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Sample records for relative sensitivity factor

  1. Anxiety Sensitivity and Its Factors in Relation to Generalized Anxiety Disorder among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Ashley A; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Mischel, Emily R; Badour, Christal L; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety psychopathology, one of the most prevalent classes of disorder among youth, is linked to detrimental outcomes. Accordingly, identifying factors that influence vulnerability to anxiety disorders is important. One promising factor, given emerging evidence for its transdiagnostic nature, is anxiety sensitivity (AS); however, relatively little is known about the linkage between AS and indicators of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), particularly among youth. The aim of the current investigation was to address this gap in the literature using a community-based sample of adolescents aged 10-17 years (n = 165; M age  = 14.49 years, SD = 2.26). Results indicated global AS and the AS-physical concerns dimension were significantly associated with worry, generalized anxiety symptoms, and GAD diagnosis assessed via a structured clinical interview, above and beyond key theoretically-relevant covariates. These findings add to a growing body of work underscoring the relevance of AS for multiple types of anxiety-related disorders among youth.

  2. Examining the unique relations between anxiety sensitivity factors and suicidal ideation and past suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Norr, Aaron M; Boffa, Jay W; Durmaz, Daphne; Raines, Amanda M; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-08-30

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) has recently been linked to suicidality. Specifically, AS cognitive concerns has been implicated as a risk factor, and AS physical concerns as a protective factor, for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. However, no studies have used structural equation modeling (SEM) to address issues of skewed suicide variables and bifactor modeling of AS to address the high degree of overlap between the lower-order dimensions of AS that limit interpretation of these past findings. AS, suicidal ideation, past suicide attempts, and depression were assessed in a clinical sample of 267 individuals (M age=35.45 years, SD=16.53; 52.1% female). The global AS and AS cognitive concerns factors were positively, significantly associated with suicidal ideation, though these effects were nonsignificant controlling for depression. The global AS factor was positively, significantly associated with suicide attempts, controlling for depression. The current study demonstrated that the relations between AS and suicidal ideation are not maintained when accounting for depression, suggesting that the relation between AS and suicidal ideation may be mediated by depression. The positive relation between global AS and suicide attempts is consistent with theories positing suicide attempts as a consequence of an inability to cope with intolerable distress.

  3. Gay-Related Rejection Sensitivity as a Risk Factor for Condomless Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; Pachankis, John E

    2016-04-01

    Gay-related rejection sensitivity has been linked to numerous adverse health outcomes, but its relationship to condomless sex remains unexamined. The present study investigated the role of gay-related rejection sensitivity as a predictor of condomless sex. Gay and bisexual men completed questionnaires measuring rejection sensitivity and condom use self-efficacy as well as a timeline followback interview regarding past 90-day sexual behaviors. Gay-related rejection sensitivity was positively associated with the number of condomless anal sex acts with casual partners, and condom use self-efficacy mediated this association. These findings have important implications for effective HIV prevention efforts among this at-risk population.

  4. Girls' Rumination and Anxiety Sensitivity: Are They Related after Controlling for Girl, Maternal, and Parenting Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christie; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rumination and anxiety sensitivity are posited cognitive vulnerabilities in the development and/or maintenance of depression and anxiety and have only been examined separately in youth. Objective: We examined the relation between rumination and anxiety sensitivity in girls, after controlling for other girl, maternal, and parenting…

  5. Factors related to allergic sensitization to aeroallergens in a cross-sectional study in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Nielsen, N H; Madsen, F

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The factors underlying recent increases in the prevalence of respiratory allergy are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between allergic sensitization and several lifestyle/environmental factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study of 15-69-year...... with previous keeping of a dog in the household. The association between alcohol consumption and SPT positivity was mainly due to the consumption of wine and remained after adjustment for educational level. Specific IgE positivity was furthermore associated with body mass index with no apparent dose...

  6. Indoor risk factors for cough and their relation to wheeze and sensitization in Chilean young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, J.F.; Rona, R.J.; Oyarzun, M.J.; Amigo, H.; Bustos, P. [Kings College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. for Public Health Science

    2008-04-15

    We assessed the effects of indoor risk factors, including smoking, on different types of cough and on cough and wheeze in combination. Our sample was composed of 1232 men and women residing in a semi-rural area of Chile. We used a standardized questionnaire, sensitization to 8 allergens, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine to assess cough and wheeze characteristics. Information was gathered on dampness, mold, ventilation, heating, housing quality, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Most exposures were associated with cough alone or cough in combination with wheeze. Smoking, past smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were strongly associated with dry cough and wheeze. The use of coal for heating was associated with dry cough. Leaks, mold, and lack of kitchen ventilation were associated with cough and wheeze. Nocturnal cough and productive cough were associated with specific types of sensitization, but dry cough was not. Productive cough was associated with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Several different types of indoor exposures, including environmental tobacco smoke exposure, are important contributors to morbidity associated with cough and wheeze. A vigorous preventive strategy designed to lower exposures to indoor risk factors would lower rates of respiratory morbidity.

  7. Roscovitine sensitizes leukemia and lymphoma cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Molinsky, J.; Klánová, M.; Koc, M; Beranová, L. (Lenka); Anděra, L. (Ladislav); Ludvíková, Z.; Bohmova, M.; Gasova, Z.; Strnad, M.; Ivánek, R. (Robert); Trněný, M.; Nečas, E.; Živný, J.; Klener, P.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a death ligand with selective antitumor activity. However, many primary tumors are TRAIL resistant. Previous studies reported that roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, sensitized various solid cancer cells to TRAIL. We show that roscovitine and TRAIL demonstrate synergistic cytotoxicity in hematologic malignant cell lines and primary cells. Pretreatment of TRAIL-resistant leukemia cells with roscovitine induced en...

  8. Human-related factors regulate the spatial ecology of domestic cats in sensitive areas for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim P Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights, while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms. All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km, using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved. In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. CONCLUSIONS: The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes.

  9. Roscovitine sensitizes leukemia and lymphoma cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinsky, Jan; Klanova, Magdalena; Koc, Michal; Beranova, Lenka; Andera, Ladislav; Ludvikova, Zdenka; Bohmova, Martina; Gasova, Zdenka; Strnad, Miroslav; Ivanek, Robert; Trneny, Marek; Necas, Emanuel; Zivny, Jan; Klener, Pavel

    2013-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a death ligand with selective antitumor activity. However, many primary tumors are TRAIL resistant. Previous studies reported that roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, sensitized various solid cancer cells to TRAIL. We show that roscovitine and TRAIL demonstrate synergistic cytotoxicity in hematologic malignant cell lines and primary cells. Pretreatment of TRAIL-resistant leukemia cells with roscovitine induced enhanced cleavage of death-inducing signaling complex-bound proximal caspases after exposure to TRAIL. We observed increased levels of both pro- and antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins at the mitochondria following exposure to roscovitine. These results suggest that roscovitine induces priming of cancer cells for death by binding antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins to proapoptotic BH3-only proteins at the mitochondria, thereby decreasing the threshold for diverse proapoptotic stimuli. We propose that the mitochondrial priming and enhanced processing of apical caspases represent major molecular mechanisms of roscovitine-induced sensitization to TRAIL in leukemia/lymphoma cells.

  10. Determination of secondary ion mass spectrometry relative sensitivity factors for polar and non-polar ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Andreas; Volbers, Niklas; Eisermann, Sebastian; Potzger, Kay; Geburt, Sebastian; Ronning, Carsten; Meyer, Bruno K.

    2011-11-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is regarded as a promising material for optoelectronic devices, due to its electronic properties. Solely, the difficulty in obtaining p-type ZnO impedes further progress. In this connection, the identification and quantification of impurities is a major demand. For quantitative information using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), so-called relative sensitivity factors (RSF) are mandatory. Such conversion factors did not yet exist for ZnO. In this work, we present the determined RSF values for ZnO using primary (ion implanted) as well as secondary (bulk doped) standards. These RSFs have been applied to commercially available ZnO substrates of different surface termination (a-plane, Zn-face, and O-face) to quantify the contained impurities. Although these ZnO substrates originate from the same single-crystal, we observe discrepancies in the impurity concentrations. These results cannot be attributed to surface termination dependent RSF values for ZnO.

  11. Relations between common and specific factors of anxiety sensitivity and distress tolerance and fear, distress, and alcohol and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Macatee, Richard J; Norr, Aaron M; Raines, Amanda M; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-06-01

    Whereas it has been speculated that the psychopathology risk factors anxiety sensitivity (AS) and distress tolerance (DT) are highly overlapping, no studies have examined whether a core affect sensitivity construct explains this relation. It was hypothesized that, in a sample of 808 treatment-seeking individuals (M(age) = 35.11, SD = 14.94), the best-fitting confirmatory factor analysis model of AS and DT would comprise a common underlying affect sensitivity factor orthogonal to DT and lower-order AS factors (physical, cognitive, and social concerns). It was also hypothesized that specific relations between the factors and fear, distress, and alcohol/substance use disorders would emerge. The best-fitting model comprised a common affect sensitivity factor orthogonal to DT and lower-order AS factors. Whereas the affect sensitivity and DT factors were associated with fear, distress, and alcohol/substance use disorders, AS cognitive concerns was only related to distress disorders and AS social concerns was only related to fear disorders.

  12. The dietary flavonoid apigenin sensitizes malignant tumor cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horinaka, Mano; Yoshida, Tatsushi; Shiraishi, Takumi; Nakata, Susumu; Wakada, Miki; Sakai, Toshiyuki

    2006-04-01

    Dietary flavonoid apigenin is expected to have preventive and therapeutic potential against malignant tumors. In this report, we show for the first time that apigenin markedly induces the expression of death receptor 5 (DR5) and synergistically acts with exogenous soluble recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to induce apoptosis in malignant tumor cells. TRAIL is a promising candidate for cancer therapeutics due to its ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. The combined use of apigenin and TRAIL at suboptimal concentrations induces Bcl-2-interacting domain cleavage and the activation of caspases-8, -10, -9, and -3. Furthermore, human recombinant DR5/Fc chimera protein and caspase inhibitors dramatically inhibit apoptosis induced by the combination of apigenin and TRAIL. On the other hand, apigenin-mediated induction of DR5 expression is not observed in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Moreover, apigenin does not sensitize normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that this combined treatment with apigenin and TRAIL might be promising as a new therapy against malignant tumors.

  13. High-sensitive C-reactive protein level and oxidative stress-related status in former athletes in relation to traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, E; Zilmer, K; Kullisaar, T; Kairane, C; Pulges, A; Zilmer, M

    2003-12-01

    To analyze systemic and cellular oxidative stress-related indices as well as C-reactive protein level in former top-level athletes in relation to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in 53 former male athletes and 25 sedentary controls (age range: 39-59 years). We measured anthropometric factors (BMI, fat percentage, WHR), resting blood pressure (SBP, DBP), serum cholesterol (CHOL), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidized LDL-C (oxLDL), diene conjugates (DC), glutathione redox status, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and leisure-time physical activity. Physically active former athletes had significantly lower mean overweight (BMI, fat percentage, WHR), better spectrum of atherogenesis indicators (CHOL, HDL-C, TG, TG:HDL-C ratio) and lower oxidative stress (oxLDL, oxLDL:LDL-C ratio, DC) values than sedentary ex-athletes. No significant differences in these variables were found between the sedentary ex-athletes and control group. Significant associations were found between physical activity (METs), SBP, DBP, hypertension, CHOL, HDL-C, TG, TG:HDL-C ratio, oxLDL, oxLDL:LDL-C ratio, DC and hsCRP. A physically active lifestyle is related to a lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile including a substantially lower systemic and cellular oxidative stress status as well as C-reactive protein level in middle-aged men. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Ethylene Response Factor TERF1 Enhances Glucose Sensitivity in Tobacco through Activating the Expression of Sugar-related Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ang Li; Zhijin Zhang; Xue-Chen Wang; Rongfeng Huang

    2009-01-01

    Ethylene response factor (ERF) proteins are important plant-specific transcription factors. Increasing evidence shows that ERF proteins regulate plant pathogen resistance, abiotic stress response and plant development through interaction with different stress responsive pathways. Previously, we revealed that overexpression of TERF1 in tobacco activates a cluster gene expression through interacting with GCC box and dehydration responsive element (DRE), resulting in enhanced sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) and tolerance to drought, and dark green leaves of mature plants, indicating that TERF1 participates in the integration of ethylene and osmotic responses. Here we further report that overexpression of TERF1 confers sugar response in tobacco. Analysis of the novel isolated tomato TERF1 promoter provides information indicating that there are many cis-acting elements, including sugar responsive elements (SURE) and W box, suggesting that TERF1 might be sugar inducible. This prediction is confirmed by results of reverse transcdption-polymerase chain reaction amplification, indicating that transcripts of TERF1 are accumulated in tomato seedlings after application of glucose. Further investigation indicates that the expression of TERF1 in tobacco enhances sensitivity to glucose during seed germination, root and seedling development, showing a decrease of the fresh weight and root elongation under glucose treatment. Detailed investigations provide evidence that TERF1 interacts with the sugar responsive cis-acting element SURE and activates the expression of sugar response genes, establishing the transcriptional regulation of TERF1 in sugar response. Therefore, our results deepen our understanding of the glucose response mediated by the ERF protein TERF1 in tobacco.

  15. Time-resolved spark-source mass spectroscopy: the effect of spark duration on relative sensitivity factors, ion intensity and precision of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, James Curry [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1971-01-29

    A radio-frequency, high-voltage spark ion source in conjunction with a double-focusing mass spectrometer has been used to measure the relative sensitivity factors for several elements in matrices of tin, iron, beryllium oxide, uranium, and steels. The sensitivity factors were examined for concentration and matrix effects. No significant variations were found for the concentration ranges studied, but there were very large sensitivity variations with changes in the matrix type. In order to accomplish this study, circuits were designed and installed to synchronize the ion-beam chopping circuits with the radio-frequency spark pulses so that time-resolved spectra were obtained at different periods in the spark pulse.

  16. Relationship between Noctcaelador and Aesthetic Sensitivity: Art-Related Personality Factors Associated with College Students' Night-Sky Watching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between positive attitudes and behaviors concerning night-sky watching (noctcaelador) and aesthetic sensitivity. College students (N = 106) completed the Noctcaelador Inventory (Kelly, 2004a) and a shortened version of the Sensitivity Questionnaire (Child, 1965). Noctcaelador was significantly, positively…

  17. Deep pain sensitivity is correlated with oral-health-related quality of life but not with prosthetic factors in complete denture wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Martins COSTA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Low pressure Pain Threshold (PPT is considered a risk factor for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD and is influenced by psychological variables. Objectives To correlate deep pain sensitivity of masticatory muscles with prosthetic factors and Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL in completely edentulous subjects. Material and Methods A total of 29 complete denture wearers were recruited. The variables were: a Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT of the masseter and temporalis; b retention, stability, and tooth wear of dentures; c Vertical Dimension of Occlusion (VDO; d Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP adapted to orofacial pain. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficient, the Spearman Rank correlation coefficient, the Point-Biserial correlation coefficient, and the Bonferroni correction (α=1% were applied to the data. Results The mean age (standard deviation of the participants was of 70.1 years (9.5 and 82% of them were females. There were no significant correlations with prosthetic factors, but significant negative correlations were found between the OHIP and the PPT of the anterior temporalis (r=-0.50, 95% CI-0.73 to 0.17, p=0.005. Discussion The deep pain sensitivity of masticatory muscles in complete dentures wearers is associated with OHRQoL, but not with prosthetic factors.

  18. Deep pain sensitivity is correlated with oral-health-related quality of life but not with prosthetic factors in complete denture wearers

    Science.gov (United States)

    COSTA, Yuri Martins; PORPORATTI, André Luís; HILGENBERG-SYDNEY, Priscila Brenner; BONJARDIM, Leonardo Rigoldi; CONTI, Paulo César Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Low pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) is considered a risk factor for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and is influenced by psychological variables. Objectives To correlate deep pain sensitivity of masticatory muscles with prosthetic factors and Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in completely edentulous subjects. Material and Methods A total of 29 complete denture wearers were recruited. The variables were: a) Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) of the masseter and temporalis; b) retention, stability, and tooth wear of dentures; c) Vertical Dimension of Occlusion (VDO); d) Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) adapted to orofacial pain. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficient, the Spearman Rank correlation coefficient, the Point-Biserial correlation coefficient, and the Bonferroni correction (α=1%) were applied to the data. Results The mean age (standard deviation) of the participants was of 70.1 years (9.5) and 82% of them were females. There were no significant correlations with prosthetic factors, but significant negative correlations were found between the OHIP and the PPT of the anterior temporalis (r=-0.50, 95% CI-0.73 to 0.17, p=0.005). Discussion The deep pain sensitivity of masticatory muscles in complete dentures wearers is associated with OHRQoL, but not with prosthetic factors. PMID:26814457

  19. Increased sensitivity to physical activity among individuals with knee osteoarthritis: relation to pain outcomes, psychological factors, and responses to quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, Timothy H; Finan, Patrick H; Edwards, Robert R; Quartana, Phillip J; Buenaver, Luis F; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Smith, Michael T

    2014-04-01

    Recent findings suggest that certain individuals with musculoskeletal pain conditions have increased sensitivity to physical activity (SPA) and respond to activities of stable intensity with increasingly severe pain. This study aimed to determine the degree to which individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) show heightened SPA in response to a standardized walking task and whether SPA cross-sectionally predicts psychological factors, responses to quantitative sensory testing (QST), and different OA-related outcomes. One hundred seven adults with chronic knee OA completed self-report measures of pain, function, and psychological factors, underwent QST, and performed a 6-min walk test. Participants rated their discomfort levels throughout the walking task; an index of SPA was created by subtracting first ratings from peak ratings. Repeated-measure analysis of variance revealed that levels of discomfort significantly increased throughout the walking task. A series of hierarchical regression analyses determined that after controlling for significant covariates, psychological factors, and measures of mechanical pain sensitivity, individual variance in SPA predicted self-report pain and function and performance on the walking task. Analyses also revealed that both pain catastrophizing and the temporal summation of mechanical pain were significant predictors of SPA and that SPA mediated the relationship between catastrophizing and self-reported pain and physical function. The discussion addresses the potential processes contributing to SPA and the role it may play in predicting responses to different interventions for musculoskeletal pain conditions.

  20. Matrix effects on the relative sensitivity factors for manganese and chromium during ion microprobe analysis of carbonate: Implications for early Solar System chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Robert C. J.; Heber, Veronika S.; McKeegan, Kevin D.

    2017-03-01

    The short-lived radionuclide 53 Mn decays to 53 Cr providing a relative chronometer for dating the formation of Mn-rich minerals in meteorites. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has been extensively used for in situ dating of meteoritic olivine and carbonate by the 53 Mn-53 Cr system, however a significant analytical challenge has been realising accurate measurements of the Mn/Cr ratio in individual minerals of differing chemical compositions. During SIMS analysis, elements are ionised with differing efficiencies and standard materials are required to calibrate measured ion intensities in terms of relative elemental concentrations. The carbonate system presents a particular analytical difficulty since such standards are not naturally available due to low and variable Cr contents. Here, we utilise ion implantation of Cr into carbonate and other phases to accurately determine the relative sensitivity factors of Mn/Cr during SIMS analysis. We find significant variations in Mn/Cr RSF values among different carbonate minerals that depend systematically on chemical composition and we propose an empirical correction scheme that quantitatively yields an accurate RSF for carbonates of diverse chemical compositions. Correction of SIMS carbonate data for this strong matrix effect may help to reconcile some outstanding problems regarding the timescales of aqueous alteration processes in carbonaceous chondrites. Mn-Cr ages, revised based our new understanding of the matrix effect, are, in general, earlier than previously thought and the duration of carbonate formation is shorter.

  1. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein is only weakly related to cardiovascular damage after adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michael H; Christensen, Marina K; Hansen, Tine W;

    2006-01-01

    The independent prognostic value of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) has been questioned, and consequently we decided to investigate whether hsCRP was associated with subclinical cardiovascular (CV) damage independently of traditional CV risk factors....

  2. Hispolon from Phellinus linteus induces apoptosis and sensitizes human cancer cells to the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand through upregulation of death receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hun; Kim, Yu Chul; Park, Byoungduck

    2016-02-01

    The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a potent anticancer agent possessing the ability to induce apoptosis in various cancer cells but not in non‑malignant cells. However, certain type of cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL‑induced apoptosis and some acquire resistance after the first treatment. So development of an agent that can reduce or avoid resistance in TRAIL‑induced apoptosis has garnered significant attention. The present study evaluated the anticancer potential of hispolon in TRAIL‑induced apoptosis and indicated hispolon can sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL. As the mechanism of action was examined, hispolon was found to activate caspase‑3, caspase‑8 and caspase‑9, while downregulating the expression of cell survival proteins such as cFLIP, Bcl‑2 and Bcl‑xL and upregulating the expression of Bax and truncated Bid. We also found hispolon induced death receptors in a non‑cell type‑specific manner. Upregulation of death receptors by hispolon was found to be p53-independent but linked to the induction of CAAT enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Overall, hispolon was demonstrated to potentiate the apoptotic effects of TRAIL through downregulation of anti‑apoptotic proteins and upregulation of death receptors linked with CHOP and pERK elevation.

  3. Contributions of dopamine-related genes and environmental factors to highly sensitive personality: a multi-step neuronal system-level approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Chen

    Full Text Available Traditional behavioral genetic studies (e.g., twin, adoption studies have shown that human personality has moderate to high heritability, but recent molecular behavioral genetic studies have failed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL with consistent effects. The current study adopted a multi-step approach (ANOVA followed by multiple regression and permutation to assess the cumulative effects of multiple QTLs. Using a system-level (dopamine system genetic approach, we investigated a personality trait deeply rooted in the nervous system (the Highly Sensitive Personality, HSP. 480 healthy Chinese college students were given the HSP scale and genotyped for 98 representative polymorphisms in all major dopamine neurotransmitter genes. In addition, two environment factors (stressful life events and parental warmth that have been implicated for their contributions to personality development were included to investigate their relative contributions as compared to genetic factors. In Step 1, using ANOVA, we identified 10 polymorphisms that made statistically significant contributions to HSP. In Step 2, these polymorphism's main effects and interactions were assessed using multiple regression. This model accounted for 15% of the variance of HSP (p<0.001. Recent stressful life events accounted for an additional 2% of the variance. Finally, permutation analyses ascertained the probability of obtaining these findings by chance to be very low, p ranging from 0.001 to 0.006. Dividing these loci by the subsystems of dopamine synthesis, degradation/transport, receptor and modulation, we found that the modulation and receptor subsystems made the most significant contribution to HSP. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of a multi-step neuronal system-level approach in assessing genetic contributions to individual differences in human behavior. It can potentially bridge the gap between the high heritability estimates based on traditional

  4. Contributions of dopamine-related genes and environmental factors to highly sensitive personality: a multi-step neuronal system-level approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Chuansheng; Moyzis, Robert; Stern, Hal; He, Qinghua; Li, He; Li, Jin; Zhu, Bi; Dong, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Traditional behavioral genetic studies (e.g., twin, adoption studies) have shown that human personality has moderate to high heritability, but recent molecular behavioral genetic studies have failed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) with consistent effects. The current study adopted a multi-step approach (ANOVA followed by multiple regression and permutation) to assess the cumulative effects of multiple QTLs. Using a system-level (dopamine system) genetic approach, we investigated a personality trait deeply rooted in the nervous system (the Highly Sensitive Personality, HSP). 480 healthy Chinese college students were given the HSP scale and genotyped for 98 representative polymorphisms in all major dopamine neurotransmitter genes. In addition, two environment factors (stressful life events and parental warmth) that have been implicated for their contributions to personality development were included to investigate their relative contributions as compared to genetic factors. In Step 1, using ANOVA, we identified 10 polymorphisms that made statistically significant contributions to HSP. In Step 2, these polymorphism's main effects and interactions were assessed using multiple regression. This model accounted for 15% of the variance of HSP (p<0.001). Recent stressful life events accounted for an additional 2% of the variance. Finally, permutation analyses ascertained the probability of obtaining these findings by chance to be very low, p ranging from 0.001 to 0.006. Dividing these loci by the subsystems of dopamine synthesis, degradation/transport, receptor and modulation, we found that the modulation and receptor subsystems made the most significant contribution to HSP. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of a multi-step neuronal system-level approach in assessing genetic contributions to individual differences in human behavior. It can potentially bridge the gap between the high heritability estimates based on traditional behavioral genetics

  5. Mn-Cr relative sensitivity factor in ferromagnesian olivines defined for SIMS measurements with a Cameca ims-1280 ion microprobe: Implications for dating secondary fayalite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Patricia M.; Jogo, Kaori; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Huss, Gary R.; Krot, Alexander N.

    2016-02-01

    The short-lived radionuclide 53Mn, which decays to 53Cr with a half-life of ∼3.7 Myr, is useful for sequencing objects that formed within the first 20 Myr of Solar System evolution. 53Mn-53Cr relative chronology enables aqueously formed secondary minerals such as fayalite and various carbonates in ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites to be dated, thereby providing chronological constraints on aqueous alteration processes. In situ measurements of Mn-Cr isotope systematics in fayalite by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) require consideration of the relative sensitivities of the 55Mn+ and 52Cr+ ions, for which a relative sensitivity factor [RSF = (55Mn+/52Cr+)SIMS/(55Mn/52Cr)true] is defined using appropriate standards. In the past, San Carlos olivine (Fa∼10) was commonly used for this purpose, but a growing body of evidence suggests that it is an unsuitable standard for meteoritic fayalite (Fa>90). Natural fayalite also cannot be used as a standard because it contains only trace amounts of chromium, which makes determining a true 55Mn/52Cr ratio and its degree of heterogeneity very difficult. To investigate the dependence of the Mn-Cr RSF on ferromagnesian olivine compositions, we synthesized a suite of compositionally homogeneous Mn,Cr-bearing liquidus-phase ferromagnesian olivines (Fa31-99). Manganese-chromium isotopic measurements of San Carlos olivine and synthesized ferromagnesian olivines using the University of Hawai'i Cameca ims-1280 SIMS show that the RSF for Fa10 is ∼0.9; it increases rapidly between Fa10 and Fa31 and reaches a plateau value of ∼1.5 ± 0.1 for Fa>34. The RSF is time-dependent: it increases during the measurements of olivines with fayalite content 50. The RSF measured on ferroan olivine (Fa>90) is influenced by pit shape, whereas the RSF measured on magnesian olivine (Fa10) is less sensitive to changes in pit shape. For these reasons, 53Mn-53Cr systematics of chondritic fayalite (Fa>90) should be determined using standards of

  6. HIGH-SENSITIVITY C-REACTIVE PROTEIN (hsCRP IN YOUNG ADULTS: RELATION TO AEROBIC CAPACITY, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mazurek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Atheromatosis develops as a result of a chronic inflammatory process of the arteries. Inflammatory biomarkers, particularly high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, positively correlate with atheromatosis risk factors and can be used to estimate and predict the risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hsCRP concentration and BMI, body composition, classical risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, energy expenditure for physical activity (WEE and  ·VO2max. 166 volunteers (78 women and 88 men were included in the examinations. Their mean age was 20.2±0.9 years. Health condition was described by the following variables: smoking, WEE,  ·VO2max, body mass index (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, fat mass (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, lipid profile, hsCRP, glucose and insulin concentration, and insulin resistance. Between the subgroups created on the basis of hsCRP concentration, in quartiles 1 to 3 and quartile 4, a comparative analysis was carried out. 79.5�0of women and 69.3�0of men had hsCRP values within the references ranges. Moderately high values were found in 14.1�0of women and 22.7�0of men and high in 6.4�0and 7.9�20respectively. Mean values of BMI, FFM, WHR, WEE,  ·VO2max, glucose and triglyceride concentration, and TC/HDL index were significantly lower, while FM and HDL were significantly higher, in women than in men. In the quartile 4 subgroup compared to the quartile 1-3 subgroup, we found significantly lower HDL concentration and a tendency for higher values of BMI (p=0.06 and TC (p=0.07 as well as higher percentages of smoking among men. In young, physically active, healthy persons, serum concentration of hsCRP is not related to physical activity or  ·VO2max.

  7. Depletion of hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 induces apoptotic sensitization of radioresistant A549 cells via reactive oxygen species-dependent p53 activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hong Shik; Hong, Eun-Hee [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Su-Jae [Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jeong-Hwa [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang-Woo [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Ji-Hye; Um, Hong-Duck [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sang-Gu, E-mail: sgh63@kcch.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Biology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-27

    Highlights: •HRP-3 is a radiation- and anticancer drug-responsive protein in A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 induces apoptosis of radio- and chemoresistant A549 cells. •Depletion of HRP-3 promotes ROS generation via inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. •Depletion of HRP-3 enhances ROS-dependent p53 activation and PUMA expression. -- Abstract: Biomarkers based on functional signaling have the potential to provide greater insight into the pathogenesis of cancer and may offer additional targets for anticancer therapeutics. Here, we identified hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (HRP-3) as a radioresistance-related gene and characterized the molecular mechanism by which its encoded protein regulates the radio- and chemoresistant phenotype of lung cancer-derived A549 cells. Knockdown of HRP-3 promoted apoptosis of A549 cells and potentiated the apoptosis-inducing action of radio- and chemotherapy. This increase in apoptosis was associated with a substantial generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was attributable to inhibition of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway and resulted in enhanced ROS-dependent p53 activation and p53-dependent expression of PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis). Therefore, the HRP-3/Nrf2/HO-1/ROS/p53/PUMA cascade is an essential feature of the A549 cell phenotype and a potential radiotherapy target, extending the range of targets in multimodal therapies against lung cancer.

  8. Transaction charges allocation using sensitivity factor methodology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Charles Raja; J Jeslin Drusila Nesamalar; P Venkatesh

    2014-04-01

    Deregulation of the electricity industry aims for creating a competitive market to trade electricity, which generates a host of new technical challenges among market participants and power system researchers. One of the major challenges is to establish a cost for system services on a nondiscriminatory basis. In this paper, the evaluation of transmission cost is proposed based on sensitivity factor method like AC Power Transfer Distribution Factor (ACPTDF) method for bilateral and multilateral transactions. The transacted power is estimated by ACPTDF method for each transaction. The advantages of the proposed methodology are demonstrated on a sample 6 bus, IEEE 30 bus and Indian Utility 69 bus systems. The solution provides a better pricing approach that can impact a more reasonable economic indicator for transmission cost.

  9. A study of some energy dependent characteristics of X-ray screens used in diagnostic radiology : screen-film sensitivity, MTF and some related factors

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Mikael

    1983-01-01

    Fluorescent x-ray screens are used in medical x-ray diagnostics to absorb x-ray photons and convert these x-ray photons to visible light. The light distribution from these screens are then registered on photographic film to give an x-ray image. Both the sensitivity and the resolution characteristics of these systems are dependent on the x-ray photon energy. To enable a study of these and some other energy dependent characteristics of x-ray screens a number of almost monoener-getic radiation s...

  10. Survey on opioid addicts' sensitivity to related environments and influential factors%阿片类药物依赖患者对相关环境敏感程度及影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯燕; 王莹; 何倩; 王增珍

    2008-01-01

    目的 应用自行开发的敏感性量表评定阿片类药物依赖患者对其吸毒相关环境的敏感性及影响因素.方法 采用分层随机整群抽样对全国5个城市强制戒毒所1096例阿片类药物依赖患者进行敏感性调查.结果 阿片类药物依赖患者对吸毒直接相关环境和社会家庭环境比较敏感,尤其是"缺乏亲情"和"看到别人吸毒",反映强烈的分别达59.40%和59.05%.毒龄(吸毒时间)长、吸毒频率高、有亲人吸毒、消极的亲人态度是对与吸毒直接相关环境敏感性的危险因素(F=17.10,P<0.0001);女性、年龄小、毒龄长、消极的亲人态度是对社会家庭环境敏感性的危险因素(F=8.52,P<0.0001);毒龄长、吸毒频率高、消极的亲人态度是对与吸毒间接相关环境敏感性的危险因素(F=10.08.P<0.0001).结论 阿片类药物依赖患者对相关环境很敏感,其程度受性别、年龄、毒龄、吸毒频率、家人是否吸毒及亲人态度的影响.%Objective We developed a scale on opioid addicts' sensitivity to drug-related environments for assessing addicts sensitivity and influential factors, which could provide evidence for psychological interventions on detoxification. Methods The survey on opioid addicts' sensitivity was administered to 1096 opioid addicts through stratified random cluster sampling in mandatory detoxification centers from 5 cities in China. Results Patients were more sensitive to environments directly related to drug abuse, social and family environments, especially in those cases that lack of love from family or watching drug use from others, with percentages of persons having strong response reaching 59.40% and 59.05%, respectively. The risk factors of patients' sensitivity to environments directly related to drug abuse would include long period of drug use, high frequency of drug abuse, drug abuse in family members and negative family attitudes ( F = 17.10, P< 0. 0001 ). Being female, younger of

  11. Sensitivity to Factors Underlying the Hiatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Kate; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Cook, Benjamin I.

    2015-01-01

    Recent trends in global mean surface air temperature fall outside the 90 range predicted by models using the CMIP5 forcings and scenarios; this recent period of muted warming is dubbed the hiatus. The hiatus has attracted broad attention in both the popular press and the scientific literature, primarily because of its perceived implications for understanding long-term trends. Many hypotheses have been offered to explain the warming slowdown during the hiatus, and comprehensive studies of this period across multiple variables and spatial scales will likely improve our understanding of the physical mechanisms driving global temperature change and variability.We argue, however, that decadal temperature trends by themselves are unlikely to constrain future trajectories of global mean temperature and that the hiatus does not significantly revise our understanding of overall climate sensitivity. Instead, we demonstrate that, because of the poorly constrained nature of the hiatus, model-observation disagreements over this period may be resolvable via uncertainties in the observations, modeled internal variability, forcing estimates, or (more likely) some combination of all three factors. We define the hiatus interval as 1998-2012, endpoints judiciously chosen to minimize observed warming by including the large 1998 El Nio event and excluding 2014, an exceptionally warm year. Such choices are fundamentally subjective and cannot be considered random, so any probabilistic statements regarding the likelihood of this occurring need to be made carefully. Using this definition, the observed global temperature trend estimates from four datasets fall outside the 5-95 interval predicted by the CMIP5 models. Here we explore some of the plausible explanations for this discrepancy, and show that no unique explanation is likely to fully account for the hiatus.

  12. Mutagen sensitivity: a genetic predisposition factor for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xifeng; Gu, Jian; Spitz, Margaret R

    2007-04-15

    Mutagen sensitivity, measured by quantifying the chromatid breaks induced by mutagens in short-term cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes, has been used as an indirect measure of DNA repair capacity. Numerous epidemiologic studies have suggested that mutagen sensitivity is a cancer susceptibility factor for a variety of epithelial cancers. A recent classic twin study examined systematically the role of genetic and environmental factors on the mutagen sensitivity phenotype and provided compelling evidence that mutagen sensitivity is highly heritable. A new prospective analysis provides further support to the notion that mutagen sensitivity increases the risk of cancer. In this review, we briefly summarize nearly two decades of epidemiologic and genetic studies linking mutagen sensitivity and cancer risk. The evidence is becoming increasingly convincing that mutagen sensitivity is a risk factor for cancer development.

  13. Factores asociados a la hospitalización por procesos sensibles a cuidados ambulatorios en los municipios Hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions: analysis of related factors in municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Márquez-Calderón

    2003-10-01

    superiores cuanto mayor era el desempleo, y las tasas en varones fueron más altas en los pueblos grandes y con mayor mortalidad.Objectives: To describe variability in admission rates for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ASSC in municipalities in the catchment area of a tertiary hospital and to determine the influence of primary care characteristics, socioeconomic factors, health of the population, and geographical accessibility to the hospital on this variability. Methods: An ecological study was carried out in 34 municipalities in the area served by the Hospital Virgen de las Nieves in Granada (Spain including all admissions for ASSC from 1997 to 1999. The admission rates for men and women were calculated separately and were age-standardized by the indirect method. The following factors were analyzed as independent variables: characteristics of primary care (type of healthcare model and type of center, socioeconomic factors (unemployment rate, income per capita, number of business establishments, size of municipality, health (mortality rate, and accessibility (time in minutes from the municipality to the hospital. A multiple lineal regression model was estimated. Results: A total of 9.8% of all hospital admissions were due to ASSC. The mean annual admission rate was 10 admissions per 1.000 inhabitants. This rate was higher for men and for persons aged more than 74 years. The standardized admission ratios were not statistically different from 1 in 56% of the municipalities and were higher than 1 in 26% and lower than 1 in 18%. Sixty-two percent of the variability in rates for men was associated with time taken to reach the hospital, size of municipality, the interaction between both variables, and mortality. Eighteen percent of the variability in rates for women was associated with time taken to reach the hospital and the unemployment rate. Conclusions: Variability in admission rates for ASSC was not associated with primary care characteristics in the geographical area

  14. Biosphere dose conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-10-15

    This report presents importance and sensitivity analysis for the environmental radiation model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN). ERMYN is a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis concerns the output of the model, biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater, and the volcanic ash exposure scenarios. It identifies important processes and parameters that influence the BDCF values and distributions, enhances understanding of the relative importance of the physical and environmental processes on the outcome of the biosphere model, includes a detailed pathway analysis for key radionuclides, and evaluates the appropriateness of selected parameter values that are not site-specific or have large uncertainty.

  15. Related factors of dilated cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangyong Huang; Hang Gao; Xiangang Meng; Zhonghua Yan; Xiangquan Kong; Lexin Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the etiology and relative factors of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in Chinese patients. Methods A case-control study was conducted to compare 233 patients with DCM in high-incidence areas (case group) and 150 patients with stable angina pectoris (control group). Life styles and history of diseases information was collected by questionaire; human anti-myocardial antibody IgG (AMA- IgG), human Coxsackie B virus IgG (CBV- IgG) and human adenovirus antibody IgG (ADV- lgG) were measured with ELISA. General chemical and toxicological indicators in drink water from high and low prevalence areas and serum trace elements also were compared. Results 1 ) Compared with the control group, the case group had more farmers (P < 0.01), with low average incomes (P < 0.01), higher alcohol consumption (P < 0.01) and higher incidence of the history of myocarditis (P < 0.01 ). 2) AMA-IgG, CBV-IgG and ADV-IgG levels were low and the positive rates ofAMA-IgG, CBV-IgG and ADV-IgG of patients with DCM were respectively 7.78%, 6.67% and 6.67%, no statistical significance comparing with those in the control group. 3) The content of iron (1.36±2.18 vs 0.39±0.67 mg/L, P<0.05) and manganese (0.384±0.35 vs 0.15±0.14, P<0.01 ) in drinking water of high-incidence areas was significantly higher than that in low-incidence areas. 4) The content of serum iron (69.14±57.8 vs 20.04±17.5 μ mol/L, P<0.01 ) and copper (25.74±4.2 vs 19.7±4.5 μmol/L, P<0.01) in the case group evidently exceeded the normal range and obviously higher than that in the control group. Conclusions 1) The incidence of some DCM is related with low incomes, high alcohol consumption and myocarditis. 2) These data do not support that DCM is related with persistent virus infection and autoimmunization; 3) Iron and manganese contents exceeding standards in drinking water and the high content of serum iron and copper is comparatively related with the incidence of DCM.

  16. The relations between secrecy, rejection sensitivity and autonomy-connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismeijer, Andreas A J; Van Assen, Marcel A L M; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two attachment-related variables on secrecy: rejection sensitivity and autonomy-connectedness. We hypothesized that rejection sensitivity is positively associated with secrecy, and autonomy-connectedness negatively with rejection sensitivity and secrecy. These hypotheses were generally corroborated in a sample of 303 university students. Moreover, we found that autonomy-connectedness at least partly explained the association between rejection sensitivity and secrecy. Self-awareness was negatively related to secrecy, suggesting that being aware of what one needs and thinks and being able to realize one's needs in social interactions reduce the tendency to keep secrets. In addition, interesting gender effects were found suggesting that men have a higher tendency to have secrets than women after controlling for the effects of autonomy-connectedness and rejection sensitivity. Our findings deepen the insight into possible reasons behind established associations between rejection sensitivity and secrecy, and may have clinical implications.

  17. Improved Sensitivity Relations in State Constrained Optimal Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, Piernicola, E-mail: piernicola.bettiol@univ-brest.fr [Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Laboratoire de Mathematiques (France); Frankowska, Hélène, E-mail: frankowska@math.jussieu.fr [Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris 6), CNRS and Institut de Mathématiques de Jussieu (France); Vinter, Richard B., E-mail: r.vinter@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    Sensitivity relations in optimal control provide an interpretation of the costate trajectory and the Hamiltonian, evaluated along an optimal trajectory, in terms of gradients of the value function. While sensitivity relations are a straightforward consequence of standard transversality conditions for state constraint free optimal control problems formulated in terms of control-dependent differential equations with smooth data, their verification for problems with either pathwise state constraints, nonsmooth data, or for problems where the dynamic constraint takes the form of a differential inclusion, requires careful analysis. In this paper we establish validity of both ‘full’ and ‘partial’ sensitivity relations for an adjoint state of the maximum principle, for optimal control problems with pathwise state constraints, where the underlying control system is described by a differential inclusion. The partial sensitivity relation interprets the costate in terms of partial Clarke subgradients of the value function with respect to the state variable, while the full sensitivity relation interprets the couple, comprising the costate and Hamiltonian, as the Clarke subgradient of the value function with respect to both time and state variables. These relations are distinct because, for nonsmooth data, the partial Clarke subdifferential does not coincide with the projection of the (full) Clarke subdifferential on the relevant coordinate space. We show for the first time (even for problems without state constraints) that a costate trajectory can be chosen to satisfy the partial and full sensitivity relations simultaneously. The partial sensitivity relation in this paper is new for state constraint problems, while the full sensitivity relation improves on earlier results in the literature (for optimal control problems formulated in terms of Lipschitz continuous multifunctions), because a less restrictive inward pointing hypothesis is invoked in the proof, and because

  18. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... of opportunity” for prevention. The aim of this thesis was to increase the understanding of sensitization in early life. We studied indicators of sensitization in the newborn, and early development of sensitization and disease associated with a newly discovered genetic risk factor. Such insight may increase our...... and identifying the environmental risk factors interacting with this genetic susceptibility and the age at which intervention should be initiated. We found a FLG-associated pattern of atopic disease in early childhood characterized by early onset of eczema, early onset of asthma with severe exacerbations...

  19. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    predictive value of elevated cord blood IgE found in recent studies. Future studies should control for materno-fetal transfer of IgE or preferably use other markers of atopy. Variation in the gene coding for the skin barrier protein filaggrin (FLG) is the strongest known genetic risk factor for eczema. FLG......The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... of opportunity” for prevention. The aim of this thesis was to increase the understanding of sensitization in early life. We studied indicators of sensitization in the newborn, and early development of sensitization and disease associated with a newly discovered genetic risk factor. Such insight may increase our...

  20. CATTELL AND EYSENCK FACTOR SCORES RELATED TO COMREY PERSONALITY FACTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comrey, A L; Duffy, K E

    1968-10-01

    The Eysenck Personality Inventory, the Cattell 16 PF Inventory, and the Comrey Personality Inventory were administered to 272 volunteers. Eysenck and Cattell factor scores were correlated with scores over homogeneous item groups (FHIDs) which define the Comrey test factors. This matrix was factor analyzed to relate the Eysenck and Cattell factor scores to the factor structure underlying the Comrey test. The Eysenck Neuroticism, Comrey Neuroticism, and Cattell second-order Anxiety factors appeared to match. The Eysenck Introversion and the Comrey Shyness factors also matched. The 16 Cattell primary factors overlapped but did not match with the Comrey factors.

  1. Sensory Processing Sensitivity: Factors of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale and Their relationships to Personality and Subjective Health Complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listou Grimen, Hanne; Diseth, Åge

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure of a Norwegian version of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (HSPS) and to investigate how sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) is related to personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, and openness and to subjective health complaints (SHC) in a sample of 167 undergraduate psychology students. The results showed that the variance in a shortened version of the HSPS was best described by three separate factors: ease of excitation (EOE), aesthetic sensitivity (AES), and low sensory threshold (LST). Furthermore, the result showed than an overall SPS factor (EOE, LST, and AES combined) was predicted positively by neuroticism and openness and negatively by extraversion. With respect to SHC, the results showed that EOE and LST were positively associated with psychological health complaints. However, the personality trait of neuroticism contributed more than the SPS factors as predictor of SHC. In conclusion, the present study supported a shortened version of the HSPS and its relation to personality factors and SHC.

  2. Space-based Observation for sensitive Factors of Global Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huadong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Global change refers to anthropogenic changes in the atmosphere, oceans, biosphere, pedosphere and lithosphere over the past century. It is a long process with large dimensions. Factors sensitive to these changes mainly include performance factors (such as temperature and precipitation), response factors (such as eco-system, natural disasters, water resources, variations in snow and ice), and driving factors (greenhouse gases and reflection rates). Global change has caught the attention of the world. China is one of the countries exerting a profound impact on this process. In addition, it has typical and unique zones vulnerable to global change: high-altitude regions (such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau), arid and semi-arid areas (such as farming-grazing transitional zones), long coastal zones and regions for intensive human activities.

  3. Sensitivity analysis and related analysis : A survey of statistical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in five related types of analysis, namely (i) sensitivity or what-if analysis, (ii) uncertainty or risk analysis, (iii) screening, (iv) validation, and (v) optimization. The main question is: when should which type of analysis be applied; which statistical

  4. Anxiety sensitivity mediates relations between emotional disorders and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Farris, Samantha G; Leventhal, Adam M; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-09-01

    Research has documented consistent and robust relations between emotional disorders (i.e., depressive and anxiety disorders) and smoking. Yet, it is presently unclear whether anxiety sensitivity--the fear of aversive internal anxiety states--accounts for the relations between emotional disorders and various smoking processes, including nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms during past cessation attempts. Participants (N = 465) were treatment-seeking daily tobacco smokers recruited as part of a larger tobacco-cessation study. Baseline (pretreatment) data were utilized. Emotional disorders were assessed via clinical diagnostic interview; self-report measures were used to assess anxiety sensitivity and 3 criterion variables: nicotine dependence, barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms while quitting in past attempts. Emotional disorders were predictive of higher levels of nicotine dependence, greater perceived barriers to cessation, and greater severity of problematic symptoms while attempting to quit in the past; each of these relations were accounted for by the indirect effect of anxiety sensitivity. The present findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity may be an important transdiagnostic construct in explicating the nature of the relations between emotional disorders and various smoking processes.

  5. Ubiquitination profiling identifies sensitivity factors for IAP antagonist treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeev, Eugene; Izrael-Tomasevic, Anita; Yu, Kebing; Bustos, Daisy; Goncharov, Tatiana; Belmont, Lisa D; Masselot, Alexandre; Bakalarski, Corey E; Kirkpatrick, Donald S; Vucic, Domagoj

    2015-02-15

    Evasion of cell death is one crucial capability acquired by tumour cells to ward-off anti-tumour therapies and represents a fundamental challenge to sustaining clinical efficacy for currently available agents. Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins use their ubiquitin E3 ligase activity to promote cancer cell survival by mediating proliferative signalling and blocking cell death in response to diverse stimuli. Using immunoaffinity enrichment and MS, ubiquitination sites on thousands of proteins were profiled upon initiation of cell death by IAP antagonists in IAP antagonist-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cell lines. Our analyses identified hundreds of proteins with elevated levels of ubiquitin-remnant [K-GG (Lys-Gly-Gly)] peptides upon activation of cell death by the IAP antagonist BV6. The majority of these were observed in BV6-sensitive, but not-resistant, cells. Among these were known pro-apoptotic regulators, including CYC (cytochrome c), RIP1 (receptor-interacting protein 1) and a selection of proteins known to reside in the mitochondria or regulate NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) signalling. Analysis of early time-points revealed that IAP antagonist treatment stimulated rapid ubiquitination of NF-κB signalling proteins, including TRAF2 [TNF (tumour necrosis factor) receptor-associated factor 2], HOIL-1 (haem-oxidized iron-regulatory protein 2 ubiquitin ligase-1), NEMO (NF-κB essential modifier), as well as c-IAP1 (cellular IAP1) auto-ubiquitination. Knockdown of several NF-κB pathway members reduced BV6-induced cell death and TNF production in sensitive cell lines. Importantly, RIP1 was found to be constitutively ubiquitinated in sensitive breast-cancer cell lines at higher basal level than in resistant cell lines. Together, these data show the diverse and temporally defined roles of protein ubiquitination following IAP-antagonist treatment and provide critical insights into predictive diagnostics that may enhance clinical efficacy.

  6. Anxiety Sensitivity and Sleep-Related Problems in Anxious Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Courtney L.; Elkins, Meredith; Pincus, Donna; Comer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders constitute the most common mental health disturbance experienced by youth. Sleep-related problems (SRPs) are highly prevalent among anxious youth and encompass a variety of problems including nighttime fears, insomnia, and refusal to sleep alone. Given that chronic sleep disturbance is associated with a range of behavioral and physical problems in youth and predicts future psychopathology, it is important to elucidate the nature of SRPs in anxious youth. The present study investigated the relationship between sleep problems and anxiety sensitivity in a sample of 101 anxious youth, ages 6–17. Heightened anxiety sensitivity significantly predicted prolonged sleep onset latency across the sample, even after accounting for severity of anxiety, depression, and age. Results support previous research indicating that SRPs are common among anxious youth and suggest that anxiety sensitivity may play a particularly important role in sleep onset latency. PMID:25863826

  7. Assessing geomorphic sensitivity in relation to river capacity for adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, H. E.; Brierley, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    River sensitivity describes the nature and rate of channel adjustments. An approach to analysis of geomorphic river sensitivity outlined in this paper relates potential sensitivity based on the expected capacity of adjustment for a river type to the recent history of channel adjustment. This approach was trialled to assess low, moderate and high geomorphic sensitivity for four different types of river (10 reaches in total) along the Lower Tongariro River, North Island, New Zealand. Building upon the River Styles framework, river types were differentiated based upon valley setting (width and confinement), channel planform, geomorphic unit assemblages and bed material size. From this, the behavioural regime and potential for adjustment (type and extent) were determined. Historical maps and aerial photographs were geo-rectified and the channel planform digitised to assess channel adjustments for each reach from 1928 to 2007. Floodplain width controlled by terraces, exerted a strong influence upon reach scale sensitivity for the partly-confined, wandering, cobble-bed river. Although forced boundaries occur infrequently, the width of the active channel zone is constrained. An unconfined braided river reach directly downstream of the terrace-confined section was the most geomorphically sensitive reach. The channel in this reach adjusted recurrently to sediment inputs that were flushed through more confined, better connected upstream reaches. A meandering, sand-bed river in downstream reaches has exhibited negligible rates of channel migration. However, channel narrowing in this reach and the associated delta indicate that the system is approaching a threshold condition, beyond which channel avulsion is likely to occur. As this would trigger more rapid migration, this reach is considered to be more geomorphically sensitive than analysis of its low migration rate alone would indicate. This demonstrates how sensitivity is fashioned both by the behavioural regime of a reach

  8. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (independence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014. Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid. PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007. Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  9. Sensitivity Factor Analysis For Unit Commitment In Loaded Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lata Chaudhary

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive electricity market, it is not possible to settle all contracted transactions of power because of congestion in transmission lines. Usually, the independent system operator seeks to eliminate congestion by rescheduling output power of the generators. But all generators may not have the same effect (sensitivity on the power flow of the congested lines, so this is not an economical way to reschedule output power of all generators for managing congestion. Therefore, in this paper, active power generator sensitivity factor of the generators to the congested lines have been utilized to ascertain the number of generators participating in congestion management. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed algorithm have been tested on IEEE 30 bus system

  10. Relative Energy Dissipation: Sensitive to Structural Changes of Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祖方遒; 郭丽君; 朱震刚; 凤仪

    2002-01-01

    Energy dissipation techniques, widely used in solid physics previously, are proven to be sensitive also to changes in liquid structure. It has been suggested from relative energy dissipation that changes in liquid structure can occur as a function of temperature in some ordinary binary systems such as Pb-Sn, In-Sn and In-Bi. This finding may be helpful to understand liquid structure changing patterns, therefore enriching the phenomenology of liquid state physics. This is significant for engineering practices.

  11. Evaluation and mapping of relative sensitivity of the terrestrial ecosystems to acidic deposition in Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the semi-quantitative approach, four environmental factors of sites (i.e. bedrock lithology, soil type, land use, and rainfall) were categorized, weighted and combined to determine and assess the relative sensitivity of the terrestrial ecosystems to acidic deposition in Fujian Province. Then the factors have been digitized and combined to assign an overall value for each mesh square (16.77 km ′ 18.39 km) by using the geographic information system (GIS). The results indicated that the most sensitive area in Fujian was mainly located in the southeast, and the least sensitive area was distributed sporadically in the east along the coast. Due to slow weathering rate of siliceous rocks, acid to weakly acid reactions of the soils, along with the greater percent of coniferous forests, more than 80 percent of the total area exhibits higher sensitivity classes (4-7).

  12. Situation resolution with context-sensitive fuzzy relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobson, Gabriel; Buford, John; Lewis, Lundy

    2009-05-01

    Context plays a significant role in situation resolution by intelligent agents (human or machine) by affecting how the situations are recognized, interpreted, acted upon or predicted. Many definitions and formalisms for the notion of context have emerged in various research fields including psychology, economics and computer science (computational linguistics, data management, control theory, artificial intelligence and others). In this paper we examine the role of context in situation management, particularly how to resolve situations that are described by using fuzzy (inexact) relations among their components. We propose a language for describing context sensitive inexact constraints and an algorithm for interpreting relations using inexact (fuzzy) computations.

  13. An internet-based study on the relation between disgust sensitivity and emetophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Overveld, Mark; de Jong, Peter J; Peters, Madelon L; van Hout, Wiljo J P J; Bouman, Theo K

    2008-01-01

    In the etiology of disgust-relevant psychopathology, such as emetophobia (fear of vomiting), two factors may be important: disgust propensity, i.e., how quickly the individual experiences disgust, and disgust sensitivity, i.e., how negatively does the individual evaluate this disgust experience [van Overveld, W. J. M., de Jong, P. J., Peters, M. L., Cavanagh, K., & Davey, G. C. L. (2006). Disgust propensity and disgust sensitivity: separate constructs that are differentially related to specific fears. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 1241-1252]. Hence, the current study examines whether emetophobic participants display elevated levels of disgust propensity and sensitivity, and whether these factors are differentially related to emetophobia. A group of emetophobic members of a Dutch website on emetophobia (n=172), and a control group (n=39) completed an internet survey containing the Emetophobia Questionnaire, Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised, Disgust Scale, and Disgust Questionnaire. Results showed that the emetophobic group displayed significantly elevated levels of both disgust propensity and disgust sensitivity compared to the control group. Most importantly, disgust sensitivity consistently was the best predictor of emetophobic complaints.

  14. Sensitivity to heat in MS patients: a factor strongly influencing symptomology - an explorative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderhamn Olle

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many individuals diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis (MS are sensitive to increased body temperature, which has been recognized as correlating with the symptom of fatigue. The need to explore this association has been highlighted. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of heat sensitivity and its relations to disease course, disability, common MS-related symptoms and ongoing immunosuppressive treatments among individuals 65 years of age or younger diagnosed with MS. Methods A cross-sectional designed survey was undertaken. A questionnaire was sent to MS-patients with an Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS in the interval of 0-6.5 and who were between 20 and 65 years of age, living in an eastern region of Sweden (n = 334. Besides occurrence of heat sensitivity (Yes/No and corresponding questions, the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS, the MS-related symptom checklist and the Perceived Deficit Questionnaire (PDQ were included. Data were analysed in relation to data level using Chi-square, Mann Whitney U-test, and Student's t-test. Pearson's and Spearman's correlations were calculated. In the logistic regression analyses (enter dichotomized MS-symptoms were used as dependent variables, and EDSS, disease-course, time since onset, heat-sensitivity, age and sex (female/male were independent variables. In the linear regression analyses, enter, mean FSS and summarized PDQ were entered as dependent variables and EDSS, disease-course, time since onset, heat sensitivity, age and sex (female/male were independent variables. Results Of the responding patients (n = 256, 58% reported heat sensitivity. The regression analyses revealed heat sensitivity as a significant factor relating not only to fatigue (p Conclusions Heat sensitivity in MS patients is a key symptom that is highly correlated with disabling symptoms such as fatigue, pain, concentration difficulty and urination urgency.

  15. Nerve growth factor, sphingomyelins, and sensitization in sensory neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grant D. Nicol

    2008-01-01

    @@ Because nerve growth factor (NGF) is elevated during inflammation, plays a causal role in the initiation of hyperalgesia, and is known to activate the sphingomyelin signalling pathway, we examined whether NGF and its putative second messenger, ceramide, could modulate the excitability of capsaicin-sensitive adult sensory neurons.Using the whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique,exposure of isolated sensory neurons to either 100 ng/mL NGF or 1 mmol/L N-acetyl sphingosine (C2-ceramide) produced a 3-4 fold increase in the number of action po-tentials (APs) evoked by a ramp of depolarizing current in a time-dependent manner. Intracellular perfusion with bac- terial sphingomyelinase (SMase) also increased the num- ber of APs suggesting that the release of native ceramide enhanced neuronal excitability.

  16. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  17. Neural Sensitivity to Absolute and Relative Anticipated Reward in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Jatin G.; Knutson, Brian; O'Leary, Daniel S.; Block, Robert I.; Magnotta, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID) task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards). This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude). While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing), adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards) correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity. PMID:23544046

  18. Business factors related to manufacturing firms' performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergios Vranakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main goal is to understand the way many factors affect the investment decision making process and business performance. Design/methodology/approach: This study proposes a new conceptual framework for examining the reasons that manufacturing firms decide to invest on the acquisition of new machinery and equipment in order to improve their infrastructure. It incorporates various factors related to the internal business environment (quality management, investment decisions etc. Findings and Originality/value: A new conceptual framework, establishing the relations between many factors, has been developed, allowing the determinants of adoption of many implications to be discussed and to relate them to the peculiarities of the Greek manufacturing industry. Originality/value: This study presents an overview of the impact of machinery and equipment investment on firm’s performance, giving grasp for further research of the inter-organizational relationships that exist between them. 

  19. The Relationship of Workplace Culture With Nursing-Sensitive Organizational Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahtela, Nina; McCormack, Brendan; Paavilainen, Eija; Slater, Paul; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relations of workplace culture on nursing-sensitive organizational factors. The need for standardized and valid measures for nursing-sensitive organizational outcomes has already been recognized in the literature. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 21 inpatient acute care units in 9 organizations at the municipal primary healthcare level was conducted. Participants included licensed practical nurses, registered nurses, and nurse managers. Workplace culture, especially the overarching factor of stress, correlated with the use of supplemental nursing staff and patients' length of stay. It is essential to find and test workplace-sensitive indicators so that managers will have a wider range of methods to plan and evaluate nursing outcomes.

  20. Mental health in marriage: the roles of need for affiliation, sensitivity to rejection, and other factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, P F; Spence, N D; Goldney, R D

    1986-01-01

    This study reports on the associations between a number of personality factors and spouse mental health, happiness, and communication (N = 78). Lower Affiliative Drive and higher Sensitivity to Rejection emerge in this sample as being associated in wives (but not husbands) with increased psychological morbidity. Wives had higher levels of both Need for Affiliation and Sensitivity to Rejection than husbands, which possibly may lead to higher internal conflict for them. Although causality cannot necessarily be assumed, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that wives' mental health is more "relationship related" than that of husbands.

  1. Factors Related to Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…

  2. Motivational pathways from reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity to gambling frequency and gambling-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Quilty, Lena C; Hendershot, Christian S; Bagby, R Michael

    2015-12-01

    Motives for gambling have been shown to have an important role in gambling behavior, consistent with the literature on motives for substance use. While studies have demonstrated that traits related to sensitivity to reward (SR) and sensitivity to punishment (SP) are predictive of substance use motives, little research has examined the role of these traits in gambling motives. This study investigated motivational pathways from SR and SP to gambling frequency and gambling problems via specific gambling motives, while also taking into account history of substance use disorder (SUD). A community sample of gamblers (N = 248) completed self-report questionnaires assessing SR, SP, gambling frequency, gambling-related problems, and motives for gambling (social, negative affect, and enhancement/winning motives). Lifetime SUD was also assessed with a structured clinical interview. The results of a path analysis showed that SR was uniquely associated with all 3 types of gambling motives, whereas SP and SUD were associated with negative affect and enhancement/winning motives but not social motives. Also, both negative affect and enhancement/winning motives were associated with gambling problems, but only enhancement/winning motives were significantly related to gambling frequency. Analyses of indirect associations revealed significant indirect associations from SR, SP, and SUD to gambling frequency mediated through enhancement/winning motives and to gambling problems mediated through both negative affect and enhancement/winning motives. The findings highlight the importance of SR and SP as independent predictors of gambling motives and suggest that specific motivational pathways underlie their associations with gambling outcomes.

  3. Quantitative relations between corruption and economic factors

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Jia; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H Eugene

    2007-01-01

    We report quantitative relations between corruption level and economic factors, such as country wealth and foreign investment per capita, which are characterized by a power law spanning multiple scales of wealth and investments per capita. These relations hold for diverse countries, and also remain stable over different time periods. We also observe a negative correlation between level of corruption and long-term economic growth. We find similar results for two independent indices of corruption, suggesting that the relation between corruption and wealth does not depend on the specific measure of corruption. The functional relations we report have implications when assessing the relative level of corruption for two countries with comparable wealth, and for quantifying the impact of corruption on economic growth and foreign investments.

  4. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  5. Depletion of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) enhances SAHA sensitivity of p53-mutated pancreatic cancer cells through the regulation of mutant p53 and TAp63.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Takehiro; Nakamura, Mizuyo; Sang, Meijie; Yoda, Hiroyuki; Hiraoka, Kiriko; Yin, Danjing; Sang, Mexiang; Shimozato, Osamu; Ozaki, Toshinori

    2017-01-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) represents one of the new class of anti-cancer drugs. However, multiple lines of clinical evidence indicate that SAHA might be sometimes ineffective on certain solid tumors including pancreatic cancer. In this study, we have found for the first time that RUNX2/mutant p53/TAp63-regulatory axis has a pivotal role in the determination of SAHA sensitivity of p53-mutated pancreatic cancer MiaPaCa-2 cells. According to our present results, MiaPaCa-2 cells responded poorly to SAHA. Forced depletion of mutant p53 stimulated SAHA-mediated cell death of MiaPaCa-2 cells, which was accomapanied by a further accumulation of γH2AX and cleaved PARP. Under these experimental conditions, pro-oncogenic RUNX2 was strongly down-regulated in mutant p53-depleted MiaPaCa-2 cells. Surprisingly, RUNX2 silencing augmented SAHA-dependent cell death of MiaPaCa-2 cells and caused a significant reduction of mutant p53. Consistent with these observations, overexpression of RUNX2 in MiaPaCa-2 cells restored SAHA-mediated decrease in cell viability and increased the amount of mutant p53. Thus, it is suggestive that there exists a positive auto-regulatory loop between RUNX2 and mutant p53, which might amplify their pro-oncogenic signals. Intriguingly, knockdown of mutant p53 or RUNX2 potentiated SAHA-induced up-regulation of TAp63. Indeed, SAHA-stimulated cell death of MiaPaCa-2 cells was partially attenuated by p63 depletion. Collectively, our present observations strongly suggest that RUNX2/mutant p53/TAp63-regulatory axis is one of the key determinants of SAHA sensitivity of p53-mutated pancreatic cancer cells.

  6. Baltic Factor in Russia-France Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltsev Leonid A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to identify the role of the Baltic factor in Russia-France relations. Despite the fact that the Baltic Sea region (BSR no longer plays an important role in Russia-France bilateral relations, the authors attach significance to analysing the dynamics and changes of the BSR role in European politics in the post- Napoleonic period. The authors compare the Russian and the July Monarchies (1830—1848 in the context of the current Vienna system of international relations. The article describes the role of the 1830—1831 uprising in Poland, which was an event of particular importance. The monarchies of the two countries had to take into account new social phenomena, which were more pronounced in France. After the suppression of the uprising in the Polish part of the Russian Empire, Polish emigrants residing in France became the stumbling block for the development of Russia- France relations. The article explores the role of P. de Barante, Ambassador of France to Russia and describes France and Russia’s trade and economic interests in the Baltic Sea region. The authors conclude that the specificity of Russia-France bilateral relations became more apparent during the First and Second World Wars. However, the Baltic factor has lost its relevance over time.

  7. DETERMINATION OF RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF NONPROLIFERATION FACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Metcalf

    2009-07-01

    Methodologies to determine the proliferation resistance (PR) of nuclear facilities often rely on either expert elicitation, a resource-intensive approach without easily reproducible results, or numeric evaluations, which can fail to take into account the institutional knowledge and expert experience of the nonproliferation community. In an attempt to bridge the gap and bring the institutional knowledge into numeric evaluations of PR, a survey was conducted of 33 individuals to find the relative importance of a set of 62 nonproliferation factors, subsectioned into groups under the headings of Diversion, Transportation, Transformation, and Weaponization. One third of the respondents were self-described nonproliferation professionals, and the remaining two thirds were from secondary professions related to nonproliferation, such as industrial engineers or policy analysts. The factors were taken from previous work which used multi-attribute utility analysis with uniform weighting of attributes and did not include institutional knowledge. In both expert and non-expert groups, all four headings and the majority of factors had different relative importance at a confidence of 95% (p=0.05). This analysis and survey demonstrates that institutional knowledge can be brought into numeric evaluations of PR, if there is a sufficient investment of resources made prior to the evaluation.

  8. How far cardio metabolic and psychological factors affect salt sensitivity in normotensive adult population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Pourmoghaddas, Masoud; Behnamfar, Omid; Pourmoghaddas, Zahra; Heidari, Ebrahim; Mahjoor, Zahra; Mousavi, Mehdi; Bahonar, Ahmad; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the prevalence of salt sensitivity and the impact of cardiometabolic and psychological characteristics on salt sensitivity in normotensive population. METHODS Of all participants, anthropometric measurements and fasting venous blood samples were collected, and study questionnaires were completed. Salt Sensitivity was defined based on the difference in mean arterial pressure with infusion of 2 L of normal saline followed by a low sodium diet and administration of three doses of oral furosemide the day after. RESULTS Of 131 participants, 56 (42.7%) were diagnosed with salt sensitivity. Crude and age and sex adjusted regression analysis showed that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and depression were positively associated with salt sensitivity (OR = 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01-1.04 and OR = 1.15, 95%CI: 1.00-1.34, respectively). CONCLUSION The high prevalence of salt sensitivity and its significant relation with prevalent risk factors necessitates considering its reduction actions at the population level and the need for further research. PMID:28163836

  9. Is skin penetration a determining factor in skin sensitization ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary:Background. It is widely accepted that substances that cannot penetrate through the skin will not be sensitisers. Thresholds based on relevant physicochemical parameters such as a LogKow > 1 and a MW 1 is a true requirement for sensitisation.Methods. A large dataset of substances that had been evaluated for their skin sensitisation potential, together with measured LogKow values was compiled from the REACH database. The incidence of skin sensitisers relative to non-skin sensitisers below and above the LogKow = 1 threshold was evaluated. Results. 1482 substances with associated skin sensitisation outcomes and measured LogKow values were identified. 305 substances had a measured LogKow skin sensitisation above and below the LogKow = 1 threshold. Reaction chemistry considerations could explain the skin sensitisation observed for the 38 sensitisers with a LogKow skin sensitisation potential and potency. Using the REACH data extracted to test out the validity of common assumptions in the skin sensitization AOP. Builds on trying to develop a proof of concept IATA

  10. Holography, chiral Lagrangian and form factor relations

    CERN Document Server

    Zuo, Fen

    2013-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of mesonic properties in a class of holographic models of QCD, which is described by the Yang-Mills plus Chern-Simons action. By decomposing the 5 dimensional gauge field into resonances and integrating out the massive ones, we reproduce the Chiral Perturbative Theory Lagrangian up to ${\\cal O}(p^6)$ and obtain all the relevant low energy constants (LECs). The numerical predictions of the LECs show minor model dependence, and agree reasonably with the determinations from other approaches. Interestingly, various model-independent relations appear among them. Some of these relations are found to be the large-distance limits of universal relations between form factors of the anomalous and even-parity sectors of QCD.

  11. Relation between depression and sociodemographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar-Danesh Noori

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in Western countries and is related to increased morbidity and mortality from medical conditions and decreased quality of life. The sociodemographic factors of age, gender, marital status, education, immigrant status, and income have consistently been identified as important factors in explaining the variability in depression prevalence rates. This study evaluates the relationship between depression and these sociodemographic factors in the province of Ontario in Canada using the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 (CCHS-1.2 dataset. Methods The CCHS-1.2 survey classified depression into lifetime depression and 12-month depression. The data were collected based on unequal sampling probabilities to ensure adequate representation of young persons (15 to 24 and seniors (65 and over. The sampling weights were used to estimate the prevalence of depression in each subgroup of the population. The multiple logistic regression technique was used to estimate the odds ratio of depression for each sociodemographic factor. Results The odds ratio of depression for men compared with women is about 0.60. The lowest and highest rates of depression are seen among people living with their married partners and divorced individuals, respectively. Prevalence of depression among people who live with common-law partners is similar to rates of depression among separated and divorced individuals. The lowest and highest rates of depression based on the level of education is seen among individuals with less than secondary school and those with "other post-secondary" education, respectively. Prevalence of 12-month and lifetime depression among individuals who were born in Canada is higher compared to Canadian residents who immigrated to Canada irrespective of gender. There is an inverse relation between income and the prevalence of depression (p Conclusion The patterns uncovered in this

  12. Factors Related to Suicide in LGBT Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2016-09-01

    There is evidence of heightened vulnerability to nonfatal suicidal behaviors among LGBT populations yet a paucity of studies into fatal behaviors. The specific aim of this article was to identify factors related to suicide in LGBT individuals in Australia. The psychological autopsy (PA) method with a matched case-control study design was used. PA interviews were conducted with 27 next-of-kin of an LGBT person that had died by suicide. Three living LGBT controls per suicide case, matched by age and gender, were also interviewed. The key factors relating to suicide in LGBT people were a lack of acceptance by family and self (reflected in higher internalized homophobia and shame), negative feelings about own sexuality/gender, and dissatisfaction with appearance. LGBT people who died by suicide also tended to go through coming out milestones 2 years earlier than controls. There was a higher prevalence of aggressive behaviors and a more predominant history of physical and sexual abuse. Additionally, there was greater incidence of depression and anxiety and alcohol and substance use disorders. Specific predictive factors for suicide in LGBT populations in Australia were identified, including significantly poorer mental health outcomes and more violence across an array of measures.

  13. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  14. Contrasting ozone sensitivity in related evergreen and deciduous shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatayud, Vicent, E-mail: vicent@ceam.e [Fundacion CEAM, c/ Charles R. Darwin 14, Parque Tecnologico, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Marco, Francisco; Cervero, Julia [Fundacion CEAM, c/ Charles R. Darwin 14, Parque Tecnologico, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Sanchez-Pena, Gerardo [SPCAN, Dir. Gral. de Medio Natural y Politica Forestal, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino, Rios Rosas 24, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, Maria Jose [Fundacion CEAM, c/ Charles R. Darwin 14, Parque Tecnologico, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Plant responses to enhanced ozone levels have been studied in two pairs of evergreen-deciduous species (Pistacia terebinthus vs. P. lentiscus; Viburnum lantana vs. V. tinus) in Open Top Chambers. Ozone induced widespread visible injury, significantly reduced CO{sub 2} assimilation and stomatal conductance (g{sub s}), impaired Rubisco efficiency and regeneration capacity (V{sub c,max,}J{sub max}) and altered fluorescence parameters only in the deciduous species. Differences in stomatal conductance could not explain the observed differences in sensitivity. In control plants, deciduous species showed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than their evergreen counterparts, suggesting metabolic differences that could make them more prone to redox imbalances. Ozone induced increases in SOD and/or peroxidase activities in all the species, but only evergreens were able to cope with the oxidative stress. The relevancy of these results for the effective ozone flux approach and for the current ozone Critical Levels is also discussed. - Mediterranean evergreen shrubs have a constitutively higher capacity to tolerate ozone stress than their deciduous relatives.

  15. Factoring Algebraic Error for Relative Pose Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, P; Duchaineau, M

    2009-03-09

    We address the problem of estimating the relative pose, i.e. translation and rotation, of two calibrated cameras from image point correspondences. Our approach is to factor the nonlinear algebraic pose error functional into translational and rotational components, and to optimize translation and rotation independently. This factorization admits subproblems that can be solved using direct methods with practical guarantees on global optimality. That is, for a given translation, the corresponding optimal rotation can directly be determined, and vice versa. We show that these subproblems are equivalent to computing the least eigenvector of second- and fourth-order symmetric tensors. When neither translation or rotation is known, alternating translation and rotation optimization leads to a simple, efficient, and robust algorithm for pose estimation that improves on the well-known 5- and 8-point methods.

  16. Latex sensitization and risk factors in female nurses in Thai governmental hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chompunuch Supapvanich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Exposure to latex allergens in latex gloves can cause occupational health problems in nurses, yet latex gloves are still widely used in Thai hospitals. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine the prevalence of latex sensitization in nurses and identify risk factors associated with sensitization. Methods: A questionnaire, providing information on personal characteristics, ill-health, working conditions and symptoms related to latex product use, was administered to 363 female nurses working in two tertiary hospitals in southern Thailand. Latex sensitization was confirmed using a solid phase immunoassay to detect anti-latex IgE antibodies. Total glove protein levels were determined by using a modified Lowry method and latex aeroallergens by a competitive inhibition immunoassay. Results: The overall prevalence of latex sensitization was 4.4%. Respiratory symptoms related to latex glove use were significantly associated with latex sensitization (OR = 5.5, 95% CI: 1.57-19. Total glove protein levels ranged 87.8-250.8 μg protein/dm2. The prevalence of latex sensiti- zation was higher (6.6% vs. 2.2% in the hospital where gloves with higher protein levels (82-438 μg/g vs. 86-170 μg/g were used. Furthermore, latex sensitization prevalence increased from 3% to 5% with increased average departmental aeroallergen concentrations. Conclusions: Latex sensitization prevalence in Thai nurses was higher than previously reported. Respiratory exposure seems to play an important role, in addition to dermal exposure. If latex gloves cannot be replaced by non-latex alternatives, replacement with gloves with lower protein content should be considered.

  17. Recurrent acute pancreatitis and its relative factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Hong-Chao Shan; Yan Gu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the causes and the relative factors of recurrent acute pancreatitis.METHODS: From 1997 to 2000, acute pancreatitis relapsed in 77 of 245 acute pancreatitis patients. By reviewing the clinical treatment results and the follow-up data, we analyzed the recurrent factors of acute pancreatitis using univariate analysis and multivariate analysis.RESULTS: Of the 245 acute pancreatitis patients, 77 were patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis. Of them, 56 patients relapsed two times, 19 relapsed three times, each patient relapsed three and four times. Forty-seven patients relapsed in hospital and the other 30 patients relapsed after discharge. Eighteen patients relapsed in 1 year, eight relapsed in 1-3 years, and four relapsed after 3 years. There were 48 cases of biliary pancreatitis, 3 of alcohol pancreatitis, 5 of hyperlipidemia pancreatitis, 21 of idiopathic pancreatitis. Univariate analysis showed that the patients with local complications of pancreas, obstructive jaundice and hepatic function injury were easy to recur during the treatment period of acute pancreatitis (P = 0.022<0.05, P = 0.012<0.05 and P = 0.002<0.05, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that there was no single factor related to recurrence. Of the 47 patients who had recurrence in hospital, 16 had recurrence in a fast period, 31 after refeeding. CONCLUSION: Acute pancreatitis is easy to recur even during treatment. The factors such as changes of pancreas structure and uncontrolled systemic inflammatory reaction are responsible for the recurrence of acute pancreatitis. Early refeeding increases the recurrence of acute pancreatitis. Defining the etiology is essential for reducing the recurrence of acute pancreatitis.

  18. Modeling Relational Data via Latent Factor Blockmodel

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Sheng; Gallinari, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of modeling relational data, which appear in many applications such as social network analysis, recommender systems and bioinformatics. Previous studies either consider latent feature based models but disregarding local structure in the network, or focus exclusively on capturing local structure of objects based on latent blockmodels without coupling with latent characteristics of objects. To combine the benefits of the previous work, we propose a novel model that can simultaneously incorporate the effect of latent features and covariates if any, as well as the effect of latent structure that may exist in the data. To achieve this, we model the relation graph as a function of both latent feature factors and latent cluster memberships of objects to collectively discover globally predictive intrinsic properties of objects and capture latent block structure in the network to improve prediction performance. We also develop an optimization transfer algorithm based on the general...

  19. Auger relative sensitivivity factors for CdTe oxide

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bartolo-Pérez; J. L. Peña; M.H. Farías

    1999-01-01

    The Auger lineshape of Te MNN in measurements of Auger spectra of CdTe oxide films with various degrees of oxidation was analyzed. By using standards from stoichiometric compounds, Auger relative sensitivity factors (RSF´s) of Cd, Te and O for CdTe oxide thin films were obtained. The value of the RFS of oxygen is about constant, 0.27-0.28, for the standard compound, CdO, TeO2 and CdTeO3 (considering the RSF of Cd as 1). However, the obtained RSF of Te changes from 0.69 in CdTe up to 0.87 in C...

  20. Angiogenic factors in relation to embryo implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Bagheri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances in uterine blood supply are associated with higher perinatal morbidity and mortality caused by preterm delivery, preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction. Adaptation of the uterine vasculature to the rising needs of the fetus occurs through both vasodilation and development of new vessels. Angiogenesis is the process of neovascularization from pre-existing blood vessels in response to hypoxic condition of tissues. The endometrium, decidua and placenta are rich sources of angiogenic growth factors. In general, the angiogenic process is initiated by growth factors such as VEGF, placental growth factor (PlGF or bFGF. Through a complex signal transduction machinery mediated by respective receptor-tyrosine kinases, an increase in the permeability of the maternal vessels is achieved to permit growth and invasion of endothelial cells. Their chemotactic migration, formation of a vessel lumen, and functional maturation of new capillaries complete the angiogenic process that involves the expression of specific adhesion receptors and extracellular matrix-degrading proteases. During vasculogenesis, endothelial progenitor cells--angioblasts--form a primitive vascular network. This process occurs mainly during fetal development, although recruitment of angioblasts from bone marrow and peripheral blood in response to ischemic insult have been described in adults. In this review article we have described a recent complication related to angiogenic involvement in embryo implantation. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 872-879

  1. Factors related to attempted suicide in Davanagere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Gouda M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the factors responsible for suicidal attempts? Objectives: To study the socio-demographic factors, methods and reasons for suicidal attempts. Type of Study: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bapuji and C.G. Hospitals attached to J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere. Participants: A total of 540 suicidal attempters admitted to emergency wards. Methodology: A pretested proforma was administered to the subjects relating the factors responsible for the attempt. The data thus obtained was compiled and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Z -test and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, 61.3% were males and 38.7% were females. Peak occurrence of suicidal attempts was found in the second and third decades (15-29 years. Hindus constituted about 94.6% of the total suicidal attempters. Almost half (52.2% of the subjects had education below or up to matriculation and 83% of them were from the lower (classes IV and V socio-economic groups. Agriculturists, housewives and unskilled workers represented 75% of the total subjects. Fifty-five percent of the subjects were from nuclear families and most (62.4% of them were married; frequent mode of attempting suicides was by organo-phosphorus compounds (66.3% followed by overdosage of tablets (17.8%. Common cause was family problem (27.2% followed by illness (27%.

  2. Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-10-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia.

  3. Factors Affecting Sensitivity of Variable Charge Soils to Acid Rain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGJING-HUA

    1995-01-01

    The sensitivity of a large number of variable charge soils to acid rain was evaluated through examining pH-H2SO4 input curves.Two derivative parameters,the consumption of hydrogen ions by the soil and the acidtolerant limit as defined as the quantity of sulfuric acid required to bring the soil to pH 3.5 in a 0.001mol L-1 Ca(NO3)2 solution,were used.The sensitivity of variable charge soils was higher than that of constant charge soils,due to the predominance of kaolinite in clay mineralogical composition.Among these soils the sensitivity was generally of the order lateritic red soil>red soil> latosol.For a given type of soil within the same region the sensitivity was affected by parent material,due to differences in clay minerals and texture.The sensitivity of surface soil may be lower or higher than that of subsiol,depending on whether organic matter or texture plays the dominant role in determining the buffering capacity.Paddy soils consumed more acid within lower range of acid input when compared with upland soils,due to the presence of more exchangeable bases,but consumed less acid within higher acid input range,caused by the decrease in clay content.

  4. Establishing relative sensitivities of various toxicity testing organisms to ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karle, L.M.; Mayhew, H.L.; Barrows, M.E.; Karls, R.K. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The toxicity of ammonia to various organisms was examined to develop a baseline for mortality in several commonly used testing species. This baseline data will assist in choosing the proper test species and in interpreting results as they pertain to ammonia. Responses for two juvenile fish species, three marine amphipods, and two species of mysid shrimp were compared for their sensitivity to levels of ammonia. All mortality caused by ammonia in the bottom-dwelling Citharichthys stigmaeus occurred within 24 h of exposure, whereas mortality in the silverside, Menidia beryllina, occurred over the entire 96-h test duration. Responses to ammonia varied among the amphipods Rhepoxynius abronius, Ampelisca abdita, and Eohaustorius estuarius. R. abronius and A. abdita showed similar sensitivity to ammonia at lower concentrations; A. abdita appeared more sensitive than R. abronius at levels above 40 mg/L. Concentrations of ammonia required to produce significant mortality in the amphipod E. estuarius were far higher than the other species examined (> 100 mg/L NH{sub 3}). A comparison of ammonia toxicity with two commonly used invertebrates, Holmesimysis sculpts and Mysidopsis bahia, suggest that these two species of mysid have similar sensitivities to ammonia. Further studies with ammonia that examine sensitivity of different organisms should be conducted to assist regulatory and environmental agencies in determining appropriate test species and in interpreting toxicological results as they may be affected by levels of ammonia.

  5. Skeletal Muscle Angiogenesis and Its Relation to Insulin Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, Anna Maria Charlotte K

    in skeletal muscle capillarization (17.0±2.0%; EDL and 20.1±2.4%; soleus muscle) and whole-body insulin sensitivity increased by 24.0±5.0%. In study II obese Zucker rats were transfected with a VEGF-A overexpression vector. The rats were then subjected to 30 days of swim training (over a period of 6 weeks...... mediator of angiogenesis) are reduced in insulin resistant individuals. Exercise training can improve skeletal muscle capillarization and the angiogenic potential and physical activity has also been proven to enhance muscle insulin sensitivity. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated......). After the intervention period, insulin sensitivity was measured as in study I. VEGF-A transfection caused a normalization of the VEGF levels in the muscle. VEGF transfection in combination with training resulted in an increased capillarization (20.7±4.3%) and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (124...

  6. Temporal variations of reference evapotranspiration and its sensitivity to meteorological factors in Heihe River Basin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Zhao; Zong-xue Xu; De-peng Zuo; Xu-ming Wang

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of daily meteorological data from 15 meteorological stations in the Heihe River Basin (HRB) during the period from 1959 to 2012, long-term trends of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and key meteorological factors that affect ET0 were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test. The evaporation paradox was also investigated at 15 meteorological stations. In order to explore the contribution of key meteo-rological factors to the temporal variation of ET0, a sensitivity coefficient method was employed in this study. The results show that:(1) mean annual air temperature significantly increased at all 15 meteorological stations, while the mean annual ET0 decreased at most of sites;(2) the evaporation paradox did exist in the HRB, while the evaporation paradox was not continuous in space and time;and (3) relative humidity was the most sensitive meteorological factor with regard to the temporal variation of ET0 in the HRB, followed by wind speed, air temperature, and solar radiation. Air temperature and solar radiation contributed most to the temporal variation of ET0 in the upper reaches;solar radiation and wind speed were the determining factors for the temporal variation of ET0 in the middle-lower reaches.

  7. Complement factor H related proteins (CFHRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerka, Christine; Chen, Qian; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Roumenina, Lubka T

    2013-12-15

    Factor H related proteins comprise a group of five plasma proteins: CFHR1, CFHR2, CFHR3, CFHR4 and CFHR5, and each member of this group binds to the central complement component C3b. Mutations, genetic deletions, duplications or rearrangements in the individual CFHR genes are associated with a number of diseases including atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), C3 glomerulopathies (C3 glomerulonephritis (C3GN), dense deposit disease (DDD) and CFHR5 nephropathy), IgA nephropathy, age related macular degeneration (AMD) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Although complement regulatory functions were attributed to most of the members of the CFHR protein family, the precise role of each CFHR protein in complement activation and the exact contribution to disease pathology is still unclear. Recent publications show that CFHR proteins form homo- as well as heterodimers. Genetic abnormalities within the CFHR gene locus can result in hybrid proteins with affected dimerization or recognition domains which cause defective functions. Here we summarize the recent data about CFHR genes and proteins in order to better understand the role of CFHR proteins in complement activation and in complement associated diseases.

  8. Oat sensitization in children with atopic dermatitis: prevalence, risks and associated factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boussault, P; Leaute-Labreze, C; Saubusse, E; Maurice-Tison, S; Perromat, M; Roul, S; Sarrat, A; Taieb, A; Boralevi, F

    2007-01-01

    .... Percutaneous sensitization to oat used in emollients/moisturizers has already been reported. Our objectives were to measure the prevalence of oat sensitization in AD children, to assess its relevance, and to look at related parameters. Methods...

  9. Screening the Drug Sensitivity Genes Related to GEM and CDDP in the Lung Cancer Cell-lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu YANG

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Screening of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines with gemcitabine hydrochloride (GEM and cisplatin (CDDP related to drug sensitivity gene might clarify the action mechanism of anti-cancer drugs and provide a new clue for overcoming drug resistance and the development of new anti-cancer drugs, and also provide theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of individual. Methods The drug sensitivity of CDDP and GEM in 4 SCLC cell lines and 6 NSCLC cell lines was determined using MTT colorimetric assay, while the cDNA macroarray was applied to detect the gene expression state related to drug sensitivity of 10 lung cancer cell line in 1 291, and the correlation between the two was analysized. Results There were 6 genes showing significant positive correlation (r≥0.632, P < 0.05 with GEM sensitivity; 45 genes positively related to CDDP; another 41 genes related to both GEM and CDDP (r≥± 0.4. Lung cancer with GEM and CDDP sensitivity of two types of drugs significantly related genes were Metallothinein (Signal transduction molecules, Cathepsin B (Organization protease B and TIMP1 (Growth factor; the GEM, CDDP sensitivity associated genes of lung cancer cell lines mainly distributed in Metallothinein, Cathepsin B, growth factor TIMP1 categories. Conclusion There existed drug-related sensitive genes of GEM, CDDP in SCLC and NSCLC cell lines; of these genes, Metallothinein, Cathepsin B and TIMP1 genes presented a significant positive correlation with GEM drug sensitivity, a significant negative correlation with CDDP drug sensitivity.

  10. Rhinitis symptoms and IgE sensitization as risk factors for development of later allergic rhinitis in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Linneberg, A

    2006-01-01

    Rhinitis symptoms and IgE-sensitization often mismatch. Asymptomatic sensitization is an established risk factor for later rhinitis, whereas it is not clear whether rhinitis is a risk factor for later development of IgE-sensitization.......Rhinitis symptoms and IgE-sensitization often mismatch. Asymptomatic sensitization is an established risk factor for later rhinitis, whereas it is not clear whether rhinitis is a risk factor for later development of IgE-sensitization....

  11. EFFECTS OF PROJECT-RELATED FACTORS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    performance of every organization, whether large or small, in today's ... improvement of labour productivity should be a major and ... factors based on the theory of motivation. Durdyev and ..... of required work is one of the factors affecting.

  12. Sensitivity problems related to certain bifurcations in non-linear recurrence relations

    CERN Document Server

    Gumowski, I.

    1969-01-01

    This paper is concerned with certain qualitative aspects of the sensitivity problem in relation to small variations of a parameter of a system, the behaviour of which can be described by an autonomous recurrence relation: V$_{n+1}$ = F(V$_{n}, \\lambda$) (1) V being a vector, $\\lambda$ the parameter. The problem consists in the determination of the bifurcation values $\\lambda_{0}$ of $\\lambda$, i.e. values such that the qualitative behaviour of a solution of (1) should be different for $\\lambda = \\lambda \\pm \\epsilon$ where $\\epsilon$ is a small quantity. Bifurcations that correspond to a critical case in the Liapunov sense, and the crossing through this critical case, are considered. Examples of bifurcations, not connected with the presence of a critical case, and which correspond to a large deformation of the stability domain boundary of an equilibrium point, a fixed point of (1), under the effect of a parameter variation, are given where V is a two dimensional vector.

  13. Methylation sensitive-sequence related amplified polymorphism (MS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR NJ TONUKARI

    2011-04-25

    Apr 25, 2011 ... RNAPs, RNA polymerase; PEP, plastid encoded RNAP polymerase; NEP ... Page 2 ... chromatin structure and is accessible to transcription factors and .... Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) search, 8 out of 18 loci ...

  14. Factors Related to Intimidation During Oxytocin Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Claudia A; Cannella, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Patient's safety and quality are foremost issues in healthcare today and are often adversely influenced by communication and issues of perceived intimidation. Labor and delivery nurses are responsible for managing oxytocin infusions, but disagreements between providers and nurses related to the administration have been shown to cause tension and affect patient's care. The purpose of this study was to survey registered nurses in labor and delivery about perceived intimidation and how intimidation influenced actions and decisions. A total of 913 registered nurses who were members of the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses and identified labor and delivery comprised the sample as their clinical focus. Nurses who met the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the survey via e-mail invitation. An online survey assessing workplace intimidation by providers while managing oxytocin inductions, as well as demographic information was completed. Participants reported past issues with intimidation that influenced how they administered oxytocin. Nurses reported that past experiences with intimidation influenced their care and that they had been involved with medication errors where intimidation played a role. Organizational factors perceived supportive management, presence of an organizational code of conduct, and environment where collaboration was encouraged were associated with decreased reports of intimidation.

  15. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  16. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics.Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  17. Interplay between mutagen sensitivity and epidemiological factors in modulatinglung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xifeng; Lin, Jie; Etzel, Carol J; Dong, Qiong; Gorlova, Olga Y; Zhang, Qing; Amos, Christopher I; Spitz, Margaret R

    2007-06-15

    Few studies have assessed mutagen sensitivity and lung cancer (LC) risk associations in the context of multiple epidemiological risk factors. We evaluated mutagen sensitivity as a susceptibility marker and explored the interplay of the genetic marker and multiple epidemiologic risk factors in modulating LC risk. This largest case-control study included 977 newly diagnosed LC patients and 977 controls, matched by age, gender, ethnicity and smoking status. Cases exhibited significantly higher mutagen sensitivity than controls in bleomycin (0.76 vs. 0.62 breaks/cell, p Mutagen sensitivity also exhibited dose-response relationship with LC risk in quartile analysis (p for trend mutagen sensitivity as a predisposition factor for LC and demonstrates the importance of assessing multiple risk factors to comprehensively assess LC risk. This new integrative approach should facilitate identification of high-risk subgroups and has important implications in LC prevention.

  18. Sensitivity analysis of the relative biological effectiveness predicted by the local effect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, T; Grün, R; Scholz, U; Elsässer, T; Durante, M; Scholz, M

    2013-10-07

    The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is a central quantity in particle radiobiology and depends on many physical and biological factors. The local effect model (LEM) allows one to predict the RBE for radiobiologic experiments and particle therapy. In this work the sensitivity of the RBE on its determining factors is elucidated based on monitoring the RBE dependence on the input parameters of the LEM. The relevance and meaning of all parameters are discussed within the formalism of the LEM. While most of the parameters are fixed by experimental constraints, one parameter, the threshold dose Dt, may remain free and is then regarded as a fit parameter to the high LET dose response curve. The influence of each parameter on the RBE is understood in terms of theoretic considerations. The sensitivity analysis has been systematically carried out for fictitious in vitro cell lines or tissues with α/β = 2 Gy and 10 Gy, either irradiated under track segment conditions with a monoenergetic beam or within a spread out Bragg peak. For both irradiation conditions, a change of each of the parameters typically causes an approximately equal or smaller relative change of the predicted RBE values. These results may be used for the assessment of treatment plans and for general uncertainty estimations of the RBE.

  19. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 in an Italian community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eGhisi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety Sensitivity (AS is defined as the fear of anxiety and of arousal-related bodily sensations, arising from erroneous beliefs that these sensations will have adverse consequences. AS plays a key role both in the onset and in the maintenance of several disorders, particularly anxiety disorders. To date, only two studies on American samples have examined the bifactor structure of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3; therefore, findings on different cultures are needed. The main purpose of the present study was to assess the factor structure and psychometric properties of the ASI-3 in an Italian community sample. Participants were recruited from the general population (N=1507. The results of a series of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the bifactor structure fitted the data better than the most commonly accepted structure for the measure and that it was invariant across gender. Moreover, the current study provided evidence regarding the ASI-3’s reliability and its convergent and divergent validity. Lastly, results pertaining incremental validity of the ASI-3 Physical and Cognitive Concerns subscales above and beyond the total showed that the former was not associated with a measure of physiological anxiety, whereas the latter was weakly associated with a measure of worry.Findings suggest that the ASI-3 is comprised of a dominant general factor and three specific independent factors; given the dominance of the general factor, the use of the ASI-3 total score as a measure of the general fear of anxiety is recommended in both clinical and research settings.

  20. Contrasting ozone sensitivity in related evergreen and deciduous shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Vicent; Marco, Francisco; Cerveró, Júlia; Sánchez-Peña, Gerardo; Sanz, María José

    2010-12-01

    Plant responses to enhanced ozone levels have been studied in two pairs of evergreen-deciduous species (Pistacia terebinthus vs. P. lentiscus; Viburnum lantana vs. V. tinus) in Open Top Chambers. Ozone induced widespread visible injury, significantly reduced CO(2) assimilation and stomatal conductance (g(s)), impaired Rubisco efficiency and regeneration capacity (V(c,max,)J(max)) and altered fluorescence parameters only in the deciduous species. Differences in stomatal conductance could not explain the observed differences in sensitivity. In control plants, deciduous species showed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than their evergreen counterparts, suggesting metabolic differences that could make them more prone to redox imbalances. Ozone induced increases in SOD and/or peroxidase activities in all the species, but only evergreens were able to cope with the oxidative stress. The relevancy of these results for the effective ozone flux approach and for the current ozone Critical Levels is also discussed.

  1. Maternal Sensitivity Moderates the Relation between Negative Discipline and Aggression in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Mesman, Judi; van Zeijl, Jantien; Stolk, Mirjam N.; Juffer, Femmie; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    Three models regarding the relation between maternal (in)sensitivity, negative discipline, and child aggression were examined in a sample of 117 mother-child pairs with high scores on child externalizing behavior: (1) Sensitivity and discipline are uniquely related to child aggression (the additive model); (2) the relation between discipline and…

  2. 41 CFR 109-45.309-53 - Nuclear-related or proliferation sensitive property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Personal Property § 109-45.309-53 Nuclear-related or proliferation sensitive property. Nuclear-related or... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nuclear-related or proliferation sensitive property. 109-45.309-53 Section 109-45.309-53 Public Contracts and Property...

  3. 41 CFR 109-43.307-52 - Nuclear-related or proliferation-sensitive personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Excess § 109-43.307-52 Nuclear-related or proliferation-sensitive personal property. (a) Recognizing that... cards on file in the property office. (b) Nuclear-related and proliferation-sensitive personal property... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nuclear-related...

  4. 41 CFR 109-43.305-50 - Nuclear-related and proliferation-sensitive personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Excess § 109-43.305-50 Nuclear-related and proliferation-sensitive personal property. Nuclear-related and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nuclear-related and proliferation-sensitive personal property. 109-43.305-50 Section 109-43.305-50 Public Contracts and...

  5. Prevalence and association of asthma and allergic sensitization with dietary factors in schoolchildren: data from the french six cities study

    OpenAIRE

    Saadeh, Danielle; Salameh, Pascale; Caillaud, Denis; Charpin, Denis; De Blay, Frédéric; Kopferschmitt, Christine; Lavaud, François; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Baldi,Isabelle; Raherison, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Background: The prevalence of asthma and allergy has recently risen among children. This increase in prevalence might be related to various factors, particularly diet. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and association of asthma and allergic sensitization with dietary factors in the French Six Cities Study. Methods: Cross-sectional studies were performed among 7432 schoolchildren aged 9-11 years in Bordeaux, Clermont-Ferrand, Creteil, Marseille, Reims, a...

  6. Cultural Competence and Related Factors Among Taiwanese Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Nu; Mastel-Smith, Beth; Alfred, Danita; Lin, Yu-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan is a multicultural and multiethnic society with a growing number of immigrants who have diverse ethnic, racial, and cultural needs. Although this diversity highlights the pressing need for culturally competent healthcare providers, cultural competence is a concept that is little understood and implemented only sporadically in Taiwan. This study investigates the cultural competence of Taiwanese nurses and the related factors of influence. An online self-report survey was used to collect data from 221 Taiwanese nurses from December 2012 through January 2013. Data from the demographic questionnaire, the Nurses' Cultural Competence Scale, and the Perceived Nurses' Cultural Competence Rating were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, independent sample t tests, and multiple regressions. The cultural competence of the participants was in the "low to moderate" range, with relatively higher mean scores for the subscales of cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity and relatively lower scores for the subscales of cultural knowledge and cultural skills. Participants generally perceived themselves as being "not culturally competent." Variables found to predict cultural competence included years of work experience, hours of continuing education related to cultural nursing care, and frequency of caring for clients from culturally and ethnically diverse backgrounds. Participating Taiwanese nurses rated their level of cultural competence as in the low-to-moderate range and self-perceived as being not culturally competent. These findings support the need to further expand and enhance cultural-competence-related continuing education and to address the topic of cultural care in the nursing curricula.

  7. Prosodic Sensitivity and Reading: An Investigation of Pathways of Relations Using a Latent Variable Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Petscher, Yaacov

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that children's sensitivity to suprasegmental phonology such as stress and timing (i.e., prosodic sensitivity) contributes to reading. The primary goal of this study was to investigate pathways of the relation of prosodic sensitivity to reading (word reading and reading comprehension) using data from 370 first-grade…

  8. Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Reference Evapotranspiration and Its Sensitivity Coefifcients to Climate Factors in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-ying; LIU Qin; MEI Xu-rong; YAN Chang-rong; JU Hui; XUJian-wen

    2013-01-01

    Climate change will have important implications in water shore regions, such as Huang-Huai-Hai (3H) plain, where expected warmer and drier conditions might augment crop water demand. Sensitivity analysis is important in understanding the relative importance of climatic variables to the variation in reference evapotranspiration (ET0). In this study, the 51-yrET0 during winter wheat and summer maize growing season were calculated from a data set of daily climate variables in 40 meteorological stations. Sensitivity maps for key climate variables were estimated according to Kriging method and the spatial pattern of sensitivity coefifcients for these key variables was plotted. In addition, the slopes of the linear regression lines for sensitivity coefifcients were obtained. Results showed thatET0 during winter wheat growing season accounted for the largest proportion of annualET0, due to its long phenological days, whileET0 was detected to decrease signiifcantly with the magnitude of 0.5 mmyr-1 in summer maize growing season. Solar radiation is considered to be the most sensitive and primarily controlling variable for negative trend inET0 for summer maize season, and higher sensitive coefifcient value ofET0 to solar radiation and temperature were detected in east part and southwest part of 3H plain respectively. Relative humidity was demonstrated as the most sensitive factor forET0 in winter wheat growing season and declining relativity humidity also primarily controlled a negative trend inET0, furthermore the sensitivity coefifcient to relative humidity increased from west to southeast. The eight sensitivity centrals were all found located in Shandong Province. TheseET0 along with its sensitivity maps under winter wheat-summer maize rotation system can be applied to predict the agricultural water demand and will assist water resources planning and management for this region.

  9. Determining Regional Sensitivity to Energy-Related Water Withdrawals in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, A.; Brauman, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Minnesota has abundant freshwater resources, yet concerns about water-impacts of energy and mining development are increasing. Statewide, total annual water withdrawals have increased, and, in some watersheds, withdrawals make up a large fraction of available water. The energy and mining sectors play a critical role in determining water availability, as water is used to irrigate biofuel feedstock crops, cool thermoelectric plants, and process and transport fuels and iron ore. We evaluated the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Water and Reporting System (MPARS) dataset (1988-2014) to identify regions where energy and mining-related water withdrawals are high or where they are increasing. The energy and mining sectors account for over 65 percent of total water extractions in Minnesota, but this percentage is greater in some regions. In certain southern and northeastern Minnesota watersheds, these extractions account for 90 percent of total water demand. Sensitivity to these demands is not dependent on total water demand alone, and is also not uniform among watersheds. We identified and evaluated factors influencing sensitivity, including population, extraction type (surface water or groundwater), percentage of increased demand, and whether withdrawals are consumptive or not. We determined that southern Minnesota is particularly sensitive to increased water demands, because of growing biofuel and sand extraction industries (the products of which are used in hydraulic fracturing). In the last ten years, ethanol production in Minnesota has increased by 440 percent, and over fifteen refineries (each with a capacity over 1.1 billion gallons), have been built. These users primarily extract from surface water bodies within a few watersheds, compromising local supplies. As these energy-related industries continue to grow, so will the demand for freshwater resources. Determining regional sensitivity to increased demands will allow policy-makers to manage the

  10. EFFECTS OF PROCUREMENT RELATED FACTORS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-03-04

    Mar 4, 2013 ... Several Literatures in construction management support the view that procurements have impacts on project performance. .... size, cost, flexibility, complexity, site risk factors ... of the procurement process to client charges are.

  11. Age-Related Factors That Influence Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found at the NICHD Pregnancy Loss topic page . Committee on Gynecologic Practice of American College of ... 2012, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/health/topics/pregnancyloss/researchinfo/Pages/default.aspx [top] « Lifestyle Factors That Influence Fertility ...

  12. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Related Clinical Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuan-chong FENG; Zhong-mei LI

    2004-01-01

    @@ As a widely-applied clinical therapy for infertility and sterility, ART has its own merits compared to other techniques and operations; however, the outcome of ART is influenced by various factors ranging from age, endometrial receptivity, reproductive system condition (e.g.uterus, fallopian tube and pelvic factors, etc.), immune system and so on. From our clinical experience and the literatures reviewd, it is strongly recommended that the situation of every infertile couple be evaluated thoroughly before applying therapy.

  13. The depth-sensitivity relation (DSR) for underground laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hime, Andrew

    2005-04-01

    Muon-induced background constrains the sensitivity of next generation underground low energy neutrino and dark matter experiments. Muon-induced background sources are (1) fast neutrons produced in the detector and surrounding materials (rock and shield materials) with a hard energy spectrum; (2) cosmogenic radioactivity created in the detector and surrounding materials; (3) stopping negative muon capture on nuclei produces neutrons and radioactive isotopes in the detector and surrounding materials; and (4) muons hit the detector due to a finite veto efficiency. Understanding and reducing these four muon-induced sources of background are essential to dark matter, double beta decay and θ13 experiments. An effective way to reduce such background is to increase the depth of the experimental site. Therefore, it is essential to study DSR for underground experiments. We proposed a unified approach to study muons, the muon-induced neutron flux, energy spectrum, angular distribution, multiplicity and lateral distribution with respect to the muon track for six underground laboratories. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the muon-induced background level for underground laboratories and hence the reduction methods.

  14. Culturally sensitive health counseling to prevent lifestyle-related diseases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marutani, Miki; Miyazaki, Misako

    2010-09-01

    This study explored the methods that are used by public health nurses to provide culturally sensitive health counseling to elderly Japanese farmers in order to motivate them to adopt healthy behaviors. Fourteen elderly farmers (eight men and six women) from three rural communities underwent health counseling and then changed their habits to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. Qualitative and inductive analyses were conducted to determine the effects of the culturally sensitive counseling. Five methods for providing culturally sensitive counseling were identified: (i) showing an interest in, and respect for, the local culture; (ii) stimulating the participants' awareness of the health risks inherited in their local cultural practices through the use of familiar examples; (iii) accepting and understanding the participants' ambivalence about their local culture; (iv) connecting the reasons for the participants to change their lifestyle with their local culture; and (v) adjusting the health-promoting behaviors of the participants to fit their local culture. Public health nurses should consider the pride that elderly farmers have in their background and their resistance to change and use these factors to point out the discrepancies in their lifestyle and promote more quality-of-life-oriented and practical self-care behaviors.

  15. Anxiety sensitivity and working memory capacity: Risk factors and targets for health behavior promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Michael W; Eastman, Abraham; Lo, Stephen; Hearon, Bridget A; Bickel, Warren K; Zvolensky, Michael; Smits, Jasper A J; Doan, Stacey N

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the nature and influence of specific risk profiles is increasingly important for health behavior promotion. The purpose of this article is to document the value of two factors-anxiety sensitivity (AS) and working memory capacity (WMC)-for enhancing risk for the initiation and/or maintenance of a range of negative health behaviors. AS is a distress-related risk factor that potentiates avoidance/coping motivations for negative health behaviors. Stress provides the conditions for negative somatic and affective states, and AS amplifies the aversiveness of these experiences and correspondingly hinders adaptive functioning. In contrast, low WMC is hypothesized to exert its effect by decreasing the capacity to filter out current temptations, attenuating a focus on longer-term goals and impairing the application of relevant coping skills at times of stress. In this review, we provide conceptual models for the separate roles of high AS and low WMC in negative health behaviors, review the influence of these factors on specific health behavior exemplars (eating behaviors/obesity, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and sleep promotion), provide preliminary evidence for their value as independent treatment targets for health-behavior promotion, and encourage specific research directions in relation to these variables. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Steric factors moderate conformational fluidity and contribute to the high proton sensitivity of Root effect hemoglobins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Celia; Henkens, Robert; Friedman, Joel; Siburt, Claire J Parker; Kraiter, Daniel; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2011-10-01

    The structural basis of the extreme pH dependence of oxygen binding to Root effect Hbs is a long-standing puzzle in the field of protein chemistry. A previously unappreciated role of steric factors in the Root effect was revealed by a comparison of pH effects on oxygenation and oxidation processes in human Hb relative to Spot (Leiostomus xanthurus) and Carp (Cyprinodon carpio) Hbs. The Root effect confers five-fold increased pH sensitivity to oxygenation of Spot and Carp Hbs relative to Hb A(0) in the absence of anionic effectors, and even larger relative elevations of pH sensitivity of oxygenation in the presence of 0.2M phosphate. Remarkably, the Root effect was not evident in the oxidation of the Root effect Hbs. This finding rules out pH-dependent alterations in the thermodynamic properties of the heme iron, measured in the anaerobic oxidation reaction, as the basis of the Root effect. The alternative explanation supported by these results is that the elevated pH sensitivity of oxygenation of Root effect Hbs is attributable to globin-dependent steric effects that alter oxygen affinity by constraining conformational fluidity, but which have little influence on electron exchange via the heme edge. This elegant mode of allosteric control can regulate oxygen affinity within a given quaternary state, in addition to modifying the T-R equilibrium. Evolution of Hb sequences that result in proton-linked steric barriers to heme oxygenation could provide a general mechanism to account for the appearance of the Root effect in the structurally diverse Hbs of many species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of the CIPP model in the study of factors that promote intercultural sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Bernardo, Paola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes a group of factors (related to self, context and process favouring the development of intercultural sensitivity. A social diagnosis was performed in the Spanish province of Castellón in order to identify these factors by means of a correlational study. A non-probabilistic but representative sample consisting of 995 people from 37 different countries living in this province was used. Data were collected by means of an adaptation of the scale proposed by Chen and Starosta (2000 for the assessment of intercultural sensitivity. Results showed four profiles, and their main characteristics were studied. Variables such as country of origin, gender, academic background, number of languages spoken, or the experience of living in a foreign country revealed to have a positive influence on the development of this attitude. El presente artículo propone un conjunto de los factores (personales, contextuales y de proceso que favorecen el desarrollo de la sensibilidad intercultural. Para identificar dichos factores se ha realizado un diagnóstico social en la provincia de Castellón (España. Este estudio de tipo descriptivo de carácter correlacional se ha concretado con una muestra de 995 personas de 37 nacionalidades diferentes, constituyendo una muestra representativa, caracterizada por ser de tipo fortuito o accidental. Para recoger la información se ha utilizado una adaptación de la escala de sensibilidad intercultural de Chen y Starosta (2000. El análisis de datos ha permitido identificar cuatro perfiles, de los cuales se han estudiado sus principales características y se ha podido concluir que variables tales como la condición de origen, el sexo, la formación, la cantidad de lenguas que habla o el haber vivido en otro país influyen positivamente para el desarrollo de esta actitud.

  18. Osteoporosis in childhood: related factors and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio González-Jiménez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is defined as a reduction in bone mass. This loss is more important in states of malnutrition, physical inactivity, and with a poor dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Bone mineralization depends on both genetic and nutritional factors, as well as endocrine, metabolic, and mechanical factors. Several studies in children have shown that the development of osteoporosis in adulthood may be influenced by the nutritional status during childhood, especially with regard to the contributions of calcium and vitamin D. However, currently there are many questions regarding its pathogenesis and diagnosis and its treatment, some of which are reviewed in this paper. The aim of this work has been to provide an update on the main factors associated with the development of osteoporosis and its prevention in infancy.

  19. Unitarily invariant norms related to factors

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Junsheng

    2007-01-01

    Let $\\M$ be a semi-finite von Neumann algebra and $\\J(\\M)$ be the set of operators in $\\M$ with finite range projections. In this paper we obtain a representation theorem for unitarily invariant norms on $\\J(\\M)$ of semi-finite factors $\\M$ in terms of Ky Fan norms. As an application, we prove that the class of unitarily invariant norms on $\\J(\\M)$ of a type ${\\rm II}\\sb \\infty$ (or type ${\\rm I}\\sb \\infty$) factor $\\M$ coincides with the class of symmetric gauge norms on $\\J(L^\\infty[0,\\infty))$ (or $\\J(l^\\infty(\

  20. A Bayesian Multi-Level Factor Analytic Model of Consumer Price Sensitivities across Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuri, Sri Devi; Gruca, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying price sensitive consumers is an important problem in marketing. We develop a Bayesian multi-level factor analytic model of the covariation among household-level price sensitivities across product categories that are substitutes. Based on a multivariate probit model of category incidence, this framework also allows the researcher to…

  1. A Bayesian Multi-Level Factor Analytic Model of Consumer Price Sensitivities across Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuri, Sri Devi; Gruca, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying price sensitive consumers is an important problem in marketing. We develop a Bayesian multi-level factor analytic model of the covariation among household-level price sensitivities across product categories that are substitutes. Based on a multivariate probit model of category incidence, this framework also allows the researcher to…

  2. A sensitive electrochemiluminescence cytosensor for quantitative evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor expressed on cell surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yanjuan; Zhang, Shaolian; Wen, Qingqing; Huang, Hongxing; Yang, Peihui, E-mail: typh@jnu.edu.cn

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • EGF-cytosensor was used for evaluating EGFR expression level on cell surfaces. • CdSQDs and EGF were coated on magnetic beads (MBs) for ECL-probe. • Good sensitivity was achieved due to the signal amplification of ECL-probe. - Abstract: A sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) strategy for evaluating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression level on cell surfaces was designed by integrating the specific recognition of EGFR expressed on MCF-7 cell surfaces with an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-funtionalized CdS quantum dots (CdSQDs)-capped magnetic bead (MB) probe. The high sensitivity of ECL probe of EGF-funtionalized CdSQD-capped-MB was used for competitive recognition with EGFR expressed on cell surfaces with recombinant EGFR protein. The changes of ECL intensity depended on both the cell number and the expression level of EGFR receptor on cell surfaces. A wide linear response to cells ranging from 80 to 4 × 10{sup 6} cells mL{sup −1} with a detection limit of 40 cells mL{sup −1} was obtained. The EGF-cytosensor was used to evaluate EGFR expression levels on MCF-7 cells, and the average number of EGFR receptor on single MCF-7 cells was 1.35 × 10{sup 5} with the relative standard deviation of 4.3%. This strategy was further used for in-situ and real-time evaluating EGFR receptor expressed on cell surfaces in response to drugs stimulation at different concentration and incubation time. The proposed method provided potential applications in the detection of receptors on cancer cells and anticancer drugs screening.

  3. Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, Helen; Bergstrom, Anna; Alm, Johan S.; Swartz, Jackie; Scheynius, Annika; van Hage, Marianne; Johansen, Kari; Brunekreef, Bert; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J.; Riedler, Josef; Braun-Fahrlaender, Charlotte; Waser, Marco; Pershagen, Goran

    OBJECTIVE. Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS. A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  4. Allergic disease and atopic sensitization in children in relation to measles vaccination and measles infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, H.; Bergstrom, A.; Alm, J.; Swartz, J.; Scheynius, A.; van Hage, M.; Johansen, K.; Brunekreef, B.; von Mutius, E.; Ege, M.; Riedler, J.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Waser, M.; Pershagen, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS: A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  5. Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, Helen; Bergstrom, Anna; Alm, Johan S.; Swartz, Jackie; Scheynius, Annika; van Hage, Marianne; Johansen, Kari; Brunekreef, Bert; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J.; Riedler, Josef; Braun-Fahrlaender, Charlotte; Waser, Marco; Pershagen, Goran

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS. A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  6. Allergic disease and atopic sensitization in children in relation to measles vaccination and measles infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, H.; Bergstrom, A.; Alm, J.; Swartz, J.; Scheynius, A.; van Hage, M.; Johansen, K.; Brunekreef, B.; von Mutius, E.; Ege, M.; Riedler, J.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Waser, M.; Pershagen, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS: A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  7. Individual differences in reward sensitivity are related to food craving and relative body weight in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Ingmar H A; Muris, Peter

    2005-10-01

    According to the theory of J.A. Gray, a strongly reactive approach system is highly sensitive to reward or to cues that signal reward. This implies that intake driven by the rewarding properties of food should be affected by individual differences in reactivity of the approach system. The present study examined whether reward sensitivity is associated with food craving and relative body weight in a sample of female college students. Participants completed the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire and the trait version of the Food Craving Questionnaire and also reported their weight and height in order to compute Body Mass Index (BMI). Sensitivity to reward was significantly related to food craving and BMI. Furthermore, the correlation between reward sensitivity and BMI was not attenuated when the influence of food craving was partialled out, indicating that the relation between sensitivity to reward and BMI was not mediated by food craving. This is the first study demonstrating a relation between the personality trait of sensitivity to reward and BMI. These findings are discussed in the context of the involvement of dopaminergic reward circuitry in overeating.

  8. Digoxin and its related endogenous factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jortani, S A; Valdes, R

    1997-01-01

    The digitalis drugs are plant-derived cardenolide compounds used medicinally for several hundred years. These drugs elicit inotropic and chronotropic effects on the heart, but they also affect many other tissues. The mechanism of action involves inhibition of the ion-transport activity of a membrane-associated protein called Na, K-ATPase (sodium pump). Present theory holds that the sodium pump is the principal molecular receptor for the digitalis drugs. Recent evidence indicates the presence of naturally occurring digitalis-like compounds in mammals. It is believed these compounds, collectively known as either digitalis-like (DLF) or ouabain-like (OLF) factors, may be endogenous hormones regulating the biological activity of the sodium pump and its isoforms. The presence of deglycosylated and other congeners of one specific DLF, the digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF), has very recently been described in humans. Digoxin as a drug is the most widely prescribed digitalis in the U.S., and its measurement in serum has established a model for present-day therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Historically, the accurate measurement of digoxin in blood has been difficult. This article focuses on the present understanding of the clinical use of digoxin, factors that affect the accuracy of measuring digoxin, the principle of measuring metabolically active species of digoxin, and the effects of DLIF and other interfering substances in digoxin immunoassay.

  9. Trichromatic and dichromatic relative sensitivity to green light in a mild hypoxic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, Jeffery K; Milburn, Nelda J; Nesthus, Thomas E

    2013-11-01

    Several studies have reported that individuals with normal color vision have a relative decrease in sensitivity to green light in hypoxic environments approximating altitudes above 4000 m. Because there is little available information describing the effects of mild hypoxic environments (less than 4000 m) in subjects with deficient color-vision, we examined the effect of mild hypoxia on the relative sensitivity to green light for color-normal and color-deficient subjects. Relative sensitivity to the green light was measured using the Medmont C-100 at ground and 3780 m in an altitude chamber. There were 30 subjects, 13 with normal color vision and 17 with a congenital red-green defect, who participated in the study. The relative sensitivity to the green light was determined from the average of four settings measured during the 4.5-h trial. Color-normals and anomalous trichromats showed a small decrease in the relative sensitivity to the green light at 3780 m compared to ground. In contrast to the trichromatic results, the relative sensitivity of the dichromats to the green light did not differ between 3780 m and ground. Our results show that a decrease in the relative sensitivity to green light can occur in hypoxic environments that are equivalent to altitudes greater than 3700 m in individuals with trichromatic but not dichromatic color vision. Although the change in sensitivity was significant, it was small and unlikely to have any operational impact.

  10. Relation between acute kidney injury and pregnancy-related factors

    OpenAIRE

    Monchai Siribamrungwong; Pawadee Chinudomwong

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious problem during pregnancy. Once occurred, it brings about devastating maternal and fetal outcomes. Among developed nations, the trend of pregnancy-related AKI (PRAKI) is on a decline due to the advances in obstetrics care and the legality of abortion. On the contrary, this situation remains one of the major health problems in the developing countries. Though some improvements have been observed, PRAKI still causes high maternal morbidity and mortality, le...

  11. Two Factors Related to Effective Voice Interpreting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, T. Alan

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-two interpreters for the deaf were measured on accuracy and quality of voice interpreting of the same story in two different sign language types: Pidgin Signed English and American Sign Language. Results indicated that previous experience interpreting was significantly related to the effectiveness of voice interpreting both languages.…

  12. [Enviromental factors related to depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Benítez, Catalina Teresa; García-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Leal-Ugarte, Evelia; Peralta-Leal, Valeria; Durán-González, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: debido a su alta prevalencia, la depresión mayor, episodio único (DMEU); la depresión mayor recurrente (DMR); y la distimia son consideradas un problema importante de salud pública. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar y relacionar los factores ambientales en pacientes con DMEU, DMR y distimia. Métodos: 121 pacientes procedentes del Hospital General de Subzona del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) de San Andrés Tuxtla, Veracruz, fueron cuestionados mediante una historia clínica con las variables de riesgo. Resultados: 16 pacientes presentaron DMEU, 72 DMR y 33 distimia. En todos prevaleció el sexo femenino. Los trastornos depresivos se observaron con más frecuencia en personas de más de 40 años, casadas, con un nivel de estudios medio o bajo, provenientes de una familia disfuncional, víctimas de violencia familiar, además de ser hijos intermedios. Las comorbilidades que se presentaron fueron trastornos gastrointestinales, obesidad e hipertensión arterial. Conclusión: los principales factores de riesgo que se identificaron para desarrollar trastornos depresivos fueron: ser mujer, tener más de 40 años de edad y estar casada. Las diferencias obtenidas en este estudio respecto a otros probablemente se deban al tamaño de la muestra, los criterios de selección y el origen de la etnia.

  13. Relation between acute kidney injury and pregnancy-related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monchai Siribamrungwong; Pawadee Chinudomwong

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious problem during pregnancy. Once occurred, it brings about devastating maternal and fetal outcomes. Among developed nations, the trend of pregnancy-related AKI (PRAKI) is on a decline due to the advances in obstetrics care and the legality of abortion. On the contrary, this situation remains one of the major health problems in the developing countries. Though some improvements have been observed, PRAKI still causes high maternal morbidity and mortality, leading to fetal losses. This article aims to review current studies with regards to obstetrics related AKI. Most of the studies in this review were carried out in observational, both prospective and retrospective, studies. Results demonstrated a variety of major PRAKI causes such as hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, obstetric hemorrhage, sepsis, thrombotic micro-angiopathy and acute fatty liver in pregnancy. Aside from awareness of the etiologies of PRAKI, understanding the physiological renal adaptation during pregnancy is crucial for early detection, diagnosis, and proper management to prevent the obstetric complications.

  14. Relation between acute kidney injury and pregnancy-related factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monchai Siribamrungwong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a serious problem during pregnancy. Once occurred, it brings about devastating maternal and fetal outcomes. Among developed nations, the trend of pregnancy-related AKI (PRAKI is on a decline due to the advances in obstetrics care and the legality of abortion. On the contrary, this situation remains one of the major health problems in the developing countries. Though some improvements have been observed, PRAKI still causes high maternal morbidity and mortality, leading to fetal losses. This article aims to review current studies with regards to obstetrics related AKI. Most of the studies in this review were carried out in observational, both prospective and retrospective, studies. Results demonstrated a variety of major PRAKI causes such as hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, obstetric hemorrhage, sepsis, thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver in pregnancy. Aside from awareness of the etiologies of PRAKI, understanding the physiological renal adaptation during pregnancy is crucial for early detection, diagnosis, and proper management to prevent the obstetric complications.

  15. Relational Learning via Collective Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    random variables. J. Multi. Anal ., 11(4):581– 598, 1981. [3] D. J. Aldous. Exchangeability and related topics, chapter 1. Springer, 1985. 14 [4] K. S...administration of its programs or activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex or handicap in violation of Title VI of the Civil Rights...pursue," excludes openly gay , lesbian and bisexual students from receiving ROTC scholarships or serving in the military. Nevertheless, all ROTC classes at

  16. Factors Related to Successful Engineering Team Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowaczyk, Ronald H.; Zang, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    The perceptions of a sample of 49 engineers and scientists from NASA Langley Research Center toward engineering design teams were evaluated. The respondents rated 60 team behaviors in terms of their relative importance for team success. They also completed a profile of their own perceptions of their strengths and weaknesses as team members. Behaviors related to team success are discussed in terms of those involving the organizational culture and commitment to the team and those dealing with internal team dynamics. The latter behaviors included the level and extent of debate and discussion regarding methods for completing the team task and the efficient use of team time to explore and discuss methodologies critical to the problem. Successful engineering teams may find their greatest challenges occurring during the early stages of their existence. In contrast to the prototypical business team, members on an engineering design share expertise and knowledge which allows them to deal with task issues sooner. However, discipline differences among team members can lead to conflicts regarding the best method or approach to solving the engineering problem.

  17. Sensitive troponins--which suits better for hemodialysis patients? Associated factors and prediction of mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferruh Artunc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In hemodialysis patients, elevated plasma troponin concentrations are a common finding that has even increased with the advent of newly developed sensitive assays. However, the interpretation and relevance of this is still under debate. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed plasma concentrations of sensitive troponin I (TnI and troponin T (TnT in stable ambulatory hemodialysis patients (n = 239 and investigated their associations with clinical factors and mortality. RESULTS: In all of the enrolled patients, plasma TnI or TnT was detectable at a median concentration of 14 pg/ml (interquartile range: 7-29 using the Siemens TnI ultra assay and 49 pg/ml (31-74 using the Roche Elecsys high sensitive TnT assay. Markedly more patients exceeded the 99th percentile for TnT than for TnI (95% vs. 14%, p<0.0001. In a multivariate linear regression model, TnT was independently associated with age, gender, systolic dysfunction, time on dialysis, residual diuresis and systolic blood pressure, whereas TnI was independently associated with age, systolic dysfunction, pulse pressure, time on dialysis and duration of a HD session. During a follow-up period of nearly two years, TnT concentration above 38 pg/mL was associated with a 5-fold risk of death, whereas elevation of TnI had a gradual association to mortality. CONCLUSION: In hemodialysis patients, elevations of plasma troponin concentrations are explained by cardiac function and dialysis-related parameters, which contribute to cardiac strain. Both are highly predictive of increased risk of death.

  18. Somatosensory processing and schizophrenia liability: proprioception, exteroceptive sensitivity, and graphesthesia performance in the biological relatives of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bernard P; Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2005-02-01

    In the present study, the authors examined somatosensory processing in 30 biological relatives of persons with schizophrenia (hereafter called "schizophrenia relatives"), 30 biological relatives of persons with bipolar affective disorder (psychiatric family control subjects), and 30 healthy control subjects with no family history of psychopathology. All 3 groups completed a weight discrimination task, a 2-point discrimination task, and a complex cognitive somatosensory task (i.e., graphesthesia). The schizophrenia relatives performed significantly worse on all 3 somatosensory tasks compared with both the healthy control subjects and the bipolar relatives. The healthy control subjects and psychiatric family control subjects showed no significant differences on any of the somatosensory tasks. Within the weight discrimination and 2-point discrimination tasks, schizophrenia relatives showed group differences on the d' index, the measure of sensitivity, whereas all 3 groups did not differ on lnbeta, the measure of response bias, suggesting a genuine difference in weight and touch sensitivity. The d' value of the weight discrimination task was significantly associated with both the cognitive-perceptual factor and negative symptom factor of the clinical questionnaire (e.g., Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire; SPQ), whereas the 2-point discrimination d' value and graphesthesia scores were significantly associated only with the cognitive-perceptual factor of the SPQ. Implications for the possible relation between somatosensory task performance and schizophrenia liability are discussed.

  19. Family factors as moderators of link between reinforcement sensitivity and child and adolescent problem behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Valeriya B

    2015-02-01

    Moderating effects of family factors on the association between children's reinforcement sensitivity and problem behaviour have been examined in a community sample of 533 children aged from 3 to 17 years. Family type and living in urban areas exacerbated the effect of sensitivity to reward on externalizing, internalizing and impact of problems on everyday life; a high level of the father's education exacerbated the effect of sensitivity to reward on externalizing; family aggression and harsh parenting were found to strengthen the link between sensitivity to reward and the impact of problems on everyday life, whereas family cohesion buffered the negative effect of sensitivity to reward on externalizing and the impact of problems in everyday life.

  20. A dumbell probe-mediated rolling circle amplification strategy for highly sensitive transcription factor detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxiang; Qiu, Xiyang; Hou, Zhaohui; Deng, Keqin

    2015-02-15

    Highly sensitive detection of transcription factors (TF) is essential to proteome and genomics research as well as clinical diagnosis. We describe herein a novel fluorescent-amplified strategy for ultrasensitive, quantitative, and inexpensive detection of TF. The strategy consists of a hairpin DNA probe containing a TF binding sequence for target TF, a dumbbell-shaped probe, a primer DNA probe designed partly complementary to hairpin DNA probe, and a dumbbell probe. In the presence of target TF, the binding of the TF with hairpin DNA probe will prohibit the hybridization of the primer DNA probe with the "stem" and "loop" region of the hairpin DNA probe, then the unhybridized region of the primer DNA will hybridize with dumbbell probe, subsequently promote the ligation reaction and the rolling circle amplification (RCA), finally, the RCA products are quantified via the fluorescent intensity of SYBR Green I (SG). Using TATA-binding protein (TBP) as a model transcription factor, the proposed assay system can specifically detect TBP with a detection limit as low as 40.7 fM, and with a linear range from 100 fM to 1 nM. Moreover, this assay related DNA probe does not involve any modification and the whole assay proceeds in one tube, which makes the assay simple and low cost. It is expected to become a powerful tool for bioanalysis and clinic diagnostic application.

  1. Capturing age-related changes in functional contrast sensitivity with decreasing light levels in monocular and binocular vision

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie-Gallery, H.; Konstantakopoulou, E.; HARLOW, J.A.; Barbur, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: It is challenging to separate the effects of normal aging of the retina and visual pathways independently from optical factors, decreased retinal illuminance and early stage disease. This study determined limits to describe the effect of light level on normal, age-related changes in monocular and binocular functional contrast sensitivity. Methods: 95 participants aged 20 to 85 were recruited. Contrast thresholds for correct orientation discrimination of the gap in a Landolt C opt...

  2. Pain tolerance, pain sensitivity, and accessibility of aggression-related schemata in parents at-risk for child physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Regina; Crouch, Julie L; Reo, Gim; Wagner, Michael; Milner, Joel S; Skowronski, John J

    2014-11-01

    This study examined whether parents with varying degrees of child physical abuse (CPA) risk differed in pain tolerance, pain sensitivity, and accessibility of aggression-related schemata. Participants included 91 (51 low CPA risk and 40 high CPA risk) general population parents. Participants were randomly assigned to complete either an easy or a difficult anagram task. Pain tolerance and pain sensitivity were assessed using a cold pressor task. Accessibility of aggression-related schemata was assessed at the outset of the data collection session and at the end of the session using a word completion task. Parents' self-reported negative affect was assessed three times over the course of the study: baseline, after the anagram task, and after the cold pressor task. As expected, high-risk (compared to low-risk) parents reported higher levels of negative affect at each time point. Moreover, after completing the difficult anagram task, high-risk (compared to low-risk) parents exhibited higher pain sensitivity during the cold pressor task. Following completion of the cold pressor task, high-risk (compared to low-risk) parents exhibited greater accessibility of aggression-related schemata. Collectively, these findings indicate that under certain conditions, high-risk parents experience a confluence of aggression-related risk factors (i.e., negative affect, pain sensitivity, and aggression-related information processes) that may predispose them to aggressive behavior.

  3. Factors Related to Performance of Health Practices Among Asian Adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia G. Ayres, PhD, RN

    2010-06-01

    Conclusions: Study findings extend existing knowledge and contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge base regarding health practices among Asian adolescents. Having this knowledge base provides practitioners with a better understanding of the factors related to health practices in Asian adolescents and assists them in developing culturally sensitive interventions aimed at promoting PHP in this population.

  4. Factors Related to Sustained Implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Mercer, Sterett H.; Hume, Amanda E.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Turri, Mary G.; Mathews, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with sustainability of school-based interventions and the relative contributions of those factors to predicting sustained implementation of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS). Participants were respondents from 217 schools across 14 U.S. states. Sustainability factors were…

  5. Juror sensitivity to false confession risk factors: Dispositional vs. situational attributions for a confession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestehoff, Skye A; Meissner, Christian A

    2016-10-01

    Research on jurors' perceptions of confession evidence suggests that jurors may not be sensitive to factors that can influence the reliability of a confession. Jurors' decisions tend not to be influenced by situational pressures to confess, which suggests that jurors commit the correspondence bias when evaluating a confession. One method to potentially increase sensitivity and counteract the correspondence bias is by highlighting a motivation other than guilt for the defendant's confession. We conducted 3 experiments to evaluate jurors' sensitivity to false confession risk factors. Participants read a trial transcript that varied the presence of false confession risk factors within an interrogation. Some participants also read testimony that presented an alternative motivation for the confession (expert testimony, Experiments 1 and 3; defendant testimony, Experiment 2). Across 3 experiments, participants were generally able to distinguish between interrogation practices that can produce a false confession, regardless of the presence or absence of expert or defendant testimony. Experiment 3 explored whether participants' attributions for the confessor's motivation were affected by interrogative pressure and expert testimony, and whether these attributions affected verdicts. Participants' reluctance to convict when false confession risk factors were present was associated with situational, rather than dispositional, attributions regarding the defendant's motivation to confess. It is possible that increased knowledge is responsible for participants' improved sensitivity to false confession risk factors. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Extrinsic factors regulate partial agonist efficacy of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farroni, Jeffrey S; McCool, Brian A

    2004-01-01

    the systems examine here, these effects are independent of both absolute expression level and any system-related alterations in the agonist binding site. We conclude that complex interactions between receptor composition and extrinsic factors may play a significant role in determining strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor partial agonist pharmacology. PMID:15301692

  7. Contraction-induced increase in muscle insulin sensitivity: requirement for a serum factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Gulve, E A; Holloszy, J O

    1994-02-01

    The insulin sensitivity of glucose transport is enhanced in skeletal muscle after a bout of exercise. In a previous study, stimulation of washed muscles to contract in vitro, in contrast to exercise, did not result in an increase in insulin sensitivity. The purpose of the present study was to explain this apparent discrepancy. We found that, although rat epitrochlearis muscles stimulated to contract in vitro after 15 min of incubation in Krebs-Henseleit buffer did not develop increased insulin sensitivity, muscles stimulated to contract immediately after being dissected showed a small but significant enhancement of the stimulation of 3-O-methyl-D-glucose transport by 30 microU/ml insulin. Furthermore, muscles stimulated to contract in situ and then allowed to recover in vitro showed as large an increase in insulin sensitivity as that which occurs after a bout of swimming. To follow up these findings suggesting involvement of a humoral factor, we incubated epitrochlearis muscles in serum before and during contractile activity in vitro. Epitrochlearis muscle insulin sensitivity was enhanced to as great an extent after in vitro contractile activity in serum as after swimming. Experiments involving charcoal treatment, ultrafiltration, or trypsin digestion provided evidence that the serum factor that interacts with contractions to enhance insulin sensitivity is a protein.

  8. Sensitivity and specificity of WAIS-III/WMS-III demographically corrected factor scores in neuropsychological assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M J; Heaton, R K

    2001-11-01

    This study explored the neurodiagnostic utility of 6 factor scores identified by recent exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the WAIS-III and WMS-III: Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization, Processing Speed, Working Memory, Auditory Memory and Visual Memory. Factor scores were corrected for age. education, sex and ethnicity to minimize their influences on diagnostic accuracy. Cut-offs at 1, 1.5 and 2 standard deviations (SDs) below the standardization sample mean were applied to data from the overlapping test normative samples (N = 1073) and 6 clinical samples described in the WAIS-III/WMS-III Technical Manual (N = 126). The analyses suggest that a I SD cut-off yields the most balanced levels of sensitivity and specificity; more strict (1.5 or 2 SD) cut-offs generally result in trading modest gains in specificity for larger losses in sensitivity. Finally, using combinations of WAIS-III/WMS-III factors together as test batteries, we explored the sensitivity and specificity implications of varying diagnostic decision rules (e.g.,1 vs. 2 impaired factors = "impairment"). For most of the disorders considered here, even a small (e.g., 3 factor) WAIS-III/WMS-III battery provides quite good overall diagnostic accuracy.

  9. Anxiety sensitivity and working memory capacity: Risk factors and targets for health behavior promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otto, M.W.; Eastman, A.; Lo, S.; Hearon, B.A.; Bickel, W.K.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Smits, J.A.J.; Doan, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature and influence of specific risk profiles is increasingly important for health behavior promotion. The purpose of this article is to document the value of two factors - anxiety sensitivity (AS) and working memory capacity (WMC) - for enhancing risk for the initiation and/or ma

  10. [Factors of individual radiation sensitivity in caries prevalence in population of radiation polluted regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevbitov, A V; Skatova, E A

    2005-01-01

    Analysing dental diseases prevalence in population of radiation polluted regions after the Chernobyl accident, one should take into account not only the level of the soil contamination with radionuclides but also factors of individual sensitivity to radioactivity, main of which is the age of the exposed person.

  11. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  12. Differential Privacy for Relational Algebra: Improving the Sensitivity Bounds via Constraint Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catuscia Palamidessi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Differential privacy is a modern approach in privacy-preserving data analysis to control the amount of information that can be inferred about an individual by querying a database. The most common techniques are based on the introduction of probabilistic noise, often defined as a Laplacian parametric on the sensitivity of the query. In order to maximize the utility of the query, it is crucial to estimate the sensitivity as precisely as possible. In this paper we consider relational algebra, the classical language for queries in relational databases, and we propose a method for computing a bound on the sensitivity of queries in an intuitive and compositional way. We use constraint-based techniques to accumulate the information on the possible values for attributes provided by the various components of the query, thus making it possible to compute tight bounds on the sensitivity.

  13. An internet-based study on the relation between disgust sensitivity and emetophobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overveld, Mark; de Jong, Peter J.; Peters, Madelon L.; van Hout, Wiljo J. P. J.; Bouman, Theo K.

    In the etiology of disgust-relevant psychopathology, such as emetophobia (fear of vomiting), two factors may be important: disgust propensity, i.e., how quickly the individual experiences disgust, and disgust sensitivity, i.e., how negatively does the individual evaluate this disgust experience [van

  14. An internet-based study on the relation between disgust sensitivity and emetophobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overveld, Mark; de Jong, Peter J.; Peters, Madelon L.; van Hout, Wiljo J. P. J.; Bouman, Theo K.

    2008-01-01

    In the etiology of disgust-relevant psychopathology, such as emetophobia (fear of vomiting), two factors may be important: disgust propensity, i.e., how quickly the individual experiences disgust, and disgust sensitivity, i.e., how negatively does the individual evaluate this disgust experience [van

  15. Genetic factors modulate the impact of pubertal androgen excess on insulin sensitivity and fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail R Dowling

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive age women. The syndrome is caused by a combination of environmental influences and genetic predisposition. Despite extensive efforts, the heritable factors contributing to PCOS development are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that genetic background contributes to the development of a PCOS-like reproductive and metabolic phenotype in mice exposed to excess DHEA during the pubertal transition. We tested whether the PCOS phenotype would be more pronounced on the diabetes-prone C57BL/6 background than the previously used strain, BALB/cByJ. In addition, we examined strain-dependent upregulation of the expression of ovarian and extra-ovarian candidate genes implicated in human PCOS, genes containing known strain variants, and genes involved with steroidogenesis or insulin sensitivity. These studies show that there are significant strain-related differences in metabolic response to excess androgen exposure during puberty. Additionally, our results suggest the C57BL/6J strain provides a more robust and uniform experimental platform for PCOS research than the BALB/cByJ strain.

  16. Assessing culturally sensitive factors in the learning environment of science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Darrell L.; Waldrip, Bruce G.

    1997-03-01

    As schools are becoming increasingly diverse in their scope and clientele, any examination of the interaction of culturally sensitive factors of students' learning environments with learning science assumes critical importance. The purpose of this exploratory study was to develop an instrument to assess learning environment factors that are culturally sensitive, to provide initial validation information on the instrument and to examine associations between students' perceptions of their learning environments and their attitudes towards science and achievement of enquiry skills. A measure of these factors of science student's learning environment, namely the Cultural Learning Environment Questionnaire (CLEQ), was developed from past learning environment instruments and influenced by Hofstede's four dimensions of culture (Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism, and Masculinity/Femininity). The reliability and discriminant validity for each scale were obtained and associations between learning environment, attitude to science and enquiry skills achievement were found.

  17. Work-related risk factors for suicidal behaviour, protective factors and possibilities for prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Podlogar

    2016-01-01

    Work is an important part of adult life. As such it is closely connected to health and mental health. Aspects of occupation, work and employment can represent risk factors for suicidal behaviour or protective factors against it. Aim of this article is to present the known work-related risk factors for suicidal behaviour, protective factors and possibilities for preventive activities in this context. An important risk factor for suicidal behaviour is unemployment. Connection between unemployme...

  18. Noise sensitivity in relation to baseline arousal, physiological response and psychological features to noise exposure during task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, K.; Hofman, W.F.; van Kamp, I.

    2010-01-01

    People who consider themselves sensitive to noise, experience more noise annoyance, sleep disturbance and reduced daytime performance. Besides psychological factors, an association with cardiovascular reactions during noise has been established in noise sensitives. Decreased efficiency of the parasy

  19. Inhibition of tissue factor pathway inhibitor increases the sensitivity of thrombin generation assay to procoagulant microvesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheldof, Damien; Mullier, François; Chatelain, Bernard; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Chatelain, Christian

    2013-07-01

    Patients with cancer have a seven-fold to 10-fold increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE). Circulating microvesicles could be a predictive biomarker for VTE in cancer. Thrombin generation assay (TGA) is a useful technique to detect procoagulant activity of microvesicles. However, TGA suffers from a lack of sensitivity due to the presence of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in plasma. The aim of the study was to improve the sensitivity of TGA to tissue factor by limiting the interference of TFPI. Serial dilutions of MDA-MB231 cells were incubated for 45 min at 37°C to generate microvesicles. Samples were then centrifuged and supernatants that contain microvesicles were used for TGA. Normal pooled plasma was incubated with inhibitor of TFPI or was diluted twice to decrease plasma level of TFPI. Lagtime was used as a surrogate marker of TGA to detect procoagulant activity of microvesicles. Inhibition of TFPI decreased twice the cell concentration needed for a significant reduction of lagtime and decreased 2.4-fold the intraassay variability. Plasma dilution had no impact on the TGA sensitivity when TGA was triggered by microvesicles derived from MDA-MB-231. Thrombin generation is a very sensitive method to study the procoagulant activity of tissue factor bearing microvesicles. The sensitivity can be increased by inhibition of TFPI with specific monoclonal antibody against its Kunitz domain I. A two times plasma dilution is an interesting cheaper alternative to study the procoagulant activity of microvesicles by TGA with a good sensitivity, especially when low plasma quantities are available.

  20. Scientific articles recommendation with topic regression and relational matrix factorization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming YANG; Ying-ming LI; Zhongfei(Mark)ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of recommending scientifi c articles to users in an online community with a new perspective of considering topic regression modeling and articles relational structure analysis simultane-ously. First, we present a novel topic regression model, the topic regression matrix factorization (tr-MF), to solve the problem. The main idea of tr-MF lies in extending the matrix factorization with a probabilistic topic modeling. In particular, tr-MF introduces a regression model to regularize user factors through probabilistic topic modeling under the basic hypothesis that users share similar preferences if they rate similar sets of items. Consequently, tr-MF provides interpretable latent factors for users and items, and makes accurate predictions for community users. To incorporate the relational structure into the framework of tr-MF, we introduce relational matrix factorization. Through combining tr-MF with the relational matrix factorization, we propose the topic regression collective matrix factorization (tr-CMF) model. In addition, we also present the collaborative topic regression model with relational matrix factorization (CTR-RMF) model, which combines the existing collaborative topic regression (CTR) model and relational matrix factorization (RMF). From this point of view, CTR-RMF can be considered as an appropriate baseline for tr-CMF. Further, we demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed models on a large subset of the data from CiteULike, a bibliography sharing service dataset. The proposed models outperform the state-of-the-art matrix factorization models with a signifi cant margin. Specifi cally, the proposed models are effective in making predictions for users with only few ratings or even no ratings, and support tasks that are specifi c to a certain fi eld, neither of which has been addressed in the existing literature.

  1. Community-related factors militating against effective management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community-related factors militating against effective management of ... high rates of out-of-hospital delivery,many affected babies often reach the health facility ... such as female education, mass media campaigns, development of national ...

  2. Perceived health and environment related factors associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived health and environment related factors associated with urban ... as an important resource for meeting the challenges of rapidly growing cities, such ... to livelihood, it also has health and environmental problems associated with it.

  3. School Related Factors as Predictors of Internal Efficiency of Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Key Words: School related factors, Internal Efficiency, Public University student,. South-West ... cycle as it will show the promotion rate, repetition rate and drop-out rate. Many ..... School-based variables and internal efficiency of colleges of.

  4. A study of insight and its relative factors in schizophrenia.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical value of the insight and its relative factors in schizophrenic patients. Methods: The insight, the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS), the scale for the assessment of negative symptoms (SANS), the scale for the assessment of

  5. Prognosis related clinical and molecular factors in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify potential prognosis related clinical and molecular factors in malignant pleural mesothelioma(MPM).Methods Seventy-nine patients with MPM treated in Beijing Cancer Hospital from June 1996

  6. Relation of Trigger Factors to Migraine with Aura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers from the University of Copenhagen, Denmark studied the relation between natural trigger factors and migraine with aura (MA in 27 patients who reported that bright or flickering light or strenuous exercise would trigger their attacks.

  7. Comparison of tropical and temperate freshwater animal species' acute sensitivities to chemicals: implications for deriving safe extrapolation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Kevin W H; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Lui, Gilbert S G; Chu, S Vincent K H; Lam, Paul K S; Morritt, David; Maltby, Lorraine; Brock, Theo C M; Van den Brink, Paul J; Warne, Michael St J; Crane, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Toxicity data for tropical species are often lacking for ecological risk assessment. Consequently, tropical and subtropical countries use water quality criteria (WQC) derived from temperate species (e.g., United States, Canada, or Europe) to assess ecological risks in their aquatic systems, leaving an unknown margin of uncertainty. To address this issue, we use species sensitivity distributions of freshwater animal species to determine whether temperate datasets are adequately protective of tropical species assemblages for 18 chemical substances. The results indicate that the relative sensitivities of tropical and temperate species are noticeably different for some of these chemicals. For most metals, temperate species tend to be more sensitive than their tropical counterparts. However, for un-ionized ammonia, phenol, and some pesticides (e.g., chlorpyrifos), tropical species are probably more sensitive. On the basis of the results from objective comparisons of the ratio between temperate and tropical hazardous concentration values for 10% of species, or the 90% protection level, we recommend that an extrapolation factor of 10 should be applied when such surrogate temperate WQCs are used for tropical or subtropical regions and a priori knowledge on the sensitivity of tropical species is very limited or not available.

  8. Skeletal mechanism generation for surrogate fuels using directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Niemeyer, Kyle E; Raju, Mandhapati P

    2016-01-01

    A novel implementation for the skeletal reduction of large detailed reaction mechanisms using the directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis (DRGEPSA) is developed and presented with examples for three hydrocarbon components, n-heptane, iso-octane, and n-decane, relevant to surrogate fuel development. DRGEPSA integrates two previously developed methods, directed relation graph-aided sensitivity analysis (DRGASA) and directed relation graph with error propagation (DRGEP), by first applying DRGEP to efficiently remove many unimportant species prior to sensitivity analysis to further remove unimportant species, producing an optimally small skeletal mechanism for a given error limit. It is illustrated that the combination of the DRGEP and DRGASA methods allows the DRGEPSA approach to overcome the weaknesses of each, specifically that DRGEP cannot identify all unimportant species and that DRGASA shields unimportant species from removal. Skeletal mechanisms for n-heptane and iso-octane ...

  9. Anxiety sensitivity facets in relation to tobacco use, abstinence-related problems, and cognitions in treatment-seeking smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Casey R; Leventhal, Adam M; Raines, Amanda M; Zvolensky, Michael J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-05-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS)--fear of anxiety-related experiences--has been implicated in smoking motivation and maintenance. In a cross-sectional design, we examined AS facets (physical, cognitive, and social concerns) in relation to tobacco use, abstinence-related problems, and cognitions in 473 treatment-seeking smokers. After controlling for sex, race, age, educational attainment, hypertension status, and neuroticism, linear regression models indicated that AS physical and cognitive concerns were associated with tobacco dependence severity (β=.13-.14, ppositive and negative reinforcement-related smoking outcome expectancies (β=.14-.17, preinforcement-related smoking variables (e.g., abstinence-related problems), whereas the social concerns aspect of AS is associated with positive and negative reinforcement-related smoking variables. Together with past findings, current findings can usefully guide AS-oriented smoking cessation treatment development and refinement.

  10. The relative importance of performance factors in Korean archery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Byul; Kim, Sae-Hyung; So, Wi-Young

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the factors affecting archery performance by calculating their relative importance in Korean archery. This study used the Delphi technique and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). After reviewing the literature and collecting data on performance factors in archery, the importance of factors affecting archery performance was calculated by holding meetings with experts (20 archery experts) and conducting confirmatory factor analysis (463 archers) and the AHP (36 archery experts). Performance factors were divided into mental, skill, and fitness categories. Fitness factors affecting performance included "drawing a bow without an arrow," "lower-body weight training," and "upper-body weight training." Skill factors affecting performance included "extending by maintaining left and right shoulder balance during aiming," "shooting skill over a regular clicker time," "maintaining pace and direction at release," and "drawing skill by maintaining left and right shoulder balance." Mental factors affecting performance were "confidence," "concentration," "emotion control," and "positive thinking." "Confidence" was identified as the most important factor among the 11 subfactors. The performance factors identified in this study and their relative importance in determining successful performance can be used in training for optimal archery performance worldwide.

  11. Reward sensitivity predicts ice cream-related attentional bias assessed by inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Tao, Qian; Fang, Ya; Cheng, Chen; Hao, Yangyang; Qi, Jianjun; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-06-01

    The cognitive mechanism underlying the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving is unknown. The present study explored the mechanism by examining the role of reward sensitivity in attentional bias toward ice cream cues. Forty-nine college students who displayed high level of ice cream craving (HICs) and 46 who displayed low level of ice cream craving (LICs) performed an inattentional blindness (IB) task which was used to assess attentional bias for ice cream. In addition, reward sensitivity and coping style were assessed by the Behavior Inhibition System/Behavior Activation System Scales and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. Results showed significant higher identification rate of the critical stimulus in the HICs than LICs, suggesting greater attentional bias for ice cream in the HICs. It was indicated that attentional bias for food cues persisted even under inattentional condition. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the attentional bias and reward sensitivity after controlling for coping style, and reward sensitivity predicted attentional bias for food cues. The mediation analyses showed that attentional bias mediated the relationship between reward sensitivity and food craving. Those findings suggest that the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving may be attributed to attentional bias for food-related cues.

  12. Electroretinogram analysis of relative spectral sensitivity in genetically identified dichromatic macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanazawa, A; Mikami, A; Sulistyo Angelika, P; Takenaka, O; Goto, S; Onishi, A; Koike, S; Yamamori, T; Kato, K; Kondo, A; Suryobroto, B; Farajallah, A; Komatsu, H

    2001-07-03

    The retinas of macaque monkeys usually contain three types of photopigment, providing them with trichromatic color vision homologous to that of humans. However, we recently used molecular genetic analysis to identify several macaques with a dichromatic genotype. The affected X chromosome of these animals contains a hybrid gene of long-wavelength-sensitive (L) and middle-wavelength-sensitive (M) photopigments instead of separate genes encoding L and M photopigments. The product of the hybrid gene exhibits a spectral sensitivity close to that of M photopigment; consequently, male monkeys carrying the hybrid gene are genetic protanopes, effectively lacking L photopigment. In the present study, we assessed retinal expression of L photopigment in monkeys carrying the hybrid gene. The relative sensitivities to middle-wavelength (green) and long-wavelength (red) light were measured by electroretinogram flicker photometry. We found the sensitivity to red light to be extremely low in protanopic male monkeys compared with monkeys with the normal genotype. In female heterozygotes, sensitivity to red light was intermediate between the genetic protanopes and normal monkeys. Decreased sensitivity to long wavelengths was thus consistent with genetic loss of L photopigment.

  13. Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance in relation to coping and conformity motives for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Ashley N; Leyro, Teresa M; Hogan, Julianna; Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance have been identified as important factors related to alcohol use motives and alcohol-related problems. Yet, these variables are highly correlated and little work has delineated whether these psychological vulnerability factors are differentially related to alcohol use motives and problems. To fill this gap in the existing literature, the present study evaluated whether anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance were differentially related to high-risk alcohol use motives (i.e., coping and conformity motives) and alcohol use problems among 224 young adult, current drinkers (52.3% women; M(age)=21.18, SD=7.08). Results indicated that distress tolerance, but not anxiety sensitivity or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to coping motives for alcohol use. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, but not distress tolerance or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to conformity motives for drinking. For both sets of analyses, the observed significant effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by alcohol consumption level, smoking rate, negative affectivity, and non-criterion alcohol use motives. Additionally, discomfort intolerance and anxiety sensitivity each predicted alcohol use problems; effects were not attributable to negative affectivity, cigarettes smoked per day, or shared variance with distress tolerance. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of emotional sensitivity and intolerance in terms of the motivational bases for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

  14. Dispersion Relation for the Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Furuichi, Susumu; Watanbe, Keiji

    2010-01-01

    Elastic electromagnetic form factors of nucleons are investigated both for the time-like and the space-like momentums by using the unsubtracted dispersion relation with QCD constraints. It is shown that the calculated form factors reproduce the experimental data reasonably well; they agree with recent experimental data for the neutron magnetic form factors for the space-like data obtained by the CLAS collaboration and are compatible with the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors for the time-like momentum obtained by the BABAR collaboration.

  15. The factors affecting improvement sensitivity, CDU, and resolution in EUV resist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joonhee; Lim, Hyun Soon; Kim, Jin Ho; Choi, Sumi; Shin, Jin Bong; Bae, Chang Wan; Yoo, In Young; Shin, Bong Ha; Lee, Eun Kyo; Joo, Hyun Sang; Seo, Dong Chul; Chun, Jun Sung

    2014-04-01

    The minimum target specificatons of EUV resist material are the resolution CDU CDU). Thus, we have studied that which factors such as acid diffusion, solvents, polymer platform and film density etc are affecting to improve CDU, sensitivity and resolution. Especially, CDU and sensitivity are the main issues among above these performances. With the results of these experiments, we could determine polymer blend PAG as polymer platform for EUV resist material. We have also researched polymer to improve the sensitivity and CDU with variation of molecular weight, poly dispersity and monomer feed ratio. Additionally, we have studied the effects of resist solvents and film density. And we have measured the outgas of our EUV resist. In this paper, we will discuss the results of these studies obtained by EUV tools of SEMATECH.

  16. Modified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-bearing liposomes (MRBLs are sensitive to EGF in solution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Wong

    Full Text Available Cancers often overexpress EGF and other growth factors to promote cell replication and migration. Previous work has not produced targeted drug carriers sensitive to abnormal amounts of growth factors. This work demonstrates that liposomes bearing EGF receptors covalently crosslinked to p-toluic acid or methyl-PEO(4-NHS ester (or, in short, MRBLs exhibit an increased rate of release of encapsulated drug compounds when EGF is present in solution. Furthermore, the modified EGF receptors retain the abilities to form dimers in the presence of EGF and bind specifically to EGF. These results demonstrate that MRBLs are sensitive to EGF in solution and indicate that MRBL-reconstituted modified EGF receptors, in the presence of EGF in solution, form dimers which increase MRBL permeability to encapsulated compounds.

  17. Notch Sensitivity Factor Determination With Artificial Neural Network For Shafts Under The Bending Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tolga Özkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Notch, hole, tap and a variety of geometric shapes such as curves or discontinuities can be found with various reasons in the design of Machine Element. Stress is caused by sudden changes in section aggregating. Stress concentration can occur with the reason of material features of size or direction of forces application. This type of stress concentration in the material brings out the effect of notch. Notch impact can lead to distortions and breakage of materials. In this study, the notch sensitivity factor values have been modelled Artificial Neural Networks (ANN for shafts that is under the influence of bending stress, and the accuracy of the model has been verified by using Statistica software. The model has been developed using Pythia. With this software, the user can be obtained the accurate value by inputing shaft dimension and the applied force without the need for notch sensitivity factor tables and any calculations.

  18. Voltage-Sensitive Load Controllers for Voltage Regulation and Increased Load Factor in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    consumption which can be mapped to temperature setpoint offsets of thermostat controlled loads. In networks where a lower voltage level corresponds to high system load (and vice versa), this controller acts to regulate voltage and increase the load factor. Simulations are conducted on low- and medium-voltage......This paper presents a novel controller design for controlling appliances based on local measurements of voltage. The controller finds the normalized voltage deviation accounting for the sensitivity of voltage measurements to appliance state. The controller produces a signal indicating desired power...... distribution systems with residential loads including voltage-sensitive water heaters. In low-voltage systems, the results of the simulations show the controller to be effective at reducing the extremes of voltage and increasing the load factor while respecting end-use temperature constraints. In medium-voltage...

  19. Factors influencing antibiotic prescribing habits and use of sensitivity testing amongst veterinarians in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Briyne, N.; Atkinson, J.; Pokludová, L.; Borriello, S. P.; Price, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Heads of Medicines Agencies and the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe undertook a survey to gain a better insight into the decision-making process of veterinarians in Europe when deciding which antibiotics to prescribe. The survey was completed by 3004 practitioners from 25 European countries. Analysis was to the level of different types of practitioner (food producing (FP) animals, companion animals, equines) and country for Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and the UK. Responses indicate no single information source is universally considered critical, though training, published literature and experience were the most important. Factors recorded which most strongly influenced prescribing behaviour were sensitivity tests, own experience, the risk for antibiotic resistance developing and ease of administration. Most practitioners usually take into account responsible use warnings. Antibiotic sensitivity testing is usually performed where a treatment failure has occurred. Significant differences were observed in the frequency of sensitivity testing at the level of types of practitioners and country. The responses indicate a need to improve sensitivity tests and services, with the availability of rapid and cheaper testing being key factors. PMID:24068699

  20. Evaluation of Factors Affecting the Value of Online Shopping Considering Price Sensitivity and Variety-Seeking of Buyers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Alhoseini Almodarresi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ease of access to information, possibility to compare products quickly, and many other facilities that Internet provides for consumers, increase the power of consumers much higher. Internet sellers for the purpose of increasing their sales, often offer lower prices in compare to retailer's price. Nevertheless, the recent studies represent that even price-sensitive customers, avoid shopping from low price online stores. Rather value is considered as the key driver of costumers' decision-making in economic and marketing. Therefore, it is necessary to try to identify those factors affecting online shopping. This research is aimed to study the effective factors on customer's values using survey research method, descriptive-causal type. The research statistical population consists of people who have an experience of on-line shopping at lease for one time. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling method via LISREL software and partial least squares method via SMART PLS software. The results showed that, although system quality is an effective factor on utilitarian shopping values, information quality have no effect on both utilitarian and hedonic values. Generally, utilitarian and hedonic values could cause to online consumers' satisfaction, and satisfaction significantly could improve repurchase intention. Moreover, the results show the moderating effect of price sensitivity in relation of system quality and information with utilitarian value and also moderating effect of variety-seeking in relation of information quality with hedonic value.

  1. Sensitivity Analysis to Select the Most Influential Risk Factors in a Logistic Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jassim N. Hussain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional variable selection methods for survival data depend on iteration procedures, and control of this process assumes tuning parameters that are problematic and time consuming, especially if the models are complex and have a large number of risk factors. In this paper, we propose a new method based on the global sensitivity analysis (GSA to select the most influential risk factors. This contributes to simplification of the logistic regression model by excluding the irrelevant risk factors, thus eliminating the need to fit and evaluate a large number of models. Data from medical trials are suggested as a way to test the efficiency and capability of this method and as a way to simplify the model. This leads to construction of an appropriate model. The proposed method ranks the risk factors according to their importance.

  2. Multivariate sensitivity analysis to measure global contribution of input factors in dynamic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamboni, Matieyendou [INRA, Unite MIA (UR341), F78352 Jouy en Josas Cedex (France); Monod, Herve, E-mail: herve.monod@jouy.inra.f [INRA, Unite MIA (UR341), F78352 Jouy en Josas Cedex (France); Makowski, David [INRA, UMR Agronomie INRA/AgroParisTech (UMR 211), BP 01, F78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)

    2011-04-15

    Many dynamic models are used for risk assessment and decision support in ecology and crop science. Such models generate time-dependent model predictions, with time either discretised or continuous. Their global sensitivity analysis is usually applied separately on each time output, but Campbell et al. (2006) advocated global sensitivity analyses on the expansion of the dynamics in a well-chosen functional basis. This paper focuses on the particular case when principal components analysis is combined with analysis of variance. In addition to the indices associated with the principal components, generalised sensitivity indices are proposed to synthesize the influence of each parameter on the whole time series output. Index definitions are given when the uncertainty on the input factors is either discrete or continuous and when the dynamic model is either discrete or functional. A general estimation algorithm is proposed, based on classical methods of global sensitivity analysis. The method is applied to a dynamic wheat crop model with 13 uncertain parameters. Three methods of global sensitivity analysis are compared: the Sobol'-Saltelli method, the extended FAST method, and the fractional factorial design of resolution 6.

  3. Study on the mortality in Ecuador related to dietary factors

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Alejandro Neira-Mosquera; Fernando Pérez-Rodríguez; Sungey Sánchez-Llaguno; Rafael Moreno Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible r...

  4. Five-factor personality traits and pain sensitivity: a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassend, Olav; Røysamb, Espen; Nielsen, Christopher S

    2013-05-01

    Factors underlying individual differences in pain responding are incompletely understood, but are likely to include genetic influences on basal pain sensitivity in addition to demographic characteristics such as age, sex, and ethnicity, and psychological factors including personality. This study sought to explore the relationship between personality traits and experimental pain sensitivity, and to determine to what extent the covariances between these phenotypes are mediated by common genetic and environmental factors. A sample composed of 188 twins, aged 23 to 35years, was included in the study. Heat pain intensity (HPI) and cold-pressor pain intensity (CPI) ratings were obtained using standardized pain testing procedures, and personality traits were assessed with the NEO Personality Inventory, Revised. Associations between personality and the pain sensitivity indices were examined using zero-order correlations and generalized estimating equations. Bivariate Cholesky models were used in the biometric analyses. The most robust finding was a significant phenotypic association between CPI and the personality facets Impulsiveness (a facet of Neuroticism) and Excitement-Seeking (a facet of Extraversion), and estimates of the genetic correlation were .37 (Ppersonality seemed weak and unstable, but a significant effect of Angry Hostility (a facet of Neuroticism) emerged in generalized estimating equations analysis. Although the genetic correlation between these phenotypes was essentially zero, a weak but significant individual-specific environmental correlation emerged (re=.21, Ppersonality dispositions than HPI, both phenotypically and genetically.

  5. An analysis of students’ cognitive structures in relation to their environmental sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercek Cem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic aims of environment-related subjects included in the biology curriculum is to raise environmental awareness. Yet, the fact that the concepts taught especially in the context of environmental issues are abstract influences meaningful learning. This, in turn, influences behaviours displayed. Exhibiting students’ cognitive structures in assuring effective and meaningful concept teaching increases the importance of studies conducted. Unavailability of studies in the literature analysing students’ cognitive structures in relation to their sensitivity to the environment demonstrates the importance of this current study. This study aims to analyse students’ cognitive structures in relation to their environmental sensitivity. The study employs survey model- one of the qualitative research designs. The study group was composed of 56 high school students in the 2016-2017 academic year. The study group was formed through purposeful sampling. Word Association Test (WAT was prepared in order to uncover students’ cognitive structures in relation to their environmental sensitivity. Having transcribed the data obtained, they were put to content analysis and were transferred to the medium of computer. The results showed that students’ cognitive structure concerning their environmental sensitivity was divided into categories.

  6. Anxiety sensitivity as a predictor of anxiety and pain related to third molar removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, A.J.; de Jongh, A.; Lindeboom, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to the fear of anxiety-related symptoms resulting from beliefs that such sensations have negative somatic, social, or psychological consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether AS can predict both anticipated and experienced pain and

  7. The relative roles of growth hormone and IGF-1 in controlling insulin sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Clemmons, David R.

    2004-01-01

    IGF-1 and growth hormone (GH) interact with insulin to modulate its control of carbohydrate metabolism. A new study (see the related article beginning on page 96) shows that blocking the effect of GH in the presence of low serum IGF-1 concentrations enhances insulin sensitivity.

  8. Wheat allergen exposure and the prevalence of work-related sensitization and allergy in bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J.H.; Meijster, T.; Meijer, E.; Suarthana, E.; Heederik, D.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Occupational airway diseases are common among bakers. The present study describes the association between exposure to wheat allergen levels and sensitization to wheat allergens, work-related upper and lower respiratory symptoms and asthma in bakery workers. Methods: As part of a Health S

  9. 37 CFR 5.20 - Export of technical data relating to sensitive nuclear technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export of technical data... LICENSES TO EXPORT AND FILE APPLICATIONS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES Licenses for Foreign Exporting and Filing § 5.20 Export of technical data relating to sensitive nuclear technology. Under regulations (10 CFR...

  10. Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives under the Influence of Relative Humidity: Inner Structure and Failure Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Markus; Koller, Manuel; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-06-17

    Model pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) films of the statistical copolymer P(EHA-stat-20MMA), which comprises 80% ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA) and 20% methyl methacrylate (MMA), are studied. The PSA films are stored under different relative humidities from postproduction treatment, which also influence the tack performance. This finding is supported by tack measurements using punches with different roughness.

  11. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vinicius Pacheco; Rocha, Helena Naly Miguens [Laboratório de Ciências do Exercício - Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Sales, Allan Robson Kluser [Unidade de Reabilitação Cardiovascular e Fisiologia do Exercício - Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Natália Galito; Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas da, E-mail: anobrega@id.uff.br [Laboratório de Ciências do Exercício - Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years) were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors), MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p < 0.02). There were no differences in hsCRP levels among groups with MetS risk factors (p > 0.05). The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01). Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (p{sub sex} < 0.01). Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions.

  12. Effect of test duration and feeding on relative sensitivity of genetically distinct clades of Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy; Major, Kaley M; McEwen, Abigail R

    2013-11-01

    The amphipod Hyalella azteca is widely used in ecotoxicology laboratories for the assessment of chemical risks to aquatic environments, and it is a cryptic species complex with a number of genetically distinct strains found in wild populations. While it would be valuable to note differences in contaminant sensitivity among different strains collected from various field sites, those findings would be influenced by acclimation of the populations to local conditions. In addition, potential differences in metabolism or lipid storage among different strains may confound assessment of sensitivity in unfed acute toxicity tests. In the present study, our aim was to assess whether there are genetic differences in contaminant sensitivity among three cryptic provisional species of H. azteca. Therefore, we used organisms cultured under the same conditions, assessed their ability to survive for extended periods without food, and conducted fed and unfed acute toxicity tests with two anions (nitrate and chloride) whose toxicities are not expected to be altered by the addition of food. We found that the three genetically distinct clades of H. azteca had substantially different responses to starvation, and the presence/absence of food during acute toxicity tests had a strong role in determining the relative sensitivity of the three clades. In fed tests, where starvation was no longer a potential stressor, significant differences in sensitivity were still observed among the three clades. In light of these differences in sensitivity, we suggest that ecotoxicology laboratories consider using a provisional species in toxicity tests that is a regionally appropriate surrogate.

  13. Forward problem for Love and quasi-Rayleigh waves: Exact dispersion relations and their sensitivities

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, David R.; Slawinski, Michael A.; Stachura, Piotr; Stanoev, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    We examine two types of guided waves: the Love and the quasi-Rayleigh waves. Both waves propagate in the same model of an elastic isotropic layer above an elastic isotropic halfspace. From their dispersion relations, we calculate their speeds as functions of the elasticity parameters, mass densities, frequency and layer thickness. We examine the sensitivity of these relations to the model and wave properties.

  14. Analysis of related risk factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Song Yu; He-Chao Huang; Feng Ding; Xin-Bo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the related risk factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy to provide a theoretical evidence for effectively preventing the occurrence of pancreatic fistula.Methods:A total of 100 patients who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2012 to January, 2015 and had performed pancreaticoduodenectomy were included in the study. The related risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula were collected for single factor and Logistic multi-factor analysis.Results:Among the included patients, 16 had pancreatic fistula, and the total occurrence rate was 16% (16/100). The single-factor analysis showed that the upper abdominal operation history, preoperative bilirubin, pancreatic texture, pancreatic duct diameter, intraoperative amount of bleeding, postoperative hemoglobin, and application of somatostatin after operation were the risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula (P<0.05). The multi-factor analysis showed that the upper abdominal operation history, the soft pancreatic texture, small pancreatic duct diameter, and low postoperative hemoglobin were the dependent risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula (OR=4.162, 6.104, 5.613, 4.034,P<0.05).Conclusions:The occurrence of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy is closely associated with the upper abdominal operation history, the soft pancreatic texture, small pancreatic duct diameter, and low postoperative hemoglobin; therefore, effective measures should be taken to reduce the occurrence of pancreatic fistula according to the patients’own conditions.

  15. Risk Factors for SARS-Related Deaths in 2003, Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN LIU; WAN-NIAN LIANG; QI CHEN; XUE-QIN XIE; JIANG WU; XIONG HE; ZE-JUN LIU

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the potential risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndromes (SARS)-related deaths in Beijing. Methods Epidemiological data were collected among the confirmed SARS patients officially reported by Beijing Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (BCDC), and information was also supplemented by a follow-up case survey. Chi-square test and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Old age (over 60 years) was found to be significantly associated with SARS-related deaths in the univariate analysis. Also, history of contacting SARS patients within 2 weeks prior to the onset of illness, health occupation, and inferior hospital ranking as well as longer interval of clinic consulting (longer than 1 day) were the risk factors for SARS-related deaths. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis found four risk factors for SARS-related deaths. Conclusion Old age (over 60 years) is the major risk factor for SARS-related deaths.Moreover, hospital health workers, the designated hospitals for SARS clinical services and the interval of consulting doctors (less than 1 day) are protective factors for surviving from SARS.

  16. Dental anxiety in relation to neuroticism and pain sensitivity. A twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassend, Olav; Røysamb, Espen; Nielsen, Christopher S

    2011-03-01

    Predisposing personality traits as well as heightened pain sensitivity and fear of pain have been hypothesized as central factors in the development of dental anxiety. The aim of the study was to estimate the heritability of dental anxiety, and to investigate the genetic and environmental sources of covariance between dental anxiety on one hand, and pain sensitivity and the neuroticism trait on the other. A sample comprising 188 twins, aged 23-35 years (53 monozygotic and 39 dizygotic twin pairs, and 4 single twins whose co-twin did not participate), was included in the study. Measures of dental anxiety and personality were obtained using Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale and the NEO Personality Inventory Revised, respectively. Heat pain and cold pressor pain sensitivity were assessed using standard pain testing procedures. Bivariate Cholesky models were employed to decompose the correlations between phenotypes into genetic and environmental factors. Using models with common additive genetic (A) and individual-specific environmental (E) factors, moderate heritability (i.e., .41) for dental anxiety was demonstrated. Virtually all of the phenotypic correlation between neuroticism and dental anxiety could be accounted for by A. Furthermore, a substantial part of the variance in dental anxiety was due to specific genetic and individual environmental influences unrelated to neuroticism. The phenotypic correlations between dental anxiety and the pain sensitivity indices were close to zero. Thus, while neuroticism and dental anxiety share a sizeable proportion of genetic (but not environmental) risk factors, the results also suggest that these two attributes are distinct entities with overlapping, but not identical, etiologies.

  17. Relationship between interferon regulatory factor 4 genetic polymorphisms, measures of sun sensitivity and risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathany, Allison H; Hartge, Patricia; Davis, Scott; Cerhan, James R; Severson, Richard K; Cozen, Wendy; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chanock, Stephen J; Wang, Sophia S

    2009-10-01

    Sun exposure and sensitivity, including pigmentation, are associated with risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). One variant in the immune regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) gene (rs12203592) is associated with pigmentation, and a different IRF4 variant (rs12211228) is associated with NHL risk. We evaluated the independent roles of these IRF4 polymorphisms and sun sensitivity in mediating NHL risk and explored whether they are confounded or modified by each other. Genotyping of tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IRF4 gene was conducted in 990 NHL cases and 828 controls from a multi-center US study. Measures of sun sensitivity and exposure were ascertained from computer-assisted personal interviews. We used logistic regression to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for NHL in relation to sun exposures, sun exposures in relation to IRF4 genotypes, and NHL in relation to sun exposures. We further assessed the effects of sun exposures in relation to IRF4 genotypes. As previously reported, we found significant associations between IRF4 rs12211228 and NHL and between hair and eye color and NHL. The IRF4 rs12203592 polymorphism (CT/TT genotype) was statistically significantly associated with eye color and particularly with hair color (OR(Light Blonde) = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.11-0.50, overall Chi square p = 0.0002). Analysis of joint effects between eye and hair color with the IRF4 rs12203592 SNP did not reveal statistically significant p-interactions although NHL risk did decline with lighter hair color and presence of the variant IRF4 rs12203592 allele, compared to those without a variant allele and with black/brown hair color. Our data do not statistically support a joint effect between IRF4 and sun sensitivity in mediating risk for NHL. Further evaluation of joint effects in other and larger populations is warranted.

  18. Physical fitness of 9 year olds in England: related factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Kikuchi, S; Rona, R J; Chinn, S

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To examine the influence of social factors, passive smoking, and other parental health related factors, as well as anthropometric and other measurements on children's cardiorespiratory fitness. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional study. SETTING--The analysis was based on 22 health areas in England. PARTICIPANTS--The subjects were 299 boys and 282 girls aged 8 to 9 years. Parents did not give positive consent for 15% of the eligible sample. A further 25% of the eligible sample ...

  19. OPTIMAL DESIGN OF A 6-AXIS FORCE TRANSDUCER BASED ON STEWART PLATFORM RELATED TO SENSITIVITY ISOTROPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The design method of a 6-axis force robot's transducer based on the Stewart platform is detailed.For this purpose, the sensitivity isotropy evaluation criteria of the transducer are defined, and by the aid of computer, the relationships between the criteria and the parameters of all the transducers based on the Stewart platform are investigated within the geometric model of the solution space, which can provide the theoretical background for the optimal construction design of the 6-axis force transducer related to the sensitivity isotropy.

  20. Job-related motivational factors among Malaysian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshor, Amat Taap; Abdullah, Adilah

    2002-12-01

    This study identified job-related motivational factors among Malaysian employees in several telecommunication companies. Responses were obtained from 1,179 employees at all levels up to senior managers and six different functional divisions, sales and marketing, human resources, finance, technical, information, technology, and support division. All employees were asked to rate the importance of Kovach's 10 job-motivational factors. These factors were good wages, job security, opportunity for career growth in the organization, good working conditions, interesting work, company loyalty to employees, tactful discipline, full appreciation of work done, sympathetic help with personal problems, and feeling of being involved in the organization. The top five factors employees identified as motivating them in their jobs were good wages, job security, company loyalty to employees, good working conditions, and full appreciation for work done. Findings were in accordance with Kovach for U.S. employees, in which the top motivational factors were good wages and job security.

  1. Platinum Sensitivity as an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients with Brain Metastases from Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Windara Green

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The brain is a rare site of metastases from ovarian cancer. Limited data are available on prognostic factors, standard treatment, and survival. Knowledge of clinical prognostic factors would help the management of patients with brain metastases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of clinical factors and treatment modalities on survival in patients with brain metastases from ovarian cancer. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of an electronic database of patients with brain metastases from ovarian primary treated at Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology. Results: A total of 20 patients with brain metastases from an ovarian primary were treated from April 2001-February 2011. Median age at occurrence of brain metastases was 55 years. The median time from primary diagnosis to occurrence of brain metastases was 23 months. Median overall survival from diagnosis of brain metastases was 9 months. Poor ECOG performance status, platinum resistance, andadvanced FIGO staging were the most significant adverse variables identified. Median survival was 13 months for platinum sensitive patients and 6 months for platinum resistant patients. Conclusion: Platinum sensitivity is an important prognostic factor in patients with brain metastases from an ovarian primary tumor. Multimodal therapy that consists of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy should be considered where feasible.

  2. Error-related ERP components and individual differences in punishment and reward sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Tops, Mattie; Wester, Anne E.; Meijman, Theo F.; Lorist, Monique M.

    2006-01-01

    Although the focus of the discussion regarding the significance of the error related negatively (ERN/Ne) has been on the cognitive factors reflected in this component, there is now a growing body of research that describes influences of motivation, affective style and other factors of personality on

  3. Nerve growth factor alters the sensitivity of rat masseter muscle mechanoreceptors to NMDA receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hayes; Dong, Xu-Dong; Cairns, Brian E

    2014-11-01

    Intramuscular injection of nerve growth factor (NGF) into rat masseter muscle induces a local mechanical sensitization that is greater in female than in male rats. The duration of NGF-induced sensitization in male and female rats was associated with an increase in peripheral N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression by masseter muscle afferent fibers that began 3 days postinjection. Here, we investigated the functional consequences of increased NMDA expression on the response properties of masseter muscle mechanoreceptors. In vivo extracellular single-unit electrophysiological recordings of trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the masseter muscle were performed in anesthetized rats 3 days after NGF injection (25 μg/ml, 10 μl) into the masseter muscle. Mechanical activation threshold was assessed before and after intramuscular injection of NMDA. NMDA injection induced mechanical sensitization in both sexes that was increased significantly following NGF injection in the male rats but not in the female rats. However, in female but not male rats, further examination found that preadministration of NGF induced a greater sensitization in slow Aδ-fibers (2-7 m/s) than fast Aδ-fibers (7-12 m/s). This suggests that preadministration of NGF had a different effect on slowly conducting mechanoreceptors in the female rats compared with the male rats. Although previous studies have found an association between estrogenic tone and NMDA activity, no correlation was observed between NMDA-evoked mechanical sensitization and plasma estrogen level. This study suggests NGF alters NMDA-induced mechanical sensitization in the peripheral endings of masseter mechanoreceptors in a sexually dimorphic manner.

  4. The application of Global Sensitivity Analysis to quantify the dominant input factors for hydraulic model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, James; Pianosi, Francesca; Bates, Paul; Freer, Jim; Wagener, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Predicting flood inundation extents using hydraulic models is subject to a number of critical uncertainties. For a specific event, these uncertainties are known to have a large influence on model outputs and any subsequent analyses made by risk managers. Hydraulic modellers often approach such problems by applying uncertainty analysis techniques such as the Generalised Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) methodology. However, these methods do not allow one to attribute which source of uncertainty has the most influence on the various model outputs that inform flood risk decision making. Another issue facing modellers is the amount of computational resource that is available to spend on modelling flood inundations that are 'fit for purpose' to the modelling objectives. Therefore a balance needs to be struck between computation time, realism and spatial resolution, and effectively characterising the uncertainty spread of predictions (for example from boundary conditions and model parameterisations). However, it is not fully understood how much of an impact each factor has on model performance, for example how much influence changing the spatial resolution of a model has on inundation predictions in comparison to other uncertainties inherent in the modelling process. Furthermore, when resampling fine scale topographic data in the form of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to coarser resolutions, there are a number of possible coarser DEMs that can be produced. Deciding which DEM is then chosen to represent the surface elevations in the model could also influence model performance. In this study we model a flood event using the hydraulic model LISFLOOD-FP and apply Sobol' Sensitivity Analysis to estimate which input factor, among the uncertainty in model boundary conditions, uncertain model parameters, the spatial resolution of the DEM and the choice of resampled DEM, have the most influence on a range of model outputs. These outputs include whole domain maximum

  5. Diagnosis of gluten related disorders: Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elli, Luca; Branchi, Federica; Tomba, Carolina; Villalta, Danilo; Norsa, Lorenzo; Ferretti, Francesca; Roncoroni, Leda; Bardella, Maria Teresa

    2015-06-21

    Cereal crops and cereal consumption have had a vital role in Mankind's history. In the recent years gluten ingestion has been linked with a range of clinical disorders. Gluten-related disorders have gradually emerged as an epidemiologically relevant phenomenon with an estimated global prevalence around 5%. Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity represent different gluten-related disorders. Similar clinical manifestations can be observed in these disorders, yet there are peculiar pathogenetic pathways involved in their development. Celiac disease and wheat allergy have been extensively studied, while non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a relatively novel clinical entity, believed to be closely related to other gastrointestinal functional syndromes. The diagnosis of celiac disease and wheat allergy is based on a combination of findings from the patient's clinical history and specific tests, including serology and duodenal biopsies in case of celiac disease, or laboratory and functional assays for wheat allergy. On the other hand, non-celiac gluten sensitivity is still mainly a diagnosis of exclusion, in the absence of clear-cut diagnostic criteria. A multimodal pragmatic approach combining findings from the clinical history, symptoms, serological and histological tests is required in order to reach an accurate diagnosis. A thorough knowledge of the differences and overlap in clinical presentation among gluten-related disorders, and between them and other gastrointestinal disorders, will help clinicians in the process of differential diagnosis.

  6. Diagnosis of gluten related disorders: Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elli, Luca; Branchi, Federica; Tomba, Carolina; Villalta, Danilo; Norsa, Lorenzo; Ferretti, Francesca; Roncoroni, Leda; Bardella, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Cereal crops and cereal consumption have had a vital role in Mankind’s history. In the recent years gluten ingestion has been linked with a range of clinical disorders. Gluten-related disorders have gradually emerged as an epidemiologically relevant phenomenon with an estimated global prevalence around 5%. Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity represent different gluten-related disorders. Similar clinical manifestations can be observed in these disorders, yet there are peculiar pathogenetic pathways involved in their development. Celiac disease and wheat allergy have been extensively studied, while non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a relatively novel clinical entity, believed to be closely related to other gastrointestinal functional syndromes. The diagnosis of celiac disease and wheat allergy is based on a combination of findings from the patient’s clinical history and specific tests, including serology and duodenal biopsies in case of celiac disease, or laboratory and functional assays for wheat allergy. On the other hand, non-celiac gluten sensitivity is still mainly a diagnosis of exclusion, in the absence of clear-cut diagnostic criteria. A multimodal pragmatic approach combining findings from the clinical history, symptoms, serological and histological tests is required in order to reach an accurate diagnosis. A thorough knowledge of the differences and overlap in clinical presentation among gluten-related disorders, and between them and other gastrointestinal disorders, will help clinicians in the process of differential diagnosis. PMID:26109797

  7. Organic particulate material levels in the atmosphere: conditions favoring sensitivity to varying relative humidity and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, James F

    2010-04-13

    This study examines the sensitivity in predicted levels of atmospheric organic particulate matter (M(o), microg m(-3)) as those levels may potentially be affected by changes in relative humidity and temperature. In a given system, for each partitioning compound, f(g) and f(p) represent the gaseous and particulate fractions (f(g) + f(p) = 1). Sensitivity in the M(o) levels becomes dampened as the compounds contributing significantly to M(o) are increasingly found in the particle phase (f(p) --> 1). Thus, although local maxima in sensitivity can be encountered as M(o) levels increase, because as M(o) increases each f(p) --> 1, then increasing M(o) levels generally tend to reduce sensitivity in M(o) levels to changes in relative humidity and temperature. Experiments designed to elucidate the potential magnitudes of the effects of relative humidity and temperature on M(o) levels must be carried out at M(o) levels that are relevant for the ambient atmosphere: The f(p) values for the important partitioning compounds must not be elevated above ambient-relevant values. Systems in which M(o) levels are low (e.g., 1-2 microg m(-3)) and/or composed of unaged secondary organic aerosol are the ones most likely to show sensitivity to changing relative humidity and temperature. Results from two published chamber studies are examined in the above regard: [Warren B, et al. (2009) Atmos Environ 43:1789-1795] and [Prisle NL, et al. (2010) Geophys Res Lett 37:L01802].

  8. Wheat sensitization and work-related symptoms in the baking industry are preventable. An epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houba, R; Heederik, D; Doekes, G

    1998-11-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among 393 workers from 21 bakeries to study the relationship between wheat allergen exposure and wheat sensitization and work-related allergic symptoms. Exposure to wheat allergens was characterized by a recently developed and validated immunoassay. Specific IgE antibodies against wheat flour and common allergens were measured by immunoassays, and work-related allergic symptoms were registered by questionnaire. A strong and positive association was found between wheat flour allergen exposure and wheat flour sensitization. This relationship was steepest and strongest in atopics. Prevalence ratios for high and medium wheat allergen exposure were 5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-16.2), and 2.7 (0.5-14.5) for atopic workers, and 2.5 (0.8-7.5) and 1.4 (0. 3-6.4) for nonatopics, compared with workers with low wheat allergen exposure. In sensitized bakers those with an elevated allergen exposure had more often work-related symptoms, with prevalence ratios for high and medium wheat allergen exposure of 3.5 (CI 1.6-7. 5) and 2.6 (CI 0.9-7.8), respectively, compared with workers with low wheat allergen exposure. The existence of exposure-sensitization gradients suggests that work-related sensitization risk will be negligible when exposure levels will be reduced to average exposure concentration of 0.2 microgram/m3 wheat allergen or approximately 0.5 mg/m3 inhalable dust during a work shift.

  9. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Pacheco Garcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. Objective: To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. Methods One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors, MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. Results: The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p 0.05. The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01. Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (psex < 0.01. Conclusions: Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions.

  10. Sensitivity of wild type and mutant ras alleles to Ras specific exchange factors: Identification of factor specific requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K H; Gredsted, L; Broach, J R; Willumsen, B M

    2001-04-19

    We have investigated the productive interaction between the four mammalian Ras proteins (H-, N-, KA- and KB-Ras) and their activators, the mammalian exchange factors mSos1, GRF1 and GRP, by using a modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae whose growth is dependent on activation of a mammalian Ras protein by its activator. All four mammalian Ras proteins were activated with similar efficiencies by the individual exchange factors. The H-Ras mutant V103E, which is competent for membrane localization, nucleotide binding, intrinsic and stimulated GTPase activity as well as intrinsic exchange, was defective for activation by all factors tested, suggesting that the integrity of this residue is necessary for catalyzed exchange. However, when other H-Ras mutants were studied, some distinct sensitivities to the exchange factors were observed. GRP-mediated, but not mSos1-mediated, exchange was blocked in additional mutants, suggesting different structural requirements for GRP. Analysis of Ras-mediated gene activation in murine fibroblasts confirmed these results.

  11. Zinc inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B activation and sensitizes prostate cancer cells to cytotoxic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzo, Robert G; Leavis, Paul; Hatch, William; Gabai, Vladimir L; Dulin, Nickolai; Zvartau, Nadezhda; Kolenko, Vladimir M

    2002-11-01

    Prostate carcinogenesis involves transformation of zinc-accumulating normal epithelial cells to malignant cells, which do not accumulate zinc. In this study, we demonstrate by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry that physiological levels of zinc inhibit activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B transcription factor in PC-3 and DU-145 human prostate cancer cells, reduce expression of NF-kappa B-controlled antiapoptotic protein c-IAP2, and activate c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinases. Preincubation of PC-3 cells with physiological concentrations of zinc sensitized tumor cells to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and paclitaxel mediated cell death as defined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling assay. These results suggest one possible mechanism for the inhibitory effect of zinc on the development and progression of prostate malignancy and might have important consequences for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer.

  12. Insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and plasma adipocytokines among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Schou, Morten; Selmer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young men, but information regarding effects on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution is limited. The objective was to investigate insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and adipocytokines among current...... tolerance test). Using overnight fasting blood samples, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Body composition and fat distribution, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Current and former AAS abusers displayed lower Matsuda index than controls...... predicted lower Matsuda index among former AAS abusers. CONCLUSIONS: Both current and former AAS abusers displayed lower insulin sensitivity which could be mediated by higher VAT and total body fat %, respectively....

  13. Fibrinogen γ' increases the sensitivity to activated protein C in normal and factor V Leiden plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarova, Farida; Uitte de Willige, Shirley; Simioni, Paolo; Ariëns, Robert A S; Bertina, Rogier M; Rosing, Jan; Castoldi, Elisabetta

    2014-08-28

    Activated protein C (APC) resistance, often associated with the factor V (FV) Leiden mutation, is the most common risk factor for venous thrombosis. We observed increased APC resistance in carriers of fibrinogen γ gene (FGG) haplotype 2, which is associated with reduced levels of the alternatively spliced fibrinogen γ' chain. This finding prompted us to study the effects of fibrinogen and its γ' chain on APC resistance. Fibrinogen, and particularly the γA/γ' isoform, improved the response of plasma to added APC in the thrombin generation-based assay. Similarly, a synthetic peptide mimicking the C-terminus of the fibrinogen γ' chain, which binds thrombin and inhibits its activities, greatly increased the APC sensitivity of normal and FV Leiden plasma, likely due to its ability to inhibit thrombin-mediated activation of FV and FVIII. Although the fibrinogen γ' peptide also inhibited protein C activation by the thrombin/thrombomodulin complex, it still increased the sensitivity of plasma to endogenously formed APC when thrombin generation was measured in the presence of soluble thrombomodulin. We conclude that fibrinogen, and particularly fibrinogen γ', increases plasma APC sensitivity. The fibrinogen γ' peptide might form the basis for pharmacologic interventions to counteract APC resistance. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. The multiple factors affecting the association between atopic dermatitis and contact sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, J P; McFadden, J P; Kimber, I

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis are both common skin diseases having an immune pathogenesis. There has been considerable interest about their inter-relationships with regard to altered susceptibility. Recent investigations have shed new light on this important question, and in this article, we explore whether there is evidence that atopic dermatitis affects the risk of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. The use of topical products to treat xerotic and inflamed skin in atopic dermatitis often results in a higher prevalence of sensitization to, for example, fragrances and other ingredients in emollients. Moreover, the prevalence of metal allergy seems to be increased, probably due to compromised chelation of the metals in the stratum corneum of patients with atopic dermatitis. However, conversely, the T-helper cell 2 bias that characterizes immune responses in atopic dermatitis appears to lower the risk of contact sensitization compared to healthy controls. Based on these observations, we conclude that multiple factors affect the association between atopic dermatitis and contact sensitization, and that these need to be appreciated in the clinical management of atopic dermatitis patients.

  15. The analysis of individual Visegrad group members’ agrarian export sensitivity in relation to selected macroeconomic aggregations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Svatoš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the development of agricultural trade of the countries of the Visegrad Group with emphasis on development of the value of agricultural exports of the individual countries. The subject matter of the analysis is the sensitivity of the commodity structure of agricultural exports of individual countries and the identification of aggregations that are the least and the most sensitive to changes to the external and internal economic environment. From the conducted research, agricultural trade in the V4 countries was found to have developed very dynamically from 1993 to 2008, while the commodity structure of exports has constantly narrowed as the degree of specialization of the individual countries has increased (this applies especially to the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. From the results of analysis of sensitivity to changes of selected variables relating to the development of the value of agricultural exports of the individual V4 countries, it appears that the aggregations that react most sensitively to changes are those that are the subject of re-exports, followed by the aggregations that are characterized by a high degree of added value. In general it can be said that products of agricultural primary production exhibit less sensitivity in comparison with grocery industry products. This is confirmed by the general trend arising from the very nature of consumer behaviour.

  16. Single vs composite measures of pain intensity: relative sensitivity for detecting treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Hu, Xiaojun; Potts, Susan L; Gould, Errol M

    2013-04-01

    Assay sensitivity remains a significant issue in pain clinical trials. One possible method for increasing assay sensitivity for detecting changes in pain intensity is to increase the reliability of pain intensity assessment by increasing the number of intensity ratings obtained, and combining these ratings into composite scores. The current study performed secondary analyses from a published clinical trial to test this possibility. The reliability and assay sensitivity pain intensity scores made up of 1 to 9 24-hour pain intensity recall ratings were compared. Although the reliability of the outcome measures improved as the number of items increased, this increase in reliability was not associated with an increase in assay sensitivity. A single 24-hour recall rating was about as valid (sensitive) for detecting treatment effects as composite scores made up of 2 to 9 different ratings. If this finding replicates in other pain populations, it has significant implications for the design and conduct of pain clinical trials. Specifically, it suggests the possibility that assessment burden (and associated costs and problems related to missing data) might be greatly reduced by specifying a single recall rating as the primary outcome variable. Research is needed to explore this possibility further.

  17. Construct Validity and Reliability of the Adult Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire: A Comparison of Three Factor Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Innamorati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives and Methods. The aim of the study was to investigate the construct validity of the ARSQ. Methods. The ARSQ and self-report measures of depression, anxiety, and hopelessness were administered to 774 Italian adults, aged 18 to 64 years. Results. Structural equation modeling indicated that the factor structure of the ARSQ can be represented by a bifactor model: a general rejection sensitivity factor and two group factors, expectancy of rejection and rejection anxiety. Reliability of observed scores was not satisfactory: only 44% of variance in observed total scores was due to the common factors. The analyses also indicated different correlates for the general factor and the group factors. Limitations. We administered an Italian version of the ARSQ to a nonclinical sample of adults, so that studies which use clinical populations or the original version of the ARSQ could obtain different results from those presented here. Conclusion. Our results suggest that the construct validity of the ARSQ is disputable and that rejection anxiety and expectancy could bias individuals to readily perceive and strongly react to cues of rejection in different ways.

  18. Anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty as potential risk factors for cyberchondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norr, Aaron M; Albanese, Brian J; Oglesby, Mary E; Allan, Nicholas P; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-03-15

    Online medical information seeking has become an increasingly common behavior. Despite the benefits of easily accessible medical information on the Internet, researchers have identified a vicious cycle of increased physical health concerns and online medical information seeking known as "cyberchondria". Despite proposed theoretical models of cyberchondria, there is a dearth of research investigating risk factors for the development of cyberchondria. Two potential risk factors are anxiety sensitivity (AS) and intolerance of uncertainty (IU). The current study investigated the relationships among AS, IU, and cyberchondria in a large community sample. Participants (N=526) completed self-report questionnaires via online crowdsourcing. Structural equation models utilizing latent variables revealed a significant unique positive relationship between AS, as well as the IU Inhibitory lower-order factor, and cyberchondria, controlling for the effects of health anxiety. Additionally, results revealed a significant unique relationship between the IU Inhibitory factor and mistrust of medical professionals, a proposed cyberchondria-relevant construct. The cross-sectional data in the current study do not offer a true test of AS and IU as risk factors. However, establishing these unique relationships is an important step forward in the literature. The results of the current study suggest the potential importance of both AS and IU in the development of cyberchondria. Future research is needed to establish the temporal precedence of elevated AS and/or IU to determine if they are true risk factors or simply correlates of cyberchondria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-factor sensitivity analysis of shallow unsaturated clay slope stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuoying Tan; Meifeng Cai

    2005-01-01

    An unsaturated clay slope, with various sloping angles and a thickness of 14 m, consists of backfill, slope soil and residual soil. Slide interfaces were determined by geophysical approaches and the original slope was reconstructed. Sub-slope masses were classified based on the varieties of sloping angle. A force recursive principle was proposed to calculate the stability coefficient of the sub-slope masses. The influencing factors such as sloping angle, water content, hydrostatic pressure, seismic force as well as train load were analyzed. The range and correlation of the above-mentioned factors were discussed and coupled wave equations were established to reflect the relationships between unit weight, cohesion, internal frictional angle, and water content, as well as between internal frictional angle and cohesion. The sensitivity analysis of slope stability was carried out and susceptive factors were determined when the factors were taken as independent and dependent variables respectively. The results show that sloping angle, water content and earthquake are the principal susceptive factors influencing slope stability. The impact of hydrostatic pressure on slope stability is similar to the seismic force in quantity. Train load plays a small role in slope stability and its influencing only reaches the roadbed and its neighboring slope segment. If the factors are taken as independent variables, the influencing extent of water content and cohesion on slope stability can be weakened and train load can be magnified.

  20. Right hemisphere sensitivity to novel metaphoric relations: application of the signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashal, N; Faust, M

    2008-02-01

    The present study used the signal detection theory to test the hypothesis that the right hemisphere (RH) is more sensitive than the left hemisphere (LH) to the distant semantic relations in novel metaphoric expressions. In two divided visual field experiments, sensitivity (d') and criterion (beta) were calculated for responses to different types of word pairs. In the first experiment, subjects were presented with unfamiliar two-word novel metaphoric expressions ("signal") and unrelated word-pairs ("noise"). In the second experiment, literal expressions ("signal") and unrelated word pairs ("noise") were presented. In line with the Coarse Semantic Coding Theory [Beeman, M. (1998). Coarse semantic coding and discourse comprehension. In: M. Beeman & C. Chiarello (Eds.). Right hemisphere language comprehension: Perspectives from cognitive neuroscience. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 255-284.] as well as with the Graded Salience Hypothesis [Giora, R. (2003). On our mind: Salience, context and figurative language. New York: Oxford University Press.], the findings suggest that the RH is more sensitive than the LH to unfamiliar metaphoric relations. Furthermore, this RH advantage in processing distant semantic relations did not extend to familiar semantic relations.

  1. Stochastic numerical simulation on oil temperature fluctuations of hot crude pipelines and sensitivity analysis to related factors%热油管道油温波动随机数值模拟及影响因素敏感性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文柯; 张劲军; 宇波

    2011-01-01

    An efficient numerical algorithm, which employed the finite volume , finite difference , Monte Carlo and proper orthogonal decomposition ( POD) method, was proposed to simulate the stochastic fluctuation of oil temperatures. The effects of outlet oil temperature, flow rate, pressure, buried depth, soil temperature. soil thermal conductivity, oil viscosity and oil density on the stochastic fluctuation of oil temperatures were investigated through Sobol global sensitivity induces. The results show that the deviations of the mean oil temperatures between numerical simulations and field measurements were lower than 0. 1 ℃ , and the standard deviations vary from 0. 006 ℃ to 0.023 ℃ . When considered the following 4 factors: outlet oil temperature, throughput, soil temperature and oil viscosity, case studies on the China West crude pipeline show that the sum of first order global sensitivity achieved as 77. 44% on Sipu station and 80. 86% on Hexi station. Therefore, it is acceptable to consider these 4 factors when simulating the fluctuation of inlet oil temperatures.%综合采用有限容积法、有限差分法、Monte Carlo算法和POD算法建立埋地热油管道沿线油温的随机数值模拟算法,使用Sobol全局敏感性指标进行敏感性分析,综合评价出站油温、流量、压力、埋深、埋深处自然地温、土壤导热系数、油品黏度和密度的随机波动对管道沿线油温波动的影响.计算结果表明:进站油温模拟结果与现场油温均值偏差在0.1℃以内,标准差的偏差为0.006~0.023℃;出站油温、流量、埋深处地温和油品黏度4个参数的不确定性对四堡进站油温波动的敏感性指标之和为77.44%,河西站的该指标为80.86%,进站温度的随机数值模拟中主要考虑这4个参数的不确定性即可.

  2. Development of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay for human epidermal growth factor (urogastrone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurobe, M; Tokida, N; Furukawa, S; Ishikawa, E; Hayashi, K

    1986-04-15

    A sensitive two-site enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) was developed, based on the sandwiching of an antigen between anti-hEGF IgG-coated polystyrene beads and anti-hEGF Fab'-linked peroxidase complex (horseradish peroxidase, EC. 1.11.1.7). This method has four advantages: the anti-hEGF Fab'-linked peroxidase complex is more stable than 125I-labelled antibody; the procedure is simple and rapid compared to bioassay; its discriminatory sensitivity is as low as 0.1 pg/assay tube; and serial dilution curves of unextracted human serum and urine samples all paralleled that of standard hEGF. The validity of the measurement of hEGF-like immunoreactivity in human serum and plasma is discussed.

  3. ATXN1L, CIC, and ETS Transcription Factors Modulate Sensitivity to MAPK Pathway Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Belinda; Krall, Elsa Beyer; Aguirre, Andrew James; Kim, Miju; Widlund, Hans Ragnar; Doshi, Mihir Bhavik; Sicinska, Ewa; Sulahian, Rita; Goodale, Amy; Cowley, Glenn Spencer; Piccioni, Federica; Doench, John Gerard; Root, David Edward; Hahn, William Chun

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Intrinsic resistance and RTK-RAS-MAPK pathway reactivation has limited the effectiveness of MEK and RAF inhibitors (MAPKi) in RAS- and RAF-mutant cancers. To identify genes that modulate sensitivity to MAPKi, we performed genome scale CRISPR-Cas9 loss-of-function screens in two KRAS-mutant pancreatic cancer cell lines treated with the MEK1/2 inhibitor trametinib. Loss of CIC, a transcriptional repressor of ETV1, 4, and 5, promoted survival in the setting of MAPKi in cancer cells derived from several lineages. ATXN1L deletion, which reduces CIC protein, or ectopic expression of ETV1, 4, or 5 also modulated sensitivity to trametinib. ATXN1L expression inversely correlates with response to MAPKi inhibition in clinical studies. These observations identify the ATXN1L-CIC-ETS transcription factor axis as a mediator of resistance to MAPKi. PMID:28178529

  4. THE MAIN COST-RELATED FACTORS IN AIRLINES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Suntsova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the main factors that affect the strategies to reduce airlines costs. These costs factors were presented to experts from the airline industry through two rounds of questionnaires in sense tobe weighed. It was applied a method based on the structure of the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and the results show that the main important factors for a cost-related airlines strategy are, in importance: routestructure and mesh; type and characteristics of the aircraft; cost of labor and management quality. This hierarchycan help the decision maker when facing the need of defining priorities in reduction costs. past decades despitethe increase in air transportation and significant decrease in average operation costs, it is observed that airlineshave low profitability. The liberalization of the markets and increase opportunities for competition diminishesprices, even when airlines face increasing costs. Considering that advantage in costs is an important strategy forcarriers to remain in the market, this paper analyzes the main factors that affect the strategies to reduce airlinescosts. These costs factors were presented to experts from the airline industry through two rounds ofquestionnaires in sense to be weighed. It was applied a method based on the structure of the AHP (AnalyticHierarchy Process and the results show that the main important factors for a cost-related airlines strategy are, inorder of importance: route structure and mesh; type and characteristics ofthe aircraft; cost of labor andmanagement quality. This hierarchy can help the decision maker when facing the need of defining priorities inreduction costs.

  5. Modulation of age-related insulin sensitivity by VEGF-dependent vascular plasticity in adipose tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honek, Jennifer; Seki, Takahiro; Iwamoto, Hideki; Fischer, Carina; Li, Jingrong; Lim, Sharon; Samani, Nilesh J; Zang, Jingwu; Cao, Yihai

    2014-10-14

    Mechanisms underlying age-related obesity and insulin resistance are generally unknown. Here, we report age-related adipose vascular changes markedly modulated fat mass, adipocyte functions, blood lipid composition, and insulin sensitivity. Notably, VEGF expression levels in various white adipose tissues (WATs) underwent changes uninterruptedly in different age populations. Anti-VEGF and anti- VEGF receptor 2 treatment in different age populations showed marked variations of vascular regression, with midaged mice exhibiting modest sensitivity. Interestingly, anti-VEGF treatment produced opposing effects on WAT adipocyte sizes in different age populations and affected vascular density and adipocyte sizes in brown adipose tissue. Consistent with changes of vasculatures and adipocyte sizes, anti-VEGF treatment increased insulin sensitivity in young and old mice but had no effects in the midaged group. Surprisingly, anti-VEGF treatment significantly improved insulin sensitivity in midaged obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Our findings demonstrate that adipose vasculatures show differential responses to anti-VEGF treatment in various age populations and have therapeutic implications for treatment of obesity and diabetes with anti-VEGF-based antiangiogenic drugs.

  6. Chloroplast avoidance movement as a sensitive indicator of relative water content during leaf desiccation in the dark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauš, Jan; Šmecko, Slavomír; Špundová, Martina

    2016-08-01

    In the context of global climate change, drought is one of the major stress factors with negative effect on photosynthesis and plant productivity. Currently, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters are widely used as indicators of plant stress, mainly owing to the rapid, non-destructive and simple measurements this technique allows. However, these parameters have been shown to have limited sensitivity for the monitoring of water deficit as leaf desiccation has relatively small effect on photosystem II photochemistry. In this study, we found that blue light-induced increase in leaf transmittance reflecting chloroplast avoidance movement was much more sensitive to a decrease in relative water content (RWC) than chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in dark-desiccating leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Whereas the inhibition of chloroplast avoidance movement was detectable in leaves even with a small RWC decrease, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F V/F M, V J, Ф PSII, NPQ) changed markedly only when RWC dropped below 70 %. For this reason, we propose light-induced chloroplast avoidance movement as a sensitive indicator of the decrease in leaf RWC. As our measurement of chloroplast movement using collimated transmittance is simple and non-destructive, it may be more suitable in some cases for the detection of plant stresses including water deficit than the conventionally used chlorophyll fluorescence methods.

  7. Enhanced quality factors and force sensitivity by attaching magnetic beads to cantilevers for atomic force microscopy in liquid

    CERN Document Server

    Hoof, Sebastian; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid remains complicated due to the strong viscous damping of the cantilever resonance. Here we show that a high-quality resonance (Q>20) can be achieved in aqueous solution by attaching a microgram-bead at the end of the nanogram-cantilever. The resulting increase in cantilever mass causes the resonance frequency to drop significantly. However, the force sensitivity --- as expressed via the minimum detectable force gradient --- is hardly affected, because of the enhanced quality factor. Via the enhancement of the quality factor, the attached bead also reduces the relative importance of noise in the deflection detector. It can thus yield an improved signal-to-noise ratio when this detector noise is significant. We describe and analyze these effects for a set-up which includes magnetic actuation of the cantilevers and which can be easily implemented in any AFM system that is compatible with an inverted optical microscope.

  8. Four factors Constituting Friendly Tang-Tubo Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuFengzhen; ChenQuan

    2003-01-01

    During the 200 or more years of Tang-Tubo bilateral relations, and despite the wars that often occurred owing to conflict between the ruling classes of each side, harmony and friendliness nevertheless prevailed. So what were the reasons behind this friendly Tang-Tubo relationship? This article attempts to generalize four factors and briefly discuss each one.

  9. Factors Related to Union Formation among Single Mothers in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bourdais, Ciline; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Using data on 1,257 women from a 1984 survey, attempts to identify factors associated with union formation among single mothers in Canada. Found that the age of mothers at the beginning of their first episode of single parenthood appears closely related to their chances of forming a union. Other results are discussed. (RJM)

  10. Behavioural factors related to metabolic control in patients with phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, MR; van Spronsen, FJ; Oudshoorn, K; Bekhof, J; van Rijn, G; Verkerk, PH

    2005-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of parental factors possibly related to dietary control in early and continuously treated patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). Methods. A questionnaire was disseminated among parents of 238 patients with PKU born after the natio

  11. Factors Affecting the Relative Efficiency of General Acid Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Eugene E.

    2005-01-01

    A simple framework for evaluating experimental kinetic data to provide support for Specific Acid Catalysis (SAC) and General Acid Catalysis (GAC) is described based on the factors affecting their relative efficiency. Observations reveal that increasing the SAC-to-GAC rate constant ratio reduces the effective pH range for GAC.

  12. The Relative Importance of Job Factors: A New Measurement Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealey, Stanley M.

    This paper reports on a new two-phase measurement technique that permits a direct comparison of the perceived relative importance of economic vs. non-economic factors in a job situation in accounting for personnel retention, the willingness to produce, and job satisfaction. The paired comparison method was used to measure the preferences of 91…

  13. Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

  14. Complement factor d in age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanton, C.M.; Yates, J.R.W.; Hollander, A.I. den; Seddon, J.M.; Swaroop, A.; Stambolian, D.; Fauser, S.; Hoyng, C.B.; Yu, Y.; Atsuhiro, K.; Branham, K.; Othman, M.; Chen, W.; Kortvely, E.; Chalmers, K.; Hayward, C.; Moore, A.T.; Dhillon, B.; Ueffing, M.; Wright, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the role of complement factor D (CFD) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by analysis of genetic association, copy number variation, and plasma CFD concentrations. Methods. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CFD gene were genotyped and the results analyzed by

  15. Risk factors for developing tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation associated with nightguard vital bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, R H; Haywood, V B; Phillips, C

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors in the development of tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation associated with the nightguard vital bleaching technique. The potential risk factors evaluated (sex, age, reported allergy, whitening solution, number of times the solution was changed daily [its usage pattern], and dental arch) were collected from the daily log form turned in by each of the 64 participants after completion of the 6-week lightening process. Also evaluated for each participant, from color slides, were tooth characteristics such as gingival recession, defective restorations, abfraction lesions, enamel-cementum abrasion, etc, and reported side effects. The generalized Mantel-Haenszel statistic was used to assess the association between the potential risk factors and the development of tooth sensitivity and/or gingival irritation. No statistical relationship existed between age, sex, allergy, tooth characteristics, or the dental arch lightened and the development of side effects. Initially, a statistically significant association existed between side effects and the whitening solution used. However, when the analysis was controlled for usage pattern, this relationship disappeared. Patients who changed the whitening solution more than once a day reported statistically significantly more side effects than did those who did not change the whitening solution during their usage time.

  16. Determination of Mass Spectrometric Sensitivity of Different Metalloporphyrin Esters Relative to Porphyrin Ester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Elfinn; Egsgaard, Helge; Møller, J.

    1977-01-01

    Quantitative determination of metalloporphyrin contamination in preparations of biologically important porphyrins was achieved mass spectrometrically by application of the integrated ion current technique. For this purpose, the relative molecular ion sensitivities of the contaminating metal compl...... complexes were determined from the ratios of the integrated molecular ion currents of a series of calibration samples containing a porphyrin ester and one of its metal complexes in known molar ratio. Complexes formed with divalent ions of Cu, Zn, Fe, Co and Ni of copro- as well as uro......-prophyrin permethylester were all found to have the same molecular ion sensitivities as their metal-free porphyrin ester. The relative metalloporphyrin ester content in a sample of porphyrin ester was thus obtained directly as the integrated ion current ratios of the normalized molecular ions. The preparation...

  17. Cognitive risk factors explain the relations between neuroticism and social anxiety for males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Oglesby, Mary E; Uhl, Aubree; Schmidt, Norman B

    2017-04-01

    The hierarchical model of vulnerabilities to emotional distress contextualizes the relation between neuroticism and social anxiety as occurring indirectly through cognitive risk factors. In particular, inhibitory intolerance of uncertainty (IU; difficulty in uncertain circumstances), fear of negative evaluation (FNE; fear of being judged negatively), and anxiety sensitivity (AS) social concerns (fear of outwardly observable anxiety) are related to social anxiety. It is unclear whether these risk factors uniquely relate to social anxiety, and whether they account for the relations between neuroticism and social anxiety. The indirect relations between neuroticism and social anxiety through these and other risk factors were examined using structural equation modeling in a sample of 462 individuals (M age = 36.56, SD = 12.93; 64.3% female). Results indicated that the relations between neuroticism and social anxiety could be explained through inhibitory IU, FNE, and AS social concerns. No gender differences were found. These findings provide support for the hierarchical model of vulnerabilities to emotional distress disorders, although the cognitive risk factors accounted for variance beyond their contribution to the relation between neuroticism and social anxiety, suggesting a more complex model than that expressed in the hierarchical model of vulnerabilities.

  18. Local retinal sensitivity in relation to specific retinopathy lesions in diabetic macular oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Wael; Hasler, Pascal; Sander, Birgit;

    2012-01-01

    with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and recently diagnosed untreated DMO. Investigations included microperimetry, fluorescein angiography, colour fundus photography, and OCT. All measures and gradings were made for each of the nine fields of an early treatment diabetic retinopathy study macula template......Purpose: To study microperimetric macular sensitivity in diabetic macular oedema (DMO) in relation to lesion characteristics obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT), colour fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography (FA). Methods: The study comprised 20 eyes in 15 patients...

  19. Sensitivity of Southern Ocean circulation to wind stress changes: Role of relative wind stress

    OpenAIRE

    Munday, D.R.; Zhai, X.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of different wind stress bulk formulae on the response of the Southern Ocean circulation to wind stress changes is investigated using an idealised channel model. Surface/mixed layer properties are found to be sensitive to the use of the relative wind stress formulation, where the wind stress depends on the difference between the ocean and atmosphere velocities. Previous work has highlighted the surface eddy damping effect of this formulation, which we find leads to increased cir...

  20. Comparison of the relative spectral sensitivity of photomaterials made for different applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuchaeva, O. D.; Toropova, M. S.

    Relative spectral sensitivity Sλ/Sλ=400 nm is discussed for astronomical photomaterials, for a great number of Soviet emulsions of common use and for Kodak (USA), ORWO (DDR), Ilford (England) plates and films for scientific photography. It was found that the astronomical photomaterials have no analogues (or full analogues) among the materials of other types. Recommendations for hypersensitization of photomaterials are given. 350 various emulsion types are discussed.

  1. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...

  2. Decreased Ethical Sensitivity in the Virtual World as a Facilitating Factor for Internet Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Yildiz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the relationship between internet addiction, which is a widespread problem, and ethical action and sensitivity changes that are expected to arise due to usage of internet and virtual world. It is aimed to demonstrate that moral development stages and ethical actions can change in the light of evaluation of differantiation of communication in the internet and virtual world from the actual social life. Furthermore, factors such as uncontrolled action and facilitation of accessibility to pleasure have been theoretically shown to facilitate internet dependency. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(4.000: 398-409

  3. Factores ambientales relacionados con la gravedad del asma ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS RELATED TO ASTHMA SEVERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL OYARZÚN G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available factores determinantes de la gravedad del asma. Se revisan brevemente las fuentes y los efectos respiratorios y sobre la salud de los principales contaminantes intradomiciliarios. Existe evidencia abundante sobre las respuestas de los asmáticos a la exposición a aeroalergenos intradomiciliarios, tales como los alergenos de los ácaros domésticos. Para alergenos de mascotas, algunos estudios encuentran que una exposición temprana en la vida se asocia a sensibilización y enfermedad alérgica, en tanto que otros comunican un efecto protector. Los efectos de contaminantes intradomiciliarios de la combustión han sido menos caracterizados. Sin embargo, algunos estudios sugieren que ellos podrían estar asociados con exacerbaciones del asma. La exposición a humo de tabaco ha sido relacionada con exacerbación de asma infantil. Además la prevalencia de asma infantil y los ingresos hospitalarios por asma en adultos también se han relacionado con la exposición a humo de tabaco. La exposición de atópicos y asmáticos a contaminantes atmosféricos (O3 y NO2 aumentan la respuesta de las vías aéreas a los aeroalergenos. Por lo tanto, el control de los contaminantes atmosféricos podría disminuir cualquier interacción de contaminantes con alergenos en atópicos y asmáticosThis article review the role played by indoor and atmospheric air pollutants as factors determining asthma severity. Respiratory and health effects and sources of main indoor air pollutants are briefly reviewed. There is abundant evidence of asthmatic responses to indoor aeroallergens, such as exposure to house mite allergens. For pet allergens, some studies found that an early exposure in life was associated to sensitization and allergic disease, whereas others reported a protective effect. The effects of combustion indoor air pollutants have been less characterized. However, some studies suggest that they can be associated to exacerbations of asthma. Environmental tobacco

  4. Exercise self-efficacy moderates the relation between anxiety sensitivity and body mass index and exercise tolerance in treatment-seeking smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farris, S.G.; Davis, M.L.; Rosenfield, D.; Kauffman, B.Y.; Baird, S.O.; Powers, M.B.; Otto, M.W.; Marcus, B.H.; Church, T.S.; Smits, J.A.J.; Zvolensky, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    There is little known about factors that contribute to the comorbidity of cigarette smoking and obesity. The current study sought to test whether exercise self-efficacy moderated the relation between anxiety sensitivity (fear of internal sensations) and BMI and exercise tolerance among cigarette

  5. Exercise self-efficacy moderates the relation between anxiety sensitivity and body mass index and exercise tolerance in treatment-seeking smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farris, S.G.; Davis, M.L.; Rosenfield, D.; Kauffman, B.Y.; Baird, S.O.; Powers, M.B.; Otto, M.W.; Marcus, B.H.; Church, T.S.; Smits, J.A.J.; Zvolensky, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    There is little known about factors that contribute to the comorbidity of cigarette smoking and obesity. The current study sought to test whether exercise self-efficacy moderated the relation between anxiety sensitivity (fear of internal sensations) and BMI and exercise tolerance among cigarette smo

  6. Exercise self-efficacy moderates the relation between anxiety sensitivity and body mass index and exercise tolerance in treatment-seeking smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farris, S.G.; Davis, M.L.; Rosenfield, D.; Kauffman, B.Y.; Baird, S.O.; Powers, M.B.; Otto, M.W.; Marcus, B.H.; Church, T.S.; Smits, J.A.J.; Zvolensky, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    There is little known about factors that contribute to the comorbidity of cigarette smoking and obesity. The current study sought to test whether exercise self-efficacy moderated the relation between anxiety sensitivity (fear of internal sensations) and BMI and exercise tolerance among cigarette smo

  7. Health-related quality of life in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: contribution of demographic factors, disease-related factors, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krab, Lianne C; Oostenbrink, R; de Goede-Bolder, Arja; Aarsen, Femke K; Elgersma, Ype; Moll, Henriëtte A

    2009-03-01

    To investigate health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) with parental reports and children's self-reports, and to investigate the potential contribution of demographic factors, disease-specific factors, and problems in school performance or behavior. In a prospective observational study, parents of 58 children with NF1 (32 boys, 26 girls, age 12.2 +/- 2.5 years) visiting a university clinic, and their 43 children 10 years or older were assessed with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ). Potential determinants of domain scores were assessed in 3 explorative regression models. Parents reported a significant impact of NF1 on 9/13 CHQ scales, with moderate effect sizes on 8 (general health perceptions, physical functioning, general behavior, mental health, self esteem, family activities, role functioning emotional/behavioral, and parent emotional impact). Children report an impact on bodily pain, and an above average general behavior. Multiple CHQ scales were sensitive to demographic factors and behavioral problems, and 1 to NF1 severity. NF1 visibility and school problems did not influence HR-QOL. Parents, but not the children with NF1, report a profound impact of NF1 on physical, social, behavioral, and emotional aspects of HR-QOL. Multiple HR-QOL domains were most sensitive to behavioral problems, which points to an exciting potential opportunity to improve HR-QOL in children with NF1 by addressing these behavioral problems.

  8. Health related quality of life and influencing factors among welders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.

  9. Spontaneous ipsilateral subconjunctival hemorrhage and the related risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas Ziakas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the report is to assess the risk factors among patients with spontaneous ipsilateral subconjunctival hemorrhage (SCH who presented to the outpatients’ department in General Hospital of Veria, Veria, Greece. Thirty-five patients with SCH participated in the study. A thorough case history was taken and a full ophthalmic examination was performed to identify the risk factors related to the clinical finding. The common hematological parameters associated with the coagulation profile of each patient were evaluated. With the exception of SCH, the ophthalmic examination was normal in all patients. Identified risk factors include history of systemic hypertension (21 patients [60%], mean systolic value: 170 mmHg±15 mmHg, strenuous exercise [19 patients (54%] and minor ocular trauma [5 patients (14%]. Other risk factors [each in 2 patients (6%] included: diabetes mellitus, smoking, severe cough, straining at stool, and weight lifting. Seven patients (20% were under medication related to bleeding diathesis. The values of the blood coagulation parameters were within the normal limits in all patients. Twenty-nine patients (83% had elevated blood pressure during the ophthalmological examination. Our study provides documentation regarding the potential risk factors associated with SCH. It is interesting to observe the high incidence of hypertension among the patients with SCH. Therefore, it is highly recommended that the blood pressure be checked in all patients with SCH and that the patients be referred to a general practitioner for further management if indicated.

  10. Risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Nano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To assess the risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina using a case-control study. METHODS: Surveys were used for subjects' antioxidant intake, age/gender, race, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (and type of treatment, smoking, sunlight exposure, red meat consumption, fish consumption, presence of age-related macular degeneration and family history of age-related macular degeneration. Main effects models for logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: There were 175 cases and 175 controls with a mean age of 75.4 years and 75.5 years, respectively, of whom 236 (67.4% were female. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration, 159 (45.4% had age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 154 (44.0% in their right eyes, and 138 (39.4% in both eyes. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 47.8% had the dry type, 40.3% had the wet type, and the type was unknown for 11.9%. The comparable figures for right eyes were: 51.9%, 34.4%, and 13.7%, respectively. The main effects model was dominated by higher sunlight exposure (OR [odds ratio]: 3.3 and a family history of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 4.3. Other factors included hypertension (OR: 2.1, smoking (OR: 2.2, and being of the Mestizo race, which lowered the risk of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 0.40. Red meat/fish consumption, body mass index, and iris color did not have an effect. Higher age was associated with progression to more severe age-related macular degeneration. CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure, family history of age-related macular degeneration, and an older age were the significant risk factors. There may be other variables, as the risk was not explained very well by the existing factors. A larger sample may produce different and better results.

  11. Correlations of health behaviors and factors with high sensitivity C-reactive protein in diabetic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-hong HOU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlations of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors with the level of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP in diabetic population. Methods A cross-sectional method was used in present study. Seven thousand eight hundred and sixty-nine workers with diabetes were recruited who participated in the 2006-2007 Kailuan health examination without history of cerebral and myocardial infarction and without data incompleted. All the information was obtained from the unified questionnaire and measurement of blood biochemistry. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the effects of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors on the level of hsCRP. Results The hsCRP concentrations decreased with the increasing numbers of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors, the medians of hsCRP concentrations were 1.16mg/L, 1.11mg/L, 0.90mg/L and 0.76mg/L in 0-1, 2, 3 and 4-6 ideal cardiovascular health groups, respectively (P<0.01. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, after adjustment by age, gender, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, the risk of hsCRP level exceeding 3mg/L in the subjects having 3 and 4-6 ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors was 0.60 times (95%CI 0.50-0.72 and 0.45 times (95%CI 0.34-0.61, respectively, than those having 0-1 ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors. Conclusion The hsCRP concentrations decreased with increasing numbers of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors; the risk of hsCRP exceeding 3mg/L can be reduced by ideal cardiovascular health behaviors and factors. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.10.013

  12. The Relation of Socio-Ecological Factors to Adolescents' Health-Related Behaviour: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…

  13. Relative sensitivities of toxicity test protocols with the amphipods Eohaustorius estuarius and Ampelisca abdita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Lowe, Sarah; Phillips, Bryn M; Hunt, John W; Vorhees, Jennifer; Clark, Sara; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2008-01-01

    A series of dose-response experiments was conducted to compare the relative sensitivities of toxicity test protocols using the amphipods Ampelisca abdita and Eohaustorius estuarius. A. abdita is one of the dominant infaunal species in the San Francisco Estuary, and E. estuarius is the primary sediment toxicity species used in the San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program. Experiments were conducted with a formulated sediment spiked with copper, fluoranthene, chlorpyrifos, and the three pyrethroid pesticides permethrin, bifenthrin, and cypermethrin, all chemicals of concern in this Estuary. The results showed that the protocol with A. abdita was more sensitive to fluoranthene and much more sensitive to copper, while E. estuarius was more sensitive to chlorpyrifos, and much more sensitive to the pyrethroid pesticides. These results, considered in conjunction with those from previous spiking studies [Weston, D.P., 1995. Further development of a chronic Ampelisca abdita bioassay as an indicator of sediment toxicity: summary and conclusions. In: Regional Monitoring Program for Trace Substances Annual Report. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA, pp 108-115; DeWitt, T.E., Swartz, R.C., Lamberson, J.O., 1989. Measuring the acute toxicity of estuarine sediments. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 8: 1035-1048; DeWitt, T.H.E., Pinza, M.R., Niewolny, L.A., Cullinan, V.I., Gruendell, B.D., 1997. Development and evaluation of a standard marine/estuarine chronic sediment toxicity method using Leptocheirus plumulosus. Draft report prepared for the US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Science and Technology, Washington DC, under contract DE-AC06-76RLO 1830 by Batelle Marine Science Laboratory, Battelle Memorial Institute, Pacific Northwest Division, Richland, WA], suggest that, in general, A. abdita is more sensitive to metals, E. estuarius is more sensitive to pesticides, and both protocols have roughly comparable sensitivities to hydrocarbons. The preponderance of

  14. Relative deprivation and risk factors for obesity in Canadian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgar, Frank J; Xie, Annie; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; White, James; Pickett, Kate E

    2016-03-01

    Research on socioeconomic differences in overweight and obesity and on the ecological association between income inequality and obesity prevalence suggests that relative deprivation may contribute to lifestyle risk factors for obesity independently of absolute affluence. We tested this hypothesis using data on 25,980 adolescents (11-15 years) in the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation was applied to the HBSC Family Affluence Scale, an index of common material assets, with more affluent schoolmates representing the comparative reference group. Regression analysis tested the associations between relative deprivation and four obesity risk factors (skipping breakfasts, physical activity, and healthful and unhealthful food choices) plus dietary restraint. Relative deprivation uniquely related to skipping breakfasts, less physical activity, fewer healthful food choices (e.g., fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads), and a lower likelihood of dieting to lose weight. Consistent with Runciman's (1966) theory of relative deprivation and with psychosocial interpretations of the health consequences of income inequality, the results indicate that having mostly better off schoolmates can contribute to poorer health behaviours independently of school-level affluence and subjective social status. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the social origins of obesity and targeting health interventions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk Factors Associated with Peritoneal-Dialysis-Related Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kerschbaum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Peritonitis represents a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD. The aim of this paper was to systematically collect data on patient-related risk factors for PD-associated peritonitis, to analyze the methodological quality of these studies, and to summarize published evidence on the particular risk factors. Methods. Studies were identified by searches of Pubmed (1990–2012 and assessed for methodological quality by using a modified form of the STROBE criteria. Results. Thirty-five methodologically acceptable studies were identified. The following nonmodifiable risk factors were considered valid and were associated with an increased risk of peritonitis: ethnicity, female gender, chronic lung disease, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, antihepatitis C virus antibody positivity, diabetes mellitus, lupus nephritis or glomerulonephritis as underlying renal disease, and no residual renal function. We also identified the following modifiable, valid risk factors for peritonitis: malnutrition, overweight, smoking, immunosuppression, no use of oral active vitamin D, psychosocial factors, low socioeconomic status, PD against patient’s choice, and haemodialysis as former modality. Discussion. Modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors analyzed in this paper might serve as a basis to improve patient care in peritoneal dialysis.

  16. Insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and plasma adipocytokines among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Schou, Morten; Selmer, Christian; Johansen, Marie Louise; Gustafsson, Finn; Frystyk, Jan; Dela, Flemming; Faber, Jens; Kistorp, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young men, but information regarding effects on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution is limited. The objective was to investigate insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and adipocytokines among current and former AAS abusers compared with controls. Cross-sectional study among men involved in recreational strength training. Current and former AAS abusers (n=37 and n=33) and controls (n=30) volunteered from the community. We assessed insulin sensitivity by Matsuda index (oral glucose tolerance test). Using overnight fasting blood samples, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Body composition and fat distribution, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Current and former AAS abusers displayed lower Matsuda index than controls (%-difference (95%CI) from controls, -26% (-45; -1) and -39% (-55; -18)). Testosterone was markedly higher among current AAS abusers and subnormal among former AAS abusers compared with controls. Current AAS abusers displayed higher mean VAT than controls (388 (17) vs 293 (12) cm(3) , Pfat %, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were lower. In contrast, former AAS abusers showed highest leptin concentrations and body fat %. Multivariate linear regressions identified VAT as independent predictor of lower Matsuda index among current AAS abusers compared with controls; while body fat % independently predicted lower Matsuda index among former AAS abusers. Both current and former AAS abusers displayed lower insulin sensitivity which could be mediated by higher VAT and total body fat %, respectively. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sound-by-sound thalamic stimulation modulates midbrain auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnath, Abhilash; Farris, Hamilton E

    2014-01-01

    Descending circuitry can modulate auditory processing, biasing sensitivity to particular stimulus parameters and locations. Using awake in vivo single unit recordings, this study tested whether electrical stimulation of the thalamus modulates auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in neurons of the amphibian midbrain. In addition, by using electrical stimuli that were either longer than the acoustic stimuli (i.e., seconds) or presented on a sound-by-sound basis (ms), experiments addressed whether the form of modulation depended on the temporal structure of the electrical stimulus. Following long duration electrical stimulation (3-10 s of 20 Hz square pulses), excitability (spikes/acoustic stimulus) to free-field noise stimuli decreased by 32%, but returned over 600 s. In contrast, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation using a single 2 ms duration electrical pulse 25 ms before each noise stimulus caused faster and varied forms of modulation: modulation lasted sound-by-sound electrical stimulation varied between different acoustic stimuli, including for different male calls, suggesting modulation is specific to certain stimulus attributes. For binaural units, modulation depended on the ear of input, as sound-by-sound electrical stimulation preceding dichotic acoustic stimulation caused asymmetric modulatory effects: sensitivity shifted for sounds at only one ear, or by different relative amounts for both ears. This caused a change in the relative difference in binaural sensitivity. Thus, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation revealed fast and ear-specific (i.e., lateralized) auditory modulation that is potentially suited to shifts in auditory attention during sound segregation in the auditory scene.

  18. Sound-by-sound thalamic stimulation modulates midbrain auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash ePonnath

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Descending circuitry can modulate auditory processing, biasing sensitivity to particular stimulus parameters and locations. Using awake in vivo single unit recordings, this study tested whether electrical stimulation of the thalamus modulates auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in neurons of the amphibian midbrain. In addition, by using electrical stimuli that were either longer than the acoustic stimuli (i.e., seconds or presented on a sound-by-sound basis (ms, experiments addressed whether the form of modulation depended on the temporal structure of the electrical stimulus. Following long duration electrical stimulation (3-10 s of 20 Hz square pulses, excitability (spikes / acoustic stimulus to free-field noise stimuli decreased by 32%, but returned over 600 s. In contrast, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation using a single 2 ms duration electrical pulse 25 ms before each noise stimulus caused faster and varied forms of modulation: modulation lasted < 2 s and, in different cells, excitability either decreased, increased or shifted in latency. Within cells, the modulatory effect of sound-by-sound electrical stimulation varied between different acoustic stimuli, including for different male calls, suggesting modulation is specific to certain stimulus attributes. For binaural units, modulation depended on the ear of input, as sound-by-sound electrical stimulation preceding dichotic acoustic stimulation caused asymmetric modulatory effects: sensitivity shifted for sounds at only one ear, or by different relative amounts for both ears. This caused a change in the relative difference in binaural sensitivity. Thus, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation revealed fast and ear-specific (i.e., lateralized auditory modulation that is potentially suited to shifts in auditory attention during sound segregation in the auditory scene.

  19. Study on the mortality in Ecuador related to dietary factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alejandro Neira-Mosquera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible relationship with Ecuadorian consumption habits. For that, mortality rates (2001-2008 associated with five different disease groups related to dietary factors (cancer of colon, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and liver diseases were collected, analyzed and compared to consumption patterns in Ecuador. According to results, Ecuador has a low level of cancer of colon in comparison with developed countries (e.g. Spain. The group with the highest number of deaths corresponded to cardiovascular diseases followed by cerebrovas-cular diseases. The mortality study per province revealed that Amazonian provinces showed few deaths in relation to other provinces in Ecuador. This could be due to different factors including fails in the disease surveillance information systems, environmental factors and consumption patterns. In this sense, further investigation on native products consumption such as "chontaduro" might help to find valuable foods contributing to healthier Ecuadorian diet. These results, though preliminary, evidence that a major effort should be made by national and international organisations to collect data on consumption patterns and nutritional aspects of the Ecuadorian population in order to better support the development of effective food security and nutrition policies.

  20. Study on the mortality in Ecuador related to dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Sánchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Moreno Rojas, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible relationship with Ecuadorian consumption habits. For that, mortality rates (2001-2008) associated with five different disease groups related to dietary factors (cancer of colon, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and liver diseases) were collected, analyzed and compared to consumption patterns in Ecuador. According to results, Ecuador has a low level of cancer of colon in comparison with developed countries (e.g. Spain). The group with the highest number of deaths corresponded to cardiovascular diseases followed by cerebrovascular diseases. The mortality study per province revealed that Amazonian provinces showed few deaths in relation to other provinces in Ecuador. This could be due to different factors including fails in the disease surveillance information systems, environmental factors and consumption patterns. In this sense, further investigation on native products consumption such as "chontaduro" might help to find valuable foods contributing to healthier Ecuadorian diet. These results, though preliminary, evidence that a major effort should be made by national and international organisations to collect data on consumption patterns and nutritional aspects of the Ecuadorian population in order to better support the development of effective food security and nutrition policies.

  1. Analysis of Influencing Factors Related to Health Promotion Behavior in Hospital Radiological Technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Jong Kyung [Kim, In Hwan Internal Medicine Health Promotion Cnter, Youngcheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Duk Mun [Dept. of Radiology Technology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic Univesity Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors that could affect health of radiological technologists, which is useful for health care and development of programs for health promotion. Subjects were 234 of radiological technologists who work in general hospitals. Some questionnaires were made about perceptions of health condition and promotional behavior of health for this study. The questionnaires of health perception were 20 items that consist of the present condition of health, health concern and sensitivity. The reliability was sufficient(Cronbach's {alpha}=0.79). The other questionnaires about health promotion behavior were 47 items that consist of self-realization, health responsibility, exercise, nutrition, personal relationships, and stress management. The results turned out to be was sufficient (Cronbach's {alpha}=0.93). Every data was treated statistically, comparison of average(t-test, ANOVA), correlation, and multiple regression. Related factors to health promotion behavior were age, marriage, salary, class of one's position, career, employment, and religion, in general features. In health life habit, related factors were smoke and exercise. Results of health promotion behavior was 2.90 of mean score, 0.37 of standard deviation. Correlations between factors of health perception and health promotion behavior was positive(p<0.01). Health promotion behavior were affected by sensitivity, presents condition of health, exercise, smoke, career. Sensitivity was the most affectable variable, which means that promotional behavior score became higher and higher as the score of sensitivity and present condition were increased. In addition, persons who exercise regularly, had been smoked, and has higher career showed higher score of promotional behavior. Radiological technologists have to keep their health, trying not to infected by a disease. Most of all, no smoking and regular exercise are the most important thing to all of members.

  2. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.

  3. Beware the black box: investigating the sensitivity of FEA simulations to modelling factors in comparative biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Christopher W; McCurry, Matthew R; Clausen, Phillip D; McHenry, Colin R

    2013-01-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) is a computational technique of growing popularity in the field of comparative biomechanics, and is an easily accessible platform for form-function analyses of biological structures. However, its rapid evolution in recent years from a novel approach to common practice demands some scrutiny in regards to the validity of results and the appropriateness of assumptions inherent in setting up simulations. Both validation and sensitivity analyses remain unexplored in many comparative analyses, and assumptions considered to be 'reasonable' are often assumed to have little influence on the results and their interpretation. HERE WE REPORT AN EXTENSIVE SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS WHERE HIGH RESOLUTION FINITE ELEMENT (FE) MODELS OF MANDIBLES FROM SEVEN SPECIES OF CROCODILE WERE ANALYSED UNDER LOADS TYPICAL FOR COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS: biting, shaking, and twisting. Simulations explored the effect on both the absolute response and the interspecies pattern of results to variations in commonly used input parameters. Our sensitivity analysis focuses on assumptions relating to the selection of material properties (heterogeneous or homogeneous), scaling (standardising volume, surface area, or length), tooth position (front, mid, or back tooth engagement), and linear load case (type of loading for each feeding type). Our findings show that in a comparative context, FE models are far less sensitive to the selection of material property values and scaling to either volume or surface area than they are to those assumptions relating to the functional aspects of the simulation, such as tooth position and linear load case. Results show a complex interaction between simulation assumptions, depending on the combination of assumptions and the overall shape of each specimen. Keeping assumptions consistent between models in an analysis does not ensure that results can be generalised beyond the specific set of assumptions used. Logically, different comparative datasets would

  4. Effects of the neurotrophic factor artemin on sensory afferent development and sensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuying WANG; Christopher M. Elitt; Sacha A. Malin; Kathryn M. Albers

    2008-01-01

    Artemin is a neuronal survival and differentiation factor in the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family. Its receptor GFRα3 is expressed by a subpopulation of nociceptor type sensory neurons in the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia (DRG and TG). These neurons co-express the heat, capsaicin and proton-sensitive channel TRPV 1 and the cold and chemical-sensitive channel TRPA1. To further investigate the effects of artemin on sensory neurons, we isolated transgenic mice (ARTN-OE mice) that overexpress artemin in keratinocytes of the skin and tongue. Enhanced levels of artemin led to a 20% increase in the total number of DRG neurons and increases in the level of mRNA encoding TRPV1 and TRPAI. Calcium imaging showed that isolated sensory neurons from ARTN-OE mice were hypersensitive to the TRPV 1 agonist capsaicin and the TRPA1 agonist mustard oil. Behavioral testing of ARTN-OE mice also showed an increased sensitivity to heat, cold, capsaicin and mustard oil stimuli applied either to the skin or in the drinking water. Sensory neurons from wildtype mice also exhibited potentiated capsaicin responses following artemin addition to the media. In addition, injection of artemin into hindpaw skin produced transient thermal hyperalgesia. These findings indicate that artemin can modulate sensory function and that this regulation may occur through changes in channel gene expression. Because artemin mRNA expression is up-regulated in inflamed tissue and following nerve injury, it may have a significant role in cellular changes that underlie pain associated with pathological conditions. Manipulation of artemin expression may therefore offer a new pain treatment strategy.

  5. Socio-Demographic Factors Related to Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this study was to identify factors related to cancer of oral cavity considering individual socio-demographic characteristics of a hospital based study in Pune. Approach: A case-control study was conducted. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls matched for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Results: Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (pConclusion/Recommendations: Socio-demographic factors such as education, occupation and income do play an important role in development oral cancer.

  6. On factors related to car accidents on German Autobahn connectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnowski, Martin; Manner, Hans

    2011-09-01

    We make an attempt to identify factors that explain accidents on German Autobahn connectors. To find these factors we perform an empirical study making use of count data models with fixed and random coefficients. The findings are based on a set of 197 ramps, which we classify into three distinct types of ramps. For these ramps, accident data is available for a period of 3 years (January 2003 until December 2005). The negative binomial model with some random coefficients proved to be an appropriate model in our cross-sectional setting for detecting factors that are related to accidents. The most significant variable is a measure of the average daily traffic. For geometric variables, not only continuous effects were found to be significant, but also threshold effects indicating the exceedance of certain values. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Selecting focal species as surrogates for imperiled species using relative sensitivities derived from occupancy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvano, Amy; Guyer, Craig; Steury, Todd; Grand, James B.

    2017-01-01

    Most imperiled species are rare or elusive and difficult to detect, which makes gathering data to estimate their response to habitat restoration a challenge. We used a repeatable, systematic method for selecting focal species using relative sensitivities derived from occupancy analysis. Our objective was to select suites of focal species that would be useful as surrogates when predicting effects of restoration of habitat characteristics preferred by imperiled species. We developed 27 habitat profiles that represent general habitat relationships for 118 imperiled species. We identified 23 regularly encountered species that were sensitive to important aspects of those profiles. We validated our approach by examining the correlation between estimated probabilities of occupancy for species of concern and focal species selected using our method. Occupancy rates of focal species were more related to occupancy rates of imperiled species when they were sensitive to more of the parameters appearing in profiles of imperiled species. We suggest that this approach can be an effective means of predicting responses by imperiled species to proposed management actions. However, adequate monitoring will be required to determine the effectiveness of using focal species to guide management actions.

  8. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level.

  9. Cosmological General Relativity With Scale Factor and Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Firmin J

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the four-dimensional space-velocity Cosmological General Relativity of Carmeli is developed by a general solution to the Einstein field equations. The metric is given in the Tolman form and the vacuum mass density is included in the energy-momentum tensor. The scale factor redshift equation is obtained, forming the basis for deriving the various redshift-distance relations of cosmological analysis. A linear equation of state dependent on the scale factor is assumed to account for the effects of an evolving dark energy in the expansion of the universe. Modeling simulations are provided for a few combinations of mass density, vacuum density and state parameter values over a sample of high redshift SNe Ia data. Also, the Carmeli cosmological model is derived as a special case of the general solution.

  10. Lifestyle-related factors and access to medically assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondorp, W; de Wert, G; Pennings, G; Shenfield, F; Devroey, P; Tarlatzis, B; Barri, P

    2010-03-01

    Lifestyle is increasingly recognized as an outcome-determining factor in assisted reproduction, not only with regard to the cost-effectiveness but also in view of the balance of benefits and risks, including risks related to the welfare of the future child. This document briefly summarizes the evidence concerning the impact of three lifestyle-related factors (obesity, tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption) on both natural and assisted reproduction (IVF) and discusses the implications of this for the practice of medically assisted reproduction in the light of relevant ethical principles. The central question is whether and to what extent fertility treatment of obese, smoking or drinking patients should be made conditional on prior lifestyle changes.

  11. Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette

    Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors Jette Østergaard Rathe1, Pia V. Larsen1, Morten Andersen2, Janus L. Thomsen3, Maja S. Paulsen1, Jens Søndergaard1 1. Research Unit of General Practice, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark 2. Centre...... substitutable drug. Data were linked with a prescription database. Results We found no associations between generic substitution and, respectively, gender, age, drug group and polypharmacy. Earlier switches of the index drug are statistically significant associated with acceptance of generic substitution...... generics in the antiepileptic and antidepressant groups (antiepileptics OR 0.37 and antidepressants OR 0.53). Conclusion We did not find any patient-related factors associated with generic substitution; however, patients who have once experienced a generic substitution with a specific drug are more likely...

  12. Factors related to adherence to treatment for systemic hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Coelho Leite Fava

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to seek the evidence available in the literature regarding the factors related to adherence to treatment for systemic hypertension. It used the method of integrative review in the databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, and LILACS, using the keywords: hypertension, compliance, non-compliance, adherence, non-adherence, patient compliance, in the period 2004 – 2008, and articles in Portuguese, English and Spanish, with the use of a validated instrument and content analysis. 28 studies were selected, 64.3% of which had level of evidence VI. The following were identified as factors related to adherence to treatment: treatment costs, educational activities, sex, physician-patient relationship, physiological and behavioral aspects, drug therapy, attending checkups and lifestyle. The use of combined strategies is suggested in order to increase the individuals’ adherence to the treatment. Gaps point to the valorization of dialogic relationships for integrated and more efficacious health practices.

  13. Factor H-related proteins determine complement-activating surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsi, Mihály; Tortajada, Agustin; Uzonyi, Barbara; Goicoechea de Jorge, Elena; Rodríguez de Córdoba, Santiago

    2015-06-01

    Complement factor H-related proteins (FHRs) are strongly associated with different diseases involving complement dysregulation, which suggests a major role for these proteins regulating complement activation. Because FHRs are evolutionarily and structurally related to complement inhibitor factor H (FH), the initial assumption was that the FHRs are also negative complement regulators. Whereas weak complement inhibiting activities were originally reported for these molecules, recent developments indicate that FHRs may enhance complement activation, with important implications for the role of these proteins in health and disease. We review these findings here, and propose that FHRs represent a complex set of surface recognition molecules that, by competing with FH, provide improved discrimination of self and non-self surfaces and play a central role in determining appropriate activation of the complement pathway.

  14. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...... disease seems to be influenced by age, gender, drinking pattern and type of alcohol....

  15. Psychosocial Factors Related to Underuse of Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G; Brook, David W

    2016-08-01

    In this longitudinal study, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the historical, predisposing, enabling/barrier, and need factors as related to the underuse of medical services during early midlife. We gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort of community-dwelling men and women (N = 548) followed from adolescence to early midlife. The findings supported a mediational model: A mutually affectionate parent-child relationship in early adolescence was inversely related to underuse of medical services in early midlife via the mediational roles played by later predisposing factors (i.e., depressive mood and cigarette smoking), need factor (i.e., physical health problems), barriers (i.e., financial difficulty), and enabling factors (i.e., social support for health services in early midlife). In addition, satisfaction with medical services in the neighborhood had an association with less underuse of medical services in early midlife. Family therapy focused on an increase in the affectionate relationship between the adolescents and his/her parents and cognitive-behavioral treatment of depressive mood may lead to a decrease in the underuse of medical services.

  16. Nosocomial infections and related factors in southern khorasan hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Nosocomial infections are defined as infections occurring during a patient's stay at hospital (48-72h after admission).Nosocomial infections are one of the important problems of health. This study aimed was determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections, and related factors in hospitals with more than 100 beds in south Khorasan Province. Materials and Methods: In this crass-sectional study, an investigator-administered questionnaire was completed for each patien...

  17. Smoking and Its Related Factors Among Iranian High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Sajedinejad, Sima; Nazemi, Saeed; Fereidoon Mohasseli, Khadije; Valizade, Behzad; Vahedi, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Amiri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: In different studies, the prevalence of tobacco consumption has been growing in high schools boys. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its related factors among Iranian high school students in 2011. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 450 male students from 15 high schools of Shahroud (northeast of Iran) were selected for evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding tobacco consumption...

  18. EXPLORING FACTORS OF E-LEARNING RELATED TO STUDENT ENGAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on exploring the factors which relate learner engagement with E-Learning.It tries to explorethe strength of the link between learner engagement and E-Learning.E-Learning in today’s world has become a common mode of study and knowledge dissemination. E-Learning is an educational, training and learning method which is spreading widely and becoming a popular method of delivery among both educational and corporate environments. Is it beneficial for educational institut...

  19. Angiopoietin-related growth factor level in preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim. Angiopoietin-related growth factor (AGF) is associated with angiogenesis but it can also affect glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine AGF levels in preeclampsia. Method. The study included 32 women with preeclampsia (preeclampsia group) and 32 non-preeclamptic, healthy, third trimester pregnant women (Control group). We analyzed serum levels of AGF and other biochemical and anthropometric markers in all subjects. Results. Serum AGF levels were sig...

  20. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration:Relatively low sensitivity in the endosonographer population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean-Marc Dumonceau; Thibaud Koessler; Jeanin E van Hooft; Paul Fockens

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess the characteristics and quality of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in a large panel of endosonographers.METHODS:A survey was conducted during the 13th annual live course of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)held in Amsterdam,Netherlands.A 2-page questionnaire was developed for the study.Content validity of the questionnaire was determined based on input by experts in the field and a review of the relevant literature.It contained 30 questions that pertained to demographics and the current practice for EUS-FNA of responders,including sampling technique,sample processing,cytopathological diagnosis and sensitivity of EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of solid mass lesions.One hundred and sixty-one endosonographers who attended the course were asked to answer the survey.This allowed assessing the current practice of EUS-FNA as well as the self-reported sensitivity of EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of solid mass lesions.We also examined which factors were associated with a self-reported sensitivity of EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of solid mass lesions > 80%.RESULTS:Completed surveys were collected from 92 (57.1%) of 161 endosonographers who attended the conference.The endosonographers had been practicing endoscopy and EUS for 12.5 ± 7.8 years and 4.8 ± 4.1 years,respectively; one third of them worked in a hospital with an annual caseload > 100 EUS-FNA.Endoscopy practices were located in 29 countries,including 13 countries in Western Europe that totaled 75.3% of the responses.Only one third of endosonographers reported a sensitivity for the diagnosis of solid mass lesions > 80% (interquartile range of sensitivities,25.0%-75.0%).Factors independently associated with a sensitivity > 80% were (1) > 7 needle passes for pancreatic lesions or rapid on-site cytopathological evaluation (ROSE) (P < 0.0001),(2) a high annual hospital caseload (P =0.024) and (3) routine isolation of microcores from EUS-FNA samples (P =0

  1. Initiating a Caregiving Relationship: Pregnancy and Childbirth Factors as Predictors of Maternal Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Annie; Jarry-Boileau, Veronique; Tarabulsy, George M.; Miljkovitch, Raphaele

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between pregnancy and childbirth factors and subsequent quality of maternal interactive behavior in a sample of 116 full-term infants and their mothers. Mothers reported on the conditions of childbirth when infants were 6-8 months of age, and their interactive behavior was observed during a…

  2. Oxytocin and Social Sensitivity: Gene Polymorphisms in Relation to Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Robyn J.; McInnis, Opal A.; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2016-01-01

    Although the neuropeptide oxytocin has been associated with enhanced prosocial behaviors, it has also been linked to aggression and mental health disorders. Thus, it was suggested that oxytocin might act by increasing the salience of social stimuli, irrespective of whether these are positive or negative, thus increasing vulnerability to negative mental health outcomes. The current study (N = 243), conducted among white university students, examined the relation of trauma, depressive symptoms including suicidal ideation in relation to a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), rs53576, and a SNP on the CD38 gene that controls oxytocin release, rs3796863. Individuals with the polymorphism on both alleles (AA genotype) of the CD38 SNP had previously been linked to elevated plasma oxytocin levels. Consistent with the social sensitivity perspective, however, in the current study, individuals carrying the AA genotype displayed elevated feelings of alienation from parents and peers as well as increased levels of suicidal ideation. Moreover, they tended to report elevated depressive symptoms compared to CC homozygotes. It was also observed that the CD38 genotype moderated the relation between trauma and suicidal ideation scores, such that high levels of trauma were associated with elevated suicidal ideation among all CD38 genotypes, but this relationship was stronger among individuals with the AA genotype. In contrast, there was no relationship between the OXTR SNP, rs53576, depression or suicidal ideation. These findings support a social sensitivity hypothesis of oxytocin, wherein the AA genotype of the CD38 SNP, which has been considered the “protective allele” was associated with increased sensitivity and susceptibility to disturbed social relations and suicidal ideation. PMID:27486392

  3. Oxytocin and Social Sensitivity: Gene Polymorphisms in Relation to Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Jane McQuaid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the neuropeptide oxytocin has been associated with enhanced prosocial behaviors, it has also been linked to aggression and mental health disorders. Thus, it was suggested that oxytocin might act by increasing the salience of social stimuli, irrespective of whether these are positive or negative, thus increasing vulnerability to negative mental health outcomes. The current study (N = 243, conducted among White university students, examined the relation of trauma, depressive symptoms including suicidal ideation in relation to a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP within the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR, rs53576, and a SNP on the CD38 gene that controls oxytocin release, rs3796863. Individuals with the polymorphism on both alleles (AA genotype of the CD38 SNP had previously been linked to elevated plasma oxytocin levels. Consistent with the social sensitivity perspective, however, in the current study, individuals carrying the AA genotype displayed elevated feelings of alienation from parents and peers as well as increased levels of suicidal ideation. Moreover, they tended to report elevated depressive symptoms compared to CC homozygotes. It was also observed that the CD38 genotype moderated the relation between trauma and suicidal ideation scores, such that high levels of trauma were associated with elevated suicidal ideation among all CD38 genotypes, but this relationship was stronger among individuals with the AA genotype. In contrast, there was no relationship between the OXTR SNP, rs53576, depression or suicidal ideation. These findings support a social sensitivity hypothesis of oxytocin, wherein the AA genotype of the CD38 SNP, which has been considered the ‘protective allele’ was associated with increased sensitivity and susceptibility to disturbed social relations and suicidal ideation.

  4. Predictive factors for bleeding-related re-exploration after cardiac surgery: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Camila T; Brunori, Evelise H Fadini Reis; Santos, Vinicius Batista; Moorhead, Sue A; Lopes, Juliana de Lima; de Barros, Alba L Bottura Leite

    2016-04-01

    Bleeding-related re-exploration is a life-threatening complication after cardiac surgery. Nurses must be aware of important risk factors for this complication so that their assessment, monitoring and evaluation activities can be prioritized, focused and anticipated. To identify the predictive factors for bleeding-related re-exploration after cardiac surgery and to describe the sources of postoperative bleeding. This is a prospective cohort study at a tertiary cardiac school-hospital in São Paulo/SP, Brazil. Adult patients (n=323) submitted to surgical correction of acquired cardiac diseases were included. Potential risk factors for bleeding-related re-exploration within the 24 hours following admission to the intensive care unit were investigated in the patients' charts. A univariate analysis and a multiple analysis through logistic regression were conducted to identify the outcome predictors. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was calculated as a measure of accuracy considering the cut-off points with the highest sensitivity and specificity. The univariate factors significantly associated with bleeding-related re-exploration were a lower preoperative platelet count, a lower number of bypasses in coronary artery bypass surgery and postoperatively, a lower body temperature, infusion of lower intravenous volume, a higher positive end-expiratory pressure during mechanical ventilation and transfusion of blood products. The independent predictors of bleeding-related re-exploration included postoperative red blood cell transfusion, and transfusion of fresh frozen plasma, platelet or cryoprecipitate units. These predictors had a sensitivity of 87.5%, a specificity of 99.28% and an accuracy of 97.93%. Blood product transfusion postoperatively is an independent predictor of bleeding-related re-exploration. Surgical errors prevailed as sources of bleeding. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  5. Elf5 is an epithelium-specific, fibroblast growth factor-sensitive transcription factor in the embryonic lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, David E; Xu, Yan; Shannon, John M

    2007-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling has been shown to be essential for many aspects of normal lung development. To determine epithelial targets of FGF signaling, we cultured embryonic day (E) 11.5 mouse lungs for 24 hr in the presence or absence of the FGF receptor antagonist SU5402, which inhibited branching morphogenesis. Affymetrix gene chip analysis of treated and control epithelia identified several genes regulated by FGF signaling, including Elf5, a member of the Epithelial-specific Ets family of transcription factors. SU5402 reduced Elf5 expression in mesenchyme-free cultures of E12.5 epithelium, demonstrating that the inhibition was direct. In situ hybridization revealed that Elf5 had a dynamic pattern of expression during lung development. We found that expression of Elf5 was induced by FGF7 and FGF10, ligands that primarily bind FGFR2b. To further define the pathways by which FGFs activate Elf5 expression, we cultured E11.5 lung tips in the presence of compounds to inhibit FGF receptors (SU5402), PI3-Kinase/Akt-mediated signaling (LY294002), and MAP Kinase/Erk-mediated signaling (U0126). We found that SU5402 and LY294002 significantly reduced Elf5 expression, whereas U0126 had no effect. LY294002 also reduced Elf5 expression in cultures of purified epithelium. Finally, pAkt was coexpressed with Elf5 in the proximal epithelial airways of E17.5 lungs. These results demonstrate that Elf5 is an FGF-sensitive transcription factor in the lung with a dynamic pattern of expression and that FGF regulation of Elf5 by means of FGFR2b occurs through the PI3-Kinase/Akt pathway.

  6. Anxiety sensitivity and cannabis use-related problems: The impact of race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kimberlye E; Ecker, Anthony H; Buckner, Julia D

    2017-04-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance among young adults. Anxiety sensitivity (AS; ie, fear of anxiety-related symptoms) is positively related to coping motives for cannabis use (which are robustly positively linked to cannabis-related problems). However, AS is unrelated to cannabis use-related problems. Yet, extant studies have been conducted on primarily White samples. It may be that among Black students, AS-physical concerns (ie, fear of physical anxiety-related sensations) are related to cannabis problems given that Black individuals are more likely than White individuals to report experiencing greater and more intense somatic symptoms when experiencing anxiety. Black individuals may rely on cannabis to cope with fear of these somatic symptoms, continuing to use despite cannabis-related problems. The current study tested whether race moderated the relation between AS-physical concerns and cannabis problems among 102 (85.3% female) current cannabis using undergraduates who were either non-Hispanic Black (n = 51) or non-Hispanic White (n = 51). After controlling for frequency of cannabis use, income, and gender, race significantly moderated the relation between AS-physical concerns and cannabis use-related problems such that AS-physical concerns significantly predicted cannabis-related problems among Black and not White individuals. Findings highlight the importance of considering race in identifying psychosocial predictors of cannabis-related problems. Intervention strategies for Black cannabis users may benefit from examining and targeting AS-physical concerns. (Am J Addict 2017;26:209-214). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  7. Fatty acid composition and chlorophyll content of epiphytic lichens and a possible relation to their sensitivity to air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltman, I.H.; De Kok, L.J.; Juiper, P.J.C.; van Hasselt, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    Fatty acid composition and chlorophyll content of thirteen epiphytic lichen species were determined and related to the air pollution sensitivity of the lichens based upon field observations. A direct relation between the chlorophyll content and, to a lesser extent, the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acids of the lichen species and the sensitivity to air pollution was demonstrated. It is suggested that the sensitivity of lichens to air pollution is related to the degree of dependency of the mycobiont on the phycobiont as far as metabolic energy is concerned; in such a way that the stronger this dependency is, the more sensitive the lichen will be to air pollution.

  8. Differential sensitivity of hormone-responsive and unresponsive human prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) to tumor necrosis factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Zhao (X.); G.J. van Steenbrugge (Gert Jan); F.H. Schröder (Fritz)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractTwo sublines, the hormone-sensitive LNCaP-FGC and the insensitive LNCaP-r (resistant) carcinoma cell lines, originating from the parental human prostatic carcinoma cell line LNCaP were tested for sensitivity to human tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) using the MTT assay. Irrespective of the

  9. Factors affecting the ozone sensitivity of temperate European grasslands: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassin, S. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: seraina.bassin@fal.admin.ch; Volk, M. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2007-04-15

    This overview of experimentally induced effects of ozone aims to identify physiological and ecological principles, which can be used to classify the sensitivity to ozone of temperate grassland communities in Europe. The analysis of data from experiments with single plants, binary mixtures and multi-species communities illustrates the difficulties to relate individual responses to communities, and thus to identify grassland communities most at risk. Although there is increasing evidence that communities can be separated into broad classes of ozone sensitivity, the database from experiments under realistic conditions with representative systems is too small to draw firm conclusions. But it appears that risk assessments, based on results from individuals or immature mixtures exposed in chambers, are only applicable to intensively managed, productive grasslands, and that the risk of ozone damage for most of perennial grasslands with lower productivity tends to be less than previously expected. - An overview of experimentally induced ozone effects suggests that temperate grasslands could be separated into broad classes of ozone sensitivity based on physiological and ecological principles.

  10. Relation of anthropometric variables to coronary artery disease risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra C Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Anthropometric variables and their relation to conventional coronary artery disease (CAD risk factors in railway employees have been inadequately studied in India. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Solapur division of the Central railway in the year 2004, to assess the anthropometric variables in railway employees and their relation to conventional CAD risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 995 railway employees, with 872 males and 123 females participated in this cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar level. Various anthropometric indices were calculated for body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, and abdominal volume index (AVI. Statistical analysis was done by EPI Info 6 statistical software. Results: Compared to all other obesity indices, WHtR was most prevalent in both genders. High WHtR was present in 699 (80.16% males and 103 (83.73% females. Age ≥45 years, high systolic BP, high diastolic BP, low HDL, high triglyceride, and diabetes mellitus were positively correlated with high BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI. High BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI were negatively associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions: Over all, anthropometric variables in both genders were significantly deranged in subjects with coronary risk factors. Compared to all other anthropometric variables, WHtR was statistically significantly associated with a majority of coronary artery risk factors. Hence we recommend inclusion of WHtR as a parameter of obesity to predict coronary artery disease risk factor along with WC, WHR, and BMI in epidemiologic studies.

  11. Factors affecting the sensitivity of human-derived esophageal carcinoma cell lines to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin

    OpenAIRE

    Minegaki, Tetsuya; TAKARA, KOHJI; HAMAGUCHI, RYOHEI; Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Nishiguchi, Kohshi

    2012-01-01

    Effective chemotherapy against esophageal carcinoma is considered achievable with a combination of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CDDP). However, chemo-therapy remains ineffective in certain patients. The aim of this study was to clarify the factors which affect sensitivity to 5-FU and CDDP. The effects of factors known to influence sensitivity to 5-FU and CDDP, namely transporters, DNA repair enzymes and metabolic enzymes, were examined. mRNA levels of four transporters, SLC22A2, SLC23...

  12. Sensitized mutagenesis screen in Factor V Leiden mice identifies thrombosis suppressor loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Randal J; Tomberg, Kärt; Siebert, Amy E; Zhu, Guojing; Winn, Mary E; Dobies, Sarah L; Manning, Sara L; Brake, Marisa A; Cleuren, Audrey C; Hobbs, Linzi M; Mishack, Lena M; Johnston, Alexander J; Kotnik, Emilee; Siemieniak, David R; Xu, Jishu; Li, Jun Z; Saunders, Thomas L; Ginsburg, David

    2017-09-05

    Factor V Leiden (F5(L) ) is a common genetic risk factor for venous thromboembolism in humans. We conducted a sensitized N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen for dominant thrombosuppressor genes based on perinatal lethal thrombosis in mice homozygous for F5(L) (F5(L/L) ) and haploinsufficient for tissue factor pathway inhibitor (Tfpi(+/-) ). F8 deficiency enhanced the survival of F5(L/L)Tfpi(+/-) mice, demonstrating that F5(L/L)Tfpi(+/-) lethality is genetically suppressible. ENU-mutagenized F5(L/L) males and F5(L/+)Tfpi(+/-) females were crossed to generate 6,729 progeny, with 98 F5(L/L)Tfpi(+/-) offspring surviving until weaning. Sixteen lines, referred to as "modifier of Factor 5 Leiden (MF5L1-16)," exhibited transmission of a putative thrombosuppressor to subsequent generations. Linkage analysis in MF5L6 identified a chromosome 3 locus containing the tissue factor gene (F3). Although no ENU-induced F3 mutation was identified, haploinsufficiency for F3 (F3(+/-) ) suppressed F5(L/L)Tfpi(+/-) lethality. Whole-exome sequencing in MF5L12 identified an Actr2 gene point mutation (p.R258G) as the sole candidate. Inheritance of this variant is associated with suppression of F5(L/L)Tfpi(+/-) lethality (P = 1.7 × 10(-6)), suggesting that Actr2(p.R258G) is thrombosuppressive. CRISPR/Cas9 experiments to generate an independent Actr2 knockin/knockout demonstrated that Actr2 haploinsufficiency is lethal, supporting a hypomorphic or gain-of-function mechanism of action for Actr2(p.R258G) Our findings identify F8 and the Tfpi/F3 axis as key regulators in determining thrombosis balance in the setting of F5(L) and also suggest a role for Actr2 in this process.

  13. Factors related to physical activity: a study of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhjalmsson, R; Thorlindsson, T

    1998-09-01

    Although the consequences of physical activity have been carefully documented, less is known about its correlates, particularly among children and youth. Based on a representative national survey of 1131 Icelandic adolescents, the study examined various physical, psychological, social and demographic factors related to physical activity. Male sex, significant others' involvement in physical activity (father, friend and older brother), sociability, perceived importance of sport and of health improvement and satisfaction with mandatory gym classes in school, were all related to more involvement, whereas hours of paid work and TV-viewing were related to less. Furthermore, the data suggested that the influence of friend's participation in physical activity depends on his or her emotional significance. Influential others appeared to affect males and females in the same way. The meaning of the results and their implications for future research are discussed.

  14. Do smoking intensity-related differences in vigilance indicate altered glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Martin; Hennig, Juergen; Netter, Petra

    2004-03-01

    The relationship of critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF) and a pharmacologically induced cortisol suppression by means of dexamethasone (DEX) and metyrapone (MET) was investigated during nicotine deprivation in a between-subjects design in 60 male smokers divided into light, medium and heavy smokers. DEX reduced vigilance in medium smokers and improved it in heavy smokers compared to placebo, whereas MET was more detrimental in heavy smokers. The hypothesis was put forward that the intensity of nicotine consumption is related to differences in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor sensitivity.

  15. Loneliness and Its Related Factors among Elderly People in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Vakili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Old people appear to be most prone to loneliness and depression perhaps because of decrease in their ability in daily livings, increase in morbidity, loss of close ties caused by loss of friends and spouses. This study was conducted for investigation of the loneliness and its related factors in elderly people in Yazd. Methods: In this cross sectional study, 200 old people (over 60 years old from three zone; health centers, nursing home and retirement center by convenient sampling method. Data was collected by UCLA Loneliness Scale that was consisting of 20 items for loneliness measurement. Scores 41 and more defined as loneliness. Collected data was analyzed by proper statistical tests with SPSS software. Results: Results showed that 71 % of subjects had Not Feel Lonely, 24 % moderate and 5 % severe felling of loneliness. Factors such as level of education, marital status, numbers of daughter and sons, previous job, residence site, current job status, living in nursing home, insufficient income, place of praying, sleep quantity and quality of sleep and feeling of healthy were associated with  loneliness status (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Our findings showed loneliness is common in elderly that support needs for more investigations and attention to loneliness related factors, educational courses conduction for family to take care of their elders, preparing of recreational measures and social support groups to decrease the loneliness in old people and so they spend this period by good and healthy sensation. 

  16. Subjective sleep quality in perimenopausal women and its related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianping Zhang; Fen Lia; Yongjie Lin; Qiu Sheng; Xuewen Yu; Xinwen Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sleep quality and its related factors among perimenopausal women. Methods: A self-designed questionnaire was administered to 506 perimenopausal women. The questionnaire included the influencing factors on the sleep quality, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales (SDS), the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety (SAS) and the Modified Kupperman Index (KI). Data were analyzed by SPSS11.5. Results: The mean PSQI was 5.97±4.30.Twenty-four percent of perimenopausal women reported poor sleep. Age and perimenopausal symptoms were significantly correlated with sleep quality. The sleep quality of the 45~49 age group was the poorest and the 40~44 age group was the best. The women who had higher Kupperman index were more likely to be poor sleepers. There was no significant correlation between occupation and sleep quality. Night sweat, depression, anxiety, hot flash, stressful life event, and regular exercise were significantly and independently related with sleep quality. Among them, regular exercise was a protective factor of sleep quality. Conclusion:High incidence of poor sleep quality exists among perimenopausal women. Some effective interventions should be taken to improve the sleep quality of perimenopausal women.

  17. Factors related to the performance of Specialized Dental Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Christiane de Azevedo Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Specialized Dental Care Centers (SDCC have the mission to expand access to public medium complexity dental care and support the primary health care actions at this level of complexity. However, it is necessary to ensure the quality of services and to evaluate such services continuously to identify weaknesses and strengths that support the processes of leadership/management. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of studies on the assessment of oral health in specialized care that may indicate which factors should be investigated. Therefore, this integrated literature review sought to explore the plethora of publications on the evaluation of SDCC in the LILACS and MEDLINE data bases in October 2013 to identify factors possibly related to the performance of such health services. Thus, 13 references were included in this review pointing to forms of organization and management of work processes related to the creation of healthcare networks (operation of regulation centers and setting up of health consortiums. They include the contextual characteristics of the places where SDCCs are located (population size, Family Health Strategy coverage, Municipal Human Development Index, governance, governing capacity were factors that influenced the SDCCs performance.

  18. Oligonucleotide microarray analysis reveals dysregulation of energy-related metabolism in insulin-sensitive tissues of type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Wang, X C; Zhao, L; Zhang, Y; Yao, L L; Lin, Y; Peng, Y D; Hu, R M

    2014-06-17

    Impaired insulin action within skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and the liver is an important characteristic of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In order to identify common underlying defects in insulin-sensitive tissues that may be involved in the pathogenesis of T2D, the gene expression profiles of skeletal muscle, visceral adipose tissue, and liver from autopsy donors with or without T2D were examined using oligonucleotide microarrays and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. Compared with controls, 691 genes were commonly dysregulated in these three insulin-sensitive tissues of humans with T2D. These co-expressed genes were enriched within the mitochondrion, with suggested involvement in energy metabolic processes such as glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, fatty acid beta oxidative, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and electron transport. Genes related to energy metabolism were mostly downregulated in diabetic skeletal muscle and visceral adipose tissue, while they were upregulated in the diabetic liver. This observed dysregulation in energy-related metabolism may be the underlying factor leading to the molecular mechanisms responsible for the insulin resistance of patients with T2D.

  19. Insulin-like growth factor 2 silencing restores taxol sensitivity in drug resistant ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer-Visser, Jurriaan; Lee, Jiyeon; McCullagh, KellyAnne; Cossio, Maria J; Wang, Yanhua; Huang, Gloria S

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance is an obstacle to the effective treatment of ovarian cancer. We and others have shown that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway is a novel potential target to overcome drug resistance. The purpose of this study was to validate IGF2 as a potential therapeutic target in drug resistant ovarian cancer and to determine the efficacy of targeting IGF2 in vivo. An analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data in the serous ovarian cancer cohort showed that high IGF2 mRNA expression is significantly associated with shortened interval to disease progression and death, clinical indicators of drug resistance. In a genetically diverse panel of ovarian cancer cell lines, the IGF2 mRNA levels measured in cell lines resistant to various microtubule-stabilizing agents including Taxol were found to be significantly elevated compared to the drug sensitive cell lines. The effect of IGF2 knockdown on Taxol resistance was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Transient IGF2 knockdown significantly sensitized drug resistant cells to Taxol treatment. A Taxol-resistant ovarian cancer xenograft model, developed from HEY-T30 cells, exhibited extreme drug resistance, wherein the maximal tolerated dose of Taxol did not delay tumor growth in mice. Blocking the IGF1R (a transmembrane receptor that transmits signals from IGF1 and IGF2) using a monoclonal antibody did not alter the response to Taxol. However, stable IGF2 knockdown using short-hairpin RNA in HEY-T30 effectively restored Taxol sensitivity. These findings validate IGF2 as a potential therapeutic target in drug resistant ovarian cancer and show that directly targeting IGF2 may be a preferable strategy compared with targeting IGF1R alone.

  20. Natural Chlorophyll-Related Porphyrins and Chlorins for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural-chlorophyll-related porphyrins, including (2H, Zn, Cu-protoporphyrin IX (Por-1 and Zn-mesoporphyrin IX (Por-2, and chlorins, including chlorin e6 (Chl-1, chlorin e4 (Chl-2, and rhodin G7 (Chl-3, have been used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. For porphyrin sensitizers that have vinyl groups at the β-positions, zinc coordinated Por-1 gives the highest solar-energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency (h of up to 2.9%. Replacing the vinyl groups of ZnPor-1 with ethyl groups increases the open-circuit voltage (Voc from 0.61 V to 0.66 V, but decreases the short-circuit current (Jsc from 7.0 mA·cm−2 to 6.1 mA·cm−2 and the value of h to 2.8%. Density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT calculations suggest that the higher Jsc values of Zn-based porphyrin sensitizers result from the favorable electron injection from the LUMO at higher energy levels. In the case of the chlorin sensitizers, the number of carboxyl protons has a large effect on the photovoltaic performance. Chl-2 with two carboxyl protons gives much higher values of Jsc, Voc, and h than does Chl-1 with three carboxyl protons. Replacing the protons of Chl-1 with sodium ions can substantially improve the photovoltaic performance of Chl-1-based solar cells. Furthermore, the sodium salt of Chl-3 with an aldehyde group at the C7 position shows poorer photovoltaic performance than does the sodium salt of Chl-1 with methyl groups at the C7 position. This is due to the low light-harvesting capability of Chl-3.

  1. Identification of adipokine clusters related to parameters of fat mass, insulin sensitivity and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Flehmig

    Full Text Available In obesity, elevated fat mass and ectopic fat accumulation are associated with changes in adipokine secretion, which may link obesity to inflammation and the development of insulin resistance. However, relationships among individual adipokines and between adipokines and parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism or inflammation are largely unknown. Serum concentrations of 20 adipokines were measured in 141 Caucasian obese men (n = 67 and women (n = 74 with a wide range of body weight, glycemia and insulin sensitivity. Unbiased, distance-based hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to recognize patterns among adipokines and their relationship with parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and inflammation. We identified two major adipokine clusters related to either (1 body fat mass and inflammation (leptin, ANGPTL3, DLL1, chemerin, Nampt, resistin or insulin sensitivity/hyperglycemia, and lipid metabolism (vaspin, clusterin, glypican 4, progranulin, ANGPTL6, GPX3, RBP4, DLK1, SFRP5, BMP7, adiponectin, CTRP3 and 5, omentin. In addition, we found distinct adipokine clusters in subgroups of patients with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D. Logistic regression analyses revealed ANGPTL6, DLK1, Nampt and progranulin as strongest adipokine correlates of T2D in obese individuals. The panel of 20 adipokines predicted T2D compared to a combination of HbA1c, HOMA-IR and fasting plasma glucose with lower sensitivity (78% versus 91% and specificity (76% versus 94%. Therefore, adipokine patterns may currently not be clinically useful for the diagnosis of metabolic diseases. Whether adipokine patterns are relevant for the predictive assessment of intervention outcomes needs to be further investigated.

  2. Sensitivity of reactor multiplication factor to positions of cross-section resonances

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V GOPALAKRISHNAN; K R VIJAYARAGHAVAN

    2017-09-01

    Neutron–nuclear interaction cross-section is sensitive to neutron kinetic energy and most nuclei exhibit resonance behaviour at specific energies within the resonance energy range, spanning from a fraction of an electron volt to several tens or hundreds of kilo electron volts. The energy positions of these resonances correspond to the excitation energy levels of the compound nucleus that are formed as intermediate states during the interaction. Though these positions, thanks to sophistication in science and technology, are known reasonably precisely for the materials of reactor interest, deviations or spread in this data among different evaluations cannot be ruled out. In this work, the effect of such a spread in the resonance positions of the reactor materials on the multiplication factor of an infinite reactor, is obtained. The study shows that the effect on a thermal reactor is more pronounced than on a fast reactor.

  3. Assessment of Available Transfer Capability (ATC Using Linear Sensitivity Factors under Deregulated Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Indhumathy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric supply industry throughout the world have been restructured to introduce competition among the market participants and bring several competitive opportunities. The structure of power industry is moving towards deregulatory environment from the regulatory environment. Under this deregulatory, there are many technical issues need to be addressed. In this paper, one such technical issue handled carefully is the Available Transfer Capability (ATC. ATC is the amount of maximum additional power transfer between two control areas (source and sink that is available without violating thermal overloads. Here ATC is estimated for normal and contingency modes using linear sensitivity factors according to the security and reliability requirements. Simultaneous bilateral transactions havebeen done on IEEE-30 bus standard system for the assessment of ATC under MATLAB environment. From the results, it is computed that ATC is determined with less computation burden and this study willbe useful for the present open access electricity market.

  4. Effects of tumor necrosis factor α on leptin-sensitive intestinal vagal mechanoreceptors in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinson, Nathalie; Vitton, Véronique; Bouvier, Michel; Grimaud, Jean-Charles; Abysique, Anne

    2013-11-01

    The involvement of tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been established, and anti-TNF-α has been suggested as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of these pathologies. We studied the effects of TNF-α on leptin-sensitive intestinal vagal units to determine whether TNF-α exerts its effects through the intestinal vagal mechanoreceptors and to investigate its interactions with substances regulating food intake. The activity of intestinal vagal mechanoreceptors was recorded via microelectrodes implanted into the nodose ganglion in anesthetized cats. TNF-α (1 μg, i.a.) increased the discharge frequency of leptin-activated units (type 1 units; P < 0.05) and had no effect on the discharge frequency of leptin-inhibited units (type 2 units). When TNF-α was administered 20 min after sulfated cholecystokinin-8 (CCK), its excitatory effects on type 1 units were significantly enhanced (P < 0.0001) and type 2 units were significantly (P < 0.05) activated. Pre-treatment with Il-1ra (250 μg, i.a.) blocked the excitatory effects of TNF-α on type 1 units whereas the excitatory effects of TNF-α administration after CCK treatment on type 2 units were not modified. The activation of leptin-sensitive units by TNF-α may explain, at least in part, the weight loss observed in IBD.

  5. A sensitive two-site enzyme immunoassay for human epidermal growth factor (urogastrone).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K; Nomoto, H; Kurobe, M; Nishimuro, S; Hiratani, H; Furukawa, S

    1985-06-01

    A sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed for human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) or urogastrone, which was isolated from human urine. Our EIA system is based on the sandwiching of an antigen between anti-hEGF IgG coated on a polystyrene tube and anti-hEGF antibody Fab'-linked beta-D-galactosidase (beta-D-galactosidase, EC 3.2.1.23). This method has the advantages that the procedures are simple and rapid and that the antibody Fab'-beta-D-galactosidase complex is more stable than radioisotope-labeled IgG. Purified hEGF is detectable at as low as 100 pg/ml, which is very sensitive compared to the radioimmuno-assays or radioreceptor assays already reported. Using this new EIA system, hEGF levels in human urine were examined. The values for normal males and females were 48.4 and 83.5 ng/mg creatinine, respectively, which shows that females excrete 1.7 times more hEGF than males.

  6. Variation in Dehydration Tolerance, ABA Sensitivity and Related Gene Expression Patterns in D-Genome Progenitor and Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumeto Kurahashi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The wild wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss. has extensive natural variation available for breeding of common wheat. Drought stress tolerance is closely related to abscisic acid (ABA sensitivity. In this study, 17 synthetic hexaploid wheat lines, produced by crossing the tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon with 17 accessions of Ae. tauschii, were used for comparative analysis of natural variation in drought tolerance and ABA sensitivity. Ae. tauschii showed wide natural variation, with weak association between the traits. Drought-sensitive accessions of Ae. tauschii exhibited significantly less ABA sensitivity. D-genome variations observed at the diploid genome level were not necessarily reflected in synthetic wheats. However, synthetic wheats derived from the parental Ae. tauschii accessions with high drought tolerance were significantly more tolerant to drought stress than those from drought-sensitive accessions. Moreover, synthetic wheats with high drought tolerance showed significantly higher ABA sensitivity than drought-sensitive synthetic lines. In the hexaploid genetic background, therefore, weak association of ABA sensitivity with drought tolerance wasobserved. To study differences in gene expression patterns between stress-tolerant and -sensitive lines, levels of two Cor/Lea and three transcription factor gene transcripts were compared. The more tolerant accession of Ae. tauschii tended to accumulate more abundant transcripts of the examined genes than the sensitive accession under stress conditions. The expression patterns in the synthetic wheats seemed to be additive for parental lines exposed to drought and ABA treatments. However, the transcript levels of transcription factor genes in the synthetic wheats did not necessarily correspond to the postulated levels based on expression in parental lines. Allopolyploidization altered the expression levels of the stress-responsive genes in synthetic wheats.

  7. The association between changes in pressure pain sensitivity and changes in cardiovascular physiological factors associated with persistent stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Søren; Petersen, Pernille B.; Harboe, Gitte S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To evaluate the possible association between pressure pain sensitivity of the chest bone (PPS) and cardiovascular physiological factors related to persistent stress in connection with a three-month PPS-guided stress-reducing experimental intervention programme. Methods. Forty......-two office workers with an elevated PPS (≥ 60 arbitrary units) as a sign of increased level of persistent stress, completed a single-blinded cluster randomized controlled trial. The active treatment was a PPS (self-measurement)-guided stress management programme. Primary endpoints: Blood pressure (BP), heart...... rate (HR) and work of the heart measured as Pressure-Rate-Product (PRP); Secondary endpoints: Other features of the metabolic syndrome. Results. PPS decreased and changes in PPS after the intervention period were significantly associated with HR, PRP, body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat index (all...

  8. Functional state of knee arthritis patients and related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyeon; Kim, Jung-Hee; Chung, EunJung; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study is to provide a direction for efficient management of arthritis through the analysis of multiple factors related to the functional state of patients. [Subjects and Methods] The Visual Analog Scale, Knee Society Knee Score & Function Score, Hospital for Special Surgery, Short Form-36 Health Survey and Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for a total of 135 patients with knee arthritis were determined with a survey. [Results] There is a significant correlation between age, pain, Knee Society Knee Score, Hospital for Special Surgery, Knee Society Function Score, and Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score. [Conclusion] It is necessary to improve the factors that affect knee function and quality of life, and a study on knee joint muscle strength is suggested as a follow-up study. PMID:28265166

  9. Myocardin-related transcription factor regulates Nox4 protein expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rozycki, Matthew; Bialik, Janne Folke; Speight, Pam

    2016-01-01

    TGFβ-induced expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is essential for fibroblast-myofibroblast transition. Rho has been implicated in Nox4 regulation, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), a Rho/actin polymerization-controlled coactivator...... translocation of MRTF. Because the Nox4 promoter harbors a serum response factor/MRTF cis-element (CC(A/T)6GG box), we asked if MRTF (and thus cytoskeleton organization) could regulate Nox4 expression. We show that Nox4 protein is robustly induced in kidney tubular cells exclusively by combined application...... of contact uncoupling and TGFβ. Nox4 knockdown abrogates epithelial-myofibroblast transition-associated reactive oxygen species production. Laser capture microdissection reveals increased Nox4 expression in the tubular epithelium also during obstructive nephropathy. MRTF down-regulation/inhibition suppresses...

  10. Radiation-induced bystander effects enhanced by elevated sodium chloride through sensitizing cells to bystander factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Lingyan; Han Wei; Chen Shaopeng; Zhao Ye; Jiang Erkang; Bao Lingzhi; Pei Bei; Yang Gen; Zhao Guoping; Wang Jun; Xu An [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Wu Lijun [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China)], E-mail: ljw@ipp.ac.cn

    2008-09-26

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been demonstrated to occur widely in various cell lines. However, very little data is available on the genotoxic effects of RIBE combined with other factor(s). We reported previously that with a low dose of {alpha}-particle irradiation, the fraction of {gamma}-H2AX foci-positive cells in non-irradiated bystander cells was significantly increased under elevated NaCl culture conditions. In this study, we further investigated the functional role of NaCl in the enhancement of RIBE using a specially designed co-culture system and micronucleus (MN) test. It was shown that the MN frequency was not increased significantly by elevated NaCl (9.0 g/L) alone or by medium exposure. However, with 1.0 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiation, the induced MN frequency increased significantly in both irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions. Additional studies showed that elevated NaCl made the non-irradiated bystander cells more vulnerable to bystander factors. Furthermore, it was found that the induced MN frequency in cells both in irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions was weakened when the hypertonic medium was changed to normotonic medium for 2 h before irradiation. Such observations were quite similar to the co-effect of NaCl and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), indicating that elevated NaCl might sensitize non-irradiated cells to bystander factors-induced oxidative stress.

  11. Risk factors for osteoporosis and factors related to the use of DXA in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, M. P.; Rubin, K. H.; Gram, J.

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: To evaluate the case-finding strategy for osteoporosis in Norway, a questionnaire concerning risk factors for osteoporosis and history of osteodensitometry was mailed to a population-based cohort of 6000 men and 6000 women. Suboptimal examination rates among high risk and reallocation...... of scanning capacity to seemingly low-risk individuals was found. PURPOSE: In Norway, a case-finding strategy for osteoporosis has been used. No data exist regarding the efficacy of this approach. The aim was to examine the prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis and factors related to the use of dual X......-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in Norway. METHODS: Questionnaires regarding previous history of DXA, risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture were sent to an age-stratified, nationwide cross-sectional sample of 6000 men and 6000 women aged 40-90 years, drawn from the Norwegian Civil Registration System. RESULTS: Valid...

  12. Glacier Sensitivity in the Monsoonal Himalayas: Relative Contributions of Feedback Mechanisms to Regional Glacier Mass Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. S.; Rupper, S.

    2016-12-01

    Despite their societal relevance, glacier mass balances across High Mountain Asia (HMA) remain poorly constrained due, in part, to the limited number of direct measurements, regional climate heterogeneity, and uncertainty in glacier mass balance models. Many studies that model glaciers throughout HMA cite surface feedbacks as an important factor affecting glacier melt, however, little has been done to actually quantify their effects. This study develops a fully distributed surface energy- and mass-balance model to quantify the contributions of 3 surface feedbacks to glacier mass balance. The 3 target feedbacks are an accumulation/snow depth feedback, a sensible heat feedback, and an albedo feedback. The model follows well-known energy balance methods, but includes unique "switches" which allow individual feedbacks to be independently turned on and off. The model applies meteorological inputs from the High Asia Refined analysis to an idealized glacier for 4 different climate settings in HMA. The results show that surface feedbacks increase melt by up to 67% for a +1°C temperature forcing, but that feedback contributions vary significantly under different climate settings. For any given glacier, the feedback strength is highest near the equilibrium line altitude. Furthermore, feedbacks that directly reduce surface albedo consistently contribute the most to glacier mass loss. Feedback magnitude depends most strongly on the frequency of snowfall events occurring concurrently with the melt season, and on the magnitude of incoming shortwave radiation for that region. These results highlight the potential significance of feedbacks on glacier mass balance in HMA, what conditions maximize these feedback magnitudes, and what regions are likely most sensitive to them. They also highlight physical processes that need to be especially well constrained in future glacier mass balance models for glaciers in regions with high feedback sensitivity. Creating glacier mass balance

  13. Testosterone and Androgen Receptor Sensitivity in Relation to Hyperactivity Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and hyperactivity symptoms exhibit an incidence that is male-biased. Thus androgen activity can be considered a plausible biological risk factor for these disorders. However, there is insufficient information about the association between increased androgen activity and hyperactivity symptoms in children with ASD. Methods In the present study, the relationship between parameters of androgenicity (plasmatic testosterone levels and androgen receptor sensitivity) and hyperactivity in 60 boys (age 3–15) with ASD is investigated. Given well documented differences in parent and trained examiners ratings of symptom severity, we employed a standardized parent`s questionnaire (Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form) as well as a direct examiner`s rating (Autism diagnostic observation schedule) for assessment of hyperactivity symptoms. Results Although it was found there was no significant association between actual plasmatic testosterone levels and hyperactivity symptoms, the number of CAG triplets was significantly negatively correlated with hyperactivity symptoms (R2 = 0.118, p = 0.007) in the sample, indicating increased androgen receptor sensitivity in association with hyperactivity symptoms. Direct trained examiner´s assessment appeared to be a relevant method for evaluating of behavioral problems in the investigation of biological underpinnings of these problems in our study. Conclusions A potential ASD subtype characterized by increased rates of hyperactivity symptoms might have distinct etiopathogenesis and require a specific behavioral and pharmacological approach. We propose an increase of androgen receptor sensitivity as a biomarker for a specific ASD subtype accompanied with hyperactivity symptoms. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for practice and future research. PMID:26910733

  14. Gene Expression Proifling Related to Hyphal Growth in a Temperature- Sensitive Mutant ofMagnaporthe oryzae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-song; XU Fei; WANG Hong-kai; and LIN Fu-cheng

    2013-01-01

    The rice blast, caused by fungusMagnaporthe oryzae, is a major constraint to the world food security. Hyphal growth is the foundation of fungal development and proliferation of fungi. To investigate genes involved in hyphal growth of this fungus, digital gene expression tag proifling was used to compare a previously generated temperature-sensitive mutant which defect at hyphae growth and reduction on pathogenicity, with its related wildtype strain. 416 genes were detected as differential expression, 178 of which were speciifcally expressed in Guy-11 but down-regulated expression in the mutant. Functional classiifcation analysis revealed the phenotype mutation may be mainly caused by a defection in translational and vacuole-related processes. The results and the protocol used will improve our knowledge on morphogenesis and promote the further study onM. oryzae pathogenesis.

  15. Color-factor symmetry and BCJ relations for QCD amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    Tree-level $n$-point gauge-theory amplitudes with $n-2k$ gluons and $k$ pairs of (massless or massive) particles in the fundamental (or other) representation of the gauge group are invariant under a set of symmetries that act as momentum-dependent shifts on the color factors in the cubic decomposition of the amplitude. These symmetries lead to gauge-invariant constraints on the kinematic numerators. They also directly imply the BCJ relations among the Melia-basis primitive amplitudes previously obtained by Johansson and Ochirov.

  16. Celecoxib inhibits Helicobacter pylori colonization-related factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of celecoxib,a selective COX-2 inhibitor,on Helicobacter pylori(H.pylori) colonization-related factors and its mechanism.METHODS:After co-incubation with celecoxib,morphology of H.pylori strain 26695 was observed under a transmission electron microscope.Flagella motility was assessed by stab agar motility test.Adherence of H.pylori to AGS cells was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.Levels of mRNA expression in flagellar genes(flaA,flaB),urease genes(ureA,ureB)and ...

  17. Work-related risk factors for suicidal behaviour, protective factors and possibilities for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Podlogar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Work is an important part of adult life. As such it is closely connected to health and mental health. Aspects of occupation, work and employment can represent risk factors for suicidal behaviour or protective factors against it. Aim of this article is to present the known work-related risk factors for suicidal behaviour, protective factors and possibilities for preventive activities in this context. An important risk factor for suicidal behaviour is unemployment. Connection between unemployment and suicidality is complex and can be explained in two ways: (i underlying vulnerability leads to both unemployment and suicidal behaviour, while (ii the connection is also thought be causal to some extent. The addressed topic is very important in the period of economic recession, when unemployment rates are high and adverse changes in terms of working conditions can occur. Different psycho-social and other working conditions are also connected to suicidal behaviour. Efficient preventive activities include approaches on multiple levels: active politics of solving economic crisis and improving the labour market conditions, creating and maintaining stimulating working conditions, raising awareness and mental health promotion among the employees, gatekeeper training, and restriction of means for suicide in occupations with access to them. Due to complexity of suicidal behaviour there is a need for further research, which would contribute to better understanding of specific risk factors and especially protective factors in vulnerable groups.

  18. My mother is sensitive, but I am too tired to know: infant sleep as a moderator of prospective relations between maternal sensitivity and infant outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Annie; Bélanger, Marie-Ève; Tarabulsy, George M; Simard, Valérie; Carrier, Julie

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the moderating role of infant sleep in the connections between maternal sensitivity and three indicators of infant functioning: attachment security, theory of mind, and executive functioning (EF). Maternal sensitivity was assessed when infants (27 girls and 36 boys) were 1 year of age. Infant sleep was assessed with actigraphy at age 2; attachment security, theory of mind, and EF were also assessed at age 2. Results indicated that maternal sensitivity was positively related to attachment security only among infants who got more sleep at night, and to conflict-EF and theory of mind only for infants who got greater proportions of their sleep during the night. These results suggest that sleep may enhance the benefits of maternal sensitivity for some aspects of infants' functioning, providing further support for the importance of sleep maturation as a salient developmental task of infancy.

  19. Age-related differences in emotional reactivity, regulation, and rejection sensitivity in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvers, Jennifer A; McRae, Kateri; Gabrieli, John D E; Gross, James J; Remy, Katherine A; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2012-12-01

    Although adolescents' emotional lives are thought to be more turbulent than those of adults, it is unknown whether this difference is attributable to developmental changes in emotional reactivity or emotion regulation. Study 1 addressed this question by presenting healthy individuals aged 10-23 with negative and neutral pictures and asking them to respond naturally or use cognitive reappraisal to down-regulate their responses on a trial-by-trial basis. Results indicated that age exerted both linear and quadratic effects on regulation success but was unrelated to emotional reactivity. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings using a different reappraisal task and further showed that situational (i.e., social vs. nonsocial stimuli) and dispositional (i.e., level of rejection sensitivity) social factors interacted with age to predict regulation success: young adolescents were less successful at regulating responses to social than to nonsocial stimuli, particularly if the adolescents were high in rejection sensitivity. Taken together, these results have important implications for the inclusion of emotion regulation in models of emotional and cognitive development.

  20. The relation of Cx43 and NMDA to visceral sensitization in rats with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-yu ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the relationship between connexin 43 (Cx43 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors and visceral sensitization in the rats with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Methods  Thirty rats were gavaged with Triehinella spiralis to reproduce the IBS model. These rats were randomly divided into IBS group, IBS+colon distension group, and IBS+STI-571+colon distension group, and other groups of normal rats were randomized into normal group and normal+colon distension group, with 10 rats in each group. Immunofluorescent double staining were used to observe the expressions of intestine Cx43 and sacral NMDA re ceptors of rats in all the groups. Results  The Cx43 and sacral NMDA expressions in the normal group, normal+colon distension group and IBS group showed no significant changes (P>0.05, however, Cx43 and sacral NMDA expressions were significantly higher in IBS rats with colon distension as compared with those in normal group, normal+colon distension group, and IBS group (P<0.05, while they were significantly lower in the IBS+STI-571+colon distension group after STI-571 intervention (P<0.05. Conclusion  Cx43 and sacral NMDA may be the most important factor of visceral sensitization in IBS rats. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.12.02

  1. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during...... admission. Most studies are based on low power, thus compromising quality and generalisability. The few studies with sufficient statistical power mainly identified non-modifiable risk predictors such as male gender, diagnosis, or recent deliberate self-harm. Also, the predictive value of these predictors......People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time...

  2. Pain Processing after Social Exclusion and Its Relation to Rejection Sensitivity in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Bungert

    Full Text Available There is a general agreement that physical pain serves as an alarm signal for the prevention of and reaction to physical harm. It has recently been hypothesized that "social pain," as induced by social rejection or abandonment, may rely on comparable, phylogenetically old brain structures. As plausible as this theory may sound, scientific evidence for this idea is sparse. This study therefore attempts to link both types of pain directly. We studied patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD because BPD is characterized by opposing alterations in physical and social pain; hyposensitivity to physical pain is associated with hypersensitivity to social pain, as indicated by an enhanced rejection sensitivity.Twenty unmedicated female BPD patients and 20 healthy participants (HC, matched for age and education played a virtual ball-tossing game (cyberball, with the conditions for exclusion, inclusion, and a control condition with predefined game rules. Each cyberball block was followed by a temperature stimulus (with a subjective pain intensity of 60% in half the cases. The cerebral responses were measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. The Adult Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire was used to assess rejection sensitivity.Higher temperature heat stimuli had to be applied to BPD patients relative to HCs to reach a comparable subjective experience of painfulness in both groups, which suggested a general hyposensitivity to pain in BPD patients. Social exclusion led to a subjectively reported hypersensitivity to physical pain in both groups that was accompanied by an enhanced activation in the anterior insula and the thalamus. In BPD, physical pain processing after exclusion was additionally linked to enhanced posterior insula activation. After inclusion, BPD patients showed reduced amygdala activation during pain in comparison with HC. In BPD patients, higher rejection sensitivity was associated with lower activation differences during

  3. Pain Processing after Social Exclusion and Its Relation to Rejection Sensitivity in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungert, Melanie; Koppe, Georgia; Niedtfeld, Inga; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Schmahl, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is a general agreement that physical pain serves as an alarm signal for the prevention of and reaction to physical harm. It has recently been hypothesized that “social pain,” as induced by social rejection or abandonment, may rely on comparable, phylogenetically old brain structures. As plausible as this theory may sound, scientific evidence for this idea is sparse. This study therefore attempts to link both types of pain directly. We studied patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) because BPD is characterized by opposing alterations in physical and social pain; hyposensitivity to physical pain is associated with hypersensitivity to social pain, as indicated by an enhanced rejection sensitivity. Method Twenty unmedicated female BPD patients and 20 healthy participants (HC, matched for age and education) played a virtual ball-tossing game (cyberball), with the conditions for exclusion, inclusion, and a control condition with predefined game rules. Each cyberball block was followed by a temperature stimulus (with a subjective pain intensity of 60% in half the cases). The cerebral responses were measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. The Adult Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire was used to assess rejection sensitivity. Results Higher temperature heat stimuli had to be applied to BPD patients relative to HCs to reach a comparable subjective experience of painfulness in both groups, which suggested a general hyposensitivity to pain in BPD patients. Social exclusion led to a subjectively reported hypersensitivity to physical pain in both groups that was accompanied by an enhanced activation in the anterior insula and the thalamus. In BPD, physical pain processing after exclusion was additionally linked to enhanced posterior insula activation. After inclusion, BPD patients showed reduced amygdala activation during pain in comparison with HC. In BPD patients, higher rejection sensitivity was associated with lower activation

  4. The Relation between Work-related Psychosocial Factors and the Development of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Conrad, Nicole; Bech, Per

    2008-01-01

    the evidence. Social support at work was associated with a decrease in risk for future depression, as all four studies dealing with this exposure showed  associations with relative risks of about 0.6. Even if this literature study has identified work-related psychosocial factors that in high......This review is based on a literature search made in January 2007 on request by the Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries. The search in PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO resulted in more than 1,000 publications. This was reduced to 14 after the titles, abstracts, and papers were evaluated...... by using the following criteria: 1) a longitudinal study, 2) exposure to work-related psychosocial factors, 3) the outcome a measure of depression, 4) relevant statistical estimates, and 5) nonduplicated publication. Of the 14 studies, seven used standardized diagnostic instruments as measures...

  5. Allopurinol ameliorates thioacetamide-induced acute liver failure by regulating cellular redox-sensitive transcription factors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Ulvi; Yalniz, Mehmet; Aygün, Cem; Orhan, Cemal; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Sahin, Kazim; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Bahçecioğlu, Ibrahim Halil

    2012-08-01

    Oxidative stress plays important role in the development of acute liver failure. In this study, we investigated effects of allopurinol (AP) upon thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver injury and the potential mechanisms leading to amelioration in inflammation with AP treatment. Acute liver failure was induced by intraperitoneal administration of TAA (300 mg/kg/day for 2 days). Thirty-five rats were divided into five groups as control (group 1), TAA (group 2), TAA + 25AP (group 3), TAA + 50 AP (group 4), and TAA + 100AP (group 5). The number of animals in each group was seven. At the end of the study, histopathological, biochemical, and western blot analysis were done. TAA treatment significantly increased serum levels of aminotransferases, liver malondialdehyde (MDA), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-қB ), activator protein-1 (AP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and the necro-inflammation scores. Nevertheless, nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expressions in the liver were decreased by TAA. AP treatment significantly lowered the serum levels of aminotransferases (P < 0.01) and liver MDA, NF-κB, AP-1, TNF-α, COX-2, and IL-6 expressions (P < 0.05). Moreover, AP restored the liver Nrf2 and HO-1 expressions and improved the necro-inflammation scores significantly. AP improves oxidative stress-induced liver damage by regulating cellular redox-sensitive transcriptor factors and expression of pro-inflammatory and antioxidant defense mechanisms. AP probably exerts these beneficiary features by its free radical scavenging ability in a dose-dependent manner.

  6. Risk factors of HIV-related oral lesions in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Noel Marzano Rodrigues Petruzzi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk factors in the occurrence of oral lesions in HIV-positive adults. METHODS: A retrospective analytical-descriptive survey was conducted using the medical/dental records of 534 patients with oral lesions associated with HIV. The data were collected from five referral centers for managing HIV and associated comorbidities in the city of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, between 1996 and 2011. Using a standardized form, socio-demographic and clinical data were recorded. Exclusively and definitively diagnosed oral pathologies were included and classified according to ECC criteria on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. For data analysis cross-tabulations, Chi-squared tests and logistic regression models were used where appropriate. RESULTS: CD4+ counts lower than 350 cells/mm³ (p < 0.001, alcohol consumption (p = 0.011 and female gender (p = 0.031 were predisposing factors for oral candidiasis. The occurrence of hairy leukoplakia was independently associated with CD4+ counts below 500 cells/mm³, (p = 0.029 a viral load above 5,000 copies/mm³ (p = 0.003 and smoking (p = 0.005. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate and severe degrees of immunodeficiency and detectable viral loads were risk factors for the onset of oral lesions. Smoking and alcohol consumption also increased susceptibility to the development of opportunistic infections in HIV-positive adults from Porto Alegre, irrespective of the use of antiretroviral therapy.

  7. Risk Factors Related to Low Birth Weight in Cienfuegos Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rafael Zerquera Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the low birth weight still constitutes a complex a complex health problem. It is determined by some factors and it is the most important predictive index of infantile mortality. Objective: identifying the risk factors related to low birth weight. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted. There were analyzed the 77 birth of children with inferior weigh to 2500g, occurred in 2010 at the municipality of Cienfuegos, puerperas were included, mothers of those children. The pregnancy's follow-up cards, patient’s clinical records and municipal and provincial statistics were checked. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics, the nutritional state, numbers of pregnancies, heavy profit during pregnancy, age, toxic habits and diseases correlated to pregnancy were analyzed. Results: the index of low birth weigh oscillated between 3.6 and 6.7 per month. The 52% of low birth weight newborn’s mothers had school university level. The 74 % of mothers work. The 70.1 % were smokers and the 57, 1 % developed a gravidum hypertensive disease. Conclusions: the most associated factors to low birth weight were, the mother’s habit to smoke, as well as the diseases that affected them during pregnancy, fundamentally the hypertensive disease and the vaginal sepsis.

  8. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, Tyson; Lozada, Remedios; Anderson, Christy M; Patterson, Thomas L; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2011-04-08

    To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing). Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs.

  9. Study Of Socio- Economic Factors In Relation To Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahjabeen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: what are the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy and their implications? Objectives: (i To study the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy.(ii To assess the impact of disease on patients’ job/income. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting and Participants: Patients attending the dermatology OPD, J.N. Medical college hospital, A.M.U., Aligarh. Sample size: 200 leprosy patients. Study variables: education, occupation, social class, incapacitation, change in job, reduction in income. Statically analysis: Chi-square test Results: 46% of the leprosy patients were illiterate. A large majority of patients (78% were involved in heavy manual work as farmers and labourers. 68.5% patients belonged to low social classes (IV and V. More males (26.3% suffered from incapacitation than females (8.5%. 2.5% patients lost their job or were unable to work and 11.5% had to change their jobs due to the disease or disability caused by it. 17.5% patients had a history of reduction in their income after occurrence of leprosy.

  10. [Relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-ping; Xu, Jing; Bi, Bao-gui

    2009-03-01

    To clarify the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards to environmental factors is of significance to the prediction and evaluation of landslide and debris flow hazards. Base on the latitudinal and longitudinal information of 18431 landslide and debris flow hazards in China, and the 1 km x 1 km grid data of elevation, elevation difference, slope, slope aspect, vegetation type, and vegetation coverage, this paper analyzed the relations of landslide and debris flow hazards in this country to above-mentioned environmental factors by the analysis method of frequency ratio. The results showed that the landslide and debris flow hazards in China more occurred in lower elevation areas of the first and second transitional zones. When the elevation difference within a 1 km x 1 km grid cell was about 300 m and the slope was around 30 degree, there was the greatest possibility of the occurrence of landslide and debris hazards. Mountain forest land and slope cropland were the two land types the hazards most easily occurred. The occurrence frequency of the hazards was the highest when the vegetation coverage was about 80%-90%.

  11. Age at Natural Menopause and Related Factors in Isfahan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshiri, Parastoo; Abdollahzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to evaluate the age at natural menopause and related factors among women in a population based study in 2015 in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study 960 menopausal women were selected by cluster sampling. Demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle behavior and reproductive history aspects were collected using a structured questionnaire. Woman and her husband's educational level and occupation with family income were the variables to construct socioeconomic status using principal component analysis. Results Mean and median of natural menopause age were 48.66 and 48 years, respectively. Women body mass index (BMI) more than 30 kg/m2 had significantly higher menopausal age than women with lower BMI (P value = 0.022). The mean of menopausal age was not statistically significant in regard to marital status, physical activity, smoking status, menarche age, age at first pregnancy and history of abortion. Menopause age with pregnancy numbers and age at last pregnancy had a significant positive association. Women with better socioeconomic status had significantly higher natural menopause age. Multiple linear regression shows significant relationship between lower age at menopause with higher age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Age at menopause in our studied sample is similar to previous estimates reported for other Iranian populations. Age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status were the significant factors in relations to age at menopause. PMID:27617243

  12. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  13. Socio Demographic Factors Related to Smoking among Rural Adolescent

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    Farzana Islam Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of premature death, disease, and disability. Adolescence is the period of physical, psychological and social maturation from childhood to adulthood and adolescent smoking is a continuous process which is related to many disease factors. Objective: To find out the factors related to smoking among rural adolescents. Materials and method: One hundred and fifty one male adolescent aged 13 to 19 years from rural areas were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire during January to June 2013, at Dhamrai Upazilla Health Complex, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The socio demographic details, smoking and depression history were recorded. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D Scale was used to measure the presence of depression. Smoking behavior was measured by a number of questions. Results: Mean(±SD age of the study subjects was 16.8(±1.9 years. Most of the respondents started smoking around the average age of 14.3 years. The study shows that 64% respondents were smokers. Among smokers 80% were influenced by their friends about smoking. Seventy eight percent of the smokers were suffering from depression while 22% of nonsmokers were depressed (p<0.001. Majority (72% of the issues of the smoker parents were smoker (p<0.5. Domestic violence (p<0.001 and stressful events in life (p<0.05 also played significant roles for smoking. Conclusion: Depression, parent smoking and peer smoking, domestic violence, and stressful life events are important factors to start smoking in rural adolescents.

  14. Sensitivity to reinforcement and family factors as predictors of psychological health problems in different age groups of children and teenagers

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    V. Kuznetsova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The follow-up study was designed to assess and to compare the effects of sensitivity to reward, sensitivity to punishment and family environment on internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample of 477 children and adolescents aged 3-18 (50% female. The level of problem behavior at Time 1 in all age groups was the best predictor of corresponding type of problem level at Time 2; the residual variance in problem behavior was also predicted by sensitivity to reinforcement. Family factors contributed for change in externalizing problems and hyperactivity in preschool and middle childhood children; living in the urban environment was significant factor for peer problem. The study showed that individual differences interact with the family factors in the process of development, and family environment could strengthen or mitigate the influence of biological factors on children and adolescents’ adjustment.

  15. Developmental toxicity of TCDD and related compounds: Species sensitivities and differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birnbaum, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    The issue of the developmental toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related compounds has been the subject of two recent reviews (Morrissey and Schwetz, 1989; Couture et al., 1990a). There is little doubt that TCDD is one of the most potent developmental toxins known, yet its production of frank structural malformations in species other than in the mouse are poorly described. The objective of the review is to critically address the role which TCDD and its approximate isostereomers have in causing a wide array of developmental effects in various species, including some very recent results. The bias of the author is that the teratogenic response of the mouse is a reflection of extreme sensitivity of the species to the induction of frank teratogenic responses in two epithelial tissues. That is, that the mouse is an outlier in the field of developmental toxicity, possibly in parallel to the exquisite sensitivity of the guinea pig vs the resistance of the hamster to the lethal effects of TCDD, or in the resistance of haired rodents to the induction of chloracne. The crucial point is that most species respond similarly to TCDD; for any given endpoint outliers will exist. However, no species is an outlier for all responses. In terms of developmental toxicity, essentially all species critically examined to date demonstrate potent developmentally toxic effects following exposure to TCDD and related chemicals. Relatively low doses to the dam (varying within an order of magnitude) result in embryo/fetal toxicity. The actual induction of terata is an extremely rare response. (Copyright (c) 1991 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.)

  16. Age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile sensitivity of hand and face in neurotypical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Lalit; Barlow, Steven M; Kieweg, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Sensory perception decreases with age, and is altered as a function of sex. Very little is known about the age- and sex-related changes in vibrotactile detection thresholds (VDTs) of the face relative to the glabrous hand. This study utilized a single-interval up/down (SIUD) adaptive procedure to estimate the VDT for mechanical stimuli presented at 5, 10, 50, 150, 250, and 300 Hz at two sites on the face, including the right non-glabrous surface of the oral angle and the right lower lip vermilion; and on the hand on the glabrous surface of the distal phalanx of the right dominant index finger. Eighteen right-handed healthy younger adults and 18 right-handed healthy older adults participated in this study. VDTs were significantly different between the three stimulus sites (p face and hand. Age-related differences in finger skin sensitivity are likely due to changes in the physical structure of skin, changes in the number and morphology of the mechanoreceptors, differences in the functional use of the hand, and its central representation. Sex-related differences in the VDTs may be due to the differences in tissue conformation and thickness, mechanoreceptor densities, skin hydration, or temperature characteristics.

  17. Fluorescent nanodiamond tracking reveals intraneuronal transport abnormalities induced by brain-disease-related genetic risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haziza, Simon; Mohan, Nitin; Loe-Mie, Yann; Lepagnol-Bestel, Aude-Marie; Massou, Sophie; Adam, Marie-Pierre; Le, Xuan Loc; Viard, Julia; Plancon, Christine; Daudin, Rachel; Koebel, Pascale; Dorard, Emilie; Rose, Christiane; Hsieh, Feng-Jen; Wu, Chih-Che; Potier, Brigitte; Herault, Yann; Sala, Carlo; Corvin, Aiden; Allinquant, Bernadette; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Treussart, François; Simonneau, Michel

    2017-05-01

    Brain diseases such as autism and Alzheimer's disease (each inflicting >1% of the world population) involve a large network of genes displaying subtle changes in their expression. Abnormalities in intraneuronal transport have been linked to genetic risk factors found in patients, suggesting the relevance of measuring this key biological process. However, current techniques are not sensitive enough to detect minor abnormalities. Here we report a sensitive method to measure the changes in intraneuronal transport induced by brain-disease-related genetic risk factors using fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs). We show that the high brightness, photostability and absence of cytotoxicity allow FNDs to be tracked inside the branches of dissociated neurons with a spatial resolution of 12 nm and a temporal resolution of 50 ms. As proof of principle, we applied the FND tracking assay on two transgenic mouse lines that mimic the slight changes in protein concentration (∼30%) found in the brains of patients. In both cases, we show that the FND assay is sufficiently sensitive to detect these changes.

  18. Sensitivity of PCR IS6110 in relation to culture and staining in Pott′s disease

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    Manoj Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid diagnosis is essential to decrease the morbidity and mortality of Pott′s disease. The bacteriological methods are time-consuming or insensitive. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR provides a rapid diagnostic tool and hope for early diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to compare and assess of a rapid and effective method among diagnostic battery (Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN microscopy, BACTEC culture and PCR of Pott′s disease. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five specimens from clinico-radiological suspected cases of Pott′s disease were included in this study. They were processed for ZN microscopy, BACTEC culture, and PCR IS6110. The tests tool′s efficiency, positive agreement Kc (Kappa coefficient, and significance level (P value were calculated for correlation between PCR and performed tests. Results: The PCR sensitivity reached to 96% and 46.3% among positive and negative specimens on ZN microscopy. Further, 94% and 36.4% sensitivity were found among positive and negative specimens by BACTEC culture. The total 38 (58.5% specimens were detected either ZN microscopy or by BACTEC culture. Thus, the overall sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 95% and 74.1%. The kappa coefficient and P value, calculated for PCR against BACTEC culture and combined results of performed bacteriological tests were (Kc=0.60, (P<0.001 and (Kc=0.70, (P<0.001, respectively. Above statistical relations showed a fair agreement with significant differences. Conclusion: The PCR IS6110 may be useful in rapid detection of clinico-radiological suspected cases of Pott′s disease and those that are negative with bacteriological methods.

  19. System-related factors contributing to diagnostic errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Thammasitboon, Supat; Singhal, Geeta

    2013-10-01

    Several studies in primary care, internal medicine, and emergency departments show that rates of errors in test requests and result interpretations are unacceptably high and translate into missed, delayed, or erroneous diagnoses. Ineffective follow-up of diagnostic test results could lead to patient harm if appropriate therapeutic interventions are not delivered in a timely manner. The frequency of system-related factors that contribute directly to diagnostic errors depends on the types and sources of errors involved. Recent studies reveal that the errors and patient harm in the diagnostic testing loop have occurred mainly at the pre- and post-analytic phases, which are directed primarily by clinicians who may have limited expertise in the rapidly expanding field of clinical pathology. These errors may include inappropriate test requests, failure/delay in receiving results, and erroneous interpretation and application of test results to patient care. Efforts to address system-related factors often focus on technical errors in laboratory testing or failures in delivery of intended treatment. System-improvement strategies related to diagnostic errors tend to focus on technical aspects of laboratory medicine or delivery of treatment after completion of the diagnostic process. System failures and cognitive errors, more often than not, coexist and together contribute to the incidents of errors in diagnostic process and in laboratory testing. The use of highly structured hand-off procedures and pre-planned follow-up for any diagnostic test could improve efficiency and reliability of the follow-up process. Many feedback pathways should be established so that providers can learn if or when a diagnosis is changed. Patients can participate in the effort to reduce diagnostic errors. Providers should educate their patients about diagnostic probabilities and uncertainties. The patient-safety strategies focusing on the interface between diagnostic system and therapeutic

  20. Musculoskeletal Disorders and Their Related Risk Factors Among Iranian Nurses

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    Taghinejad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are one of the most occupational problems among nurses and often cause many physical and psychological complications for nurses, and are a financial burden for health-care systems. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence MSDs and their related risk factors among Iranian nurses. Patients and Methods This descriptive-correlational study included 240 hospital nurses, with a baccalaureate nursing degree, who worked at three public hospitals of the Ilam province of Iran. Data were collected through a validated self-administered questionnaire. Finally, 156 questionnaires were returned (response rate: 65% and 135 questionnaires qualified for subsequent analysis. The data were analyzed using the SPSS version 15.0 software. Descriptive and inferential statistics (logistic regression were used. Results Overall, 97 (71.9% hospital nurses experienced MSDs in at least one anatomical site within the last year. Low back pain was the most prevalent MSDs (40% and hip and thigh were the least (11.1% frequent sites. Most of the nurses with MSDs worked at surgery wards (17.8%, emergency (15.6% and intensive care units (12.6%. Pain (48.1% and cramps (31.9% were the most frequent symptoms of MSDs and loss of limbs control (5.9% was the least frequent symptom. Bend or twist at waist for performing nursing procedures, patient transfer from and to beds, working with the hands higher than shoulder height and changing position of patients in beds were the most frequent occupational factors that influenced MSDs. Increased age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI and gender had no significant association with MSDs. However, being single and involved in any kinds of physical activity were significantly associated with the prevalence of MSDs (P < 0.05. Conclusions The study findings indicated high prevalence of worked-related MSDs among Iranian hospital nurses. Accordingly, appropriate policies

  1. Epidermal growth factor regulation in adult rat alveolar type II cells of amiloride-sensitive cation channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, P J; Borok, Z; Kim, K J; Lubman, R L; Danto, S I; Crandall, E D

    1999-12-01

    Using the patch-clamp technique, we studied the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on whole cell and single channel currents in adult rat alveolar epithelial type II cells in primary culture in the presence or absence of EGF for 48 h. In symmetrical sodium isethionate solutions, EGF exposure caused a significant increase in the type II cell whole cell conductance. Amiloride (10 microM) produced approximately 20-30% inhibition of the whole cell conductance in both the presence and absence of EGF, such that EGF caused the magnitude of the amiloride-sensitive component to more than double. Northern analysis showed that alpha-, beta- and gamma-subunits of rat epithelial Na(+) channel (rENaC) steady-state mRNA levels were all significantly decreased by EGF. At the single channel level, all active inside-out patches demonstrated only 25-pS channels that were amiloride sensitive and relatively nonselective for cations (P(Na(+))/P(K(+)) approximately 1.0:0.48). Although the biophysical characteristics (conductance, open-state probability, and selectivity) of the channels from EGF-treated and untreated cells were essentially identical, channel density was increased by EGF; the modal channel per patch was increased from 1 to 2. These findings indicate that EGF increases expression of nonselective, amiloride-sensitive cation channels in adult alveolar epithelial type II cells. The contribution of rENaC to the total EGF-dependent cation current under these conditions is quantitatively less important than that of the nonselective cation channels in these cells.

  2. Prevalence of allergen sensitization, most important allergens and factors associated with atopy in children

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    Raquel Prudente de Carvalho Baldacara

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Knowledge of the profile of allergen sensitization among children is important for planning preventive measures. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and profile of sensitization to inhaled allergens and food among children and adolescents in an outpatient population in the city of Palmas. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at outpatient clinics in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. METHODS: Ninety-four patients aged 1-15 years who were attending two pediatric outpatient clinics were selected between September and November 2008. All of the subjects underwent clinical interviews and skin prick tests. RESULTS: A positive skin prick test was observed in 76.6% of the participants (72.3% for inhalants and 28.9% for food allergens. The most frequent allergens were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (34%, cat epithelium (28.7%, dog epithelium (21.3%, Dermatophagoides farinae (19.1%, Blomia tropicalis (18.1%, cow's milk (9.6% and grasses (9.6%. A positive skin prick test correlated with a history of atopic disease (odds ratio, OR = 5.833; P = 0.002, a family history of atopic disease (OR = 8.400; P < 0.001, maternal asthma (OR = 8.077; P = 0.048, pet exposure (OR = 3.600; P = 0.012 and cesarean delivery (OR = 3.367; P = 0.019. CONCLUSION: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was the most frequent aeroallergen and cow’s milk was the most prevalent food allergen. There was a positive correlation between a positive skin prick test and several factors, such as a family history of atopic disease, maternal asthma, pet exposure and cesarean delivery.

  3. Dye-sensitized photodegradation of the fungicide carbendazim and related benzimidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalada, Juan P; Pajares, Adriana; Gianotti, José; Massad, Walter A; Bertolotti, Sonia; Amat-Guerri, Francisco; García, Norman A

    2006-10-01

    The present work studies the visible-light-promoted photodegradation of the colorless fungicide carbendazim (methyl 2-benzimidazolecarbamate) and several 2-substituted benzimidazoles (SBZ's), in water or water-methanol solution, in the presence of air and, as a photosensitizer, the synthetic xanthene dye Rose Bengal (RB) or the natural pigment riboflavin (Rf). The results indicate that the degradation of each particular SBZ depends on its chemical structure and on the sensitizer employed. In the presence of RB, the degradation always operates via a singlet molecular oxygen (O(2)((1)Delta(g)))-mediated mechanism, through a highly efficient process, as deduced from the comparison of the rate constants for physical and chemical quenching of O(2)((1)Delta(g)). In the presence of Rf, the visible-light irradiation of any of the studied SBZ's produces a series of competitive processes that depend on the relative concentrations of Rf and SBZ. These processes include the quenching of excited singlet and triplet Rf states by the SBZ and the generation of both O(2)((1)Delta(g)) and superoxide radical anion (O(2)(-)), the latter generated by electron transfer from excited Rf species to the dissolved oxygen. The overall result is the photodegradation of the SBZ and the photoprotection of the sensitizer.

  4. Nurses’ working motivation sources and related factors: A questionnaire survey

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    Said Bodur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Motivation is an important issue for personnel management in health care settings, as it is related to both performance and intention to quit. Objectives: The study was aimed to determine nurses’ working motivation sources and related factors in hospitals. Design: Descriptive study. Settings: A state university hospital and a public hospital in Turkey. Participants: Two hundred and two nurses were randomly selected from each department in a university and in a public hospital. Methods: Data were collected using a socio-demographic questionnaire and the Motivation Sources Inventory and were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Among five motivation sources, internal self-concept-based motivation was the highest and intrinsic process motivation was the lowest in nurses. There was a significant relation between scores of some motivation sources and managerial experience, income level, satisfaction from the unit, staff roles, and perception of work stress. Conclusions: Intrinsic process motivation, instrumental motivation, and external self-concept-based motivation sources may be improved to increase nurses’ total motivation.

  5. Relationship between oral health in children and poverty related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squassi, Aldo; Mauro, Silvia; Mauro, María José; Sánchez, Gabriel; Bordoni, Noemí

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze the variables related to poverty and its influence on oral health in children living in a suburban area ofBuenos Aires, Argentina. The study population consisted of 1,049 children. 579 children at social risk (Group I) were recruited from five neighborhoods with critical lacks (Katzman, 1989) and divided into 2 subgroups according to age: (A) preschool children and (B) school children. 470 preschool and school children from the same district but living in homes without critical lacks served as controls (Group II). The following variables associated with poverty were analyzed: (a) parents' instructional level, (b) employment conditions, and (c) accessibilty to regular oral health care. Group I comprised children from five neighborhoods categorized according to the incidence rate of each variable. Clinical examinations were performed under similar conditions by three calibrated investigators. DMFS, dmfs, total DMFS + dmfs, DS + ds, Care Index and Loe & Silness plaque index were recorded and analyzed using Students t test, ANOVA and Chi square test (level of significance p poverty-related variables rose. The highest number of children with high cariogenic risk was observed in neighborhoods with the highest social risk (c2 = 30.48; p poverty-related variables seemed to be associated with factors that play a role in the dental caries development process in school and preschool children living in the Metropolitan area of Buenos Aires.

  6. Specific antibodies and sensitive immunoassays for the human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER2, HER3, and HER4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Marianne Nordlund; Westgaard, Arne; Paus, Elisabeth; Øijordsbakken, Miriam; Henanger, Karoline J; Naume, Bjørn; Bjøro, Trine

    2017-06-01

    The use of trastuzumab in patients with breast cancer that overexpresses human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 has significantly improved treatment outcomes. However, a substantial proportion of this patient group still experiences progression of the disease after receiving the drug. Evaluation of the changes in expression of the human epidermal growth factor receptors could be of interest. Monoclonal antibodies against the extracellular domain of the human growth factor receptors, 2, 3, and 4, have been raised, and specific and sensitive immunoassays have been established. Sera from healthy individuals (Nordic Reference Interval Project and Database) were analyzed in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 assay (N = 805) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 and 4 assays (N = 114), and reference limits were calculated. In addition, sera from 208 individual patients with breast cancer were tested in all three assays. Finally, the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 assay was compared with a chemiluminescent immunoassay for serum human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu. Reference values were as follows: human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 3, human epidermal growth factor receptor 4, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 serum levels between the patients with tissue human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive and tissue human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative ( p = 0.0026, p = 0.000011) tumors, but not in the serum levels of human epidermal growth factor receptor 4 ( p = 0.054). There was good agreement between the in-house human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 assay and the chemiluminescent immunoassay. Our new specific antibodies for all the three human epidermal growth factor receptors may prove valuable in the development of novel anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor targeted therapies with

  7. Alterations in the Medullary Endocannabinoid System Contribute to Age-related Impairment of Baroreflex Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaich, Chris L; Shaltout, Hossam A; Grabenauer, Megan; Thomas, Brian F; Gallagher, Patricia E; Howlett, Allyn C; Diz, Debra I

    2015-05-01

    As they age, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats develop elevated systolic blood pressure associated with impaired baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) for control of heart rate. We previously demonstrated in young hypertensive (mRen2)27 rats that impaired BRS is restored by CB1 cannabinoid receptor blockade in the solitary tract nucleus (NTS), consistent with elevated content of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in dorsal medulla relative to normotensive SD rats. There is no effect of CB1 receptor blockade in young SD rats. We now report in older SD rats that dorsal medullary 2-AG levels are 2-fold higher at 70 versus 15 weeks of age (4.22 ± 0.61 vs. 1.93 ± 0.22 ng/mg tissue; P < 0.05). Furthermore, relative expression of CB1 receptor messenger RNA is significantly lower in aged rats, whereas CB2 receptor messenger RNA is significantly higher. In contrast to young adult SD rats, microinjection of the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A (36 pmole) into the NTS of older SD rats normalized BRS in animals exhibiting impaired baseline BRS (0.56 ± 0.06 baseline vs. 1.06 ± 0.05 ms/mm Hg after 60 minutes; P < 0.05). Therefore, this study provides evidence for alterations in the endocannabinoid system within the NTS of older SD rats that contribute to age-related impairment of BRS.

  8. Non-Celiac Gluten sensitivity: the new frontier of gluten related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catassi, Carlo; Bai, Julio C; Bonaz, Bruno; Bouma, Gerd; Calabrò, Antonio; Carroccio, Antonio; Castillejo, Gemma; Ciacci, Carolina; Cristofori, Fernanda; Dolinsek, Jernej; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Elli, Luca; Green, Peter; Holtmeier, Wolfgang; Koehler, Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Meinhold, Christof; Sanders, David; Schumann, Michael; Schuppan, Detlef; Ullrich, Reiner; Vécsei, Andreas; Volta, Umberto; Zevallos, Victor; Sapone, Anna; Fasano, Alessio

    2013-09-26

    Non Celiac Gluten sensitivity (NCGS) was originally described in the 1980s and recently a "re-discovered" disorder characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food, in subjects that are not affected with either celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy (WA). Although NCGS frequency is still unclear, epidemiological data have been generated that can help establishing the magnitude of the problem. Clinical studies further defined the identity of NCGS and its implications in human disease. An overlap between the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and NCGS has been detected, requiring even more stringent diagnostic criteria. Several studies suggested a relationship between NCGS and neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly autism and schizophrenia. The first case reports of NCGS in children have been described. Lack of biomarkers is still a major limitation of clinical studies, making it difficult to differentiate NCGS from other gluten related disorders. Recent studies raised the possibility that, beside gluten, wheat amylase-trypsin inhibitors and low-fermentable, poorly-absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates can contribute to symptoms (at least those related to IBS) experienced by NCGS patients. In this paper we report the major advances and current trends on NCGS.

  9. Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: The New Frontier of Gluten Related Disorders

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    Alessio Fasano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Non Celiac Gluten sensitivity (NCGS was originally described in the 1980s and recently a “re-discovered” disorder characterized by intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food, in subjects that are not affected with either celiac disease (CD or wheat allergy (WA. Although NCGS frequency is still unclear, epidemiological data have been generated that can help establishing the magnitude of the problem. Clinical studies further defined the identity of NCGS and its implications in human disease. An overlap between the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and NCGS has been detected, requiring even more stringent diagnostic criteria. Several studies suggested a relationship between NCGS and neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly autism and schizophrenia. The first case reports of NCGS in children have been described. Lack of biomarkers is still a major limitation of clinical studies, making it difficult to differentiate NCGS from other gluten related disorders. Recent studies raised the possibility that, beside gluten, wheat amylase-trypsin inhibitors and low-fermentable, poorly-absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates can contribute to symptoms (at least those related to IBS experienced by NCGS patients. In this paper we report the major advances and current trends on NCGS.

  10. Clinical features and related factors to anxiety disorders in adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the social and psychological risk factors to anxiety disorders in adolescents,and to screen protective factors and risk factors and establish the prediction model.Methods The Screen for Child Anxiety

  11. Association of Serum Phosphate and Related Factors in ESRD-Related Vascular Calcification

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    Cai-Mei Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is common in ESRD patients and is important in increasing mortality from cardiovascular complications in these patients. Hyperphosphatemia related to chronic kidney disease is increasingly known as major stimulus for vascular calcification. Hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification become popular discussion among nephrologist environment more than five decades, and many researches have been evolved. Risk factors for calcification are nowadays focused for the therapeutic prevention of vascular calcification with the hope of reducing cardiovascular complications.

  12. Oral health-related quality of life of removable partial denture wearers and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghian, S; Taghva, M; Abduo, J; Bagheri, R

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a group of removable partial denture (RPD) wearers in Shiraz (Iran), using the Persian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Two hundred removable partial denture wearers had completed a questionnaire regarding patients' demographic characteristics and denture-related factors. In addition, the OHIP-14 questionnaire was filled out by interviewing the patients. Two measures of interpreting the OHIP-14 scales were utilised: OHIP-14 sum and OHIP-14 prevalence. The relationship of the patients' demographic characteristics and denture-related factors, with their OHRQoL was investigated. The mean OHIP-14 sum and OHIP-14 prevalence of RPD wearers were 13·80 (±10·08) and 44·5%, respectively. The most problematic aspects of OHIP-14 were physical disability and physical pain. Twenty-seven percentage and 24% of participants had reported meal interruption and eating discomfort, respectively. OHIP-14 prevalence and OHIP-14 sum were found to be significantly associated with factors representing RPD wearer's oral health such as self-reported oral health and frequency of denture cleaning. Furthermore, OHIP-14 prevalence and OHIP-14 sum were significantly associated with factors related to frequency of denture use such as hours of wearing the denture during the day and wearing the denture while eating and sleeping. Therefore, it can be concluded that the OHRQoL of the patients of the study was generally not optimal and found to be strongly associated with oral health.

  13. [Quality-of-life-related factors in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Serrano, Marta; Martínez-Montilla, José Manuel; Guerra-Martín, María Dolores; Vargas-Martínez, Ana Magdalena; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín S

    2016-08-23

    To determine quality of life (QoL) and its relationship to lifestyles in adolescents in high schools. Cross-sectional, observational study with 256 students aged 12 to 17 in Seville (Spain). Multiple linear regression models were tested (p <0.05). The boys had higher scores in most of the QoL areas. The female gender was inversely related to physical, psychological, familial QoL areas and the general QoL index. Family functionality and performing physical activity were the factors most associated with better QoL in all areas. All multivariate models were statistically significant and explained from 11% of social QoL variability to 35% of the general QoL index. The findings could be useful for developing interventions to promote health in schools, with the objective of promoting healthy lifestyles and QoL. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors related to posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooner, Kate B; Linares, L Oriana; Batinjane, Jessica; Kramer, Rachel A; Silva, Raul; Cloitre, Marylene

    2012-07-01

    Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescence published from 2000 to 2011 indicate that adolescents are at greater risk of experiencing trauma than either adults or children, and that the prevalence of PTSD among adolescents is 3-57%. Age, gender, type of trauma, and repeated trauma are discussed as factors related to the increased rates of adolescent PTSD. PTSD in adolescence is also associated with suicide, substance abuse, poor social support, academic problems, and poor physical health. PTSD may disrupt biological maturational processes and contribute to the long-term emotion and behavior regulation problems that are often evident in adolescents with the disorder. Recommendations are presented for practice and research regarding the promotion of targeted prevention and intervention services to maximize adolescents' strengths and minimize vulnerabilities. Public policy implications are discussed.

  15. Nosocomial infections and related factors in southern khorasan hospitals

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    Bita Bijari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Nosocomial infections are defined as infections occurring during a patient's stay at hospital (48-72h after admission.Nosocomial infections are one of the important problems of health. This study aimed was determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections, and related factors in hospitals with more than 100 beds in south Khorasan Province. Materials and Methods: In this crass-sectional study, an investigator-administered questionnaire was completed for each patient with nosocomial infections diagnosis in hospitals with more than 100 beds in South Khorasan. This questionnaire conation demographic characteristic of patients, department, duration of admission, kind of pathogen and risk factors that was designed according to standard questionnaire of Iranian Nasocomial infections surveillance system (INIS of Center for communicable Disease Control, Ministry of Health. Data were analyzed with SPSS 16 software. Results and discussion: Number of patients with nosocomial infection was 358. The incidence of nosocomial infection was 0.9%. ICU had the highest incidence rate (17.3%. The most common nosocomial infection was pneumonia (43%, and urinary tract infection (UTI (15.1%. In 33.5% culture result were negative. In other cases, culture results showed klebsiella spp. (12.8% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8% were the most prevalent bacteria. Most factors associated with nosocomial infection in patients were urinary catheters (70.4%, suction (66.8% and tracheal tube (54.2%. 24% of patients expired. The results showed lower ratio of nosocomial infection, that the main reason is failure to detection and reporting of actual cases of nosocomial infection. Promoting detection and reporting system for Prevention and control of nosocomial infection was recommended

  16. Factors related to orthodontic treatment time in adult patients

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    Ana Camila Esteves de Oliveira Melo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The length of time that it takes an orthodontist to treat adult patients varies widely. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate how different variables influence treatment time. METHODS: Seventy clinical case reports of successfully treated adult patients were examined. The patients were selected from 4,723 records held by three experienced orthodontists. The influence exerted by the following variables on treatment time was assessed: age, sex, facial pattern, severity of malocclusion (measured by the PAR index, sagittal relationship of canines, type of brackets (ceramic or metal, tooth extractions, missed appointments and orthodontic appliance issues/breakages, the latter being the dependent variable. Assessment was performed by multiple linear regression analysis, followed by the stepwise method with P < 0.05. RESULTS: The number of times a patient missed their appointment (no-show (R² = 14.4%, p < 0.0001 and the number of appliance issues/breakages (R² = 29.71%, p = 0.0037 significantly affected variability in treatment time, and these two variables together can predict 43.75% (R² total of the overall variability in treatment time. Other factors, such as canine relationship at the beginning of treatment, bracket type (metal or ceramic, tooth extractions, age at start of treatment, severity of the initial malocclusion, sex and facial pattern had no significant bearing on treatment time. CONCLUSIONS: The duration of orthodontic treatment in adults, when performed by experienced orthodontists, is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. However, several factors which were not included in this study may contribute to variability in orthodontic treatment time.

  17. Nursing Diagnosis of overweight and related factors in adolescents

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    Caroline Evelin Nascimento Kluczynik Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective.The objective of the study was to compare the related factors to the nursing diagnosis (ND of overweight in adolescents with and without overweight. Methodology. Transversal study conducted in 2013 with 347 adolescents that attended public schools in Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, answered a questionnaire and had anthroprometric evaluation. The subjects were divided into two groups, the group without ND (n=247 and the group with ND (n=100. Results. The prevalence of adolescents with ND overweight was 28.8%. The groups presented an unsatisfactory frequency of physical activity and a low consumption of healthy foods. The group with the ND overweight showed greater chance of consuming sweets and fried foods. The group with ND overweight had higher frequency of history family of illnesses. Conclusion. The prevalence of the ND overweight among adolescents in the public schools of Natal constitute a relevant nutritional deviance and the associated factors diet and family history disease are an alert for nursing in activities of prevention and follow-up for this population.

  18. Smoking and Its Related Factors Among Iranian High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad; Sajedinejad, Sima; Nazemi, Saeed; Fereidoon Mohasseli, Khadije; Valizade, Behzad; Vahedi, Hamid; Hosseinzadeh, Ehsan; Amiri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: In different studies, the prevalence of tobacco consumption has been growing in high schools boys. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of smoking and its related factors among Iranian high school students in 2011. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 450 male students from 15 high schools of Shahroud (northeast of Iran) were selected for evaluation of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of students regarding tobacco consumption. Results: Overall, 51% (95% CI: 46.5 - 55.7) of the students had positive history of smoking for at least one time and 7.1% (95% CI: 5 - 10) of them were current smokers. The most prevalent source of information about smoking was TV and radio programs (48%) and friends were the second source (22%). Based on the students’ opinions, entertainment and smoker friends were the most important reasons for smoking tendency. There was significant statistical association between students smoking and positive family history of smoking (P value < 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of smoking experince was very high among high school students. The most prevalent source of information about smoking was Iranian broadcasting companies. Positive family history of smoking and smoker friends were the important motivating factors toward smoking. PMID:26834798

  19. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders.

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    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.

  20. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders.

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    Kaloyan Kamenov

    Full Text Available Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.

  1. Post-operative pain after knee arthroscopy and related factors.

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    Drosos, G I; Stavropoulos, N I; Katsis, A; Kesidis, K; Kazakos, K; Verettas, D-A

    2008-06-13

    The aim of this study was to explore the intensity of post-arthroscopy knee pain during the first 24 hours, and to study the influence of pre-operative pain, tourniquet time and amount of surgical trauma on post-arthroscopy pain. In 78 male patients that underwent elective arthroscopic menisectomy or diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee, preoperative and post-operative pain were registered using the Visual Analogue Scale. Variance for repeated measures and for independent observations was analysed. Supplementary analgesia was required for 23% of the patients, more often in the recovery room and between 2 and 8 hours postoperatively. Of all factors analyzed, only time was statistically significant in determining the level of post-operative pain. Supplementary analgesia was required only in patients that underwent operative arthroscopy, and more often in patients with tourniquet time of more than 40 minutes. In conclusions, post-operative time is the most significant factor related to the post-arthroscopy knee pain.

  2. Post-Operative Pain after Knee Arthroscopy and Related Factors

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    Bharat Sutariya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the intensity of post-arthroscopy knee pain during the first 24 hours, and to study the influence of pre-operative pain, tourniquet time and amount of surgical trauma on post-arthroscopy pain. Methods: In 78 male patients that underwent elective arthroscopic menisectomy or diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee, preoperative and post-operative pain was registered using the Visual Analogue Scale. Variance for repeated measures and for independent observations was analysed. Results: Supplementary analgesia was required for 23% of the patients, more often in the recovery room and between 2 and 8 hours postoperatively. Of all factors analyzed, only time was statistically significant in determining the level of post-operative pain. Supplementary analgesia was required only in patients that underwent operative arthroscopy, and more often in patients with tourniquet time of more than 40 minutes. Conclusion: In conclusions, post-operative time is the most significant factor related to the post-arthroscopy knee pain. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 75-78

  3. Conversion during thoracoscopic lobectomy: related factors and learning curve impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E; Dietrich, Agustin; Nicolas, Matias; Da Lozzo, Alejandro; Beveraggi, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy has become a standard procedure for lung cancer treatment. Conversion-related factors and learning curve impacts, were poorly described. The aim of this study was to review the reasons and related factor for conversion in VATS lobectomy and the impact on this of the surgeon's learning curve. From June 2009 to May 2014, 154 patients who underwent a VATS lobectomy were included in our study. Patients' characteristics, pathology background, operative times, overall length of stay, overall morbidity and type of major complications were recorded for all patients and compared between non converted (n = 133) and converted (n = 21) patients. To evaluate surgeon's learning curve, we analyzed rates and causes of conversion in the first period (first 77 patients) and in the last period (78-154 patients). Patients characteristics were similar between converted and non-converted groups. Patients who were converted to open thoracotomy presented more frecuently tumors >3 cms (P = 0.02). The average of operative times and the length of stay were not significantly different between groups. Overall morbidity and major complications were also similar in both groups. There were no impact of surgeon's learning curve in overall rate conversion in both groups. Emergency conversion was always secondary to vascular accidents, all in the first group (p = 0.059). Surgeons should be expecting to perform a conversion to a thoracotomy in patients who present in preoperative studies, tumors greater than 3 cms. Learning curve only affected the emergency conversion, occurred all in the first half of our series.

  4. Studies on the Relation between the Composition of Thermal Sensitive MnZn Ferrite and Curie Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Thermal sensitive MnZn ferrite is a kind of soft magnetic ferrite material with lower Curie temperature (Tc) and can be used to make many kinds of magnetic thermal sensitive sensors with high sensitivity. In this paper, the relation between the composition of thermal sensitive ferrite and Tc was studied. It was found that Tc changes linearly with ZnO extent when the content of Fe2O3 is fixed. Based on lots of experiments, an experimential formula to determine Tc was given out.

  5. Analysis of compensation for a g-sensitivity scale-factor error for a MEMS vibratory gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung Su; Han, KyungJun; Lee, SangWoo; Yu, MyeongJong

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present recent work on the g-sensitivity error of the MEMS vibratory gyroscope. Generally, the g-sensitivity error has been ignored in the use of commercial MEMS vibratory gyroscopes, but it deserves our attention if we are to achieve tactical grade performance for military applications. First, we mathematically show the reason the g-sensitivity error occurs as an additional scale-factor error during the use of MEMS vibratory gyroscopes. Then, we estimate the g-sensitivity error using FEM simulation and verify it by experiment using a centrifugal machine. Consequently, we propose a compensation model to accommodate the g-sensitivity error of a gyroscope and confirm the theoretical prediction with experimental results.

  6. Factors determining sensitivity and resistance of tumor cells to arsenic trioxide.

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    Serkan Sertel

    Full Text Available Previously, arsenic trioxide showed impressive regression rates of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Here, we investigated molecular determinants of sensitivity and resistance of cell lines of different tumor types towards arsenic trioxide. Arsenic trioxide was the most cytotoxic compound among 8 arsenicals investigated in the NCI cell line panel. We correlated transcriptome-wide microarray-based mRNA expression to the IC(50 values for arsenic trioxide by bioinformatic approaches (COMPARE and hierarchical cluster analyses, Ingenuity signaling pathway analysis. Among the identified pathways were signaling routes for p53, integrin-linked kinase, and actin cytoskeleton. Genes from these pathways significantly predicted cellular response to arsenic trioxide. Then, we analyzed whether classical drug resistance factors may also play a role for arsenic trioxide. Cell lines transfected with cDNAs for catalase, thioredoxin, or the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 gene were more resistant to arsenic trioxide than mock vector transfected cells. Multidrug-resistant cells overexpressing the MDR1, MRP1 or BCRP genes were not cross-resistant to arsenic trioxide. Our approach revealed that response of tumor cells towards arsenic trioxide is multi-factorial.

  7. Improvements in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors and insulin sensitivity with trenbolone in normogonadic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Daniel G; Beck, Belinda R; Bulmer, Andrew C; Lam, Alfred K; Du Toit, Eugene F

    2015-02-01

    Trenbolone (TREN) is used for anabolic growth-promotion in over 20 million cattle annually and continues to be misused for aesthetic purposes in humans. The current study investigated TREN's effects on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors; and its tissue-selective effects on the cardiovascular system, liver and prostate. Male rats (n=12) were implanted with osmotic infusion pumps delivering either cyclodextrin vehicle (CTRL) or 2mg/kg/day TREN for 6 weeks. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry assessment of body composition; organ wet weights and serum lipid profiles; and insulin sensitivity were assessed. Cardiac ultrasound examinations were performed before in vivo studies assessed myocardial susceptibility to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Circulating sex hormones and liver enzyme activities; and prostate and liver histology were examined. In 6 weeks, fat mass increased by 34±7% in CTRLs (pTREN (pTREN rats. Histological examination of the prostates from TREN-treated rats indicated benign hyperplasia associated with an increased prostate mass (149% compared to CTRLs, pTREN treatment without evidence of adverse cardiovascular or hepatic effects that are commonly associated with traditional anabolic steroid misuse. Sex hormone suppression and benign prostate hyperplasia were confirmed as adverse effects of the treatment.

  8. N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor siRNA improves cardiac function following myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Liu, Y; Yang, S X; Wang, Z

    2015-08-14

    This study examined the effects of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) small interfering RNA (siRNA) on cardiac function following myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Thirty-six adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three equivalent groups. An acute MI model was established by ligating the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery and confirmed by electrocardiogram. Recombinant NSF-siRNA adenovirus (experimental), negative adenovirus (control), and normal saline were injected near the infarcted area of the left ventricle in each respective group. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured with a noninvasive ultrasonic cardiogram. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and the maximum rate of rise in left ventricular pressure (+dp/dt max) were measured using the BL-420 Biological Functional Experimental System. Hearts were sectioned and stained with 2,3,5,-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) to observe the MI area. Two weeks after surgery, LVEF in the experimental group (46.0 ± 7.5%) was higher than control (34.0 ± 6.0%) and saline (37.5 ± 4.5%) group LVEFs (P function two weeks after MI, but had no impact on the MI area.

  9. Stress of Conscience among psychiatric nursing staff in relation to environmental and individual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvesson, Hanna; Eklund, Mona; Wann-Hansson, Christine

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between environmental and individual factors and Stress of Conscience among nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care. A questionnaire involving six different instruments measuring Stress of Conscience, the ward atmosphere, the psychosocial work environment, Perceived Stress, Moral Sensitivity, and Mastery was answered by 93 nursing staff at 12 psychiatric in-patient wards in Sweden. The findings showed that Sense of Moral Burden, Mastery, Control at Work and Angry and Aggressive Behavior were related to Stress of Conscience. We conclude that Mastery and Control at Work seemed to work as protective factors, while Sense of Moral Burden and perceptions of Angry and Aggressive Behavior made the nursing staff more vulnerable to Stress of Conscience. Future research should investigate whether measures to increase the level of perceived control and being part of decision making will decrease the level of Stress of Conscience among the staff.

  10. Peripheral nerve injury sensitizes neonatal dorsal horn neurons to tumor necrosis factor

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    Baccei Mark L

    2009-03-01

    neuronal excitability in the SDH, which could reflect a relatively weak expression of TNFα in the injured spinal cord at early ages. The above data suggest that although the sensitivity of the SDH network to proinflammatory cytokines after nerve injury is present from the first days of life, the profile of spinal cytokine expression under neuropathic conditions may be highly age-dependent.

  11. High-sensitivity and high-Q-factor glass photonic crystal cavity and its applications as sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siraji, Ashfaqul Anwar; Zhao, Yang

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the properties of a planar photonic crystal cavity on glass and its applications as sensors. An airbridged twofold defect cavity on Schott glass background and Gorilla glass substrate has been designed for high Q-factor up to 4459. The average sensitivity of the cavity resonance to background refractive index is 388 nm/Refractive Index Unit. The resonant wavelength is sensitive to background temperature by 18.5 pm/°C. The designed sensors show much higher sensitivity than those based on waveguide interferometers or photonic bandgap structures without cavity resonance. The results are also useful for experimental studies of glass photonic devices.

  12. Thermal sensitivity analysis data utilizing Q10 scanning, Boltzmann slope factor and the change of molar heat capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, KyeongJin

    2016-03-01

    As a further elaboration of the recently devised Q10 scanning analysis ("Exceptionally high thermal sensitivity of rattlesnake TRPA1 correlates with peak current amplitude" [1]), the interval between current data points at two temperatures was shortened and the resulting parameters representing thermal sensitivities such as peak Q10s and temperature points of major thermosensitivity events are presented for two TRPA1 orthologues from rattlesnakes and boas. In addition, the slope factors from Boltzmann fitting and the change of molar heat capacity of temperature-evoked currents were evaluated and compared as alternative ways of thermal sensitivity appraisal of TRPA1 orthologues.

  13. Temperament as a modulating factor of pain sensitivity in combat sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leźnicka, Katarzyna; Starkowska, Anna; Tomczak, Maciej; Cięszczyk, Paweł; Białecka, Monika; Ligocka, Maria; Żmijewski, Piotr; Pawlak, Maciej

    2017-10-15

    The aim of this study was to characterise the temperament of combat athletes in comparison to that of individuals who do not practise any sports with regard to pain sensitivity measured with the cold pressor test (CPT) and pressure pain threshold (PPT). The study involved 284 healthy men, aged 18 to 43years. The first group consisted of 198 combat athletes, including boxing (n=19), mixed martial arts (MMA) (n=97) and karate (n=82), aged from 18 to 43years. The control group consisted of 86 subjects between the ages of 18 and 26years, academic students not practising any sport professionally. Pain threshold and pain tolerance were evaluated using the CPT and a pressure algometer. Temperament was measured with the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour - Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI). The contact athletes showed much higher tolerance to pain than the control group using both tools: CPT (p=0.007) and PPT (p<0.001). In athletes, but not in controls, relationships were noted between BMI and endurance (r=0.20; p=0.004), BMI and activity (r=-0.283; p<0.001), BMI and pain threshold (r=0.15; p<0.05), and BMI and pain tolerance (r=0.30; p<0.001), when measured by the algometer - this necessitating adjustment for further analysis. The athletes and students in the study groups differed significantly with regard to intensity of four temperamental traits, but after BMI adjustments only group differences in Preservation, Sensory sensitivity and Emotional reactivity remained significant'. These differences indicate individual differences in perception and reaction to external stimuli. Significantly higher pain tolerance (CPT and PPT) in the athletes studied was related to specific psychological features. The obtained results of temperamental characteristics may indicate higher resilience of the nervous system in combat athletes in comparison to non-athletes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Surgeon-related factors and outcome in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, G A; Soskolne, C L; Yakimets, W W; Newman, S C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether surgical subspecialty training in colorectal surgery or frequency of rectal cancer resection by the surgeon are independent prognostic factors for local recurrence (LR) and survival. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Variation in patient outcome in rectal cancer has been shown among centers and among individual surgeons. However, the prognostic importance of surgeon-related factors is largely unknown. METHODS: All patients undergoing potentially curative low anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection for primary adenocarcinoma of the rectum between 1983 and 1990 at the five Edmonton general hospitals were reviewed in a historic-prospective study design. Preoperative, intraoperative, pathologic, adjuvant therapy, and outcome variables were obtained. Outcomes of interest included LR and disease-specific survival (DSS). To determine survival rates and to control both confounding and interaction, multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: The study included 683 patients involving 52 surgeons, with > 5-year follow-up obtained on 663 (97%) patients. There were five colorectal-trained surgeons who performed 109 (16%) of the operations. Independent of surgeon training, 323 operations (47%) were done by surgeons performing < 21 rectal cancer resections over the study period. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of LR was increased in patients of both noncolorectal trained surgeons (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.5, p = 0.001) and those of surgeons performing < 21 resections (HR = 1.8, p < 0.001). Stage (p < 0.001), use of adjuvant therapy (p = 0.002), rectal perforation or tumor spill (p < 0.001), and vascular/neural invasion (p = 0.002) also were significant prognostic factors for LR. Similarly, decreased disease-specific survival was found to be independently associated with noncolorectal-trained surgeons (HR = 1.5, p = 0.03) and surgeons performing < 21 resections (HR = 1.4, p = 0.005). Stage (p < 0

  15. Evaluation of Risk Factors Related to Recidivism Among Sentenced Males

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    Sinem Yıldız

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is taking the place of dangerousness in recent criminal research. Detection of static and dynamic risk factors related and/or interacting to recidivism in accordance with personality characteristics and crime types may help crime prevention strategies to improve. Out of all participants 35% (n=41 are sentenced for manslaughter/physical injury, 35% (n=41 sexual crime and 30% (n=35 theft. The mean age of the participants is 33.81 (sd=9-12 years. During the interview, a questionnaire which is prepared by the researcher by reviewing the literature, Symptom Checklist Short Form, aggression inventory was used. Interviews are conducted face to face by the researcher at the relevant correctional facilities with the permissions of Ministry of Justice and ethical committee. Recidivism is found related to having a period far away from nuclear family before age 18, criminal and drag-alcohol abusing friends, anti-social behaviors; abusing illegal drags, displaying disciplinary problems in prison and during military service. Discussion: Results are evaluated under demographics, relationships in family and close friends, childhood abuse by leaning on current literature. Key words: prevention and control, crime, risk assessment

  16. Examining Dark Triad traits in relation to sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, Sarah; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Becker, Stephen P; Shamsi, Mahin; Shakouri, Zeinab; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Kalak, Nadeem; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Triad (DT) describes a set of three closely related personality traits, Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between DT traits, sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty. A total of 341 adults (M=29years) completed a series of questionnaires related to the DT traits, sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty. A higher DT total score was associated with increased sleep disturbances, and higher scores for anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty. In regression analyses Machiavellianism and psychopathy were predictors of sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty. Results indicate that specific DT traits, namely Machiavellianism and psychopathy, are associated with sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty in young adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A simple, rapid, sensitive method detecting homoserine lactone (HSL)-related compounds in microbial extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Maya Prakash; Greenstein, Michael

    2006-04-01

    A simple, rapid, sensitive microtiter plate method detecting N-acyl homoserine lactone (HSL)-related compounds was established using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring a traG::lacZ/traR reporter gene responsive to HSLs. This strain did not produce its own HSL, but the traG::lacZ reporter gene was induced only when its transcription activator TraR detected a cognate exogenous HSL. Therefore, the assay was expected to be highly specific for HSL-related compounds. Induction of the reporter gene, leading to production of beta-galactosidase enzyme, was measured by using two different beta-galactosidase substrates, X-gal and Galacton-Star, for colorimetric and chemiluminometric detection, respectively. The screen was validated in both the 96-well and 384-well plate formats, and extracts derived from 696 different microbial isolates, mostly unidentified actinomycetes isolated from diverse locations, were tested. Crude extracts of 81 (11.64%) cultures tested positive for HSL-related compounds, and an additional 34 (4.8%) crude extracts showed a moderate to weak signal for HSLs. Data from the fractionated samples, however, suggested a much higher prevalence of HSL signals in these extracts. Of 144 crude extracts fractionated into 10 individual samples at a 10x concentration, 72 (50%) cultures tested positive for HSLs. Six cultures were active only in the crude extract, 18 were active both in crude and one or more of their fractions, and an additional 48 were active in just one or more of their fractions. This finding may be the first to suggest such a high prevalence of HSL-signals found in nature, and a large number of actinomycetes in our collection appeared to produce HSL-related compounds.

  18. Factors related to depression and anxiety in adults with bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgün Niksarlioglu EY

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Elif Yelda Özgün Niksarlioglu,1 Gülcihan Özkan,2 Gülşah Günlüoğlu,1 Mehmet Atilla Uysal,1 Sule Gül,1 Lütfiye Kilic,1 Ayse Yeter,1 Güngör Çamsarı1 1Department of Chest Disease, Yedikule Chest Disease and Thoracic Surgery Training and Research Hospital, 2Department of Chest Disease, Yeniyüzyıl University Gaziosmanpasa Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Introduction and background: Patients with chronic lung diseases frequently have depressive and anxiety symptoms, but there are very few studies looking at this in patients with bronchiectasis. Aim: This study aimed to investigate depression and anxiety and related factors among patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.Patients and methods: This was a prospective study of 133 patients with bronchiectasis. Patients with confirmed diagnosis of bronchiectasis with high-resolution computed tomography were enrolled in the study. Patients that were clinically stable in the previous 4 weeks were evaluated with the Hospital Depression and Anxiety scale. Symptoms, pulmonary function tests, and medical treatments were recorded.Results: The mean age of patients was 49.5±14.5 years (range, 18–77 years, and 81 (60.9% patients were females. Twenty-eight (21.1% patients had depression, and 53 (39.8% had anxiety. Depression score was related to family situation (living with a partner, previous depression history and admission to an emergency department within the last year. Anxiety score was related to female gender, the family situation (living with a partner, previous depression history, and admission to an emergency department within the last year (P<0.05. Depression was positively correlated with hemoptysis, admission to an emergency department within the last year and living with a partner. Anxiety was positively correlated with education level, previous depression history, admission to an emergency department within the last year, and living with a partner.Conclusion: Patients with non

  19. Factors related to drug approvals: predictors of outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, Lawrence; Breckenridge, Alasdair; Hoekman, Jarno; McAuslane, Neil; Stolk, Pieter; Leufkens, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    There is growing interest in characterising factors associated with positive regulatory outcomes for drug marketing authorisations. We assessed empirical studies published over the past 15 years seeking to identify predictive factors. Factors were classified to one of four 'factor clusters': evidentiary support; product or indication characteristics; company experience or strategy; social and regulatory factors. We observed a heterogeneous mix of technical factors (e.g., study designs, clinical evidence of efficacy) and less studied social factors (e.g., company-regulator interactions). We confirmed factors known to be of relevance to drug approval decisions (imperative) and a cohort of less understood (compensatory) social factors. Having robust supportive clinical evidence, addressing rare or serious illness, following scientific advice and prior company experience were associated with positive outcomes, which illustrated the multifactorial nature of regulatory decision making and factors need to be considered holistically while having varying, context-dependent importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood bruxism: Related factors and impact on oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Castilho, Thuanny; Marinho, Marcello; Fraga, Renato Silva; Antunes, Leonardo Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess childhood bruxism relating associated factors and the bruxism's impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). A case-control study was performed with 3- to 6-year-old children obtained from public preschools in Brazil. The case and control groups had 21 and 40 children, respectively. Associations between bruxism and respiratory problems (p = 0.04, OR: 0.33, CI: 0.09 to 1.14), dental wear (p 0.05). The association between presence and absence of impact with bruxism or other variables showed no statistical relationship (p > 0.05). It could be concluded that childhood bruxism is related to respiratory problems, dental wear, dental caries, and malocclusion. Despite being a topic that demands special care in dentistry, bruxism does not significantly affect the OHRQoL.

  1. Brain Activations Related to Saccadic Response Conflict are not Sensitive to Time on Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldzik, Ewa; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Oginska, Halszka; Marek, Tadeusz; Fafrowicz, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex in the performance monitoring and cognitive control has been a challenge to neuroscientists for the past decade. In light of recent findings, the conflict monitoring hypothesis has been elaborated to an action-outcome predictor theory. One of the findings that led to this re-evaluation was the fMRI study in which conflict-related brain activity was investigated in terms of the so-called time on task effect, i.e., a linear increase of the BOLD signal with longer response times. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions involved in the processing of saccadic response conflict and to account for the time on task effect. A modified spatial cueing task was implemented in the event-related fMRI study with oculomotor responses. The results revealed several brain regions which show higher activity for incongruent trials in comparison to the congruent ones, including pre-supplementary motor area together with the frontal and parietal regions. Further analysis accounting for the effect of response time provided evidence that these brain activations were not sensitive to time on task but reflected purely the congruency effect.

  2. Brain activations related to saccadic response conflict are not sensitive to time on task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa eBeldzik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex in the performance monitoring and cognitive control has been a challenge to neuroscientists for the past decade. In light of recent findings, the conflict monitoring hypothesis has been elaborated to an action-outcome predictor theory. One of the findings that led to this re-evaluation was the fMRI study in which conflict-related brain activity was investigated in terms of the so-called time on task effect, i.e. a linear increase of the BOLD signal with longer response times. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions involved in the processing of saccadic response conflict and to account for the time on task effect. A modified spatial cueing task was implemented in the event-related fMRI study with oculomotor responses. The results revealed several brain regions which show higher activity for incongruent trials in comparison to the congruent ones, including pre-supplementary motor area together with the frontal and parietal regions. Further analysis accounting for the effect of response time provided evidence that these brain activations were not sensitive to time on task but reflected purely the congruency effect.

  3. Sensitivity of aerosol optical thickness and aerosol direct radiative effect to relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a sensitivity study on the effects of spatial and temporal resolution of atmospheric relative humidity (RH on calculated aerosol optical thickness (AOT and the aerosol direct radiative effects (DRE in a global model. Using the same aerosol fields simulated in the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI model, we find that, on a global average, the calculated AOT from RH in 1° latitude by 1.25° longitude spatial resolution is 11% higher than that in 2° by 2.5° resolution, and the corresponding DRE at the top of the atmosphere is 8–9% higher for total aerosols and 15% higher for only anthropogenic aerosols in the finer spatial resolution case. The difference is largest over surface escarpment regions (e.g. >200% over the Andes Mountains where RH varies substantially with surface terrain. The largest zonal mean AOT difference occurs at 50–60°N (16–21%, where AOT is also relatively larger. A similar increase is also found when the time resolution of RH is increased. This increase of AOT and DRE with the increase of model resolution is due to the highly non-linear relationship between RH and the aerosol mass extinction efficiency (MEE at high RH (>80%. Our study suggests that caution should be taken in a multi-model comparison (e.g. AeroCom since the comparison usually deals with results coming from different spatial/temporal resolutions.

  4. Phenotypic factor analysis of psychopathology reveals a new body-related transdiagnostic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Patrizia; Antfolk, Jan; Santtila, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Comorbidity challenges the notion of mental disorders as discrete categories. An increasing body of literature shows that symptoms cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries and interact in shaping the latent structure of psychopathology. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, we reveal the latent sources of covariation among nine measures of psychopathological functioning in a population-based sample of 13024 Finnish twins and their siblings. By implementing unidimensional, multidimensional, second-order, and bifactor models, we illustrate the relationships between observed variables, specific, and general latent factors. We also provide the first investigation to date of measurement invariance of the bifactor model of psychopathology across gender and age groups. Our main result is the identification of a distinct "Body" factor, alongside the previously identified Internalizing and Externalizing factors. We also report relevant cross-disorder associations, especially between body-related psychopathology and trait anger, as well as substantial sex and age differences in observed and latent means. The findings expand the meta-structure of psychopathology, with implications for empirical and clinical practice, and demonstrate shared mechanisms underlying attitudes towards nutrition, self-image, sexuality and anger, with gender- and age-specific features.

  5. Increased N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Expression in Amygdala and Perirhinal Cortex during Habituation of Taste Neophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Chacón, Beatriz; Gámiz, Fernando; Foster, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between GluR2 and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) mediate AMPA receptors trafficking. This might be linked with molecular mechanisms related with memory formation. Previous research has shown basolateral amygdala (BLA) dependent activity changes in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) during the formation of taste memory. In the present experiments we investigate both the behavioral performance and the expression profile of NSF and GluR2 genes in several brain areas, including PRh, BLA, and hippocampus. Twenty-one naïve male Wistar rats were exposed to a saccharin solution (0.4%) during the first (novel), the second (Familiar I), and the sixth presentation (Familiar II). Total RNA was extracted and gene expression was measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) using TaqMan gene expression assays. In addition the expression of the synaptic plasticity related immediate early genes, Homer 1 and Narp, was also assessed. We have found increased expression of NSF gene in BLA and PRh in Group Familiar I in comparison with Familiar II. No changes in the expression of GluR2, Homer 1, and Narp genes were found. The results suggest the relevance of a potential network in the temporal lobe for taste recognition memory and open new possibilities for understanding the molecular mechanisms mediating the impact of sensory experience on brain circuit function. PMID:26839712

  6. Increased N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Expression in Amygdala and Perirhinal Cortex during Habituation of Taste Neophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gómez-Chacón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between GluR2 and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF mediate AMPA receptors trafficking. This might be linked with molecular mechanisms related with memory formation. Previous research has shown basolateral amygdala (BLA dependent activity changes in the perirhinal cortex (PRh during the formation of taste memory. In the present experiments we investigate both the behavioral performance and the expression profile of NSF and GluR2 genes in several brain areas, including PRh, BLA, and hippocampus. Twenty-one naïve male Wistar rats were exposed to a saccharin solution (0.4% during the first (novel, the second (Familiar I, and the sixth presentation (Familiar II. Total RNA was extracted and gene expression was measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR using TaqMan gene expression assays. In addition the expression of the synaptic plasticity related immediate early genes, Homer 1 and Narp, was also assessed. We have found increased expression of NSF gene in BLA and PRh in Group Familiar I in comparison with Familiar II. No changes in the expression of GluR2, Homer 1, and Narp genes were found. The results suggest the relevance of a potential network in the temporal lobe for taste recognition memory and open new possibilities for understanding the molecular mechanisms mediating the impact of sensory experience on brain circuit function.

  7. Increased N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor Expression in Amygdala and Perirhinal Cortex during Habituation of Taste Neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Chacón, Beatriz; Gámiz, Fernando; Foster, Thomas C; Gallo, Milagros

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between GluR2 and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) mediate AMPA receptors trafficking. This might be linked with molecular mechanisms related with memory formation. Previous research has shown basolateral amygdala (BLA) dependent activity changes in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) during the formation of taste memory. In the present experiments we investigate both the behavioral performance and the expression profile of NSF and GluR2 genes in several brain areas, including PRh, BLA, and hippocampus. Twenty-one naïve male Wistar rats were exposed to a saccharin solution (0.4%) during the first (novel), the second (Familiar I), and the sixth presentation (Familiar II). Total RNA was extracted and gene expression was measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) using TaqMan gene expression assays. In addition the expression of the synaptic plasticity related immediate early genes, Homer 1 and Narp, was also assessed. We have found increased expression of NSF gene in BLA and PRh in Group Familiar I in comparison with Familiar II. No changes in the expression of GluR2, Homer 1, and Narp genes were found. The results suggest the relevance of a potential network in the temporal lobe for taste recognition memory and open new possibilities for understanding the molecular mechanisms mediating the impact of sensory experience on brain circuit function.

  8. [Justifying genetic and immune markers of efficiency and sensitivity under combined exposure to risk factors in mining industry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgikh, O V; Zaitseva, N V; Krivtsov, A V; Gorshkova, K G; Lanin, D V; Bubnova, O A; Dianova, D G; Lykhina, T S; Vdovina, N A

    2014-01-01

    The authors evaluated and justified immunologic and genetic markers under combined exposure to risk factors in mining industry workers. Analysis covered polymorphism features of 29 genes with variant alleles possibly participating in occupationally conditioned diseases formation and serving as sensitivity markers of these diseases risk. The genes association selected demonstrates reliably changed polymorphism vs. the reference group (SOD2 superoxidedismutase gene, ANKK1 dophamine receptor gene, SULT1A1 sulphtransaminase gene, MTHFR methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene, VEGF endothelial growth factor gene, TNF-alpha tumor necrosis factor gene). Under combined exposure to occupational hazards (sylvinite dust, noise) in mining industry, this association can serve as adequate marking complex of sensitivity to development of occupationally conditioned diseases. Increased-production of immune cytokine regulation markers: tumor necrosis factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Genes SOD2, ANKK1, SULT1A1, VEGF, TNFalpha are recommended as sensitivity markers, and the coded cytokines (tumor necrosis factor and endothelial growth factor) are proposed as effect markers in evaluation of health risk for workers in mining industry.

  9. Low back pain during labor and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Su, Tsann-Juu

    2008-09-01

    A substantial proportion of women in labor suffer from low back pain, yet this issue has only been specifically evaluated in a few Western studies. The purpose of this research was to (1) describe the following characteristics of low back pain during labor: prevalence, anatomic region(s) affected, type, pattern, intensity trend, effective interventions, and exacerbating factors; (2) identify the factors relating to intrapartum low back pain in Taiwan women. A correlational design with repeated measures was used to conduct this investigation. Ninety-three low-risk women in labor were recruited from a medical center in central Taiwan. Low back pain was repeatedly measured during the latent phase (cervix dilated 2-4 cm), early active phase (cervix dilated 5-7 cm), and late active phase (cervix dilated 8-10 cm) of labor. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, repeated measurement ANOVA, and logistic regression. The results showed as many as 75.3% of the participants suffered episodes of low back pain during labor. The mean pain scores were 36.66-76.20 in the various stages of labor. Pain intensified as labor progressed. The location of the pain also changed with the progression of labor. The type of low back pain in 54.29% of women in labor was "muscle soreness and pain"; The pattern of pain in 45.71% women was continuous. Massage was chosen as the most effective intervention to alleviate low back pain by 65.3% of women. The women in labor who suffered from low back pain during pregnancy (OR = 3.23; p low back pain group. In conclusion, our study demonstrates low back pain intensified with the progression of labor, suggesting early prevention is necessary, especially in the case of women who had low back pain during pregnancy and heavier body weight when hospitalized.

  10. Gait speed and related factors in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paker, Nurdan; Bugdayci, Derya; Goksenoglu, Goksen; Demircioğlu, Demet Tekdöş; Kesiktas, Nur; Ince, Nurhan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between gait speed and various factors in ambulatory patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. [Subjects] Fifty ambulatory patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease who were admitted to an outpatient clinic were included in this cross-sectional study. [Methods] The Hoehn and Yahr Scale was used for measurement of the disease severity. Gait speed was measured by the 10-Meter Walk Test. Mobility status was assessed by Timed Up and Go Test. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale was used for evaluation of emotional state. Cognitive status was examined with the Mini-Mental State Examination. The Downton Index was used for fall risk assessment. Balance was evaluated with the Berg Balance Scale. Comorbidity was measured with the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. The 36-Item Short Form Health Survey was completed for measurement of quality of life. [Results] The mean age was 66.7 (47–83) years. Twenty-eight (56%) patients were men. Gait speed was correlated positively with height, male gender, Mini-Mental Examination score, Berg Balance Scale score and physical summary scores of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. On the other hand, there was a negative correlation between gait speed and age, disease severity, TUG time, Downton Index, fear of falling, previous falls and the anxiety and depression scores of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. There was no correlation between gait speed and comorbidity. [Conclusion] The factors related with the slower gait speed are, elder age, clinically advanced disease, poor mobility, fear of falling, falling history, higher falling risk, and mood disorder. PMID:26834330

  11. Reproductive factors related to childbearing and mammographic breast density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghjyan, Lusine; Colditz, Graham A; Rosner, Bernard; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the associations of reproductive factors related to childbearing with percent breast density, absolute dense and nondense areas, by menopausal status. This study included 4110 cancer-free women within the Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II cohorts. Percent breast density, absolute dense and nondense areas were measured from digitized mammography film images with computerized techniques. All density measures were square root-transformed in all the analyses to improve normality. The data on reproductive variables and other breast cancer risk factors were obtained from biennial questionnaires, at the time of the mammogram date. As compared to nulliparous women, parous postmenopausal women had lower percent density (β = -0.60, 95 % CI -0.84; -0.37), smaller absolute dense area (β = -0.66, 95 % CI -1.03; -0.29), and greater nondense area (β = 0.72, 95 % CI 0.27; 1.16). Among parous women, number of children was inversely associated with percent density in pre- (β per one child = -0.12, 95 % CI -0.20; -0.05) and postmenopausal women (β per one child = -0.07, 95 % CI -0.12; -0.02). The positive associations of breastfeeding with absolute dense and nondense areas were limited to premenopausal women, while the positive association of the age at first child's birth with percent density and the inverse association with nondense area were limited to postmenopausal women. Women with greater number of children and younger age at first child's birth have more favorable breast density patterns that could explain subsequent breast cancer risk reduction.

  12. Stress Sensitive Female Macaques Have Decreased Fev and Serotonin-Related Gene Expression That Is Not Reversed by Citalopram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Fernanda B.; Centeno, Maria L.; Costa, Maria E.; Reddy, Arubala P.; Cameron, Judy L.; Bethea, Cynthia L.

    2009-01-01

    Female cynomolgus monkeys exhibit different degrees of reproductive dysfunction with moderate metabolic and psychosocial stress. When stressed with a paradigm of relocation and diet for 60 days or 2 menstrual cycles, highly stress resilient monkeys (HSR) continued to ovulate during the stress cycles whereas stress sensitive monkeys (SS) did not. After cessation of stress, monkeys characterized as HSR or SS were administered placebo (PL) or S-citalopram (CIT) for 15 weeks at doses that normalized ovarian steroid secretion in the SS animals and that maintained blood citalopram levels in a therapeutic range. After euthanasia, the brain was perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde. The pontine midbrain was blocked and sectioned at 25μm. The expression of 4 genes pivotal to serotonin neural function was assessed in the 4 groups of monkeys (n=4/group). Fev (fifth Ewing variant) ETS transcription factor, tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT), and the 5HT1A autoreceptor were determined at 7–8 levels of the dorsal raphe nucleus with in situ hybridization (ISH) using radiolabeled- and digoxygenin-incorporated riboprobes. Positive pixel area and cell number were measured with Slidebook 4.2 in the digoxigenin assay for Fev. Optical density (OD) and positive pixel area were measured with NIH Image software in the radiolabeled assays for TPH2, SERT and 5HT1A. All data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA. Stress-sensitive monkeys had significantly fewer Fev-positive cells and lower Fev-positive pixel area in the dorsal raphe than stress-resilient monkeys. Stress-sensitive macaques also had significantly lower levels of TPH2, SERT and 5HT1A mRNAs in the dorsal raphe nucleus than stress-resilient macaques. However, citalopram did not alter the expression of either Fev, TPH2, SERT or 5HT1A mRNAs. These data suggest that stress-sensitive macaques have fewer serotonin neurons than stress-resilient macaques, and that they have deficient Fev expresssion

  13. MOTHER – CHILD RELATION AND FACTORS AFFECTING T H I S RELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma TEZEL ŞAHİ N

    2014-09-01

    in order to make him attain his personality. In this circle where enough support is given to the child, the qualities of the discipline and education given by the mother are positive. The child is grown up as brave and adaptive persons to the society. He learns to build his life upon positive efforts. The purpose of the current study wa s to determine a healthy mother - child relation, its importance and factors affecting mother - child relation. In this line, the studies regarding the issue were discussed and some recommendations were given over the studies to be carried out.

  14. Cooperativity and rapid evolution of cobound transcription factors in closely related mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefflova, Klara; Thybert, David; Wilson, Michael D; Streeter, Ian; Aleksic, Jelena; Karagianni, Panagiota; Brazma, Alvis; Adams, David J; Talianidis, Iannis; Marioni, John C; Flicek, Paul; Odom, Duncan T

    2013-08-01

    To mechanistically characterize the microevolutionary processes active in altering transcription factor (TF) binding among closely related mammals, we compared the genome-wide binding of three tissue-specific TFs that control liver gene expression in six rodents. Despite an overall fast turnover of TF binding locations between species, we identified thousands of TF regions of highly constrained TF binding intensity. Although individual mutations in bound sequence motifs can influence TF binding, most binding differences occur in the absence of nearby sequence variations. Instead, combinatorial binding was found to be significant for genetic and evolutionary stability; cobound TFs tend to disappear in concert and were sensitive to genetic knockout of partner TFs. The large, qualitative differences in genomic regions bound between closely related mammals, when contrasted with the smaller, quantitative TF binding differences among Drosophila species, illustrate how genome structure and population genetics together shape regulatory evolution.

  15. Sensitivity of aerosol optical thickness and aerosol direct radiative effect to relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a sensitivity study of the effects of spatial and temporal resolution of atmospheric relative humidity (RH on calculated aerosol optical thickness (AOT and the aerosol direct radiative effects (DRE in a global model. We carry out different modeling experiments using the same aerosol fields simulated in the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI model at a resolution of 2° latitude by 2.5° longitude, using time-averaged fields archived every three hours by the Goddard Earth Observation System Version 4 (GEOS-4, but we change the horizontal and temporal resolution of the relative humidity fields. We find that, on a global average, the AOT calculated using RH at a 1°×1.25° horizontal resolution is 11% higher than that using RH at a 2°×2.5° resolution, and the corresponding DRE at the top of the atmosphere is 8–9% and 15% more negative (i.e., more cooling for total aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol alone, respectively, in the finer spatial resolution case. The difference is largest over surface escarpment regions (e.g. >200% over the Andes Mountains where RH varies substantially with surface terrain. The largest zonal mean AOT difference occurs at 50–60° N (16–21%, where AOT is also relatively larger. A similar impact is also found when the time resolution of RH is increased. This increase of AOT and aerosol cooling with the increase of model resolution is due to the highly non-linear relationship between RH and the aerosol mass extinction efficiency (MEE at high RH (>80%. Our study is a specific example of the uncertainty in model results highlighted by multi-model comparisons such as AeroCom, and points out one of the many inter-model differences that can contribute to the overall spread among models.

  16. Hospitalisations and costs relating to ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheridan, A

    2012-03-08

    BACKGROUND: Ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) are conditions for which the provision of timely and effective outpatient care can reduce the risks of hospitalisation by preventing, controlling or managing a chronic disease or condition. AIMS: The aims of this study were to report on ACSCs in Ireland, and to provide a baseline for future reference. METHODS: Using HIPE, via Health Atlas Ireland, inpatient discharges classified as ACSCs using definitions from the Victorian ACSC study were extracted for the years 2005-2008. Direct methods of standardisation allowed comparison of rates using the EU standard population as a comparison for national data, and national population as comparison for county data. Costs were estimated using diagnosis-related groups. RESULTS: The directly age-standardised discharge rate for ACSC-related discharges increased slightly, but non-significantly, from 15.40 per 1,000 population in 2005 to 15.75 per 1,000 population in 2008. The number of discharges increased (9.5%) from 63,619 in 2005 to 69,664 in 2008, with the estimated associated hospital costs increasing (31.5%) from 267.8 million in 2005 to 352.2 million in 2008. Across the country, there was considerable variation in the discharge rates for the Top-10 ACSCs for the years 2005-2008. Significantly lower rates of hospitalisation were observed in more urban areas including Cork, Dublin and Galway. The most common ACSC in 2008 was diabetes with complications (29.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The variation in rates observed indicates the scope of reducing hospitalisations and associated costs for ACSCs, across both adult\\'s and children\\'s services and particularly in relation to diabetes complications.

  17. Some molecular/crystalline factors that affect the sensitivities of energetic materials: molecular surface electrostatic potentials, lattice free space and maximum heat of detonation per unit volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Peter; Murray, Jane S

    2015-02-01

    We discuss three molecular/crystalline properties that we believe to be among the factors that influence the impact/shock sensitivities of energetic materials (i.e., their vulnerabilities to unintended detonation due to impact or shock). These properties are (a) the anomalously strong positive electrostatic potentials in the central regions of their molecular surfaces, (b) the free space per molecule in their crystal lattices, and (c) their maximum heats of detonation per unit volume. Overall, sensitivity tends to become greater as these properties increase; however these are general trends, not correlations. Nitramines are exceptions in that their sensitivities show little or no variation with free space in the lattice and heat of detonation per unit volume. We outline some of the events involved in detonation initiation and show how the three properties are related to different ones of these events.

  18. Relation between visual function index and falls-related factors in patients with age-related cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Na Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the relation between vision function index and falls-related factors in patients with age-related cataract.METHODS:Ninety-six patients with age-related cataract were interviewed using a seven-item visual function questionnaire(VF-7, then classified into poor, moderate, or good visual function group. The differences of the three groups on visual acuity, balance and mobility function, cognition, depressive symptoms, self-reported fear of falling were analyzed. RESULTS:The patients in poor visual function group had older age, tendency to depression, was more afraid of falling, compared with groups with higher score in VF-7, and they had worse visual acuity, performed worse on all balance and mobility tests. CONCLUSION:Poor visual function is related to worse visual acuity, weaker balance and mobility performance in patients with age-related cataract. The VF-7, as a simple and convenient self-reported method, can be used as a falling risk monitoring in patients with age-related cataract.

  19. Expression of UV-sensitive parapinopsin in the iguana parietal eyes and its implication in UV-sensitivity in vertebrate pineal-related organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Wada

    Full Text Available The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identification of parapinopsin in the reptile lineage and show its expression in the parietal eye of the green iguana. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that iguana parapinopsin is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies specific to parapinopsin and parietopsin, a parietal eye green-sensitive pigment, revealed that parapinopsin and parietopsin are colocalized in the outer segments of the parietal eye photoreceptor cells in iguanas. These results strongly suggest that parapinopsin underlies the wavelength discrimination involving UV reception in the iguana parietal eye. The current findings support the idea that parapinopsin is a common photopigment underlying the UV-sensitivity in wavelength discrimination of the pineal-related organs found from lampreys to reptiles.

  20. Expression of UV-sensitive parapinopsin in the iguana parietal eyes and its implication in UV-sensitivity in vertebrate pineal-related organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Seiji; Kawano-Yamashita, Emi; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Terakita, Akihisa

    2012-01-01

    The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identification of parapinopsin in the reptile lineage and show its expression in the parietal eye of the green iguana. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that iguana parapinopsin is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies specific to parapinopsin and parietopsin, a parietal eye green-sensitive pigment, revealed that parapinopsin and parietopsin are colocalized in the outer segments of the parietal eye photoreceptor cells in iguanas. These results strongly suggest that parapinopsin underlies the wavelength discrimination involving UV reception in the iguana parietal eye. The current findings support the idea that parapinopsin is a common photopigment underlying the UV-sensitivity in wavelength discrimination of the pineal-related organs found from lampreys to reptiles.

  1. Haploinsufficiency of the Transcription Factor Ets-1 Is Renoprotective in Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenguang; Chen, Bo; Xing, Dongqi; Li, Xingsheng; Fatima, Huma; Jaimes, Edgar A; Sanders, Paul W

    2017-07-10

    Studies using Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats identified specific quantitative trait loci that predispose animals to hypertension-associated albuminuria and kidney injury. We explored the hypothesis that kidney-specific expression of the transcription factor Ets-1, located within one of these loci on chromosome 8, mediates glomerular injury in SS hypertension. During the first week on a high-salt diet, SS rats and SS rats with only one functioning Ets-1 gene (ES rats) demonstrated similar increases in BP. However, serum creatinine concentration, albuminuria, and glomerular expression of ETS-1 and two ETS-1 targets, MCP-1 and MMP2, did not increase as substantially in ES rats as in SS rats. Mean BP subsequently increased further in SS rats and remained higher than that of ES rats for the rest of the study. After 4 weeks of high-salt intake, ES rats still showed a lower mean serum creatinine concentration and less albuminuria, as well as less histologic evidence of glomerular injury and kidney fibrosis, than SS rats did. To investigate the specific contribution of renal Ets-1, we transplanted kidneys from ES or SS rats into salt-resistant SS-Chr 13(BN/McwiCrl) (SS-13BN) rats. Within 10 days on a high-salt diet, BP increased similarly in ES and SS allograft recipients, becoming significantly higher than the BP of control isograft recipients. However, mean serum creatinine concentration and albuminuria remained lower in ES allograft recipients than in SS allograft recipients at 2 weeks, and ES allografts showed less glomerular injury and interstitial fibrosis. In conclusion, reduced renal expression of ETS-1 prevented hypertension-associated kidney injury in SS rats. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. Free fatty acids link metabolism and regulation of the insulin-sensitizing fibroblast growth factor-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Knut; Andres, Janin; Biedasek, Katrin; Weicht, Jessica; Bobbert, Thomas; Sabath, Markus; Meinus, Sabine; Reinecke, Franziska; Möhlig, Matthias; Weickert, Martin O; Clemenz, Markus; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Kintscher, Ulrich; Spuler, Simone; Spranger, Joachim

    2009-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 improves insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in obese or diabetic animal models, while human studies revealed increased FGF-21 levels in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Given that FGF-21 has been suggested to be a peroxisome proliferator-activator receptor (PPAR) alpha-dependent regulator of fasting metabolism, we hypothesized that free fatty acids (FFAs), natural agonists of PPARalpha, might modify FGF-21 levels. The effect of fatty acids on FGF-21 was investigated in vitro in HepG2 cells. Within a randomized controlled trial, the effects of elevated FFAs were studied in 21 healthy subjects (13 women and 8 men). Within a clinical trial including 17 individuals, the effect of insulin was analyzed using an hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and the effect of PPARgamma activation was studied subsequently in a rosiglitazone treatment trial over 8 weeks. Oleate and linoleate increased FGF-21 expression and secretion in a PPARalpha-dependent fashion, as demonstrated by small-interfering RNA-induced PPARalpha knockdown, while palmitate had no effect. In vivo, lipid infusion induced an increase of circulating FGF-21 in humans, and a strong correlation between the change in FGF-21 levels and the change in FFAs was observed. An artificial hyperinsulinemia, which was induced to delineate the potential interaction between elevated FFAs and hyperinsulinemia, revealed that hyperinsulinemia also increased FGF-21 levels in vivo, while rosiglitazone treatment had no effect. The results presented here offer a mechanism explaining the induction of the metabolic regulator FGF-21 in the fasting situation but also in type 2 diabetes and obesity.

  3. Moral sensitivity relating to the application of the code of ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Soon; Kang, Se-Won; Ahn, Jeong-Ah

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the clinical application of the 2006 Third Revised Korean Nurses' Code of Ethics and the moral sensitivity of nurses. A total of 303 clinical nurses in South Korea participated in the survey in May and June 2011. As instruments of this study, we used the 15 statements of the Korean Nurses' Code of Ethics and Korean Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire. The mean score for application was 3.77 ± 0.59 (out of 5), and the mean score for moral sensitivity was 5.14 ± 0.55 (out of 7). The correlation coefficient (r) of the application and moral sensitivity was 0.336 (p moral sensitivity also scored high on application (t = -5.018, p moral sensitivity of nurses are necessary for improving the application of the code of ethics.

  4. SHORTCUT METHODS FOR SIMPLEX-BASED SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF LINEAR PROGRAMMING AND RELATED SOFTWARE ISSUE

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    Muwafaq M. Alkubaisi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has presented an overview of theoretical and methodological issues in simplex based sensitivity analysis (SA. The paper focuses somewhat on developing shortcut methods to perform Linear Programming (L.P. sensitivity analysis manually and in particular to dual prices and its meaning and changes in the parameter of the L.P model. Shortcut methods for conducting sensitivity analysis have been suggested. To perform sensitivity analysis in real life, one needs computer packages (software to achieve the sensitivity analysis report for higher accuracy and to save time. Some of these computer packages are very professional, but, unfortunately, some other packages suffer from logical errors in the programming of sensitivity analysis.

  5. Environmental factors related to multiple sclerosis in Indian population.

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    Chaithra Malli

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is less prevalent among Indians when compared to white populations. Genetic susceptibility remaining the same it is possible that environmental associations may have a role in determining disease prevalence.To determine whether childhood infections, vaccination status, past infection with Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori, diet, socioeconomic and educational status were associated with MS.139 patients and 278 matched control subjects were selected. A validated environmental exposure questionnaire was administered. Estimation of serum H.pylori IgG antibody was done by ELISA. Patients and controls were genotyped for HLA-DRB1*15:01.In our cohort a significant association was seen with measles (p < 0.007, vegetarian diet (p < 0.001, higher educational status (p < 0.0001 and urban living (p < 0.0001. An inverse relationship was seen with H.Pylori infection and MS (p < 0.001. Measles infection (OR 6.479, CI 1.21-34.668, p < 0.029 and high educational status (OR 3.088, CI 1.212-7.872, p < 0.018 were significant risk factors associated with MS. H.pylori infection was inversely related to MS (OR 0. 319, CI 0.144- 0.706, p < 0.005.Environmental influences may be important in determining MS prevalence.

  6. Related factors of comprehensive treatment effect on anisometropic amblyopia children

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    Ai-Xin Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the related factors of comprehensive treatment effect on anisometropic amblyopia children, and to provide a theoretical basis for clinical intervention. METHODS: Totally 100 cases of anisometropic amblyopia children in our hospital from October 2013 to October 2014 were selected and were divided into groups A, B and C according to curative effect after 6~18mo's treatment. Fifty-four cases of group A were judged to be cured, 34 cases of group B were judged to be improved, and 12 cases of group C was invalid. The age, compliance, anisometropia degree, anisometropia type, amblyopia degree and fixation behavior were analyzed. RESULTS: Anisometropia type among the three groups of patients showed no significant difference(P>0.05. While the age, compliance, anisometropia degree, amblyopia degree and fixation behavior among three groups of patients had statistically significant differences(PCONCLUSION: There are closed relationship between comprehensive treatment effect and age, compliance, anisometropia degree, amblyopia degree, fixation behavior, but there is no significant correlation between anisometropia type and comprehensive treatment effect.

  7. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome, Periodic Limb Movements and Related Factors

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    Osman Özgür Yalın

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS is characterized by nocturnal repetitive apnea episodes. Periodic limb movements (PLMs is nocturnal, stereotypic, repetitive movements of the lower extremities. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of periodic limb movements in OSAS patients and correlation of PLM with OSAS severity. METHODS: One hundred and forty one OSAS suspected patients was enrolled into the study. All subjects’ blood pressure, heart rate measurements and neurologic examinations were made by the same neurologist. Sociodemographic characteristics were recorded. One night polysomnography (PSG was performed to all patients and results were analyzed. Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI ≥ 5 subjects were accepted as OSAS, and PLM Index (PLMI ≥ 5 subjects were accepted as having PLM. RESULTS: One hundred and two patients were diagnosed as OSAS. The control group consisted of 39 patients who had normal polysomnographic findings. OSAS patients’ were older and body mass index (BMI were higher than the control group. Systolic blood pressure was higher in OSAS group. Alcohol use was determined as a risk factor for OSAS. PLM were more common in OSAS group than the control group (% 30,3 - % 10,2. PLM frequency was associated with the severity of OSAS. CONCLUSION: In OSAS patients presence of PLM was related with OSAS severity, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and REM sleep depletion. PLM in OSAS patients could be regarded as an indicator of disease severity and also could aware clinician for increased complication rates.

  8. Klotho is a serum factor related to human aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖能明; 张焱明; 郑权; 顾军

    2004-01-01

    Background Does klotho (KL) protein exist in human serum, and is there any correlation between KL protein in serum with human aging? In order to answer those questions, we identified KL protein in human serum and established the correlation between KL protein in human serum and aging.Methods We prepared a polyclonal antibody against human KL protein that was able to recognize the C-terminal of human secreted KL protein. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to identify KL protein in human serum.Results In Western blot, the antibody specifically recognized a 60-kD KL protein in both human and mice serum. The population aged from 0 to 91 years screened by ELISA revealed that the level of serum KL declined while age increased, though each individual level was variable and that the trend of decreasing in serum KL had no difference in sex.Conclusion Our data suggest that KL is a serum factor related to human aging.

  9. Parental Factors Associated with Rumination Related Metacognitive Beliefs in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ka-Wai; Lo, Barbara C Y

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of research studies have suggested that metacognition is associated with individuals' mental health. Specifically, metacognitive beliefs about rumination was proposed to link to the onset and maintenance of depression according to the metacognitive model of depression. The current study aimed to serve as a pilot study exploring how parents' metacognitive beliefs and parenting characteristics are associated with rumination related metacognitive beliefs in adolescents. Eighty-five parent-youth dyads were invited to complete a set of questionnaires examining their metacognitive beliefs about rumination followed by a difficult puzzle task, in which parent-adolescent interaction patterns were recorded to examine the parenting style. Results found that parents' and adolescents' positive metacognitive beliefs about rumination were significantly associated with each other. In addition, parental negativity was significantly associated with adolescents' positive metacognitive beliefs of rumination and parental over-involvement was marginally associated with adolescents' negative metacognitive beliefs of rumination. The findings highlighted the association between parental factors and adolescents' metacognitive beliefs about rumination. Implications on the prevention of adolescent's depression were discussed.

  10. Compliance with antimicrobial therapy: Evaluating the related factors

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    Mandana Moradi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncontrolled and irrational use of antibiotics increases the rate of antimicrobial resistance and treatment failure. Compliance with antibiotics is an important indicator to show how patients use their prescribed drugs and it can explain the relationship between drug administration and treatment outcome that needs to be monitored and promoted. We decided to evaluate compliance to antimicrobial drugs in this study.Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 100 patients referring to 4 different specialists’ offices were enrolled. The rate and type of non prescribed antibiotic administration were evaluated using predesigned questionnaires. The data were analyzed by SPSS 17.0 software using descriptive statistics and chi-square test for categorical data.Results: Our results showed that 62.4% of the study population had poor compliance and 37.6 % had good compliance with their prescribed regimen. “Feeling better “and “getting worse” on prescribed regimen were major reasons for drug discontinuation. About 70% of our study population get non prescribed antibiotic from pharmacies at least once a year. Most of the requested antibiotics were not first line options. Level of education was the only factor significantly related to the rate of patient compliance. Conclusion: This study shows the high rate of non prescribed antibiotic administration and low rate of compliance among the study population that emerge the need for particular patient education and putting restrictive rules to bound  non-prescribed and unsupervised  antibiotic marketing.

  11. Celecoxib inhibits Helicobacter pylori colonization-related factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei-Hong; Li, Jiang; Liu, Fang-Xun

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization-related factors and its mechanism. METHODS: After co-incubation with celecoxib, morphology of H. pylori strain 26695 was observed under a transmission electron microscope. Flagella motility was assessed by stab agar motility test. Adherence of H. pylori to AGS cells was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of mRNA expression in flagellar genes (flaA, flaB), urease genes (ureA, ureB) and adhesin genes (babA, sabA, alpA, alpB, hpaA, hopZ) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Separation and non-integrity of bacterial cell wall, rarefaction and asymmetry of cytoplasm, and even lysis of H. pylori were observed in the presence of celecoxib. When H. pylori strains were incubated in the presence of celecoxib, their flagellar motility and adherence to AGS cells were inhibited. The expression of ureA, ureB, babA, sabA, alpA, alpB, hpaA, hopZ was up-regulated while the expression of flaA, flaB was down-regulated in the presence of celecoxib. CONCLUSION: Celecoxib inhibits flagellar motility and adherence of H. pylori to AGS cells, and destructs their normal structure in vitro. PMID:20143463

  12. Factors related to smoking habits of male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-09-15

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  13. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

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    Naing Nyi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1 the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2 mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3 there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  14. Can Bcl-XL expression predict the radio sensitivity of Bilharzial-related squamous bladder carcinoma? a prospective comparative study

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    Kamel Nermen A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local pelvic recurrence after radical cystectomy for muscle invasive bilharzial related squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 75% of treatment failures even in organ confined tumors. Despite the proven value of lymphadenectomy, up to 60% of patients undergoing cystectomy do not have it. These factors are in favor of adjuvant radiotherapy reevaluation. objectives: to evaluate the effect of adjuvant radiotherapy on disease free survival in muscle invasive bilharzial related squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and to test the predictability of radio-sensitivity using the anti apoptotic protein Bcl-XL. Methods The study prospectively included 71 patients, (47 males, 24 females with muscle invasive bilharzial related squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder (Stage pT2a-T3N0-N3M0 who underwent radical cystectomy in Assiut university hospitals between January 2005 and December 2006. Thirty eight patients received adjuvant radiotherapy to the pelvis in the dose of 50Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks (Group 1, while 33 patients did not receive adjuvant radiotherapy (group 2. Immunohistochemical characterization for bcl-xL expression was done. Follow up was done every 3 months for 12 to 36 months with a mean of 16 ± 10 months. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Three years cumulative disease free survival was calculated and adjusted to Bcl-XL expression and side effects of the treatment were recorded. Results The disease free cumulative survival was 48% for group 1 and 29% for group 2 (log rank p value 0.03. The multivariate predictors of tumor recurrence were the positive Bcl-XL expression (odd ratio 41.1, 95% CI 8.4 - 102.3, p Conclusions Adjuvant radiotherapy for muscle invasive bilharzial related squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder has potential effectiveness and minor side effects. Moreover, Bcl-XL expression is a valuable tool for predicting those who might not respond to this adjuvant treatment.

  15. Educational aspiration-expectation discrepancies: relation to socioeconomic and academic risk-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, Paul; Goldstein, Sara E; DeLorenzo, Tahlia; Savoy, Sarah; Mercado, Ignacio

    2011-08-01

    This study examines whether disconnection between educational aspirations and expectations is associated with socioeconomic status, academic performance, academic risk-related behaviors and related psychosocial factors in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of early adolescents from a public middle school (N = 761). Results suggest that students who aspire to achieve more than they expect to achieve also are likely to have more economically disadvantaged backgrounds and poorer academic performance. These students also show a variety of academic and social risks. Specifically, students whose aspirations exceeded their expectations reported lower levels of school bonding, higher levels of test/performance anxiety, and elevated behavioral/emotional difficulties. Results are discussed in terms of social-cognitive theory as well as applications for promoting student social and academic success.

  16. Identifying and mapping cDNA fragments related to rice photoperiod sensitive genic male sterility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The differentially expressed cDNA fragments have been obtained by differential screening with cDNA-RAPD technique in photoperiod sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS) rice.Some of them have been reassessed with Northern blot hybridization,from which a PGMS-related positive fragment,RPG43,has been identified.Further analysis on RPG43 with Southern blot and RAPD indicates that the fragment is a single-copy sequence and its mRNA has been processed after transcription.Sequence analysis reveals that RPG43 is 744 bp in length and contains a 60 bp region (from 126th to 185th bp) showing 72% homology to a human DNA sequence,pac pDJ- 356d6,on chromosome 11.So it is a new sequence found in plant and its GenBank access number is AF126027.In addition,RPG43 has been mapped to a position 3.8 cM away from RFLP marker R1553 on chromosome 5 of rice.

  17. [Home care in a culturally sensitive environment: perspectives of caregivers of Haitian elderly patients and relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Francine; Paquet, Mario; Vissandjée, Bilkis; Carpentier, Normand; Lévesque, Louise; Trudeau, Denise

    2008-01-01

    In Canada, the care provided by families occurs in an increasingly multiethnic context. Against this backdrop, the present qualitative study aims to explore the needs/expectations and solutions not only of (female) natural caregivers of an elderly relative hailing from Haiti (presented in terms of tracking cases) but also of remunerated home care providers - all with a view to developing a culturally sensitive service offering. As such, this study works from a conceptual framework centring on the negotiation of a common area of agreement between the stakeholders involved (i.e., natural caregivers and home care providers). To this end, focus groups and individual interviews were conducted among 15 caregivers and 37 home care providers. The three recurrent themes emerging from the data analysis concern, in context, the needs/expectations and solutions surrounding the experience of service use, barriers to use, and the relationships between natural caregivers and home care providers. The statements of both groups evidenced a consistency of views and have thus provided a basis for developing some recommendations acceptable to all stakeholders from the perspective of making culturally-based adjustments to the service offering.

  18. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Risk Factors for Age-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The

  19. Using a variance-based sensitivity analysis for analyzing the relation between measurements and unknown parameters of a physical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J.; Tiede, C.

    2011-05-01

    An implementation of uncertainty analysis (UA) and quantitative global sensitivity analysis (SA) is applied to the non-linear inversion of gravity changes and three-dimensional displacement data which were measured in and active volcanic area. A didactic example is included to illustrate the computational procedure. The main emphasis is placed on the problem of extended Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (E-FAST). This method produces the total sensitivity indices (TSIs), so that all interactions between the unknown input parameters are taken into account. The possible correlations between the output an the input parameters can be evaluated by uncertainty analysis. Uncertainty analysis results indicate the general fit between the physical model and the measurements. Results of the sensitivity analysis show quite different sensitivities for the measured changes as they relate to the unknown parameters of a physical model for an elastic-gravitational source. Assuming a fixed number of executions, thirty different seeds are observed to determine the stability of this method.

  20. Risk factor(s) related to high membrane permeability in peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Aydin; Sipahioglu, Murat Hayri; Kocyigit, Ismail; Tunca, Onur; Tokgoz, Bulent; Oymak, Oktay

    2016-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients have different peritoneal membrane permeability (transport) characteristics. High peritoneal membrane permeability is associated with increased mortality risk in the patient population. In this study, we aimed to investigate possible risk factor(s) related to high peritoneal membrane permeability. The study included 475 PD patients (46.1 ± 14.5 years of mean age; 198 female and 277 male). The patients were divided two groups according to peritoneal equilibration test (PET) result: high-permeability group (high and high-average) and low- permeability group (low-average and low). In both the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, it was found that diabetes mellitus and hypoalbuminemia was significantly associated with high peritoneal membrane permeability [relative risk (RR): 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26-2.86, p: 0.002 and RR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.44-3.18, ppermeability. Diabetic patients had 1.9 times the likelihood of having high permeability. However, the relationship between hypoalbuminemia and high peritoneal permeability appears to be a result rather than cause.

  1. Psychoneurometric operationalization of threat sensitivity: Relations with clinical symptom and physiological response criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, James R; Venables, Noah C; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative calls for the incorporation of neurobiological approaches and findings into conceptions of mental health problems through a focus on biobehavioral constructs investigated across multiple domains of measurement (units of analysis). Although the constructs in the RDoC system are characterized in "process terms" (i.e., as functional concepts with brain and behavioral referents), these constructs can also be framed as dispositions (i.e., as dimensions of variation in biobehavioral functioning across individuals). Focusing on one key RDoC construct, acute threat or "fear," the current article illustrates a construct-oriented psychoneurometric strategy for operationalizing this construct in individual difference terms-as threat sensitivity (THT+). Utilizing data from 454 adult participants, we demonstrate empirically that (a) a scale measure of THT+ designed to tap general fear/fearlessness predicts effectively to relevant clinical problems (i.e., fear disorder symptoms), (b) this scale measure shows reliable associations with physiological indices of acute reactivity to aversive visual stimuli, and (c) a cross-domain factor reflecting the intersection of scale and physiological indicators of THT+ predicts effectively to both clinical and neurophysiological criterion measures. Results illustrate how the psychoneurometric approach can be used to create a dimensional index of a biobehavioral trait construct, in this case THT+, which can serve as a bridge between phenomena in domains of psychopathology and neurobiology. Implications and future directions are discussed with reference to the RDoC initiative and existing report-based conceptions of psychological traits.

  2. Relative sensitivities of DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters to arterial input function (AIF) scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Cai, Yu; Moloney, Brendan; Chen, Yiyi; Huang, Wei; Woods, Mark; Coakley, Fergus V; Rooney, William D; Garzotto, Mark G; Springer, Charles S

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic-Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) has been used widely for clinical applications. Pharmacokinetic modeling of DCE-MRI data that extracts quantitative contrast reagent/tissue-specific model parameters is the most investigated method. One of the primary challenges in pharmacokinetic analysis of DCE-MRI data is accurate and reliable measurement of the arterial input function (AIF), which is the driving force behind all pharmacokinetics. Because of effects such as inflow and partial volume averaging, AIF measured from individual arteries sometimes require amplitude scaling for better representation of the blood contrast reagent (CR) concentration time-courses. Empirical approaches like blinded AIF estimation or reference tissue AIF derivation can be useful and practical, especially when there is no clearly visible blood vessel within the imaging field-of-view (FOV). Similarly, these approaches generally also require magnitude scaling of the derived AIF time-courses. Since the AIF varies among individuals even with the same CR injection protocol and the perfect scaling factor for reconstructing the ground truth AIF often remains unknown, variations in estimated pharmacokinetic parameters due to varying AIF scaling factors are of special interest. In this work, using simulated and real prostate cancer DCE-MRI data, we examined parameter variations associated with AIF scaling. Our results show that, for both the fast-exchange-limit (FXL) Tofts model and the water exchange sensitized fast-exchange-regime (FXR) model, the commonly fitted CR transfer constant (K(trans)) and the extravascular, extracellular volume fraction (ve) scale nearly proportionally with the AIF, whereas the FXR-specific unidirectional cellular water efflux rate constant, kio, and the CR intravasation rate constant, kep, are both AIF scaling insensitive. This indicates that, for DCE-MRI of prostate cancer and possibly other cancers, kio and kep may be more suitable imaging

  3. Relative sensitivities of DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters to arterial input function (AIF) scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Cai, Yu; Moloney, Brendan; Chen, Yiyi; Huang, Wei; Woods, Mark; Coakley, Fergus V.; Rooney, William D.; Garzotto, Mark G.; Springer, Charles S.

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic-Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) has been used widely for clinical applications. Pharmacokinetic modeling of DCE-MRI data that extracts quantitative contrast reagent/tissue-specific model parameters is the most investigated method. One of the primary challenges in pharmacokinetic analysis of DCE-MRI data is accurate and reliable measurement of the arterial input function (AIF), which is the driving force behind all pharmacokinetics. Because of effects such as inflow and partial volume averaging, AIF measured from individual arteries sometimes require amplitude scaling for better representation of the blood contrast reagent (CR) concentration time-courses. Empirical approaches like blinded AIF estimation or reference tissue AIF derivation can be useful and practical, especially when there is no clearly visible blood vessel within the imaging field-of-view (FOV). Similarly, these approaches generally also require magnitude scaling of the derived AIF time-courses. Since the AIF varies among individuals even with the same CR injection protocol and the perfect scaling factor for reconstructing the ground truth AIF often remains unknown, variations in estimated pharmacokinetic parameters due to varying AIF scaling factors are of special interest. In this work, using simulated and real prostate cancer DCE-MRI data, we examined parameter variations associated with AIF scaling. Our results show that, for both the fast-exchange-limit (FXL) Tofts model and the water exchange sensitized fast-exchange-regime (FXR) model, the commonly fitted CR transfer constant (Ktrans) and the extravascular, extracellular volume fraction (ve) scale nearly proportionally with the AIF, whereas the FXR-specific unidirectional cellular water efflux rate constant, kio, and the CR intravasation rate constant, kep, are both AIF scaling insensitive. This indicates that, for DCE-MRI of prostate cancer and possibly other cancers, kio and kep may be more suitable imaging

  4. Expression of Root-Related Transcription Factors Associated with Flooding Tolerance of Soybean (Glycine max

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    Babu Valliyodan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of

  5. Unscrambling cyanobacteria community dynamics related to environmental factors

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    Mireia eBertos-Fortis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a two-year monthly time-series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An epidemic population structure (dominance of a single cluster was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this cluster simultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs e.g. Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formed a consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocyanobacteria and

  6. Study of Relation of Psychological Factors of Empowerment and Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad G. Chegini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Today, organizations are able to survive that have dynamic requirements and potentials and can make a proper response to changes and equip their human sources to the knowledge and skill of generative entrepreneurship through establishing necessary aspects. The increasing rate of changes in scientific, economic and social areas is one of the most common features of the century. The purpose of this research is to study the relationship between the psychological factors of empowerment and entrepreneurship of trainers of Northern provinces, technico-vocational skill organizations (Mazandaran, Golestan, Guilan of Iran. Approach: The research with respect to the methodology and nature is descriptive, it is of kind of adhesion in regret to the relation of psychological factors of empowerment with entrepreneurship and it is applicable with respect to the aim because it can be implemented. The 566-people statistic community included the total of trainers employed in three Iranian Northern provinces that based on the Cochran formula, 270 people selected as samples. The may of collecting field information and data collection tool has been questionnaire. The admissibility of the questionnaire was studied in regard to the content and professional consultants gave some ideas about it and it’s durability calculated by using Cronbach Alfa test, that competed 92 and 87% for entrepreneurship and empowerment respectively. Statistical techniques used include: Descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Pearson adhesion coefficient and analyzing data done by using software SPSS. Results: That there is a meaningful and positive relationship between all psychological dimensions of empowerment (self-efficiency, self-determination, personal consequence, meaning, trust in others and entrepreneurship as feeling to be meaningful is first, feeling of self-efficiency is second, feeling to be efficient is third, feeling of self-determination is fourth and

  7. Competitiveness as a moderator of the relation between appearance-related factors and disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleien, Jenna L; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined competitiveness as a moderator of the relationships between appearance-related factors (i.e., thin-ideal internalization, appearance contingent self-worth) and disordered eating behaviors (i.e., dieting, excessive exercise). Participants were 441 undergraduate females for cross-sectional analyses, with 237 also contributing data longitudinally, 1 year later. Results showed that, in a model including thin-ideal internalization and appearance contingent self-worth and their interactions with competitiveness, thin-ideal internalization (but not appearance contingent self-worth) interacted with competitiveness to identify concurrent levels of both dieting and excessive exercise. Individuals high in both thin-ideal internalization and competitiveness exhibited the highest levels of concurrent dieting and excessive exercise. After controlling for baseline levels of the dependent variables, neither appearance-related factor interacted with competitiveness to predict dieting or excessive exercise. These findings suggest that individuals who are both competitive and accept and strive to achieve the thin ideal may be at risk for disordered eating behaviors.

  8. Sensitivity to Viewpoint in Children's Drawings of Objects and Relations between Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J. Gavin; Batten, Annabel

    1991-01-01

    In this study of sensitivity to viewpoint, children between the ages of 6 and 14 years were asked to draw an L-shaped array of 3 cubes from 1 of 3 views. At every age, children showed sensitivity to their view in the sense that there were consistent differences between the drawings produced in the three viewing conditions. (SH)

  9. Microvascular function relates to insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in normal subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; Stehouwer, CDA; ter Maaten, JC; ter Wee, PM; Rauwerda, JA; Gans, ROB

    1999-01-01

    Background-A strong but presently unexplained inverse association between blood pressure and insulin sensitivity has been reported. Microvascular vasodilator capacity may be a common antecedent linking insulin sensitivity to blood pressure. To test this hypothesis, we studied LX normotensive and glu

  10. Insulin sensitivity and related cytokines, chemokines, and adipokines in polymyalgia rheumatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, F; Galbo, H

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the insulin sensitivity (IS) and levels of peptides with impact on IS in polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) before and after prednisolone treatment.......To evaluate the insulin sensitivity (IS) and levels of peptides with impact on IS in polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) before and after prednisolone treatment....

  11. Fears in Clinic-Referred Children: Relations with Child Anxiety Sensitivity, Maternal Overcontrol, and Maternal Phobic Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendick, Thomas H.; Horsch, Laura M.

    2007-01-01

    Relations among maternal phobic anxiety, maternal overcontrol, child anxiety sensitivity, and child level of fear were explored in 156 children referred to an outpatient clinic for psychological evaluation. In addition, these relations were examined separately in analyses of age, gender, and diagnostic status. Overall, age, gender, and child…

  12. Influence of Ethnic-Related Diversity Experiences on Intercultural Sensitivity of Students at a Public University in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamam, Ezhar; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the influence of ethnic-related diversity experiences on intercultural sensitivity among Malaysian students at a multiethnic, multicultural and multilingual Malaysian public university. Results reveal a significant differential level of ethnic-related diversity experiences (but not at the level of intercultural…

  13. Direct shortwave forcing of climate by anthropogenic sulfate aerosol: Sensitivity to particle size, composition, and relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemesure, S.; Wagener, R.; Schwartz, S.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, New York (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Recent estimates of global or hemispheric average forcing of climate by anthropogenic sulfate aerosol due to scattering of shortwave radiation are uncertain by more than a factor of 2. This paper examines the sensitivity of forcing to these microphysical properties for the purposes of obtaining a better understanding of the properties required to reduce the uncertainty in the forcing.

  14. European Clearinghouse - Contributing Factors to Incidents Related to Reactivity Management

    OpenAIRE

    BRUYNOOGHE Christiane; NOEL MARC

    2009-01-01

    In this paper shortcomings in reactivity management reported to the IAEA Incident Reporting System in the period 1981-2008 are investigated and contributing factors to reactivity management incidents are analysed. The aim of theworkwas to identify the initiating factors and associated root causes. Five of the seven factors identified for all events were present in the 1999 Shika-1 event where criticality has been unexpectedly reached and maintained during fifteen minutes. Most of the events r...

  15. Bioluminometric assay of ATP in mouse brain: Determinant factors for enhanced test sensitivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haseeb Ahmad Khan

    2003-06-01

    Firefly luciferase bioluminescence (FLB) is a highly sensitive and specific method for the analysis of adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) in biological samples. Earlier attempts to modify the FLB test for enhanced sensitivity have been typically based on in vitro cell systems. This study reports an optimized FLB procedure for the analysis of ATP in small tissue samples. The results showed that the sensitivity of the FLB test can be enhanced several fold by using ultraturax homogenizer, perchloric acid extraction, neutralization of acid extract and its optimal dilution, before performing the assay reaction.

  16. Modelling Cost Effectiveness in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The Impact of Using Contrast Sensitivity vs. Visual Acuity.

    OpenAIRE

    Butt, T.; Patel,P J; Tufail, A; Rubin, G. S.

    2014-01-01

    The cost utility of treatments of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is commonly assessed using health state transition models defined by levels of visual acuity. However, there is evidence that another measure of visual function, contrast sensitivity, may be better associated with utility than visual acuity. This paper investigates the difference in cost effectiveness resulting from models based on visual acuity and contrast sensitivity using the example of bevacizumab (Avastin) for neov...

  17. The role of noise sensitivity in the noise-response relation: A comparison of three international airport studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kamp, Irene; Job, R. F. Soames; Hatfield, Julie; Haines, Mary; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2004-12-01

    In order to examine the role of noise sensitivity in response to environmental noise, this paper presents detailed comparisons of socio-acoustic studies conducted around international airports in Amsterdam, Sydney, and London. Earlier findings that noise sensitivity moderates the effect of noise on annoyance were examined to see if they could be replicated in each of the datasets, independent of the technique of measuring noise sensitivity. The relation between exposure to aircraft noise and noise annoyance was studied separately for groups of individuals with low, medium, and high noise sensitivity, with statistical adjustment for relevant confounders. Results support the previous findings that noise sensitivity is an independent predictor of annoyance and adds to the prediction of noise annoyance afforded by noise exposure level by up to 26% of explained variance. There is no evidence of a moderating effect, whereby the covariation between noise exposure level and annoyance is weak for people who score at the extreme high or low end of the sensitivity scale, and strong for people who score in the middle of the sensitivity scale. Generally, noise sensitivity appears to increase annoyance independently of the level of noise exposure after adjustment for relevant confounders. These findings were consistent across the three datasets. .

  18. Community reintegration and related factors in a Nigerian stroke sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akosile, Christopher; Nworah, Chioma; Okoye, Emmanuel; Adegoke, Babatunde; Umunnah, Joseph; Fabunmi, Ayodeji

    2016-09-01

    The goal of stroke rehabilitation has shifted from mere survival of a victim to how well a survivor can be effectively reintegrated back into the community. The present study determined the level of satisfaction with community reintegration (CR) and related factors among Nigerian community-dwelling stroke survivors (CDSS). This was a cross-sectional survey of 71 volunteering CDSS (35 males, 36 females) from selected South-Eastern Nigerian communities. Reintegration to Normal Living Index was used to assess participants' CR. Data was analysed using Spearman rank-order correlation, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at p≤0.05. Participants generally had deficits in CR which was either mild/moderate (52.1%) or severe (47.9%). Scores in the CR domains of distance mobility, performance of daily activities, recreational activities and family roles were particularly low (median scores ≤ 4). CR was significantly correlated with and influenced by age (r=-0.35; p=0.00) and presence/absence of diabetes mellitus (u=3.56.50; p=0.01), pre- (k=6.13; p=0.05) and post-stroke employment (k=18.26; p=0.00) status, type of assistive mobility device being used (AMD) (k=25.39; p=0.00) and support from the community (k=7.15; p=0.03) respectively. CR was generally poor for this CDSS sample. Survivors who are older, having diabetes as co-morbidity, using AMD (particularly wheel-chair) and without employment pre- and/or post-stroke may require keener attention. Rehabilitation focus may be targeted at enhancing mobility functions, vocational and social skills.

  19. Sensitivity Analysis on the Impact Factors of the GSHP System Considering Energy Generation and Environmental Impact Using LCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehoon Hong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing a crisis due to energy depletion and environmental pollution. The ground source heat pump (GSHP system, the most efficient new/renewable energy (NRE system that can reduce the load of heating/cooling equipment in a building, can be used to address this crisis. Designers and contractors have implemented such systems depending on their experience, although there are many factors that affect the performance of the GSHP system. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct a sensitivity analysis on the impact factors in terms of energy generation and environmental impact. This study was conducted as follows: (i collecting the impact factors that affect the GSHP system’s performance; (ii establishing the GSHP system’s scenarios with the impact factors; (iii determining the methodology and calculation tool to be used for conducting sensitivity analysis; and (iv conducting sensitivity analysis on the impact factors of the GSHP system in terms of energy generation and environmental impact using life cycle assessment. The results of this study can be used: (i to establish the optimal design strategy for different application fields and different seasons; and (ii to conduct a feasibility study on energy generation and environmental impact at the level of the life cycle.

  20. The multiple factors affecting the association between atopic dermatitis and contact sensitization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thyssen, J. P; McFadden, J. P; Kimber, I

    2014-01-01

    ... and allergic contact dermatitis. The use of topical products to treat xerotic and inflamed skin in atopic dermatitis often results in a higher prevalence of sensitization to, for example, fragrances and other ingredients in emollients...

  1. The Anxiety Sensitivity Index--Revised: Confirmatory Factor Analyses, Structural Invariance in Caucasian and African American Samples, and Score Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, Randolph C.; Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Green, Bradley A.; Berman, Mitchell E.

    2009-01-01

    The most commonly used measure of anxiety sensitivity is the 36-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index--Revised (ASI-R). Exploratory factor analyses have produced several different factors structures for the ASI-R, but an acceptable fit using confirmatory factor analytic approaches has only been found for a 21-item version of the instrument. We evaluated…

  2. The Anxiety Sensitivity Index--Revised: Confirmatory Factor Analyses, Structural Invariance in Caucasian and African American Samples, and Score Reliability and Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, Randolph C.; Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Green, Bradley A.; Berman, Mitchell E.

    2009-01-01

    The most commonly used measure of anxiety sensitivity is the 36-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index--Revised (ASI-R). Exploratory factor analyses have produced several different factors structures for the ASI-R, but an acceptable fit using confirmatory factor analytic approaches has only been found for a 21-item version of the instrument. We evaluated…

  3. The deformed uncertainty relation and the corresponding beam quality factor

    CERN Document Server

    Li, K; Wang, S M; Li, Kang; Zhao, Dao Mu; Wang, Shao Min

    1996-01-01

    By using the theory of deformed quantum mechanics, we study the deformed light beam theoretically. The deformed beam quality factor M_q^2 is given explicitly under the case of deformed light in coherent state. When the deformation parameter q being a root of unity, the beam quality factor M_q^2 \\leq 1.

  4. Direct detection of transcription factors in cotyledons during seedling development using sensitive silicon-substrate photonic crystal protein arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah I; Tan, Yafang; Shamimuzzaman, Md; George, Sherine; Cunningham, Brian T; Vodkin, Lila

    2015-03-01

    Transcription factors control important gene networks, altering the expression of a wide variety of genes, including those of agronomic importance, despite often being expressed at low levels. Detecting transcription factor proteins is difficult, because current high-throughput methods may not be sensitive enough. One-dimensional, silicon-substrate photonic crystal (PC) arrays provide an alternative substrate for printing multiplexed protein microarrays that have greater sensitivity through an increased signal-to-noise ratio of the fluorescent signal compared with performing the same assay upon a traditional aminosilanized glass surface. As a model system to test proof of concept of the silicon-substrate PC arrays to directly detect rare proteins in crude plant extracts, we selected representatives of four different transcription factor families (zinc finger GATA, basic helix-loop-helix, BTF3/NAC [for basic transcription factor of the NAC family], and YABBY) that have increasing transcript levels during the stages of seedling cotyledon development. Antibodies to synthetic peptides representing the transcription factors were printed on both glass slides and silicon-substrate PC slides along with antibodies to abundant cotyledon proteins, seed lectin, and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. The silicon-substrate PC arrays proved more sensitive than those performed on glass slides, detecting rare proteins that were below background on the glass slides. The zinc finger transcription factor was detected on the PC arrays in crude extracts of all stages of the seedling cotyledons, whereas YABBY seemed to be at the lower limit of their sensitivity. Interestingly, the basic helix-loop-helix and NAC proteins showed developmental profiles consistent with their transcript patterns, indicating proof of concept for detecting these low-abundance proteins in crude extracts.

  5. Factors related to staff stress in HIV/AIDS related palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Prabha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Staff stress in HIV related palliative care has been identified as an important problem worldwide. This study aimed at estimating prevalence of staff stress and its correlates in a sample of palliative caregivers in HIV/AIDS in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-two participants (29 female and 23 male completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, AIDS Contact Scale (ACS and AIDS Stress Scale (ASS and a semi-structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The majority (92% had average to high scores on at least one domain of MBI. High scores on the factors Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalisation, and Personal Accomplishment were seen in 10%, 17% and 58% of the sample respectively. ASS score, severity of stress in dealing with persons living with AIDS and having considered leaving HIV related work were predictors of high Emotional Exhaustion scores. ASS score, ACS score and severity of stress with death of a person with AIDS were predictors of high Depersonalisation scores. Female gender was a predictor of a high Personal Accomplishment score. CONCLUSIONS: The study emphasises the need to address issues related to staff burnout in HIV palliative care.

  6. Sensitivity of transatlantic dust transport to chemical aging and related atmospheric processes

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2017-03-20

    We present a sensitivity study on transatlantic dust transport, a process which has many implications for the atmosphere, the ocean and the climate. We investigate the impact of key processes that control the dust outflow, i.e., the emission flux, convection schemes and the chemical aging of mineral dust, by using the EMAC model following Abdelkader et al. (2015). To characterize the dust outflow over the Atlantic Ocean, we distinguish two geographic zones: (i) dust interactions within the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), or the dust–ITCZ interaction zone (DIZ), and (ii) the adjacent dust transport over the Atlantic Ocean (DTA) zone. In the latter zone, the dust loading shows a steep and linear gradient westward over the Atlantic Ocean since particle sedimentation is the dominant removal process, whereas in the DIZ zone aerosol–cloud interactions, wet deposition and scavenging processes determine the extent of the dust outflow. Generally, the EMAC simulated dust compares well with CALIPSO observations; however, our reference model configuration tends to overestimate the dust extinction at a lower elevation and underestimates it at a higher elevation. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Caribbean responds to the dust emission flux only when the emitted dust mass is significantly increased over the source region in Africa by a factor of 10. These findings point to the dominant role of dust removal (especially wet deposition) in transatlantic dust transport. Experiments with different convection schemes have indeed revealed that the transatlantic dust transport is more sensitive to the convection scheme than to the dust emission flux parameterization. To study the impact of dust chemical aging, we focus on a major dust outflow in July 2009. We use the calcium cation as a proxy for the overall chemical reactive dust fraction and consider the uptake of major inorganic acids (i.e., H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl) and their anions, i.e., sulfate (SO42−), bisulfate

  7. On Language Acquisition Amongst Children and on Maternal Sensitivity in Families Subject to Risk Factors and those Free of Risk Factors. A Study in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelie Abarca

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors can lead to disturbance of all areas of a child's development, and thus also of language acquisition and to problems in early relationships between parent and child. In the event of multiple risk factors, as it is often the case amongst people living in poverty, the burden of risks and therefore the probability of developmental disturbance rises (Laucht, Esser & Schmidt, 1998; Wustmann, 2004.In the present study a sample amongst families living in poverty (San Pedro, Ecuador was compared with a sample taken from middle-class families (Quito, Ecuador. An examination was carried out whether there was a varying number of risk factors and whether there were differences in the language competence of the child as well as in the mother's sensitivity. There was a further examination of whether there was a correlation between maternal sensitivity and communicative competences. The results indicate a negative influence of risk conditions on the language acquisition of the children and on the intuitive and sensitive maternal competences. In the risk group, the results showed a preponderance of delays and disturbances in language development of the children. The mothers from the risk sample group displayed less sensitivity than the control group. There was also a correlation between maternal sensitivity and individual areas of competence. This study shows that it is necessary to ascertain the delays in children's language acquisition and mother-child interaction, particularly amongst families with serious burdens and multiple risk factors. Ascertaining these developmental risks can be used for prevention or intervention which can reduce the risk of negative consequences and aid positive adaptation.

  8. Adipogenesis-related increase of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase and monoamine oxidase in human adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bour, Sandy; Daviaud, Danièle; Gres, Sandra; Lefort, Corinne; Prévot, Danielle; Zorzano, Antonio; Wabitsch, Martin; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Valet, Philippe; Carpéné, Christian

    2007-08-01

    A strong induction of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) has previously been reported during murine preadipocyte lineage differentiation but it remains unknown whether this emergence also occurs during adipogenesis in man. Our aim was to compare SSAO and monoamine oxidase (MAO) expression during in vitro differentiation of human preadipocytes and in adipose and stroma-vascular fractions of human fat depots. A human preadipocyte cell strain from a patient with Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome was first used to follow amine oxidase expression during in vitro differentiation. Then, human preadipocytes isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissues were cultured under conditions promoting ex vivo adipose differentiation and tested for MAO and SSAO expression. Lastly, human adipose tissue was separated into mature adipocyte and stroma-vascular fractions for analyses of MAO and SSAO at mRNA, protein and activity levels. Both SSAO and MAO were increased from undifferentiated preadipocytes to lipid-laden cells in all the models: 3T3-F442A and 3T3-L1 murine lineages, human SGBS cell strain or human preadipocytes in primary culture. In human subcutaneous adipose tissue, the adipocyte-enriched fraction exhibited seven-fold higher amine oxidase activity and contained three- to seven-fold higher levels of mRNAs encoded by MAO-A, MAO-B, AOC3 and AOC2 genes than the stroma-vascular fraction. MAO-A and AOC3 genes accounted for the majority of their respective MAO and SSAO activities in human adipose tissue. Most of the SSAO and MAO found in adipose tissue originated from mature adipocytes. Although the mechanism and role of adipogenesis-related increase in amine oxidase expression remain to be established, the resulting elevated levels of amine oxidase activities found in human adipocytes may be of potential interest for therapeutic intervention in obesity.

  9. Phylogenetic signal in phenotypic traits related to carbon source assimilation and chemical sensitivity in Acinetobacter species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Ado; Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; de Breij, Anna; De Brabanter, Joseph; Willems, Kris A; Dijkshoorn, Lenie; Lievens, Bart

    2017-01-01

    A common belief is that the phylogeny of bacteria may reflect molecular functions and phenotypic characteristics, pointing towards phylogenetic conservatism of traits. Here, we tested this hypothesis for a large set of Acinetobacter strains. Members of the genus Acinetobacter are widespread in nature, demonstrate a high metabolic diversity and are resistant to several environmental stressors. Notably, some species are known to cause opportunistic human infections. A total of 133 strains belonging to 33 species with validly published names, two genomic species and species of an as-yet unknown taxonomic status were analyzed using the GENIII technology of Biolog, which allows high-throughput phenotyping. We estimated the strength and significance of the phylogenetic signal of each trait across phylogenetic reconstructions based on partial RNA polymerase subunit B (rpoB) and core genome sequences. Secondly, we tested whether phylogenetic distance was a good predictor of trait differentiation by Mantel test analysis. And finally, evolutionary model fitting was used to determine if the data for each phenotypic character was consistent with a phylogenetic or an essentially random model of trait distribution. Our data revealed that some key phenotypic traits related to substrate assimilation and chemical sensitivity are linked to the phylogenetic placement of Acinetobacter species. The strongest phylogenetic signals found were for utilization of different carbon sources such as some organic acids, amino acids and sugars, thus suggesting that in the diversification of Acinetobacter carbon source assimilation has had a relevant role. Future work should be aimed to clarify how such traits have shaped the remarkable ability of this bacterial group to dominate in a wide variety of habitats.

  10. Repeatability of contrast sensitivity testing in patients with age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Kara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze the intrasession and intersession repeatability of contrast sensitivity (CS measurements in patients with glaucoma, cataract, or age-related macular degeneration (AMD and healthy controls. Methods: CS measurements were performed using the OPTEC-Functional Vision Analyzer (FVA, which uses a standardized and closed (view-in system. Measurements for patients with glaucoma, cataract, or AMD and healthy controls were repeated within 30 minutes (intrasession and during two sessions (intersession, separated by one week to one month. Test-retest reliability and correlation were measured using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and coefficient of repeatability (COR. Results: Ninety subjects (90 eyes with visual acuity of 0.17 logMAR or higher in the cataract group or 0.00 logMAR in the other groups were included. During the first session, the ICC values were 0.87, 0.90, 0.76, and 0.69, and COR values were 0.24, 0.20, 0.38, and 0.25 for the control, glaucoma, cataract, and AMD groups, respectively. The reliability scores significantly improved during the second session, except in the glaucoma group. There was an acceptable floor effect and no ceiling effect at higher frequencies in the glaucoma and AMD groups. Conclusion: In subjects with good visual acuity, the FVA system is useful for evaluating CS and demonstrates good repeatability, as shown by ICC and COR. Because there is no ceiling effect, this system is beneficial for evaluation of early changes in CS, particularly in patients with glaucoma or AMD.

  11. High MICs for Vancomycin and Daptomycin and Complicated Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections with Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Esther; Chaves, Fernando; Lalueza, Antonio; Fortún, Jesús; Loza, Elena; Pujol, Miquel; Ardanuy, Carmen; Morales, Isabel; de Cueto, Marina; Resino-Foz, Elena; Morales-Cartagena, Alejandra; Rico, Alicia; Romero, María P.; Orellana, María Ángeles; López-Medrano, Francisco; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prognostic role of high MICs for antistaphylococcal agents in patients with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus catheter-related bloodstream infection (MSSA CRBSI). We prospectively reviewed 83 episodes from 5 centers in Spain during April 2011–June 2014 that had optimized clinical management and analyzed the relationship between E-test MICs for vancomycin, daptomycin, oxacillin, and linezolid and development of complicated bacteremia by using multivariate analysis. Complicated MSSA CRBSI occurred in 26 (31.3%) patients; MICs for vancomycin and daptomycin were higher in these patients (optimal cutoff values for predictive accuracy = 1.5 μg/mL and 0.5 μg/mL). High MICs for vancomycin (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.2–5.5) and daptomycin (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.1–5.9) were independent risk factors for development of complicated MSSA CRBSI. Our data suggest that patients with MSSA CRBSI caused by strains that have high MICs for vancomycin or daptomycin are at increased risk for complications. PMID:27192097

  12. Target and resistance-related proteins of recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand on myeloma cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    JIAN, YUAN; Chen, Yuling; GENG, CHUANYING; Liu, Nian; YANG, GUANGZHONG; Liu, Jinwei; Li, Xin; Deng, Haiteng; CHEN, WENMING

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant mutant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rmhTRAIL) has become a potential therapeutic drug for multiple myeloma (MM). However, the exact targets and resistance mechanisms of rmhTRAIL on MM cells remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the target and resistance-related proteins of rmhTRAIL on myeloma cell lines. A TRAIL-sensitive myeloma cell line, RPMI 8226, and a TRAIL-resistance one, U266, were chosen and the differentially ex...

  13. Anxiety Sensitivity in School Attending Youth: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the 18-Item CASI in a Multicultural South African Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lindi; Kidd, Martin; Seedat, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders in youth. To date, the applicability of the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI) in youth from a low or middle income country (LMIC) setting on the African continent has not been assessed. A representative sample of 1149 secondary school learners from 29 schools in Cape Town, South Africa, participated in the study. Participants completed the CASI on a single occasion. One-, two-, and four-factor models of the CASI were assessed. A one-factor solution that comprised items predominantly represented by physical concerns appeared to provide the best fit to our data, however, relatively low variance (26%) was explained. Subsequent item deletion resulted in a 9-item 'physical concerns' factor that showed good construct reliability (0.83) but also explained a low amount of variance (35%). In terms of gender, a one-factor model provided the best fit, however, low variance was explained (i.e., 25%). Configural, metric and scalar invariance of the CASI by gender was determined. Our results suggest that the 18-item CASI is not applicable to our target population and may require adaptation in this population; however, replication of this study in other multicultural adolescent samples in South Africa is first needed to further assess the validity of the AS construct as measured by the CASI.

  14. Proteomic Characterization of Inbreeding-Related Cold Sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, C.J.; Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie; Beck, Hans C.

    2013-01-01

    insight into the molecular interplay between intrinsic stress responses, inbreeding depression and temperature tolerance, we performed a proteomic characterization of a well-defined conditional inbreeding effect in a single line of Drosophila melanogaster, which suffers from extreme cold sensitivity...

  15. Patterns of sensitization in infants and its relation to atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jøhnke, Hanne; Norberg, Lene Annette; Vach, Werner

    2006-01-01

    Longitudinal studies in infant populations using validated diagnostic criteria of atopic dermatitis and sensitization are rarely reported, and disease definitions, testing procedures, age of study population and evaluation of objective markers vary between countries and studies. The objectives of...

  16. Exploring women's postpartum sexuality: social, psychological, relational, and birth-related contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, Lauren E; Kane Low, Lisa; van Anders, Sari M

    2012-09-01

    Women's postpartum sexuality can be influenced by factors related to physical, personal, and relationship transitions after the newborn arrives. Despite this, many experiential and social factors remain unexplored. This study aims to (i) investigate a range of variables thought to influence postpartum sexuality; (ii) expand the focus beyond latency to penis-vagina intercourse; and (iii) assess positive aspects of postpartum sexuality. Via retrospective reporting on the first 3 months postpartum, 304 women completed an online questionnaire. The main outcome measures were retrospective reports of sexual desire (Sexual Desire Inventory), latency to resumption of sexual activity, and perceptions of partner's sexual desire. Other measures were birth experience (Questionnaire Measuring Attitudes About Labor and Delivery), breastfeeding status, perceptions of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), stress (Perceived Stress Scale), and body image (Body Image Self-Consciousness Scale). Significant differences in time to resumption were found. Women performed oral sex on their partners earlier than engaging in masturbation, which was followed by intercourse and then receiving oral sex. Post hoc analyses identified birth experience, social support, importance of partner's sexual fulfillment, and perception of partner's desire as contributors to this pattern. Women's postpartum sexual desire was influenced by their perceptions of their partner's postpartum sexuality and individual's level of fatigue. Results suggested that postpartum desire was not significantly influenced by breastfeeding status, vaginal issues, or psychosocial variables including stress, body image, or social support. Results suggest that women's perceptions of their partner's sexuality impact postpartum sexuality more than the physical factors most commonly studied (e.g., vaginal trauma and breastfeeding). These results portray postpartum sexuality as a multidimensional

  17. Trait-Based Individual Differences on Discomfort Glare Rating Responses and Related Visual Contrast Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Mekaroonreung, Haruetai

    2003-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate the relationship between Trait-based Individual differences (neuroticism and extraversion) and glare subjective responses as well as the actual contrast sensitivity when exposed to the same manipulated glare condition. In addition, the relationship between the glare subjective responses and actual contrast sensitivity was investigated. To examine the trait-based individual differences, the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) was used while th...

  18. Factors related to treatment intensity in Swiss primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzi Beat

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Questions about the existence of supplier-induced demand emerge repeatedly in discussions about governing Swiss health care. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the interrelationship between structural factors of supply and the volume of services that are provided by primary care physicians in Switzerland. Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional investigation, based on the complete claims data from all Swiss health care insurers for the year 2004, which covered information from 6087 primary care physicians and 4.7 million patients. Utilization-based health service areas were constructed and used as spatial units to analyze effects of density of supply. Hierarchical linear models were applied to analyze the data. Results The data showed that, within a service area, a higher density of primary care physicians was associated with higher mortality rates and specialist density but not with treatment intensity in primary care. Higher specialist density was weakly associated with higher mortality rates and with higher treatment intensity density of primary care physicians. Annual physician-level data indicate a disproportionate increase of supplied services irrespective of the size of the number of patients treated during the same year and, even in high volume practices, no rationing but a paradoxical inducement of consultations occurred. The results provide empirical evidence that higher densities of primary care physicians, specialists and the availability of out-patient hospital clinics in a given area are associated with higher volume of supplied services per patient in primary care practices. Analyses stratified by language regions showed differences that emphasize the effect of the cantonal based (fragmented governance of Swiss health care. Conclusion The study shows high volumes in Swiss primary care and provides evidence that the volume of supply is not driven by medical needs alone. Effects related to the

  19. Factors influencing the implicitation of discourse relations across languages

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Relations that hold between discourse segments can, but need not, be made explicit by means of discourse connectives. Even though the explicit signaling of discourse relations is optional, not all relations can be easily conveyed implicitly. It has been proposed that readers and listeners have certain expectations about discourse and that discourse relations that are in line with these expectations (default) are more often implicit than the ones that are not (non-default). In this paper, we a...

  20. Perfil de sensibilidade e fatores de risco associados à resistência do Mycobacterium tuberculosis, em centro de referência de doenças infecto-contagiosas de Minas Gerais Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis at a referral center for infectious diseases in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: sensitivity profile and related risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Beatriz de Souza

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os fatores determinantes da multirresistência do Mycobacterium tuberculosis às drogas tuberculostáticas em centro de referência de doenças infecto-contagiosas do Estado de Minas Gerais, Hospital Eduardo de Menezes. MÉTODOS: Estudo tipo caso-controle, retrospectivo, realizado de setembro de 2000 a janeiro de 2004. Nesse período, 473 culturas com crescimento de M. tuberculosis relativas a 313 pacientes foram analisadas quanto ao perfil de sensibilidade, no Laboratório Central de Minas Gerais. Foram selecionados os casos multirresistentes definidos como resistência a pelo menos rifampicina e isoniazida, depois de pareados com o grupo controle de pacientes com tuberculose sensível a todas as drogas na razão de 1:3. A associação dos dados demográficos e clínicos foi feita por análise estatística uni e multivariada. RESULTADOS: Durante o período de estudo, doze casos de tuberculose multirresistente foram identificados (3,83%. Na análise univariada, a tuberculose multirresistente foi mais comum no sexo masculino, em pacientes com baciloscopia de escarro positiva, pacientes com cavitações maiores que 4 cm de diâmetro e pacientes com um ou mais tratamentos prévios para tuberculose (p = 0,10. Após a análise multivariada somente o tratamento anterior para tuberculose permaneceu estatisticamente significativo (p = 0,0374, com odds ratio de 14,36 (1,96 - 176,46. CONCLUSÃO: O fator de risco que se mostrou independentemente associado ao desenvolvimento de tuberculose multirresistente neste estudo foi a presença de um ou mais tratamentos prévios para tuberculose.OBJECTIVE: To assess the determining factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis multidrug resistance at a referral center for infectious diseases in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted using data collected from September of 2000 to January of 2004. During this period, 473 cultures presenting growth of M

  1. Factors influencing the implicitation of discourse relations across languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Jet; Zufferey, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Relations that hold between discourse segments can, but need not, be made explicit by means of discourse connectives. Even though the explicit signaling of discourse relations is optional, not all relations can be easily conveyed implicitly. It has been proposed that readers and listeners have certa

  2. Reactive nitrogen in Mexico City and its relation to ozone-precursor sensitivity: results from photochemical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sillman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We use results of a 3-D photochemistry/transport model for ozone formation in Mexico City during events in 1997 to investigate ambient concentrations of reactive nitrogen in relation to ozone-precursor sensitivity. Previous results from other locations suggest that ratios such as O3/NOy and H2O2/HNO3 might provide measurement-based indicators for NOx-sensitive or VOC-sensitive conditions. Mexico City presents a different environment due to its high concentrations of VOC and high level of pollutants in general. The model predicts a correlation between PAN and O3 with relatively high PAN/O3 (0.07, which is still lower than measured values. The model PAN is comparable with results from a model for Paris but much higher than were found in Nashville in both models and measurements. The difference can be explained by the lower temperature in Mexico City relative to Nashville. Model HNO3 in Mexico City is unusually low for an urban area and PAN/HNO3 is very high, probably due to the high ratio of reactivity-weighted VOC to NOx. The model predicts that VOC-sensitive chemistry in Mexico is associated with high NOx, NOy and NOx/NOy and with low O3/NOy and H2O2/HNO3, suggesting that these indicators work well for Mexico City. The relation between ozone-precursor sensitivity and either O3/NOz or O3/HNO3 is more ambiguous. VOC-sensitive conditions are associated with higher O3/HNO3 than would be found in NOx-sensitive conditions, but model O3/HNO3 associated with both NOx-sensitive and VOC-sensitive chemistry is higher in Mexico than in other cities. The model predicts mixed sensitivity to NOx and VOC in Mexico City, with a

  3. Reactive nitrogen in Mexico City and its relation to ozone-precursor sensitivity: results from photochemical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sillman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We use results of a 3-D photochemistry/transport model for ozone formation in Mexico City during events in 1997 to investigate ambient concentrations of reactive nitrogen in relation to ozone-precursor sensitivity. Previous results from other locations suggest that ratios such as O3/NOy and H2O2/HNO3 might provide measurement-based indicators for NOx-sensitive or VOC-sensitive conditions. Mexico City presents a different environment due to its high concentrations of VOC and high level of pollutants in general. The model predicts a correlation between PAN and O3 with relatively high PAN/O3 (0.07, which is still lower than measured values. The model PAN is comparable with results from a model for Paris but much higher than were found in Nashville in both models and measurements. The difference is due in part to the lower temperature in Mexico City relative to Nashville. Model HNO3 in Mexico City is unusually low for an urban area and PAN/HNO3 is very high, probably due to the high ratio of reactivity-weighted VOC to NOx. The model predicts that VOC-sensitive chemistry in Mexico is associated with high NOx, NOy and NOx/NOy and with low O3/NOy and H2O2/HNO3, suggesting that these indicators work well for Mexico City. The relation between ozone-precursor sensitivity and either O3/NOz or O3/HNO3 is more ambiguous. VOC-sensitive conditions are associated with higher O3/HNO3 than would be found in NOx-sensitive conditions, but model O3/HNO3 associated with both NOx-sensitive and VOC-sensitive chemistry is higher in Mexico than in other cities. The model predicts a mixed pattern of ozone-precursor sensitivity in Mexico City, with

  4. The NLstart2run study : Training-related factors associated with running-related injuries in novice runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluitenberg, Bas; van der Worp, Henk; Huisstede, Bionka M A; Hartgens, Fred; Diercks, Ron; Verhagen, Evert; van Middelkoop, Marienke

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The incidence of running-related injuries is high. Some risk factors for injury were identified in novice runners, however, not much is known about the effect of training factors on injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the associations between training factors

  5. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization as risk factor for treatment failure in honey bee venom immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frick, Marcel; Fischer, Jörg; Helbling, Arthur;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Component resolution recently identified distinct sensitization profiles in honey bee venom (HBV) allergy, some of which were dominated by specific IgE to Api m 3 and/or Api m 10, which have been reported to be underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. OBJECTIVE: We performed...... a retrospective analysis of component-resolved sensitization profiles in HBV-allergic patients and association with treatment outcome. METHODS: HBV-allergic patients who had undergone controlled honey bee sting challenge after at least 6 months of HBV immunotherapy (n = 115) were included and classified...

  6. Effect factors for marine eutrophication in LCIA based on species sensitivity to hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is an important environmental stressor to marine species, especially in benthic coastal waters. Increasing anthropogenic emissions of nutrients and organic matter contribute to the depletion of dissolved oxygen (DO). Biotic sensitivity to low levels of DO is determined by the organisms......' ability to use DO as a respiratory gas, a process depending on oxygen partial pressure. A method is proposed to estimate an indicator of the intensity of the effects caused by hypoxia on exposed marine species. Sensitivity thresholds to hypoxia of an exposed ecological community, modelled as lowest...

  7. Activity-sensitive signaling by muscle-derived insulin-like growth factors in the developing and regenerating neuromuscular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroni, P

    1993-08-27

    In the nervous system, activity-sensitive retrograde signaling pathways couple the status of postsynaptic activation to elimination of collaterals during development and collateral sprouting in the adult. This article presents evidence supporting the hypothesis that in the neuromuscular system, skeletal muscle fiber derived insulin-like growth factors play a central role in such signaling. This evidence includes (1) timing and activity-sensitive expression of IGFs in skeletal muscle fibers, (2) identification of an IGF- and activity-sensitive retrograde signaling pathway from developing muscle to motoneurons in the spinal cord, (3) demonstration that IGFs in the muscle are both sufficient and necessary to induce interstitial cell proliferation and intramuscular nerve sprouting in adult muscle.

  8. Gender differences in the relations between work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2004-01-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints might be explained by differences in the effect of exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to examine gender differences in the relations between these risk factors and muscu

  9. Factores de riesgo asociados con la maloclusión Malocclusion-related risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohany Duque de Estrada Riverón

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio analítico del tipo de casos y controles en el municipio de Colón, provincia de Matanzas, en el período comprendido del año 2000-2002. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por 939 niños de 9, 12 y 15 años de edad, de los cuales se tomó una muestra aleatoria equivalente a 120 niños: 63 femeninos y 57 masculinos. Se caracterizaron los riesgos relacionados con hábitos bucales deformantes (40 %, hipotonía muscular (16,70 %, comportamiento de la herencia (32,50 %, malnutrición (20 %, caries dental (56,70 % y dientes perdidos (25 %. Se calculó el Odds ratio relacionado con hábitos bucales (7,69, hipotonía muscular (12,43 y herencia (3,90, lo que significó la probabilidad de riesgo de enfermar en presencia de los factores de riesgo considerados, que permite establecer un sistema de vigilancia epidemiológica al respecto.An analytical case-control study was performed in Colon municipality, Matanzas province, Cuba, from 2000 to 2002. The universe of study was made up of 939 children aged 9, 12 and 15 years, from whom 120 were taken as equivalent random sample (63 females and 57 males. The risk characterization was based on deforming oral habits (40%, muscular hypotonia (16,70%, heredity performance (32,5%, malnutrition (20%, dental caries (56,70% and lost teeth (25%. The estimated odds ratio was more related to oral habits (7,69% muscular hypotonia (12,43% and heredity (3,90%, which means that there exists the probability of getting sick in the face of the considered risk factors. This allows setting up an epidemiological surveillance system on this issue.

  10. Platelet-activating factor in liver injury: A relational scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolaos P Karidis; Gregory Kouraklis; Stamatios E Theocharis

    2006-01-01

    The hepatocyte, the main cellular component of the liver, exhibits variable susceptibility to different types of injury induced by endogenous or exogenous factors.Hepatocellular dysfunction or death and regeneration are dependent upon the complicated interactions between numerous biologically active molecules. Plateletactivating factor (PAF) seems to play a pivotal role as the key mediator of liver injury in the clinical and experimental setting, as implied by the beneficial effects of its receptor antagonists. A comprehensive up-todate overview of the specific functional and regulatory properties of PAF in conditions associated with liver injury is attempted in this review.

  11. Relating Chronic Pelvic Pain and Endometriosis to Signs of Sensitization and Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aredo, Jacqueline V; Heyrana, Katrina J; Karp, Barbara I; Shah, Jay P; Stratton, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is a frustrating symptom for patients with endometriosis and is frequently refractory to hormonal and surgical management. While these therapies target ectopic endometrial lesions, they do not directly address pain due to central sensitization of the nervous system and myofascial dysfunction, which can continue to generate pain from myofascial trigger points even after traditional treatments are optimized. This article provides a background for understanding how endometriosis facilitates remodeling of neural networks, contributing to sensitization and generation of myofascial trigger points. A framework for evaluating such sensitization and myofascial trigger points in a clinical setting is presented. Treatments that specifically address myofascial pain secondary to spontaneously painful myofascial trigger points and their putative mechanisms of action are also reviewed, including physical therapy, dry needling, anesthetic injections, and botulinum toxin injections.

  12. Relating Chronic Pelvic Pain and Endometriosis to Signs of Sensitization and Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aredo, Jacqueline V.; Heyrana, Katrina J.; Karp, Barbara I.; Shah, Jay P.; Stratton, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain is a frustrating symptom for patients with endometriosis and is frequently refractory to hormonal and surgical management. While these therapies target ectopic endometrial lesions, they do not directly address pain due to central sensitization of the nervous system and myofascial dysfunction, which can continue to generate pain from myofascial trigger points even after traditional treatments are optimized. This article provides a background for understanding how endometriosis facilitates remodeling of neural networks, contributing to sensitization and generation of myofascial trigger points. A framework for evaluating such sensitization and myofascial trigger points in a clinical setting is presented. Treatments that specifically address myofascial pain secondary to spontaneously painful myofascial trigger points and their putative mechanisms of action are also reviewed, including physical therapy, dry needling, anesthetic injections, and botulinum toxin injections. PMID:28049214

  13. University Practice as a Key Factor in Increasing the Sensitivity to Educational Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luna Velasco, Laura E.; Hernández Fernández, Antonio; Ferrándiz Vindel, Isabel María

    2012-01-01

    The present article is based on research carried out in three universities, the University Center South (Cusur, Mexico), Jaen and Cuenca (Spain) on the influence of university practice in the development of sensitivity towards inclusive education in our students the first years of the Diploma in Education, using the subject "pedagogical basis…

  14. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization as risk factor for treatment failure in honey bee venom immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frick, Marcel; Fischer, Jörg; Helbing, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Component resolution recently identified distinct sensitization profiles in honey bee venom (HBV) allergy, some of which were dominated by specific IgE to Api m 3 and/or Api m 10, which have been reported to be underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. OBJECTIVE: We performed...

  15. Role of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase in fluoropyrimidine sensitivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de M.; Capel, van T; Born, van der K.; Kruyt, F.A.E.; Fukushima, M; Hoekman, K.; Pinedo, H.M.; Peters, G.J.

    2003-01-01

    0.01) in our cell panel. To determine the role of TP in the sensitivity to 5FU, 5'DFUR, Ft and TFT, cells were cultured with the various fluoropyrimidines with or without TPI and differences in IC(50)'s were established. TPI modified 5'DFUR, increasing the IC(50)'s 2.5- to 1396-fold in WiDR and Colo

  16. Effect of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Adiponectin, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Patel, H.; Ouchi, N.; Kihara, S.; Funahashi, T.; Heine, R.J.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kluft, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumers have enhanced insulin sensitivity and a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived plasma protein, has been found to be negatively associated with adiposity and positively associated with insulin sens

  17. Factors Influencing Sensitivity to Lexical Tone in an Artificial Language: Implications for Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.; Lancaster, Alia; Ladd, D. Robert; Dediu, Dan; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether musical training, ethnicity, and experience with a natural tone language influenced sensitivity to tone while listening to an artificial tone language. The language was designed with three tones, modeled after level-tone African languages. Participants listened to a 15-min random concatenation of six 3-syllable words.…

  18. A specific and sensitive method for visualization of tumor necrosis factor in the murine central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertsen, K L; Drøjdahl, N; Owens, T

    2001-01-01

    We present here sensitive, simple and robust methods for detection of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mRNA and TNF in histological sections and homogenates of brain tissue from mice subjected to focal cerebral ischemia or hippocampal axonal lesioning. Both types of lesions are characterized by induct......We present here sensitive, simple and robust methods for detection of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mRNA and TNF in histological sections and homogenates of brain tissue from mice subjected to focal cerebral ischemia or hippocampal axonal lesioning. Both types of lesions are characterized...... of individual cells, and can successfully be combined with immunohistochemical procedures. We also describe a sensitive immunohistochemical method for detection of TNF, which can be combined with visualization of an additional antigen. The specificity of the histological procedures are confirmed by RT......-PCR and Western blot analysis on homogenates prepared from microdissected brain regions. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are discussed with emphasis on the specificity and sensitivity of the histological procedures. Our strategy for detection of TNF mRNA and protein provides a solid basis...

  19. Differentiating event-related potential components sensitive to emotion in middle childhood: evidence from temporal-spatial PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Autumn; Weinberg, Anna; Hajcak, Greg; Klein, Daniel N

    2013-07-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) may be particularly useful for examining emotional processing across development. Though a number of ERP components are sensitive to emotional content in adults, previous studies have yet to systematically examine the components sensitive to emotion in children. The current study used temporal-spatial principal components analysis (PCA) to identify ERP components in response to complex emotional images in 9-year-old children. Three components were modulated by emotional content and were similar to those previously observed in adults, including: the early posterior negativity, the P300, and a sustained relative positivity similar to the late positive potential (LPP). Compared to those previously observed in adults, the components sensitive to emotion in children were maximal over more occipital regions and the LPP component appeared to be less protracted in time, perhaps indicative of less elaborative processing of emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Mouse Sensitivity is an Independent Risk Factor for Rhinitis in Children with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat, Ahmad R; Matsui, Elizabeth C; Baxi, Sachin N; Bollinger, Mary E; Miller, Rachel; Perzanowski, Matthew; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Although mouse and cockroach allergy is known to be important in urban children with asthma, the independent association of mouse and cockroach sensitization with rhinitis in these children is unknown. To determine the association of mouse and cockroach sensitization with rhinitis in urban children with asthma. As part of the Mouse Allergen and Asthma Intervention Trial, 499 urban children (5-17 years) with persistent asthma underwent spirometry, skin prick testing to 14 common environmental allergens, and serology for mouse-specific IgE. In 269 subjects, cockroach-specific IgE serology was also obtained. Patient/parent-reported rhinitis in the last 2 weeks and the last 1 year was the primary outcome measure. Mouse/cockroach exposure was measured by reported frequency of sightings. Mouse allergen-settled bedroom dust samples were also measured in mouse-sensitized children. Rhinitis was reported in 49.9% and 70.2% of the participants within the last 2 weeks and the last 1 year, respectively. Serum mouse IgE level of 0.35 IU/mL or more was associated with rhinitis in the past 2 weeks (adjusted odds ratio, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.02-4.54; P = .04) and the past 1 year (adjusted odds ratio, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.12-5.1; P = .02) after controlling for age, race, sex, the presence of any smokers at home, primary caregiver education level, number of allergen sensitivities, cockroach IgE level of 0.35 IU/mL or more, and study site (Boston or Baltimore). Measures of home mouse exposure were not associated with rhinitis, regardless of mouse sensitivity. Cockroach sensitivity was not associated with rhinitis regardless of sensitization to other allergens. In urban children with asthma, increased mouse IgE, but not cockroach IgE, in the sera (mouse IgE ≥ 0.35 IU/mL) may be associated independently with rhinitis. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Relative effects at work : Bayes factors for order hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braeken, J.; Mulder, J.; Wood, S.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the relative importance of predictors has been of historical importance in a variety of disciplines including management, medicine, economics, and psychology. When approaching hypotheses on the relative ordering of the magnitude of predicted effects (e.g., the effects of discrimination fro

  2. CULTURAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL FACTORS RELATING TO LEARNING DEVELOPMENT. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MACCOBY, MICHAEL; MODIANO, NANCY

    THE PRIMARY PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO COMPARE CULTURAL AND CHARACTER VARIABLES AND RELATE THEM TO THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF MEXICAN PEASANT CHILDREN. THE CULTURAL VARIABLES STUDIED INCLUDE ECONOMIC LEVELS, MORAL AND AFFECTIVE JUDGMENTS, AND THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PARENTS AND CHILDREN. MODES OF ASSIMILATION, SOCIAL RELATIONS, FIXATIONS,…

  3. A Bartlett correction factor for tests on the cointegrating relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren

    2000-01-01

    Likelihood ratio tests for restrictions on cointegrating vectors are asymptotically [chi]2 distributed. For some values of the parameters this asymptotic distribution does not give a good approximation to the finite sample distribution. In this paper we derive the Bartlett correction factor...

  4. Patient and social work factors related to successful placement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have led to changes in attitudes towards the management of psychiatric .... since 2005.36 In that project the hospital-based social workers liaised with and paid ... be identified of patient factors that are associated with successful community ...

  5. Physician-Related Factors Affecting Cardiac Rehabilitation Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahieh Moradi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the positive impact of cardiac rehabilitation (CR on quality of life and mortality, the majority of people who could benefit from this program fail to participate in it. The lack of referral from the physician is a common reason that patients give for not seeking CR. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral by cardiologists. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 122 cardiologists, including 89 general cardiac specialists and 33 fellows in cardiology from 11 major cardiology training centers in Iran, was done in 2010. They responded to the 14- item investigator-generated survey, examining the physician’s attitudinal and knowledge factors affecting CR referral. Results: 47.9% of the subjects reported having available CR centers but only 6.6% reported continuous medical education on the topic. 90.7% of the physicians reported that less than 15% of patients are referred to CR centers. The main factor affecting the low referral rate was limited general knowledge about CR programs (79.5% such as program attributes and benefits, methods of reimbursement. Lack of insurance coverage, unavailability of CR centers in the community and low physicians’ fee were other factors reported by the physicians. Conclusion: Cardiologists’ inadequate general knowledge of and attitude toward CR programs seem to be a potential threat for cardiac prevention and rehabilitation in some societies.

  6. Factors Related to Teachers' Intention to Leave the Classroom Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippens, Abby; Ricketts, John C.; Morgan, A. Christian; Navarro, Marie; Flanders, Frank B.

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of retaining teachers in the profession of agricultural education is a prevalent and growing problem in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine the primary factors contributing to intention to leave the profession among Georgia agriculture teachers. Teacher-participants responded to a web-based survey which…

  7. Factors Related to Rural School Administrators' Satisfaction with Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Hannum, Wallace H.; de la Varre, Claire; Farmer, Thomas W.; Keane, Julie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rural school district administrators' satisfaction with distance education in the United States and to identify factors that may contribute to their satisfaction. Telephone interviews were conducted with administrators in randomly selected rural districts across the country. Analyses revealed that students'…

  8. The influence of psychosocial factors on pregnancy related pelvic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, G. van de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis encloses studies which are separate analyses of the PRIMIS Study. In the PRIMIS Study a cohort of healthy women who expected their first child was followed up from early pregnancy to one year after delivery. Self-report questionnaires regarding psychosocial factors, urogenital symptoms a

  9. Factors Related to Students' Learning of Biomechanics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, ChengTu; Smith, Jeremy D.; Bohne, Michael; Knudson, Duane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and expand a previous study to identify the factors that affect students' learning of biomechanical concepts. Students were recruited from three universities (N = 149) located in the central and western regions of the United States. Data from 142 students completing the Biomechanics Concept Inventory…

  10. Overweight and Obesity and Related Factors in Urban Iranian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Urban Iranian Population Aged Between. 20 to 84 Years ... aimed to provide population‑based data on the prevalence of obesity and estimation the risk of some .... in Tehran, capital of Iran. ..... Prevalence and risk factors associated with obesity in the elderly ... obesity and central fat accumulation among Tehranian adults.

  11. The sensitivity of water availability to aridity changes and other factors - a probabilistic analysis in the Budyko-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Lukas; Greve, Peter

    2016-04-01

    One of the pending questions in the context of global change is (i) whether climatic drivers or (ii) other factors have a stronger influence on water availability. Here we present an idealised approach that allows to estimate the probability that changes in climatological aridity have a larger effect on water availability than other factors. The analysis builds upon a probabilistic extension of the Budyko framework, which is subject to an analytical sensitivity assessment. The results show that changes in water availability are dominated by changes in the aridity index in humid climates. In arid climates other factors are dominating. A global application predicts only little influence of aridity changes on water availability in drylands. This implies that the projected intensification of aridity in dry regions may have less influence on water availability than commonly assumed. Instead other factors, including e.g. land use change, are likely dominating.

  12. Retrospective evaluation of the pre- and postoperative factors influencing the sensitivity of localization studies in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medas, Fabio; Erdas, Enrico; Longheu, Alessandro; Gordini, Luca; Pisano, Giuseppe; Nicolosi, Angelo; Calò, Pietro Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, mini-invasive surgery has become increasingly common for treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism; such approach requires preoperative localization of a suspected parathyroid adenoma. Neck ultrasound (US) and technetium-99 m sestamibi (MIBI) scan are the main imaging studies used for this purpose. The aim of the present study is to evaluate what pre- and post-operative factors may alter the reliability of localization studies. A retrospective analysis on 212 patients with preoperative diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism was conducted. Data collected included demographic data, preoperative workup, operative findings and follow-up. Univariate logistic regression was performed on pre- and postoperative variables. US sensitivity was 62.4% and MIBI sensitivity 78.9%. Cure rate after parathyroidectomy was 98.1%. Univariate logistic regression demonstrated that US sensitivity was impaired by lower levels of serum calcium (p sensitivity was impaired by lower levels of serum calcium (p = 0.001) and multi-gland disease (p sensitivity of preoperative imaging studies. In such patients a mini-invasive approach is possible but the use of intraoperative PTH monitoring is mandatory to reduce the risk of unsuccessful surgery. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. IL-33 is related to innate immune activation and sensitization to HDM in mild steroid-free asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste; Baines, Katie; Gibson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    = 0.04; TLR4: 0.68, P allergy to house dust mites (HDMs). CONCLUSION: In mild untreated asthma, the expression of IL-33 mRNA in bronchial mucosa is related to innate immune activation and allergic sensitization to HDM, rather than epithelial damage, and correlates with Fe...

  14. A Study to Assess the Achievement Motivation of Higher Secondary Students in Relation to Their Noise Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latha, Prema

    2014-01-01

    Disturbing sounds are often referred to as noise, and if extreme enough in degree, intensity or frequency, it is referred to as noise pollution. Achievement refers to a change in study behavior in relation to their noise sensitivity and learning in the educational sense by achieving results in changed responses to certain types of stimuli like…

  15. Relating biomarkers to whole-organism effects using species sensitivity distributions : A pilot study for marine species exposed to oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.G.D.; Bechmann, R.K.; Hendriks, A.J.; Skadsheim, A.; Larsen, B.K.; Baussant, T.; Bamber, S.; Sannei, S.

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers are widely used to measure environmental impacts on marine species. For many biomarkers, it is not clear how the signal levels relate to effects on the whole organism. This paper shows how species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) can be applied to evaluate multiple biomarker responses in

  16. Relating biomarkers to whole-organism effects using species sensitivity distributions : A pilot study for marine species exposed to oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.G.D.; Bechmann, R.K.; Hendriks, A.J.; Skadsheim, A.; Larsen, B.K.; Baussant, T.; Bamber, S.; Sannei, S.

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers are widely used to measure environmental impacts on marine species. For many biomarkers, it is not clear how the signal levels relate to effects on the whole organism. This paper shows how species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) can be applied to evaluate multiple biomarker responses in

  17. Relating biomarkers to whole-organism effects using species sensitivity distributions: a pilot study for marine species exposed to oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.G.D.; Bechmann, R.K.; Hendriks, A.J.; Skadsheim, A.; Larsen, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers are widely used to measure environmental impacts on marine species. For many biomarkers, it is not clear how the signal levels relate to effects on the whole organism. This paper shows how species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) can be applied to evaluate multiple biomarker responses in

  18. Sensitivity and Specificity of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): A Community-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSousa, Diogo Araujo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahao; Isolan, Luciano Rassier; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional community-based study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) to the diagnosis of anxiety disorders (AD). Participants were 119 students aged 9-18. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by a psychiatrist throughout a structural clinical…

  19. Influence of elliptical shaped holes on the sensitivity and Q factor in 2D photonic crystals sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmerkhi, A.; Bouchemat, M.; Bouchemat, T.

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the refractive index sensor based on L2 photonic crystal cavity where neighboring holes are locally infiltrated with polymers. The photonic crystal is composed of periodic triangular hole array patterned perpendicularly to an InP-based confining heterostructure. The number of the holes surrounding a L2 cavity and their shape were modified in order to optimize the sensitivity and quality factor. From this study we have selected two structures that have good results. The first one is called locally which has a very high Q factor and a good sensitivity. Their values are 6.03 × 106 and 163 nm/RIU, respectively. The second optimized structure is called design B, which has a high sensitivity toward 227.78 nm/RIU with a Q factor of 5 × 105. The calculated detect limit for the two designs are lower than 1.59 × 10-6 and 1.4 × 10-5 RIU, respectively.

  20. How Are Task Reflexivity and Intercultural Sensitivity Related to the Academic Performance of MBA Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubovnikova, Joanne; Napiersky, Uwe; Vlachopoulos, Panos

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in business school environments is increasingly focused on how to best equip students with the skills necessary for leadership in the global workplace. This paper examines the impact of two particularly important cognitive capabilities--task reflexivity and intercultural sensitivity, on academic performance in an MBA programme. It…