detection of incipient weevil populations to limit or prevent re-infestation. Therefore, improvements in the effectiveness of trapping would enhance efforts to achieve and maintain eradication. Association of pheromone traps with woodlots and other prominent vegetation are reported to increase captures of weevils, but the spatial scale over which this effect occurs is unknown. The influences of trap distance (0, 10, and 20 m) and orientation (leeward or windward) to brush lines on boll weevil captures were examined during three noncropping seasons (October to February) in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Differences in numbers of captured weevils and in the probability of capture between traps at 10 or 20 m from brush, although often statistically significant, were generally small and variable. Variations in boll weevil population levels, wind directions, and wind speeds apparently contributed to this variability. In contrast, traps closely associated with brush (0 m) generally captured larger numbers of weevils, and offered a higher probability of weevil capture compared with traps away from brush. These increases in the probability of weevil capture were as high as 30%. Such increases in the ability of traps to detect low-level boll weevil populations indicate trap placement with respect to prominent vegetation is an important consideration in maximizing the effectiveness of trap-based monitoring for the boll weevil.

  7. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: Relation to infarct size and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Geurts (Marjolein); Scheijmans, F.E.V. (Féline E.V.); T. van Seeters (Tom); G.J. Biessels; L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta K.); H.B. van der Worp (Bart); C.B. Majoie (Charles); Y.B.W.E.M. Roos (Yvo); L.E.M. Duijm (Lucien); K. Keizer (Koos); A. van der Lugt (Aad); D.W.J. Dippel (Diederik); Greve, D. (Droogh-de); H.P. Bienfait (Henri); M.A.A. van Walderveen (Marianne); M.J.H. Wermer (Marieke); G.J. Lycklama à Nijeholt (Geert); J. Boiten (Jelis); A. Duyndam (Anita); V.I.H. Kwa; F.J. Meijer (F.); E.J. van Dijk (Ewoud); A.M. Kesselring (Anouk); J. Hofmeijer; J.A. Vos (Jan Albert); W.J. Schonewille (Wouter); W.J. van Rooij (W.); P.L.M. de Kort (Paul); C.C. Pleiter (C.); S.L.M. Bakker (Stef); Bot, J.; M.C. Visser (Marieke); B.K. Velthuis (Birgitta); I.C. van der Schaaf (Irene); J.W. Dankbaar (Jan); W.P. Mali (Willem); van Seeters, T.; A.D. Horsch (Alexander D.); J.M. Niesten (Joris); G.J. Biessels (Geert Jan); L.J. Kappelle (Jaap); J.S.K. Luitse; Y. van der Graaf (Yolanda)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute

  8. Evolution of brain region volumes during artificial selection for relative brain size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Zeng, Hong-Li; van der Bijl, Wouter; Öhman-Mägi, Caroline; Kotrschal, Kurt; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-12-01

    The vertebrate brain shows an extremely conserved layout across taxa. Still, the relative sizes of separate brain regions vary markedly between species. One interesting pattern is that larger brains seem associated with increased relative sizes only of certain brain regions, for instance telencephalon and cerebellum. Till now, the evolutionary association between separate brain regions and overall brain size is based on comparative evidence and remains experimentally untested. Here, we test the evolutionary response of brain regions to directional selection on brain size in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) selected for large and small relative brain size. In these animals, artificial selection led to a fast response in relative brain size, while body size remained unchanged. We use microcomputer tomography to investigate how the volumes of 11 main brain regions respond to selection for larger versus smaller brains. We found no differences in relative brain region volumes between large- and small-brained animals and only minor sex-specific variation. Also, selection did not change allometric scaling between brain and brain region sizes. Our results suggest that brain regions respond similarly to strong directional selection on relative brain size, which indicates that brain anatomy variation in contemporary species most likely stem from direct selection on key regions. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. The influence of object relative size on priming and explicit memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Siegenthaler, Amy L

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the effects of object relative size on priming and explicit memory for color photos of common objects. Participants were presented with color photos of pairs of objects displayed in either appropriate or inappropriate relative sizes. Implicit memory was assessed by speed of object size ratings whereas explicit memory was assessed by an old/new recognition test. Study-to-test changes in relative size reduced both priming and explicit memory and had large effects for objects displayed in large vs. small size at test. Our findings of substantial size-specific influences on priming with common objects under some but not other conditions are consistent with instance views of object perception and priming but inconsistent with structural description views.

  10. The influence of object relative size on priming and explicit memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Uttl

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of object relative size on priming and explicit memory for color photos of common objects. Participants were presented with color photos of pairs of objects displayed in either appropriate or inappropriate relative sizes. Implicit memory was assessed by speed of object size ratings whereas explicit memory was assessed by an old/new recognition test. Study-to-test changes in relative size reduced both priming and explicit memory and had large effects for objects displayed in large vs. small size at test. Our findings of substantial size-specific influences on priming with common objects under some but not other conditions are consistent with instance views of object perception and priming but inconsistent with structural description views.

  11. Distance Learning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braddock, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    A study reviewing the existing Army Distance Learning Plan (ADLP) and current Distance Learning practices, with a focus on the Army's training and educational challenges and the benefits of applying Distance Learning techniques...

  12. Clinical phenotype in relation to the distance-to-index-patient in familial hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besseling, Joost; Huijgen, Roeland; Martin, Seth S.; Hutten, Barbara A.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Hovingh, G. Kees

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated whether the severity of the familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) phenotype, i.e. increased levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, decreases in more distantly related patients within one family. We included heterozygous FH patients

  13. Proximity alert! Distance related cuneus activation in military veterans with anger and aggression problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesink, Lieke; Edward Gladwin, Thomas; Terburg, David; van Honk, Jack; Kleber, Rolf; Geuze, Elbert

    2017-01-01

    Problems involving anger and aggression are common after military deployment, and may involve abnormal responses to threat. This study therefore investigated effects on neural activation related to threat and escapability among veterans with deployment experience. Twenty-seven male veterans with

  14. On the relation between dependency distance, crossing dependencies, and parsing. Comment on "Dependency distance: a new perspective on syntactic patterns in natural languages" by Haitao Liu et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rodríguez, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Liu et al. [1] provide a comprehensive account of research on dependency distance in human languages. While the article is a very rich and useful report on this complex subject, here I will expand on a few specific issues where research in computational linguistics (specifically natural language processing) can inform DDM research, and vice versa. These aspects have not been explored much in [1] or elsewhere, probably due to the little overlap between both research communities, but they may provide interesting insights for improving our understanding of the evolution of human languages, the mechanisms by which the brain processes and understands language, and the construction of effective computer systems to achieve this goal.

  15. Intensity related changes of running economy in recreational level distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeroff, Tobias; Bernardi, Andreas; Niederer, Daniel; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-09-01

    Running economy (RE) is often described as a key demand of running performance. The variety of currently used assessment methods with different running intensities and outcomes restricts interindividual comparability of RE in recreational level runners. The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of RE, assessed as oxygen cost (OC) and caloric unit cost (CUC), on running speed at individual physiological thresholds. Eighteen recreational runners performed: 1) a graded exercise test to estimate first ventilatory threshold (VT1), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); 2) discontinuous RE assessment to determine relative OC in milliliters per kilogram per kilometer (mL/kg/km) and CUC in kilocalories per kilogram per kilometer (kcal/kg/km) at three different running intensities: VT1, RCP and at a third standardized reference point (TP) in between. OC (mL/kg/km; at VT1: 235.4±26.2; at TP: 227.8±23.4; at RCP: 224.9±21.9) and CUC (kcal/kg/km at VT1: 1.18±0.13; at TP: 1.14±0.12; at RCP: 1.13±0.11) decreased with increasing intensities (P≤0.01). Controlling for the influence of sex OC and CUC linearly correlated with running speed at RCP and VO2max (P≤0.01). RE, even assessed at low intensity, is strongly related to running performance in recreational athletes. Both calculation methods used (OC and CUC) are sensitive for monitoring intensity related changes of substrate utilization. RE values decreased with higher running intensity indicating an increase of anaerobic and subsequent decrease of aerobic substrate utilization.

  16. Among-Individual Variation in Desert Iguanas (Squamata: Dipsosaurus dorsalis): Endurance Capacity Is Positively Related to Home Range Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Jennifer M; Garland, Theodore

    Among species of lizards, endurance capacity measured on a motorized treadmill is positively related to daily movement distance and time spent moving, but few studies have addressed such relationships at the level of individual variation within a sex and age category in a single population. Both endurance capacity and home range size show substantial individual variation in lizards, rendering them suitable for such studies. We predicted that these traits would be positively related because endurance capacity is one of the factors that has the potential to limit home range size. We measured the endurance capacity and home range size of adult male desert iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis). Lizards were field captured for measurements of endurance, and home range data were gathered using visual identification of previously marked individuals. Endurance was significantly repeatable between replicate trials, conducted 1-17 d apart ([Formula: see text] for log-transformed values, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). The log of the higher of two endurance trials was positively but not significantly related to log body mass. The log of home range area was positively but not significantly related to log body mass, the number of sightings, or the time span from first to last sighting. As predicted, log endurance was positively correlated with log home range area ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], one-tailed [Formula: see text]; for body-mass residual endurance values: [Formula: see text], one-tailed [Formula: see text]). These results suggest that endurance capacity may have a permissive effect on home range size. Alternatively, individuals with larger home ranges may experience training effects (phenotypic plasticity) that increase their endurance.

  17. Evolution of bill size in relation to body size in toucans and hornbills (Aves: Piciformes and Bucerotiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin L. Hughes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence that the bill of the Toco Toucan, Ramphastos toco Statius Muller, 1776, has a specialized role in heat dissipation suggests a new function for the large and light-weight bill of the toucan family (Piciformes: Ramphastidae. A prediction of this hypothesis is that bill length in toucans will increase with body mass at a rate greater than the isometric expectation. This hypothesis was tested in a phylogenetic context with measurements of skeletal elements in adult males of 21 toucan species. In these species, 64.3% of variance in relative skeletal measurements was accounted for by the contrast between bill and body size. Maxilla length and depth increased with body mass at a greater than isometric rate relative to both body mass and other linear skeletal measures. By contrast, no such trend was seen in a parallel analysis of 24 hornbill species (Bucerotiformes, sometimes considered ecological equivalents of toucans. The unique relationship between bill size and body mass in toucans supports the hypothesis that the evolution of a heat dissipation function has been a persistent theme of bill evolution in toucans.

  18. Scaling of lifting forces in relation to object size in whole body lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, I.; van Dieen, J.H.; Toussaint, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Subjects prepare for a whole body lifting movement by adjusting their posture and scaling their lifting forces to the expected object weight. The expectancy is based on visual and haptic size cues. This study aimed to find out whether lifting force overshoots related to object size cues disappear or

  19. A final size relation for epidemic models of vector-transmitted diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Fred Brauer

    2017-01-01

    We formulate and analyze an age of infection model for epidemics of diseases transmitted by a vector, including the possibility of direct transmission as well. We show how to determine a basic reproduction number. While there is no explicit final size relation as for diseases transmitted directly, we are able to obtain estimates for the final size of the epidemic.

  20. The effect of body size evolution and ecology on encephalization in cave bears and extant relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitschegger, Kristof

    2017-06-05

    The evolution of larger brain volumes relative to body size in Mammalia is the subject of an extensive amount of research. Early on palaeontologists were interested in the brain of cave bears, Ursus spelaeus, and described its morphology and size. However, until now, it was not possible to compare the absolute or relative brain size in a phylogenetic context due to the lack of an established phylogeny, comparative material, and phylogenetic comparative methods. In recent years, many tools for comparing traits within phylogenies were developed and the phylogenetic position of cave bears was resolved based on nuclear as well as mtDNA. Cave bears exhibit significantly lower encephalization compared to their contemporary relatives and intraspecific brain mass variation remained rather small. Encephalization was correlated with the combined dormancy-diet score. Body size evolution was a main driver in the degree of encephalization in cave bears as it increased in a much higher pace than brain size. In Ursus spelaeus, brain and body size increase over time albeit differently paced. This rate pattern is different in the highest encephalized bear species within the dataset, Ursus malayanus. The brain size in this species increased while body size heavily decreased compared to its ancestral stage. Early on in the evolution of cave bears encephalization decreased making it one of the least encephalized bear species compared to extant and extinct members of Ursidae. The results give reason to suspect that as herbivorous animals, cave bears might have exhibited a physiological buffer strategy to survive the strong seasonality of their environment. Thus, brain size was probably affected by the negative trade-off with adipose tissue as well as diet. The decrease of relative brain size in the herbivorous Ursus spelaeus is the result of a considerable increase in body size possibly in combination with environmental conditions forcing them to rest during winters.

  1. Assessment of relative individual renal function based on DMSA uptake corrected for renal size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estorch, M.; Camacho, V.; Tembl, A.; Mena, I.; Hernandez, A.; Flotats, A.; Carrio, I.; Torres, G.; Prat, L.

    2002-01-01

    Decreased relative renal DMSA uptake can be a consequence of abnormal kidney size, associated with normal or impaired renal function. The quantification of relative renal function based on DMSA uptake in both kidneys is an established method for the assessment of individual renal function. Aim: To assess relative renal function by means of quantification of renal DMSA uptake corrected for kidney size. Results were compared with relative renal DMSA uptake without size correction, and were validated against the absolute renal DMSA uptake. Material and Methods: Four-hundred-forty-four consecutive patients (147 adults, mean age 14 years) underwent a DMSA study for several renal diseases. The relative renal function, based on the relative DMSA uptake uncorrected and corrected for renal size, and the absolute renal DMSA uptake were calculated. In order to relate the relative DMSA uptake uncorrected and corrected for renal size with the absolute DMSA uptake, subtraction of uncorrected (SU) and corrected (SC) relative uptake percentages of each pair of kidneys was obtained, and these values were correlated to the matched subtraction percentages of absolute uptake (SA). If the individual relative renal function is normal (45%-55%), the subtraction value is less or equal to 10%. Results: In 227 patients (51%) the relative renal DMSA uptake value was normal either uncorrected or corrected for renal size (A), and in 149 patients (34%) it was abnormal by both quantification methods (B). Seventy-seven patients (15%) had the relative renal DMSA uptake abnormal only by the uncorrected method (C). Subtraction value of absolute DMSA uptake percentages was not significantly different of subtraction value of relative DMSA uptake percentages corrected for renal size when relative uncorrected uptake was abnormal and corrected normal. where * p<0.0001, and p=NS. Conclusion: When uncorrected and corrected relative DMSA uptake are abnormal, the absolute uptake is also impaired, while when

  2. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2014-01-01

    This updated and revised third edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics includes new items from very active research areas in the use of distances and metrics such as geometry, graph theory, probability theory and analysis. Among the new topics included are, for example, polyhedral metric space, nearness matrix problems, distances between belief assignments, distance-related animal settings, diamond-cutting distances, natural units of length, Heidegger’s de-severance distance, and brain distances. The publication of this volume coincides with intensifying research efforts into metric spaces and especially distance design for applications. Accurate metrics have become a crucial goal in computational biology, image analysis, speech recognition and information retrieval. Leaving aside the practical questions that arise during the selection of a ‘good’ distance function, this work focuses on providing the research community with an invaluable comprehensive listing of the main available di...

  3. Excessive progression in weekly running distance and risk of running-related injuries: an association which varies according to type of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Sørensen, Henrik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2014-10-01

    An explorative, 1-year prospective cohort study. Objective To examine whether an association between a sudden change in weekly running distance and running-related injury varies according to injury type. It is widely accepted that a sudden increase in running distance is strongly related to injury in runners. But the scientific knowledge supporting this assumption is limited. A volunteer sample of 874 healthy novice runners who started a self-structured running regimen were provided a global-positioning-system watch. After each running session during the study period, participants were categorized into 1 of the following exposure groups, based on the progression of their weekly running distance: less than 10% or regression, 10% to 30%, or more than 30%. The primary outcome was running-related injury. A total of 202 runners sustained a running-related injury. Using Cox regression analysis, no statistically significant differences in injury rates were found across the 3 exposure groups. An increased rate of distance-related injuries (patellofemoral pain, iliotibial band syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, gluteus medius injury, greater trochanteric bursitis, injury to the tensor fascia latae, and patellar tendinopathy) existed in those who progressed their weekly running distance by more than 30% compared with those who progressed less than 10% (hazard ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.96, 2.66; P = .07). Novice runners who progressed their running distance by more than 30% over a 2-week period seem to be more vulnerable to distance-related injuries than runners who increase their running distance by less than 10%. Owing to the exploratory nature of the present study, randomized controlled trials are needed to verify these results, and more experimental studies are needed to validate the assumptions. Still, novice runners may be well advised to progress their weekly distances by less than 30% per week over a 2-week period.

  4. Help me if you can: Psychological distance and help-seeking intentions in employee-supervisor relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Izhak; Eyal, Ori

    2018-02-15

    Social support at work is considered useful in treating job-related stress, and supervisors' emotional support has been found to be the most effective source of support at work. But an understanding of what elements make employees use supervisors as a source of emotional support is lacking. The present qualitative study included in-depth interviews with 24 teachers and 12 principals and a focus group with 12 school counsellors. The findings pointed at 2 groups of determinants of subordinates' intentions of asking socioemotional help from supervisors. The structural-organizational factors included low formalization structure, supportive and open work climate, shared goals, and manager's professional expertise; the dyadic factors included quality of relationship and demographic similarity. The determinants reflected different dimensions of psychological distance forming a close construal level that played a central part in employees' viewing the supervisor as an accessible socioemotional resource. The role of construal fit is discussed. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Drought effect on weaning weight and efficiency relative to cow size in semiarid rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scasta, J D; Henderson, L; Smith, T

    2015-12-01

    Cow size has been suggested to be an important consideration for selecting cattle to match their production environment. Over the last several decades, the trend in genetic selection for maximum growth has led to gradual increases in beef cow size. An unrelated trend during this same period in the western United States has been an increase in temperature, drought frequency, and drought severity. Due to the potential influence of the increasing cow size trend on nutritional maintenance costs and production, we assessed the effect of cow size on weaning weight and efficiency in relation to drought on a semiarid high-elevation ranch in Wyoming. This study addresses a lack of empirical studies on the interaction between cow size and drought. We measured calf weaning weights of 80 Angus × Gelbvieh cows from 2011 to 2014 and assessed how drought affected weaning weights, efficiency (considered as calf weight relative to cow weight), intake requirements, and potential herd sizes relative to cow size. We stratified cows into 5 weight classes (453, 498, 544, 589, and 634 kg) as a proxy for cow size and adjusted weaning weights to a 210-d calf sex adjusted value. Cow size was a significant factor every year, with different cow sizes having advantages or disadvantages different years relative to weaning weight. However, efficiency for the smallest cows (453 kg) was always greater than efficiency for largest cows (634 kg; cows was greater in the driest year (0.41 ± 0.02) than efficiency of the largest cows in the wettest years (0.37 ± 0.01). The change in efficiency (ΔE) between wet and dry years was 0.18 for the smallest cow size and 0.02 for the largest cow size, and ΔE decreased as cow size increased. This is an indication of the ability of smaller cows to lower maintenance requirements in response to changes in the production environment but with optimal upside potential when conditions are favorable. These results indicate large cows (589 to 634 kg) do not maximize

  6. Temporal profile of body temperature in acute ischemic stroke: relation to infarct size and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Marjolein; Scheijmans, Féline E V; van Seeters, Tom; Biessels, Geert J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K; van der Worp, H Bart

    2016-11-21

    High body temperatures after ischemic stroke have been associated with larger infarct size, but the temporal profile of this relation is unknown. We assess the relation between temporal profile of body temperature and infarct size and functional outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In 419 patients with acute ischemic stroke we assessed the relation between body temperature on admission and during the first 3 days with both infarct size and functional outcome. Infarct size was measured in milliliters on CT or MRI after 3 days. Poor functional outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≥3 at 3 months. Body temperature on admission was not associated with infarct size or poor outcome in adjusted analyses. By contrast, each additional 1.0 °C in body temperature on day 1 was associated with 0.31 ml larger infarct size (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.59), on day 2 with 1.13 ml larger infarct size(95% CI, 0.83-1.43), and on day 3 with 0.80 ml larger infarct size (95% CI, 0.48-1.12), in adjusted linear regression analyses. Higher peak body temperatures on days two and three were also associated with poor outcome (adjusted relative risks per additional 1.0 °C in body temperature, 1.52 (95% CI, 1.17-1.99) and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.22-1.77), respectively). Higher peak body temperatures during the first days after ischemic stroke, rather than on admission, are associated with larger infarct size and poor functional outcome. This suggests that prevention of high temperatures may improve outcome if continued for at least 3 days.

  7. Smart Moves: Effects of Relative Brain Size on Establishment Success of Invasive Amphibians and Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, Joshua J.; Tingley, Reid; Shine, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Brain size relative to body size varies considerably among animals, but the ecological consequences of that variation remain poorly understood. Plausibly, larger brains confer increased behavioural flexibility, and an ability to respond to novel challenges. In keeping with that hypothesis, successful invasive species of birds and mammals that flourish after translocation to a new area tend to have larger brains than do unsuccessful invaders. We found the same pattern in ectothermic terrestrial vertebrates. Brain size relative to body size was larger in species of amphibians and reptiles reported to be successful invaders, compared to species that failed to thrive after translocation to new sites. This pattern was found in six of seven global biogeographic realms; the exception (where relatively larger brains did not facilitate invasion success) was Australasia. Establishment success was also higher in amphibian and reptile families with larger relative brain sizes. Future work could usefully explore whether invasion success is differentially associated with enlargement of specific parts of the brain (as predicted by the functional role of the forebrain in promoting behavioural flexibility), or with a general size increase (suggesting that invasion success is facilitated by enhanced perceptual and motor skills, as well as cognitive ability). PMID:21494328

  8. Smart moves: effects of relative brain size on establishment success of invasive amphibians and reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J Amiel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain size relative to body size varies considerably among animals, but the ecological consequences of that variation remain poorly understood. Plausibly, larger brains confer increased behavioural flexibility, and an ability to respond to novel challenges. In keeping with that hypothesis, successful invasive species of birds and mammals that flourish after translocation to a new area tend to have larger brains than do unsuccessful invaders. We found the same pattern in ectothermic terrestrial vertebrates. Brain size relative to body size was larger in species of amphibians and reptiles reported to be successful invaders, compared to species that failed to thrive after translocation to new sites. This pattern was found in six of seven global biogeographic realms; the exception (where relatively larger brains did not facilitate invasion success was Australasia. Establishment success was also higher in amphibian and reptile families with larger relative brain sizes. Future work could usefully explore whether invasion success is differentially associated with enlargement of specific parts of the brain (as predicted by the functional role of the forebrain in promoting behavioural flexibility, or with a general size increase (suggesting that invasion success is facilitated by enhanced perceptual and motor skills, as well as cognitive ability.

  9. Smart moves: effects of relative brain size on establishment success of invasive amphibians and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, Joshua J; Tingley, Reid; Shine, Richard

    2011-04-06

    Brain size relative to body size varies considerably among animals, but the ecological consequences of that variation remain poorly understood. Plausibly, larger brains confer increased behavioural flexibility, and an ability to respond to novel challenges. In keeping with that hypothesis, successful invasive species of birds and mammals that flourish after translocation to a new area tend to have larger brains than do unsuccessful invaders. We found the same pattern in ectothermic terrestrial vertebrates. Brain size relative to body size was larger in species of amphibians and reptiles reported to be successful invaders, compared to species that failed to thrive after translocation to new sites. This pattern was found in six of seven global biogeographic realms; the exception (where relatively larger brains did not facilitate invasion success) was Australasia. Establishment success was also higher in amphibian and reptile families with larger relative brain sizes. Future work could usefully explore whether invasion success is differentially associated with enlargement of specific parts of the brain (as predicted by the functional role of the forebrain in promoting behavioural flexibility), or with a general size increase (suggesting that invasion success is facilitated by enhanced perceptual and motor skills, as well as cognitive ability).

  10. ON THE RELATIVE SIZES OF PLANETS WITHIN KEPLER MULTIPLE-CANDIDATE SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciardi, David R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Ragozzine, Darin; Gautier, T. N. III; Howell, Steve B.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of the relative sizes of planets within the multiple-candidate systems discovered with the Kepler mission. We have compared the size of each planet to the size of every other planet within a given planetary system after correcting the sample for detection and geometric biases. We find that for planet pairs for which one or both objects are approximately Neptune-sized or larger, the larger planet is most often the planet with the longer period. No such size-location correlation is seen for pairs of planets when both planets are smaller than Neptune. Specifically, if at least one planet in a planet pair has a radius of ∼> 3 R ⊕ , 68% ± 6% of the planet pairs have the inner planet smaller than the outer planet, while no preferred sequential ordering of the planets is observed if both planets in a pair are smaller than ∼ ⊕ .

  11. SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SEA-SALT EMISSIONS AS A FUNCTION OF RELATIVE HUMIDITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This note presents a straightforward method to correct sea-salt-emission particle-size distributions according to local relative humidity. The proposed method covers a wide range of relative humidity (0.45 to 0.99) and its derivation incorporates recent laboratory results on sea-...

  12. Hip Hip Hurrah! Hip size inversely related to heart disease and total mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Lissner, L

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade a series of published reports have examined the value of studying the relation between hip circumferences and cardiovascular end points. Specifically, in a series of recent studies the independent effects of hip circumference have been studied after adjustment for general o...... for women than men, but is evident in both genders. In this 'viewpoint', we wish to draw attention to the emerging body of evidence and to encourage researchers to continue collecting measures of lower body size in their surveys....... obesity and/or waist circumference. These studies have been remarkable in terms of their consistency, and in the unexpected finding of an adverse effect of small hip size, after statistically correcting for differences in general and abdominal size. The hazard related to a small hip size may be stronger...

  13. Effect of colour and relative product size (RPS) on consumer attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha Jain; Subhadip Roy; Adwita Pant

    2013-01-01

    Colour and visuals are used extensively by the advertisers of different product categories to attract consumer attention and create favourable attitude. Based on this premise, the present study aimed to explore the effect of colour and relative product size on the consumer attitudes incorporating the moderating role of product familiarity. An experimental design was used, with a sample size of 420 respondents of 18-25 years in a 3 (Product Size: Large/Med/Small) X 2 (Ad Colour: CL/BW) X 2 (Ge...

  14. Relation between anterior displacement of the temporomandibular joint disc and size of the condyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgushi, Masatoshi; Kubota, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Kouichi; Shibata, Takanori

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the cause of anterior displacement of the disc, we evaluated the relation between anterior displacement and the size of the condyle from MR images in 301 patients (602 TMJs) with clinical diagnosis of internal derangement. We found that the size of condyles with anterior displacement of the disc was significantly smaller than that of condyles without anterior displacement. This result suggests that small condyles may give rise to anterior displacement of the disc. (author)

  15. Human fertility variation, size-related obstetrical performance and the evolution of sexual stature dimorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Guégan, Jean-François; Teriokhin, A.T.; Thomas, F.

    2000-01-01

    In several animal species, change in sexual size dimorphism is a correlated response to selection on fecundity. In humans, different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the variation of sexual dimorphism in stature, but no consensus has yet emerged. In this paper, we evaluate from a theoretical and an empirical point of view the hypothesis that the extent of sexual dimorphism in human populations results from the interaction between fertility and size-related obstetric complications. We ...

  16. Distance costs and the degree of inter-partner involvement in international relational-based technology alliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kranenburg, H.L.; Hagedoorn, J.; Lorenz-Orlean, S.

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the effect of specific institutional and distance cost issues, in particular the protection of intellectual property rights and geographic distance, on the preference of companies for different governance modalities in terms of the degree of their involvement in international

  17. Color-size Relations of Disc Galaxies with Similar Stellar Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, W.; Chang, R. X.; Shen, S. Y.; Zhang, B.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the correlations between colors and sizes of disc galaxies with similar stellar masses, a sample of 7959 local face-on disc galaxies is collected from the main galaxy sample of the Seventh Data Release of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR7). Our results show that, under the condition that the stellar masses of disc galaxies are similar, the relation between u-r and size is weak, while g-r, r-i and r-z colors decrease with disk size. This means that the color-size relations of disc galaxies with similar stellar masses do exist, i.e., the more extended disc galaxies with similar stellar masses tend to have bluer colors. An artificial sample is constructed to confirm that this correlation is not driven by the color-stellar mass relations and size-stellar mass relation of disc galaxies. Our results suggest that the mass distribution of disk galaxies may have an important influence on their stellar formation history, i.e., the galaxies with more extended mass distribution evolve more slowly.

  18. In Situ Sampling of Relative Dust Devil Particle Loads and Their Vertical Grain Size Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raack, Jan; Reiss, Dennis; Balme, Matthew R; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Ori, Gian Gabriele

    2017-04-19

    During a field campaign in the Sahara Desert in southern Morocco, spring 2012, we sampled the vertical grain size distribution of two active dust devils that exhibited different dimensions and intensities. With these in situ samples of grains in the vortices, it was possible to derive detailed vertical grain size distributions and measurements of the lifted relative particle load. Measurements of the two dust devils show that the majority of all lifted particles were only lifted within the first meter (∼46.5% and ∼61% of all particles; ∼76.5 wt % and ∼89 wt % of the relative particle load). Furthermore, ∼69% and ∼82% of all lifted sand grains occurred in the first meter of the dust devils, indicating the occurrence of "sand skirts." Both sampled dust devils were relatively small (∼15 m and ∼4-5 m in diameter) compared to dust devils in surrounding regions; nevertheless, measurements show that ∼58.5% to 73.5% of all lifted particles were small enough to go into suspension (grain size classification). This relatively high amount represents only ∼0.05 to 0.15 wt % of the lifted particle load. Larger dust devils probably entrain larger amounts of fine-grained material into the atmosphere, which can have an influence on the climate. Furthermore, our results indicate that the composition of the surface, on which the dust devils evolved, also had an influence on the particle load composition of the dust devil vortices. The internal particle load structure of both sampled dust devils was comparable related to their vertical grain size distribution and relative particle load, although both dust devils differed in their dimensions and intensities. A general trend of decreasing grain sizes with height was also detected. Key Words: Mars-Dust devils-Planetary science-Desert soils-Atmosphere-Grain sizes. Astrobiology 17, xxx-xxx.

  19. Spawning Dynamics and Size Related Trends in Reproductive Parameters of Southern Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus maccoyii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica H Farley

    Full Text Available Knowledge of spawning behaviour and fecundity of fish is important for estimating the reproductive potential of a stock and for constructing appropriate statistical models for assessing sustainable catch levels. Estimates of length-based reproductive parameters are particularly important for determining potential annual fecundity as a function of fish size, but they are often difficult to estimate reliably. Here we provide new information on the reproductive dynamics of southern bluefin tuna (SBT Thunnus maccoyii through the analysis of fish size and ovary histology collected on the spawning ground in 1993-1995 and 1999-2002. These are used to refine previous parameter estimates of spawning dynamics and investigate size related trends in these parameters. Our results suggest that the small SBT tend to arrive on the spawning ground slightly later and depart earlier in the spawning season relative to large fish. All females were mature and the majority were classed as spawning capable (actively spawning or non-spawning with a very small proportion classed as regressing. The fraction of females spawning per day decreased with fish size, but once females start a spawning episode, they spawned daily irrespective of size. Mean batch fecundity was estimated directly at 6.5 million oocytes. Analysis of ovary histology and ovary weight data indicated that relative batch fecundity, and the duration of spawning and non-spawning episodes, increased with fish size. These reproductive parameter estimates could be used with estimates of residency time on the spawning ground as a function of fish size (if known and demographic data for the spawning population to provide a time series of relative annual fecundity for SBT.

  20. THE BIVARIATE SIZE-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS FOR LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT z {approx} 4-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kuang-Han; Su, Jian [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ravindranath, Swara, E-mail: kuanghan@pha.jhu.edu [The Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune University Campus, Pune 411007, Maharashtra (India)

    2013-03-01

    We study the bivariate size-luminosity distribution of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) selected at redshifts around 4 and 5 in GOODS and the HUDF fields. We model the size-luminosity distribution as a combination of log-normal distribution (in size) and Schechter function (in luminosity), therefore it enables a more detailed study of the selection effects. We perform extensive simulations to quantify the dropout-selection completenesses and measurement biases and uncertainties in two-dimensional size and magnitude bins, and transform the theoretical size-luminosity distribution to the expected distribution for the observed data. Using maximum-likelihood estimator, we find that the Schechter function parameters for B {sub 435}-dropouts and are consistent with the values in the literature, but the size distributions are wider than expected from the angular momentum distribution of the underlying dark matter halos. The slope of the size-luminosity (RL) relation is similar to those found for local disk galaxies, but considerably shallower than local early-type galaxies.

  1. THE BIVARIATE SIZE-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS FOR LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT z ∼ 4-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Kuang-Han; Su, Jian; Ferguson, Henry C.; Ravindranath, Swara

    2013-01-01

    We study the bivariate size-luminosity distribution of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) selected at redshifts around 4 and 5 in GOODS and the HUDF fields. We model the size-luminosity distribution as a combination of log-normal distribution (in size) and Schechter function (in luminosity), therefore it enables a more detailed study of the selection effects. We perform extensive simulations to quantify the dropout-selection completenesses and measurement biases and uncertainties in two-dimensional size and magnitude bins, and transform the theoretical size-luminosity distribution to the expected distribution for the observed data. Using maximum-likelihood estimator, we find that the Schechter function parameters for B 435 -dropouts and are consistent with the values in the literature, but the size distributions are wider than expected from the angular momentum distribution of the underlying dark matter halos. The slope of the size-luminosity (RL) relation is similar to those found for local disk galaxies, but considerably shallower than local early-type galaxies.

  2. Body Size Preference of Marine Animals in Relation to Extinction Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, A.; Idgunji, S.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Our project encompasses an extremely specific aspect in relation to the five mass extinctions in geologic history. We asked ourselves whether larger or smaller body sizes would be better suited for surviving a mass extinction. To conduct research for our project, we used the body sizes of 17,172 marine animal genera as our primary data. These animals include echinoderms, arthropods, chordates, mollusks, and brachiopods. These creatures are perfect model organisms in terms of finding data on them because they have an excellent fossil record, and are well documented. We focused on the mean body size of these animals before and after each of the five mass extinctions (end-Ordovician, Late Devonian, end-Permian, end-Triassic, and end-Cretaceous). Our hypothesis was that the average biovolume of animals increased after each of the extinctions, with the mean size being greater after than it was before. Our size data is from the Ellis & Messina Catalogue of Ostracoda and the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. We obtained stratigraphic range data The Treatise and Sepkoski (2002). In our analyses, we compared the mean size of the different animal genera before and after each extinction event. We further partitioned size change across mass extinction boundaries into three categories: the surviving genera, the extinct genera, and the newly originating genera that came about after the extinction. According to our analyses, the mean sizes did not change significantly from the genera living during the stages before the extinctions and after the extinctions. From our results, we can assume that there were not enough major increases in the overall volume of the organisms to warrant a definite conclusion that extinctions lead to larger body sizes. Further support for our findings came from the T-tests in our R code. Only the Cretaceous period showed true evidence for size changing because of the extinction; in this case, the mean size decreased. T-tests for the Cretaceous

  3. Chinook salmon use of spawning patches: relative roles of habitat quality, size, and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, Daniel J; Thurow, Russell F; Rieman, Bruce E; Dunham, Jason B

    2007-03-01

    Declines in many native fish populations have led to reassessments of management goals and shifted priorities from consumptive uses to species preservation. As management has shifted, relevant environmental characteristics have evolved from traditional metrics that described local habitat quality to characterizations of habitat size and connectivity. Despite the implications this shift has for how habitats may be prioritized for conservation, it has been rare to assess the relative importance of these habitat components. We used an information-theoretic approach to select the best models from sets of logistic regressions that linked habitat quality, size, and connectivity to the occurrence of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) nests. Spawning distributions were censused annually from 1995 to 2004, and data were complemented with field measurements that described habitat quality in 43 suitable spawning patches across a stream network that drained 1150 km2 in central Idaho. Results indicated that the most plausible models were dominated by measures of habitat size and connectivity, whereas habitat quality was of minor importance. Connectivity was the strongest predictor of nest occurrence, but connectivity interacted with habitat size, which became relatively more important when populations were reduced. Comparison of observed nest distributions to null model predictions confirmed that the habitat size association was driven by a biological mechanism when populations were small, but this association may have been an area-related sampling artifact at higher abundances. The implications for habitat management are that the size and connectivity of existing habitat networks should be maintained whenever possible. In situations where habitat restoration is occurring, expansion of existing areas or creation of new habitats in key areas that increase connectivity may be beneficial. Information about habitat size and connectivity also could be used to strategically

  4. Chinook salmon use of spawning patches: Relative roles of habitat quality, size, and connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, D.J.; Thurow, R.F.; Rieman, B.E.; Dunham, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Declines in many native fish populations have led to reassessments of management goals and shifted priorities from consumptive uses to species preservation. As management has shifted, relevant environmental characteristics have evolved from traditional metrics that described local habitat quality to characterizations of habitat size and connectivity. Despite the implications this shift has for how habitats may be prioritized for conservation, it has been rare to assess the relative importance of these habitat components. We used an information-theoretic approach to select the best models from sets of logistic regressions that linked habitat quality, size, and connectivity to the occurrence of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) nests. Spawning distributions were censused annually from 1995 to 2004, and data were complemented with field measurements that described habitat quality in 43 suitable spawning patches across a stream network that drained 1150 km 2 in central Idaho. Results indicated that the most plausible models were dominated by measures of habitat size and connectivity, whereas habitat quality was of minor importance. Connectivity was the strongest predictor of nest occurrence, but connectivity interacted with habitat size, which became relatively more important when populations were reduced. Comparison of observed nest distributions to null model predictions confirmed that the habitat size association was driven by a biological mechanism when populations were small, but this association may have been an area-related sampling artifact at higher abundances. The implications for habitat management are that the size and connectivity of existing habitat networks should be maintained whenever possible. In situations where habitat restoration is occurring, expansion of existing areas or creation of new habitats in key areas that increase connectivity may be beneficial. Information about habitat size and connectivity also could be used to strategically

  5. Size of lumbar disc hernias measured using computed tomography and related to sciatic symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerlund, M.K.J.; Thelander, U.; Friberg, S. (Umeaa Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Umeaa Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopedics)

    1990-11-01

    The change in the relative size of lumbar disc hernias and its relation to sciatic symptoms was investigated in 30 consecutive patients after conservative treatment of CT verified lumbar disc herniations. CT and clinical examination were performed before the start of therapy (CT1), as well as 3 months (CT2) and 24 months (CT3) after institution of treatment. In each patient the size of the lumbar disc herniation in relation to the size of the spinal canal was measured on identical CT slices and expressed as an index. The disc herniation index decreased markedly from CT1 to CT2 (p<0.001). Between CT2 and CT3 the reduction of the hernias was less pronounced and not significant for hernias located centrally but still significant for intermediate (p=0.03) and lateral (p=0.04) hernias. The degree of sciatic symptoms also decreased markedly between CT1 and CT2 (p=0.001) while no further improvement occurred from CT2 to CT3. There was a significant positive correlation between the improvement from sciatic pain and the reduction in the size of the individual hernia (CT1-CT2 p=0.02, CT2-CT3 p<0.001). Thus, the disc herniation index provided a method to study the anatomic effect of conservative treatment as well as a method to evaluate sciatic symptoms in relation to anatomic changes. (orig.).

  6. Size of lumbar disc hernias measured using computed tomography and related to sciatic symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerlund, M.K.J.; Thelander, U.; Friberg, S.; Umeaa Univ. Hospital

    1990-01-01

    The change in the relative size of lumbar disc hernias and its relation to sciatic symptoms was investigated in 30 consecutive patients after conservative treatment of CT verified lumbar disc herniations. CT and clinical examination were performed before the start of therapy (CT1), as well as 3 months (CT2) and 24 months (CT3) after institution of treatment. In each patient the size of the lumbar disc herniation in relation to the size of the spinal canal was measured on identical CT slices and expressed as an index. The disc herniation index decreased markedly from CT1 to CT2 (p<0.001). Between CT2 and CT3 the reduction of the hernias was less pronounced and not significant for hernias located centrally but still significant for intermediate (p=0.03) and lateral (p=0.04) hernias. The degree of sciatic symptoms also decreased markedly between CT1 and CT2 (p=0.001) while no further improvement occurred from CT2 to CT3. There was a significant positive correlation between the improvement from sciatic pain and the reduction in the size of the individual hernia (CT1-CT2 p=0.02, CT2-CT3 p<0.001). Thus, the disc herniation index provided a method to study the anatomic effect of conservative treatment as well as a method to evaluate sciatic symptoms in relation to anatomic changes. (orig.)

  7. Controlling coarse woody debris inventory quality: taper and relative size methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; J.A. Westfall

    2008-01-01

    Accurately measuring the dimensions of coarse woody debris (CWD) is critical for ensuring the quality of CWD estimates and, hence, for accurately estimating forest ecosystem attributes (e.g., CWD carbon stocks). To improve the quality of CWD dimensional measurements, the distribution of taper (ratio of change in diameter and length) and relative size (RS; ratio of...

  8. How mental health literacy and experience of mental illness relate to stigmatizing attitudes and social distance towards people with depression or psychosis: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that mental health literacy among the public is low, and stigmatizing attitudes are widespread. So far the effects of anti-stigma campaigns are small, and studies demonstrate that negative attitudes have been quite stable through recent decades. Aims To investigate the relationships between mental health literacy, experience of mental illness and stigmatizing attitudes/social distance towards people with depression or psychosis. Methods A cross-sectional study in which staff members from public services in Sweden (n = 1027) completed questionnaires covering demographic data, self-reported experience of mental illness, identification of a vignette for depression or psychosis, beliefs about helpful interventions for the illness presented in the vignette, and attitudes and social distance towards people with the illness. Results About 50% of participants could identify depression and less than 40% psychosis. A higher degree of mental health literacy was related to less stigma and social distance but mainly towards people with depression. A similar relationship was shown for having personal or family experience of mental illness and attitudes/social distance. Negative attitudes and social distance were significantly higher in all aspects measured towards a person with psychosis than a person with depression. Conclusions A higher degree of mental health literacy relates to more positive attitudes and less desire for social distance towards people with depression. The differences between depression and psychosis should be taken into account in anti-stigma interventions.

  9. Rationality on the rise: Why relative risk aversion increases with stake size

    OpenAIRE

    Fehr-Duda, Helga; Bruhin, Adrian; Epper, Thomas F.; Schubert, Renate

    2008-01-01

    How does risk tolerance vary with stake size? This important question cannot be adequately answered if framing effects, nonlinear probability weighting, and heterogeneity of preference types are neglected. We show that, contrary to gains, no coherent change in relative risk aversion is observed for losses. The increase in relative risk aversion over gains cannot be captured by the curvature of the utility function. It is driven predominantly by a change in probability weighting of a majority ...

  10. The arithmetic problem size effect in children: an event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen eVan Beek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study used for the first time event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the well-known arithmetic problem size effect in children. The electrophysiological correlates of this problem size effect have been well documented in adults, but such information in children is lacking. In the present study, 22 typically developing 12-year-olds were asked to solve single-digit addition problems of small (sum ≤ 10 and large problem size (sum > 10 and to speak the solution into a voice key while ERPs were recorded. Children displayed similar early and late components compared to previous adult studies on the problem size effect. There was no effect of problem size on the early components P1, N1 and P2. The peak amplitude of the N2 component showed more negative potentials on left and right anterior electrodes for large additions compared to small additions, which might reflect differences in attentional and working memory resources between large and small problems. The mean amplitude of the late positivity component (LPC, which follows the N2, was significantly larger for large than for small additions at right parieto-occipital electrodes, in line with previous adult data. The ERPs of the problem size effect during arithmetic might be a useful neural marker for future studies on fact retrieval impairments in children with mathematical difficulties.

  11. Effect of Tin Electrode (Sn, Electrode Distance and Thin Layer Size of Zinc Phthalocyanine (ZnPc to Resistance Changes With Ozone Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Mogi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the effect of tin electrode distances and the thickness of a thin layer of ZnPc (Zinc phtyalocyanine toward changes in resistance with ozone exposure. Tin deposition on the glass surface was conducted using spraying method. The reaction between ozone and ZnPc produces electrical properties that can be read through the resistance value of the multimeter. Based on this study, it was investigated that the smaller a distance between the electrode and the thicker deposition of ZnPc lead to the less resistance. This showed that a thin layer of the conductivity increases along with the longer exposure to ozone gas. The movement of electrons with the hole was free.

  12. Hysteresis in suspended sediment to turbidity relations due to changing particle size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Mark N.; Sturm, Terry W.

    2013-01-01

    Turbidity (T) is the most ubiquitous of surrogate technologies used to estimate suspended-sediment concentration (SSC). The effects of sediment size on turbidity are well documented; however, effects from changes in particle size distributions (PSD) are rarely evaluated. Hysteresis in relations of SSC-to-turbidity (SSC~T) for single stormflow events was observed and quantified for a data set of 195 concurrent measurements of SSC, turbidity, discharge, velocity, and volumetric PSD collected during five stormflows in 2009–2010 on Yellow River at Gees Mill Road in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Regressions of SSC-normalized turbidity (T/SSC) on concurrently measured PSD percentiles show an inverse, exponential influence of particle size on turbidity that is not constant across the size range of the PSD. The majority of the influence of PSD on T/SSC is from particles of fine-silt and smaller sizes (finer than 16 microns). This study shows that small changes in the often assumed stability of the PSD are significant to SSC~T relations. Changes of only 5 microns in the fine silt and smaller size fractions of suspended sediment PSD can produce hysteresis in the SSC~T rating that can increase error and produce bias. Observed SSC~T hysteresis may be an indicator of changes in sediment properties during stormflows and of potential changes in sediment sources. Trends in the PSD time series indicate that sediment transport is capacity-limited for sand-sized sediment in the channel and supply-limited for fine silt and smaller sediment from the hillslope.

  13. THE ROLE OF QUENCHING TIME IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE MASS–SIZE RELATION OF PASSIVE GALAXIES FROM THE WISP SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanella, A.; Scarlata, C.; Rutkowski, M. J. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455 (United States); Corsini, E. M.; Bontà, E. Dalla [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei,” Università di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bedregal, A. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Atek, H. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bunker, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX13RH (United Kingdom); Colbert, J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dai, Y. S. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Henry, A.; Rafelski, M. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Malkan, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Martin, C. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106 (United States); Siana, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Teplitz, H., E-mail: anita.zanella@cea.fr, E-mail: cmartin@physics.ucsb.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-06-20

    We analyze how passive galaxies at z ∼ 1.5 populate the mass–size plane as a function of their stellar age, to understand if the observed size growth with time can be explained with the appearance of larger quenched galaxies at lower redshift. We use a sample of 32 passive galaxies extracted from the Wide Field Camera 3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel (WISP) survey with spectroscopic redshift 1.3 ≲ z ≲ 2.05, specific star formation rates lower than 0.01 Gyr{sup −1}, and stellar masses above 4.5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}. All galaxies have spectrally determined stellar ages from fitting of their rest-frame optical spectra and photometry with stellar population models. When dividing our sample into young (age ≤2.1 Gyr) and old (age >2.1 Gyr) galaxies we do not find a significant trend in the distributions of the difference between the observed radius and that predicted by the mass–size relation. This result indicates that the relation between the galaxy age and its distance from the mass–size relation, if it exists, is rather shallow, with a slope α ≳ −0.6. At face value, this finding suggests that multiple dry and/or wet minor mergers, rather than the appearance of newly quenched galaxies, are mainly responsible for the observed time evolution of the mass–size relation in passive galaxies.

  14. Relations between the Sizes of Galaxies and Their Dark Matter Halos at Redshifts 0 < z < 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kuang-Han [University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Fall, S. Michael; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Lee, Seong-Kook [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pérez-González, Pablo G. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Facultad de CC. Física, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Wuyts, Stijn, E-mail: khhuang@ucdavis.edu [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-20

    We derive relations between the effective radii R {sub eff} of galaxies and the virial radii R {sub 200} {sub c} of their dark matter halos over the redshift range 0 < z < 3. For galaxies, we use the measured sizes from deep images taken with Hubble Space Telescope for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey; for halos, we use the inferred sizes from abundance matching to cosmological dark matter simulations via a stellar mass–halo mass (SMHM) relation. For this purpose, we derive a new SMHM relation based on the same selection criteria and other assumptions as for our sample of galaxies with size measurements. As a check on the robustness of our results, we also derive R {sub eff}–R {sub 200} {sub c} relations for three independent SMHM relations from the literature. We find that galaxy R {sub eff} is proportional on average to halo R {sub 200} {sub c}, confirming and extending to high redshifts the z = 0 results of Kravtsov. Late-type galaxies (with low Sérsic index and high specific star formation rate (sSFR)) follow a linear R {sub eff}– R {sub 200} {sub c} relation, with effective radii at 0.5 < z < 3 close to those predicted by simple models of disk formation; at z < 0.5, the sizes of late-type galaxies appear to be slightly below this prediction. Early-type galaxies (with high Sérsic index and low sSFR) follow a roughly parallel R {sub eff}– R {sub 200} {sub c} relation, ∼0.2–0.3 dex below the one for late-type galaxies. Our observational results, reinforced by recent hydrodynamical simulations, indicate that galaxies grow quasi-homologously with their dark matter halos.

  15. modelling distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F. Love

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Distance predicting functions may be used in a variety of applications for estimating travel distances between points. To evaluate the accuracy of a distance predicting function and to determine its parameters, a goodness-of-fit criteria is employed. AD (Absolute Deviations, SD (Squared Deviations and NAD (Normalized Absolute Deviations are the three criteria that are mostly employed in practice. In the literature some assumptions have been made about the properties of each criterion. In this paper, we present statistical analyses performed to compare the three criteria from different perspectives. For this purpose, we employ the ℓkpθ-norm as the distance predicting function, and statistically compare the three criteria by using normalized absolute prediction error distributions in seventeen geographical regions. We find that there exist no significant differences between the criteria. However, since the criterion SD has desirable properties in terms of distance modelling procedures, we suggest its use in practice.

  16. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers’ vocabulary size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina eBorgström

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds’ (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24 ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development.

  17. Relative abundance of mesopredators and size of oak patches in the cross-timbers ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, M.R.; Hellgren, E.C.; Davis, C.A.; Leslie, David M.; Engle, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Mesopredators (e.g., raccoon Procyon lotor, Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana, striped skunk Mephitis mephitis) have received considerable attention because of links to population declines in birds via increased nest predation, especially in landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic forces. Relationships of abundance of mesopredators to size of habitat patches have received less attention than relationships to other metrics of fragmentation, particularly edge characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that relative abundance of mesopredators (e.g., raccoons and Virginia opossums) was related negatively to size of forest patch. We delineated 15 patches of oak (Quercus) forest ranging from 0.2 to 55.3 ha within a grassland-woodland mosaic in the cross-timbers ecoregion of Oklahoma. Scent stations and live traps within these patches were used to index relative abundance of mesopredators in summers 2003 and 2004. Both indices of relative abundance were related weakly and negatively to area of forest patch. However, rate of capture and visitation to scent station were not correlated consistently throughout the study. Our results suggested that the two methods to index abundance provided separate information on functional and numerical responses to size of patch. Our evidence that mesopredators within the cross timbers were more likely to be in smaller patches of oak forest may have implications to success of avian nesting in these patches.

  18. Overestimation of body size in eating disorders and its association to body-related avoidance behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anna N; Waldorf, Manuel; Legenbauer, Tanja; Bauer, Anika; Cordes, Martin; Vocks, Silja

    2015-06-01

    Body-related avoidance behavior, e.g., not looking in the mirror, is a common feature of eating disorders. It is assumed that it leads to insufficient feedback concerning one's own real body form and might thus contribute to distorted mental representation of one's own body. However, this assumption still lacks empirical foundation. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between misperception of one's own body and body-related avoidance behavior in N = 78 female patients with Bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified. Body-size misperception was assessed using a digital photo distortion technique based on an individual picture of each participant which was taken in a standardized suit. In a regression analysis with body-related avoidance behavior, body mass index and weight and shape concerns as predictors, only body-related avoidance behavior significantly contributed to the explanation of body-size overestimation. This result supports the theoretical assumption that body-related avoidance behavior makes body-size overestimation more likely.

  19. Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirichenko, M N; Chaikov, L L; Zaritskii, A R

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r -4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids. (paper)

  20. Study on Relation between Hydrodynamic Feature Size of HPAM and Pore Size of Reservoir Rock in Daqing Oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow mechanism of the injected fluid was studied by the constant pressure core displacement experiments in the paper. It is assumed under condition of the constant pressure gradient in deep formation based on the characteristic of pressure gradient distribution between the injection and production wells and the mobility of different polymer systems in deep reservoir. Moreover, the flow rate of steady stream was quantitatively analyzed and the critical flow pressure gradient of different injection parameters polymer solutions in different permeability cores was measured. The result showed that polymer hydrodynamic feature size increases with the increasing molecular weight. If the concentration of polymer solutions overlaps beyond critical concentration, then molecular chains entanglement will be occur and cause the augment of its hydrodynamic feature size. The polymer hydrodynamic feature size decreased as the salinity of the dilution water increased. When the median radius of the core pore and throat was 5–10 times of the polymer system hydrodynamic feature size, the polymer solution had a better compatibility with the microscopic pore structure of the reservoir. The estimation of polymer solutions mobility in the porous media can be used to guide the polymer displacement plan and select the optimum injection parameters.

  1. Egg size and laying order in relation to offspring sex in the extreme sexually size dimorphic brown songlark, Cinclorhamphus cruralis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magrath, MJL; Komdeur, J; Dickinson, J.

    In some bird species, mothers can advantage the offspring of one sex either by elevating them in the laying order to promote earlier hatching or by allocating greater resources to eggs of the preferred sex. In size dimorphic species, the predictions as to which sex should benefit most from such

  2. Tumor size measured by preoperative ultrasonography and postoperative pathologic examination in papillary thyroid carcinoma: relative differences according to size, calcification and coexisting thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young Hoon; Kwon, Ki Ryun; Kwak, Seo Young; Ryu, Kyeung A; Choi, Bobae; Kim, Jin-Man; Koo, Bon Seok

    2014-05-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is a useful diagnostic modality for evaluation of the size and features of thyroid nodules. Tumor size is a key indicator of the surgical extent of thyroid cancer. We evaluated the difference in tumor sizes measured by preoperative US and postoperative pathologic examination in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We reviewed the medical records of 172 consecutive patients, who underwent thyroidectomy for PTC treatment. We compared tumor size, as measured by preoperative US, with that in postoperative specimens. And we analyzed a number of factors potentially influencing the size measurement, including cancer size, calcification and coexisting thyroiditis. The mean size of the tumor measured by preoperative US was 11.4, and 10.2 mm by postoperative pathologic examination. The mean percentage difference (US-pathology/US) of tumor sizes measured by preoperative US and postoperative pathologic examination was 9.9 ± 19.3%, which was statistically significant (p 20.0 mm) and the presence of calcification or coexisting thyroiditis on the tumor size discrepancy between the two measurements was analyzed, the mean percentage differences according to tumor size (9.1 vs. 11.2% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.842), calcification (9.2 vs. 10.2%, p = 0.756) and coexisting thyroiditis (17.6 vs. 9.5%, p = 0.223) did not show statistical significance. Tumor sizes measured in postoperative pathology were ~90% of those measured by preoperative US in PTC; this was not affected by tumor size, the presence of calcification or coexisting thyroiditis. When the surgical extent of PTC treatment according to tumor size measured by US is determined, the relative difference between tumor sizes measured by preoperative US and postoperative pathologic examination should be considered.

  3. Dolphin underwater bait-balling behaviors in relation to group and prey ball sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn-Hirshorn, Robin L; Muzi, Elisa; Richardson, Jessica L; Fox, Gabriella J; Hansen, Lauren N; Salley, Alyce M; Dudzinski, Kathleen M; Würsig, Bernd

    2013-09-01

    We characterized dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) feeding behaviors recorded on underwater video, and related behaviors to variation in prey ball sizes, dolphin group sizes, and study site (Argentina versus New Zealand, NZ). Herding behaviors most often involved dolphins swimming around the side or under prey balls, but dolphins in Argentina more often swam under prey balls (48% of passes) than did dolphins in NZ (34% of passes). This result may have been due to differences in group sizes between sites, since groups are larger in Argentina. Additionally, in NZ, group size was positively correlated with proportion of passes that occurred under prey balls (pdolphins in Argentina more often swam through prey balls (8% of attempts) than did dolphins in NZ (4% of attempts). This result may have been due to differences in prey ball sizes between sites, since dolphins fed on larger prey balls in Argentina (>74m(2)) than in NZ (maximum 33m(2)). Additionally, in NZ, dolphins were more likely to swim through prey balls to capture fish when they fed on larger prey balls (p=0.025). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Excitonic effects and related properties in semiconductor nanostructures: roles of size and dimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shudong; Cheng, Liwen; Wang, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    The size- and dimensionality-dependence of excitonic effects and related properties in semiconductor nanostructures are theoretically studied in detail within the effective-mass approximation. When nanostructure sizes become smaller than the bulk exciton Bohr radius, excitonic effects are significantly enhanced with reducing size or dimensionality. This is as a result of quantum confinement in more directions leading to larger exciton binding energies and normalized exciton oscillator strengths. These excitonic effects originate from electron-hole Coulombic interactions, which strongly enhance the oscillator strength between the electron and hole. It is also established that the universal scaling of exciton binding energy versus the inverse of the exciton Bohr radius follows a linear scaling law. Herein, we propose a stretched exponential law for the size scaling of optical gap, which is in good agreement with the calculated data. Due to differences in the confinement dimensionality, the radiative lifetime of low-dimensional excitons becomes shorter than that of bulk excitons. The size dependence of the exciton radiative lifetimes is in good agreement with available experimental data. This strongly enhanced electron-hole exchange interaction is expected in low-dimensional structures due to enriched excitonic effects. The main difference in nanostructures compared to the bulk can be interpreted in terms of the enhanced excitonic effects induced by exciton localization. The enhanced excitonic effects are expected to be of importance in developing stable and high-efficiency nanoscale excitonic optoelectronic devices.

  5. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: Probability of bystander defibrillation relative to distance to nearest automated external defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondergaard, Kathrine B; Hansen, Steen Moller; Pallisgaard, Jannik L; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Wissenberg, Mads; Karlsson, Lena; Lippert, Freddy K; Gislason, Gunnar H; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Folke, Fredrik

    2018-03-01

    Despite wide dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs), bystander defibrillation rates remain low. We aimed to investigate how route distance to the nearest accessible AED was associated with probability of bystander defibrillation in public and residential locations. We used data from the nationwide Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry and the Danish AED Network to identify out-of-hospital cardiac arrests and route distances to nearest accessible registered AED during 2008-2013. The association between route distance and bystander defibrillation was described using restricted cubic spline logistic regression. We included 6971 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases. The proportion of arrests according to distance in meters (≤100, 101-200, >200) to the nearest accessible AED was: 4.6% (n=320), 5.3% (n=370), and 90.1% (n=6281), respectively. For cardiac arrests in public locations, the probability of bystander defibrillation at 0, 100 and 200m from the nearest AED was 35.7% (95% confidence interval 28.0%-43.5%), 21.3% (95% confidence interval 17.4%-25.2%), and 13.7% (95% confidence interval 10.1%-16.8%), respectively. The corresponding numbers for cardiac arrests in residential locations were 7.0% (95% confidence interval -2.1%-16.1%), 1.5% (95% confidence interval 0.002%-2.8%), and 0.9% (95% confidence interval 0.0005%-1.7%), respectively. In public locations, the probability of bystander defibrillation decreased rapidly within the first 100m route distance from cardiac arrest to nearest accessible AED whereas the probability of bystander defibrillation was low for all distances in residential areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Within-litter differences in personality and physiology relate to size differences among siblings in cavies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, A; Trillmich, F

    2015-06-01

    Many aspects of an animal's early life potentially contribute to long-term individual differences in physiology and behaviour. From several studies on birds and mammals it is known that the early family environment is one of the most prominent factors influencing early development. Most of these studies were conducted on highly altricial species. Here we asked whether in the highly precocial cavy (Cavia aperea) the size rank within a litter, i.e. whether an individual is born as the heaviest, the lightest or an intermediate sibling, affects personality traits directly after birth and after independence. Furthermore, we investigated whether individual states (early growth, baseline cortisol and resting metabolic rate) differ between siblings of different size ranks and assessed their relation to personality traits. Siblings of the same litter differed in personality traits as early as three days after birth. Pups born heaviest in the litter were more explorative and in general more risk-prone than their smaller siblings. Physiological state variables were tightly correlated with personality traits and also influenced by the size rank within litter, suggesting that the size relative to littermates constitutes an important factor in shaping an individual's developmental trajectory. Our data add valuable information on how personalities are shaped during early phases of life and indicate the stability of developmentally influenced behavioural and physiological traits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. THE MASS-SIZE RELATION FROM CLOUDS TO CORES. II. SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, J.; Shetty, R.; Goodman, A. A.; Pillai, T.; Myers, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    We measure the mass and size of cloud fragments in several molecular clouds continuously over a wide range of spatial scales (0.05 ∼ 2 , is not well suited to describe the derived mass-size data. Solar neighborhood clouds not forming massive stars (∼ sun ; Pipe Nebula, Taurus, Perseus, and Ophiuchus) obey m(r) ≤ 870 M sun (r/pc) 1.33 . In contrast to this, clouds forming massive stars (Orion A, G10.15 - 0.34, G11.11 - 0.12) do exceed the aforementioned relation. Thus, this limiting mass-size relation may approximate a threshold for the formation of massive stars. Across all clouds, cluster-forming cloud fragments are found to be-at given radius-more massive than fragments devoid of clusters. The cluster-bearing fragments are found to roughly obey a mass-size law m ∝ r 1.27 (where the exponent is highly uncertain in any given cloud, but is certainly smaller than 1.5).

  8. Effects of processing on microstructure and mechanical properties of a titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) fabricated using electron beam melting (EBM), part 1: Distance from build plate and part size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrabe, Nikolas, E-mail: nhrabe@gmail.com [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Stop 647, Boulder, CO 80305-3328 (United States); Quinn, Timothy, E-mail: timothy.quinn@nist.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 325 Broadway, Stop 647, Boulder, CO 80305-3328 (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Selective electron beam melting (EBM) is a layer-by-layer additive manufacturing technique that shows great promise for fabrication of medical devices and aerospace components. Before its potential can be fully realized, however, a comprehensive understanding of processing–microstructure–properties relationships is necessary. Titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) parts were built in a geometry developed to allow investigation of the following two intra-build processing parameters: distance from the build plate and part size. Microstructure evaluation (qualitative prior-β grain size, quantitative α lath thickness), tensile testing, and Vickers microhardness were performed for each specimen. Microstructure and mechanical properties, including microhardness, were not found to vary as a function of distance from the build plate, which was hypothesized to be influenced by the build plate preheating associated with the EBM process. Part size, however, was found to influence ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield strength (YS) by less than 2% over the size range investigated. A second order effect of thermal mass might also have influenced these results. Differences were observed between the EBM Ti–6Al–4V microstructure of this work and the expected acicular or Widmanstätten microstructure normally achieved through annealing above the β transus. Therefore, a different relationship between α lath thickness and mechanical properties might be expected.

  9. Effects of processing on microstructure and mechanical properties of a titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) fabricated using electron beam melting (EBM), part 1: Distance from build plate and part size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrabe, Nikolas; Quinn, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Selective electron beam melting (EBM) is a layer-by-layer additive manufacturing technique that shows great promise for fabrication of medical devices and aerospace components. Before its potential can be fully realized, however, a comprehensive understanding of processing–microstructure–properties relationships is necessary. Titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) parts were built in a geometry developed to allow investigation of the following two intra-build processing parameters: distance from the build plate and part size. Microstructure evaluation (qualitative prior-β grain size, quantitative α lath thickness), tensile testing, and Vickers microhardness were performed for each specimen. Microstructure and mechanical properties, including microhardness, were not found to vary as a function of distance from the build plate, which was hypothesized to be influenced by the build plate preheating associated with the EBM process. Part size, however, was found to influence ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield strength (YS) by less than 2% over the size range investigated. A second order effect of thermal mass might also have influenced these results. Differences were observed between the EBM Ti–6Al–4V microstructure of this work and the expected acicular or Widmanstätten microstructure normally achieved through annealing above the β transus. Therefore, a different relationship between α lath thickness and mechanical properties might be expected

  10. Flight distance in roe deer Capreolus capreolus and fallow deer Dama dama as related to hunting and other factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de H.Y.; Breukelen, van L.; Hootsmans, M.J.M.; Wieren, van S.E.

    2004-01-01

    Flight distances in roe deer Capreolus capreolus and fallow deer Dama dama with respect to a human observer on foot were measured in four nature reserves in the Netherlands: two dune reserves in the western part (the Amsterdam Water Supply Dunes (AWD) and Kennemerduinen (KD)) and two forested areas

  11. Traversing psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov

    2014-07-01

    Traversing psychological distance involves going beyond direct experience, and includes planning, perspective taking, and contemplating counterfactuals. Consistent with this view, temporal, spatial, and social distances as well as hypotheticality are associated, affect each other, and are inferred from one another. Moreover, traversing all distances involves the use of abstraction, which we define as forming a belief about the substitutability for a specific purpose of subjectively distinct objects. Indeed, across many instances of both abstraction and psychological distancing, more abstract constructs are used for more distal objects. Here, we describe the implications of this relation for prediction, choice, communication, negotiation, and self-control. We ask whether traversing distance is a general mental ability and whether distance should replace expectancy in expected-utility theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Face-to-face and electronic communications in maintaining social networks : the influence of geographical and relational distance and of information content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, Taede; Dijst, Martin; Schwanen, Tim

    Using data collected among 742 respondents, this article aims at gaining greater insight into (i) the interaction between face-to-face (F2F) and electronic contacts, (ii) the influence of information content and relational distance on the communication mode/service choice and (iii) the influence of

  13. The Relation between Academic Procrastination of University Students and Their Assignment and Exam Performances: The Situation in Distance and Face-to-Face Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, M. Betul

    2017-01-01

    The relation between assignment and exam performances of the university students and their academic procrastination behaviors in distance and face-to-face learning environments was investigated in this study. Empirical research carried out both in face-to-face and online environments have generally shown a negative correlation between academic…

  14. Both natural selection and isolation by distance explain phenotypic divergence in bill size and body mass between South Australian little penguin colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombelli-Négrel, Diane

    2016-11-01

    Morphological variation between populations of the same species can arise as a response to genetic variation, local environmental conditions, or a combination of both. In this study, I examined small-scale geographic variation in bill size and body mass in little penguins ( Eudyptula minor ) across five breeding colonies in South Australia separated by penguin colonies.

  15. Corporate values as related to occupation, gender, age, and company size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumin, F J; Johnson, J H; Kuehl, C; Jiang, W Y

    1995-07-01

    A mail survey was used to study the perceived importance of 15 corporate values among advertising personnel, CPAs, and business school professors. Excellent customer service, ethical behavior, and product quality were perceived as highly important by all groups. Political activity and contribution to the community were seen as relatively unimportant. There was general agreement that it was more important to make a fair profit than to maximize profits. A number of corporate values were significantly related to occupational group, gender, age, and company size.

  16. Optical–Mid-infrared Period–Luminosity Relations for W UMa-type Contact Binaries Based on Gaia DR 1: 8% Distance Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodian; Deng, Licai; de Grijs, Richard; Wang, Shu; Feng, Yuting

    2018-06-01

    W Ursa Majoris (W UMa)-type contact binary systems (CBs) are useful statistical distance indicators because of their large numbers. Here, we establish (orbital) period–luminosity relations (PLRs) in 12 optical to mid-infrared bands (GBVRIJHK s W1W2W3W4) based on 183 nearby W UMa-type CBs with accurate Tycho–Gaia parallaxes. The 1σ dispersion of the PLRs decreases from optical to near- and mid-infrared wavelengths. The minimum scatter, 0.16 mag, implies that W UMa-type CBs can be used to recover distances to 7% precision. Applying our newly determined PLRs to 19 open clusters containing W UMa-type CBs demonstrates that the PLR and open cluster CB distance scales are mutually consistent to within 1%. Adopting our PLRs as secondary distance indicators, we compiled a catalog of 55,603 CB candidates, of which 80% have distance estimates based on a combination of optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared photometry. Using Fourier decomposition, 27,318 high-probability W UMa-type CBs were selected. The resulting 8% distance accuracy implies that our sample encompasses the largest number of objects with accurate distances within a local volume with a radius of 3 kpc available to date. The distribution of W UMa-type CBs in the Galaxy suggests that in different environments, the CB luminosity function may be different: larger numbers of brighter (longer-period) W UMa-type CBs are found in younger environments.

  17. Fitness cost of incubation in great tits (Parus major) is related to clutch size

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heij, Maaike E; van den Hout, Piet J; Tinbergen, Joost M

    2006-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that parents produce the number of offspring that maximizes their fitness. In birds, natural selection on parental decisions regarding clutch size may act during egg laying, incubation or nestling phase. To study the fitness consequences of clutch size during the incubation phase, we manipulated the clutch sizes during this phase only in three breeding seasons and measured the fitness consequences on the short and the long term. Clutch enlargement did not affect the offspring fitness of the manipulated first clutches, but fledging probability of the subsequent clutch in the same season was reduced. Parents incubating enlarged first clutches provided adequate care for the offspring of their first clutches during the nestling phase, but paid the price when caring for the offspring of their second clutch. Parents that incubated enlarged first clutches had lower local survival in the 2 years when the population had a relatively high production of second clutches, but not in the third year when there was a very low production of second clutches. During these 2 years, the costs of incubation were strong enough to change positive selection, as established by brood size manipulations in this study population, into stabilizing selection through the negative effect of incubation on parental fitness. PMID:16928638

  18. Population genetic structure of the lettuce root aphid, Pemphigus bursarius (L.), in relation to geographic distance, gene flow and host plant usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, N J; Birley, A J; Overall, A D J; Tatchell, G M

    2003-09-01

    Microsatellite markers were used to examine the population structure of Pemphigus bursarius, a cyclically parthenogenetic aphid. Substantial allele frequency differences were observed between populations on the primary host plant (collected shortly after sexual reproduction) separated by distances as low as 14 km. This suggested that migratory movements occur over relatively short distances in this species. However, the degree of allele frequency divergence between populations was not correlated with their geographical separation, indicating that isolation by distance was not the sole cause of spatial genetic structuring. Significant excesses of homozygotes were observed in several populations. Substantial allele frequency differences were also found between aphids on the primary host and those sampled from a secondary host plant after several parthenogenetic generations at the same location in two successive years. This could have been due to the existence of obligately parthenogenetic lineages living on the secondary host or genetically divergent populations confined to different secondary host plant species but sharing a common primary host.

  19. Euclidean distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses of multi-day auditory event-related potentials: a longitudinal stability study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durato, M. V.; Albano, A. M.; Rapp, P. E.; Nawang, S. A.

    2015-06-01

    The validity of ERPs as indices of stable neurophysiological traits is partially dependent on their stability over time. Previous studies on ERP stability, however, have reported diverse stability estimates despite using the same component scoring methods. This present study explores a novel approach in investigating the longitudinal stability of average ERPs—that is, by treating the ERP waveform as a time series and then applying Euclidean Distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses to evaluate the similarity or dissimilarity between the ERP time series of different sessions or run pairs. Nonlinear dynamical analysis show that in the absence of a change in medical condition, the average ERPs of healthy human adults are highly longitudinally stable—as evaluated by both the Euclidean distance and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.

  20. Euclidean distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses of multi-day auditory event-related potentials: a longitudinal stability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durato, M V; Nawang, S A; Albano, A M; Rapp, P E

    2015-01-01

    The validity of ERPs as indices of stable neurophysiological traits is partially dependent on their stability over time. Previous studies on ERP stability, however, have reported diverse stability estimates despite using the same component scoring methods. This present study explores a novel approach in investigating the longitudinal stability of average ERPs—that is, by treating the ERP waveform as a time series and then applying Euclidean Distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses to evaluate the similarity or dissimilarity between the ERP time series of different sessions or run pairs. Nonlinear dynamical analysis show that in the absence of a change in medical condition, the average ERPs of healthy human adults are highly longitudinally stable—as evaluated by both the Euclidean distance and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. (paper)

  1. Putting to a bigger hole: Golf performance relates to perceived size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jessica K.; Linkenauger, Sally A.; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    2011-01-01

    When engaged in a skilled behaviour such as occurs in sports, people's perceptions relate optical information to their performance. In current research we demonstrate the effects of performance on size perception in golfers. We found golfers who played better judged the hole to be bigger than golfers who did not play as well (Study 1). In follow-up laboratory experiments, participants putted on a golf mat from a location near or far from the hole then judged the size of the hole. Participants who putted from the near location perceived the hole to be bigger than participants who putted from the far location. Our results demonstrate that perception is influenced by the perceiver's current ability to act effectively in the environment. PMID:18567258

  2. Size of nuclear sources from measurements of proton-proton correlations at small relative momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebreyend, D.; Kox, S.; Merchez, F.; Noren, B.; Perrin, C.; Khelfaoui, B.; Gondrand, J.C.; Bondorf, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    This contribution will present recent measurements performed on light heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies. Nuclear source sizes were determined by measuring the correlation at small relative momentum, between two protons detected in the EMRIC set-up. This technique allows the determination of the extent of the emitting source by constructing a correlation function for the coincident protons and analyzing it in the framework of a final state interaction model. We found the apparent source size to be large compared to the dimension of the studied system and low sensitivity of the extracted radii as a function of the target mass and detection angle. We will show that simulations may be needed to fully estimate the correlation induced by detectors with small angular acceptance

  3. Film Grain-Size Related Long-Term Stability of Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chien-Hung; Wu, Chun-Guey

    2016-09-22

    The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the perovskite solar cell is high enough to be commercially viable. The next important issue is the stability of the device. This article discusses the effect of the perovskite grain-size on the long-term stability of inverted perovskite solar cells. Perovskite films composed of various sizes of grains were prepared by controlling the solvent annealing time. The grain-size related stability of the inverted cells was investigated both in ambient atmosphere at relative humidity of approximately 30-40 % and in a nitrogen filled glove box (H 2 Operovskite film having the grain size larger than 1 μm (D-10) decreases less than 10 % with storage in a glove box and less than 15 % when it was stored under an ambient atmosphere for 30 days. However, the cell using the perovskite film composed of small (∼100 nm) perovskite grains (D-0) exhibits complete loss of PCE after storage under the ambient atmosphere for only 15 days and a PCE loss of up to 70 % with storage in the glove box for 30 days. These results suggest that, even under H 2 O-free conditions, the chemical- and thermal-induced production of pin holes at the grain boundaries of the perovskite film could be the reason for long-term instability of inverted perovskite solar cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Non-coding changes cause sex-specific wing size differences between closely related species of Nasonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loehlin, David W.; Oliveira, Deodoro C. S. G.; Edwards, Rachel; Giebel, Jonathan D.; Clark, Michael E.; Cattani, M. Victoria; van de Zande, Louis; Verhulst, Eveline C.; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Werren, John H.

    The genetic basis of morphological differences among species is still poorly understood. We investigated the genetic basis of sex-specific differences in wing size between two closely related species of Nasonia by positional cloning a major male-specific locus, wing-size1 (ws1). Male wing size

  5. Top-spray fluid bed coating: Scale-up in terms of relative droplet size and drying force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, P.; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    in terms of particle size fractions larger than 425 mu m determined by sieve analysis. Results indicated that the particle size distribution may be reproduced across scale with statistical valid precision by keeping the drying force and the relative droplet size constant across scale. It is also shown...

  6. Relation between electrocardiographic and enzymatic methods of estimating acute myocardial infarct size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, N; Grande, P; Harrell, F E; Anderson, C; Harrison, D; Ideker, R E; Selvester, R H; Wagner, G S

    1986-07-01

    The extent of initial acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and subsequent patient prognosis were studied using 2 independent indicators of AMI size. Two inexpensive, readily available techniques, the complete Selvester QRS score from the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram and the peak value of the isoenzyme MB of creatine kinase (CK-MB), were evaluated in 125 patients with initial AMI. The overall correlation between peak CK-MB and QRS score was fair (0.57), with marked difference according to anterior (0.72) or inferior (0.35) location. The prognostic capabilities of each measurement varied. Peak CK-MB provided significant information concerning hospital morbidity or early mortality (within 30 days) for both anterior (chi 2 = 9.83) and inferior (chi 2 = 7.68) AMI locations; however, the QRS score was significant only for anterior AMI (chi 2 = 9.50). For total 24-month mortality, the QRS score alone provided the most information (chi 2 = 10.0, p = 0.0016), which was not improved with the addition of CK-MB (chi 2 = 0.07, p = 0.79). This study shows a good relation between these 2 independent estimates of AMI size for patients with anterior AMI location. Both QRS and CK-MB results are significantly related to early morbidity and mortality; however, only the QRS score is related to total 24-month prognosis.

  7. The Origin of the Relation between Metallicity and Size in Star-forming Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Almeida, J.; Dalla Vecchia, C.

    2018-06-01

    For the same stellar mass, physically smaller star-forming galaxies are also metal richer. What causes the relation remains unclear. The central star-forming galaxies in the EAGLE cosmological numerical simulation reproduce the observed trend. We use them to explore the origin of the relation assuming that the physical mechanism responsible for the anticorrelation between size and gas-phase metallicity is the same in the simulated and the observed galaxies. We consider the three most likely causes: (1) metal-poor gas inflows feeding the star formation (SF) process, (2) metal-rich gas outflows particularly efficient in shallow gravitational potentials, and (3) enhanced efficiency of the SF process in compact galaxies. Outflows (cause 2) and enhanced SF efficiency (cause 3) can be discarded. Metal-poor gas inflows (cause 1) produce the correlation in the simulated galaxies. Galaxies grow in size with time, so those that receive gas later are both metal poorer and larger, giving rise to the observed anticorrelation. As expected within this explanation, larger galaxies have younger stellar populations. We explore the variation with redshift of the relation, which is maintained up to, at least, redshift 8.

  8. Tibial tuberosity to trochlear groove distance and its association with patellofemoral osteoarthritis-related structural damage worsening: data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Guermazi, Ali; Hakky, Michael; Sereni, Christopher; Zikria, Bashir; Roemer, Frank W; Tanaka, Miho J; Cosgarea, Andrew J; Demehri, Shadpour

    2018-04-30

    To determine whether the tibial tuberosity-to-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance is associated with concurrent patellofemoral joint osteoarthritis (OA)-related structural damage and its worsening on 24-month follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). Six hundred subjects (one index knee per participant) were assessed. To evaluate patellofemoral OA-related structural damage, baseline and 24-month semiquantitative MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS) variables for cartilage defects, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), osteophytes, effusion, and synovitis were extracted from available readings. The TT-TG distance was measured in all subjects using baseline MRIs by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The associations between baseline TT-TG distance and concurrent baseline MOAKS variables and their worsening in follow-up MRI were investigated using regression analysis adjusted for variables associated with tibiofemoral and patellofemoral OA. At baseline, increased TT-TG distance was associated with concurrent lateral patellar and trochlear cartilage damages, BML, osteophytes, and knee joint effusion [cross-sectional evaluations; overall odds ratio 95% confidence interval (OR 95% CI): 1.098 (1.045-1.154), p patellofemoral OA-related structural damage and its worsening over 24 months. Abnormally lateralized tibial tuberosity may be considered as a risk factor for future patellofemoral OA worsening. • Excessive TT-TG distance on MRI is an indicator/predictor of lateral-patellofemoral-OA. • TT-TG is associated with simultaneous lateral-patellofemoral-OA (6-17% chance-increase for each millimeter increase). • TT-TG is associated with longitudinal (24-months) lateral-patellofemoral-OA (5-15% chance-increase for each millimeter).

  9. Social network size relates to developmental neural sensitivity to biological motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Kirby

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to perceive others’ actions and goals from human motion (i.e., biological motion perception is a critical component of social perception and may be linked to the development of real-world social relationships. Adult research demonstrates two key nodes of the brain’s biological motion perception system—amygdala and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS—are linked to variability in social network properties. The relation between social perception and social network properties, however, has not yet been investigated in middle childhood—a time when individual differences in social experiences and social perception are growing. The aims of this study were to (1 replicate past work showing amygdala and pSTS sensitivity to biological motion in middle childhood; (2 examine age-related changes in the neural sensitivity for biological motion, and (3 determine whether neural sensitivity for biological motion relates to social network characteristics in children. Consistent with past work, we demonstrate a significant relation between social network size and neural sensitivity for biological motion in left pSTS, but do not find age-related change in biological motion perception. This finding offers evidence for the interplay between real-world social experiences and functional brain development and has important implications for understanding disorders of atypical social experience. Keywords: Biological motion, Social networks, Middle childhood, Neural specialization, Brain-behavior relations, pSTS

  10. The relative impact of sizing errors on steam generator tube failure probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizelj, L.; Dvorsek, T.

    1998-01-01

    The Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) at tube support plates is currently the major degradation mechanism affecting the steam generator tubes made of Inconel 600. This caused development and licensing of degradation specific maintenance approaches, which addressed two main failure modes of the degraded piping: tube rupture; and excessive leakage through degraded tubes. A methodology aiming at assessing the efficiency of a given set of possible maintenance approaches has already been proposed by the authors. It pointed out better performance of the degradation specific over generic approaches in (1) lower probability of single and multiple steam generator tube rupture (SGTR), (2) lower estimated accidental leak rates and (3) less tubes plugged. A sensitivity analysis was also performed pointing out the relative contributions of uncertain input parameters to the tube rupture probabilities. The dominant contribution was assigned to the uncertainties inherent to the regression models used to correlate the defect size and tube burst pressure. The uncertainties, which can be estimated from the in-service inspections, are further analysed in this paper. The defect growth was found to have significant and to some extent unrealistic impact on the probability of single tube rupture. Since the defect growth estimates were based on the past inspection records they strongly depend on the sizing errors. Therefore, an attempt was made to filter out the sizing errors and to arrive at more realistic estimates of the defect growth. The impact of different assumptions regarding sizing errors on the tube rupture probability was studied using a realistic numerical example. The data used is obtained from a series of inspection results from Krsko NPP with 2 Westinghouse D-4 steam generators. The results obtained are considered useful in safety assessment and maintenance of affected steam generators. (author)

  11. Viral Richness is Positively Related to Group Size, but Not Mating System, in Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Quinn M R; Fletcher, Quinn E; Willis, Craig K R

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing host traits that influence viral richness and diversification is important for understanding wildlife pathogens affecting conservation and/or human health. Behaviors that affect contact rates among hosts could be important for viral diversification because more frequent intra- and inter-specific contacts among hosts should increase the potential for viral diversification within host populations. We used published data on bats to test the contact-rate hypothesis. We predicted that species forming large conspecific groups, that share their range with more heterospecifics (i.e., sympatry), and with mating systems characterized by high contact rates (polygynandry: multi-male/multi-female), would host higher viral richness than species with small group sizes, lower sympatry, or low contact-rate mating systems (polygyny: single male/multi-female). Consistent with our hypothesis and previous research, viral richness was positively correlated with conspecific group size although the relationship plateaued at group sizes of approximately several hundred thousand bats. This pattern supports epidemiological theory that, up to a point, larger groups have higher contact rates, greater likelihood of acquiring and transmitting viruses, and ultimately greater potential for viral diversification. However, contrary to our hypothesis, there was no effect of sympatry on viral richness and no difference in viral richness between mating systems. We also found no residual effect of host phylogeny on viral richness, suggesting that closely related species do not necessarily host similar numbers of viruses. Our results support the contact-rate hypothesis that intra-specific viral transmission can enhance viral diversification within species and highlight the influence of host group size on the potential of viruses to propagate within host populations.

  12. Early-type galaxies: mass-size relation at z ˜ 1.3 for different environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichoor, A.; Mei, S.; Stanford, S. A.; Holden, B. P.; Nakata, F.; Rosati, P.; Shankar, F.; Tanaka, M.; Ford, H.; Huertas-Company, M.; Illingworth, G.; Kodama, T.; Postman, M.; Rettura, A.; Blakeslee, J. P.; Demarco, R.; Jee, M. J.; White, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    We combine multi-wavelength data of the Lynx superstructure and GOODS/CDF-S to build a sample of 75 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs), spanning different environments (cluster/group/field) at z ˜ 1.3. By estimating their mass, age (SED fitting, with a careful attention to the stellar population model used) and size, we are able to probe the dependence on the environment of the mass-size relation. We find that, for ETGs with 10^{10} < M / M_⊙ < 10^{11.5}, (1) the mass-size relation in the field did not evolve overall from z ˜ 1.3 to present; (2) the mass-size relation in cluster/group environments at z ˜ 1.3 lies at smaller sizes than the local mass-size relation (R_{e,z ˜ 1.3}/R_{e,z = 0} ˜ 0.6-0.8).

  13. Size, shape and age-related changes of the mandibular condyle during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlo, Christoph A. [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Stolzmann, Paul [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Habernig, Sandra; Kellenberger, Christian J. [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Mueller, Lukas [University of Zurich, Clinics for Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Zurich (Switzerland); Saurenmann, Traudel [University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Department of Rheumatology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-10-15

    To determine age-related differences in the size and shape of the mandibular condyle in children to establish anatomical reference values. A total of 420 mandibular condyles in 210 children (mean age, 7 years) were retrospectively analysed by using computed tomography (CT) imaging. The greatest left-right (LRD) and anterior-posterior (APD) diameters and the anteversion angles (AA) were measured by two readers. An APD/LRD ratio was calculated. The shape of the condyles was graded into three types on sagittal images. Correlations of parameters with the children's age were assessed by using Pearson's correlation analyses. The LRD (mean, 14.1 {+-} 2.4 mm), APD (mean, 7.3 {+-} 1.0 mm) and LRD/APD ratio (mean, 1.9 {+-} 0.3) increased (r{sub LRD} = 0.70, p < 0.01; r{sub APD} = 0.56, p < 0.01; r{sub rat} = 0.28, p < 0.01) while the AA (mean, 27 {+-} 7 ) decreased significantly (r{sub antang} = -0.26, p < 0.001) with age. The condylar shape as determined on sagittal images correlated significantly with age (r = 0.69, p < 0.05). Boys had significantly higher anteversion angles (p < 0.01), greater LRDs (p < 0.05) and greater mean ratios (p < 0.05). The mandibular condyle is subject to significant age-related changes in size and shape during childhood. As the size of the condyles increases with age, the anteversion angles decrease and the shape of the condyle turns from round to oval. (orig.)

  14. Age-Related Changes in Pharyngeal Lumen Size: A Retrospective MRI Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Amin, M R; Branski, R C; Brumm, J D; Hagiwara, M; Roof, S A; Lazarus, C L

    2015-06-01

    Age-related loss of muscle bulk and strength (sarcopenia) is often cited as a potential mechanism underlying age-related changes in swallowing. Our goal was to explore this phenomenon in the pharynx, specifically, by measuring pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area in a sample of young versus older women. MRI scans of the neck were retrospectively reviewed from 60 women equally stratified into three age groups (20s, 60s, 70+). Four de-identified slices were extracted per scan for randomized, blinded analysis: one mid-sagittal and three axial slices were selected at the anterior inferior border of C2 and C3, and at the pit of the vallecula. Pixel-based measures of pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area were completed using ImageJ and then converted to metric units. Measures of pharyngeal wall thickness and pharyngeal lumen area were compared between age groups with one-way ANOVAs using Sidak adjustments for post-hoc pairwise comparisons. A significant main effect for age was observed across all variables whereby pharyngeal wall thickness decreased and pharyngeal lumen area increased with advancing age. Pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences between 20s versus 70+ for all variables and 20s versus 60s for all variables except those measured at C2. Effect sizes ranged from 0.54 to 1.34. Consistent with existing sacropenia literature, the pharyngeal muscles appear to atrophy with age and consequently, the size of the pharyngeal lumen increases.

  15. Determining an Estimate of an Equivalence Relation for Moderate and Large Sized Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Klukowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two approaches to determining estimates of an equivalence relation on the basis of pairwise comparisons with random errors. Obtaining such an estimate requires the solution of a discrete programming problem which minimizes the sum of the differences between the form of the relation and the comparisons. The problem is NP hard and can be solved with the use of exact algorithms for sets of moderate size, i.e. about 50 elements. In the case of larger sets, i.e. at least 200 comparisons for each element, it is necessary to apply heuristic algorithms. The paper presents results (a statistical preprocessing, which enable us to determine the optimal or a near-optimal solution with acceptable computational cost. They include: the development of a statistical procedure producing comparisons with low probabilities of errors and a heuristic algorithm based on such comparisons. The proposed approach guarantees the applicability of such estimators for any size of set. (original abstract

  16. Relative abundance and size of coastal sharks derived from commercial shark longline catch and effort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, J K; Hale, L F; Morgan, A; Burgess, G

    2012-04-01

    In the north-west Atlantic Ocean, stock assessments conducted for some commercially harvested coastal sharks indicate declines from 64 to 80% with respect to virgin population levels. While the status of commercially important species is available, abundance trend information for other coastal shark species in the north-west Atlantic Ocean are unavailable. Using a generalized linear modelling (GLM) approach, a relative abundance index was derived from 1994 to 2009 using observer data collected in a commercial bottom longline fishery. Trends in abundance and average size were estimated for bull shark Carcharhinus leucas, spinner shark Carcharhinus brevipinna, tiger shark Galeocerdo cuvier and lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris. Increases in relative abundance for all shark species ranged from 14% for C. brevipinna, 12% for C. leucas, 6% for N. brevirostris and 3% for G. cuvier. There was no significant change in the size at capture over the time period considered for all species. While the status of shark populations should not be based exclusively on abundance trend information, but ultimately on stock assessment models, results from this study provide some cause for optimism on the status of these coastal shark species. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Relative merits of size, field, and current on ignited tokamak performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    A simple global analysis is developed to examine the relative merits of size (L = a or R/sub 0 /), field (B/sub 0 /), and current (I) on ignition regimes of tokamaks under various confinement scaling laws. Scalings of key parameters with L, B/sub 0 /, and I are presented at several operating points, including (a) optimal path to ignition (saddle point), (b) ignition at minimum beta, (c) ignition at 10 keV, and (d) maximum performance at the limits of density and beta. Expressions for the saddle point and the minimum conditions needed for ohmic ignition are derived analytically for any confinement model of the form tau/sub E/ ∼ n/sup x/T/sup y/. For a wide range of confinement models, the ''figure of merit'' parameters and I are found to give a good indication of the relative performance of the devices where q* is the cylindrical safety factor. As an illustration, the results are applied to representative ''CIT'' (as a class of compact, high-field ignition tokamaks) and ''Super-JETs'' [a class of large-size (few x JET), low-field, high-current (≥20-MA) devices.

  18. Steiner Distance in Graphs--A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Yaping

    2017-01-01

    For a connected graph $G$ of order at least $2$ and $S\\subseteq V(G)$, the \\emph{Steiner distance} $d_G(S)$ among the vertices of $S$ is the minimum size among all connected subgraphs whose vertex sets contain $S$. In this paper, we summarize the known results on the Steiner distance parameters, including Steiner distance, Steiner diameter, Steiner center, Steiner median, Steiner interval, Steiner distance hereditary graph, Steiner distance stable graph, average Steiner distance, and Steiner ...

  19. Using Geomorphic Change Detection to Understand Restoration Project Success Relative to Stream Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, A.; Segura, C.

    2017-12-01

    Large wood (LW) jams have long been utilized as a stream restoration strategy to create fish habitat, with a strong focus on Coho salmon in the Pacific Northwest. These projects continue to be implemented despite limited understanding of their success in streams of different size. In this study, we assessed the changes triggered by LW introductions in 10 alluvial plane bed reaches with varying drainage areas (3.9-22 km²) and bankfull widths (6.4-14.7 m) in one Oregon Coast Range basin. In this basin, LW was added in an effort to improve winter rearing habitat for Coho salmon. We used detailed topographic mapping (0.5 m² resolution) to describe the local stream and floodplain geometry. Pebble counts were used to monitor changes in average substrate size after the LW addition. Field surveys were conducted immediately after the LW were installed, in the summer of 2016, and one year after installation, in the summer of 2017. We used geomorphic change detection analysis to quantify the amount of scour and deposition at each site along with changes in average bankfull width. Then we determined the relative amount of change among all sites to identify which size stream changed the most. We also modeled fluctuations in water surface elevation at each site, correlating frequency and inundation of the LW with geomorphic changes detected from the topographic surveys. Preliminary results show an increase in channel width and floodplain connectivity at all sites, indicating an increase in off-channel habitat for juvenile Coho salmon. Bankfull widths increased up to 75% in small sites and up to 25% in large sites. Median grain size became coarser in large streams (increased up to 20%), while we saw a similar amount of fining at smaller sites. The overall increase in channel width is compensated by an overall decrease in bed elevation at both large and small sites, suggesting the maintenance of overall geomorphic equilibrium. Further work will include quantifying these

  20. Distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Pucelj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available I would like to underline the role and importance of knowledge, which is acquired by individuals as a result of a learning process and experience. I have established that a form of learning, such as distance learning definitely contributes to a higher learning quality and leads to innovative, dynamic and knowledgebased society. Knowledge and skills enable individuals to cope with and manage changes, solve problems and also create new knowledge. Traditional learning practices face new circumstances, new and modern technologies appear, which enable quick and quality-oriented knowledge implementation. The centre of learning process at distance learning is to increase the quality of life of citizens, their competitiveness on the workforce market and ensure higher economic growth. Intellectual capital is the one, which represents the biggest capital of each society and knowledge is the key factor for succes of everybody, who are fully aware of this. Flexibility, openness and willingness of people to follow new IT solutions form suitable environment for developing and deciding to take up distance learning.

  1. The effect of river water circulation on the distribution and functioning of reservoir microbial communities as determined by a relative distance approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimek, Karel; Comerma, M.; García, J. C.; Nedoma, Jiří; Marcé, R.; Armengol, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-14 ISSN 1432-9840 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/08/0015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : canyon-shaped reservoir * ongitudinal gradients * relative distance model * river-reservoir ecosystem * water circulation patterns * plankton succession * microbial dynamics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.495, year: 2011

  2. Body size and growth in 0- to 4-year-old children and the relation to body size in primary school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stocks, T; Renders, C M; Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.W.; HiraSing, R.A.; van Buuren, S.; Seidell, J C

    Excess weight in early life is believed to increase susceptibility to obesity, and in support of such theory, excess weight and fast weight gain in early childhood have been related to overweight later in life. The aim of this study was to review the literature on body size and growth in 0- to

  3. Body size and growth in 0- to 4-year-old children and the relation to body size in primary school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stocks, T.; Renders, C.M.; Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.W.; Hirasing, R.A.; Buuren, S. van; Seidell, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Excess weight in early life is believed to increase susceptibility to obesity, and in support of such theory, excess weight and fast weight gain in early childhood have been related to overweight later in life. The aim of this study was to review the literature on body size and growth in 0- to

  4. Closeness and distance in the nurse-patient relation. The relevance of Edith Stein's concept of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Sylvia M

    2006-01-01

    This paper emanates from the concept of empathy as understood by the German philosopher Edith Stein. It begins by highlighting different interpretations of empathy. According to the German philosopher Martin Buber, empathy cannot be achieved as an act of will. In contrast, the psychologist Carl Rogers believes that empathy is identical with dialogue and is the outcome of a cognitive act of active listening. The empathy concept of Edith Stein, philosopher and follower of Edmund Husserl's phenomenology, goes beyond these conflicting views and offers a more complex interpretation, with relevance for both healthcare and nursing education. When studying Stein's three-level model of empathy, a field of tension between perspectives of closeness and distance becomes apparent. The paper concludes by suggesting Stein's model of empathy as a strategy to overcome the tension and meet the demands of empathy.

  5. Size-density relations in dark clouds: Non-LTE effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, P.

    1986-01-01

    One of the major goals of molecular astronomy has been to understand the physics and dynamics of dense interstellar clouds. Because the interpretation of observations of giant molecular clouds is complicated by their very complex structure and the dynamical effects of star formation, a number of studies have concentrated on dark clouds. Leung, Kutner and Mead (1982) (hereafter LKM) and Myers (1983), in studies of CO and NH 3 emission, concluded that dark clouds exhibit significant correlations between linewidth and cloud radius of the form delta v varies as R(0.5) and between mean density and radius of the form n varies as R(-1), as originally suggested by Larson (1981). This result suggests that these objects are in virial equilibrium. However, the mean densities inferred from the CO data of LKM are based on an local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of their 13CO data. At the very low mean densities inferred by LKM for the larger clouds in their samples, the assumption of LTE becomes very questionable. As most of the range in R in the density-size correlation comes from the clouds observed in CO, it seems worthwhile to examine how non-LTE effects will influence the derived densities. Microturbulent models of inhomogeneous clouds of varying central concentration with the linewidth-size and mean density-size relations found by Myers show sub-thermal excitation of the 13CO line in the larger clouds, with the result that LTE analysis considerbly underestimates the actual column density. A more general approach which doesn't require detailed modeling of the clouds is to consider whether the observed T/sub R/*(13CO)/T/sub R/*(12CO) ratios in the clouds studied by LKM are in the range where the LTE-derived optical depths be seriously in error due to sub-thermal excitation of the 13CO molecule

  6. Age- and size-related reference ranges: a case study of spirometry through childhood and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, T J; Stanojevic, S; Stocks, J; Coates, A L; Hankinson, J L; Wade, A M

    2009-02-28

    Age-related reference ranges are useful for assessing growth in children. The LMS method is a popular technique for constructing growth charts that model the age-changing distribution of the measurement in terms of the median, coefficient of variation and skewness. Here the methodology is extended to references that depend on body size as well as age, by exploiting the flexibility of the generalised additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) technique. GAMLSS offers general linear predictors for each moment parameter and a choice of error distributions, which can handle kurtosis as well as skewness. A key question with such references is the nature of the age-size adjustment, additive or multiplicative, which is explored by comparing the identity link and log link for the median predictor.There are several measurements whose reference ranges depend on both body size and age. As an example, models are developed here for the first four moments of the lung function variables forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV(1)/FVC in terms of height and age, in a data set of 3598 children and adults aged 4 to 80 years. The results show a strong multiplicative association between spirometry, height and age, with a large and nonlinear age effect across the age range. Variability also depends nonlinearly on age and to a lesser extent on height. FEV(1) and FVC are close to normally distributed, while FEV(1)/FVC is appreciably skew to the left. GAMLSS is a powerful technique for the construction of such references, which should be useful in clinical medicine. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. DISTANCES TO DARK CLOUDS: COMPARING EXTINCTION DISTANCES TO MASER PARALLAX DISTANCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Jonathan B.; Jackson, James M.; Stead, Joseph J.; Hoare, Melvin G.; Benjamin, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    We test two different methods of using near-infrared extinction to estimate distances to dark clouds in the first quadrant of the Galaxy using large near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey) surveys. Very long baseline interferometry parallax measurements of masers around massive young stars provide the most direct and bias-free measurement of the distance to these dark clouds. We compare the extinction distance estimates to these maser parallax distances. We also compare these distances to kinematic distances, including recent re-calibrations of the Galactic rotation curve. The extinction distance methods agree with the maser parallax distances (within the errors) between 66% and 100% of the time (depending on method and input survey) and between 85% and 100% of the time outside of the crowded Galactic center. Although the sample size is small, extinction distance methods reproduce maser parallax distances better than kinematic distances; furthermore, extinction distance methods do not suffer from the kinematic distance ambiguity. This validation gives us confidence that these extinction methods may be extended to additional dark clouds where maser parallaxes are not available.

  8. Crater size-frequency distributions and a revised Martian relative chronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    A relative plotting technique is applied to Viking 1:2M photomosaics of 25,826 Martian craters of diameter greater than 8 km and age younger than that of the Martian surface. The size-frequency distribution curves are calculated and analyzed in detail, and the results are presented in extensive tables and maps. It is found that about 60 percent of the crater-containing lithologic units, including many small volcanoes and the ridged planes, were formed during the heavy-bombardment period (HBP), while 40 percent arose after the HBP. Wide region-to-region variation in the crater density is noted, and localized age estimates are provided. 42 references

  9. Einstein at a distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambourne, Robert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    This paper examines the challenges and rewards that can arise when the teaching of Einsteinian physics has to be accomplished by means of distance education. The discussion is mainly based on experiences gathered over the past 35 years at the UK Open University, where special and general relativity, relativistic cosmology and other aspects of Einsteinian physics, have been taught at a variety of levels, and using a range of techniques, to students studying at a distance.

  10. Sized-related changes in winter condition of male calves in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Helle

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Size-related changes in body condition of free-ranging male calves of semi-domesticated reindeer were studied in northern Finland from October 1983 to February 1984. In October-November, back fat depth or muscle fat percent correlated positively with the body size (=back length. In January, the highest means especially for muscle fat percent were found among medium-sized calves. Carcass weight and weight/back length ratio correlated positively with size, excluding February sample, where correlation for carcass weight was non-significant and for weight/back length ratio negative. Weight in the autumn correlated negatively with weight in February. Therefore, normalizing selection for body size (working against small and large phenotypes is expected to occur in late winter. Small calves may be at greater mortality risk because of lower initial body reserves. Large calves commonly disperse during the rutting season and they may suffer most from increased food competition later in winter. Using of medium-sized calves for breeding might be the safest policy on ranges characterized by short food supply and difficult snow conditions.Koon vaikutus poron urosvasojen talviseen kuntoon.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: Koon vaikutusta vapaana laiduntavien poron urosvasojen kuntoon tutkittiin Pohjois-Suomessa loka-helmikuussa talvella 1983-84. Loka-marraskuussa selkärasvan paksuus tai lihaksen rasvaprosentti riippui vasan koosta ( = selän pituus. Tammikuussa sen sijaan lihaksen rasvaprosentti oli korkein keskikokoisilla vasoilla. Ruhopaino sekä ruhopaino/selän pituus oli yleensa riippuvainen koosta. Helmikuussa ruhopainon riippuvuus koosta ei ollut enää tilastollisesti merkitsevä, ja koon ja ruhopainon/selänpituuden välinen korrelaatio oli negatiivinen. Eniten painoa menettivät (% loka-helmikuun välillä suurikokoisimmat vasat. Havainnot viittaavat siihen, että talvella esiintyvä kuolleisuus on normalisoivaa koon suhteen (karsii pieniä ja

  11. Distance from health facility and mothers’ perception of quality related to skilled delivery service utilization in northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisseha G

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Girmatsion Fisseha,1 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku,2,3 Wondwossen Terefe1 1Mekelle University, College of Health Science, School of Public Health, Mekelle, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Epidemiology Department, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3Addis Ababa University, School of Public Health, Biostatistics Department, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Poor maternal health service utilization is one of the contributing factors to a high level of maternal and newborn mortality in Ethiopia. The factors associated with utilization of services are believed to differ from one context to another. We assessed the factors associated with skilled delivery service utilization in rural northern Ethiopia.Subjects and methods: A community-based survey was conducted among mothers who gave birth in the 12 months preceding the study period, from January to February 2015, in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. Multistage sampling technique was used to select mothers from the identified clusters. Households within a 10 km radius of the health facility were taken as a cluster for a community survey. Data were collected using face-to-face interview at the household level. We compared the mothers who reported giving birth to the index child in a health facility and those who reported delivering at home, in order to identify the predictors of skilled delivery utilization. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of skilled delivery service utilization. The results are presented with odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI.Results: A total of 1,796 mothers participated in the study, with a 100% response rate. Distance to health facilities (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.53 [95% CI: 0.39, 0.71], perception of mothers to the availability of adequate equipment in the delivery service in their catchment area (AOR =1.5 [95% CI: 1.11, 2.13], experiencing any complication during childbirth, using antenatal care, lower

  12. Handling of Environmental Related Requirements : Awareness and Ability to Act at Small and Medium Sized Electric and Electronic Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Han-Hsuan

    2008-01-01

    Environmental related product requirements are increasing worldwide from government authorities, customers and other stakeholders. For small and medium sized companies manufacturing electric and electronic products it is more difficult compared to bigger companies to meet new product related requirements due to smaller budget, resources and knowledge. This research studies the awareness and ability to act upon changes when small and medium sized companies in Sweden face environmental related ...

  13. Behavioural repertoire of free-range laying hens indoors and outdoors, and in relation to distance from the shed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy Diep, A; Larsen, H; Rault, J-L

    2018-04-01

    Access to an outdoor area is believed to allow free-range hens to express a greater behavioural repertoire. However, very little research has been done in this area. We hypothesised that the type and frequency of behaviours would differ between areas that vary in their characteristics and distance from the shed. This preliminary study investigated the behaviour of free-range laying hens in indoor and outdoor areas on one commercial free-range farm, through video recordings and scan sampling of focal hens, with the aim of determining their behavioural repertoire and time budget. While ranging, hens spent most of their time foraging. Indoors, hens preened and rested. Behaviour in the wintergarden showed similarities to both the indoor and outdoor areas, with preening, resting and foraging behaviours. Differences were not in the main behavioural repertoire, but rather in terms of time budget, with access to the range and wintergarden encouraging exploration. There was no difference in the types of behaviours that hens performed in the outdoor range compared with inside the shed, but access to a wintergarden and the outdoor range were favoured by the hens for foraging. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. Comparação de tamanhos e distâncias de subparcelas aplicadas em processo de amostragem por conglomerado Comparison of sizes and distances of subplots applied in the process of cluster sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberdan Müller M. das Flores

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo com unidades amostrais conglomeradas de estrutura cruzada usando banco de dados de inventário florestal 100% de uma Unidade de produção Anual (UPA-08, localizada na fazenda Martins no alto Pacajá, Município de Portel, Estado do Pará, para estudar os efeitos da variação entre e dentro dos conglomerados usando como referência três variáveis resposta: i VT = Volume total de madeira das 77 espécies florestais encontradas na área de estudo; ii VO = Volume Total das 10 espécies florestais de maior ocorrência e volume na área de estudo; e iii VC = Volume Total das 10 espécies florestais mais comercializadas pela empresa Cikel, tendo como objetivo determinar o tamanho e a distância ideal de subparcelas a partir do Método da Curvatura Máxima, uma vez definido o tamanho, sua área é fixada e então são estudadas cinco diferentes valores para determinar a distancia ideal do centro do conglomerado até as subparcelas e entre as mesmas. Os resultados permitiram inferir que o tamanho de subparcela 0,10 ha, a distância de 50 m entre as subparcelas, e a estrutura cruzada com 8 (subparcelas são eficientes para estimar os parâmetros estudados.We conducted a study with sample units of conglomerate structure using cross-database of forest inventory 100% of Annual Production Unit (APU-08, located at the Top Pacajá Martins farm, municipality of Portel-PA to study the effects of variation between and within clusters with reference to three response variables they were: i VT = Total volume of wood of 77 tree species found in the study area, ii VO = Total Volume of the 10 most frequent tree species and volume in the study area and, iii Vt = Total volume of 10 forest species Cikel more commercialized by the company we aimed to determine the ideal size and distance of plots from the Method of Maximum Curvature, once defined the size, its area was fixed and then there was tested five different values to determine the ideal

  15. Preliminary notes concerning the uranium-gold ratio and the gradient of heavy-mineral size distribution as factors of transport distance down the paleoslope of the Proterozoic Steyn Reef placer deposit, Orange Free State Goldfield, Witwatersrand, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minter, W.E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The size decrease of quartz pebbles, pyrite nodules, and zircon grains, evident from samples of Steyn Reef taken from various positions down a paleoslope indicated by crossbedding data, confirms their detrital origin. An increase in the ratio of uranium to gold, which appears to be related to their original size-frequency distribution, also indicates the paleoslope direction and effectively distinguishes between blanket and carbon-seam reefs

  16. Distance from health facility and mothers' perception of quality related to skilled delivery service utilization in northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisseha, Girmatsion; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Terefe, Wondwossen

    2017-01-01

    Poor maternal health service utilization is one of the contributing factors to a high level of maternal and newborn mortality in Ethiopia. The factors associated with utilization of services are believed to differ from one context to another. We assessed the factors associated with skilled delivery service utilization in rural northern Ethiopia. A community-based survey was conducted among mothers who gave birth in the 12 months preceding the study period, from January to February 2015, in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. Multistage sampling technique was used to select mothers from the identified clusters. Households within a 10 km radius of the health facility were taken as a cluster for a community survey. Data were collected using face-to-face interview at the household level. We compared the mothers who reported giving birth to the index child in a health facility and those who reported delivering at home, in order to identify the predictors of skilled delivery utilization. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of skilled delivery service utilization. The results are presented with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 1,796 mothers participated in the study, with a 100% response rate. Distance to health facilities (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.53 [95% CI: 0.39, 0.71]), perception of mothers to the availability of adequate equipment in the delivery service in their catchment area (AOR =1.5 [95% CI: 1.11, 2.13]), experiencing any complication during childbirth, using antenatal care, lower birth order and having an educated partner were the significant predictors of skilled delivery service utilization. Implementing community-based intervention programs that will address the physical accessibility of delivery services, such as the ambulance service, road issues and waiting rooms, and improving quality maternity service will likely reduce the current problem.

  17. Distance from health facility and mothers’ perception of quality related to skilled delivery service utilization in northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisseha, Girmatsion; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Terefe, Wondwossen

    2017-01-01

    Background Poor maternal health service utilization is one of the contributing factors to a high level of maternal and newborn mortality in Ethiopia. The factors associated with utilization of services are believed to differ from one context to another. We assessed the factors associated with skilled delivery service utilization in rural northern Ethiopia. Subjects and methods A community-based survey was conducted among mothers who gave birth in the 12 months preceding the study period, from January to February 2015, in the Tigray region of Ethiopia. Multistage sampling technique was used to select mothers from the identified clusters. Households within a 10 km radius of the health facility were taken as a cluster for a community survey. Data were collected using face-to-face interview at the household level. We compared the mothers who reported giving birth to the index child in a health facility and those who reported delivering at home, in order to identify the predictors of skilled delivery utilization. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of skilled delivery service utilization. The results are presented with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results A total of 1,796 mothers participated in the study, with a 100% response rate. Distance to health facilities (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.53 [95% CI: 0.39, 0.71]), perception of mothers to the availability of adequate equipment in the delivery service in their catchment area (AOR =1.5 [95% CI: 1.11, 2.13]), experiencing any complication during childbirth, using antenatal care, lower birth order and having an educated partner were the significant predictors of skilled delivery service utilization. Conclusion Implementing community-based intervention programs that will address the physical accessibility of delivery services, such as the ambulance service, road issues and waiting rooms, and improving quality maternity service will likely reduce the current

  18. Role of size on the relative importance of fluid dynamic losses in linear cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkconnell, Carl; Ghavami, Ali; Ghiaasiaan, S. Mostafa; Perrella, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Thermodynamic modeling results for a novel small satellite (SmallSat) Stirling Cryocooler, capable of delivering over 200 mW net cooling power at 80 K for less than 6 W DC input power, are used in this paper as the basis for related pulse tube computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Industry and government requirements for SmallSat infrared sensors are driving the development of ever-more miniaturized cryocooler systems. Such cryocoolers must be extremely compact and lightweight, a challenge met by this research team through operating a Stirling cryocooler at a frequency of approximately 300 Hz. The primary advantage of operating at such a high frequency is that the required compression and expansion swept volumes are reduced relative to linear coolers operating at lower frequencies, which evidently reduces the size of the motor mechanisms and the thermodynamic components. In the case of a pulse tube cryocooler, this includes a reduction in diameter of the pulse tube itself. This unfortunately leads to high boundary layer losses, as the presented results demonstrate. Using a Stirling approach with a mechanical moving expander piston eliminates this small pulse tube loss mechanism, but other challenges are introduced, such as maintaining very tight clearance gaps between moving and stationary elements. This paper focuses on CFD modelling results for a highly miniaturized pulse tube cooler.

  19. Characterization of tropical precipitation using drop size distribution and rain rate-radar reflectivity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saurabh; Maitra, Animesh

    2018-04-01

    Characterization of precipitation is important for proper interpretation of rain information from remotely sensed data. Rain attenuation and radar reflectivity (Z) depend directly on the drop size distribution (DSD). The relation between radar reflectivity/rain attenuation and rain rate (R) varies widely depending upon the origin, topography, and drop evolution mechanism and needs further understanding of the precipitation characteristics. The present work utilizes 2 years of concurrent measurements of DSD using a ground-based disdrometer at five diverse climatic conditions in Indian subcontinent and explores the possibility of rain classification based on microphysical characteristics of precipitation. It is observed that both gamma and lognormal distributions are performing almost similar for Indian region with a marginally better performance by one model than other depending upon the locations. It has also been found that shape-slope relationship of gamma distribution can be a good indicator of rain type. The Z-R relation, Z = ARb, is found to vary widely for different precipitation systems, with convective rain that has higher values of A than the stratiform rain for two locations, whereas the reverse is observed for the rest of the three locations. Further, the results indicate that the majority of rainfall (>50%) in Indian region is due to the convective rain although the occurrence time of convective rain is low (<10%).

  20. Size-density relations in dark clouds: Non-LTE effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, P.

    1986-01-01

    One of the major goals of molecular astronomy has been to understand the physics and dynamics of dense interstellar clouds. Because the interpretation of observations of giant molecular clouds is complicated by their very complex structure and the dynamical effects of star formation, a number of studies have concentrated on dark clouds. Leung, Kutner and Mead (1982) (hereafter LKM) and Myers (1983), in studies of CO and NH3 emission, concluded that dark clouds exhibit significant correlations between linewidth and cloud radius of the form delta v varies as R(0.5) and between mean density and radius of the form n varies as R(-1), as originally suggested by Larson (1981). This result suggests that these objects are in virial equilibrium. However, the mean densities inferred from the CO data of LKM are based on an local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of their 13CO data. At the very low mean densities inferred by LKM for the larger clouds in their samples, the assumption of LTE becomes very questionable. As most of the range in R in the density-size correlation comes from the clouds observed in CO, it seems worthwhile to examine how non-LTE effects will influence the derived densities. One way to assess the validity of LTE-derived densities is to construct cloud models and then to interpret them in the same way as the observed data. Microturbulent models of inhomogeneous clouds of varying central concentration with the linewidth-size and mean density-size relations found by Myers show sub-thermal excitation of the 13CO line in the larger clouds, with the result that LTE analysis considerbly underestimates the actual column density. A more general approach which doesn't require detailed modeling of the clouds is to consider whether the observed T sub R*(13CO)/T sub R*(12CO) ratios in the clouds studied by LKM are in the range where the LTE-derived optical depths (and hence column densities) can be seriously in error due to sub-thermal excitation of the 13CO

  1. SUPERDENSE GALAXIES AND THE MASS-SIZE RELATION AT LOW REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggianti, B. M.; Calvi, R.; Fasano, G.; Vulcani, B.; Bettoni, D.; Gullieuszik, M.; Omizzolo, A.; Bindoni, D.; D'Onofrio, M.; Moretti, A.; Valentinuzzi, T.; Fritz, J.; De Lucia, G.

    2013-01-01

    We search for massive and compact galaxies (superdense galaxies, hereafter SDGs) at z = 0.03-0.11 in the Padova-Millennium Galaxy and Group Catalogue, a spectroscopically complete sample representative of the general field population of the local universe. We find that compact galaxies with radii and mass densities comparable to high-z massive and passive galaxies represent 4.4% of all galaxies with stellar masses above 3 × 10 10 M ☉ , yielding a number density of 4.3 × 10 –4 h 3 Mpc –3 . Most of them are S0s (70%) or ellipticals (23%), are red, and have intermediate-to-old stellar populations, with a median luminosity-weighted age of 5.4 Gyr and a median mass-weighted age of 9.2 Gyr. Their velocity dispersions and dynamical masses are consistent with the small radii and high stellar mass estimates. Comparing with the WINGS sample of cluster galaxies at similar redshifts, the fraction of SDGs is three times smaller in the field than in clusters, and cluster SDGs are on average 4 Gyr older than field SDGs. We confirm the existence of a universal trend of smaller radii for older luminosity-weighted ages at fixed galaxy mass. As a consequence, the median mass-size relation shifts toward smaller radii for galaxies with older stars, but the effect is much more pronounced in clusters than in the field. Our results show that, on top of the well-known dependence of stellar age on galaxy mass, the luminosity-weighted age of galaxies depends on galaxy compactness at fixed mass and, for a fixed mass and radius, on environment. This effect needs to be taken into account in order not to overestimate the evolution of galaxy sizes from high to low z. Our results and hierarchical simulations suggest that a significant fraction of the massive compact galaxies at high z have evolved into compact galaxies in galaxy clusters today. When stellar age and environmental effects are taken into account, the average amount of size evolution of individual galaxies between high and low

  2. The psychological distance of memories: Examining causal relations with mood and self-esteem in young, middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Burcu; Freund, Alexandra M

    2017-03-01

    Three studies examined the self-enhancement function of autobiographical memory (measured with subjective temporal distance of memories). Participants recalled a memory of an attained and a failed goal and rated the subjective distance between each memory and the present. Study 1 showed that young adults with higher self-esteem felt closer to memories of attained goals and farther from failure memories than those with lower self-esteem. In Study 2, young, middle-aged and older adults with higher self-esteem felt closer to success memories, whereas self-esteem was unrelated to the temporal distance of failure memories. In both studies, feeling closer to success memories (and far from failure) led to enhanced mood. In Study 3, state self-esteem was experimentally manipulated. The manipulation had no effect on young and older adults, but middle-aged adults whose self-esteem was decreased, felt closer to success memories than failure memories. Results are discussed in relation to the temporal self-appraisal theory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effect of Distance on Moral Engagement: Event Related Potentials and Alpha Power are Sensitive to Perspective in a Virtual Shooting Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Kirsten; Ten Oever, Sanne; Jansma, Bernadette M

    2015-01-01

    In a shooting video game we investigated whether increased distance reduces moral conflict. We measured and analyzed the event related potential (ERP), including the N2 component, which has previously been linked to cognitive conflict from competing decision tendencies. In a modified Go/No-go task designed to trigger moral conflict participants had to shoot suddenly appearing human like avatars in a virtual reality scene. The scene was seen either from an ego perspective with targets appearing directly in front of the participant or from a bird's view, where targets were seen from above and more distant. To control for low level visual features, we added a visually identical control condition, where the instruction to "shoot" was replaced by an instruction to "detect." ERP waveforms showed differences between the two tasks as early as in the N1 time-range, with higher N1 amplitudes for the close perspective in the "shoot" task. Additionally, we found that pre-stimulus alpha power was significantly decreased in the ego, compared to the bird's view only for the "shoot" but not for the "detect" task. In the N2 time window, we observed main amplitude effects for response (No-go > Go) and distance (ego > bird perspective) but no interaction with task type (shoot vs. detect). We argue that the pre-stimulus and N1 effects can be explained by reduced attention and arousal in the distance condition when people are instructed to "shoot." These results indicate a reduced moral engagement for increased distance. The lack of interaction in the N2 across tasks suggests that at that time point response execution dominates. We discuss potential implications for real life shooting situations, especially considering recent developments in drone shootings which are per definition of a distant view.

  4. Sex- and Size-Related Patterns of Carrion Visitation in Necrodes littoralis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mądra-Bielewicz, Anna; Frątczak-Łagiewska, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon

    2017-09-01

    The estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) based on successional patterns of adult insects is largely limited, due to the lack of potential PMI markers. Sex and size of adult insects could be easily used for such estimation. In this study, sex- and size-related patterns of carrion attendance by adult insects were analyzed in Necrodes littoralis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). For both species, abundance of males and females changed similarly during decomposition. A slightly female-biased sex ratio was recorded in N. littoralis. Females of N. littoralis started visiting carcasses, on average, one day earlier than males. There was a rise in size of males of N. littoralis at the end of decomposition, whereas for females of both species and males of C. maxillosus, no size-related patterns of carrion visitation were found. Current results demonstrate that size and sex of adult carrion beetles are poor indicators of PMI. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Size effects on the Kauzmann temperature and related thermodynamic parameters of Ag nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao, Z M; Zheng, W T; Jiang, Q

    2007-01-01

    Based on the Sutton-Chen many-body potential function, several thermodynamic parameters of Ag are simulated by molecular dynamics. The parameters simulated are size dependences of the Kauzmann temperature T K and melting temperature T m , and size and temperature dependences of melting enthalpy H m and melting entropy S m . The simulation results and the results of the thermodynamic theory models of T K and T m show good agreement, indicating that as the size of the Ag particles decreases, the T K and T m functions decrease. However, the ratio of T K and T m of Ag nanoparticles is size-independent

  6. Breakfast size is related to body mass index for men, but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lillian M; Worsley, Anthony

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-reported breakfast size, daily eating, and other health habits on body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that a consumption of a substantial breakfast compared with skipping or small breakfasts would be associated with lower BMI. Three independent, cross-sectional, screening surveys were conducted by Sydney Adventist Hospital in 1976, 1986, and 2005 in the surrounding community. The archived survey forms of 384 men and 338 women in 1976, 244 men and 229 women in 1986, and 270 men and 62 women in 2005 were randomly selected. Body mass index was determined from height and weight measured by hospital staff. The reported amount consumed at breakfast was one of several eating habits that predicted BMI for men but not women. It explained 5% to 6% of the variance in male BMI in all 3 years examined. As the reported breakfast amount increased, men's BMI decreased. Lifestyle confounders including vegetarianism and physical activity did not affect this relationship. However, the consumption of breakfast was significantly positively associated with consumption of cereals, bread, fruit, and spreads, while coffee consumption was significantly associated with smaller breakfasts or breakfast skipping. The consumption of relatively large breakfasts may influence BMI in men, and its promotion may help reduce the prevalence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Unified Common Fixed Point Theorems for a Hybrid Pair of Mappings via an Implicit Relation Involving Altering Distance Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    implicit relation, we prove a new coincidence and common fixed point theorem for a hybrid pair of occasionally coincidentally idempotent mappings in a metric space employing the common limit range property. Our main result improves and generalizes a host of previously known results. We also utilize suitable illustrative examples to substantiate the realized improvements in our results.

  8. Small Lesion Size Is Associated with Sleep-Related Epilepsy in Focal Cortical Dysplasia Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the neuroimaging and clinical features associated with sleep-related epilepsy (SRE in patients with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD type II.MethodsPatients with histopathologically proven FCD type II were included from three epilepsy centers. SRE was defined according to the video EEG findings and seizure history. Cortical surface reconstruction and volume calculation were performed using FreeSurfer. The lesions were manually delineated on T1 volumetric MRI using the ITK-SNAP software. The lesion volumes were normalized by the intracranial volume of each patient. The lesions were classified as small or large by placing a threshold based on quantitative (whether the lesion was detected on MRI report and qualitative (volume criteria.ResultsA total of 77 consecutive patients were included. Of them, 36 had SRE and 41 had non-SRE. An earlier age of epilepsy onset, high seizure frequency, regional interictal EEG findings, and favorable surgical outcome were characteristic in both groups. Small lesions were defined as those having a volume <3,217 mm3. In total, 60.9% of the patients with SRE (25/41 had small FCD lesion, which was significantly higher than the non-SRE group (9/34, 26.5%, p = 0.005. Small lesion size was the only predictor significantly associated with SRE in the overall type II group by multivariate analyses (p = 0.016. Although the proportion of patients who had frontal FCD and SRE was higher than non-frontal FCD (54.5 vs. 27.3%, p = 0.043, the relationship between SRE and lesion location was not confirmed by multivariate analysis. Thalamic volume and seizure semiology were not statistically different between the SRE and non-SRE group. The significant association between lesion size and SRE was reproducible in type IIb and IIa subgroups.SignificanceSRE is common in patients with FCD type II. Small FCD type II lesions are significantly associated with SRE. Although our findings cannot be applied to

  9. Adaptations in Maternofetal Calcium Transport in Relation to Placental Size and Fetal Sex in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Hayward

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate placental transport of calcium is essential for normal fetal skeletal mineralization. In fetal growth restriction (FGR, the failure of a fetus to achieve its growth potential, a number of placental nutrient transport systems show reduced activity but, in the case of calcium, placental transport is increased. In a genetic mouse model of FGR this increase, or adaptation, maintains appropriate fetal calcium content, relative to the size of the fetus, despite a small, dysfunctional placenta. It is unknown whether such an adaptation is also apparent in small, but normally functioning placentas. We tested the hypothesis that calcium transfer would be up-regulated in the lightest vs. heaviest placentas in the same C57Bl/6J wild-type (WT mouse litter. Since lightest placentas are often from females, we also assessed whether fetal sex influenced placental calcium transfer. Placentas and fetuses were collected at embryonic day (E16.5 and 18.5; the lightest and heaviest placentas, and female and male fetuses, were identified. Unidirectional maternofetal calcium clearance (CaKmf was assessed following 45Ca administration to the dam and subsequent radiolabel counts within the fetuses. Placental expression of calcium pathway components was measured by Western blot. Data (median are lightest placenta expressed as percentage of the heaviest within a litter and analyzed by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. In WT mice having normally grown fetuses, CaKmf, per gram placenta near term, in the lightest placentas was increased (126%; P < 0.05 in association with reduced fetal calcium accretion earlier in gestation (92%; P < 0.05, that was subsequently normalized near term. Increased placental expression of calbindin-D9K, an important calcium binding protein, was observed in the lightest placentas near term (122%; P < 0.01. There was no difference in fetal calcium accretion between male and female littermates but a trend toward higher CaKmf in females (P = 0

  10. Fitness cost of incubation in great tits (Parus major) is related to clutch size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heij, Maaike E.; van den Hout, Piet J.; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2006-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that parents produce the number of offspring that maximizes their fitness. In birds, natural selection on parental decisions regarding clutch size may act during egg laying, incubation or nestling phase. To study the fitness consequences of clutch size during the

  11. Body weight in relation to variation in body size of Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Koopman, K; Zegers, PM

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationships between body weight in the Oystercatcher and two measures of its body size, bill length and wing length. The weight variation between individuals due to differences in body size is nearly as large as the seasonal variation in body weight within individuals. Wing

  12. Introducing Distance and Measurement in General Relativity: Changes for the Standard Tests and the Cosmological Large-Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crothers S. J.

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic motion in the gravitational field of a massive body is governed by the external metric of a spherically symmetric extended object. Consequently, any solution for the point-mass is inadequate for the treatment of such motions since it pertains to a fictitious object. I therefore develop herein the physics of the standard tests of General Relativity by means of the generalised solution for the field external to a sphere of incompressible homogeneous fluid.

  13. The Distance to M54 using Infrared Photometry of RR Lyrae Variable Stars and the Implications of its Relation to the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arvind F.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Majewski, Steven R.; SMHASH Team

    2018-01-01

    CDM cosmological models predict that dark matter halo density profiles will have central cusps. Yet for many dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs), this expectation is in contrast with observations of cored, rather than cusped, halos. This 'cusp-core problem' is apparent in the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy (Sgr), one of the largest satellites of the Milky Way. The globular cluster M54, one of several clusters associated with Sgr, coincides in on-sky position with the center of the main body of Sgr. While several studies find that M54 lies within the center of Sgr, other findings show that M54 is offset from the center by several kiloparsecs along our line of sight. The latter requires Sgr to have a cored dark matter distribution. In the presence of a cuspy halo, the orbit of M54 would have decayed via dynamical friction and the cluster would have fallen to the center of Sgr. A clear determination of the relation of the two bodies may help us better understand the distribution of dark matter in Sgr and other dSphs. Here we present a measurement of the distance modulus to M54 using a set of RR Lyrae variable stars in near-infrared Magellan data mid-infrared Spitzer data. The magnitudes of individual stars are measured using multi-epoch PSF photometry and light curve fitting. From precise RR Lyrae period-luminosity relations at these wavelengths, we then find the mean M54 distance modulus to be 17.126 ± 0.023 (ran) ± 0.080 (sys). Our result is consistent with a distance measurement to Sgr derived via nearly identical methods and thus also consistent with the expectation of a central cusp in the dark matter density profile of Sgr.

  14. Zooplankton size selection relative to gill raker spacing in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budy, P.; Haddix, T.; Schneidervin, R.

    2005-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss are one of the most widely stocked salmonids worldwide, often based on the assumption that they will effectively utilize abundant invertebrate food resources. We evaluated the potential for feeding morphology to affect prey selection by rainbow trout using a combination of laboratory feeding experiments and field observations in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Utah-Wyoming. For rainbow trout collected from the reservoir, inter-gill raker spacing averaged 1.09 mm and there was low variation among fish overall (SD = 0.28). Ninety-seven percent of all zooplankton observed in the diets of rainbow trout collected in the reservoir were larger than the interraker spacing, while only 29% of the zooplankton found in the environment were larger than the interraker spacing. Over the size range of rainbow trout evaluated here (200-475 mm), interraker spacing increased moderately with increasing fish length; however, the size of zooplankton found in the diet did not increase with increasing fish length. In laboratory experiments, rainbow trout consumed the largest zooplankton available; the mean size of zooplankton observed in the diets was significantly larger than the mean size of zooplankton available. Electivity indices for both laboratory and field observations indicated strong selection for larger-sized zooplankton. The size threshold at which electivity switched from selection against smaller-sized zooplankton to selection for larger-sized zooplankton closely corresponded to the mean interraker spacing for both groups (???1-1.2 mm). The combination of results observed here indicates that rainbow trout morphology limits the retention of different-sized zooplankton prey and reinforces the importance of understanding how effectively rainbow trout can utilize the type and sizes of different prey available in a given system. These considerations may improve our ability to predict the potential for growth and survival of rainbow trout within and

  15. Spleen size changes in children with homozygous β-thalassaemia in relation to blood transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpathios, Th.; Antypas, A.; Dimitriou, P.; Nicolaidou, P.; Fretzayas, A.; Thomaidis, Th.; Matsaniotis, N.

    1982-01-01

    18 thalassaemic children, aged 3.5 to 13 years comprise our clinical material. In 14 of them, clinically elicited spleen markings, haematocrit, blood platelet count and red cell morphology were studied daily for a whole period between 2 transfusions. In 10 patients considerable changes in spleen size were noticed. According to our clinical observations the spleen size starts decreasing 1 to 3 d after blood transfusion up to the 10th posttransfusion day fluctuating thereafter to reach its maximum size again prior to the next blood transfusion. The decrease of spleen size was followed by an increase of haematocrit and blood platelet count and vice versa. 4 additional children were studied clinically only twice: prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. A definite decrease of the spleen size following blood transfusion was observed. Spleen and liver sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid uptake was studied in 10 of the above children prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. Statistically significant post-transfusion increase of the spleen uptake was demonstrated. Our findings suggest that (a) splenic size is relevant to blood volume sequestrated int this organ, (b) splenic radioactive uptake increases with its post-transfusion reductin in size. (author)

  16. How is Size Related to Profitability? Post-Consolidation Evidence from Selected Banks in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funso T. Kolapo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is theoretically believed that increase in firm size would result to increase in firm profitability. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between size and profitability of six banks in Nigeria after the 2005 consolidation exercise. The measure of profitability is return on assets. Employing the static panel data regression method, the study found that size has an insignificant negative relationship with bank profitability. This study concludes that the 2005 consolidation exercise did not enhance the profitability of the selected banks.

  17. Relative importance of prenatal and postnatal androgen action in determining growth of the penis and anogenital distance in the rat before, during and after puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Driesche, S; Scott, H M; MacLeod, D J; Fisken, M; Walker, M; Sharpe, R M

    2011-12-01

    Experimental animal studies show that measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) and/or penis length may provide lifelong 'read-outs' of foetal androgen exposure during the masculinization programming window (MPW). However, variation in postnatal androgen exposure may complicate interpretation of such measurements. This is important to clarify if such measurements are to be applied to humans. The present aim was to evaluate effects of prenatal and/or postnatal manipulation of androgen production/action on growth of AGD and the penis in rats. Pregnant rats were treated daily before (e13.5-e21.5) and after birth (postnatal days 1-15) with either vehicle, 500 mg/kg di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) or 100 mg/kg flutamide (postnatal only) in prenatal + postnatal treatment combinations (N = 6 treatment combinations); DBP impairs androgen production whereas flutamide impairs androgen action. Male offspring were killed on postnatal day 8 (prepuberty), 25 (early puberty) or 90 (adulthood) when AGD was measured, the penis dissected out and its weight and length measured; plasma testosterone and ventral prostate weight were measured at day 90 to assess endogenous androgen exposure. In controls, penis length, girth and AGD increased 2.2-, 5.3-and 5.9-fold respectively from day 8 to day 90. Significant inhibition of penis growth and final length and girth was induced by treatments that inhibited postnatal androgen action. Conversely, growth and ultimate (adult) AGD was inhibited by prenatal inhibition of androgen production whereas postnatal androgen inhibition had negligible effect. Nevertheless, AGD and penis length were highly correlated at every age (R(2) > 0.33; p penis size reflects both prenatal + postnatal androgen exposure. At the group treatment level, prepubertal measurement of either AGD or penis size accurately predicts their size in adulthood. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  18. Effect of Pot Size on Various Characteristics Related to Photosynthetic Matter Production in Soybean Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minobu Kasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide uses of potted plants, information on how pot size affects plant photosynthetic matter production is still considerably limited. This study investigated with soybean plants how transplantation into larger pots affects various characteristics related to photosynthetic matter production. The transplantation was analyzed to increase leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance without affecting significantly leaf intercellular CO2 concentration, implicating that the transplantation induced equal increases in the rate of CO2 diffusion via leaf stomata and the rate of CO2 fixation in leaf photosynthetic cells. Analyses of Rubisco activity and contents of a substrate (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP for Rubisco and total protein in leaf suggested that an increase in leaf Rubisco activity, which is likely to result from an increase in leaf Rubisco content, could contribute to the transplantation-induced increase in leaf photosynthetic rate. Analyses of leaf major photosynthetic carbohydrates and dry weights of source and sink organs revealed that transplantation increased plant sink capacity that uses leaf starch, inducing a decrease in leaf starch content and an increase in whole plant growth, particularly, growth of sink organs. Previously, in the same soybean species, it was demonstrated that negative correlation exists between leaf starch content and photosynthetic rate and that accumulation of starch in leaf decreases the rate of CO2 diffusion within leaf. Thus, it was suggested that the transplantation-induced increase in plant sink capacity decreasing leaf starch content could cause the transplantation-induced increase in leaf photosynthetic rate by inducing an increase in the rate of CO2 diffusion within leaf and thereby substantiating an increase in leaf Rubisco activity in vivo. It was therefore concluded that transplantation of soybean plants into larger pots attempted in this study increased the

  19. The Dependence of Cloud Particle Size on Non-Aerosol-Loading Related Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, H.; Liu, G.

    2005-03-18

    An enhanced concentration of aerosol may increase the number of cloud drops by providing more cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which in turn results in a higher cloud albedo at a constant cloud liquid water path. This process is often referred to as the aerosol indirect effect (AIE). Many in situ and remote sensing observations support this hypothesis (Ramanathan et al. 2001). However, satellite observed relations between aerosol concentration and cloud drop size are not always in agreement with the AIE. Based on global analysis of cloud effective radius (r{sub e}) and aerosol number concentration (N{sub a}) derived from satellite data, Sekiguchi et al. (2003) found that the correlations between the two variables can be either negative, or positive, or none, depending on the location of the clouds. They discovered that significantly negative r{sub e} - N{sub a} correlation can only be identified along coastal regions of the continents where abundant continental aerosols inflow from land, whereas Feingold et al. (2001) found that the response of r{sub e} to aerosol loading is the greatest in the region where aerosol optical depth ({tau}{sub a}) is the smallest. The reason for the discrepancy is likely due to the variations in cloud macroscopic properties such as geometrical thickness (Brenguier et al. 2003). Since r{sub e} is modified not only by aerosol but also by cloud geometrical thickness (H), the correlation between re and {tau}{sub a} actually reflects both the aerosol indirect effect and dependence of H. Therefore, discussing AIE based on the r{sub e}-{tau}{sub a} correlation without taking into account variations in cloud geometrical thickness may be misleading. This paper is motivated to extract aerosols' effect from overall effects using the independent measurements of cloud geometrical thickness, {tau}{sub a} and r{sub e}.

  20. Invariance of molecular charge transport upon changes of extended molecule size and several related issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Bâldea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a sanity test for the theoretical method employed, studies on (steady-state charge transport through molecular devices usually confine themselves to check whether the method in question satisfies the charge conservation. Another important test of the theory’s correctness is to check that the computed current does not depend on the choice of the central region (also referred to as the “extended molecule”. This work addresses this issue and demonstrates that the relevant transport and transport-related properties are indeed invariant upon changing the size of the extended molecule, when the embedded molecule can be described within a general single-particle picture (namely, a second-quantized Hamiltonian bilinear in the creation and annihilation operators. It is also demonstrates that the invariance of nonequilibrium properties is exhibited by the exact results but not by those computed approximately within ubiquitous wide- and flat-band limits (WBL and FBL, respectively. To exemplify the limitations of the latter, the phenomenon of negative differential resistance (NDR is considered. It is shown that the exactly computed current may exhibit a substantial NDR, while the NDR effect is absent or drastically suppressed within the WBL and FBL approximations. The analysis done in conjunction with the WBLs and FBLs reveals why general studies on nonequilibrium properties require a more elaborate theoretical than studies on linear response properties (e.g., ohmic conductance and thermopower at zero temperature. Furthermore, examples are presented that demonstrate that treating parts of electrodes adjacent to the embedded molecule and the remaining semi-infinite electrodes at different levels of theory (which is exactly what most NEGF-DFT approaches do is a procedure that yields spurious structures in nonlinear ranges of current–voltage curves.

  1. Hippocampal size is related to short-term true and false memory, and right fusiform size is related to long-term true and false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Loftus, Elizabeth F; He, Qinghua; Lei, Xuemei; Dong, Qi; Lin, Chongde

    2016-11-01

    There is a keen interest in identifying specific brain regions that are related to individual differences in true and false memories. Previous functional neuroimaging studies showed that activities in the hippocampus, right fusiform gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus were associated with true and false memories, but no study thus far has examined whether the structures of these brain regions are associated with short-term and long-term true and false memories. To address that question, the current study analyzed data from 205 healthy young adults, who had valid data from both structural brain imaging and a misinformation task. In the misinformation task, subjects saw the crime scenarios, received misinformation, and took memory tests about the crimes an hour later and again after 1.5 years. Results showed that bilateral hippocampal volume was associated with short-term true and false memories, whereas right fusiform gyrus volume and surface area were associated with long-term true and false memories. This study provides the first evidence for the structural neural bases of individual differences in short-term and long-term true and false memories.

  2. Adipokines and their relation to maternal energy substrate production, insulin resistance and fetal size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlsson, Fredrik; Diderholm, Barbro; Ewald, Uwe; Jonsson, Björn; Forslund, Anders; Stridsberg, Mats; Gustafsson, Jan

    2013-05-01

    The role of adipokines in the regulation of energy substrate production in non-diabetic pregnant women has not been elucidated. We hypothesize that serum concentrations of adiponectin are related to fetal growth via maternal fat mass, insulin resistance and glucose production, and further, that serum levels of leptin are associated with lipolysis and that this also influences fetal growth. Hence, we investigated the relationship between adipokines, energy substrate production, insulin resistance, body composition and fetal weight in non-diabetic pregnant women in late gestation. Twenty pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance were investigated at 36 weeks of gestation at Uppsala University Hospital. Levels of adipokines were related to rates of glucose production and lipolysis, maternal body composition, insulin resistance, resting energy expenditure and estimated fetal weights. Rates of glucose production and lipolysis were estimated by stable isotope dilution technique. Median (range) rate of glucose production was 805 (653-1337) μmol/min and that of glycerol production, reflecting lipolysis, was 214 (110-576) μmol/min. HOMA insulin resistance averaged 1.5 ± 0.75 and estimated fetal weights ranged between 2670 and 4175 g (-0.2 to 2.7 SDS). Mean concentration of adiponectin was 7.2 ± 2.5mg/L and median level of leptin was 47.1 (9.9-58.0) μg/L. Adiponectin concentrations (7.2 ± 2.5mg/L) correlated inversely with maternal fat mass, insulin resistance, glucose production and fetal weight, r=-0.50, pinsulin resistance, r=0.76, pinsulin resistance as well as endogenous glucose production rates indicate that low levels of adiponectin in obese pregnant women may represent one mechanism behind increased fetal size. Maternal levels of leptin are linked to maternal fat mass and its metabolic consequences, but the data indicate that leptin lacks a regulatory role with regard to maternal lipolysis in late pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  3. How Rural Market Imperfections Shape the Relation Between Farm Size and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltberg, Rasmus

    The subject of this article is the alleged inverse relationship between farm size and productivity in developing countries. The recent controversy is reviewed, and a framework is provided to explain the inverse relationship based on plausible assumptions about imperfections in the markets for labor......, credit and land. On this basis testable hypotheses are derived. Using fram.level panel data from Pakistan, the framework is assessed by regressing output on operational fram size, size of owned holding, family size, tenurial status and irrigation status of the land. Household fixed effects are used...... to account for remaining unobserved heterogenity. It is concluded that an inverse relationship is present in Pakistan, and that the market imperfections framework performs well with the data...

  4. NON-COHESIVE SOILS’ COMPRESSIBILITY AND UNEVEN GRAIN-SIZE DISTRIBUTION RELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Mirnyy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of laboratory investigation of soil compression phases with consideration of various granulometric composition. Materials and Methods Experimental soil box with microscale video recording for compression phases studies is described. Photo and video materials showing the differences of microscale particle movements were obtained for non-cohesive soils with different grain-size distribution. Results The analysis of the compression tests results and elastic and plastic deformations separation allows identifying each compression phase. It is shown, that soil density is correlating with deformability parameters only for the same grain-size distribution. Basing on the test results the authors suggest that compaction ratio is not sufficient for deformability estimating without grain-size distribution taken into account. Discussion and Conclusions Considering grain-size distribution allows refining technological requirements for artificial soil structures, backfills, and sand beds. Further studies could be used for developing standard documents, SP45.13330.2012 in particular.

  5. A Qualitative Study of Soldier Perceptions of the Relative Importance of MRE Portion Size and Variety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, R

    1999-01-01

    .... Bliss, Biggs Army Airfield, and Fort Leonard Wood during 1997 to understand how soldiers perceive Meal, Ready-to-Eat portion size and MRE variety and to begin to determine what types of trade offs...

  6. Use of Relative vs Fixed Offset Distance to Define Region of Interest at the Distal Radius and Tibia in High-Resolution Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    adjacent to the measurement site. This study aimed at compare the morphologic variation in measurements using the standard fixed offset distance to define the distal starting slice against those obtained by using a relative measurement position scaled to the individual bone length at the distal radius...... defined by, first, the standard measurement protocol, where the most distal CT slice was 9.5 mm and 22.5 mm from the end plate of the radius and tibia, respectively, and second, the relative measurement method, where the most distal CT slice was at 4% and 7% of the radial and tibial lengths, respectively....... Volumetric densities and microarchitectural parameters were compared between the 2 methods. Measurements of the total and cortical volumetric density and cortical thickness at the radius and tibia and cortical porosity, trabecular volumetric density, and trabecular number at the tibia were significantly...

  7. Size, Book-to-Market Ratio and Relativity of Accounting Information Value: Empirical Research on the Chinese Listed Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Cheng, Siwei; Xu, Bin

    Recently there are many literatures studying the effect of factors such as size or book-market ratio on fluctuation of accounting earnings, stock price or earnings respectively, but so far their affection on accounting information value relativity has been scarcely addressed. This paper presents the detail analyses of their effect of the two factors to the relativity of accounting information value respectively by taking Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets as sample. And the analyses supports the following two hypotheses, (1) The relativity of accounting information value of big size corporation is more than that of small size corporation. (2) The relativity of accounting information value of low B/M ratio corporation is more than that of low B/M ratio corporation.

  8. The effect of distance on moral engagement: Event related potentials and alpha power are sensitive to perspective in a virtual shooting task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten ePetras

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a shooting video game we investigated whether increased distance reduces moral conflict. We measured and analysed the event related potential (ERP, including the N2 component, which has previously been linked to cognitive conflict from competing decision tendencies. In a modified go/nogo task designed to trigger moral conflict participants had to shoot suddenly appearing human like avatars in a virtual reality scene. The scene was seen either from an ego perspective with targets appearing directly in front of the participant or from a bird’s view, where targets were seen from above and more distant. To control for low level visual features, we conducted a visually identical control experiment, where the instruction to shoot was replaced by an instruction to detect. ERP waveforms showed differences between the two tasks as early as in the N1 time-range, with higher N1 amplitudes for the close perspective in the shoot task. Additionally, we found that pre-stimulus alpha power was significantly decreased in the ego, compared to the bird's view only for the shoot but not for the detect task. In the N2 time window, we observed main amplitude effects for response (nogo > go and distance (ego > bird perspective but no interaction with task type (shoot vs detect. We argue that the pre-stimulus and N1 effects can be explained by reduced attention and arousal in the distance condition when people are instructed to shoot. The lack of interaction in the N2 across tasks suggests that at that time point, the moral conflict is already resolved and response execution dominates. We discuss potential implications for real life shooting situations, especially considering recent developments in drone shootings which are per definition of a distant view.

  9. Intergroup Discrimination in Positive and Negative Outcome Allocations: Impact of Stimulus Valence, Relative Group Status, and Relative Group Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Sabine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Three studies investigated the determination of social discrimination by the valence of stimuli that are allocated between groups. The studies were based on either the minimal group paradigm or a more reality-based laboratory intergroup setting, with stimulus valence, group status, and group size as factors and with pull scores on Tajfel matrices…

  10. Association of Anxiety-Related Polymorphisms with Sports Performance in Chilean Long Distance Triathletes: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Jorge A.; Zambrano, Tomás; Bahamondes-Avila, Carlos; Salazar, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Different factors affecting athletic performance are well established: intensity and type of training, anthropometric characteristics as well as an important psychological component. However, the contribution of the genetic background has been less investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of polymorphisms within genes associated with stress and anxiety (5HTT, CRH2R, ACE, NK1R, 5HT1AR and CRF-BP) on the physical capability and sports performance in triathletes. One hundred and ninety two (192) unrelated Chilean triathletes who participated in the 2014 70.3 Pucón city triathlon were divided into opposite subgroups of sports performance according to their time results. We identified significant associations for five polymorphisms (5HTT 5-HTTLPR, ACE I/D, NK1R rs6715729, 5HT1AR -1019C>G and CRF-BP CRF-BPs11) with athletic performance. Our results indicate that these polymorphisms are associated with differential sports performance in Chilean triathletes, establishing an initial background for better understanding the relationship between physical performance, genetics and anxiety disorders. Key points Genetic factors influencing sports performance in the Chilean population are unknown. Differential outcomes from athletes who completed a triathlon competition were associated with five polymorphisms (5HTT 5-HTTLPR, ACE I/D, NK1R rs6715729, 5HT1AR -1019C>G and CRF-BP CRF-BPs11). We show that genetic variants within stress- and anxiety-related genes affect athletic performance. PMID:27928199

  11. Artificial selection on relative brain size in the guppy reveals costs and benefits of evolving a larger brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrschal, Alexander; Rogell, Björn; Bundsen, Andreas; Svensson, Beatrice; Zajitschek, Susanne; Brännström, Ioana; Immler, Simone; Maklakov, Alexei A; Kolm, Niclas

    2013-01-21

    The large variation in brain size that exists in the animal kingdom has been suggested to have evolved through the balance between selective advantages of greater cognitive ability and the prohibitively high energy demands of a larger brain (the "expensive-tissue hypothesis"). Despite over a century of research on the evolution of brain size, empirical support for the trade-off between cognitive ability and energetic costs is based exclusively on correlative evidence, and the theory remains controversial. Here we provide experimental evidence for costs and benefits of increased brain size. We used artificial selection for large and small brain size relative to body size in a live-bearing fish, the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), and found that relative brain size evolved rapidly in response to divergent selection in both sexes. Large-brained females outperformed small-brained females in a numerical learning assay designed to test cognitive ability. Moreover, large-brained lines, especially males, developed smaller guts, as predicted by the expensive-tissue hypothesis, and produced fewer offspring. We propose that the evolution of brain size is mediated by a functional trade-off between increased cognitive ability and reproductive performance and discuss the implications of these findings for vertebrate brain evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hand grip endurance test relates to clinical state and prognosis in COPD patients better than 6-minute walk test distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovarik M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Miroslav Kovarik,1,2 Vera Joskova,1,2 Anna Patkova,1,2 Vladimir Koblizek,3 Zdenek Zadak,2 Miloslav Hronek1,2 1Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove, Charles University, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; 2Department of Research and Development, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; 3Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Purpose: Patients with COPD present peripheral muscle dysfunction and atrophy, expressed as muscle strength and endurance reduction. The goal of this study was direct dynamometric assessment of hand grip endurance and strength in relation to the stage of disease, multidimensional predictors of mortality, and 6-minute walk test (6MWT. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previous study determining these parameters.Patients and methods: In this observational study, 58 consecutive outpatients with stable COPD and 25 volunteers without respiratory problems were compared. All COPD subjects underwent a comprehensive examination to determine COPD severity, prognostic scales, and 6MWT. Body composition, basic spirometric parameters, and hand grip strength and endurance were determined in all study participants.Results: Patients in the COPD group had a 15% decrease in maximum strength (P=0.012 and a 28% decrease in area under the force/time curve (AUC of the endurance test (P<0.001 compared to the control group. Dynamometric parameters were significantly negatively associated with the stage of disease and values of multivariable prediction indexes, and positively associated with the results of 6MWT. In most cases, closer associations were found with AUC than with 6MWT and in the gender-specific groups.Conclusion: Both hand grip strength and endurance are impaired in COPD patients in comparison with the control group. In particular, AUC could be considered as an attractive option not only to

  13. The impact of travel distance, travel time and waiting time on health-related quality of life of diabetes patients: An investigation in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konerding, Uwe; Bowen, Tom; Elkhuizen, Sylvia G; Faubel, Raquel; Forte, Paul; Karampli, Eleftheria; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Malmström, Tomi; Pavi, Elpida; Torkki, Paulus

    2017-04-01

    The effects of travel distance and travel time to the primary diabetes care provider and waiting time in the practice on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with type 2 diabetes are investigated. Survey data of 1313 persons with type 2 diabetes from six regions in England (274), Finland (163), Germany (254), Greece (165), the Netherlands (354), and Spain (103) were analyzed. Various multiple linear regression analyses with four different EQ-5D-3L indices (English, German, Dutch and Spanish index) as target variables, with travel distance, travel time, and waiting time in the practice as focal predictors and with control for study region, patient's gender, patient's age, patient's education, time since diagnosis, thoroughness of provider-patient communication were computed. Interactions of regions with the remaining five control variables and the three focal predictors were also tested. There are no interactions of regions with control variables or focal predictors. The indices decrease with increasing travel time to the provider and increasing waiting time in the provider's practice. HRQoL of patients with type 2 diabetes might be improved by decreasing travel time to the provider and waiting time in the provider's practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E; Nagy, John A

    2013-01-01

    The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family.

  15. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Edwards

    Full Text Available The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of nanometer sized thermoelectric lead-antimony-silver-tellurium compounds and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petri, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The present dissertation deals with different variants of synthesis and processing of nanocrystalline composites of various thermoelectric compounds based on lead telluride including LAST-m (AgPb m SbTe m+2 ), LASTT-m-x (AgPb m-x Sn x SbTe m+2 ), LABST-m-x (AgPb m Sb 1-x Bi x Te m+2 ), doped LAST-m and (PbTe) m (M 15 2 Te 3 ) and the characterization thereof. A new route of manufacturing nanocrystalline composites was developed. The so called co-ball milling-route includes the synthesis of bi- or multinary compounds by conventional solid state melting methods followed by combined milling of appropriate amounts in a planetary ball mill; a process related to the widely used mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The as produced powders were shortly annealed for one hour and a.erwards compacted either at room temperature followed by pressureless sintering or combined application of high pressure and elevated temperatures via spark-plasma-sintering or short-term-sintering. The ball milling yielded micron-sized agglomerates consisting of crystallites with diameters ranging from 10 to 50 nm. These crystallites exhibited complicated internal nanostructures severe crystal defects as a consequence of the high energy processing. During short-term annealing some grain coarsening occured and the crystal defects partly healed, which was confirmed by TEM and HRTEM investigations as well as profile analysis of XRD powder pattern. Local EDX-analysis showed different compositions at every point as a consequence of synthesis and decomposition of the compounds. Measurements of thermopower, electrical and thermal conductivity were carried out and the values of the figure of merit ZT and the powerfactor were calculated. In general the compounds exhibited larger thermopower than corresponding bulk materials, which might be attributed to energy filtering of charge carriers at partly oxidized grain boundaries. Due to enhanced phonon scattering at grain boundarys, nanoscopic

  17. Shooting performance is related to forearm temperature and hand tremor size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakie, M; Villagra, F; Bowman, I; Wilby, R

    1995-08-01

    The changes in postural tremor of the hand and the subsequent effect on shooting performance produced by moderate cooling and heating of the forearm were studied in six subjects. Cooling produced a large decrease in tremor size of the ipsilateral hand, whereas warming the limb produced an increase in tremor size. Cooling or warming the forearm did not change the peak frequency of tremor significantly, which was quite stable for each subject. The improvement in shooting performance after cooling the forearm, as measured by grouping pattern of the shots, reached statistical significance and warming caused a significant worsening. This measure of performance was shown to correlate (r = 0.776) inversely with tremor size. The causes and implications of these changes are discussed. It is suggested that local cooling may be useful for people who wish temporarily to reduce tremor in order to improve dexterity for shooting and for other purposes.

  18. Relation between the diffraction pattern visibility and dispersion of particle sizes in an ektacytometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Sergei Yu; Lugovtsov, Andrei E; Priezzhev, A V; Ustinov, V D

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated the angular distribution of the light intensity in the diffraction pattern arising upon scattering of a laser beam on a suspension of red blood cells in an ektacytometer. We have estimated the diffraction pattern visibility in the region of the first diffraction minimum and the first diffraction maximum as a function of particle size variation. It is shown that in this fragment of the diffraction pattern its visibility decreases already twofold in the case of a standard deviation of the particle size from the average value, equal to 8%.

  19. Generalized procedures for determining inspection sample sizes (related to quantitative measurements). Vol. 1: Detailed explanations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.; Lemaire, R.J.

    1986-11-01

    Generalized procedures have been developed to determine sample sizes in connection with the planning of inspection activities. These procedures are based on different measurement methods. They are applied mainly to Bulk Handling Facilities and Physical Inventory Verifications. The present report attempts (i) to assign to appropriate statistical testers (viz. testers for gross, partial and small defects) the measurement methods to be used, and (ii) to associate the measurement uncertainties with the sample sizes required for verification. Working papers are also provided to assist in the application of the procedures. This volume contains the detailed explanations concerning the above mentioned procedures

  20. Comparison of minitrampoline- and full-sized trampoline-related injuries in the United States, 1990-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Brenda J; Fernandez, Soledad A; Smith, Gary A

    2005-07-01

    To compare mini- and full-sized trampoline-related injuries in the United States. A retrospective analysis of data was conducted for all ages from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission from 1990 to 2002. We compared 137 minitrampoline-related injuries with 143 full-sized trampoline-related injuries, randomly selected from all full-sized trampoline-related injuries reported to the NEISS during the study period. Patients ranged in age from 1 to 80 years (mean [SD]: 13.9 [17.7]) and 2 to 52 years (mean [SD]: 11.0 [8.0]) for mini- and full-sized trampoline-related injuries, respectively. Most patients were younger than 18 years (82% mini, 91% full-sized). Thirty-two percent of minitrampoline- and 19% of full-sized trampoline-related injuries were to children who were younger than 6 years; girls predominated (63% mini, 51% full-sized). Children who were younger than 6 years were more likely to be injured on a minitrampoline than on a full-sized trampoline, when compared with 6- to 17-year-olds (odds ratio [OR]: 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33-4.47). The majority of injuries occurred at home (87% mini, 89% full-sized). All patients who were injured on a minitrampoline were treated and released, whereas 5% of patients who were injured on a full-sized trampoline were admitted to the hospital. On minitrampolines, children who were younger than 6 years were at risk for head lacerations (OR: 4.98; 95% CI: 1.71-16.03), and children who were 6 to 17 years were at risk for lower extremity strains or sprains (OR: 6.26; 95% CI: 1.35-59.14). Children who were 6 to 17 years and injured on a full-sized trampoline were at risk for lower extremity strains or sprains (OR: 4.85; 95% CI: 1.09-44.93). Lower extremity strains or sprains were the most common injury sustained by adults (18 years and older; 33% mini, 15% full-sized). Injury patterns were similar for mini- and full-sized trampolines, although

  1. Are contemporary tourists consuming distance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    2012. Background The background for this research, which explores how tourists represent distance and whether or not distance can be said to be consumed by contemporary tourists, is the increasing leisure mobility of people. Travelling for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives is increasing...... of understanding mobility at a conceptual level, and distance matters to people's manifest mobility: how they travel and how far they travel are central elements of their movements. Therefore leisure mobility (indeed all mobility) is the activity of relating across distance, either through actual corporeal...... metric representation. These representations are the focus for this research. Research Aim and Questions The aim of this research is thus to explore how distance is being represented within the context of leisure mobility. Further the aim is to explore how or whether distance is being consumed...

  2. Nanolithography and nanochemistry: probe-related patterning techniques and chemical modification for nanometer-sized devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, D.; Schubert, U.S.

    2004-01-01

    The size regime for devices produced by photolithographic techniques is limited. Therefore, other patterning techniques have been intensively studied to create smaller structures. Scanning-probe-based patterning techniques, such as dip-pen lithography, local force-induced patterning, and local-probe

  3. Aerosol particle size distribution in building and caves: impact to the radon-related dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berka, Z.; Thinova, L.; Brandejsova, E.; Zdimal, V.; Fronka, A.; Milka, D.

    2004-01-01

    The results of evaluation of the aerosol particle size spectra observed in the Bozkov cave are presented and compared with the spectra observed in residential areas. The radon-to-dose conversion factor is discussed, as is the correction factor referred to as the cave factor. (P.A.)

  4. Relation Between Intelligence and Family Size, Position, and Income in Adolescent Girls in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Habab; Alahmadi, Maryam; Bakhiet, Salaheldin; Lynn, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Data are reported showing statistically significant negative correlations between intelligence and family size, position, and income in a sample of 604 adolescent girls in Saudi Arabia. There were no statistically significant correlations or associations between whether the mother or father were deceased or both parents were alive, and whether the parents were living together or were divorced. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. PLASMA STEROID CONCENTRATIONS IN RELATION TO SIZE AND AGE IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS FROM TWO FLORIDA LAKES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have reported a number of physiological differences among juvenile alligators from two well-studied populations (Lake Apopka and Lake Woodruff) in north central Florida. These studies obtained alligators of similar size from each lake under the assumption that th...

  6. Cohort difference in age-related trajectories in network size in old age: are networks expanding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suanet, B.; Huxhold, O.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives. Contemporary societal views on old age as well as a rise in retirement age raise the question whether patterns of stability and/or decline in network size as found in earlier studies similarly apply to later birth cohorts of older adults. Methods. Change score models are estimated to

  7. The final size of an epidemic and its relation to the basic reproduction number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Viggo

    2011-01-01

    We study the final size equation for an epidemic in a subdivided population with general mixing patterns among subgroups. The equation is determined by a matrix with the same spectrum as the next generation matrix and it exhibits a threshold controlled by the common dominant eigenvalue, the basic...

  8. Size of age-0 crappies (Pomoxis spp.) relative to reservoir habitats and water levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczka, Levi J.; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2014-01-01

    Variable year-class strength is common in crappie Pomoxis spp. populations in many reservoirs, yet the mechanisms behind this variability are poorly understood. Size-dependent mortality of age-0 fishes has long been recognized in the population ecology literature; however, investigations about the effects of environmental factors on age-0 crappie size are lacking. The objective of this study was to determine if differences existed in total length of age-0 crappies between embayment and floodplain habitats in reservoirs, while accounting for potential confounding effects of water level and crappie species. To this end, we examined size of age-0 crappies in four flood-control reservoirs in northwest Mississippi over 4years. Age-0 crappies inhabiting uplake floodplain habitats grew to a larger size than fish in downlake embayments, but this trend depended on species, length of time a reservoir was dewatered in the months preceding spawning, and reservoir water level in the months following spawning. The results from our study indicate that water-level management may focus not only on allowing access to quality nursery habitat, but that alternating water levels on a multiyear schedule could increase the quality of degraded littoral habitats.

  9. Body composition of freshwater Wallago attu in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wallago attu is one of the large freshwater catfish found in Pakistan. The rapid growth and high nutritional quality encouraged investigation into the aquaculture potential of this excellent food fish. It was observed that body size had a positive influence on percent ash, percent fat and percent protein contents (wet weight) but ...

  10. On the common risk explanation of the size-related premiums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira Souza, Thiago

    2018-01-01

    to be marginally significant even in low risk states while the size premium is only significant in high risk states. This state dependence explains the out-of-sample R2 of around 29% for forecasts of the returns on the SMB portfolio, but only 7% for the HML portfolio compared to their historical means....

  11. Biofilter media gas pressure loss as related to media particle size and particle shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugliese, Lorenzo; Poulsen, Tjalfe G.; Røjgaard Andreasen, Rune

    2013-01-01

    Pressure loss (ΔP) is a key parameter for estimating biofilter energy consumption. Accurate predictions of ΔP as a function of air velocity (V) are therefore essential, to assess energy consumption and minimize operation costs. This paper investigates the combined impact of medium particle size...

  12. Grain size and boundary-related effects on the properties of nanocrystalline barium titanate ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buscaglia, V.; Buscaglia, M. T.; Viviani, M.; Mitoseriu, L.; Nanni, P.; Trefiletti, V.; Piaggio, P.; Gregora, Ivan; Ostapchuk, Tetyana; Pokorný, Jan; Petzelt, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 26, - (2006), s. 2889-2898 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 525.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : grain size * grain boundaries * spectroscopy * dielectric properties * BaTiO 3 Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.576, year: 2006

  13. Offspring preterm birth and birth size are related to long-term risk of maternal diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naver, Klara Vinsand; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Ovesen, Per Glud

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the association between gestational age, birth size, and the long-term risk of maternal diabetes. We conducted a nation-wide prospective follow-up study of the cohort of all Danish women with a singleton delivery in 1982/1983 (index delivery) and no history...

  14. Electrical percolation threshold of magnetostrictive inclusions in a piezoelectric matrix composite as a function of relative particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Ever J.; Bedard, Antoine Joseph

    2018-04-01

    Magnetoelectric composites can be produced by embedding magnetostrictive particles in a piezoelectric matrix derived from a piezoelectric powder precursor. Ferrite magnetostrictive particles, if allowed to percolate, can short the potential difference generated in the piezoelectric phase. Modeling a magnetoelectric composite as an aggregate of bi-disperse hard shells, molecular dynamics was used to explore relationships among relative particle size, particle affinity, and electrical percolation with the goal of maximizing the percolation threshold. It is found that two factors raise the percolation threshold, namely the relative size of magnetostrictive to piezoelectric particles, and the affinity between the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric particles.

  15. HOW MUCH DOES A MINUTE OF COMMUTING TIME COST? AN EXAMINATION OF PROPERTY PRICES IN RELATION TO DISTANCE TO THE CITY CENTER IN PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lukavec

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to explore the strength of the relationship between the proximity of a property to the city center and its price. Buyers are willing to pay extra for apartments or houses closer to the city center, but the extent of this willingness remains largely unexplored. Our research question is: How much does a minute of commuting time influence the price of an apartment in Prague? In other words, with every minute of commuting time, how much more is paid for a house or an apartment closer to the central business district (CBD? Our analysis has found that on average, every minute of commuting time closer to the city center corresponds to an additional cost of CZK 43,390.45 for an average sized apartment in Prague. A regression analysis is graphically plotted in the Chart 1. We have also found that this relationship changes according to distance from the city center. For a commuting time of 1-20 minutes to the city center, the price increase is the highest: CZK 259,466.18 per minute. However, this figure is only CZK 55,809.01 for the interval of 21-40 minutes, and CZK 33,924.29 per minute for the interval of 41-55 minutes.

  16. The impact of particle size, relative humidity, and sulfur dioxide on iron solubility in simulated atmospheric marine aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartledge, Benton T; Marcotte, Aurelie R; Herckes, Pierre; Anbar, Ariel D; Majestic, Brian J

    2015-06-16

    Iron is a limiting nutrient in about half of the world's oceans, and its most significant source is atmospheric deposition. To understand the pathways of iron solubilization during atmospheric transport, we exposed size segregated simulated marine aerosols to 5 ppm sulfur dioxide at arid (23 ± 1% relative humidity, RH) and marine (98 ± 1% RH) conditions. Relative iron solubility increased as the particle size decreased for goethite and hematite, while for magnetite, the relative solubility was similar for all of the fine size fractions (2.5-0.25 μm) investigated but higher than the coarse size fraction (10-2.5 μm). Goethite and hematite showed increased solubility at arid RH, but no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between the two humidity levels for magnetite. There was no correlation between iron solubility and exposure to SO2 in any mineral for any size fraction. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements showed no change in iron speciation [Fe(II) and Fe(III)] in any minerals following SO2 exposure. SEM-EDS measurements of SO2-exposed goethite revealed small amounts of sulfur uptake on the samples; however, the incorporated sulfur did not affect iron solubility. Our results show that although sulfur is incorporated into particles via gas-phase processes, changes in iron solubility also depend on other species in the aerosol.

  17. Genome size variation in the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Honghai; Martin, Sara L; Bekele, Wubishet A; Latta, Robert G; Diederichsen, Axel; Peng, Yuanying; Tinker, Nicholas A

    2016-03-01

    Genome size is an indicator of evolutionary distance and a metric for genome characterization. Here, we report accurate estimates of genome size in 99 accessions from 26 species of Avena. We demonstrate that the average genome size of C genome diploid species (2C = 10.26 pg) is 15% larger than that of A genome species (2C = 8.95 pg), and that this difference likely accounts for a progression of size among tetraploid species, where AB genome configuration had similar genome sizes (average 2C = 25.74 pg). Genome size was mostly consistent within species and in general agreement with current information about evolutionary distance among species. Results also suggest that most of the polyploid species in Avena have experienced genome downsizing in relation to their diploid progenitors. Genome size measurements could provide additional quality control for species identification in germplasm collections, especially in cases where diploid and polyploid species have similar morphology.

  18. Strategic management in micro, small and medium-sized businesses in relation to financial success of the enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Švárová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized enterprises play an essential role in the economy of the Czech Republic as a report of development of small and medium-sized enterprises and its support from 2010 announces. They are the source of development of towns, regions and the state itself. Small and medium-sized enterprises represent 99.84 % of the whole business subjects. Statistic data underline this position- they indicate that small and medium-sized enterprises employ 2/3 employees. Therefore, occupying small and medium-sized enterprises are to be taken as priority.Strategic management on the level of small and medium-sized enterprises is, as number of authors write, diverse. Small enterprises including micro have less access to capital, they have no money for employing specialists in the field, and they solve administration primarily. The aim of this follow-up GAJU project contribution concerned on process analysis of small and medium-sized enterprises is to summarize the gained results from the view of comparison of the level of strategic management in small and medium-sized enterprises.Nowadays, numbers of enterprises are thinking about whether they are able to remain in the market as an established company, they explore the possibility of improving its position. There is a question for small and medium-sized enterprises management- can strategic management be used as an instrument for increasing competitiveness? The results show that SMEs with a clearly defined strategy show better results of financial health (IN99 and ROA than companies without a defined strategy. In terms of business focus, we were able to demonstrate positive relationship between strategy and finance only for companies in the construction industry, on the significance level of 0.05. Compared to manufacturers and service-providing companies where this relation is not statistically significant.

  19. Spatial patterns of correlated scale size and scale color in relation to color pattern elements in butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masaki; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-02-01

    Complex butterfly wing color patterns are coordinated throughout a wing by unknown mechanisms that provide undifferentiated immature scale cells with positional information for scale color. Because there is a reasonable level of correspondence between the color pattern element and scale size at least in Junonia orithya and Junonia oenone, a single morphogenic signal may contain positional information for both color and size. However, this color-size relationship has not been demonstrated in other species of the family Nymphalidae. Here, we investigated the distribution patterns of scale size in relation to color pattern elements on the hindwings of the peacock pansy butterfly Junonia almana, together with other nymphalid butterflies, Vanessa indica and Danaus chrysippus. In these species, we observed a general decrease in scale size from the basal to the distal areas, although the size gradient was small in D. chrysippus. Scales of dark color in color pattern elements, including eyespot black rings, parafocal elements, and submarginal bands, were larger than those of their surroundings. Within an eyespot, the largest scales were found at the focal white area, although there were exceptional cases. Similarly, ectopic eyespots that were induced by physical damage on the J. almana background area had larger scales than in the surrounding area. These results are consistent with the previous finding that scale color and size coordinate to form color pattern elements. We propose a ploidy hypothesis to explain the color-size relationship in which the putative morphogenic signal induces the polyploidization (genome amplification) of immature scale cells and that the degrees of ploidy (gene dosage) determine scale color and scale size simultaneously in butterfly wings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of Walking-Related Motor Fatigue in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis: Decline in Walking Distance Induced by the 6-Minute Walk Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Carmela; Severijns, Deborah; Doležalová, Vendula; Baert, Ilse; Dalgas, Ulrik; Romberg, Anders; Bethoux, Francois; Gebara, Benoit; Santoyo Medina, Carmen; Maamâgi, Heigo; Rasova, Kamila; Maertens de Noordhout, Benoît; Knuts, Kathy; Skjerbaek, Anders; Jensen, Ellen; Wagner, Joanne M; Feys, Peter

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the individual occurrence of walking-related motor fatigue in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), according to disability level and disease phenotype.Study design This was a cross-sectional, multinational study.Participants They were 208 PwMS from 11 centers with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores up to 6.5. The percentage change in distance walked (distance walked index, DWI) was calculated between minute 6 and 1 (DWI(6-1)) of the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). Its magnitude was used to classify participants into 4 subgroups: (1) DWI(6-1)[≥5%], (2) DWI(6-1)[5%; -5%], (3) DWI(6-1)[-5%; > -15%], and (4) DWI(6-1)[≤-15%]. The latter group was labeled as having walking-related motor fatigue. PwMS were stratified into 5 subgroups based on the EDSS (0-2.5, 3-4, 4.5-5.5, 6, 6.5) and 3 subgroups based on MS phenotype (relapsing remitting [RR], primary progressive [PP], and secondary progressive [SP]). The DWI6-1was ≥5% in 16 PwMS (7.7%), between 5% and -5% in 70 PwMS (33.6%), between -5% and -15% in 58 PwMS (24%), and ≤-15% in 64 PwMS (30.8%). The prevalence of walking-related motor fatigue (DWI(6-1)[≤-15%]) was significantly higher among the progressive phenotype (PP = 50% and SP = 39%; RR = 15.6%) and PwMS with higher disability level (EDSS 4.5-5.5 = 48.3%, 6 = 46.3% and 6.5 = 51.5%, compared with EDSS 0-2.5 = 7.8% and 3-4 = 16.7%;P< .05). Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that EDSS, but not MS phenotype, explained a significant part of the variance in DWI(6-1)(R(2)= 0.086;P< .001). More than one-third of PwMS showed walking-related motor fatigue during the 6MWT, with its prevalence greatest in more disabled persons (up to 51%) and in those with progressive MS phenotype (up to 50%). Identification of walking-related motor fatigue may lead to better-tailored interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Datasets related to in-land water for limnology and remote sensing applications: distance-to-land, distance-to-water, water-body identifier and lake-centre co-ordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrea, Laura; Embury, Owen; Merchant, Christopher J

    2015-11-01

    Datasets containing information to locate and identify water bodies have been generated from data locating static-water-bodies with resolution of about 300 m (1/360 ∘ ) recently released by the Land Cover Climate Change Initiative (LC CCI) of the European Space Agency. The LC CCI water-bodies dataset has been obtained from multi-temporal metrics based on time series of the backscattered intensity recorded by ASAR on Envisat between 2005 and 2010. The new derived datasets provide coherently: distance to land, distance to water, water-body identifiers and lake-centre locations. The water-body identifier dataset locates the water bodies assigning the identifiers of the Global Lakes and Wetlands Database (GLWD), and lake centres are defined for in-land waters for which GLWD IDs were determined. The new datasets therefore link recent lake/reservoir/wetlands extent to the GLWD, together with a set of coordinates which locates unambiguously the water bodies in the database. Information on distance-to-land for each water cell and the distance-to-water for each land cell has many potential applications in remote sensing, where the applicability of geophysical retrieval algorithms may be affected by the presence of water or land within a satellite field of view (image pixel). During the generation and validation of the datasets some limitations of the GLWD database and of the LC CCI water-bodies mask have been found. Some examples of the inaccuracies/limitations are presented and discussed. Temporal change in water-body extent is common. Future versions of the LC CCI dataset are planned to represent temporal variation, and this will permit these derived datasets to be updated.

  2. How do we estimate the relative size of human figures when seen on a photography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimeček, Michal; Šikl, Radovan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 40, Suppl. (2011), s. 119-119 ISSN 0301-0066. [European Conference on Visual Perception /34./. 28.08.2011-01.09.2011, Toulouse] R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP407/10/P566 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : visual space perception * size constancy * subjective horizon Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://www. perception web.com/abstract.cgi?id=v110465

  3. Measuring the effectiveness of marketing activities use in relation to company size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Sychrová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to research the relationship between measurements of effectiveness of marketing activities and company size. An analysis of the economic sources, professional publications, analysis and reports of previous research shows that the concept of measuring of effectiveness is one of the key themes, which economists always pay much attention. It is a criterion that helps to rationally decide on the use limited resources to meet the needs that are not limited. This topic deals with numerous domestic and foreign literatures. The authors are not only different concepts of effectiveness, but also the using terminology. There are multiple definitions of terms “effectiveness” For the same purpose and meaning. The same concept is often defined semantically different. Therefore, every company has a strong interest to be in all their activities more effectively than the competition. Logical response to changes and requirements of nowadays is using a combination of lot of methods to measure marketing effectiveness. Methods used for this article includes two phases. The first it was gained date by primary research, using a structure questionnaire and processed by statistical software SPSS. Research sample consists 115 companies operating in the Czech environment, which was chosen at random. There is investigated the correlation between measuring the effectiveness of marketing activities and company size. The second part investigated the dependence between the choice of metrics used to measure the effectiveness and company size. The results of the research showed that there is no correlation between measuring the effectiveness of marketing activities and company size. The value of Pearson Chi-Square test is greater than 0.05, it is 0.187. We can presume that dependency does not exist or it is small for these. Value of Symmetric measures is 0.432, which means that the intensity tends to be small rather than high.

  4. Relations between particle size of HDL and LDL lipoproteins and cholesterol esterification rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobiášová, Milada; Urbanová, Z.; Šamánek, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2005), s. 159-165 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NA6590; GA MZd(CZ) NR8328 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : particle size of lipoproteins * FER(HDL) * Log(TG/HDL-C) Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005

  5. Mushroom's spore size and time of fruiting are strongly related: is moisture important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauserud, Håvard; Heegaard, Einar; Halvorsen, Rune; Boddy, Lynne; Høiland, Klaus; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2011-04-23

    Most basidiomycete fungi produce annual short-lived sexual fruit bodies from which billions of microscopic spores are spread into the air during a short time period. However, little is known about the selective forces that have resulted in some species fruiting early and others later in the fruiting season. This study of relationships between morphological and ecological characteristics, climate factors and time of fruiting are based upon thorough statistical analyses of 66 520 mapped records from Norway, representing 271 species of autumnal fruiting mushroom species. We found a strong relationship between spore size and time of fruiting; on average, a doubling of spore size (volume) corresponded to 3 days earlier fruiting. Small-spored species dominate in the oceanic parts of Norway, whereas large-spored species are typical of more continental parts. In separate analyses, significant relationships were observed between spore size and climate factors. We hypothesize that these relationships are owing to water balance optimization, driven by water storage in spores as a critical factor for successful germination of primary mycelia in the drier micro-environments found earlier in the fruiting season and/or in continental climates.

  6. Age related changes in size of thyroid follicle in north Indian population: A histologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Malik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing number of cases of thyroid gland disorders nowadays, there are rising trends of thyroid gland surgeries and interventions which requires comprehensive data regarding the gland. This study was done to find out the changes in the size of the thyroid follicle in different age groups. The age groups were Group A - upto 20 years, Group B – 21-50 years and Group C – above 50 years. The study was conducted on 60 human thyroid glands in the Department of Anatomy in collaboration with Department of Pathology, Pt. B. D. Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak in North Indian population. The diameter of the thyroid follicle was measured by Image Analyzer. The study revealed that the mean size of the thyroid follicle was found to be in Group A - 56.38±14.12 µm, Group B - 130.08±30.67 µm and Group C - 96.05±12.86 µm. The study concluded that the mean size of the thyroid follicle was found to be higher in Group B (21-50 years followed by Group C (above 50 years followed by Group A (below 20 years.

  7. Size-Related Differences in the Thermoregulatory Habits of Free-Ranging Komodo Dragons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Harlow

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoregulatory processes were compared among three-size groups of free-ranging Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis comprising small (5–20 kg, medium (20–40 gm and large (40–70 kg lizards. While all size groups maintained a similar preferred body temperature of ≈35∘C, they achieved this end point differently. Small dragons appeared to engage in sun shuttling behavior more vigorously than large dragons as represented by their greater frequency of daily ambient temperature and light intensity changes as well as a greater activity and overall exposure to the sun. Large dragons were more sedentary and sun shuttled less. Further, they appear to rely to a greater extent on microhabitat selection and employed mouth gaping evaporative cooling to maintain their preferred operational temperature and prevent overheating. A potential ecological consequence of size-specific thermoregulatory habits for dragons is separation of foraging areas. In part, differences in thermoregulation could contribute to inducing shifts in predatory strategies from active foraging in small dragons to more sedentary sit-and-wait ambush predators in adults.

  8. Distribution of lead in relation to size of airborne particulate matter in Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Munir H; Shaheen, N; Jaffar, M; Saqib, M

    2004-02-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) collected from two sampling stations in Islamabad, Pakistan, was analyzed for lead content and size gradation. A high volume air sampler was used to trap particulates on glass fiber filters for 8-12 h on a daily basis. Lead was estimated using a nitric acid digestion based AAS method on 44 samples from station 1 and 61 samples from station 2. Particle size fractions were categorized as 100 microm. The correlation between lead concentration and particle size was investigated. The results from two stations indicated average airborne lead concentrations of 0.505 and 0.185 microg/m3. Enhanced levels of lead were measured at a maximum of 4.075 microg/m3 at station 1 and 4.000 microg/m3 at station 2. PM 100 were found to constitute the local atmosphere in comparable proportions. A comparison of the lead levels is made with the existing permissible levels of this element laid down by different international agencies.

  9. When Do Distance Effects Become Empirically Observable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Nell, Phillip C.; Ambos, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Integrating distance research with the behavioral strategy literature on MNC headquarters-subsidiary relations, this paper explores how the distance between headquarters and subsidiaries relates to value added by the headquarters. We show for 124 manufacturing subsidiaries in Europe that...

  10. Accurate relations between pore size and the pressure of capillary condensation and the evaporation of nitrogen in cylindrical pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishige, Kunimitsu; Tateishi, Masayoshi

    2006-04-25

    To examine the theoretical and semiempirical relations between pore size and the pressure of capillary condensation or evaporation proposed so far, we constructed an accurate relation between the pore radius and the capillary condensation and evaporation pressure of nitrogen at 77 K for the cylindrical pores of the ordered mesoporous MCM-41 and SBA-15 silicas. Here, the pore size was determined from a comparison between the experimental and calculated X-ray diffraction patterns due to X-ray structural modeling recently developed. Among the many theoretical relations that differ from each other in the degree of theoretical improvements, a macroscopic thermodynamic approach based on Broekhoff-de Boer equations was found to be in fair agreement with the experimental relation obtained in the present study.

  11. Reciprocal Relations between Student-Teacher Relationship and Children's Behavioral Problems: Moderation by Child-Care Group Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalická, Vera; Belsky, Jay; Stenseng, Frode; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2015-01-01

    In this Norwegian study, bidirectional relations between children's behavior problems and child-teacher conflict and closeness were examined, and the possibility of moderation of these associations by child-care group size was tested. Eight hundred and nineteen 4-year-old children were followed up in first grade. Results revealed reciprocal…

  12. GROWTH OF CORMORANT PHALACROCORAX-CARBO-SINENSIS CHICKS IN RELATION TO BROOD SIZE, AGE RANKING AND PARENTAL FISHING EFFORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PLATTEEUW, M; KOFFIJBERG, K; DUBBELDAM, W

    1995-01-01

    Growth parameters of Cormorant hatchlings are described in relation to brood size and age ranking of each chick within individual broods. Growth rates, expressed as body mass increment per day over the period of linear, growth (5-30 days), ranged from 56.4-102.8 g . d(-1) and were found to be

  13. Monitoring distances travelled by horses using GPS tracking collars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, B A; Morton, J M; Mills, P C; Trotter, M G; Lamb, D W; Pollitt, C C

    2010-05-01

    The aims of this work were to (1) develop a low-cost equine movement tracking collar based on readily available components, (2) conduct preliminary studies assessing the effects of both paddock size and internal fence design on the movements of domestic horses, with and without foals at foot, and (3) describe distances moved by mares and their foals. Additional monitoring of free-ranging feral horses was conducted to allow preliminary comparisons with the movement of confined domestic horses. A lightweight global positioning system (GPS) data logger modified from a personal/vehicle tracker and mounted on a collar was used to monitor the movement of domestic horses in a range of paddock sizes and internal fence designs for 6.5-day periods. In the paddocks used (0.8-16 ha), groups of domestic horses exhibited a logarithmic response in mean daily distance travelled as a function of increasing paddock size, tending asymptotically towards approximately 7.5 km/day. The distance moved by newborn foals was similar to their dams, with total distance travelled also dependent on paddock size. Without altering available paddock area, paddock design, with the exception of a spiral design, did not significantly affect mean daily distance travelled. Feral horses (17.9 km/day) travelled substantially greater mean daily distances than domestic horses (7.2 km/day in 16-ha paddock), even when allowing for larger paddock size. Horses kept in stables or small yards and paddocks are quite sedentary in comparison with their feral relatives. For a given paddock area, most designs did not significantly affect mean daily distance travelled.

  14. Dose dependency of the frequency of micronucleated binucleated clone cells and of division related median clone sizes difference. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, G,; Kreczik, A.; Treichel, M.

    1996-01-01

    Following irradiation of the progenitor cells the clone growth of CHO cells decreases as a result of cell losses. Lethally acting expressions of micronuclei are produced by heritable lethal mutations. The dependency of the frequency of micronucleated binucleated clone cells and of the median clone sizes difference on the radiation dose was measured and compared to non-irradiated controls. Using the cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-method binucleated cells with micronuclei were counted as ratio of all binucleated cells within a clone size distribution. This ratio (shortened: micronucleus yield) was determined for all clone size distributions, which had been exposed to different irradiation doses and incubation times. The micronucleus yields were compared to the corresponding median clone sizes differences. The micronucleus yield is linearly dependent on the dose and is independent of the incubation time. The same holds true for the division related median clone sizes difference, which as a result is also linearly dependent on the micronucleus yield. Due to the inevitably errors of the cell count of micronucleated binucleated cells, an automatic measurement of the median clone sizes differences is the preferred method for evaluation of cellular radiation sensitivity for heritable lethal mutations. This value should always be determined in addition, if clone survival fractions are used as predictive test because it allows for an estimation of the remission probability of surviving cells. (orig.) [de

  15. The relation of collector and storage tank size in solar heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çomaklı, Kemal; Çakır, Uğur; Kaya, Mehmet; Bakirci, Kadir

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A storage tank is used in many solar water heating systems for the storage of hot water. ► Using larger storage tanks decrease the efficiency and increases the cost of the system. ► The optimum tank size for the collector area is very important for economic solar heating systems. ► The optimum sizes of the collectors and the storage tank are determined. - Abstract: The most popular method to benefit from the solar energy is to use solar water heating systems since it is one of the cheapest way to benefit from the solar energy. The investment cost of a solar water heating system is very low, and the maintenance costs are nearly zero. Using the solar energy for solar water heating (SWH) technology has been greatly improved during the past century. A storage tank is used in many solar water heating systems for the conservation of heat energy or hot water for use when some need it. In addition, domestic hot water consumption is strongly variable in many buildings. It depends on the geographical situation, also on the country customs, and of course on the type of building usage. Above all, it depends on the inhabitants’ specific lifestyle. For that reason, to provide the hot water for consumption at the desirable temperature whenever inhabitants require it, there must be a good relevance between the collectors and storage tank. In this paper, the optimum sizes of the collectors and the storage tank are determined to design more economic and efficient solar water heating systems. A program has been developed and validated with the experimental study and environmental data. The environmental data were obtained through a whole year of operation for Erzurum, Turkey.

  16. Heart size and mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area related to birth weight in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RUUSUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims in domestic pig breeding has been to increase the size of litters resulting in variation in birth weight of piglets. Pig breeding has also resulted in increased body muscle mass. Muscles with the same size can consist either of large number of thin muscle fibres or small number of thick muscle fibres. Larger body muscle content means that in living animal the heart must pump blood to larger muscle mass than earlier. Our interest in this study was to investigate the relationship between the pig’s birth weight and (i growth performance and carcass composition, (ii the size of organs, and (iii the mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area at slaughter. The study consisted of twenty pigs slaughtered at the age of 165±2 days. The day after the slaughter, the carcass composition was determined by dissecting the chilled carcass into lean, fat, bones, and skin and organs were weighed. The average cross sectional area of muscle fibres was determined from three fast-twitch muscles longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, gluteus superficialis, and two slow-twitch muscles infraspinatus and masseter. The birth weight of pigs ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 kg. We found no clear relationships between the birth weight and the pig’s growth performance from birth to slaughter. When the birth weight increased the heart weight at slaughter increased as well (P < 0.01. The heart weight was higher in those pigs with high carcass weight (P < 0.05 and with the high weight of total muscle mass in the carcass (P < 0.001. The cross sectional area of muscle fibres in M. longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05, M. semimembranosus (P < 0.10, and M. gluteus superficialis (P < 0.05 was larger in those pigs with low birth weight compared to those found in pigs with high birth weight.;

  17. Differences in Flower Transcriptome between Grapevine Clones Are Related to Their Cluster Compactness, Fruitfulness, and Berry Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Grimplet

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine cluster compactness has a clear impact on fruit quality and health status, as clusters with greater compactness are more susceptible to pests and diseases and ripen more asynchronously. Different parameters related to inflorescence and cluster architecture (length, width, branching, etc., fruitfulness (number of berries, number of seeds and berry size (length, width contribute to the final level of compactness. From a collection of 501 clones of cultivar Garnacha Tinta, two compact and two loose clones with stable differences for cluster compactness-related traits were selected and phenotyped. Key organs and developmental stages were selected for sampling and transcriptomic analyses. Comparison of global gene expression patterns in flowers at the end of bloom allowed identification of potential gene networks with a role in determining the final berry number, berry size and ultimately cluster compactness. A large portion of the differentially expressed genes were found in networks related to cell division (carbohydrates uptake, cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, nucleic acids metabolism, cell division, DNA repair. Their greater expression level in flowers of compact clones indicated that the number of berries and the berry size at ripening appear related to the rate of cell replication in flowers during the early growth stages after pollination. In addition, fluctuations in auxin and gibberellin signaling and transport related gene expression support that they play a central role in fruit set and impact berry number and size. Other hormones, such as ethylene and jasmonate may differentially regulate indirect effects, such as defense mechanisms activation or polyphenols production. This is the first transcriptomic based analysis focused on the discovery of the underlying gene networks involved in grapevine traits of grapevine cluster compactness, berry number and berry size.

  18. Differences in Flower Transcriptome between Grapevine Clones Are Related to Their Cluster Compactness, Fruitfulness, and Berry Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Tello, Javier; Laguna, Natalia; Ibáñez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine cluster compactness has a clear impact on fruit quality and health status, as clusters with greater compactness are more susceptible to pests and diseases and ripen more asynchronously. Different parameters related to inflorescence and cluster architecture (length, width, branching, etc.), fruitfulness (number of berries, number of seeds) and berry size (length, width) contribute to the final level of compactness. From a collection of 501 clones of cultivar Garnacha Tinta, two compact and two loose clones with stable differences for cluster compactness-related traits were selected and phenotyped. Key organs and developmental stages were selected for sampling and transcriptomic analyses. Comparison of global gene expression patterns in flowers at the end of bloom allowed identification of potential gene networks with a role in determining the final berry number, berry size and ultimately cluster compactness. A large portion of the differentially expressed genes were found in networks related to cell division (carbohydrates uptake, cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, nucleic acids metabolism, cell division, DNA repair). Their greater expression level in flowers of compact clones indicated that the number of berries and the berry size at ripening appear related to the rate of cell replication in flowers during the early growth stages after pollination. In addition, fluctuations in auxin and gibberellin signaling and transport related gene expression support that they play a central role in fruit set and impact berry number and size. Other hormones, such as ethylene and jasmonate may differentially regulate indirect effects, such as defense mechanisms activation or polyphenols production. This is the first transcriptomic based analysis focused on the discovery of the underlying gene networks involved in grapevine traits of grapevine cluster compactness, berry number and berry size.

  19. Relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes in cluster randomized trials using generalized estimating equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingxia; Colditz, Graham A

    2018-05-01

    There is growing interest in conducting cluster randomized trials (CRTs). For simplicity in sample size calculation, the cluster sizes are assumed to be identical across all clusters. However, equal cluster sizes are not guaranteed in practice. Therefore, the relative efficiency (RE) of unequal versus equal cluster sizes has been investigated when testing the treatment effect. One of the most important approaches to analyze a set of correlated data is the generalized estimating equation (GEE) proposed by Liang and Zeger, in which the "working correlation structure" is introduced and the association pattern depends on a vector of association parameters denoted by ρ. In this paper, we utilize GEE models to test the treatment effect in a two-group comparison for continuous, binary, or count data in CRTs. The variances of the estimator of the treatment effect are derived for the different types of outcome. RE is defined as the ratio of variance of the estimator of the treatment effect for equal to unequal cluster sizes. We discuss a commonly used structure in CRTs-exchangeable, and derive the simpler formula of RE with continuous, binary, and count outcomes. Finally, REs are investigated for several scenarios of cluster size distributions through simulation studies. We propose an adjusted sample size due to efficiency loss. Additionally, we also propose an optimal sample size estimation based on the GEE models under a fixed budget for known and unknown association parameter (ρ) in the working correlation structure within the cluster. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. THE EXTRAGALACTIC DISTANCE DATABASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tully, R. Brent; Courtois, Helene M.; Jacobs, Bradley A.; Rizzi, Luca; Shaya, Edward J.; Makarov, Dmitry I.

    2009-01-01

    A database can be accessed on the Web at http://edd.ifa.hawaii.edu that was developed to promote access to information related to galaxy distances. The database has three functional components. First, tables from many literature sources have been gathered and enhanced with links through a distinct galaxy naming convention. Second, comparisons of results both at the levels of parameters and of techniques have begun and are continuing, leading to increasing homogeneity and consistency of distance measurements. Third, new material is presented arising from ongoing observational programs at the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope, radio telescopes at Green Bank, Arecibo, and Parkes and with the Hubble Space Telescope. This new observational material is made available in tandem with related material drawn from archives and passed through common analysis pipelines.

  1. Short-term salinity tolerance of northern pike, Esox lucius , fry, related to temperature and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lene; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The short-term tolerances of northern pike, Esox lucius L., fry reared in a freshwater hatchery, to salinity were examined in the laboratory. Survival of two size groups of pike fry (mean length 21 +/- 2 mm SD and 37 +/- 4 mm SD) was examined over 72- to 96-h periods at 9-14 ppt salinity in combi......The short-term tolerances of northern pike, Esox lucius L., fry reared in a freshwater hatchery, to salinity were examined in the laboratory. Survival of two size groups of pike fry (mean length 21 +/- 2 mm SD and 37 +/- 4 mm SD) was examined over 72- to 96-h periods at 9-14 ppt salinity...... in combination with temperatures of 10, 14 and 18 degrees C. A parametric survival model found a significant correlation between survival of pike fry and temperature and salinity, respectively. L(C)50 values after 72 h were between 11.2 and 12.2 ppt, being lowest at 10 degrees C. Pike fry did not survive more...

  2. Relation between PAH and black carbon contents in size fractions of Norwegian harbor sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oen, Amy M.P.; Cornelissen, Gerard; Breedveld, Gijs D.

    2006-01-01

    Distributions of total organic carbon (TOC), black carbon (BC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were investigated in different particle size fractions for four Norwegian harbor sediments. The total PAH (16-EPA) concentrations ranged from 2 to 113 mg/kg dry weight with the greatest fraction of PAH mass in the sand fraction for three of the four sediments. TOC contents ranged from 0.84% to 14.2% and BC contents from 0.085% to 1.7%. This corresponds to organic carbon (OC = TOC - BC) contents in the range of 0.81-14% and BC:TOC ratios of 1.3-18.1%. PAH isomer ratios suggested that the PAH in all four sediments were of pyrogenic origin. Furthermore, stronger correlations between PAH versus BC (r 2 = 0.85) than versus OC (r 2 = 0.15) were found. For all size fractions and bulk sediments, the PAH-to-BC ratios for the total PAHs were on average 6 ± 3 mg PAH/g BC. These results suggest that PAH distributions were dominated by the presence of BC, rather than OC. As sorption to BC is much stronger than sorption to OC, this may result in significantly lower dissolved concentrations of PAH than expected on the basis of organic carbon partitioning alone. - PAH contents correlated better with black carbon than organic carbon for four Norwegian harbor sediments

  3. Size of the lower third molar space in relation to age in Serbian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelić, Ksenija; Nedeljković, Nenad

    2013-10-01

    It is considered that the shortage of space is the major cause of the third molar impaction. The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of insufficient lower third molar eruption space in Serbian population, to question the differences in this frequency in the subjects of different age, to determine the influence of the lower third molar space (retromolar space) size on third molar eruption, and to investigate a possible correlation between the size of gonial angle and the space/third molar width ratio. Digital orthopantomograms were taken from 93 patients divided into two groups: early adult (16-18 years of age) and adult (18-26) patients. Retromolar space, mesiodistal third molar crown width, gonial angle and eruption levels were measured. The space/third molar width in early adult subjects was smaller (p third molars erupted in case of enough space in both age groups (p third molar width ratio is more favorable in adult subjects. Gonial angle is not in correlation with the retromolar space/third molar width ratio.

  4. SEASONAL, SIZE-RELATED AND AGE-RELATED PATTERNS IN BODY-MASS AND COMPOSITION OF PURPLE SANDPIPERS CALIDRIS-MARITIMA IN BRITAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SUMMERS, RW; UNDERHILL, LG; NICOLL, M; RAE, R; PIERSMA, T

    1992-01-01

    The masses Of 3229 Purple Sandpipers Calidris maritima from Britain were analysed for differences related to age, season and size. First-year birds were lighter by 2 g. There was only a slight increase in mass in mid-winter, in contrast to other waders wintering in Britain, suggesting that Purple

  5. Terminology report respect distance. The Use of the term respect distance in Posiva and SKB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampinen, H.

    2007-09-01

    The term respect distance is used in some key publications of the Finnish Nuclear Waste Management Company, Posiva, and the Swedish Nuclear Waste Management Company, SKB (Svensk Kaernbrenslehantering). Posiva and SKB researchers use the same terms in their reports, and it is acknowledged that the terms used by both companies are not used in the same way, though the differences are often subtle. This report is a literature study of the term 'respect distance' and the terms immediately associated to it. Vital terms related to the respect distance and issues concerning the use of scale concepts in Posiva and SKB are gathered in the end of report. Posiva's respect distances consider the seismic, hydrological and mechanical properties of the deterministic deformation zones as important issues that constitute a risk for longterm safety. These requirements for respect distances are an interpretation of STUK's YVL 8.4 Guide. At present, Posiva's criteria regarding respect distances follow the instructions given in the Host Rock Classification system (HRC), whereas the size of a deformation zone to which respect distances are applied vary from the regional to local major and minor. This and other criteria that are given for respect distances may, however, change in the near future as Posiva's Rock Suitability Criteria (RSC) programme proceeds. SKB's considerations of respect distances acknowledge that the hydraulic and mechanical aspects of a deformation zone have an effect on the respect distance. However, the seismic risk is considered to overshadow the other effects on a regional scale. The respect distance defined for a deformation zone is coupled with the size of a fracture where secondary slip could occur. In the safety assessment it is assumed that this fracture cuts a deposition hole location. In SKB the respect distance is determined for regional and local major deformation zones. The trace length of such a zone is defined as being ≥ 3 km. For deformation zones

  6. Relation between size of contrast meter and radiographic density difference for radiographic test aluminium welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Tomio; Hirayama, Kazuo; Masaoka, Naotoshi; Fujita, Minoru.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of contrast meter with difference surface area (5.0 mm x 5.0 mm, 10.0 mm x 10.0 mm, 15.0 mm x 15.0 mm, 30.0 mm x 30.0 mm) and separated type on radiographic density difference (Δ D) were investigated for radiographic test of aluminum welds. It was found that the effect of scattered radiation on contrast meter represented highest at test specimen thickness of 20 mm, and Δ D was constant as the size was increased from 10.0 mm x 10.0 mm to 15.0 mm x 15.0 mm for aluminum contrast meter. For this reason, a proposal of the contrast meter with 10.0 mm x 10.0 mm (surface area) has made to replace (15.0 mm x 15 mm) at amendment of JIS Z 3105. (auth.)

  7. Size-related flowering and fecundity in the tropical canopy tree species, Shorea acuminata (Dipterocarpaceae) during two consecutive general flowerings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yoko; Kanzaki, Mamoru; Numata, Shinya; Obayashi, Kyoko; Konuma, Akihiro; Nishimura, Sen; Ohta, Seiichi; Tsumura, Yoshihiko; Okuda, Toshinori; Lee, Soon Leong; Muhammad, Norwati

    2008-01-01

    We monitored the reproductive status of all trees with diameters at breast height (dbh) >30 cm in a 40-ha plot at Pasoh, west Malaysia, and investigated the individual fecundity of 15 Shorea acuminata Dyer (Dipterocarpaceae) trees using seed-trapping methods during two consecutive general flowering periods in 2001 (GF2001) and 2002 (GF2002). The proportion of flowering trees was higher, and not dependent on size, in GF2002 (84.2%), than in GF2001 (54.5%), when flowering mainly occurred in trees with a dbh investment during the two consecutive reproductive events clearly differed between medium-sized and large trees; the former concentrated their reproductive investment in one of the reproductive events whereas the latter allocated their investment more evenly to both reproductive events. Our results suggest size-related differences in the resource allocation pattern for reproduction.

  8. Low-tube-voltage selection for triple-rule-out CTA: relation to patient size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takx, Richard A.P. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Krissak, Radko [Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Hufeland Klinikum GmbH, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Bad Langensalza (Germany); Fink, Christian [Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); General Hospital Celle, Department of Radiology, Celle (Germany); Bachmann, Valentin; Henzler, Thomas; Meyer, Mathias; Schoenberg, Stefan O. [Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Nance, John W. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Apfaltrer, Paul [Medical Faculty Mannheim - Heidelberg University, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-06-15

    To investigate the relationship between image quality and patient size at 100 kilovoltage (kV) compared to 120 kV ECG-gated Triple-Rule-Out CT angiography (TRO-CTA). We retrospectively included 73 patients (age 64 ± 14 years) who underwent retrospective ECG-gated chest CTA. 40 patients were scanned with 100 kV while 33 patients with 120 kV. Body mass index (BMI), patients' chest circumference (PC) and thoracic surface area (TSA) were recorded. Quantitative image quality was assessed as vascular attenuation in the ascending aorta (AA), pulmonary trunk (PA) and left coronary artery (LCA) and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the AA. There was no significant difference in BMI (26.0 ± 4.6 vs. 28.0 ± 6.7 kg/m{sup 2}), PC (103 ± 7 vs. 104 ± 10 cm{sup 2}) and TSA (92 ± 15 vs. 91 ± 19 cm{sup 2}) between 100 kV and 120 kV group. Mean vascular attenuation was significantly higher in the 100 kV compared to the 120 kV group (AA 438 vs. 354 HU, PA 460 vs. 349 HU, LCA 370 vs. 299 HU all p < 0.001). SNR was not significantly different, even after adjusting for patient size. Radiation dose was significantly lower in the 100 kV group (10.7 ± 4.1 vs. 20.7 ± 10.7 mSv; p < 0.001). 100 kV TRO-CTA is feasible in normal-to-overweight patients while maintaining image quality and achieving substantial dose reduction. (orig.)

  9. Relation of size of seminal vesicles on ultrasound to premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Wei Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Myriad biological factors have been proposed to explain premature ejaculation (PE. However, data correlating PE with seminal vesicles (SVs are sparse. The study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the size of SV and PE. The cross-sectional study included 44 outpatients with PE and 44 volunteers without PE, and the size of SV was compared. Self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT, the International Index of Erectile Function-15, and the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index were used for assessment of symptoms. Compared to the control group, the PE group had significantly higher mean anterior-posterior diameter (APD of SV (P < 0.001. The optimal mean APD of SV cutoff level was 9.25 mm for PE. In the PE group, PEDT was also higher with a mean APD of SV ≥9.25 mm compared with mean APD of SV <9.25 mm. PEDT was significantly correlated with the mean APD of SV (r = 0.326, P = 0.031. The seminal plasma proteins were compared between six PE and six matched control cases by mass spectrometry and it was shown that 102 proteins were at least 1.5-fold up- or down-regulated. Among them, GGT1, LAMC1, and APP were significantly higher in the PE group. These results indicated that men with a larger mean APD of SV might have a higher PEDT score. Transrectal ultrasound of SV should be considered in the evaluation of patients with premature ejaculation. SV might be a potential target for the treatment of patients with PE and ultrasound change in SV.

  10. Analysis of work ability and work-related physical activity of employees in a medium-sized business

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, Christiane; Ashton, Philip; Elis, Tobias; Biallas, Bianca; Frob?se, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Background Work-related physical activity (PA) and work ability are of growing importance in modern working society. There is evidence for age- and job-related differences regarding PA and work ability. This study analyses work ability and work-related PA of employees in a medium-sized business regarding age and occupation. Methods The total sample consists of 148 employees (116 men?78.38?% of the sample?and 32 women, accounting for 21.62?%; mean age: 40.85???10.07?years). 100 subjects (67.57...

  11. Access site-related complications after transradial catheterization can be reduced with smaller sheath size and statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tsuyoshi; Fujimoto, Kazuteru; Miyao, Yuji; Koga, Hidenobu; Hirata, Yoshihiro

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for access site-related complications after transradial coronary angiography (CAG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Transradial PCI has been shown to reduce access site-related bleeding complications compared with procedures performed through a femoral approach. Although previous studies focused on risk factors for access site-related complications after a transfemoral approach or transfemoral and transradial approaches, it is uncertain which factors affect vascular complications after transradial catheterization. We enrolled 500 consecutive patients who underwent transradial CAG or PCI. We determined the incidence and risk factors for access site-related complications such as radial artery occlusion and bleeding complications. Age, sheath size, the dose of heparin and the frequency of PCI (vs. CAG) were significantly greater in patients with than without bleeding complications. However, body mass index (BMI) was significantly lower in patients with than without bleeding complications. Sheath size was significantly higher and the frequency of statin use was significantly lower in patients with than without radial artery occlusion. Multiple logistic analysis revealed that sheath size [odds ratio (OR) 5.5; P strategy that could prevent radial artery occlusion after transradial procedures.

  12. THE SIZE-STAR FORMATION RELATION OF MASSIVE GALAXIES AT 1.5 < z < 2.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, S.; Franx, M.; Van Dokkum, P.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Labbe, I.; Wuyts, S.; Marchesini, D.

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation between size and star formation activity in a complete sample of 225 massive (M * > 5 x 10 10 M sun ) galaxies at 1.5 PSF ∼ 0.''45) ground-based ISAAC data, we confirm and improve the significance of the relation between star formation activity and compactness found in previous studies, using a large, complete mass-limited sample. At z ∼ 2, massive quiescent galaxies are significantly smaller than massive star-forming galaxies, and a median factor of 0.34 ± 0.02 smaller than galaxies of similar mass in the local universe. Thirteen percent of the quiescent galaxies are unresolved in the ISAAC data, corresponding to sizes <1 kpc, more than five times smaller than galaxies of similar mass locally. The quiescent galaxies span a Kormendy relation which, compared to the relation for local early types, is shifted to smaller sizes and brighter surface brightnesses and is incompatible with passive evolution. The progenitors of the quiescent galaxies were likely dominated by highly concentrated, intense nuclear starbursts at z ∼ 3-4, in contrast to star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 2 which are extended and dominated by distributed star formation.

  13. Spatial distribution of bird communities in small forest fragments in central Europe in relation to distance to the forest edge, fragment size and type of forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmeister, Jeňýk; Hošek, J.; Brabec, Marek; Kočvara, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 401, OCT (2017), s. 255-263 ISSN 0378-1127 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : Clearing * Dryocopus martius * Forest bird * Forest management * Generalized additive model * Habitat fragmentation Subject RIV: GK - Forestry; BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research (UIVT-O) OBOR OECD: Forestry; Statistics and probability (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2016

  14. Flocculation of Clay Colloids Induced by Model Polyelectrolytes: Effects of Relative Charge Density and Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhawoth, Yasine; Michot, Laurent J; Levitz, Pierre; Malikova, Natalie

    2017-10-06

    Flocculation and its tuning are of utmost importance in the optimization of several industrial protocols in areas such as purification of waste water and civil engineering. Herein, we studied the polyelectrolyte-induced flocculation of clay colloids on a model system consisting of purified clay colloids of well-defined size fractions and ionene polyelectrolytes presenting regular and tunable chain charge density. To characterize ionene-induced clay flocculation, we turned to the combination of light absorbance (turbidity) and ζ-potential measurements, as well as adsorption isotherms. Our model system allowed us to identify the exact ratio of positive and negative charges in clay-ionene mixtures, the (c+/c-) ratio. For all samples studied, the onset of efficient flocculation occurred consistently at c+/c- ratios significantly below 1, which indicated the formation of highly ionene-deficient aggregates. At the same time, the ζ-potential measurements indicated an apparent zero charge on such aggregates. Thus, the ζ-potential values could not provide the stoichiometry inside the clay-ionene aggregates. The early onset of flocculation in clay-ionene mixtures is reminiscent of the behavior of multivalent salts and contrasts that of monovalent salts, for which a large excess amount of ions is necessary to achieve flocculation. Clear differences in the flocculation behavior are visible as a function of the ionene charge density, which governs the conformation of the ionene chains on the clay surface. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Particle size distribution of wheat starch granules in relation to baking properties of frozen dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Han; Wang, Pei; Wu, Fengfeng; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-02-10

    The impact of freezing on the wheat starches with different particle size was studied using a range of characterization methods including X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, the Rapid Visco Analyser and a reconstitution dough system. Wheat starches were fractionated into A- and B-type granules, and then subjected to freezing/thawing treatment for 3 cycles. The freezing treatment did not cause apparent damage on A-type granular surface but induced cracked structure on B-type granules. It facilitated materials such as amylose, proteins, and lipids leaching from starch granule and an increase in gelatinization temperatures, melting enthalpy, and pasting viscosities. A smaller bread specific volume was obtained from freezing-treated B-granules while the crumb firmness significantly increased (p>0.05). No marked differences were observed in the counterparts of A-granules after freezing treatment. It seemed that the B-type granules were more sensitive to the freezing/thawing treatment, thus facilitating structural transformations from dough to bread. Results indicated that the deterioration in frozen bread quality derived from starch could be minimized by increasing the A-granules content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Size effects on rhodium nanoparticles related to hydrogen-storage capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chulho; Yang, Anli; Sakata, Osami; Kumara, L S R; Hiroi, Satoshi; Cui, Yi-Tao; Kusada, Kohei; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2018-06-06

    To unveil the origin of the hydrogen-storage properties of rhodium nanoparticles (Rh NPs), we investigated the electronic and crystal structures of the Rh NPs using various synchrotron based X-ray techniques. Electronic structure studies revealed that the hydrogen-storage capability of Rh NPs could be attributed to their more unoccupied d-DOSs than that of the bulk near the Fermi level. Crystal structure studies indicated that lattice distortion and mean-square displacement increase while coordination number decreases with decreasing particle size and the hydrogen-absorption capability of Rh NPs improves to a greater extent with increased structural disorder in the local structure than with that in the mean structure. The smallest Rh NPs, having the largest structural disorder/increased vacancy spaces and the smallest coordination number, exhibited excellent hydrogen-storage capacity. Finally, from the bond-orientational order analysis, we confirmed that the localized disordering is distributed more over the surface part than the core part and hydrogen can be trapped on the surface part of Rh NPs which increases with a decrease in NP diameter.

  17. Relative estimates of TCA cycle pool size from 14CO2 production profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, J.K.; Cesta, M.L.; Holleran, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    In metabolic and isotopic steady state, the rate of 14 CO 2 production by TCA cycle intermediates labeled at different positions is linear. However, before the system reaches isotopic steady state, the rate of 14 CO 2 production is non-linear. The x-intercept extrapolated from the linear phase indicates the turnover rate of all metabolic pools the tracer must pass through. By exposing identical systems to 14 C succinate labeled in different positions, the contribution of TCA cycle pools to the non-linear phase may be considered. Specifically, the extrapolated x-intercept for [2,3 14 C] succinate will be greater than the x-intercept for [1,4 14 C] succinate if the TCA cycle pools are a contributing factor to the non-linear phase. The authors have used this method to analyze pyruvate oxidation in AS 30D hepatoma cells. They found that the extrapolated x-intercepts for the two tracers were identical. This indicates that the non-linear phase resulted from equilibration of the tracer with pools prior to entering the TCA cycle, i.e. lactate. Using this technique, it may be possible to estimate the variations in TCA cycle pool sizes in vivo

  18. Age-related effects of body mass on fertility and litter size in roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajšman, Katarina; Jerina, Klemen; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2017-01-01

    We analysed effects of females' body mass and age on reproductive capacity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in a large sample set of 1312 females (305 yearlings and 1007 adults), hunted throughout Slovenia, central Europe, in the period 2013-2015. Body mass positively affected probability of ovulation and potential litter size (number of corpora lutea), although its effect was more pronounced in yearlings than in adults. Between age groups, we found clear differences in responses of both reproductive parameters to body mass which influences primarily reproductive performance of younger, and in particular, lighter individuals: at the same body mass yearlings would at average have smaller litters than adults, and at lower body mass also young to middle-aged adults would have smaller litters than old ones. In addition, while yearlings have to reach a critical threshold body mass to attain reproductive maturity, adult females are fertile (produce ova) even at low body mass. However, at higher body mass also younger individuals shift their efforts into the reproduction, and after reaching an age-specific threshold the body mass does not have any further effects on the reproductive output of roe deer females. Increased reproductive capacity at more advanced age, combined with declining body mass suggests that old does allocate more of their resources in reproduction than in body condition.

  19. Age-related effects of body mass on fertility and litter size in roe deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Flajšman

    Full Text Available We analysed effects of females' body mass and age on reproductive capacity of European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus in a large sample set of 1312 females (305 yearlings and 1007 adults, hunted throughout Slovenia, central Europe, in the period 2013-2015. Body mass positively affected probability of ovulation and potential litter size (number of corpora lutea, although its effect was more pronounced in yearlings than in adults. Between age groups, we found clear differences in responses of both reproductive parameters to body mass which influences primarily reproductive performance of younger, and in particular, lighter individuals: at the same body mass yearlings would at average have smaller litters than adults, and at lower body mass also young to middle-aged adults would have smaller litters than old ones. In addition, while yearlings have to reach a critical threshold body mass to attain reproductive maturity, adult females are fertile (produce ova even at low body mass. However, at higher body mass also younger individuals shift their efforts into the reproduction, and after reaching an age-specific threshold the body mass does not have any further effects on the reproductive output of roe deer females. Increased reproductive capacity at more advanced age, combined with declining body mass suggests that old does allocate more of their resources in reproduction than in body condition.

  20. The Effect of Colour and Size on Attentional Bias to Alcohol-Related Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil R.; McCann, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Attentional bias plays an important role in the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction, and has often been measured with a visual probe task, where reaction times are compared for probes replacing either a substance-related cue or a neutral cue. Systematic low-level differences between image classes are a potential cause of low internal…

  1. Cluster size influence on the survivability of Rhipicephalus Boophilus microplus larvae under low relative humidity stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low relative humidity (RH) levels (=63%) have been previously shown to be a determining factor in the survival of southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, larvae, regardless of temperature. Supporting this observation, large larval clusters can retain more water than isolated larvae. Th...

  2. Young Children's Judgments About the Relative Size of Shared Portions: The Role of Material Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Rachel E.; Beal, Carole R.

    2004-01-01

    3 experiments were conducted to assess young (5-7 years) children's ability to judge the relative amount that a character would receive if sharing a material with 1 friend (halves) or 2 friends (thirds). Materials included items that appeared in 3 forms: continuous, discrete, and composite. In the first 2 experiments, performance was best with…

  3. Addressing Size Stereotypes: A Weight Bias and Weight-Related Teasing Intervention among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyairi, Maya; Reel, Justine J.; Próspero, Moisés; Okang, Esther N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a weight-related teasing prevention program implemented for both female and male students in a school setting. Methods: Junior High School students (N = 143) in seventh grade were invited to participate in the program. One hundred eighteen participants completed pre- and posttest surveys to assess…

  4. Investigations of the Local supercluster velocity field. II. A study using Tolman-Bondi solution and galaxies with accurate distances from the Cepheid PL-relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekholm, T.; Lanoix, P.; Teerikorpi, P.; Paturel, G.; Fouqué, P.

    1999-11-01

    A sample of 32 galaxies with accurate distance moduli from the Cepheid PL-relation (Lanoix \\cite{Lanoix99}) has been used to study the dynamical behaviour of the Local (Virgo) supercluster. We used analytical Tolman-Bondi (TB) solutions for a spherically symmetric density excess embedded in the Einstein-deSitter universe (q_0=0.5). Using 12 galaxies within Theta =30degr from the centre we found a mass estimate of 1.62M_virial for the Virgo cluster. This agrees with the finding of Teerikorpi et al. (\\cite{Teerikorpi92}) that TB-estimate may be larger than virial mass estimate from Tully & Shaya (\\cite{Tully84}). Our conclusions do not critically depend on our primary choice of the global H_0=57 km s-1 Mpc{-1} established from SNe Ia (Lanoix \\cite{Lanoix99}). The remaining galaxies outside Virgo region do not disagree with this value. Finally, we also found a TB-solution with the H_0 and q_0 cited yielding exactly one virial mass for the Virgo cluster.

  5. Analytic processing of distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopkins, Stephen; Galyer, Darin

    2018-01-01

    How does a human observer extract from the distance between two frontal points the component corresponding to an axis of a rectangular reference frame? To find out we had participants classify pairs of small circles, varying on the horizontal and vertical axes of a computer screen, in terms of the horizontal distance between them. A response signal controlled response time. The error rate depended on the irrelevant vertical as well as the relevant horizontal distance between the test circles with the relevant distance effect being larger than the irrelevant distance effect. The results implied that the horizontal distance between the test circles was imperfectly extracted from the overall distance between them. The results supported an account, derived from the Exemplar Based Random Walk model (Nosofsky & Palmieri, 1997), under which distance classification is based on the overall distance between the test circles, with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that the relevant and irrelevant axes are differentially weighted so as to reduce the contribution of irrelevant distance to overall distance. The results did not support an account, derived from the General Recognition Theory (Ashby & Maddox, 1994), under which distance classification is based on the relevant distance between the test circles, with the irrelevant distance effect arising because a test circle's perceived location on the relevant axis depends on its location on the irrelevant axis, and with relevant distance being extracted from overall distance to the extent that this dependency is absent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Differences in Flower Transcriptome between Grapevine Clones Are Related to Their Cluster Compactness, Fruitfulness, and Berry Size

    OpenAIRE

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Tello, Javier; Laguna Ullán, Natalia; Ibáñez Marcos, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine cluster compactness has a clear impact on fruit quality and health status, as clusters with greater compactness are more susceptible to pests and diseases and ripen more asynchronously. Different parameters related to inflorescence and cluster architecture (length, width, branching, etc.), fruitfulness (number of berries, number of seeds) and berry size (length, width) contribute to the final level of compactness. From a collection of 501 clones of cultivar Garnacha Tinta, two compa...

  7. Risk Factors for Motorcycle-related Severe Injuries in a Medium-sized City in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lili; Zhu, Yao; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Background Motorcycle vehicles are frequent in China, especially in the small and medium sized cities. Road traffic collisions involving motorcycles often result in severe injuries. We aimed to identify risk factors for severe injuries in inpatients sustaining motorcycle collisions. Methods Patients with road traffic injuries involving motorcycles who presented to the neurosurgery and orthopedic departments of three major comprehensive hospitals in Shantou city were reviewed from October 2012 to June 2013. Data from 349 patients was investigated. Crash and injury characteristics were documented by interviewing patients, their family members, and their doctors. Binary logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for severe injuries. Results There were 253 males (72.49%) and 96 females (27.51%), with a male to female ratio of 2.64:1. The mean age was 38.21±17.32 years. One-hundred and fifty patients were in the severe injury group with a mean injury severity score (ISS) of 15.34±9.13. The simple and multiple logistic model showed that males, lack of safeguards, morning and night hours, non-urban areas, collision of a motorcycle with a cycle, ambulance transportation to hospital, admission to a neurosurgery department, lack of traffic control, unobstructed traffic, and poor visibility were all the risk factors. Conclusions This research highlights some problems: less helmet wearing in motorcyclists and cyclists, rural injuries being more serious than urban ones, and head injuries being the main diagnosis in severe injuries. The result of this research is predictable. If the safety equipment is required to be used, such as helmets, and the traffic environment is improved, such as traffic flow, medical resources to injuries and deaths is seasonable, then traffic safety will be improved and accidents will be reduced. PMID:29546203

  8. Testing for Gender Related Size and Shape Differences of the Human Ear canal using Statistical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2002-01-01

    surface models are built by using the anatomical landmarks to warp a template mesh onto all shapes in the training set. Testing the gender related differences is done by initially reducing the dimensionality using principal component analysis of the vertices of the warped meshes. The number of components...... to retain is chosen using Horn's parallel analysis. Finally a multivariate analysis of variance is performed on these components....

  9. Input related microbial carbon dynamic of soil organic matter in particle size fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, A.; Kandeler, E.; Gleixner, G.

    2012-04-01

    This paper investigated the flow of carbon into different groups of soil microorganisms isolated from different particle size fractions. Two agricultural sites of contrasting organic matter input were compared. Both soils had been submitted to vegetation change from C3 (Rye/Wheat) to C4 (Maize) plants, 25 and 45 years ago. Soil carbon was separated into one fast-degrading particulate organic matter fraction (POM) and one slow-degrading organo-mineral fraction (OMF). The structure of the soil microbial community were investigated using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), and turnover of single PLFAs was calculated from the changes in their 13C content. Soil enzyme activities involved in the degradation of carbohydrates was determined using fluorogenic MUF (methyl-umbelliferryl phosphate) substrates. We found that fresh organic matter input drives soil organic matter dynamic. Higher annual input of fresh organic matter resulted in a higher amount of fungal biomass in the POM-fraction and shorter mean residence times. Fungal activity therefore seems essential for the decomposition and incorporation of organic matter input into the soil. As a consequence, limited litter input changed especially the fungal community favouring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Altogether, supply and availability of fresh plant carbon changed the distribution of microbial biomass, the microbial community structure and enzyme activities and resulted in different priming of soil organic matter. Most interestingly we found that only at low input the OMF fraction had significantly higher calculated MRT for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria suggesting high recycling of soil carbon or the use of other carbon sources. But on average all microbial groups had nearly similar carbon uptake rates in all fractions and both soils, which contrasted the turnover times of bulk carbon. Hereby the microbial carbon turnover was always faster than the soil organic carbon turnover and higher carbon input

  10. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2016-01-01

    This 4th edition of the leading reference volume on distance metrics is characterized by updated and rewritten sections on some items suggested by experts and readers, as well a general streamlining of content and the addition of essential new topics. Though the structure remains unchanged, the new edition also explores recent advances in the use of distances and metrics for e.g. generalized distances, probability theory, graph theory, coding theory, data analysis. New topics in the purely mathematical sections include e.g. the Vitanyi multiset-metric, algebraic point-conic distance, triangular ratio metric, Rossi-Hamming metric, Taneja distance, spectral semimetric between graphs, channel metrization, and Maryland bridge distance. The multidisciplinary sections have also been supplemented with new topics, including: dynamic time wrapping distance, memory distance, allometry, atmospheric depth, elliptic orbit distance, VLBI distance measurements, the astronomical system of units, and walkability distance. Lea...

  11. New Maximal Two-distance Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisonek, Petr

    1996-01-01

    A two-distance set in E^d is a point set X inthe d-dimensional Euclidean spacesuch that the distances between distinct points in Xassume only two different non-zero values. Based on results from classical distance geometry, we developan algorithm to classify, for a given dimension, all maximal...... (largest possible)two-distance sets in E^d.Using this algorithm we have completed the full classificationfor all dimensions less than or equal to 7, andwe have found one set in E^8 whosemaximality follows from Blokhuis' upper bound on sizes of s-distance sets.While in the dimensions less than or equal to 6...

  12. The penetration depth and lateral distribution of pigment related to the pigment grain size and the calendering of paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, K.; Kristiansson, P.; Schueler, B.; Tullander, E.; Oestling, S.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.; Shariff, A.

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of ink and newspaper has been investigated and the specific question of penetration of ink into the paper has been addressed with a nuclear microprobe using particle induced X-ray emission. The penetration depth of the newsprint is a critical factor in terms of increasing the quality of newsprint and minimising the amount of ink used. The objective of the experiment was to relate the penetration depth of pigment with the calendering of the paper. The dependence of the penetration depth on the pigment grain size was also studied. To study the penetration depth of pigment in paper, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer of the coloured pigment was used. For the study of the penetration depth dependence of pigment size, specially grounded Japanese ink with well-defined pigment grain size was used. This was compared to Swedish ink with pigment grains with normal size-distribution. The results show that the calendering of the paper considerably affects the penetration depth of ink

  13. Survival of radio-implanted drymarchon couperi (Eastern Indigo Snake) in relation to body size and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, N.L.; Meyers, J.M.; Cooper, R.J.; Norton, Terry M.

    2009-01-01

    Drymarchon couperi (eastern indigo snake) has experienced population declines across its range primarily as a result of extensive habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation. Conservation efforts for D. couperi have been hindered, in part, because of informational gaps regarding the species, including a lack of data on population ecology and estimates of demographic parameters such as survival. We conducted a 2- year radiotelemetry study of D. couperi on Fort Stewart Military Reservation and adjacent private lands located in southeastern Georgia to assess individual characteristics associated with probability of survival. We used known-fate modeling to estimate survival, and an information-theoretic approach, based on a priori hypotheses, to examine intraspecific differences in survival probabilities relative to individual covariates (sex, size, size standardized by sex, and overwintering location). Annual survival in 2003 and 2004 was 0.89 (95% CI = 0.73-0.97, n = 25) and 0.72 (95% CI = 0.52-0.86; n = 27), respectively. Results indicated that body size, standardized by sex, was the most important covariate determining survival of adult D. couperi, suggesting lower survival for larger individuals within each sex. We are uncertain of the mechanisms underlying this result, but possibilities may include greater resource needs for larger individuals within each sex, necessitating larger or more frequent movements, or a population with older individuals. Our results may also have been influenced by analysis limitations because of sample size, other sources of individual variation, or environmental conditions. ?? 2009 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.

  14. Impact of fiber source and feed particle size on swine manure properties related to spontaneous foam formation during anaerobic decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weelden, M B; Andersen, D S; Kerr, B J; Trabue, S L; Pepple, L M

    2016-02-01

    Foam accumulation in deep-pit manure storage facilities is of concern for swine producers because of the logistical and safety-related problems it creates. A feeding trial was performed to evaluate the impact of feed grind size, fiber source, and manure inoculation on foaming characteristics. Animals were fed: (1) C-SBM (corn-soybean meal): (2) C-DDGS (corn-dried distiller grains with solubles); and (3) C-Soybean Hull (corn-soybean meal with soybean hulls) with each diet ground to either fine (374 μm) or coarse (631 μm) particle size. Two sets of 24 pigs were fed and their manure collected. Factors that decreased feed digestibility (larger grind size and increased fiber content) resulted in increased solids loading to the manure, greater foaming characteristics, more particles in the critical particle size range (2-25 μm), and a greater biological activity/potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation-related small head sizes among prenatally exposed atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaki, Masanori; Schull, William J.

    2004-01-01

    severely mentally retarded cases with small heads and 68.9 and 11.9 for the severely mentally retarded cases without small heads. These values are 96.4 and 19.8 for cases with small heads only. The mean IQ and standard deviation for the overall sample are 107.8 and 16.4, respectively. No significant difference exists between the first two IQ means identified above, but both are significantly less than the mean for individuals with small heads but without severe mental retardation. The mean IQ of individuals with small heads but without severe mental retardation does not differ significantly from the mean for the entire sample. The relationship of small head size to four other anthropometric measurements (standing height, body weight, sitting height, and chest circumference) is described. (author)

  16. Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Location, location, and location. The old real-estate adage about what's really important proved applicable to astrophysics as astronomers used the sharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to pinpoint the distance to a pulsar. Their accurate distance measurement then resolved a dispute over the pulsar's birthplace, allowed the astronomers to determine the size of its neutron star and possibly solve a mystery about cosmic rays. "Getting an accurate distance to this pulsar gave us a real bonanza," said Walter Brisken, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Monogem Ring The Monogem Ring, in X-Ray Image by ROSAT satellite CREDIT: Max-Planck Institute, American Astronomical Society (Click on Image for Larger Version) The pulsar, called PSR B0656+14, is in the constellation Gemini, and appears to be near the center of a circular supernova remnant that straddles Gemini and its neighboring constellation, Monoceros, and is thus called the Monogem Ring. Since pulsars are superdense, spinning neutron stars left over when a massive star explodes as a supernova, it was logical to assume that the Monogem Ring, the shell of debris from a supernova explosion, was the remnant of the blast that created the pulsar. However, astronomers using indirect methods of determining the distance to the pulsar had concluded that it was nearly 2500 light-years from Earth. On the other hand, the supernova remnant was determined to be only about 1000 light-years from Earth. It seemed unlikely that the two were related, but instead appeared nearby in the sky purely by a chance juxtaposition. Brisken and his colleagues used the VLBA to make precise measurements of the sky position of PSR B0656+14 from 2000 to 2002. They were able to detect the slight offset in the object's apparent position when viewed from opposite sides of Earth's orbit around the Sun. This effect, called parallax, provides a direct measurement of

  17. Relation between size-distribution of Si nanoparticles and oscillation-stabilization time of the mixed region produced during laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yinglong; Li Yanli; Fu Guangsheng

    2006-01-01

    Assuming Si particles and ambient atoms are elastic hard-spheres, the transportation in ambient gas of Si particles obtained by single-pulsed laser ablation is numerically simulated via Monte Carlo method to investigate the influence of the ambient species and the target-to-substrate distance on the oscillation-stabilization time (OST) of the mixed region. It is found that the ambient gas whose atomic weight is close to that of Si atom can induce the shortest OST; with increasing of the target-to-substrate distance, the OST at first decreases to its minimum, and then begins to increase. Incorporating with some experimental results on size-consistency of Si nanoparticles in pulsed laser ablation, it may be concluded that the shorter the OST of the mixed region, the more uniform the as-formed Si nanoparticles in size

  18. THE DISTANCE TO M51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Berg, Danielle [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert, E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-20

    Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties.

  19. The Distance to M51

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen. B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Berg, Danielle; Kennicutt, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Great investments of observing time have been dedicated to the study of nearby spiral galaxies with diverse goals ranging from understanding the star formation process to characterizing their dark matter distributions. Accurate distances are fundamental to interpreting observations of these galaxies, yet many of the best studied nearby galaxies have distances based on methods with relatively large uncertainties. We have started a program to derive accurate distances to these galaxies. Here we measure the distance to M51—the Whirlpool galaxy—from newly obtained Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging using the tip of the red giant branch method. We measure the distance modulus to be 8.58 ± 0.10 Mpc (statistical), corresponding to a distance modulus of 29.67 ± 0.02 mag. Our distance is an improvement over previous results as we use a well-calibrated, stable distance indicator, precision photometry in a optimally selected field of view, and a Bayesian Maximum Likelihood technique that reduces measurement uncertainties. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  20. Relation between the size of fog droplets and their contact angles with CR39 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosu, G; Andrzejewski, L; Veilleux, G; Ross, G G

    2004-01-01

    The formation of fog on CR39 surfaces has been studied. Water droplets form fog coalesce with time, especially during the first 20 s at the beginning of the formation of fog. Consequently, their mean diameter increases. Formation of fog being related to the wettability of the surfaces, the latter has been increased by the implantation of Ar ions into CR39 surfaces under an oxygen partial pressure. A very wetting CR39 surface with advancing (ACA) and receding (RCA) contact angles below 5 deg. has been obtained with an implantation dose of 1.28x10 17 Ar + cm -2 . In this condition, no formation of fog was observed. Characterization using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has shown that the molecular structure of CR39 is strongly modified by Ar + implantation, which would be responsible for the increase in wettability. Unfortunately, both ACA and RCA increase with time, which is called ageing, and the formation of fog is again observed. The diameter and concentration of water droplets forming fog have been plotted against the contact angle. These plots show that no formation of fog occurs for ACA 15 He + cm -2 and an energy of 2 keV, sufficient to push the ions deeper than the Ar depth profile, delays the ageing effect in such a way that ACA ≅ 40 deg. is reached after ∼2000 h and no formation of fog is observed during these first ∼2000 h

  1. Finite element analysis of the three different posterior malleolus fixation strategies in relation to different fracture sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Adeel; Lv, Decheng; Zhao, Zhi; Zhang, Zhen; Lu, Ming; Nazir, Muhammad Umar; Qasim, Wasim

    2017-04-01

    Appropriate fixation method for the posterior malleolar fractures (PMF) according to the fracture size is still not clear. Aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of the different fixation methods used for fixation of PMF by finite element analysis (FEA) and to compare the effect of fixation constructs on the size of the fracture computationally. Three dimensional model of the tibia was reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) images. PMF of 30%, 40% and 50% fragment sizes were simulated through computational processing. Two antero-posterior (AP) lag screws, two postero-anterior (PA) lag screws and posterior buttress plate were analysed for three different fracture volumes. The simulated loads of 350N and 700N were applied to the proximal tibial end. Models were fixed distally in all degrees of freedom. In single limb standing condition, the posterior plate group produced the lowest relative displacement (RD) among all the groups (0.01, 0.03 and 0.06mm). Further nodal analysis of the highest RD fracture group showed a higher mean displacement of 4.77mm and 4.23mm in AP and PA lag screws model (p=0.000). The amounts of stress subjected to these implants, 134.36MPa and 140.75MPa were also significantly lower (p=0.000). There was a negative correlation (p=0.021) between implant stress and the displacement which signifies a less stable fixation using AP and PA lag screws. Progressively increasing fracture size demands more stable fixation construct because RD increases significantly. Posterior buttress plate produces superior stability and lowest RD in PMF models irrespective of the fragment size. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Edge Artifacts in Point Spread Function-based PET Reconstruction in Relation to Object Size and Reconstruction Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Tsutsui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: We evaluated edge artifacts in relation to phantom diameter and reconstruction parameters in point spread function (PSF-based positron emission tomography (PET image reconstruction.Methods: PET data were acquired from an original cone-shaped phantom filled with 18F solution (21.9 kBq/mL for 10 min using a Biograph mCT scanner. The images were reconstructed using the baseline ordered subsets expectation maximization (OSEM algorithm and the OSEM with PSF correction model. The reconstruction parameters included a pixel size of 1.0, 2.0, or 3.0 mm, 1-12 iterations, 24 subsets, and a full width at half maximum (FWHM of the post-filter Gaussian filter of 1.0, 2.0, or 3.0 mm. We compared both the maximum recovery coefficient (RCmax and the mean recovery coefficient (RCmean in the phantom at different diameters.Results: The OSEM images had no edge artifacts, but the OSEM with PSF images had a dense edge delineating the hot phantom at diameters 10 mm or more and a dense spot at the center at diameters of 8 mm or less. The dense edge was clearly observed on images with a small pixel size, a Gaussian filter with a small FWHM, and a high number of iterations. At a phantom diameter of 6-7 mm, the RCmax for the OSEM and OSEM with PSF images was 60% and 140%, respectively (pixel size: 1.0 mm; FWHM of the Gaussian filter: 2.0 mm; iterations: 2. The RCmean of the OSEM with PSF images did not exceed 100%.Conclusion: PSF-based image reconstruction resulted in edge artifacts, the degree of which depends on the pixel size, number of iterations, FWHM of the Gaussian filter, and object size.

  3. The genetics of overwintering performance in two-year old common carp and its relation to performance until market size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prchal, Martin; Kause, Antti; Vandeputte, Marc; Gela, David; Allamellou, Jean-Michel; Kumar, Girish; Bestin, Anastasia; Bugeon, Jérôme; Zhao, Jinfeng; Kocour, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Using farmed common carp, we investigated the genetic background of the second year overwintering performance and its relation to the performance during the third growing season and at market size. The experimental stock was established by partial factorial design with a series of 4 factorial matings of 5 dams and 10 sires each. The families were reared communally and pedigree was re-constructed with 93.6% success using 12 microsatellites on 2008 offspring. Three successive recordings (second autumn, third spring, and third autumn-market size) covering two periods (second overwintering, third growing season) were included. Body weight, Fulton's condition factor and percent muscle fat content were recorded at all times and headless carcass yield and fillet yield were recorded at market size. Specific growth rate, absolute and relative fat change and overall survival were calculated for each period. Heritability estimates were significantly different from zero and almost all traits were moderately to highly heritable (h2 = 0.36-1.00), except survival in both periods and fat change (both patterns) during overwintering (h2 = 0.12-0.15). Genetic and phenotypic correlations imply that selection against weight loss and fat loss during overwintering is expected to lead to a better winter survival, together with a positive effect on growth in the third growing season. Interestingly, higher muscle fat content was genetically correlated to lower survival in the following period (rg = -0.59; -0.53, respectively for winter and the third summer). On the other hand, higher muscle fat was also genetically linked to better slaughter yields. Moreover, selection for higher condition factor would lead to better performance during winter, growing season and at market size.

  4. Training for Distance Teaching through Distance Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorath, Jill; Harris, Simon; Encinas, Fatima

    2002-01-01

    Describes a mixed-mode bachelor degree course in English language teaching at the Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico) that was designed to help practicing teachers write appropriate distance education materials by giving them the experience of being distance students. Includes a course outline and results of a course evaluation. (Author/LRW)

  5. The Distance Standard Deviation

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...

  6. Prenatal and postnatal maternal contributions to reproductive, maternal, and size-related traits of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Maurer, R R

    1991-03-01

    Brown Swiss-Hereford (BS-H) reciprocal cross embryos were transferred to BS and H recipient cows and Red Poll-Angus (RP-A) reciprocal cross embryos were transferred to RP and A recipient cows to estimate the relative contributions of ovum cytoplasm and uterine influences to prenatal maternal effects. Calves resulting from embryo transfers (ET) were weaned early (3 to 5 d). Reciprocal cross mating also were made by natural service (NS) between BS and H and between RP and A breeds; part of the offspring were weaned at 3 to 5 d, and the remainder nursed their dams to an age of 150 to 180 d. This was done to estimate breed differences in prenatal and postnatal effects combined and to separate the effects of prenatal maternal influences from postnatal maternal influences of these breeds. Females produced in both ET and NS parts of the experiment were retained to produce three calf crops to an age of about 4.5 yr. The following traits were analyzed: percentage of conception rate; percentage of calf survival; percentage of calves produced per cow exposed; birth and weaning weights of calves produced; and periodic weights, heights, and condition scores of females to an age of 4.5 yr. Neither breed of donor (cytoplasmic influence) nor breed of recipient (uterine influence) had consistently important effects on the traits evaluated. In NS matings, differences between reciprocal crosses were small for most of the traits evaluated. Method of rearing (nursed vs weaned at 3 to 5 d) had no effect on reproductive and maternal traits for RP-A reciprocal cross females, but females that nursed generally were heavier, were taller, and had higher condition scores at most ages than early-weaned females. For the BS-H reciprocal cross, early-weaned females were favored over females reared by their dams in percentage of calves produced per cow exposed, but the method of rearing did not affect other reproductive or maternal traits. BS-H reciprocal cross females that nursed their dams were

  7. Development of Dietary Patterns Spanning Infancy and Toddlerhood: Relation to Body Size, Composition and Metabolic Risk Markers at Three Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B. B.; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the development of dietary patterns during toddlerhood and the relation to growth and health. The study objective was to characterise the development of dietary patterns from 9-36 mo of age and investigate the association to body size, body composition and metabolic risk...... total cholesterol and LDL. Hence, this could represent undesirable development of dietary patterns in toddlers. In conclusion, development of dietary patterns can be exploratory characterised by PCA and related to potential cardiovascular risk markers in toddlers even within a relatively homogeneous...... markers at 36 mo. Food records were filled out at 9, 18 and 36 mo of age (n = 229). Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis (PCA). Three dietary patterns were identified: Transition Food, Healthy Food and Traditional Food. The course of development in dietary patterns from 9-36 mo...

  8. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species' ecological niches distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Florian; Jouany, Claire; Cruz, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e., ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits, and whole plant traits) in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species' ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems) are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems) are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance. PMID:25741353

  9. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species’ ecological niches distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eFort

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e. ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits and whole plant traits in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species’ ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance.

  10. Risk of breast cancer in young women in relation to body size and weight gain in adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, R J; Uhler, R J; Hall, H I; Potischman, N; Brinton, L A; Ballard-Barbash, R; Gammon, M D; Brogan, D R; Daling, J R; Malone, K E; Schoenberg, J B; Swanson, C A

    1999-09-01

    Findings have been inconsistent on effects of adolescent body size and adult weight gain on risk of breast cancer in young women. These relations were examined in a population-based case control study of 1590 women less than 45 years of age newly diagnosed with breast cancer during 1990-1992 in three areas of the US and an age-matched control group of 1390 women. Height and weight were measured at interview and participants asked to recall information about earlier body size. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk of breast cancer adjusted for other risk factors. Women who were either much heavier or lighter than average in adolescence or at age 20 were at reduced risk. Weight gain after age 20 resulted in reduced risk, but the effect was confined to early-stage and, more specifically, lower grade breast cancer. Neither the risk reduction nor the variation by breast cancer stage or grade was explained by the method of cancer detection or by prior mammography history. These findings suggest that relations between breast cancer risk in young women and body weight at different ages is complex and that the risk reduction with adult weight gain is confined to less aggressive cancers.

  11. Effects of display set size and its variability on the event-related potentials during a visual search task

    OpenAIRE

    Miyatani, Makoto; Sakata, Sumiko

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of display set size and its variability on the event-related potentials (ERPs) during a visual search task. In Experiment 1, subjects were required to respond if a visual display, which consisted of two, four, or six alphabets, contained one of two members of memory set. In Experiment 2, subjects detected the change of the shape of a fixation stimulus, which was surrounded by the same alphabets as in Experiment 1. In the search task (Experiment 1), the incr...

  12. Free-ranging male koalas use size-related variation in formant frequencies to assess rival males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Charlton

    Full Text Available Although the use of formant frequencies in nonhuman animal vocal communication systems has received considerable recent interest, only a few studies have examined the importance of these acoustic cues to body size during intra-sexual competition between males. Here we used playback experiments to present free-ranging male koalas with re-synthesised bellow vocalisations in which the formants were shifted to simulate either a large or a small adult male. We found that male looking responses did not differ according to the size variant condition played back. In contrast, male koalas produced longer bellows and spent more time bellowing when they were presented with playbacks simulating larger rivals. In addition, males were significantly slower to respond to this class of playback stimuli than they were to bellows simulating small males. Our results indicate that male koalas invest more effort into their vocal responses when they are presented with bellows that have lower formants indicative of larger rivals, but also show that males are slower to engage in vocal exchanges with larger males that represent more dangerous rivals. By demonstrating that male koalas use formants to assess rivals during the breeding season we have provided evidence that male-male competition constitutes an important selection pressure for broadcasting and attending to size-related formant information in this species. Further empirical studies should investigate the extent to which the use of formants during intra-sexual competition is widespread throughout mammals.

  13. Size-related and seasonal diet of the manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum), as determined using dual stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Yeon Jee; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2013-12-01

    Stable isotope ratios of lab-cultured Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) and those from natural tidal flats of Seonjae Island in Korea were investigated in terms of their dietary uptake patterns in relation to body size and season. The smallest size group of wild Manila clams revealed significantly depleted δ15N based on the results of a one-way ANOVA. There was significant seasonal change in the proportional contribution of food sources, especially in winter, from benthic particulate organic matter (BPOM) to pelagic particulate organic matter (POM). Laboratory-cultured Manila clams showed growth rates of 6.02-37.75 mm/yr, and smaller-sized clams did not fully utilise the microalgal diets that were provided constantly. Instead, they derived most of their energy from detritus or dead microalgae that had settled on the bottom. Bigger clams, however, exhibited well-balanced source contributions, converting the microalgal diets into biomass. This demonstrates intra-specific differences in the growth rates and preferred diet uptakes of Manila clams, even under similar environmental conditions.

  14. Relating group size and posting activity of an online community of financial investors: Regularities and seasonal patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, P.; Casarin, R.; Dondio, P.; Squazzoni, F.

    2018-03-01

    Group size can potentially affect collective activity and individual propensity to contribute to collective goods. Mancur Olson, in his Logic of Collective Action, argued that individual contribution to a collective good tends to be lower in groups of large size. Today, online communication platforms represent an interesting ground to study such collaborative dynamics under possibly different conditions (e.g., lower costs related to gather and share information). This paper examines the relationship between group size and activity in an online financial forum, where users invest time in sharing news, analysis and comments with other investors. We looked at about 24 million messages shared in more than ten years in the finanzaonline.com online forum. We found that the relationship between the number of active users and the number of posts shared by those users is of the power type (with exponent α > 1) and is subject to periodic fluctuations, mostly driven by hour-of-the-day and day-of-the-week effects. The daily patterns of the exponent showed a divergence between working week and weekend days. In general, the exponent was lower before noon, where investors are typically interested in market news, higher in the late afternoon, where markets are closing and investors need better understanding of the situation. Further research is needed, especially at the micro level, to dissect the mechanisms behind these regularities.

  15. The interplay of variants near LEKR and CCNL1 and social stress in relation to birth size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anokhi Ali Khan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously identified via a genome wide association study variants near LEKR and CCNL1 and in the ADCY5 genes lead to lower birthweight. Here, we study the impact of these variants and social stress during pregnancy, defined as social adversity and neighborhood disparity, on infant birth size. We aimed to determine whether the addition of genetic variance magnified the observed associations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n=5369. Social adversity was defined by young maternal age (<20 years, low maternal education (<11 years, and/or single marital status. Neighborhood social disparity was assessed by discrepancy between neighborhoods relative to personal socio-economic status. These variables are indicative of social and socioeconomic stress, but also of biological risk. The adjusted multiple regression analysis showed smaller birth size in both infants of mothers who experienced social adversity (birthweight by -40.4 g, 95%CI -61.4, -19.5; birth length -0.14 cm, 95%CI -0.23, -0.05; head circumference -0.09 cm 95%CI -0.15, -0.02 and neighborhood disparity (birthweight -28.8 g, 95%CI -47.7, -10.0; birth length -0.12 cm, 95%CI -0.20, -0.05. The birthweight-lowering risk allele (SNP rs900400 near LEKR and CCNL1 magnified this association in an additive manner. However, likely due to sample size restriction, this association was not significant for the SNP rs9883204 in ADCY5. Birth size difference due to social stress was greater in the presence of birthweight-lowering alleles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Social adversity, neighborhood disparity, and genetic variants have independent associations with infant birth size in the mutually adjusted analyses. If the newborn carried a risk allele rs900400 near LEKR/CCNL1, the impact of stress on birth size was stronger. These observations give support to the hypothesis that individuals with genetic or other biological risk are more

  16. Galectin-3 levels relate in children to total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, and cardiac size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Arvidsson, Daniel; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2018-03-01

    Galectin-3 has recently been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease in adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess relationships between galectin-3 levels and total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, left atrial size, and increase in body fat over a 2-year period in a population-based sample of children. Our study included 170 children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass and abdominal fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body fat distribution was expressed as abdominal fat/total fat mass. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were measured. Left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness were measured by echocardiography. Frozen serum samples were analyzed for galectin-3 by the Proximity Extension Assay technique. A follow-up DXA scan was performed in 152 children 2 years after the baseline exam. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex and age, between galectin-3 versus body fat measurements indicated weak to moderate relationships. Moreover, left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness and pulse pressure were also correlated with galectin-3. Neither systolic blood pressure nor maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with galectin-3. There was also a correlation between galectin-3 and increase in total body fat over 2 years, while no such correlations were found for the other fat measurements. More body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, more left ventricular mass, and increased left atrial size were all associated with higher levels of galectin-3. Increase in total body fat over 2 years was also associated with higher levels of galectin-3. What is Known: • Galectin-3 has been linked to obesity and been proposed to be a novel biomarker

  17. Analysis of work ability and work-related physical activity of employees in a medium-sized business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Christiane; Ashton, Philip; Elis, Tobias; Biallas, Bianca; Froböse, Ingo

    2015-12-18

    Work-related physical activity (PA) and work ability are of growing importance in modern working society. There is evidence for age- and job-related differences regarding PA and work ability. This study analyses work ability and work-related PA of employees in a medium-sized business regarding age and occupation. The total sample consists of 148 employees (116 men-78.38% of the sample-and 32 women, accounting for 21.62%; mean age: 40.85 ± 10.07 years). 100 subjects (67.57%) are white-collar workers (WC), and 48 (32.43%) are blue-collar workers (BC). Work ability is measured using the work ability index, and physical activity is obtained via the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Work ability shows significant differences regarding occupation (p = 0.001) but not regarding age. Further, significant differences are found for work-related PA concerning occupation (p Work ability is rated as good, yet, a special focus should lie on the promotion during early and late working life. Also, there is still a lack of evidence on the level of work-related PA. Considering work-related PA could add to meeting current activity recommendations.

  18. Intact plant MRI for the study of cell water relations, membrane permeability, cell-to-cell and long distance water transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    As, van H.

    2007-01-01

    Water content and hydraulic conductivity, including transport within cells, over membranes, cell-to-cell, and long-distance xylem and phloem transport, are strongly affected by plant water stress. By being able to measure these transport processes non-invasely in the intact plant situation in

  19. "Let's Do Some Jumping Together": Intergenerational Participation in the Use of Remote Technology to Co-Construct Social Relations over Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Clare

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a small-scale study that explores how members of one family based in Australia and the United Kingdom use remote technology to develop and maintain family relationships across generations and distance. Of particular interest was the manner in which Skype computer software was mediated to develop intersubjectivity between a…

  20. Relation of pulse pressure to long-distance gait speed in community-dwelling older adults: Findings from the LIFE-P study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduced long-distance gait speed, a measure of physical function, is associated with falls, late-life disability, hospitalization/institutionalization and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Aging is also accompanied by a widening of pulse pressure (PP) that contributes to ventricular-vascular ...

  1. Comparison of the effect between pegaptanib and ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration with small lesion size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujihara M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yoshihiro Nishimura1,2, Maiko Taguchi1, Takafumi Nagai1, Masashi Fujihara1,2, Shigeru Honda2, Mamoru Uenishi11Department of Ophthalmology, Mitsubishi Kobe Hospital, Kobe, Japan; 2Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, JapanPurpose: To compare the effect of pegaptanib versus ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD with small lesion size.Methods: This is a retrospective study of 81 eyes from 78 patients with exudative AMD treated and followed up over 12 months. Patients with baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA under 20/400 and with a greatest linear dimension of lesion over 4500 µm were excluded from the study. Twenty-six eyes from 25 patients were treated with three consecutive intravitreal injections of pegaptanib (IVP group and 55 eyes from 54 patients were treated with three consecutive ranibizumab injections (IVR group. Each therapy was repeated as needed. The alteration in BCVA was evaluated in the IVP and IVR groups.Results: No differences were detected in baseline parameters between the IVP and IVR groups. The mean BCVA (logMAR at month 1, 3, 6 and 12 after the initial treatment was improved from baseline in the IVP group (-0.095, -0.17, -0.18 and -0.18, respectively and in the IVR group (-0.077, -0.15, -0.17 and -0.11, respectively, which was statistically significant. There was no difference in the change in mean BCVA between IVP and IVR groups at the same time periods.Conclusions: The visual outcome of IVP was equivalent with IVR in exudative AMD with small lesion size.Keywords: pegaptanib, ranibizumab, age-related macular degeneration, small lesion size

  2. The influence of family-related factors on the succession process in small and medium-sized family businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Venter

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study family-related factors that can influence the succession process in small and medium-sized family businesses are empirically investigated.  The dependent variable in this study is measured by two underlying dimensions, namely satisfaction with the process and continued profitability of the business.  The empirical results indicate that the family-related factors that influence both the aforementioned dimensions are the mutual acceptance of roles, the relationship between the owner-manager and successor, and family harmony.  The continued profitability of the business is also influenced by the agreement to continue the business. The existence of family harmony in itself influences the relationship between the owner-manager and successor, the agreement to continue the business, as well as the mutual acceptance of roles.  The managerial implications of these empirical findings are discussed and recommendations offered.

  3. Exploring How Weathering Related Stresses and Subcritical Crack Growth May Influence the Size of Sediment Produced From Different Rock Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppes, M. C.; Hallet, B.; Hancock, G. S.; Mackenzie-Helnwein, P.; Keanini, R.

    2016-12-01

    The formation and diminution of rock debris, sediment and soil at and near Earth's surface is driven in large part by in situ, non-transport related, rock cracking. Given the relatively low magnitude stresses that arise in surface and near-surface settings, this production and diminution of granular material is likely strongly influenced and/or driven by subcritical crack growth (Eppes et al., 2016), cracking that occurs under stress loading conditions much lower than a rock's strength as typically measured in the laboratory under rapid loading. Despite a relatively sound understanding of subcritical crack growth through engineering and geophysical studies, its geomorphic and sedimentologic implications have only been minimally explored. Here, based on existing studies, we formulate several hypotheses to predict how weathering-induced stresses combined with the subcritical crack growth properties of rock may influence sediment size distribution. For example, subcritical crack growth velocity (v) can be described by v = CKIn where KI is the mode I (simple opening mode) stress intensity factor, a function of tensile stress at the crack tip and crack length; C is a rock- and environment-dependent constant; and n is material constant, the subcritical crack growth index. Fracture length and spacing in rock is strongly dependent on n, where higher n values result in fewer, more distally spaced cracks (e.g. Olsen, 1993). Thus, coarser sediment might be expected from rocks with higher n values. Weathering-related stresses such as thermal stresses and mineral hydration, however, can disproportionally stress boundaries between minerals with contrasting thermal or chemical properties and orientation, resulting in granular disintegration. Thus, rocks with properties favorable to inducing these stresses might produce sediment whose size is reflective of its constituent grains. We begin to test these hypotheses through a detailed examination of crack and rock characteristics in

  4. Brownian distance covariance

    OpenAIRE

    Székely, Gábor J.; Rizzo, Maria L.

    2010-01-01

    Distance correlation is a new class of multivariate dependence coefficients applicable to random vectors of arbitrary and not necessarily equal dimension. Distance covariance and distance correlation are analogous to product-moment covariance and correlation, but generalize and extend these classical bivariate measures of dependence. Distance correlation characterizes independence: it is zero if and only if the random vectors are independent. The notion of covariance with...

  5. The effect of debris-flow composition on runout distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, Tjalling; Braat, Lisanne; Leuven, Jasper; Lokhorst, Ivar; Kleinhans, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    Estimating runout distance is of major importance for the assessment and mitigation of debris-flow hazards. Debris-flow runout distance depends on debris-flow composition and topography, but state-of-the-art runout prediction methods are mainly based on topographical parameters and debris-flow volume, while composition is generally neglected or incorporated in empirical constants. Here we experimentally investigated the effect of debris-flow composition and topography on runout distance. We created the first small-scale experimental debris flows with self-formed levees, distinct lobes and morphology and texture accurately resembling natural debris flows. In general, the effect of debris-flow composition on runout distance was larger than the effect of topography. Enhancing channel slope and width, outflow plain slope, debris-flow size and water fraction leads to an increase in runout distance. However, runout distance shows an optimum relation with coarse-material and clay fraction. An increase in coarse-material fraction leads to larger runout distances by increased grain collisional forces and more effective levee formation, but too much coarse debris causes a large accumulation of coarse debris at the flow front, enhancing friction and decreasing runout. An increase in clay fraction initially enlarges the volume and viscosity of the interstitial fluid, liquefying the flow and enhancing runout, while a further increase leads to very viscous flows with high yield strength, reducing runout. These results highlight the importance and further need of research on the relation between debris-flow composition and runout distance. Our experiments further provide valuable insight on the effects of debris-flow composition on depositional mechanisms and deposit morphology.

  6. Distance-regular graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Edwin R.; Koolen, Jack H.; Tanaka, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    This is a survey of distance-regular graphs. We present an introduction to distance-regular graphs for the reader who is unfamiliar with the subject, and then give an overview of some developments in the area of distance-regular graphs since the monograph 'BCN'[Brouwer, A.E., Cohen, A.M., Neumaier,

  7. Chaparral Shrub Hydraulic Traits, Size, and Life History Types Relate to Species Mortality during California's Historic Drought of 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin D Venturas

    Full Text Available Chaparral is the most abundant vegetation type in California and current climate change models predict more frequent and severe droughts that could impact plant community structure. Understanding the factors related to species-specific drought mortality is essential to predict such changes. We predicted that life history type, hydraulic traits, and plant size would be related to the ability of species to survive drought. We evaluated the impact of these factors in a mature chaparral stand during the drought of 2014, which has been reported as the most severe in California in the last 1,200 years. We measured tissue water potential, native xylem specific conductivity, leaf specific conductivity, percentage loss in conductivity, and chlorophyll fluorescence for 11 species in February 2014, which was exceptionally dry following protracted drought. Mortality among the 11 dominant species ranged from 0 to 93%. Total stand density was reduced 63.4% and relative dominance of species shifted after the drought. Mortality was negatively correlated with water potential, native xylem specific conductivity, and chlorophyll fluorescence, but not with percent loss in hydraulic conductivity and leaf specific conductivity. The model that best explained mortality included species and plant size as main factors and indicated that larger plants had greater survival for 2 of the species. In general, species with greater resistance to water-stress induced cavitation showed greater mortality levels. Despite adult resprouters typically being more vulnerable to cavitation, results suggest that their more extensive root systems enable them to better access soil moisture and avoid harmful levels of dehydration. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that short-term high intensity droughts have the strongest effect on mature plants of shallow-rooted dehydration tolerant species, whereas deep-rooted dehydration avoiding species fare better in the short

  8. Third nerve palsy caused by compression of the posterior communicating artery aneurysm does not depend on the size of the aneurysm, but on the distance between the ICA and the anterior-posterior clinoid process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan, Mitsuhiro; Nagai, Yasuyuki; Fudaba, Hirotaka; Kubo, Takeshi; Ishii, Keisuke; Murata, Kumi; Hisamitsu, Yoshinori; Kawano, Yoshihisa; Hori, Yuzo; Nagatomi, Hirofumi; Abe, Tatsuya; Fujiki, Minoru

    2014-08-01

    Third nerve palsy (TNP) caused by a posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysm is a well-known symptom of the condition, but the characteristics of unruptured PCoA aneurysm-associated third nerve palsy have not been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to analyze the anatomical features of PCoA aneurysms that caused TNP from the viewpoint of the relationship between the ICA and the skull base. Forty-eight unruptured PCoA aneurysms were treated surgically between January 2008 and September 2013. The characteristics of the aneurysms were evaluated. Thirteen of the 48 patients (27%) had a history of TNP. The distance between the ICA and the anterior-posterior clinoid process (ICA-APC distance) was significantly shorter in the TNP group (pPCoA aneurysms can cause third nerve palsy if the ICA runs close to the skull base. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of size-fractionated urban aerosol and trace gases in Budapest by nuclear-related and other analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salma, I.; Maenhaut, W.; Zemplen-Papp, E.; Bobvos, J.

    1998-01-01

    An air pollution study was conducted at two urban residential sites in Budapest (one representing the downtown, the other representing a wooded suburb) from 9 April till 17 May 1996. Size-fractionated aerosol samples were simultaneously collected on a daily basis, and meteorological conditions were recorded at both sampling sites. Stacked filter units (SFUs) with an upper size inlet cut-off were used as sampling device separating the urban aerosol into a coarse (about 10-2 μm equivalent aerodynamic diameter, EAD) and a fine ( 2 , SO 2 , CO and the total mass of the suspended particulate matter were measured every half hour at one of the sampling sites by commercial equipment. The SFU filters were analyzed by gravimetry for the total particle mass, by a light reflectance technique for black carbon, by particle-induced X-ray emission analysis and instrumental neutron activation analysis for elemental composition (in combination for up to 40-45 elements). The analytical results were used for characterizing the levels and the multi-elemental composition of the urban aerosol at both sampling sites and for both size fractions, for investigating the atmospheric concentrations and diurnal variation of some criteria pollutants, and for comparing the time-trends of aerosols and trace gases. Identification of the major source types of the aerosol fractions and trace gases, and assessment of the relative contribution from these sources are to be accomplished by multivariate receptor modeling. The present paper reports on the status of the air pollution study, and gives a discussion of the results

  10. Influence of species, size and relative abundance on the outcomes of competitive interactions between brook trout and juvenile coho salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Emily J; Duda, Jeff; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Resource competition between animals is influenced by a number of factors including the species, size and relative abundance of competing individuals. Stream-dwelling animals often experience variably available food resources, and some employ territorial behaviors to increase their access to food. We investigated the factors that affect dominance between resident, non-native brook trout and recolonizing juvenile coho salmon in the Elwha River, WA, USA, to see if brook trout are likely to disrupt coho salmon recolonization via interference competition. During dyadic laboratory feeding trials, we hypothesized that fish size, not species, would determine which individuals consumed the most food items, and that species would have no effect. We found that species, not size, played a significant role in dominance; coho salmon won 95% of trials, even when only 52% the length of their brook trout competitors. As the pairs of competing fish spent more time together during a trial sequence, coho salmon began to consume more food, and brook trout began to lose more, suggesting that the results of early trials influenced fish performance later. In group trials, we hypothesized that group composition and species would not influence fish foraging success. In single species groups, coho salmon consumed more than brook trout, but the ranges overlapped. Brook trout consumption remained constant through all treatments, but coho salmon consumed more food in treatments with fewer coho salmon, suggesting that coho salmon experienced more intra- than inter-specific competition and that brook trout do not pose a substantial challenge. Based on our results, we think it is unlikely that competition from brook trout will disrupt Elwha River recolonization by coho salmon.

  11. Aortopulmonary collateral flow is related to pulmonary artery size and affects ventricular dimensions in patients after the fontan procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Latus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aortopulmonary collaterals (APCs are frequently found in patients with a single-ventricle (SV circulation. However, knowledge about the clinical significance of the systemic-to-pulmonary shunt flow in patients after the modified Fontan procedure and its potential causes is limited. Accordingly, the aim of our study was to detect and quantify APC flow using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR and assess its impact on SV volume and function as well as to evaluate the role of the size of the pulmonary arteries in regard to the development of APCs. METHODS: 60 patients (mean age 13.3 ± 6.8 years after the Fontan procedure without patent tunnel fenestration underwent CMR as part of their routine clinical assessment that included ventricular functional analysis and flow measurements in the inferior vena cava (IVC, superior vena cava (SVC and ascending aorta (Ao. APC flow was quantified using the systemic flow estimator: (Ao - (IVC + SVC. Pulmonary artery index (Nakata index was calculated as RPA + LPA area/body surface area using contrast enhanced MR angiography. The patient cohort was divided into two groups according to the median APC flow: group 1 0.495 l/min/m(2. RESULTS: Group 1 patients had significant smaller SV enddiastolic (71 ± 16 vs 87 ± 25 ml/m(2; p=0.004 and endsystolic volumes (29 ± 11 vs 40 ± 21 ml/m(2; p=0.02 whereas ejection fraction (59 ± 9 vs 56 ± 13%; p=0.38 differed not significantly. Interestingly, pulmonary artery size showed a significant inverse correlation with APC flow (r=-0.50, p=0.002. CONCLUSIONS: Volume load due to APC flow in Fontan patients affected SV dimensions, but did not result in an impairment of SV function. APC flow was related to small pulmonary artery size, suggesting that small pulmonary arteries represent a potential stimulus for the development of APCs.

  12. Bolton's tooth size discrepancy in malaysian orthodontic patients: Are occlusal characteristics such as overjet, overbite, midline, and crowding related to tooth size discrepancy in specific malocclusions and ethnicities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Subhash Mulimani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tooth size, occlusal traits, and ethnicity are closely interrelated, and their impact on desirable orthodontic treatment outcome cannot be underestimated. This study was undertaken to assess the occlusal characteristics and ethnic variations in occlusion of Malaysian orthodontic patients and evaluate their correlation with Bolton's tooth size discrepancy. Materials and Methods: On 112 pretreatment study models of orthodontic patients, molar relationship, overjet, overbite, spacing, crowding, midline shift, and Bolton's ratios were assessed. ANOVA, one-sample t-test, Chi-squared test, and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. Results: Significant difference between anterior ratio of our study and Bolton's ideal values was found, for the entire study sample and Chinese ethnic group. Differences between races and malocclusion groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Significant correlations were found as follows – in Angle's Class I malocclusion between 1 anterior ratio and overbite, 2 overall ratio and maxillary crowding and spacing; in Angle's Class II malocclusion between 1 anterior ratio and overjet and midline shift, 2 overall ratio and mandibular crowding; in Angle's Class III malocclusion between 1 anterior ratio and mandibular crowding and both maxillary and mandibular spacing 2 overall ratio and mandibular crowding. Conclusions: Significant differences in anterior ratio and Bolton's ideal values for the Malaysian population were found, indicating variations in anterior tooth size as compared to Caucasians. Statistically significant correlations existed between Bolton's ratios and occlusal traits. These findings can be applied clinically in diagnosis and treatment planning by keeping in mind the specific discrepancies that can occur in certain malocclusions and addressing them accordingly.

  13. Reducing the distance in distance-caregiving by technology innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazelle E Benefield

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Lazelle E Benefield1, Cornelia Beck21College of Nursing, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; 2Pat & Willard Walker Family Memory Research Center, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USAAbstract: Family caregivers are responsible for the home care of over 34 million older adults in the United States. For many, the elder family member lives more than an hour’s distance away. Distance caregiving is a growing alternative to more familiar models where: 1 the elder and the family caregiver(s may reside in the same household; or 2 the family caregiver may live nearby but not in the same household as the elder. The distance caregiving model involves elders and their family caregivers who live at some distance, defined as more than a 60-minute commute, from one another. Evidence suggests that distance caregiving is a distinct phenomenon, differs substantially from on-site family caregiving, and requires additional assistance to support the physical, social, and contextual dimensions of the caregiving process. Technology-based assists could virtually connect the caregiver and elder and provide strong support that addresses the elder’s physical, social, cognitive, and/or sensory impairments. Therefore, in today’s era of high technology, it is surprising that so few affordable innovations are being marketed for distance caregiving. This article addresses distance caregiving, proposes the use of technology innovation to support caregiving, and suggests a research agenda to better inform policy decisions related to the unique needs of this situation.Keywords: caregiving, family, distance, technology, elders

  14. Direct comparison of observed magnitude-redshift relations in complete galaxy samples with systematic predictions of alternative redshift-distance laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, I.E.

    1989-01-01

    The directly observed average apparent magnitude (or in one case, angular diameter) as a function of redshift in each of a number of large complete galaxy samples is compared with the predictions of hypothetical redshift-distance power laws, as a systematic statistical question. Due account is taken of observational flux limits by an entirely objective and reproducible optimal statistical procedure, and no assumptions are made regarding the distribution of the galaxies in space. The laws considered are of the form z varies as r p , where r denotes the distance, for p = 1, 2 and 3. The comparative fits of the various redshift-distance laws are similar in all the samples. Overall, the cubic law fits better than the linear law, but each shows substantial systematic deviations from observation. The quadratic law fits extremely well except at high redshifts in some of the samples, where no power law fits closely and the correlation of apparent magnitude with redshift is small or negative. In all cases, the luminosity function required for theoretical prediction was estimated from the sample by the non-parametric procedure ROBUST, whose intrinsic neutrality as programmed was checked by comprehensive computer simulations. (author)

  15. Ice nucleation onto Arizona test dust at cirrus temperatures: effect of temperature and aerosol size on onset relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Z A; Abbatt, J P D

    2010-01-21

    The University of Toronto Continuous Flow Diffusion Chamber (UT-CFDC) was used to study ice formation onto monodisperse Arizona Test Dust (ATD) particles. The onset relative humidity with respect to ice (RH(i)) was measured as a function of temperature in the range 251-223 K for 100 nm ATD particles. It was found that for 0.1% of the particles to freeze, water saturation was required at all temperatures except 223 K where particles activated at RH(i) below water saturation. At this temperature, where deposition mode freezing is occurring, we find that the larger the particle size, the lower the onset RH(i). We also demonstrate that the total number of particles present may influence the onset RH(i) observed. The surface area for ice activation, aerosol size, and temperature must all be considered when reporting onset values of ice formation onto ATD mineral dust particles. In addition, we calculate nucleation rates and contact angles of ice germs with ATD aerosols which indicate that there exists a range of active sites on the surface with different efficiencies for activating ice formation.

  16. Measurement of carbon nanotube microstructure relative density by optical attenuation and observation of size-dependent variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sei Jin; Schmidt, Aaron J; Bedewy, Mostafa; Hart, A John

    2013-07-21

    Engineering the density of carbon nanotube (CNT) forest microstructures is vital to applications such as electrical interconnects, micro-contact probes, and thermal interface materials. For CNT forests on centimeter-scale substrates, weight and volume can be used to calculate density. However, this is not suitable for smaller samples, including individual microstructures, and moreover does not enable mapping of spatial density variations within the forest. We demonstrate that the relative mass density of individual CNT microstructures can be measured by optical attenuation, with spatial resolution equaling the size of the focused spot. For this, a custom optical setup was built to measure the transmission of a focused laser beam through CNT microstructures. The transmittance was correlated with the thickness of the CNT microstructures by Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law to calculate the attenuation coefficient. We reveal that the density of CNT microstructures grown by CVD can depend on their size, and that the overall density of arrays of microstructures is affected significantly by run-to-run process variations. Further, we use the technique to quantify the change in CNT microstructure density due to capillary densification. This is a useful and accessible metrology technique for CNTs in future microfabrication processes, and will enable direct correlation of density to important properties such as stiffness and electrical conductivity.

  17. Relative importance of temperature and diet to larval development and adult size of the winter stonefly, Soyedina carolinensis (Plecoptera: Nemouridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, B.W.; Vannote, R.L.; Dodds, P.J.

    1986-02-01

    Soyedina carolinensis Claassen, a leaf shredding stonefly, was reared in a series of three laboratory experiments from early instar to adult on different species of deciduous leaves and at various constant and fluctuating temperature regimes. Experiment 1, which involved rearing larvae on fourteen different leaf diets at ambient stream temperatures, showed that diet significantly affected larval growth and adult size but did not affect overall developmental time. Experiment 2, which involved rearing larvae on five different leaf diets at each of three fluctuating temperature regimes, showed that: adding 6/sup 0/C to the normal temperature regime of WCC was lethal to 99% of the larvae regardless of diet; and warming WCC by 3/sup 0/C did not affect developmental time but did significantly reduce adult size relative to adults reared at WCC temperatures on certain diets. Experiment 3, which involved rearing larvae on five different leaf diets at each of five constant temperatures showed that: temperature significantly affected the mortality, growth, and development time of larvae whereas diet only affected larval growth and mortality; temperatures at or near 10/sup 0/C yielded maximum larval growth and survival for most diets; at 5/sup 0/C, larval mortality was high and growth was low resulting in a few small adults for most diets; larval mortality was at or near 100% at 15/sup 0/C regardless of diet; and no larvae survived at 20 and 25/sup 0/C.

  18. Impact of relative humidity, inoculum carrier and size, and native microbiota on Salmonella ser. Typhimurium survival in baby lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gálvez, Francisco; Gil, Maria Isabel; Allende, Ana

    2018-04-01

    The effects of relative humidity (RH), fluctuating climate conditions, inoculum size and carrier on the survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium on baby lettuce in environmental test chambers were studied. Buffered peptone water (BPW), distilled water (DW), and irrigation water (IW) were compared as inoculum carriers. Additionally, survival of Salmonella in suspensions prepared using filtered and unfiltered IW was assessed. Salmonella Typhimurium survived better on baby lettuce plants at high RH independently of the inoculum size. When lettuce plants were grown under fluctuating environmental conditions, Salmonella survival was similar under both RH conditions. Regarding the inoculum carrier, the inoculated microorganism survived better on lettuce plants when BPW was used as carrier both at high and low RH. Survival rate of Salmonella in IW was affected by the presence of native microbiota. Native microbiota present in IW did not affect survival of Salmonella or the levels of mesophilic bacteria on the baby lettuce leaves. The information obtained in the present study contributes to the knowledge on the effect of environmental conditions on pathogenic bacteria survival on growing edible plants. These results are useful when selecting the methodology to carry out experimental studies on the survival of microbial pathogens under different pre-harvest conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. MASSIVE GALAXIES ARE LARGER IN DENSE ENVIRONMENTS: ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF MASS–SIZE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Yongmin; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo, E-mail: yymx2@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-01

    Under the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological models, massive galaxies are expected to be larger in denser environments through frequent hierarchical mergers with other galaxies. Yet, observational studies of low-redshift early-type galaxies have shown no such trend, standing as a puzzle to solve during the past decade. We analyzed 73,116 early-type galaxies at 0.1 ≤  z  < 0.15, adopting a robust nonparametric size measurement technique and extending the analysis to many massive galaxies. We find for the first time that local early-type galaxies heavier than 10{sup 11.2} M {sub ⊙} show a clear environmental dependence in mass–size relation, in such a way that galaxies are as much as 20%–40% larger in the densest environments than in underdense environments. Splitting the sample into the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and non-BCGs does not affect the result. This result agrees with the ΛCDM cosmological simulations and suggests that mergers played a significant role in the growth of massive galaxies in dense environments as expected in theory.

  20. Fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deozyglucose positron emission tomography in recurrent rectal cancer: relation to tumour size and cellularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kengo; Kato, Takashi; Ohta, Tyohiro; Tadokoro, Masanori; Yamada, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Nishino, Masanari; Ishigaki, Takeo; Ito, Katsuiki; Gambhir, S.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography in patients with recurrent rectal cancer, in relation to tumour size and cellularity. Thirty-seven patients (21 mean and 16 women; mean age, 55.4±9.58 years) with suspected recurrence of rectal cancer were studied. FDG uptake was quantified by the differential absorption ratio (DAR). In 29 patients magnetic resonance imaging was also performed. To evaluate the signal intensity of the lesion, the lesion to muscle signal intensity ratio (SIR) were calculated on T2-weighted images. In seven patients who received surgical treatment the DAR and SIR were compared with the tumour cellularity. All 32 patients with confirmed recurrence showed increased FDG accumulation in the mass (DAR=4.57±1.89) in comparison with low FDG accumulation in five patients with scar (DAR=1.17±0.43). There was a significant correlation (r=0.661, P<0.001) between the DAR and the tumour diameter. There was no correlation between the DAR and SIR, whereas there was a significant correlation (r=0.565, P<0.01) between the DAR corrected using count recovery coefficient (DAR*) and SIR. In the histopathological findings there was a tendency for the DAR* and SIR to correlate with tumour cellularity. It is concluded that the DAR of recurrent rectal cancer should be evaluated taking into consideration the tumour size and cellularity. (orig.)

  1. Haptic Discrimination of Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Femke E.; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Kappers, Astrid M. L.

    2014-01-01

    While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive) and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices. PMID:25116638

  2. Haptic discrimination of distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke E van Beek

    Full Text Available While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices.

  3. Single nickel-related defects in molecular-sized nanodiamonds for multicolor bioimaging: an ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiering, Gergő; Londero, Elisa; Gali, Adam

    2014-09-01

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds constitute an outstanding alternative to semiconductor quantum dots and dye molecules for in vivo biomarker applications, where the fluorescence comes from optically active point defects acting as color centers in the nanodiamonds. For practical purposes, these color centers should be photostable as a function of the laser power or the surface termination of nanodiamonds. Furthermore, they should exhibit a sharp and nearly temperature-independent zero-phonon line. In this study, we show by hybrid density functional theory calculations that nickel doped nanodiamonds exhibit the desired properties, thus opening the avenue to practical applications. In particular, harnessing the strong quantum confinement effect in molecule-sized nanodiamonds is very promising for achieving multicolor imaging by single nickel-related defects.

  4. Single nickel-related defects in molecular-sized nanodiamonds for multicolor bioimaging: an ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiering, Gergő; Londero, Elisa; Gali, Adam

    2014-10-21

    Fluorescent nanodiamonds constitute an outstanding alternative to semiconductor quantum dots and dye molecules for in vivo biomarker applications, where the fluorescence comes from optically active point defects acting as color centers in the nanodiamonds. For practical purposes, these color centers should be photostable as a function of the laser power or the surface termination of nanodiamonds. Furthermore, they should exhibit a sharp and nearly temperature-independent zero-phonon line. In this study, we show by hybrid density functional theory calculations that nickel doped nanodiamonds exhibit the desired properties, thus opening the avenue to practical applications. In particular, harnessing the strong quantum confinement effect in molecule-sized nanodiamonds is very promising for achieving multicolor imaging by single nickel-related defects.

  5. Interface Simulation Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Černý

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The classical (boolean notion of refinement for behavioral interfaces of system components is the alternating refinement preorder. In this paper, we define a distance for interfaces, called interface simulation distance. It makes the alternating refinement preorder quantitative by, intuitively, tolerating errors (while counting them in the alternating simulation game. We show that the interface simulation distance satisfies the triangle inequality, that the distance between two interfaces does not increase under parallel composition with a third interface, and that the distance between two interfaces can be bounded from above and below by distances between abstractions of the two interfaces. We illustrate the framework, and the properties of the distances under composition of interfaces, with two case studies.

  6. Tourists consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when...... travelling on holiday becomes part of a lifestyle and a social positioning game. Further, different types of tourist distance consumers are identified, ranging from the reluctant to the deliberate and nonchalant distance consumers, who display very differing attitudes towards the distance they all travel...

  7. Machine learning enhanced optical distance sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, M. Junaid; Riza, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Presented for the first time is a machine learning enhanced optical distance sensor. The distance sensor is based on our previously demonstrated distance measurement technique that uses an Electronically Controlled Variable Focus Lens (ECVFL) with a laser source to illuminate a target plane with a controlled optical beam spot. This spot with varying spot sizes is viewed by an off-axis camera and the spot size data is processed to compute the distance. In particular, proposed and demonstrated in this paper is the use of a regularized polynomial regression based supervised machine learning algorithm to enhance the accuracy of the operational sensor. The algorithm uses the acquired features and corresponding labels that are the actual target distance values to train a machine learning model. The optimized training model is trained over a 1000 mm (or 1 m) experimental target distance range. Using the machine learning algorithm produces a training set and testing set distance measurement errors of learning. Applications for the proposed sensor include industrial scenario distance sensing where target material specific training models can be generated to realize low <1% measurement error distance measurements.

  8. The Carnegie-Chicago Hubble Program. II. The Distance to IC 1613: The Tip of the Red Giant Branch and RR Lyrae Period-luminosity Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, Dylan; Beaton, Rachael L.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Jang, In-Sung; Hoyt, Taylor J.; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Monson, Andrew J.; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Scowcroft, Victoria; Seibert, Mark

    2017-08-01

    IC 1613 is an isolated dwarf galaxy within the Local Group. Low foreground and internal extinction, low metallicity, and low crowding make it an invaluable testbed for the calibration of the local distance ladder. We present new, high-fidelity distance estimates to IC 1613 via its Tip of the Red Giant Branch (TRGB) and its RR Lyrae (RRL) variables as part of the Carnegie-Chicago Hubble Program, which seeks an alternate local route to H 0 using Population II stars. We have measured a TRGB magnitude {I}{ACS}{TRGB}=20.35+/- {0.01}{stat}+/- {0.01}{sys} mag using wide-field observations obtained from the IMACS camera on the Magellan-Baade telescope. We have further constructed optical and near-infrared RRL light curves using archival BI- and new H-band observations from the ACS/WFC and WFC3/IR instruments on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In advance of future Gaia data releases, we set provisional values for the TRGB luminosity via the Large Magellanic Cloud and Galactic RRL zero-points via HST parallaxes. We find corresponding true distance moduli {μ }0{TRGB}=24.30+/- {0.03}{stat}+/- {0.05}{sys} {mag} and =24.28+/- {0.04}{stat+{sys}} mag. We compare our results to a body of recent publications on IC 1613 and find no statistically significant difference between the distances derived from Population I and II stars. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs #10505 and #13691. Additional observations are credited to the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington for the use of Magellan-Baade IMACS. Presented as part of a dissertation to the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Ph.D. degree.

  9. Testing spatial theories of plant coexistence: no consistent differences in intra- and interspecific interaction distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Deborah R; Murrell, David J; Stoll, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Plants stand still and interact with their immediate neighbors. Theory has shown that the distances over which these interactions occur may have important consequences for population and community dynamics. In particular, if intraspecific competition occurs over longer distances than interspecific competition (heteromyopia), coexistence can be promoted. We examined how intraspecific and interspecific competition scales with neighbor distance in a target-neighbor greenhouse competition experiment. Individuals from co-occurring forbs from calcareous grasslands were grown in isolation and with single conspecific or heterospecific neighbors at distances of 5, 10, or 15 cm (Plantago lanceolata vs. Plantago media and Hieracium pilosella vs. Prunella grandiflora). Neighbor effects were strong and declined with distance. Interaction distances varied greatly within and between species, but we found no evidence for heteromyopia. Instead, neighbor identity effects were mostly explained by relative size differences between target and neighbor. We found a complex interaction between final neighbor size and identity such that neighbor identity may become important only as the neighbor becomes very large compared with the target individual. Our results suggest that species-specific size differences between neighboring individuals determine both the strength of competitive interactions and the distance over which these interactions occur.

  10. Restoration thinning and influence of tree size and leaf area to sapwood area ratio on water relations of Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, K; Kolb, T E; Montes-Helu, M; Koch, G W

    2006-04-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws) forest stand density has increased significantly over the last century (Covington et al. 1997). To understand the effect of increased intraspecific competition, tree size (height and diameter at breast height (DBH)) and leaf area to sapwood area ratio (A(L):A(S)) on water relations, we compared hydraulic conductance from soil to leaf (kl) and transpiration per unit leaf area (Q(L)) of ponderosa pine trees in an unthinned plot to trees in a thinned plot in the first and second years after thinning in a dense Arizona forest. We calculated kl and Q(L) based on whole- tree sap flux measured with heat dissipation sensors. Thinning increased tree predawn water potential within two weeks of treatment. Effects of thinning on kl and Q(L) depended on DBH, A(L):A(S) and drought severity. During severe drought in the first growing season after thinning, kl and Q(L) of trees with low A(L):A(S) (160-250 mm DBH; 9-11 m height) were lower in the thinned plot than the unthinned plot, suggesting a reduction in stomatal conductance (g(s)) or reduced sapwood specific conductivity (K(S)), or both, in response to thinning. In contrast kl and Q(L) were similar in the thinned plot and unthinned plot for trees with high A(L):A(S) (260-360 mm DBH; 13-16 m height). During non-drought periods, kl and Q(L) were greater in the thinned plot than in the unthinned plot for all but the largest trees. Contrary to previous studies of ponderosa pine, A(L):A(S) was positively correlated with tree height and DBH. Furthermore, kl and Q(L) showed a weak negative correlation with tree height and a strong negative correlation with A(S) and thus A(L):A(S) in both the thinned and unthinned plots, suggesting that trees with high A(L):A(S) had lower g(s). Our results highlight the important influence of stand competitive environment on tree-size-related variation in A(L):A(S) and the roles of A(L):A(S) and drought on whole-tree water relations in response to

  11. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Ideal Body Size and Related Attitudes among Asians, Native Hawaiians, and Whites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takishima-Lacasa, Julie Y; Latner, Janet D; Grandinetti, Andrew; Keawe‘aimoku Kaholokula, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Often overlooked explanations for the varied obesity rates across ethno-cultural groups include differences in attitudes toward excess weight, with certain populations assumed to have larger ideal body sizes (IBS). Past studies found ethnic and gender difference in IBS across and within different groups. This study examined the effects of ethnicity and gender, and their interaction, in accounting for differences in IBS and attitudes toward those ideals. Multiple regression analyses were used to better understand the effects of ethnicity and gender in accounting for differences in perceived IBS according to ethnic-specific and Western ideals and attitudes in 1,124 people of Native Hawaiian, Filipino, Japanese, and White ancestry. The analyses controlled for socio-demographics, body mass index, health-related behaviors, and psychosocial variables. The results indicated that Native Hawaiians selected larger ethnic IBS, Filipinos selected smaller ethnic IBS, and Native Hawaiians selected slightly smaller Western IBS than other ethnic groups. Overall, males selected larger IBS compared to females. Interaction analyses indicated that the relationship between ethnic IBS and attitude toward that IBS varied as a function of ethnicity, such that Native Hawaiians who selected a larger ethnic IBS held less favorable attitudes toward that IBS. The discrepancy between Native Hawaiians' selection of larger ethnic IBS as ideal and their less positive attitude toward that selection warrants more investigation. However, it does suggest that Native Hawaiians, on a personal level, do not prefer larger body sizes, which contradicts their perceptions of social norms. These findings have important implications for obesity interventions among Native Hawaiians. PMID:25157324

  12. FR-type radio sources in COSMOS: relation of radio structure to size, accretion modes and large-scale environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulaki, Eleni; Faustino Jimenez Andrade, Eric; Delvecchio, Ivan; Karim, Alexander; Smolčić, Vernesa; Magnelli, Benjamin; Bertoldi, Frank; Schinnener, Eva; Sargent, Mark; Finoguenov, Alexis; VLA COSMOS Team

    2018-01-01

    The radio sources associated with active galactic nuclei (AGN) can exhibit a variety of radio structures, from simple to more complex, giving rise to a variety of classification schemes. The question which still remains open, given deeper surveys revealing new populations of radio sources, is whether this plethora of radio structures can be attributed to the physical properties of the host or to the environment. Here we present an analysis on the radio structure of radio-selected AGN from the VLA-COSMOS Large Project at 3 GHz (JVLA-COSMOS; Smolčić et al.) in relation to: 1) their linear projected size, 2) the Eddington ratio, and 3) the environment their hosts lie within. We classify these as FRI (jet-like) and FRII (lobe-like) based on the FR-type classification scheme, and compare them to a sample of jet-less radio AGN in JVLA-COSMOS. We measure their linear projected sizes using a semi-automatic machine learning technique. Their Eddington ratios are calculated from X-ray data available for COSMOS. As environmental probes we take the X-ray groups (hundreds kpc) and the density fields (~Mpc-scale) in COSMOS. We find that FRII radio sources are on average larger than FRIs, which agrees with literature. But contrary to past studies, we find no dichotomy in FR objects in JVLA-COSMOS given their Eddington ratios, as on average they exhibit similar values. Furthermore our results show that the large-scale environment does not explain the observed dichotomy in lobe- and jet-like FR-type objects as both types are found on similar environments, but it does affect the shape of the radio structure introducing bents for objects closer to the centre of an X-ray group.

  13. Ethnic and gender differences in ideal body size and related attitudes among Asians, Native Hawaiians, and Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Claire; Takishima-Lacasa, Julie Y; Latner, Janet D; Grandinetti, Andrew; Keawe'aimoku Kaholokula, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Often overlooked explanations for the varied obesity rates across ethno-cultural groups include differences in attitudes toward excess weight, with certain populations assumed to have larger ideal body sizes (IBS). Past studies found ethnic and gender difference in IBS across and within different groups. This study examined the effects of ethnicity and gender, and their interaction, in accounting for differences in IBS and attitudes toward those ideals. Multiple regression analyses were used to better understand the effects of ethnicity and gender in accounting for differences in perceived IBS according to ethnic-specific and Western ideals and attitudes in 1,124 people of Native Hawaiian, Filipino, Japanese, and White ancestry. The analyses controlled for socio-demographics, body mass index, health-related behaviors, and psychosocial variables. The results indicated that Native Hawaiians selected larger ethnic IBS, Filipinos selected smaller ethnic IBS, and Native Hawaiians selected slightly smaller Western IBS than other ethnic groups. Overall, males selected larger IBS compared to females. Interaction analyses indicated that the relationship between ethnic IBS and attitude toward that IBS varied as a function of ethnicity, such that Native Hawaiians who selected a larger ethnic IBS held less favorable attitudes toward that IBS. The discrepancy between Native Hawaiians' selection of larger ethnic IBS as ideal and their less positive attitude toward that selection warrants more investigation. However, it does suggest that Native Hawaiians, on a personal level, do not prefer larger body sizes, which contradicts their perceptions of social norms. These findings have important implications for obesity interventions among Native Hawaiians.

  14. Predatory functional morphology in raptors: interdigital variation in talon size is related to prey restraint and immobilisation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Denver W; Freedman, Elizabeth A; Scannella, John B

    2009-11-25

    Despite the ubiquity of raptors in terrestrial ecosystems, many aspects of their predatory behaviour remain poorly understood. Surprisingly little is known about the morphology of raptor talons and how they are employed during feeding behaviour. Talon size variation among digits can be used to distinguish families of raptors and is related to different techniques of prey restraint and immobilisation. The hypertrophied talons on digits (D) I and II in Accipitridae have evolved primarily to restrain large struggling prey while they are immobilised by dismemberment. Falconidae have only modest talons on each digit and only slightly enlarged D-I and II. For immobilisation, Falconini rely more strongly on strike impact and breaking the necks of their prey, having evolved a 'tooth' on the beak to aid in doing so. Pandionidae have enlarged, highly recurved talons on each digit, an adaptation for piscivory, convergently seen to a lesser extent in fishing eagles. Strigiformes bear enlarged talons with comparatively low curvature on each digit, part of a suite of adaptations to increase constriction efficiency by maximising grip strength, indicative of specialisation on small prey. Restraint and immobilisation strategy change as prey increase in size. Small prey are restrained by containment within the foot and immobilised by constriction and beak attacks. Large prey are restrained by pinning under the bodyweight of the raptor, maintaining grip with the talons, and immobilised by dismemberment (Accipitridae), or severing the spinal cord (Falconini). Within all raptors, physical attributes of the feet trade off against each other to attain great strength, but it is the variable means by which this is achieved that distinguishes them ecologically. Our findings show that interdigital talon morphology varies consistently among raptor families, and that this is directly correlative with variation in their typical prey capture and restraint strategy.

  15. Metabolic rate of nocturnal incubation in female great tits, Parus major, in relation to clutch size measured in a natural environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heij, Maaike E.; van der Graaf, Alexandra J.; Hafner, Dennis; Tinbergen, Joost M.

    2007-01-01

    To study the energetic costs of incubation in relation to clutch size, clutch sizes were manipulated and the metabolic rate of female great tits, Parus major (Linnaeus), during nocturnal incubation (MRinc) was measured using mobile oxygen analysers. Individuals were measured on consecutive nights

  16. A Streaming Distance Transform Algorithm for Neighborhood-Sequence Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Normand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe an algorithm that computes a “translated” 2D Neighborhood-Sequence Distance Transform (DT using a look up table approach. It requires a single raster scan of the input image and produces one line of output for every line of input. The neighborhood sequence is specified either by providing one period of some integer periodic sequence or by providing the rate of appearance of neighborhoods. The full algorithm optionally derives the regular (centered DT from the “translated” DT, providing the result image on-the-fly, with a minimal delay, before the input image is fully processed. Its efficiency can benefit all applications that use neighborhood- sequence distances, particularly when pipelined processing architectures are involved, or when the size of objects in the source image is limited.

  17. Numerical distance protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ziegler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s

  18. Interaction in Distance Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz Yuksekdag, Belgin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine psychiatry nurses' attitudes toward the interactions in distance nursing education, and also scrunize their attitudes based on demographics and computer/Internet usage. The comparative relational scanning model is the method of this study. The research data were collected through "The Scale of Attitudes of…

  19. Comparing the Distance Learning-Related Course Development Approach and Faculty Support and Rewards Structure at AACSB Accredited Institutions between 2001 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Perreault, Ed.D.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The study compared the support and rewards provided faculty members for online course teaching and the development approaches used at business schools accredited by AACSB between 2001 and 2006. Data were collected from 81 professors in 2001 and 140 professors in 2006. The professors were involved in developing or teaching online courses at AACSB business schools across the United States. The findings indicate that faculty members received limited support and are not taking advantage of training options. Faculty members are most likely rewarded for their involvement in distance learning through stipends based on the number of online sections taught. Little has changed during the five-year period in regards to course development. Faculty members continue to use an individual instead of a team approach to course development and most faculty members learned online course development and delivery techniques on their own.

  20. Nuclei size in relation to nuclear status and aneuploidy rate for 13 chromosomes in donated four cells embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, I.E.; Hnida, C.; Cruger, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The aim was to elucidate if the nuclear size and number are indicative of aberrant chromosome content in human blastomeres and embryos. Methods The number of nuclei and the nucleus and blastomere size were measured by a computer controlled system for multilevel analysis. Then the nuclei...... were enumerated for 13 chromosomes by a combination of PNA and DNA probes. Results In the mononucleated embryos there was no difference in the mean size of chromosomally normal and abnormal nuclei but a significant difference in the mean nuclei size of nuclei that had gained chromosomes compared...... to nuclei that had lost chromosomes. The nuclei from multinucleated blastomeres had a significant smaller mean size and the frequency of chromosomally aberrant blastomeres was significantly higher. Conclusion The mean nuclear size is not a marker for the chromosome content in mononucleated embryos. However...

  1. Geodesic distance in planar graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouttier, J.; Di Francesco, P.; Guitter, E.

    2003-01-01

    We derive the exact generating function for planar maps (genus zero fatgraphs) with vertices of arbitrary even valence and with two marked points at a fixed geodesic distance. This is done in a purely combinatorial way based on a bijection with decorated trees, leading to a recursion relation on the geodesic distance. The latter is solved exactly in terms of discrete soliton-like expressions, suggesting an underlying integrable structure. We extract from this solution the fractal dimensions at the various (multi)-critical points, as well as the precise scaling forms of the continuum two-point functions and the probability distributions for the geodesic distance in (multi)-critical random surfaces. The two-point functions are shown to obey differential equations involving the residues of the KdV hierarchy

  2. Intra-uterine insemination: pregnancy rate in relation to number, size of pre-ovulatory follicles and day of insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppaswamy, J; Smedley, Mamin; Carter, Lindsay

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the pregnancy rate in intra-uterine insemination (IUI) in relation to pre-ovulatory follicular number, size and day of insemination. A retrospective analysis of 216 completed IUI cycles was used in an attempt to identify significant variables predictive of treatment success. Couples with unexplained infertility and male factor infertility underwent IUI with or without ovarian stimulation. The mean number of IUI cycles per patient was 4.1, the overall pregnancy rate was 27.3% per patient, and the pregnancy rate per cycle was 6.9%. The pregnancy rate was 4.4% when one follicle was produced, whereas with more than two follicles, the rate increased to 21.2%. Hormonal stimulation using clomiphene citrate and/or human menopausal gonadotrophin/follicle stimulating hormone yielded a significant higher pregnancy rate compared to IUI in natural cycles (10.3% versus 3.3%). Although not statistically significant, the pregnancy rate decreased with advancing age of woman. The results suggest that IUI is a useful method of assisted conception in unexplained infertility and higher pregnancy rates can be achieved with good patient selection and ovarian stimulation.

  3. Effectiveness of a Comprehensive Stress Management Program to Reduce Work-Related Stress in a Medium-Sized Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive workplace stress management program consisting of participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) and individual management. Methods A comprehensive workplace stress management program was conducted in a medium-sized enterprise. The baseline survey was conducted in September 2011, using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) and Worker’s Stress Response Inventory (WSRI). After implementing both organizational and individual level interventions, the follow up evaluation was conducted in November 2011. Results Most of the workers participated in the organizational level PAOT and made Team-based improvement plans. Based on the stress survey, 24 workers were interviewed by a researcher. After the organizational and individual level interventions, there was a reduction of several adverse psychosocial factors and stress responses. In the case of blue-collar workers, psychosocial factors such as the physical environment, job demands, organizational system, lack of rewards, and occupational climate were significantly improved; in the case of white-collar workers, the occupational climate was improved. Conclusions In light of these results, we concluded that the comprehensive stress management program was effective in reducing work-related stress in a short-term period. A persistent long-term follow up is necessary to determine whether the observed effects are maintained over time. Both team-based improvement activities and individual interviews have to be sustainable and complementary to each other under the long-term plan. PMID:24524591

  4. Effectiveness of a comprehensive stress management program to reduce work-related stress in a medium-sized enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shin-Ae; Suh, Chunhui; Park, Mi-Hee; Kim, Kunhyung; Lee, Chae-Kwan; Son, Byung-Chul; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Jong-Tae; Woo, Kuck-Hyun; Kang, Kabsoon; Jung, Hyunjin

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive workplace stress management program consisting of participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) and individual management. A comprehensive workplace stress management program was conducted in a medium-sized enterprise. The baseline survey was conducted in September 2011, using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) and Worker's Stress Response Inventory (WSRI). After implementing both organizational and individual level interventions, the follow up evaluation was conducted in November 2011. Most of the workers participated in the organizational level PAOT and made Team-based improvement plans. Based on the stress survey, 24 workers were interviewed by a researcher. After the organizational and individual level interventions, there was a reduction of several adverse psychosocial factors and stress responses. In the case of blue-collar workers, psychosocial factors such as the physical environment, job demands, organizational system, lack of rewards, and occupational climate were significantly improved; in the case of white-collar workers, the occupational climate was improved. In light of these results, we concluded that the comprehensive stress management program was effective in reducing work-related stress in a short-term period. A persistent long-term follow up is necessary to determine whether the observed effects are maintained over time. Both team-based improvement activities and individual interviews have to be sustainable and complementary to each other under the long-term plan.

  5. Computing Distances between Probabilistic Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Tracol

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present relaxed notions of simulation and bisimulation on Probabilistic Automata (PA, that allow some error epsilon. When epsilon is zero we retrieve the usual notions of bisimulation and simulation on PAs. We give logical characterisations of these notions by choosing suitable logics which differ from the elementary ones, L with negation and L without negation, by the modal operator. Using flow networks, we show how to compute the relations in PTIME. This allows the definition of an efficiently computable non-discounted distance between the states of a PA. A natural modification of this distance is introduced, to obtain a discounted distance, which weakens the influence of long term transitions. We compare our notions of distance to others previously defined and illustrate our approach on various examples. We also show that our distance is not expansive with respect to process algebra operators. Although L without negation is a suitable logic to characterise epsilon-(bisimulation on deterministic PAs, it is not for general PAs; interestingly, we prove that it does characterise weaker notions, called a priori epsilon-(bisimulation, which we prove to be NP-difficult to decide.

  6. ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  7. Distance-transitive graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, A.M.; Beineke, L.W.; Wilson, R.J.; Cameron, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we investigate the classification of distance-transitive graphs: these are graphs whose automorphism groups are transitive on each of the sets of pairs of vertices at distance i, for i = 0, 1,.... We provide an introduction into the field. By use of the classification of finite

  8. Distance Education in Entwicklungslandern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German Foundation for International Development, Bonn (West Germany).

    Seminar and conference reports and working papers on distance education of adults, which reflect the experiences of many countries, are presented. Contents include the draft report of the 1979 International Seminar on Distance Education held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, which was jointly sponsored by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa…

  9. Encyclopedia of distances

    CERN Document Server

    Deza, Michel Marie

    2009-01-01

    Distance metrics and distances have become an essential tool in many areas of pure and applied Mathematics. This title offers both independent introductions and definitions, while at the same time making cross-referencing easy through hyperlink-like boldfaced references to original definitions.

  10. Distance Education in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR,

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Distance Education in Turkey Assistant Professor Dr. Nursel Selver RUZGAR Technical Education Faculty Marmara University, TURKEY ABSTRACT Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by internet, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural aspect of the view. Then, in order to create the tendencies and thoughts of graduates of Higher Education Institutions and Distance Education Institutions about being competitors in job markets, sufficiency of education level, advantages for education system, continuing education in different Institutions, a face-to-face survey was applied to 1284 graduates, 958 from Higher Education Institutions and 326 from Distance Education Institutions. The results were evaluated and discussed. In the last part of this work, suggestions to become widespread and improve the distance education in the country were made.

  11. Container Type Influences the Relative Abundance, Body Size, and Susceptibility of Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to La Crosse Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bara, Jeffrey J; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2015-05-01

    Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say), the primary vector of La Crosse virus (LAC), develops in a variety of natural and artificial aquatic containers where it often co-occurs with larvae of other mosquito species. We conducted a field study at two woodlots (South Farms and Trelease Woods) in Urbana, IL, to examine how container type influences vector abundance, body size, and susceptibility to LAC. Mosquito pupae were collected from tree holes, plastic bins, and waste tires, and eclosing adults were identified to species morphologically. Oc. triseriatus and Ochlerotatus japonicus (Theobald) females were orally challenged with LAC and midgut infection rate, disseminated infection rate, and body titer were determined by reverse-transcriptase real-time PCR. Oc. triseriatus was the dominant species collected in tree holes while Oc. japonicus and Culex restuans (Theobald) were mostly dominant in artificial containers. Female Oc. triseriatus and Oc. japonicus collected from plastic bins were significantly larger than those collected from tree holes or waste tires. Oc. japonicus females from South Farms were also significantly larger than those from Trelease Woods. Oc. triseriatus females collected from plastic bins and waste tires were significantly more susceptible to LAC infection relative to females collected from tree holes. In addition, Oc. triseriatus females from waste tires had significantly higher LAC titer relative to Oc. triseriatus from tree holes. For each container type and study site, wing length was not correlated to infection or dissemination rates. These findings suggest that the container type in which Oc.triseriatus develop may contribute to the spatial and temporal dynamics of LAC transmission. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Does Class Size in First Grade Relate to Children's Academic and Social Performance or Observed Classroom Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhusen, Virginia; Belsky, Jay; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn L.; Bradley, Robert; Brownwell, Celia A; Burchinal, Margaret; Campbell, Susan B.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison; Cox, Martha; Friedman, Sarah L.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn; Houts, Renate M.; Huston, Aletha; Jaeger, Elizabeth; Johnson, Deborah J.; Kelly, Jean F.; Knoke, Bonnie; Marshall, Nancy; McCartney, Kathleen; Morrison, Frederick J.; O'Brien, Marion; Tresch Owen, Margaret; Payne, Chris; Phillips, Deborah; Pianta, Robert; Randolph, Suzanne M.; Robeson, Wendy W.; Spieker, Susan; Lowe Vandell, Deborah; Weinraub, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which first-grade class size predicted child outcomes and observed classroom processes for 651 children (in separate classrooms). Analyses examined observed child-adult ratios and teacher-reported class sizes. Smaller classrooms showed higher quality instructional and emotional support, although children were…

  13. The effect of host developmental stage at parasitism on sex-related size differentiation in a larval endoparasitoid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Harvey, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    1. For their larval development, parasitoids depend on the quality and quantity of resources provided by a single host. Therefore, a close relationship is predicted between the size of the host at parasitism and the size of the emerging adult wasp. This relationship is less clear for koinobiont than

  14. Relationship between particle size and radiocesium in fluvial suspended sediment related to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuya Tanaka

    2014-01-01

    We collected fluvial suspended sediments in Fukushima after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident and analyzed the 137 Cs concentration in bulk and size-fractioned samples to investigate the particle-size-dependent distribution of radiocesium. The 137 Cs concentration in bulk suspended sediments decreased from August to December 2011, possibly reflecting a decrease of radiocesium concentration in its source materials. Smaller particles had higher radiocesium concentrations, reflecting larger specific surface areas. Silt- and sand-size fractions occupied more than 95 % of the total 137 Cs in the suspended sediments. The contribution of clay-size fractions, which had the highest 137 Cs concentration, was quite small because of their low frequency. A line of the data showed that the particle size distribution of radiocesium was essential to evaluate the migration and distribution of radiocesium in river systems where radiocesium is mainly present as particulate form after the FDNPP accident. (author)

  15. Differential identification of atypical pneumonia pathogens in aorta and internal mammary artery related to ankle brachial index and walking distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriz, Erkan; Cirak, Meltem Yalinay; Zor, Mustafa Hakan; Engin, Doruk; Oktar, Levent; Unal, Yusuf

    2013-08-01

    We studied the existence of agents in aorta biopsies, such as Chlamydia pneumoniae, cytomegalovirus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, that are thought to have a role in atherosclerosis etiopathogenesis role, and their association with peripheral artery disease. We examined aorta wall and internal mammarian artery (IMA) biopsies taken from two different places in 63 patients in whom coronary artery bypass was performed. In these biopsies, we evaluated the deoxyribonuclease (DNA) of these microorganisms using polymerase chain reaction. From the same patients, we recorded the ankle brachial index, road walking distance information, lipid profile, C-reactive proteins, blood parameters such as fibrinogen, and the patient's operation data. In the nine aorta biopsies taken from 63 patients, we isolated C pneumoniae DNA. In IMA biopsies taken from the same patients, we detected no microorganism DNA (P artery disease. In the development of atherosclerosis with C pneumoniae, there may be a determinant pathogen in both the aorta and the peripheral arteries. The nonexistence of C pneumoniae DNA in the IMA biopsies may indicate infectious agents because of the predominant endothelial functions in this artery, and thus its resistance to atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Resource use by the facultative lepidophage Roeboides affinis (Günther, 1868: a comparison of size classes, seasons and environment types related to impoundment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam P. Albrecht

    Full Text Available We report the consumption of scales and other food resources by the facultative lepidophage Roeboides affinis in the upper Tocantins River where it was impounded by the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric Dam. We compared the diet among size classes, between dry and wet seasons, and between sites with distinct water flow characteristics (lotic vs. lentic related to the distance from the dam and phase of reservoir development. As transparency and fish abundance increased after impoundment, we expected a higher consumption of scales in lentic sites. Likewise, habitat contraction, higher transparency and decrease in terrestrial resources availability, would promote a higher consumption of scales. Scales were consumed by 92% of individuals and represented 26% of the total volume of resources ingested by R. affinis. Diet composition varied significantly among size classes, with larger individuals consuming more scales and larger items, especially odonatans and ephemeropterans. Scale consumption was not significantly different between dry and wet seasons. Roeboides affinis incorporated some food items into the diet as a response to the impoundment, like other species. Scale consumption was higher in lotic sites, refuting our initial hypothesis, what suggests that the lepidophagous habit is related the rheophilic nature of R. affinis.Caracterizamos o consumo de escamas e outros recursos alimentares por Roeboides affinis, um lepidófago facultativo, no alto rio Tocantins, na região represada pela Usina Hidrelétrica de Serra da Mesa. A dieta foi avaliada em relação a classes de tamanho, estações chuvosa e seca, e entre locais com características distintas de fluxo d'água (lótico vs. lêntico relacionadas com a distância da barragem e fase de desenvolvimento do reservatório. Com o aumento da abundância de peixes e da transparência da água após o represamento, esperamos um maior consumo de escamas nos locais lênticos. Da mesma forma, na época seca

  17. Control of cell proliferation, endoreduplication, cell size, and cell death by the retinoblastoma-related pathway in maize endosperm

    KAUST Repository

    Sabelli, Paolo A.

    2013-04-22

    The endospermof cereal grains is one of the most valuable products of modern agriculture. Cereal endosperm development comprises different phases characterized by mitotic cell proliferation, endoreduplication, the accumulation of storage compounds, and programmed cell death. Although manipulation of these processes could maximize grain yield, how they are regulated and integrated is poorly understood. We show that the Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) pathway controls key aspects of endosperm development in maize. Down-regulation of RBR1 by RNAi resulted in up-regulation of RBR3-type genes, as well as the MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE 2-7 gene family and PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN, which encode essential DNA replication factors. Both the mitotic and endoreduplication cell cycles were stimulated. Developing transgenic endosperm contained 42-58% more cells and ~70% more DNA than wild type, whereas there was a reduction in cell and nuclear sizes. In addition, cell death was enhanced. The DNA content of mature endosperm increased 43% upon RBR1 downregulation, whereas storage protein content and kernel weight were essentially not affected. Down-regulation of both RBR1 and CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASE A (CDKA);1 indicated that CDKA;1 is epistatic to RBR1 and controls endoreduplication through an RBR1- dependent pathway. However, the repressive activity of RBR1 on downstream targets was independent from CDKA;1, suggesting diversification of RBR1 activities. Furthermore, RBR1 negatively regulated CDK activity, suggesting the presence of a feedback loop. These results indicate that the RBR1 pathway plays a major role in regulation of different processes during maize endosperm development and suggest the presence of tissue/organlevel regulation of endosperm/seed homeostasis.

  18. Distancing from experienced self: how global-versus-local perception affects estimation of psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Förster, Jens

    2009-08-01

    In 4 studies, the authors examined the prediction derived from construal level theory (CLT) that higher level of perceptual construal would enhance estimated egocentric psychological distance. The authors primed participants with global perception, local perception, or both (the control condition). Relative to the control condition, global processing made participants estimate larger psychological distances in time (Study 1), space (Study 2), social distance (Study 3), and hypotheticality (Study 4). Local processing had the opposite effect. Consistent with CLT, all studies show that the effect of global-versus-local processing did emerge when participants estimated egocentric distances, which are distances from the experienced self in the here and now, but did not emerge with temporal distances not from now (Study 1), spatial distances not from here (Study 2), social distances not from the self (Study 3), or hypothetical events that did not involve altering an experienced reality (Study 4).

  19. Long-distance calls in Neotropical primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Dilmar A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance calls are widespread among primates. Several studies concentrate on such calls in just one or in few species, while few studies have treated more general trends within the order. The common features that usually characterize these vocalizations are related to long-distance propagation of sounds. The proposed functions of primate long-distance calls can be divided into extragroup and intragroup ones. Extragroup functions relate to mate defense, mate attraction or resource defense, while intragroup functions involve group coordination or alarm. Among Neotropical primates, several species perform long-distance calls that seem more related to intragroup coordination, markedly in atelines. Callitrichids present long-distance calls that are employed both in intragroup coordination and intergroup contests or spacing. Examples of extragroup directed long-distance calls are the duets of titi monkeys and the roars and barks of howler monkeys. Considerable complexity and gradation exist in the long-distance call repertoires of some Neotropical primates, and female long-distance calls are probably more important in non-duetting species than usually thought. Future research must focus on larger trends in the evolution of primate long-distance calls, including the phylogeny of calling repertoires and the relationships between form and function in these signals.

  20. REPRESENTATIONS OF DISTANCE: DIFFERENCES IN UNDERSTANDING DISTANCE ACCORDING TO TRAVEL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunvor Riber Larsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how Danish tourists represent distance in relation to their holiday mobility and how these representations of distance are a result of being aero-mobile as opposed to being land-mobile. Based on interviews with Danish tourists, whose holiday mobility ranges from the European continent to global destinations, the first part of this qualitative study identifies three categories of representations of distance that show how distance is being ‘translated’ by the tourists into non-geometric forms: distance as resources, distance as accessibility, and distance as knowledge. The representations of distance articulated by the Danish tourists show that distance is often not viewed in ‘just’ kilometres. Rather, it is understood in forms that express how transcending the physical distance through holiday mobility is dependent on individual social and economic contexts, and on whether the journey was undertaken by air or land. The analysis also shows that being aeromobile is the holiday transportation mode that removes the tourists the furthest away from physical distance, resulting in the distance travelled by air being represented in ways that have the least correlation, in the tourists’ minds, with physical distance measured in kilometres.

  1. Conceptualizing Astronomical Distances for Urban Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popinchalk, Mark; Olson, Kristen; Ingber, Jenny; O'Brien, Mariel

    2017-01-01

    Students living in urban environments may have a washed-out night sky, but their enthusiasm for astronomy can still shine bright. As an educator, it can sometimes be a challenge to see the opportunities afforded by city living to the teaching of astronomy; however, several benefits can be identified. For example, the intrinsic understanding children have of the distances and scales involved in their everyday life is enhanced when they live in a regimented urban structure. This existing understanding of scale is critical to building a foundation for later conceptualizing of the universe.Leveraging the assets of New York City and the resources found in the American Museum of Natural History, The Science and Nature Program offers students (PreK through 8th grade) robust science learning experiences. To address concepts important for studying astronomy, we present a novel twist on the classic lesson “Earth as a Peppercorn,” by scaling the solar system to the size of New York City. Using local landmarks and their distance in relation to the Museum to represent the planets, students can use their prior knowledge of their surroundings to appreciate the impressive scale of our neighborhood in space in the context of their own neighborhoods. We correlate the activity with NGSS standards, present preliminary feedback on it’s success, and discuss the opportunities to apply a similar model lesson to other astronomical systems.

  2. Information Value Distance and Crisis Management Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Herbane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizational learning during and post-crisis is well established in the management literature but consideration of learning for crisis and the sources of information perceived to be useful for crisis management planning have not previously been examined. This study evaluates data from 215 U.K.-based small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs about the perceived value of 11 sources of information between planning (i.e., firms with a crisis management plan and non-planning respondents. For planning firms, the information sources considered to be useful are exclusively experience-based, and when information sources become less idiosyncratic and episodic, planning firms’ evaluations of their value begin to approximate the ratings given by non-planning firms. Furthermore, the concepts of relative value distance and value distance from threshold are original features of this study and offer new ways to evaluate the value of information sources for organizations wishing to provide information and support to improve business resilience and business continuity.

  3. Sampling and systematic error in a burrow index to measure relative population size in the common vole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lisická, L.; Heroldová, Marta; Losík, J.; Tkadlec, Emil

    -, supp. (2006), s. 81 ISSN 1825-5272. [Rodens & Spatium /10./. 24.07.2006-28.07.2006, Parma] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : common vole * population size Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. The Role of Equivalence and Order Relations in the Development and Coordination of the Concepts of Unit Size and Number of Units in Selected Conservation Type Measurement Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Thomas P.

    The major purpose of this study was 1) to investigate the development of the concept of a unit of measure and the coordination of unit size and the number of units 2) to relate this development to the development of conservation and 3) to determine the role of equivalence and nonequivalence relations in certain conservation and measurement…

  5. Motivation in Distance Leaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brečko

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that motivation is one of the most important psychological functions making it possible for people to leam even in conditions that do not meet their needs. In distance learning, a form of autonomous learning, motivation is of outmost importance. When adopting this method in learning an individual has to stimulate himself and take learning decisions on his or her own. These specific characteristics of distance learning should be taken into account. This all different factors maintaining the motivation of partici­pants in distance learning are to be included. Moreover, motivation in distance learning can be stimulated with specific learning materials, clear instructions and guide-lines, an efficient feed back, personal contact between tutors and parti­cipants, stimulating learning letters, telephone calls, encouraging letters and through maintaining a positive relationship between tutor and participant.

  6. Long distance quantum teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiu-Xiu; Sun, Qi-Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is a core protocol in quantum information science. Besides revealing the fascinating feature of quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation provides an ultimate way to distribute quantum state over extremely long distance, which is crucial for global quantum communication and future quantum networks. In this review, we focus on the long distance quantum teleportation experiments, especially those employing photonic qubits. From the viewpoint of real-world application, both the technical advantages and disadvantages of these experiments are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of Distance Measures Between Gaussian Mixture Models of MFCCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Højvang; Ellis, Dan P. W.; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2007-01-01

    In music similarity and in the related task of genre classification, a distance measure between Gaussian mixture models is frequently needed. We present a comparison of the Kullback-Leibler distance, the earth movers distance and the normalized L2 distance for this application. Although...

  8. Relation of sortable silt grain-size to deep-sea current speeds: Calibration of the 'Mud Current Meter'

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCave, I. N.; Thornalley, D. J. R.; Hall, I. R.

    2017-09-01

    Fine grain-size parameters have been used for inference of palaeoflow speeds of near-bottom currents in the deep-sea. The basic idea stems from observations of varying sediment size parameters on a continental margin with a gradient from slower flow speeds at shallower depths to faster at deeper. In the deep-sea, size-sorting occurs during deposition after benthic storm resuspension events. At flow speeds below 10-15 cm s-1 mean grain-size in the terrigenous non-cohesive 'sortable silt' range (denoted by SS bar , mean of 10-63 μm) is controlled by selective deposition, whereas above that range removal of finer material by winnowing is also argued to play a role. A calibration of the SS bar grain-size flow speed proxy based on sediment samples taken adjacent to sites of long-term current meters set within 100 m of the sea bed for more than a year is presented here. Grain-size has been measured by either Sedigraph or Coulter Counter, in some cases both, between which there is an excellent correlation for SS bar (r = 0.96). Size-speed data indicate calibration relationships with an overall sensitivity of 1.36 ± 0.19 cm s-1/μm. A calibration line comprising 12 points including 9 from the Iceland overflow region is well defined, but at least two other smaller groups (Weddell/Scotia Sea and NW Atlantic continental rise/Rockall Trough) are fitted by sub-parallel lines with a smaller constant. This suggests a possible influence of the calibre of material supplied to the site of deposition (not the initial source supply) which, if depleted in very coarse silt (31-63 μm), would limit SS bar to smaller values for a given speed than with a broader size-spectrum supply. Local calibrations, or a core-top grain-size and local flow speed, are thus necessary to infer absolute speeds from grain-size. The trend of the calibrations diverges markedly from the slope of experimental critical erosion and deposition flow speeds versus grain-size, making it unlikely that the SS bar (or

  9. Recovery of aging-related size increase of skin epithelial cells: in vivo mouse and in vitro human study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Sokolov

    Full Text Available The size increase of skin epithelial cells during aging is well-known. Here we demonstrate that treatment of aging cells with cytochalasin B substantially decreases cell size. This decrease was demonstrated on a mouse model and on human skin cells in vitro. Six nude mice were treated by topical application of cytochalasin B on skin of the dorsal left midsection for 140 days (the right side served as control for placebo treatment. An average decrease in cell size of 56±16% resulted. A reduction of cell size was also observed on primary human skin epithelial cells of different in vitro age (passages from 1 to 8. A cell strain obtained from a pool of 6 human subjects was treated with cytochalasin B in vitro for 12 hours. We observed a decrease in cell size that became statistically significant and reached 20-40% for cells of older passage (6-8 passages whereas no substantial change was observed for younger cells. These results may be important for understanding the aging processes, and for cosmetic treatment of aging skin.

  10. Glycogen content in hepatocytes is related with their size in normal rat liver but not in cirrhotic one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezborodkina, Natalia N; Chestnova, Anna Yu; Vorobev, Mikhail L; Kudryavtsev, Boris N

    2016-04-01

    Hepatocytes differ from one another by the degree of the ploidy, size, position in the liver lobule, and level of the DNA-synthetic processes. It is believed, that the cell size exerts substantial influence on the metabolism of the hepatocytes and the glycogen content in them. The aim of the present study was to test this hypothesis. Dry weight of hepatocytes, their ploidy and glycogen content were determined in the normal and the cirrhotic rat liver. Liver cirrhosis in rats was produced by chronic inhalation of CCl4 vapours in the course of 6 months. A combined cytophotometric method was used. Dry weight of the cell, its glycogen and DNA content were successively measured on a mapped preparation. Hepatocytes of each ploidy class in the normal and the cirrhotic rat liver accumulated glycogen at the same rate. In the normal liver, there was a distinct correlation between the size of hepatocytes and glycogen content in them. This correlation was observed in each ploidy class, and was especially pronounced in the class of mononucleate tetraploid hepatocytes. In the cirrhotic liver, there was no correlation between the size of the cells and their glycogen content. The impairment of liver lobular structure probably explains the observed lack of correlation between hepatocyte size and their glycogen content in the cirrhotic liver. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  11. Designing legible fonts for distance reading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reviews existing knowledge on distance legibility of fonts, and finds that for optimal distance reading, letters and numbers benefit from relative wide shapes, open inner counters and a large x-height; fonts should further be widely spaced, and the weight should not be too heavy or t...

  12. Three short distance structures from quantum algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, A.

    1997-01-01

    Known results are reviewed and new results are given on three types of short distance structures of observables which typically appear in studies of quantum group related algebras. In particular, one of the short distance structures is shown to suggest a new mechanism for the introduction of internal symmetries

  13. Student and Faculty Issues in Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fender, David L.

    Occupational safety and health faculty and occupational safety and health professionals (i.e., the potential audience for graduate level distance education programs) were surveyed to determine the considerations for a distance education-based graduate occupational safety and health program. Findings are reported related to the demand for distance…

  14. Sensor Network Localization with Imprecise Distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, M.; Morse, A.S.; Anderson, B.D.O.

    2006-01-01

    An approach to formulate geometric relations among distances between nodes as equality constraints is introduced in this paper to study the localization problem with imprecise distance information in sensor networks. These constraints can be further used to formulate optimization problems for

  15. What Does Electronic Conferencing Afford Distance Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sally

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of technology for distance learning in higher education and examines the similarities and differences between face-to-face seminars and online discussions. Considers the concept of affordance in relation to information and communication technologies and distance education; and examines affordances of electronic conferencing and…

  16. Consultancy to dairy farmers relating to animal health and herd health management on small- and medium-sized farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, H; Nechanitzky, K; Sturmlechner, F; Drillich, M

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain information about animal health challenges for dairy farmers of small- and medium-sized herds and about the fields in which consultancy services should be improved. The hyperlink to an internet-based survey was sent to 9,021 farmers in Austria. The survey included questions about the participants and their farms, about who is consulting with the farmers with regard to animal health, feeding, sire selection, construction of barns and animal husbandry, about animal health issues farmers find most challenging, and about their demands for improved consultancy services. The questionnaire was completed anonymously. Analyses were stratified by milk yield (categorized) and whether farmers worked full-time or part-time. The overall response rate was 11.3% (n=1,018). The majority of farms kept less than 20 cows (54.0%) or 20 to 50 cows (40.1%). With regard to animal health, the veterinarian was the most important consultant for the majority of farmers (84.6%). On issues related to feeding, sire selection, and stable construction, the veterinarian was seen as a less important consultant than specialists in these fields (20.4, 11.6, and 7.9% suggested the veterinarian as an important consultant in these areas). The survey indicated that reproductive disorders, udder disease, poor conception rate, lameness, and calf diarrhea represent the most important challenges to farmers. Of these, concerns about calf diarrhea were affected by milk yield of the herds and management. More high- than low-yielding farms (11.7 vs. 6.4%) and more full-time than part-time managed herds (9.6 vs.4.3%) regarded calf diarrhea as an important problem. Farmers would welcome improved consultancy with regard to fertility, feeding, and sire selection. The results indicated which animal health issues farmers find particularly challenging and displayed which areas farmers require improved consultancy services. Veterinarians and organizations offering consultancy

  17. Indicators of abdominal size relative to height associated with sex, age, socioeconomic position and ancestry among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Henry S; Bullard, Kai McKeever

    2017-01-01

    The supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and standing waist circumference (WC) describe abdominal size. The SAD/height ratio (SADHtR) or WC/height ratio (WHtR) may better identify cardiometabolic disorders than BMI (weight/height2), but population-based distributions of SADHtR and WHtR are not widely available. Abdominal adiposity may differ by sociodemographic characteristics. Anthropometry, including SAD by sliding-beam caliper, was performed on 9894 non-pregnant adults ≥20 years in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys of 2011-2014. Applying survey design factors and sampling weights, we estimated nationally representative SADHtR and WHtR distributions by sex, age, educational attainment, and four ancestral groups. The median (10th percentile, 90th percentile) for men's SADHtR was 0.130 (0.103, 0.165) and WHtR 0.569 (0.467, 0.690). For women, median SADHtR was 0.132 (0.102, 0.175) and WHtR 0.586 (0.473, 0.738). Medians for SADHtR and WHtR increased steadily through age 79. The median BMI, however, reached maximum values at ages 40-49 (men) or 60-69 (women) and then declined. Low educational attainment, adjusted for age and ancestry, was associated with elevated SADHtR more strongly than elevated BMI. While non-Hispanic Asians had substantially lower BMI compared to all other ancestral groups (adjusted for sex, age and education), their relative reductions in SADHtR and WHtR, were less marked. These cross-sectional data are consistent with monotonically increasing abdominal adipose tissue through the years of adulthood but decreasing mass in non-abdominal regions beyond middle age. They suggest also that visceral adipose tissue, estimated by SADHtR, expands differentially in association with low socioeconomic position. Insofar as Asians have lower BMIs than other populations, employing abdominal indicators may attenuate the adiposity differences reported between ancestral groups. Documenting the distribution and sociodemographic features

  18. Visuomotor Dissociation in Cerebral Scaling of Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R E; de Jong, Bauke M

    2016-01-01

    Estimating size and distance is crucial in effective visuomotor control. The concept of an internal coordinate system implies that visual and motor size parameters are scaled onto a common template. To dissociate perceptual and motor components in such scaling, we performed an fMRI experiment in which 16 right-handed subjects copied geometric figures while the result of drawing remained out of sight. Either the size of the example figure varied while maintaining a constant size of drawing (visual incongruity) or the size of the examples remained constant while subjects were instructed to make changes in size (motor incongruity). These incongruent were compared to congruent conditions. Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8) revealed brain activations related to size incongruity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, pre-SMA / anterior cingulate and anterior insula, dominant in the right hemisphere. This pattern represented simultaneous use of a 'resized' virtual template and actual picture information requiring spatial working memory, early-stage attention shifting and inhibitory control. Activations were strongest in motor incongruity while right pre-dorsal premotor activation specifically occurred in this condition. Visual incongruity additionally relied on a ventral visual pathway. Left ventral premotor activation occurred in all variably sized drawing while constant visuomotor size, compared to congruent size variation, uniquely activated the lateral occipital cortex additional to superior parietal regions. These results highlight size as a fundamental parameter in both general hand movement and movement guided by objects perceived in the context of surrounding 3D space.

  19. Visuomotor Dissociation in Cerebral Scaling of Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan R E Potgieser

    Full Text Available Estimating size and distance is crucial in effective visuomotor control. The concept of an internal coordinate system implies that visual and motor size parameters are scaled onto a common template. To dissociate perceptual and motor components in such scaling, we performed an fMRI experiment in which 16 right-handed subjects copied geometric figures while the result of drawing remained out of sight. Either the size of the example figure varied while maintaining a constant size of drawing (visual incongruity or the size of the examples remained constant while subjects were instructed to make changes in size (motor incongruity. These incongruent were compared to congruent conditions. Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8 revealed brain activations related to size incongruity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, pre-SMA / anterior cingulate and anterior insula, dominant in the right hemisphere. This pattern represented simultaneous use of a 'resized' virtual template and actual picture information requiring spatial working memory, early-stage attention shifting and inhibitory control. Activations were strongest in motor incongruity while right pre-dorsal premotor activation specifically occurred in this condition. Visual incongruity additionally relied on a ventral visual pathway. Left ventral premotor activation occurred in all variably sized drawing while constant visuomotor size, compared to congruent size variation, uniquely activated the lateral occipital cortex additional to superior parietal regions. These results highlight size as a fundamental parameter in both general hand movement and movement guided by objects perceived in the context of surrounding 3D space.

  20. Size-related variation in arm damage frequency in the crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Rivera-Posada

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine variation in the frequency of arm damage in different sizes of Acanthaster planci (A. planci, assess how this damage is inflicted by fish predators, and infer the potential role of predation in population regulation. Methods: Diameters of A. planci collected from three sites in the Philippines were measured and arm damage frequency and severity was assessed. Frequency of arm damage was compared between sizes. Feeding behavior of fish predators was also observed in the laboratory. Results: This study demonstrates that sublethal predation by triggerfishes on A. planci result in extensive arm damage. Overall, 60% of A. planci sampled across all sites had sublethal injuries. The frequency of individuals with missing or regenerating arms was highest in medium-sized young adults (11-20 cm, which coincides with the phase where A. planci shift from cryptic to exposed daytime feeding. Conclusions: The high incidence of arm damage within intermediate-sized sea stars indicates that predators exercise some level of regulation on A. planci populations at a local scale. Identification and protection of putative predators that target the most vulnerable life history stages of A. planci are essential in developing population control strategies and reverse sustained declines in coral cover.

  1. Reactivity of ferrihydrite and ferritin in relation to surface structure, size, and nanoparticle formation studied for phosphate and arsenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, T.; Zhao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Ferritin (Ftn) is a natural protein that can store metal (hydr)oxide nanoparticles of tunable size in its cavity and bind oxyanions. This quality can be used in water purification by applying nanotechnology. As our study suggests, the adsorption behavior of engineered ferritin strongly resembles

  2. Improving fishing effort descriptors: Modelling engine power and gear-size relations of five European trawl fleets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigaard, Ole Ritzau; Rihan, Dominic; Graham, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Based on information from an international inventory of gears currently deployed by trawlers in five European countries, the relationship between vessel engine power and trawl size is quantified for different trawl types, trawling techniques and target species. Using multiplicative modelling it i...

  3. Intraspecific Allometry of Basal Metabolic Rate : Relations with Body Size, Temperature, Composition, and Circadian Phase in the Kestrel, Falco tinnunculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Masman, Dirkjan; Strijkstra, Arjen; Verhulst, Simon

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between body size and basal metabolic rate (BMR) in homeotherms has been treated in the literature primarily by comparison between species of mammals or birds. This paper focuses on the intraindividual changes in BMR when body mass (W) varies with different maintenance regimens. BMR

  4. The effect of genome size on detailed species traits within closely related species of the same habitat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 160, č. 3 (2009), s. 290-298 ISSN 0024-4074 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600050623 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : nuclear-DNA content * seed size * phylogenetic correction Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.984, year: 2009

  5. Hypercoagulation Assessed by Thromboelastography is Neither Related to Infarct Size nor to Clinical Outcome After Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dridi, Nadia Paarup; Lønborg, Jacob T; Radu, Maria D

    2014-01-01

    the index event. RESULTS: Hypercoagulation was found in 82 (35.2%) patients and was neither correlated to infarct size nor correlated to myocardial salvage index (P = .28 and .65, respectively) or clinical adverse events. Patients who experienced an adverse event during follow-up had a slightly higher TEG...

  6. The abundance and pollen foraging behaviour of bumble bees in relation to population size of whortleberry (Vaccinium uliginosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Mayer

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation can have severe effects on plant pollinator interactions, for example changing the foraging behaviour of pollinators. To date, the impact of plant population size on pollen collection by pollinators has not yet been investigated. From 2008 to 2010, we monitored nine bumble bee species (Bombus campestris, Bombus hortorum s.l., Bombus hypnorum, Bombus lapidarius, Bombus pascuorum, Bombus pratorum, Bombus soroensis, Bombus terrestris s.l., Bombus vestalis s.l. on Vaccinium uliginosum (Ericaceae in up to nine populations in Belgium ranging in size from 80 m(2 to over 3.1 ha. Bumble bee abundance declined with decreasing plant population size, and especially the proportion of individuals of large bumble bee species diminished in smaller populations. The most remarkable and novel observation was that bumble bees seemed to switch foraging behaviour according to population size: while they collected both pollen and nectar in large populations, they largely neglected pollen collection in small populations. This pattern was due to large bumble bee species, which seem thus to be more likely to suffer from pollen shortages in smaller habitat fragments. Comparing pollen loads of bumble bees we found that fidelity to V. uliginosum pollen did not depend on plant population size but rather on the extent shrub cover and/or openness of the site. Bumble bees collected pollen only from three plant species (V.uliginosum, Sorbus aucuparia and Cytisus scoparius. We also did not discover any pollination limitation of V. uliginosum in small populations. We conclude that habitat fragmentation might not immediately threaten the pollination of V. uliginosum, nevertheless, it provides important nectar and pollen resources for bumble bees and declining populations of this plant could have negative effects for its pollinators. The finding that large bumble bee species abandon pollen collection when plant populations become small is of interest when

  7. Ethnical distance in Vojvodina: Research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazar Žolt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the ethnical distance measuring in Vojvodina, the north Province of the Republic of Serbia. The measuring was carried out on autumn 2002, during realization of the wider project of multiculturalism research in the mentioned region. According to the results the ethnical distances in Vojvodina are quite equalized and they are grouped around the attitude "all the same". Vojvodinian Serbs are more favorable partners for the majority of social contacts, and the relatively largest distance is shown toward Roma. The ethnical distance results also discovers two very important factors for understanding the interethnic relations in Vojvodina: first, the "rational" kind of social contacts with the members of the other ethnical groups are more preferable for the majority of respondents, and second, they have very equal distances toward their own ethnical groups.

  8. Censoring distances based on labeled cortical distance maps in cortical morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Elvan; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Alexopolous, Dimitrios; Todd, Richard D; Botteron, Kelly N; Miller, Michael I; Ratnanather, J Tilak

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that shape differences in cortical structures may be manifested in neuropsychiatric disorders. Such morphometric differences can be measured by labeled cortical distance mapping (LCDM) which characterizes the morphometry of the laminar cortical mantle of cortical structures. LCDM data consist of signed/labeled distances of gray matter (GM) voxels with respect to GM/white matter (WM) surface. Volumes and other summary measures for each subject and the pooled distances can help determine the morphometric differences between diagnostic groups, however they do not reveal all the morphometric information contained in LCDM distances. To extract more information from LCDM data, censoring of the pooled distances is introduced for each diagnostic group where the range of LCDM distances is partitioned at a fixed increment size; and at each censoring step, the distances not exceeding the censoring distance are kept. Censored LCDM distances inherit the advantages of the pooled distances but also provide information about the location of morphometric differences which cannot be obtained from the pooled distances. However, at each step, the censored distances aggregate, which might confound the results. The influence of data aggregation is investigated with an extensive Monte Carlo simulation analysis and it is demonstrated that this influence is negligible. As an illustrative example, GM of ventral medial prefrontal cortices (VMPFCs) of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), subjects at high risk (HR) of MDD, and healthy control (Ctrl) subjects are used. A significant reduction in laminar thickness of the VMPFC in MDD and HR subjects is observed compared to Ctrl subjects. Moreover, the GM LCDM distances (i.e., locations with respect to the GM/WM surface) for which these differences start to occur are determined. The methodology is also applicable to LCDM-based morphometric measures of other cortical structures affected by disease.

  9. Censoring Distances Based on Labeled Cortical Distance Maps in Cortical Morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvan eCeyhan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that shape differences are manifested in cortical structures due to neuropsychiatric disorders. Such morphometric differences can be measured by labeled cortical distance mapping (LCDM which characterizes the morphometry of the laminar cortical mantle of cortical structures. LCDM data consist of signed/labeled distances of gray matter (GM voxels with respect to GM/white matter (WM surface. Volumes and other summary measures for each subject and the pooled distances can help determine the morphometric differences between diagnostic groups, however they do not reveal all the morphometric information con-tained in LCDM distances. To extract more information from LCDM data, censoring of the pooled distances is introduced for each diagnostic group where the range of LCDM distances is partitioned at a fixed increment size; and at each censoring step, the distances not exceeding the censoring distance are kept. Censored LCDM distances inherit the advantages of the pooled distances but also provide information about the location of morphometric differences which cannot be obtained from the pooled distances. However, at each step, the censored distances aggregate, which might confound the results. The influence of data aggregation is investigated with an extensive Monte Carlo simulation analysis and it is demonstrated that this influence is negligible. As an illustrative example, GM of ventral medial prefrontal cortices (VMPFCs of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD, subjects at high risk (HR of MDD, and healthy control (Ctrl subjects are used. A significant reduction in laminar thickness of the VMPFC in MDD and HR subjects is observed compared to Ctrl subjects. Moreover, the GM LCDM distances (i.e., locations with respect to the GM/WM surface for which these differences start to occur are determined. The methodology is also applicable to LCDM-based morphometric measures of other cortical structures affected by disease.

  10. Distance Teaching on Bornholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn J. S.; Clausen, Christian

    2001-01-01

    The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology and the organi......The case study represents an example of a top-down introduction of distance teaching as part of Danish trials with the introduction of multimedia in education. The study is concerned with the background, aim and context of the trial as well as the role and working of the technology...

  11. Theoretical Principles of Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Desmond, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers examining the didactic, academic, analytic, philosophical, and technological underpinnings of distance education: "Introduction"; "Quality and Access in Distance Education: Theoretical Considerations" (D. Randy Garrison); "Theory of Transactional Distance" (Michael G. Moore);…

  12. Relative Suitability Evaluation of Two Methods of Particle-Size Analysis for Selected Soils of Sudan Savanna of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    B. A. Lawal; B. R. Singh; G. A. Babaji; P. A. Tsado

    2013-01-01

    The two widely used methods base on the sedimentation principle (Bouyoucos hydrometer and International pipette) for particle-size analysis were comparatively evaluated on soils collected from various locations in Sudan savanna of Nigeria particularly from Sokoto and Zamfara States. The hydrometer method under-estimated the silt and over-estimated the clay content. Also, the hydrometer reading proved difficult and tended to submerge when floated for clay reading in the suspension of very sand...

  13. THE MASS-SIZE RELATION FROM CLOUDS TO CORES. I. A NEW PROBE OF STRUCTURE IN MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffmann, J.; Shetty, R.; Goodman, A. A.; Pillai, T.; Myers, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    We use a new contour-based map analysis technique to measure the mass and size of molecular cloud fragments continuously over a wide range of spatial scales (0.05 ≤ r/pc ≤ 10), i.e., from the scale of dense cores to those of entire clouds. The present paper presents the method via a detailed exploration of the Perseus molecular cloud. Dust extinction and emission data are combined to yield reliable scale-dependent measurements of mass. This scale-independent analysis approach is useful for several reasons. First, it provides a more comprehensive characterization of a map (i.e., not biased toward a particular spatial scale). Such a lack of bias is extremely useful for the joint analysis of many data sets taken with different spatial resolution. This includes comparisons between different cloud complexes. Second, the multi-scale mass-size data constitute a unique resource to derive slopes of mass-size laws (via power-law fits). Such slopes provide singular constraints on large-scale density gradients in clouds.

  14. Fast Computing for Distance Covariance

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Xiaoming; Szekely, Gabor J.

    2014-01-01

    Distance covariance and distance correlation have been widely adopted in measuring dependence of a pair of random variables or random vectors. If the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation is implemented directly accordingly to its definition then its computational complexity is O($n^2$) which is a disadvantage compared to other faster methods. In this paper we show that the computation of distance covariance and distance correlation of real valued random variables can be...

  15. The Challenges Facing Distance Students in Undertaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the challenges facing distance students in Geography field Practical projects (GFPs) at The Open University of Tanzania (OUT). A random sample size of 19 students who participated in GFP1 in 2009 and 2010 were selected from randomly sampled regional centres of Singida, Dodoma, Njombe, and ...

  16. Diet- and Body Size-related Attitudes and Behaviors Associated with Vitamin Supplement Use in a Representative Sample of Fourth-grade Students in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to examine diet- and body size-related attitudes and behaviors associated with supplement use in a representative sample of fourth-grade students in Texas. The research design consisted of cross-sectional data from the School Physical Activity and Nutrition study, ...

  17. Spatial and temporal variation in the relative contribution of density dependence, climate variation and migration to fluctuations in the size of great tit populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grøtan, V.; Sæther, B-E.; Engen, S.; van Balen, J.H.; Perdeck, A.C.; Visser, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study is to model the stochastic variation in the size of five populations of great tit Parus major in the Netherlands, using a combination of individual-based demographic data and time series of population fluctuations. We will examine relative contribution of

  18. Mitral regurgitation in myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, or both: prognostic significance and relation to ventricular size and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amigoni, Maria; Meris, Alessandra; Thune, Jens Jakob

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Mitral regurgitation (MR) confers independent risk in patients with acute myocardial infarction. We utilized data from the VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion echo study to relate baseline MR to left ventricular (LV) size, shape, and function, and to assess the relationship between...

  19. Planning with Reachable Distances

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Xinyu; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    reachable distance space (RD-space), in which all configurations lie in the set of constraint-satisfying subspaces. This enables us to directly sample the constrained subspaces with complexity linear in the robot's number of degrees of freedom. In addition

  20. De-severing distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Louise; de Neergaard, Maja

    2016-01-01

    De-severing Distance This paper draws on the growing body of mobility literature that shows how mobility can be viewed as meaningful everyday practices (Freudendal –Pedersen 2007, Cresswell 2006) this paper examines how Heidegger’s term de-severing can help us understand the everyday coping with ...