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Sample records for relative sensitivity factor

  1. Uncertainty of relative sensitivity factors in glow discharge mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meija, Juris; Methven, Brad; Sturgeon, Ralph E.

    2017-10-01

    The concept of the relative sensitivity factors required for the correction of the measured ion beam ratios in pin-cell glow discharge mass spectrometry is examined in detail. We propose a data-driven model for predicting the relative response factors, which relies on a non-linear least squares adjustment and analyte/matrix interchangeability phenomena. The model provides a self-consistent set of response factors for any analyte/matrix combination of any element that appears as either an analyte or matrix in at least one known response factor.

  2. Girls' Rumination and Anxiety Sensitivity: Are They Related after Controlling for Girl, Maternal, and Parenting Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christie; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rumination and anxiety sensitivity are posited cognitive vulnerabilities in the development and/or maintenance of depression and anxiety and have only been examined separately in youth. Objective: We examined the relation between rumination and anxiety sensitivity in girls, after controlling for other girl, maternal, and parenting…

  3. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-11-01

    The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main sensitivity factors for the payment capacity at sample level, the establishment of general benchmarks for the payment capacity (as no such benchmarks currently exist in the Romanian literature and the identification of the mechanisms through which the variation of different factors impacts the payment capacity.

  4. Indoor risk factors for cough and their relation to wheeze and sensitization in Chilean young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, James F; Rona, Roberto J; Oyarzun, Manuel J; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia

    2008-04-01

    We assessed the effects of indoor risk factors, including smoking, on different types of cough and on cough and wheeze in combination. Our sample was composed of 1232 men and women residing in a semirural area of Chile. We used a standardized questionnaire, sensitization to 8 allergens, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine to assess cough and wheeze characteristics. Information was gathered on dampness, mold, ventilation, heating, housing quality, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Most exposures were associated with cough alone or cough in combination with wheeze. Smoking, past smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were strongly associated with dry cough and wheeze. The use of coal for heating was associated with dry cough. Leaks, mold, and lack of kitchen ventilation were associated with cough and wheeze. Nocturnal cough and productive cough were associated with specific types of sensitization, but dry cough was not. Productive cough was associated with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Several different types of indoor exposures, including environmental tobacco smoke exposure, are important contributors to morbidity associated with cough and wheeze. A vigorous preventive strategy designed to lower exposures to indoor risk factors would lower rates of respiratory morbidity.

  5. Indoor risk factors for cough and their relation to wheeze and sensitization in Chilean young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, J.F.; Rona, R.J.; Oyarzun, M.J.; Amigo, H.; Bustos, P. [Kings College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. for Public Health Science

    2008-04-15

    We assessed the effects of indoor risk factors, including smoking, on different types of cough and on cough and wheeze in combination. Our sample was composed of 1232 men and women residing in a semi-rural area of Chile. We used a standardized questionnaire, sensitization to 8 allergens, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine to assess cough and wheeze characteristics. Information was gathered on dampness, mold, ventilation, heating, housing quality, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Most exposures were associated with cough alone or cough in combination with wheeze. Smoking, past smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were strongly associated with dry cough and wheeze. The use of coal for heating was associated with dry cough. Leaks, mold, and lack of kitchen ventilation were associated with cough and wheeze. Nocturnal cough and productive cough were associated with specific types of sensitization, but dry cough was not. Productive cough was associated with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Several different types of indoor exposures, including environmental tobacco smoke exposure, are important contributors to morbidity associated with cough and wheeze. A vigorous preventive strategy designed to lower exposures to indoor risk factors would lower rates of respiratory morbidity.

  6. Indoor Risk Factors for Cough and Their Relation to Wheeze and Sensitization in Chilean Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, James F.; Rona, Roberto J.; Oyarzun, Manuel J.; Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effects of indoor risk factors, including smoking, on different types of cough and on cough and wheeze in combination. Methods. Our sample was composed of 1232 men and women residing in a semirural area of Chile. We used a standardized questionnaire, sensitization to 8 allergens, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine to assess cough and wheeze characteristics. Information was gathered on dampness, mold, ventilation, heating, housing quality, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Results. Most exposures were associated with cough alone or cough in combination with wheeze. Smoking, past smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure were strongly associated with dry cough and wheeze. The use of coal for heating was associated with dry cough. Leaks, mold, and lack of kitchen ventilation were associated with cough and wheeze. Nocturnal cough and productive cough were associated with specific types of sensitization, but dry cough was not. Productive cough was associated with hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Conclusions. Several different types of indoor exposures, including environmental tobacco smoke exposure, are important contributors to morbidity associated with cough and wheeze. A vigorous preventive strategy designed to lower exposures to indoor risk factors would lower rates of respiratory morbidity. PMID:17666696

  7. Unique relations among anxiety sensitivity factors and anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Capron, Daniel W; Raines, Amanda M; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-03-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is composed of three lower-order dimensions, cognitive concerns, physical concerns, and social concerns. We examined the relations between AS dimensions using a more adequate assessment of subscales (ASI-3) than has previously been used, and measures of anxiety and mood disorders as well as suicidal ideation in a sample of 256 (M age = 37.10 years, SD = 16.40) treatment-seeking individuals using structural equation modeling. AS cognitive concerns was uniquely associated with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), major depressive disorder (MDD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and suicidal ideation. AS physical concerns was uniquely associated with OCD, social anxiety disorder (SAD), panic disorder (PD), and specific phobia. AS social concerns was uniquely associated with SAD, GAD, OCD, and MDD. These results highlight the importance of considering the lower-order AS dimensions when examining the relations between AS and psychopathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors related to allergic sensitization to aeroallergens in a cross-sectional study in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, A; Nielsen, N H; Madsen, F

    2001-01-01

    number of siblings, a positive family history of hay fever and never smoking, were independently associated with both SPT positivity and specific IgE positivity. Furthermore, SPT positivity was positively associated with alcohol consumption (dose-response relationship only), and negatively associated......-response relationship. CONCLUSION: Being male, young age, a positive family history of hayfever, low number of siblings and never smoking, were independently associated with allergic sensitization. In addition, the results indicated a possible relationship of alcohol consumption, body mass index and previous keeping...

  9. Human-related factors regulate the spatial ecology of domestic cats in sensitive areas for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim P Ferreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Domestic cats ranging freely in natural areas are a conservation concern due to competition, predation, disease transmission or hybridization with wildcats. In order to improve our ability to design effective control policies, we investigate the factors affecting their numbers and space use in natural areas of continental Europe. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe the patterns of cat presence, abundance and space use and analyse the associated environmental and human constraints in a well-preserved Mediterranean natural area with small scattered local farms. We failed in detecting cats in areas away from human settlements (trapping effort above 4000 trap-nights, while we captured 30 individuals near inhabited farms. We identified 130 cats, all of them in farms still in use by people (30% of 128 farms. All cats were free-ranging and very wary of people. The main factor explaining the presence of cats was the presence of people, while the number of cats per farm was mostly affected by the occasional food provisioning with human refuse and the presence of people. The home ranges of eight radio tagged cats were centred at inhabited farms. Males went furthest away from the farms during the mating season (3.8 km on average, maximum 6.3 km, using inhabited farms as stepping-stones in their mating displacements (2.2 km of maximum inter-farm distance moved. In their daily movements, cats notably avoided entering in areas with high fox density. CONCLUSIONS: The presence, abundance and space use of cats were heavily dependent on human settlements. Any strategy aiming at reducing their impact in areas of conservation concern should aim at the presence of settlements and their spatial spread and avoid any access to human refuse. The movements of domestic cats would be limited in areas with large patches of natural vegetation providing good conditions for other carnivore mammals such as red foxes.

  10. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-01-01

    The current study focuses on the sensitivity of the corporate payment capacity. Through the nature of the subject, the research is based on simulating variations of the forecasted cash-flows of the companies included in the sample. The study employs 391 forecasted yearly cash-flows statements collected from 50 companies from Timis County (Romania), as well as the detailed hypotheses of the forecasts. The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main se...

  11. Sensitivity analysis of power depression and axial power factor effect on fuel pin to temperature and related properties distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwardi, S.

    2001-01-01

    The presented paper is a preliminary step to evaluate the effect of radial and axial distribution of power generation on thermal analysis of whole fuel pin model with large L/D ratio. The model takes into account both radial and axial distribution of power generation due to power depression and core geometry, temperature and microstructure dependent on thermal conductivity. The microstructure distribution and the gap conductance for typical steady-state situation are given for the sensitivity analysis. The temperature and thermal conductivity distribution along the radial and axial directions obtained by different power distribution is used to indicate the sensitivity of power depression and power factor on thermal aspect. The evaluation is made for one step of incremental time and steady state approach is used. The analysis has been performed using a finite element-finite difference model. The result for typical reactor fuel shows that the sensitivity is too important to be omitted in thermal model

  12. Sensitization of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-resistant malignant melanomas by quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katherine A; Manouchehri, Jasmine M; Kalafatis, Michael

    2018-03-28

    Malignant melanoma is the most commonly diagnosed skin cancer associated with a high rate of metastasis. Low-stage melanoma is easily treated, but metastatic malignant melanoma is an extremely treatment-resistant malignancy with low survival rates. The application of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (rhTRAIL) for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma holds considerable promise because of its selective proapoptotic activity towards cancer cells and not nontransformed cells. Unfortunately, the clinical utilization of rhTRAIL has been terminated due to the resistance of many cancer cells to undergo apoptosis in response to rhTRAIL. However, rhTRAIL-resistance can be abrogated through the cotreatment with compounds derived from 'Mother Nature' such as quercetin that can modulate cellular components responsible for rhTRAIL-resistance. Here, we show that rhTRAIL-resistant malignant melanomas are sensitized by quercetin. Quercetin action is manifested by the upregulation of rhTRAIL-binding receptors DR4 and DR5 on the surface of cancer cells and by increased rate of the proteasome-mediated degradation of the antiapoptotic protein FLIP. Our data provide for a new efficient and nontoxic treatment of malignant melanoma.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  13. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity are two important factors affecting vision-related quality of life in advanced age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Miin; Selivanova, Alexandra; Shin, Hyun Joon; Miller, Joan W; Jackson, Mary Lou

    2018-01-01

    Vision loss from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has a profound effect on vision-related quality of life (VRQoL). The pupose of this study is to identify clinical factors associated with VRQoL using the Rasch- calibrated NEI VFQ-25 scales in bilateral advanced AMD patients. We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients (mean age 83.2 years) with bilateral advanced AMD. Clinical assessment included age, gender, type of AMD, high contrast visual acuity (VA), history of medical conditions, contrast sensitivity (CS), central visual field loss, report of Charles Bonnet Syndrome, current treatment for AMD and Rasch-calibrated NEI VFQ-25 visual function and socioemotional function scales. The NEI VFQ visual function scale includes items of general vision, peripheral vision, distance vision and near vision-related activity while the socioemotional function scale includes items of vision related-social functioning, role difficulties, dependency, and mental health. Multiple regression analysis (structural regression model) was performed using fixed item parameters obtained from the one-parameter item response theory model. Multivariate analysis showed that high contrast VA and CS were two factors influencing VRQoL visual function scale (β = -0.25, 95% CI-0.37 to -0.12, p<0.001 and β = 0.35, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.46, p<0.001) and socioemontional functioning scale (β = -0.2, 95% CI -0.37 to -0.03, p = 0.023, and β = 0.3, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.43, p = 0.001). Central visual field loss was not assoicated with either VRQoL visual or socioemontional functioning scale (β = -0.08, 95% CI-0.28 to 0.12,p = 0.44 and β = -0.09, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.16, p = 0.50, respectively). In patients with vision impairment secondary to bilateral advanced AMD, high contrast VA and CS are two important factors affecting VRQoL.

  14. Visual acuity and contrast sensitivity are two important factors affecting vision-related quality of life in advanced age-related macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanova, Alexandra; Shin, Hyun Joon; Miller, Joan W.; Jackson, Mary Lou

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Vision loss from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has a profound effect on vision-related quality of life (VRQoL). The pupose of this study is to identify clinical factors associated with VRQoL using the Rasch- calibrated NEI VFQ-25 scales in bilateral advanced AMD patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 47 patients (mean age 83.2 years) with bilateral advanced AMD. Clinical assessment included age, gender, type of AMD, high contrast visual acuity (VA), history of medical conditions, contrast sensitivity (CS), central visual field loss, report of Charles Bonnet Syndrome, current treatment for AMD and Rasch-calibrated NEI VFQ-25 visual function and socioemotional function scales. The NEI VFQ visual function scale includes items of general vision, peripheral vision, distance vision and near vision-related activity while the socioemotional function scale includes items of vision related-social functioning, role difficulties, dependency, and mental health. Multiple regression analysis (structural regression model) was performed using fixed item parameters obtained from the one-parameter item response theory model. Results Multivariate analysis showed that high contrast VA and CS were two factors influencing VRQoL visual function scale (β = -0.25, 95% CI-0.37 to -0.12, p<0.001 and β = 0.35, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.46, p<0.001) and socioemontional functioning scale (β = -0.2, 95% CI -0.37 to -0.03, p = 0.023, and β = 0.3, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.43, p = 0.001). Central visual field loss was not assoicated with either VRQoL visual or socioemontional functioning scale (β = -0.08, 95% CI-0.28 to 0.12,p = 0.44 and β = -0.09, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.16, p = 0.50, respectively). Conclusion In patients with vision impairment secondary to bilateral advanced AMD, high contrast VA and CS are two important factors affecting VRQoL. PMID:29746512

  15. Roscovitine sensitizes leukemia and lymphoma cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molinsky, J.; Klánová, M.; Koc, Michal; Beranová, Lenka; Anděra, Ladislav; Ludvíková, Z.; Bohmova, M.; Gasova, Z.; Strnad, Miroslav; Ivánek, R.; Trněný, M.; Nečas, E.; Živný, J.; Klener, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2013), s. 372-380 ISSN 1042-8194 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS10287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : roscovitine * TRAIL * synergism * apoptosis * leukemia * lymphoma Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.605, year: 2013

  16. Deep pain sensitivity is correlated with oral-health-related quality of life but not with prosthetic factors in complete denture wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Martins COSTA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Low pressure Pain Threshold (PPT is considered a risk factor for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD and is influenced by psychological variables. Objectives To correlate deep pain sensitivity of masticatory muscles with prosthetic factors and Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL in completely edentulous subjects. Material and Methods A total of 29 complete denture wearers were recruited. The variables were: a Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT of the masseter and temporalis; b retention, stability, and tooth wear of dentures; c Vertical Dimension of Occlusion (VDO; d Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP adapted to orofacial pain. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficient, the Spearman Rank correlation coefficient, the Point-Biserial correlation coefficient, and the Bonferroni correction (α=1% were applied to the data. Results The mean age (standard deviation of the participants was of 70.1 years (9.5 and 82% of them were females. There were no significant correlations with prosthetic factors, but significant negative correlations were found between the OHIP and the PPT of the anterior temporalis (r=-0.50, 95% CI-0.73 to 0.17, p=0.005. Discussion The deep pain sensitivity of masticatory muscles in complete dentures wearers is associated with OHRQoL, but not with prosthetic factors.

  17. Deep pain sensitivity is correlated with oral-health-related quality of life but not with prosthetic factors in complete denture wearers

    Science.gov (United States)

    COSTA, Yuri Martins; PORPORATTI, André Luís; HILGENBERG-SYDNEY, Priscila Brenner; BONJARDIM, Leonardo Rigoldi; CONTI, Paulo César Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Low pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) is considered a risk factor for Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) and is influenced by psychological variables. Objectives To correlate deep pain sensitivity of masticatory muscles with prosthetic factors and Oral-Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in completely edentulous subjects. Material and Methods A total of 29 complete denture wearers were recruited. The variables were: a) Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) of the masseter and temporalis; b) retention, stability, and tooth wear of dentures; c) Vertical Dimension of Occlusion (VDO); d) Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) adapted to orofacial pain. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficient, the Spearman Rank correlation coefficient, the Point-Biserial correlation coefficient, and the Bonferroni correction (α=1%) were applied to the data. Results The mean age (standard deviation) of the participants was of 70.1 years (9.5) and 82% of them were females. There were no significant correlations with prosthetic factors, but significant negative correlations were found between the OHIP and the PPT of the anterior temporalis (r=-0.50, 95% CI-0.73 to 0.17, p=0.005). Discussion The deep pain sensitivity of masticatory muscles in complete dentures wearers is associated with OHRQoL, but not with prosthetic factors. PMID:26814457

  18. Sensitivity and related factors in iodine-123-β-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid myocardial scintigraphy to detect stable effort angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tetsuya; Ohtsuki, Yumi; Takechi, Norikazu; Suzuki, Kenji; Nishibori, Yoshiharu; Matsuo, Akiko; Inoue, Keiji; Fujita, Hiroshi; Inoue, Naoto

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the sensitivity and the related factors in iodine-123-β-methyl-p-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) scintigraphy to detect stable angina. The subjects were 198 patients with stable angina who underwent BMIPP before percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary bypass graft surgery. Patients with unstable angina, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy and vasospastic angina were excluded. After investigation of the sensitivity of BMIPP, the patients with single-vessel disease without collateral flow were classified into the normal 12 3 I-BMIPP uptake group (normal group) or decreased 123 I-BMIPP uptake group (decreased group), and various factors were compared between the two groups. Sensitivity was 61% overall, 58% in single-vessel disease, 69% in double-vessel disease, 53% in triple-vessel disease, 43% in only left main vessel disease, and 89% in left main and other vessel disease (NS). In single-vessel disease, the sensitivity was 40% in 75% coronary artery stenosis, 58% in 90% stenosis, 89% in 99% stenosis, and 69% in total occlusion (p=0.003). Comparing the decreased and normal groups, diabetes mellitus was more frequent in the normal group (14.6% vs 39.5%), minimal lumen diameter was smaller (0.75±0.37 vs 0.98±0.49 mm) and lesion length was longer in the decreased group (15.4±4.9 vs 11.6±5.5 mm). Logistic multivariate analysis showed that the independent factors were diabetes mellitus [odds ratio 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.87, p=0.03], minimal lumen diameter (odds ratio 0.10, 95% CI 0.02-0.48, p=0.003) and lesion length (odds ratio 1.12, 95% CI 1.00-1.25, p=0.03). BMIPP is useful in stable angina patients because of the acceptable sensitivity. Diabetes mellitus, minimal lumen diameter and lesion length were independent factors associated with decreased BMIPP uptake. (author)

  19. Contributions of dopamine-related genes and environmental factors to highly sensitive personality: a multi-step neuronal system-level approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhui Chen

    Full Text Available Traditional behavioral genetic studies (e.g., twin, adoption studies have shown that human personality has moderate to high heritability, but recent molecular behavioral genetic studies have failed to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL with consistent effects. The current study adopted a multi-step approach (ANOVA followed by multiple regression and permutation to assess the cumulative effects of multiple QTLs. Using a system-level (dopamine system genetic approach, we investigated a personality trait deeply rooted in the nervous system (the Highly Sensitive Personality, HSP. 480 healthy Chinese college students were given the HSP scale and genotyped for 98 representative polymorphisms in all major dopamine neurotransmitter genes. In addition, two environment factors (stressful life events and parental warmth that have been implicated for their contributions to personality development were included to investigate their relative contributions as compared to genetic factors. In Step 1, using ANOVA, we identified 10 polymorphisms that made statistically significant contributions to HSP. In Step 2, these polymorphism's main effects and interactions were assessed using multiple regression. This model accounted for 15% of the variance of HSP (p<0.001. Recent stressful life events accounted for an additional 2% of the variance. Finally, permutation analyses ascertained the probability of obtaining these findings by chance to be very low, p ranging from 0.001 to 0.006. Dividing these loci by the subsystems of dopamine synthesis, degradation/transport, receptor and modulation, we found that the modulation and receptor subsystems made the most significant contribution to HSP. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of a multi-step neuronal system-level approach in assessing genetic contributions to individual differences in human behavior. It can potentially bridge the gap between the high heritability estimates based on traditional

  20. HIGH-SENSITIVITY C-REACTIVE PROTEIN (hsCRP IN YOUNG ADULTS: RELATION TO AEROBIC CAPACITY, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mazurek

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Atheromatosis develops as a result of a chronic inflammatory process of the arteries. Inflammatory biomarkers, particularly high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, positively correlate with atheromatosis risk factors and can be used to estimate and predict the risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hsCRP concentration and BMI, body composition, classical risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, energy expenditure for physical activity (WEE and  ·VO2max. 166 volunteers (78 women and 88 men were included in the examinations. Their mean age was 20.2±0.9 years. Health condition was described by the following variables: smoking, WEE,  ·VO2max, body mass index (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, fat mass (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, lipid profile, hsCRP, glucose and insulin concentration, and insulin resistance. Between the subgroups created on the basis of hsCRP concentration, in quartiles 1 to 3 and quartile 4, a comparative analysis was carried out. 79.5�0of women and 69.3�0of men had hsCRP values within the references ranges. Moderately high values were found in 14.1�0of women and 22.7�0of men and high in 6.4�0and 7.9�20respectively. Mean values of BMI, FFM, WHR, WEE,  ·VO2max, glucose and triglyceride concentration, and TC/HDL index were significantly lower, while FM and HDL were significantly higher, in women than in men. In the quartile 4 subgroup compared to the quartile 1-3 subgroup, we found significantly lower HDL concentration and a tendency for higher values of BMI (p=0.06 and TC (p=0.07 as well as higher percentages of smoking among men. In young, physically active, healthy persons, serum concentration of hsCRP is not related to physical activity or  ·VO2max.

  1. Geriatic Disability Related Factors

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    Mohsen Adib Hajbagheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Reports are indicating of increasing trend of aging and disability in the developing countries while such disabilities are decreasing within the developed countries. This study designed to evaluate the disability and some of its related factors among the elderly population (65 and older in Kashan, Iran. Methods & Materials: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on a multi-stage random sample of 350 elderly people (65 year and older in Kashan. The WHO-DAS-II was used as the generic disability measure. The questionnair had 48 questions. The range of score could be between 0-144. Chi-square, t-test analysis and ANOVA were utilized to check significant differences between subgroups. Results: 61% were men and 12% were living lonely. One fourth had some type of addiction, the majority were ilitrate and two thired had not regular phisycal activity.Twenty percent of the old people had a modereate disability and 4.3% were extremely disabled. A significant relationship was found between the disability and variables such as sex, age, living style, needing help, marriage status, living location, addiction, job, level of physical activity, education, and having multiple diseases. Conclusion: In conclusion, geriatric population in Iran, has a lower levels of disability in compare to those of other developed countries. Need of geriatric cares must be be increasing, since the populationpattern of elderly people is increasing in Iran. Female and ilitrate elders were sufering of more disability. These findings indicated the nessesity to more attention to these voulnarable subgroups of population.

  2. Relative sensitivity of formability to anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, R.W.; Maker, B.N.

    1997-01-01

    This work compares the relative importance of material anisotropy in sheet forming as compared to other material and process variables. The comparison is made quantitative by the use of normalized dependencies of depth to failure (forming limit is reached) on various measures of anisotropy, as well as strain and rate sensitivity, friction, and tooling. Comparisons are made for a variety of forming processes examined previously in the literature as well as two examples of complex stampings in this work. 7 The examples rover a range from nearly pure draw to nearly pure stretch situations, and show that for materials following a quadratic yield criterion, anisotropy is among the most sensitive parameters influencing formability. For materials following higher-exponent yield criteria, the dependency is milder but is still of the order of most other process parameters. However, depending on the particular forming operation, it is shown that in some cases anisotropy may be ignored, whereas in others its consideration is crucial to a good quality analysis

  3. Probabilistic derivation of the interspecies assessment factor for skin sensitization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bil, W; Schuur, A G; Ezendam, J; Bokkers, B G H

    An interspecies sensitization assessment factor (SAF) is used in the quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for skin sensitization when a murine-based NESIL (No Expected Sensitization Induction Level) is taken as point of departure. Several studies showed that, on average, the murine sensitization

  4. Risk factors associated with sensitization to hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Geier, Johannes; Schnuch, Axel; Gefeller, Olaf

    2013-08-01

    Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) is a synthetic fragrance chemical and an important contact allergen, at least in Europe. Despite this importance, little is known about risk factors associated with this allergen. To examine factors from the history and clinical presentation of patch tested patients associated with HICC sensitization. Contact allergy surveillance data of 95 637 patients collected by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (IVDK, www.ivkd.org) in 2002-2011 were analysed. Point and interval estimates of the relative risk were derived from multifactorial logistic regression modelling. The overall prevalence of HICC sensitization was 2.24%. The strongest risk factors were polysensitization and dermatitis of the axillae, followed by dermatitis at other sites. No consistent and significant time trend was observed in this analysis. As compared with the youngest patients, the odds of HICC sensitization increased approximately three-fold in the 52-67-year age group, and strongly declined with further increasing age. The risk pattern with regard to age and affected anatomical site differed from that observed with other fragrance screening allergens. Cosmetic exposure, as broadly defined here, was a stronger and more prevalent individual risk factor than occupational exposure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Psychosocial Factors and Central Sensitivity Syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Leah M.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2015-01-01

    Central sensitivity syndromes (CSSs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders (e.g., fibromyalgia [FM], irritable bowel syndrome [IBS], chronic headache, temporomandibular disorders [TMDs], pelvic pain syndromes) that share common symptoms, with persistent pain being the most prominent feature.

  6. (PTC) taste sensitivity, ABO and Rhesus factor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chibuisi G. Alimba

    diseases [11], thyroid disorders, gastrointestinal ulcers and sus- ceptibility to ... forensic pathology. It has also been ... haemolysate from venous blood of the subjects was placed ..... Phenylthiocarbamide taste sensitivity in chronic peptic ulcer.

  7. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... with production of specific IgE-antibodies against allergens. Sensitization may cause allergic symptoms, and sensitization early in life is a strong risk factor for later disease. Fetal and early postnatal life seems to be a critical period for development of atopic disease and may be an important “window...... of opportunity” for prevention. The aim of this thesis was to increase the understanding of sensitization in early life. We studied indicators of sensitization in the newborn, and early development of sensitization and disease associated with a newly discovered genetic risk factor. Such insight may increase our...

  8. Biosphere dose conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-01-01

    This report presents importance and sensitivity analysis for the environmental radiation model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN). ERMYN is a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis concerns the output of the model, biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater, and the volcanic ash exposure scenarios. It identifies important processes and parameters that influence the BDCF values and distributions, enhances understanding of the relative importance of the physical and environmental processes on the outcome of the biosphere model, includes a detailed pathway analysis for key radionuclides, and evaluates the appropriateness of selected parameter values that are not site-specific or have large uncertainty

  9. Surface sensitivity of nuclear-knock-out form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fratamico, G.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical calculation has been performed to investigate the sensitivity of nuclear-knock-out form factors to nuclear-surface behaviour of bound-state wave functions. The result of our investigation suggests that one can extract the bound-state behaviour at the surface from experimental information on nuclear-knock-out form factors

  10. Adiponectin and osteocalcin: relation to insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Zhou, Peng; Kimondo, Julia Wanjiru

    2012-10-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis have grave consequences for human health, quality of life, and even the efficiency of the labor force. Interestingly, these diseases share several features including a genetic predisposition and a common progenitor cell. Recent findings show that high adipocyte count in bone marrow is directly related to bone loss, as fat cells replace osteoblasts resulting in reduced bone mineral density and increased propensity towards osteoporosis. This close relationship has a positive aspect, whereby higher osteocalcin levels results in increased adiponectin production while the presence of adiponectin influences osteoblast proliferation and differentiation in a positive way. We focus on how osteoblasts and adipocytes affect each other and ultimately insulin resistance through the hormones they produce. This approach to whole animal physiology is the main stay of Alternative Medicine. It is assumed that the body is linked together intricately, and treating one is equal to treating the whole body. As we go further into bone and adipocytes physiology, it is evident that these organs affect each other. Therefore, elucidation on the actions of fat on bone and vice versa will unravel the complex mechanism of insulin resistance.

  11. Demographic factors associated with moral sensitivity among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvesson, Hanna; Lützén, Kim

    2017-11-01

    Today's healthcare environment is often characterized by an ethically demanding work situation, and nursing students need to prepare to meet ethical challenges in their future role. Moral sensitivity is an important aspect of the ethical decision-making process, but little is known regarding nursing students' moral sensitivity and its possible development during nursing education. The aims of this study were to investigate moral sensitivity among nursing students, differences in moral sensitivity according to sample sub-group, and the relation between demographic characteristics of nursing students and moral sensitivity. A convenience sample of 299 nursing students from one university completed a questionnaire comprising questions about demographic information and the revised Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire. With the use of SPSS, non-parametric statistics, including logistic regression models, were used to investigate the relationship between demographic characteristics and moral sensitivity. Ethical considerations: The study followed the regulations according to the Swedish Ethical Review Act and was reviewed by the Ethics Committee of South-East Sweden. The findings showed that mean scores of nursing students' moral sensitivity were found in the middle to upper segment of the rating scale. Multivariate analysis showed that gender (odds ratio = 3.32), age (odds ratio = 2.09; 1.73), and parental status (odds ratio = 0.31) were of relevance to nursing students' moral sensitivity. Academic year was found to be unrelated to moral sensitivity. These demographic aspects should be considered when designing ethics education for nursing students. Future studies should continue to investigate moral sensitivity in nursing students, such as if and how various pedagogical strategies in ethics may contribute to moral sensitivity in nursing students.

  12. Improved Sensitivity Relations in State Constrained Optimal Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettiol, Piernicola; Frankowska, Hélène; Vinter, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity relations in optimal control provide an interpretation of the costate trajectory and the Hamiltonian, evaluated along an optimal trajectory, in terms of gradients of the value function. While sensitivity relations are a straightforward consequence of standard transversality conditions for state constraint free optimal control problems formulated in terms of control-dependent differential equations with smooth data, their verification for problems with either pathwise state constraints, nonsmooth data, or for problems where the dynamic constraint takes the form of a differential inclusion, requires careful analysis. In this paper we establish validity of both ‘full’ and ‘partial’ sensitivity relations for an adjoint state of the maximum principle, for optimal control problems with pathwise state constraints, where the underlying control system is described by a differential inclusion. The partial sensitivity relation interprets the costate in terms of partial Clarke subgradients of the value function with respect to the state variable, while the full sensitivity relation interprets the couple, comprising the costate and Hamiltonian, as the Clarke subgradient of the value function with respect to both time and state variables. These relations are distinct because, for nonsmooth data, the partial Clarke subdifferential does not coincide with the projection of the (full) Clarke subdifferential on the relevant coordinate space. We show for the first time (even for problems without state constraints) that a costate trajectory can be chosen to satisfy the partial and full sensitivity relations simultaneously. The partial sensitivity relation in this paper is new for state constraint problems, while the full sensitivity relation improves on earlier results in the literature (for optimal control problems formulated in terms of Lipschitz continuous multifunctions), because a less restrictive inward pointing hypothesis is invoked in the proof, and because

  13. Factors influencing contrast sensitivity function in myopic eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Kamiya

    Full Text Available To evaluate the factors affecting the area under the log contrast sensitivity function (AULCSF in healthy myopic eyes.We retrospectively examined 201 eyes of 201 consecutive subjects (age, 31.8 ± 7.4 years (mean ± standard deviation with myopic refractive errors of -1.25 to -8.25 diopters (D. From the contrast sensitivity data, the area under the log contrast sensitivity function (AULCSF was calculated. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to assess the factors affecting the AULCSF.The mean AULSCF was 1.09 ± 0.09 (0.89 to 1.55. Explanatory variables relevant to the AULCSF were, in order of influence, the objective scattering index (OSI (p = 0.018, partial regression coefficient B =  -0.032 and logMAR CDVA (p = 0.022, B =  -0.209 (adjusted R(2 = 0.231. No significant correlation was seen with other clinical factors such as gender, manifest refraction, pupil size, lens density, corneal HOAs, or ocular HOAs.Although the great majority of the variance remains unexplained, eyes with lower OSI and better CDVA are more predisposed to show higher contrast sensitivity function. These results indicate that not only CDVA but also intraocular forward scattering may play some role in predicting the contrast sensitivity function in myopic subjects.

  14. Genetic susceptibility factors for multiple chemical sensitivity revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nikolaj Drimer; Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-01-01

    of this study was to investigate genetic susceptibility factors for MCS and self-reported chemical sensitivity in a population sample. Ninety six MCS patients and 1,207 controls from a general population divided into four severity groups of chemical sensitivity were genotyped for variants in the genes encoding......Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is characterised by adverse effects due to exposure to low levels of chemical substances. Various genes, especially genes of importance to the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds, have been associated with MCS, but findings are inconsistent. The purpose...... significant (OR=1.2, p=0.28). Fast arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 metaboliser status was associated with severity of chemical sensitivity only in the most severely affected group in the population sample (OR=3.1, p=0.04). The cholecystokinin 2 receptor allele with 21 CT repeats was associated with MCS when...

  15. Ranking factors of an investment in cogeneration: sensitivity analysis ranking the technical and economical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Gunnel

    2001-01-01

    A deregulation of the electricity market in Europe will result in increased competition among the power-producing companies. They will therefore carefully estimate the financial risk in an investment in new power-producing capability. One part of the risk assessment is to perform a sensitivity analysis. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis using factorial design, resulting in an assessment of the most important technical and economical factors affecting an investment in gas turbine combined cycle and a steam cycle fired by wood chips. The study is performed using a simulation model that optimises the operation of existing power plants and potential new investments to fulfil the desired heat demand. The local utility system analysed is a Swedish district heating system with 655 GWh y -1 heat demand. The conclusion is that to understand which of the technical and economical factors affect the investment, it is not sufficient to investigate the parameters of the studied plant, but also the parameters related to the competing plants. Both the individual effects of the factors and the effect of their interaction should be investigated. For the energy system studied the price of natural gas, price of wood chips and investment cost have the major influence on the profitability of the investment. (Author)

  16. Relation Between Demographic Factors And Hospitalization In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relation Between Demographic Factors And Hospitalization In Patients With Gastrointestinal Disorders, Using Quantail Regression Analysis. ... East African Journal of Public Health ... Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate relation between demographic factors and hospitalization in gastrointestinal disorders.

  17. German and Korean mothers' sensitivity and related parenting beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehm, Jeanette; Trommsdorff, Gisela; Heikamp, Tobias; Park, Seong-Yeon

    2013-01-01

    This study contributes to a differentiated understanding of maternal sensitivity in cultural and situational context. We investigated differences and similarities in German and Korean mothers' maternal sensitivity. We interviewed 92 German and 100 Korean mothers of first graders about their preference for proactive (anticipating children's needs) or reactive sensitivity (responding to children's direct cues) in different scenarios. Related parenting beliefs were assessed by asking the mothers to explain the reasons why they would prefer specific parenting behaviors. Results revealed significant cultural differences in reactive vs. proactive sensitivity preferences. Overall, German mothers were more likely to indicate that a mother should respond reactively and less likely to report that a mother should act proactively than were Korean mothers. Korean mothers gave preference to both reactive and proactive sensitivity depending on the scenario. With regard to parenting beliefs, analyses revealed that German and Korean mothers who preferred reactive sensitivity mainly explained their choices as attempts to encourage children's development of independence. In contrast, Korean and German mothers with a preference for proactive sensitivity were more likely to report that mothers would assist their children due to their immaturity in dealing with emotional distress. Results are discussed in the framework of the different meanings and functions of maternal sensitivity for socialization in different cultural contexts. PMID:23986740

  18. Determining Factors for Fast Corneal Sensitivity Recovery After Pterygium Excision

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Morán, Gemma; Campos, Pamela; Pujol Vives, Pere; Munguia, Aitana; Mas Aixalà, Enric

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To establish determining factors for fast corneal sensitivity (CS) recovery after pterygium excision. Methods: Thirty-two eyes of 14 males and 18 females with primary nasal pterygium were recruited. Differences in CS (in the 4 quadrants and the center using a Cochet–Bonnet esthesiometer), pterygium corneal area (PCA), tear osmolarity, tear break-up time, Schirmer test, and ocular symptoms were analyzed before and 1 month after lesion excision. The relationship between CS recovery...

  19. Factors affecting relative pitch perception

    OpenAIRE

    McClaskey, Carolyn Marie

    2016-01-01

    Sounds that evoke a sense of pitch are ubiquitous in our environment and important for speech, music, and auditory scene analysis. The frequencies of these sounds rarely remain constant, however, and the direction and extent of pitch change is often more important than the exact pitches themselves. This dissertation examines the mechanisms underlying how we perceive relative pitch distance, focusing on two types of stimuli: continuous pitch changes and discrete pitch changes. In a series of e...

  20. How Is Interreligious Sensitivity Related to Finnish Pupils' Religiousness Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Elina; Kuusisto, Arniika; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines, through a non-probability sample of 451 Finnish lower secondary-school pupils belonging to the 15- to 16-year-old age group, how interreligious sensitivity is related to religiousness profiles of Finnish youth. The data were gathered in two geographical locations: Helsinki, Finland's capital, and a smaller municipality in the…

  1. Anxiety sensitivity mediates relations between emotional disorders and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Farris, Samantha G; Leventhal, Adam M; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-09-01

    Research has documented consistent and robust relations between emotional disorders (i.e., depressive and anxiety disorders) and smoking. Yet, it is presently unclear whether anxiety sensitivity--the fear of aversive internal anxiety states--accounts for the relations between emotional disorders and various smoking processes, including nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms during past cessation attempts. Participants (N = 465) were treatment-seeking daily tobacco smokers recruited as part of a larger tobacco-cessation study. Baseline (pretreatment) data were utilized. Emotional disorders were assessed via clinical diagnostic interview; self-report measures were used to assess anxiety sensitivity and 3 criterion variables: nicotine dependence, barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms while quitting in past attempts. Emotional disorders were predictive of higher levels of nicotine dependence, greater perceived barriers to cessation, and greater severity of problematic symptoms while attempting to quit in the past; each of these relations were accounted for by the indirect effect of anxiety sensitivity. The present findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity may be an important transdiagnostic construct in explicating the nature of the relations between emotional disorders and various smoking processes.

  2. Sensitivity analysis and related analysis : A survey of statistical techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in five related types of analysis, namely (i) sensitivity or what-if analysis, (ii) uncertainty or risk analysis, (iii) screening, (iv) validation, and (v) optimization. The main question is: when should which type of analysis be applied; which statistical

  3. The Factors Affecting the Sensitivity of the Ultrasonic Inter-Modulation Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, C. R. P.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Neild, S. A.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2007-01-01

    A global non-destructive testing technique for detecting cracks in metal parts has been developed and the factors affecting its sensitivity investigated. A sample is excited at very-high-order modes of vibration at two frequencies and the frequency mixing measured. Experiments with fatigue-cracked steel beams demonstrate that these defects produce a strong mixing effect and that the signal relating to the frequency mixing is sensitive to the length of the crack. The sensitivity is also shown to be reliant on the modes of vibration used

  4. Anxiety Sensitivity and Sleep-Related Problems in Anxious Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Courtney L.; Elkins, Meredith; Pincus, Donna; Comer, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders constitute the most common mental health disturbance experienced by youth. Sleep-related problems (SRPs) are highly prevalent among anxious youth and encompass a variety of problems including nighttime fears, insomnia, and refusal to sleep alone. Given that chronic sleep disturbance is associated with a range of behavioral and physical problems in youth and predicts future psychopathology, it is important to elucidate the nature of SRPs in anxious youth. The present study investigated the relationship between sleep problems and anxiety sensitivity in a sample of 101 anxious youth, ages 6–17. Heightened anxiety sensitivity significantly predicted prolonged sleep onset latency across the sample, even after accounting for severity of anxiety, depression, and age. Results support previous research indicating that SRPs are common among anxious youth and suggest that anxiety sensitivity may play a particularly important role in sleep onset latency. PMID:25863826

  5. Assessing geomorphic sensitivity in relation to river capacity for adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, H. E.; Brierley, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    River sensitivity describes the nature and rate of channel adjustments. An approach to analysis of geomorphic river sensitivity outlined in this paper relates potential sensitivity based on the expected capacity of adjustment for a river type to the recent history of channel adjustment. This approach was trialled to assess low, moderate and high geomorphic sensitivity for four different types of river (10 reaches in total) along the Lower Tongariro River, North Island, New Zealand. Building upon the River Styles framework, river types were differentiated based upon valley setting (width and confinement), channel planform, geomorphic unit assemblages and bed material size. From this, the behavioural regime and potential for adjustment (type and extent) were determined. Historical maps and aerial photographs were geo-rectified and the channel planform digitised to assess channel adjustments for each reach from 1928 to 2007. Floodplain width controlled by terraces, exerted a strong influence upon reach scale sensitivity for the partly-confined, wandering, cobble-bed river. Although forced boundaries occur infrequently, the width of the active channel zone is constrained. An unconfined braided river reach directly downstream of the terrace-confined section was the most geomorphically sensitive reach. The channel in this reach adjusted recurrently to sediment inputs that were flushed through more confined, better connected upstream reaches. A meandering, sand-bed river in downstream reaches has exhibited negligible rates of channel migration. However, channel narrowing in this reach and the associated delta indicate that the system is approaching a threshold condition, beyond which channel avulsion is likely to occur. As this would trigger more rapid migration, this reach is considered to be more geomorphically sensitive than analysis of its low migration rate alone would indicate. This demonstrates how sensitivity is fashioned both by the behavioural regime of a reach

  6. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (independence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014. Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid. PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007. Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  7. LEARNERS SATISFACTION FACTORS IN NEUROLOGY RELATED MOOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela MANIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate the factors that are influencing student satisfaction in case of neurology related massive open online courses (MOOCs. We analyzed data collected from learners enrolled in 40 neurology related MOOCs, by manually looking for information in these courses reviews. The main identified satisfaction factors can be grouped into the following categories: content related factors: course content, additional materials, assignments, external research and teaching - learning related factors (teacher presentation techniques / style: engaging, clear, coherent, knowledgeable, sharing / explanation, interactive, excitement, considering student’s needs, inspiring, sense of humor. Competences, skills and objectives pursued by neurology related MOOCs are also discussed. Analyzing these factors can be useful in new courses management (design and implementation and also in understanding the needs (motivation, behaviors, perception of 21st century learners interested in neurology related fields.

  8. Intrauterine and genetic factors in early childhood sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The allergy-associated (atopic) diseases; asthma, eczema and rhinoconjunctivitis, are the most common chronic diseases in childhood. A large number of environmental and genetic risk factors have been suggested, but still our understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms and etiologies...... and identifying the environmental risk factors interacting with this genetic susceptibility and the age at which intervention should be initiated. We found a FLG-associated pattern of atopic disease in early childhood characterized by early onset of eczema, early onset of asthma with severe exacerbations...... a subtype of disease where skin barrier dysfunction leads to early eczema, early asthma symptoms and later sensitization. Future FLG-targeted research has the potential of improving understanding prevention and treatment of atopic diseases in childhood....

  9. Input-variable sensitivity assessment for sediment transport relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Roberto; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2017-09-01

    A methodology to assess input-variable sensitivity for sediment transport relations is presented. The Mean Value First Order Second Moment Method (MVFOSM) is applied to two bed load transport equations showing that it may be used to rank all input variables in terms of how their specific variance affects the overall variance of the sediment transport estimation. In sites where data are scarce or nonexistent, the results obtained may be used to (i) determine what variables would have the largest impact when estimating sediment loads in the absence of field observations and (ii) design field campaigns to specifically measure those variables for which a given transport equation is most sensitive; in sites where data are readily available, the results would allow quantifying the effect that the variance associated with each input variable has on the variance of the sediment transport estimates. An application of the method to two transport relations using data from a tropical mountain river in Costa Rica is implemented to exemplify the potential of the method in places where input data are limited. Results are compared against Monte Carlo simulations to assess the reliability of the method and validate its results. For both of the sediment transport relations used in the sensitivity analysis, accurate knowledge of sediment size was found to have more impact on sediment transport predictions than precise knowledge of other input variables such as channel slope and flow discharge.

  10. Staphylococci Related to Farm Ostriches and Their Sensitivity to Enterocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandričáková, Anna; Lauková, Andrea; Ščerbová, Jana

    2016-03-01

    In Slovakia, ostriches are reared mainly for their meat. There is still limited information related to microflora of ostriches, including staphylococci. Knowing the composition of microflora is very important for the recognition of potential pathogenic agents. Recently, a frequent problem in animals is the occurrence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to detect staphylococcal species in feces of farm ostriches and to test their sensitivity to antibiotics and enterocins. Altogether 140 ostriches from three age groups were sampled (n = 18, faecal mixture samples from each group) on a farm in Slovakia or on Slovak farm. From 54 fecal samples, the staphylococcal count reached an average 4. 3 ± 0. 63 (log10) CFU/g. Twenty-four lactic acid producing strains were taxonomically classified to eight species of the genus Staphylococcus: Staphylococcus equorum, S. xylosus, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, S. cohnii, S. succinus, S. warneri, and S. hominis. Strains were evaluated by secure probable species identification/probable species identification (score value up to 2.299) confirmed also by phenotypization. Most strains were sensitive to antibiotics. Four strains (S. haemolyticus SHae 111, S. haemolyticus SHAe 371, S. xylosus SX 2133, and S. warneri SW 292) were resistant to methicillin but sensitive to six or five of the seven enterocins tested (inhibitory activity 200-12,800 AU/mL). S. warneri SW 292 was sensitive to all enterocins (activity up to 12,800 AU/mL).

  11. Trovafloxacin-induced replication stress sensitizes HepG2 cells to tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced cytotoxicity mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beggs, Kevin M.; Maiuri, Ashley R.; Fullerton, Aaron M.; Poulsen, Kyle L.; Breier, Anna B.; Ganey, Patricia E.; Roth, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Use of the fluoroquinolone antibiotic trovafloxacin (TVX) was restricted due to idiosyncratic, drug-induced liver injury (IDILI). Previous studies demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) and TVX interact to cause death of hepatocytes in vitro that was associated with prolonged activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), activation of caspases 9 and 3, and DNA damage. The purpose of this study was to explore further the mechanism by which TVX interacts with TNF to cause cytotoxicity. Treatment with TVX caused cell cycle arrest, enhanced expression of p21 and impaired proliferation, but cell death only occurred after cotreatment with TVX and TNF. Cell death involved activation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), which in turn activated caspase 3 and ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), both of which contributed to cytotoxicity. Cotreatment of HepG2 cells with TVX and TNF caused double-strand breaks in DNA, and ERK contributed to this effect. Inhibition of caspase activity abolished the DNA strand breaks. The data suggest a complex interaction of TVX and TNF in which TVX causes replication stress, and the downstream effects are exacerbated by TNF, leading to hepatocellular death. These results raise the possibility that IDILI from TVX results from MAPK and ATR activation in hepatocytes initiated by interaction of cytokine signaling with drug-induced replication stress

  12. Cognitive control reduces sensitivity to relational aggression among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Abigail A; Silver, Shari H; Veague, Heather B

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression is a type of aggression that aims to hurt others through relationships and includes behaviors such as gossip and ostracism. This type of aggression is very common among adolescent girls, and in its more intense forms has been linked with poor psychosocial outcomes, including depression and suicide. In the present study we investigated whether individual differences in sensitivity to relational aggression among adolescent girls predicted recruitment of neural networks associated with executive function and cognitive control. Neural response was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging during an affect recognition task that included unfamiliar peer faces. A finding of relatively fewer reports of being victimized by relational aggression was associated with increased recruitment of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortices in response to the affect recognition task, as well as with greater competence on behavioral measures of executive function. Our results suggest that girls who are able to recruit specific frontal networks to improve cognitive and executive control are less sensitive to relational aggression. © 2010 Psychology Press

  13. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  14. Evaluation of undrilled prospects. Sensitivity to economic and geological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermanrud, C.; Abrahamsen, K.; Vollset, J.; Nordahl, S.; Jourdan, C.

    1996-01-01

    predictable to a greater accuracy than 40 % at early stages of exploration. This, and the fluctuations in oil price, adds to the uncertainty of early economic start-up. The operational and investment costs are not generally predictable to a greater accuracy than 40 % at early stages of exploration. This, and the fluctuations in oil price, adds to the uncertainty of early economic calculations. Sensitivity analysis of calculated net present values for exploration prospects shows that the investigated prospects are sensitive to many different factors, and that a separate sensitivity analysis for each prospect is needed. 15 refs

  15. The Relationship of Workplace Culture With Nursing-Sensitive Organizational Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahtela, Nina; McCormack, Brendan; Paavilainen, Eija; Slater, Paul; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relations of workplace culture on nursing-sensitive organizational factors. The need for standardized and valid measures for nursing-sensitive organizational outcomes has already been recognized in the literature. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 21 inpatient acute care units in 9 organizations at the municipal primary healthcare level was conducted. Participants included licensed practical nurses, registered nurses, and nurse managers. Workplace culture, especially the overarching factor of stress, correlated with the use of supplemental nursing staff and patients' length of stay. It is essential to find and test workplace-sensitive indicators so that managers will have a wider range of methods to plan and evaluate nursing outcomes.

  16. Nursing students' understanding of factors influencing ethical sensitivity: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mohsenpour, Mohaddeseh

    2013-07-01

    Ethical sensitivity is considered as a component of professional competency of nurses. Its effects on improvement of nurses' ethical performance and the therapeutic relationship between nurses and patients have been reported. However, very limited studies have evaluated ethical sensitivity. Since no previous Iranian research has been conducted in this regard, the present study aimed to review nursing students' understanding of effective factors on ethical sensitivity. This qualitative study was performed in Kerman, Iran, during 2009. It used semi-structured individual interviews with eight MSc nursing students to assess their viewpoints. It also included two focus groups. Purposive sampling was continued until data saturation. Data were analyzed using manifest content analysis. The students' understanding of factors influencing ethical sensitivity were summarized in five main themes including individual and spiritual characteristics, education, mutual understanding, internal and external controls, and experience of an immoral act. The findings of this study create a unique framework for sensitization of nurses in professional performance. The application of these factors in human resource management is reinforcement of positive aspects and decrease in negative aspects, in education can use for educational objectives setting, and in research can designing studies based on this framework and making related tools. It is noteworthy that presented classification was influenced by students themselves and mentioned to a kind of learning activity by them.

  17. Emotion Dysregulation Mediates the Relation between Mindfulness and Rejection Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velotti, Patrizia; Garofalo, Carlo; Bizzi, Fabiola

    2015-09-01

    The role of rejection sensitivity (RS; the tendency to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and overreact to implied or overt interpersonal rejection) in psychopathology has mainly been studied with regard to borderline personality disorder (BPD). In the present study, we first sought to extend previous evidence of heightened RS in a clinical group with psychiatric disorders other than BPD, when compared with a community sample. Then, we tested whether emotion dysregulation and mindfulness were associated with RS in both sample, further hypothesizing that emotion dysregulation would mediate the relation between mindfulness deficits and RS. We adopted a cross-sectional design involving 191 psychiatric patients and 277 community participants (total N=468). All participants completed the Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Our hypotheses were supported, with psychiatric patients reporting greater levels of rejection sensitivity and emotion dysregulation, and lower level of mindfulness. Mindfulness deficits and emotion dysregulation explained a significant amount of variance in RS, in both samples. Finally, bootstrap analyses revealed that mindfulness deficits played an indirect effect on RS through the mediating role of emotion dysregulation. In particular, two different patterns emerged. Among psychiatric patients, an impairment in the ability to assume a non-judgmental stance towards own thoughts and feelings was related to RS through the mediation of limited access to emotion regulation strategies. Conversely, in the community sample, overall emotion dysregulation mediated the effect of lack of attention and awareness for present activities and experience on RS. Longitudinal studies could help in delineating etiological models of RS, and the joint role of deficits in mindfulness and emotion regulation should inform treatment programs.

  18. Female nurses' sensitivity to male genitalia-related care in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yu-Li; Chung, Loretta Y F; Wong, Thomas K S; Chan, Moon Fai

    2012-02-01

    To discover the latent psychosocial construct of female nurses' sensitivity to male genitalia-related care in the context of sexual conservativeness. Many nursing activities involve direct exposure or contact with male external genitalia. In the sexually conservative culture and the predominance of female nurses, this area is the subject of continuing interest and investigation. Methodological research design. An item pool related to male genitalia-related care was generated through a panel of experts and then reduced to a short form questionnaire, the Female Nurses' Sensitivity to Male Genitalia Related Care scale. Using data from a purposive sample of 588 female nurses, the structure of the questionnaire was examined using structural equation modelling. The validity was examined against existing scales. The 13-item Female Nurses' Sensitivity to Male Genitalia Related Care scale has a two-factor structure with high internal consistency (α = 0·87) and test-retest reliability of 0·90. Nearly all model fit measures reach the criteria of being an acceptable model fit except chi-squared statistics. Scores on Female Nurses' Sensitivity to Male Genitalia Related Care can be best predicted by that of brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale, Embarrassability Scale and Situational Susceptibility to Embarrassment Scale. The anxiety of projecting a positive image and the pursuit of sexual propriety may underpin female nurses' sensitivity to male genitalia-related care. This trait can be measured by the 13-item female nurses' sensitivity-male genitalia-related care scale with satisfactory psychometric properties including internal consistency, reliability, content validity and construct validity. Particular attention shall be paid to the negative effects of social rules or norms including sexual propriety rules over (female) nurses' perceptions, attitudes and behaviours. Strengthening nursing education in this regard is important to overcome negative effects on female

  19. Sensitivity of men and women to effect of chemical factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliyev, V.A.

    1985-05-01

    The activity of enzymes performing energy metabolism and electron transport in the respiratory chain and anabolism and catabolism processes in cells of the blood system of men and women petroleum processing workers is described and discussed. Enzymic activity was studied by cytochemical methods. Subjects included basic petroleum processing device operators (96 women and 74 men ranging in age from 19-30 years with work experience ranging from 4 months to 10 years). The control group included 133 persons of corresponding age-sex groups who were not involved in petroleum processing work. The cytoenzymic studies refuted the assumption that women workers are more sensitive than men workers to the effect of toxic substances. On the whole, the men in the study were found to be less resistant to the effect of chemical factors encountered in petroleum processing work. It was assumed that specific features of functioning of the female body (menstruation, pregnancy and birth), causing stress and reconstruction of homeostasis systems, promoted improvement of adaptational mechanisms in the process of evolution, which mechanisms were coded in the gene pool. It is speculated that sexual differences may cause differences in cell metabolism. 12 refs.

  20. Affective and cognitive factors influencing sensitivity to probabilistic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Sawicki, Przemyslaw

    2011-11-01

    In study 1 different groups of female students were randomly assigned to one of four probabilistic information formats. Five different levels of probability of a genetic disease in an unborn child were presented to participants (within-subject factor). After the presentation of the probability level, participants were requested to indicate the acceptable level of pain they would tolerate to avoid the disease (in their unborn child), their subjective evaluation of the disease risk, and their subjective evaluation of being worried by this risk. The results of study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that an experience-based probability format decreases the subjective sense of worry about the disease, thus, presumably, weakening the tendency to overrate the probability of rare events. Study 2 showed that for the emotionally laden stimuli, the experience-based probability format resulted in higher sensitivity to probability variations than other formats of probabilistic information. These advantages of the experience-based probability format are interpreted in terms of two systems of information processing: the rational deliberative versus the affective experiential and the principle of stimulus-response compatibility. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Business factors related to manufacturing firms' performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergios Vranakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main goal is to understand the way many factors affect the investment decision making process and business performance. Design/methodology/approach: This study proposes a new conceptual framework for examining the reasons that manufacturing firms decide to invest on the acquisition of new machinery and equipment in order to improve their infrastructure. It incorporates various factors related to the internal business environment (quality management, investment decisions etc. Findings and Originality/value: A new conceptual framework, establishing the relations between many factors, has been developed, allowing the determinants of adoption of many implications to be discussed and to relate them to the peculiarities of the Greek manufacturing industry. Originality/value: This study presents an overview of the impact of machinery and equipment investment on firm’s performance, giving grasp for further research of the inter-organizational relationships that exist between them. 

  2. Relative sensitivity analysis of the predictive properties of sloppy models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myasnikova, Ekaterina; Spirov, Alexander

    2018-01-25

    Commonly among the model parameters characterizing complex biological systems are those that do not significantly influence the quality of the fit to experimental data, so-called "sloppy" parameters. The sloppiness can be mathematically expressed through saturating response functions (Hill's, sigmoid) thereby embodying biological mechanisms responsible for the system robustness to external perturbations. However, if a sloppy model is used for the prediction of the system behavior at the altered input (e.g. knock out mutations, natural expression variability), it may demonstrate the poor predictive power due to the ambiguity in the parameter estimates. We introduce a method of the predictive power evaluation under the parameter estimation uncertainty, Relative Sensitivity Analysis. The prediction problem is addressed in the context of gene circuit models describing the dynamics of segmentation gene expression in Drosophila embryo. Gene regulation in these models is introduced by a saturating sigmoid function of the concentrations of the regulatory gene products. We show how our approach can be applied to characterize the essential difference between the sensitivity properties of robust and non-robust solutions and select among the existing solutions those providing the correct system behavior at any reasonable input. In general, the method allows to uncover the sources of incorrect predictions and proposes the way to overcome the estimation uncertainties.

  3. Factors associated with allergen sensitizations in patients with asthma and/or rhinitis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Huang, Ying; Lin, Xiaoping; Zhao, Deyu; Tan, Guolin; Wu, Jinzhun; Zhao, Changqing; Zhao, Jing; Spangfort, Michael D; Lai, Xuxin; Zhong, Nanshan

    2012-01-01

    Allergen sensitization is influenced by genetic and environmental factors; however, the factors related to sensitizations in patients with rhinitis and asthma in China are largely unknown. This study investigated the factors associated with allergen sensitizations in patients with asthma and rhinitis in China. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 6304 patients with asthma and/or rhinitis from four regions of China. Patients completed a standardized questionnaire related to respiratory and allergic symptoms, family history of allergic diseases, smoking history, environmental exposure, and eating behaviors. They underwent skin-prick tests (SPTs) with 13 common aeroallergens. Blood samples were collected from 2268 of patients for specific IgE (sIgE) measurements against 16 common aeroallergens. Patients with both asthma and rhinitis had higher prevalence of SPT and sIgE positivity to most allergens than those with asthma or rhinitis alone (p history of allergic rhinitis, air-conditioner usage, sleeping on a mattress, and frequently eating meat were associated with increased risk of SPT and sIgE positivity. Using air-conditioner and sleeping on a mattress were further found to be associated with sIgE positivity to mites and molds. However, increased age and fish, fruit, and raw vegetable intake decreased the risk of SPT and sIgE positivity. Family history of allergic rhinitis, male gender, using an air conditioner, sleeping on a mattress, and frequent meat consumption are risk factors for allergen sensitizations, whereas increased age and frequent fish, fruit, and raw vegetable consumption may protect patients with asthma and/or rhinitis from developing sensitizations in China.

  4. Clinical factors related to schizophrenia relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Stefano; Bianchini, Oriana; De Girolamo, Giovanni; Aguglia, Eugenio; Crea, Luciana; Serretti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Relapses represent one of the main problems of schizophrenia management. This article reviews the clinical factors associated with schizophrenia relapse. A research of the last 22 years of literature data was performed. Two-hundred nineteen studies have been included. Three main groups of factors are related to relapse: factors associated with pharmacological treatment, add-on psychotherapeutic treatments and general risk factors. Overall, the absence of a maintenance therapy and treatment with first generation antipsychotics has been associated with higher risk of relapse. Further, psychotherapy add-on, particularly with cognitive behaviour therapy and psycho-education for both patients and relatives, has shown a good efficacy for reducing the relapse rate. Among general risk factors, some could be modified, such as the duration of untreated psychosis or the substance misuse, while others could not be modified as male gender or low pre-morbid level of functioning. Several classes of risk factors have been proved to be relevant in the risk of relapse. Thus, a careful assessment of the risk factors here identified should be performed in daily clinical practice in order to individualise the relapse risk for each patient and to provide a targeted treatment in high-risk subjects.

  5. Is skin penetration a determining factor in skin sensitization ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary:Background. It is widely accepted that substances that cannot penetrate through the skin will not be sensitisers. Thresholds based on relevant physicochemical parameters such as a LogKow > 1 and a MW 1 is a true requirement for sensitisation.Methods. A large dataset of substances that had been evaluated for their skin sensitisation potential, together with measured LogKow values was compiled from the REACH database. The incidence of skin sensitisers relative to non-skin sensitisers below and above the LogKow = 1 threshold was evaluated. Results. 1482 substances with associated skin sensitisation outcomes and measured LogKow values were identified. 305 substances had a measured LogKow self-evident truth borne out from the widespread misconception that the ability to efficiently penetrate the stratum corneum is a key determinant of skin sensitisation potential and potency. Using the REACH data extracted to test out the validity of common assumptions in the skin sensitization AOP. Builds on trying to develop a proof of concept IATA

  6. Talking about Relations : Factors Influencing the Production of Relational Descriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltaretu, Adriana-Alexandra; Krahmer, Emiel; van Wijk, Carel; Maes, Alfons

    2016-01-01

    In a production experiment (Experiment 1) and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2), we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as “the ball between the man and the drawer”). In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to

  7. Factors Related to Parenting Practices in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Mei; Luster Tom

    2002-01-01

    This study examined factors related to authoritarian and authoritative parenting practices among 463 Chinese mothers with preschoolers in Taiwan. Questionnaire findings suggested that maternal depression, child temperament, and degree of parenting daily hassles might have cross-culturally universal influence on parenting practices. Chinese…

  8. EFFECTS OF PROCUREMENT RELATED FACTORS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2013-03-04

    Mar 4, 2013 ... Policy makers in government, clients, and private developers into housing projects should give adequate .... constraints, payment method, finding methods and ... price and negotiation of contract details and firm ... All these discussed .... Decision. Cost related factors. 31.83. 3. 9.34. 0.00. S*. Accept H1.

  9. Happiness and related factors in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee

    2005-09-01

    Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.

  10. Measurement of Compression Factor and Error Sensitivity Factor of the Modified READ Facsimile Coding Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    Compression factor and error sensitivity together with statistical data have also been tabulated. This TIB is a companion drcument to NCS TIB’s 79-7...vu donner la priorit6 pour lour r~alisation. Chaque application est conf ice A un " chef do projet", responsable successivoment do sa conception. de son...pilote depend des r~sultats obtenus et fait I’objet d’une d~cision- de ’.a Direction Gdnerale. Ndanmoins, le chef do projet doit dOs le d~part consid~rer

  11. Contrasting ozone sensitivity in related evergreen and deciduous shrubs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calatayud, Vicent; Marco, Francisco; Cervero, Julia; Sanchez-Pena, Gerardo; Sanz, Maria Jose

    2010-01-01

    Plant responses to enhanced ozone levels have been studied in two pairs of evergreen-deciduous species (Pistacia terebinthus vs. P. lentiscus; Viburnum lantana vs. V. tinus) in Open Top Chambers. Ozone induced widespread visible injury, significantly reduced CO 2 assimilation and stomatal conductance (g s ), impaired Rubisco efficiency and regeneration capacity (V c,max, J max ) and altered fluorescence parameters only in the deciduous species. Differences in stomatal conductance could not explain the observed differences in sensitivity. In control plants, deciduous species showed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than their evergreen counterparts, suggesting metabolic differences that could make them more prone to redox imbalances. Ozone induced increases in SOD and/or peroxidase activities in all the species, but only evergreens were able to cope with the oxidative stress. The relevancy of these results for the effective ozone flux approach and for the current ozone Critical Levels is also discussed. - Mediterranean evergreen shrubs have a constitutively higher capacity to tolerate ozone stress than their deciduous relatives.

  12. Contrasting ozone sensitivity in related evergreen and deciduous shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatayud, Vicent, E-mail: vicent@ceam.e [Fundacion CEAM, c/ Charles R. Darwin 14, Parque Tecnologico, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Marco, Francisco; Cervero, Julia [Fundacion CEAM, c/ Charles R. Darwin 14, Parque Tecnologico, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Sanchez-Pena, Gerardo [SPCAN, Dir. Gral. de Medio Natural y Politica Forestal, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino, Rios Rosas 24, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, Maria Jose [Fundacion CEAM, c/ Charles R. Darwin 14, Parque Tecnologico, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Plant responses to enhanced ozone levels have been studied in two pairs of evergreen-deciduous species (Pistacia terebinthus vs. P. lentiscus; Viburnum lantana vs. V. tinus) in Open Top Chambers. Ozone induced widespread visible injury, significantly reduced CO{sub 2} assimilation and stomatal conductance (g{sub s}), impaired Rubisco efficiency and regeneration capacity (V{sub c,max,}J{sub max}) and altered fluorescence parameters only in the deciduous species. Differences in stomatal conductance could not explain the observed differences in sensitivity. In control plants, deciduous species showed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than their evergreen counterparts, suggesting metabolic differences that could make them more prone to redox imbalances. Ozone induced increases in SOD and/or peroxidase activities in all the species, but only evergreens were able to cope with the oxidative stress. The relevancy of these results for the effective ozone flux approach and for the current ozone Critical Levels is also discussed. - Mediterranean evergreen shrubs have a constitutively higher capacity to tolerate ozone stress than their deciduous relatives.

  13. Toward the elucidation of factors concerning the individual difference of radiation sensitivity, and the reduction of radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenoi, Mitsuru; Nakajima, Tetsuo; Wang, Bing

    2013-01-01

    This article describes studies aiming at the title subject and contains 2 topics of genetic and non-genetic factors modifying the radiation sensitivity. The ultimate purposes of those studies are the introduction of individual weighting factor to correct the individual differences of the sensitivity (IDS) and the practical control of the sensitivity-concerned factors, in the field of medical exposure. For genetic factors, described are studies on factors modifying the sensitivity at DNA repair and on the control of the sensitivity through the DNA repairing factors. The former, using cultured cells, aims at identifying protein (gene) of possible biomarker for IDS in non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), an important mechanism in repairing the double strand break of DNA. Ku protein is found as the candidate. The latter has revealed that cells lacking Artemis, XRCC4 or MDC1 gene are highly sensitive, and are planning to suppress Artemis activity artificially, which may lead to the reduction of radiation cancer formation due to the death of highly sensitive cells. For non-genetic factors, described are studies on the life habits modifying the sensitivity, on the control of the sensitivity through the radiation-induced adaptive response and with steroid hormone. In the first, in mice treated with high-calorie diet and X-irradiation, a possible radiation response is suggested in the hepatic DNA-methylation and micro-RNA. Second, the combination of radiation adaptive response in the genome damage and restriction of diet ingestion is shown to lower the sensitivity of mice with use of C, Ne ion or X-ray irradiation. Third, in studies on the radiation-induced formation and condensation of breast cancer stem cells in the presence of progesterone, the hormone is found to produce micro-RNA molecules relating with the suppression of cellular senescence and repressed carcinogenesis with over-expression of apoptosis inhibitory molecules. (T.T.)

  14. Kinesthetic sensitivity and related measures of hand sensitivity in children with nonproficient handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Anne O'Leary; Jacobs, Anne Burleigh

    2011-01-01

    This study compared measures of hand sensitivity and handwriting quality in children aged 10 to 12 years identified by their teachers as having nonproficient or proficient handwriting. We hypothesized that children with nonproficient handwriting have decreased kinesthetic sensitivity of the hands and digits. Sixteen subjects without documented motor or cognitive concerns were tested for kinesthetic sensitivity, discriminate tactile awareness, diadochokinesia, stereognosis, and graphesthesia. Eight children were considered to have nonproficient handwriting; 8 had proficient handwriting. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U tests were used to identify differences between groups on sensory tests. The 2 groups showed a statistically significant difference in handwriting legibility (P = .018). No significant difference was found on tests of kinesthetic sensitivity or other measures of sensation. Children presenting with handwriting difficulty as the only complaint have similar sensitivity in hands and digits as those with proficient handwriting. Failure to detect differences may result from a small sample size.

  15. The clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M.; Hansen, T.K.; Mørtz, Charlotte G

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have described cross-reactivity between fresh fruits, vegetables and pollen. However, no data demonstrates the clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults with and without symptoms in the pollen...... season. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults and to examine the diagnostic value of skin-prick test (SPT), histamine release and specific IgE compared with the outcome...... of oral challenge. METHODS: In total, 936 unselected adults (female : male 479 : 457, median age 33.7 years) were examined for pollen sensitization and clinical cross-reactivity with pollen-related fruits and vegetables by questionnaire, SPT, histamine release, specific IgE and oral challenge. RESULTS...

  16. HIV-related ocular microangiopathic syndrome and color contrast sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geier, S A; Hammel, G; Bogner, J R; Kronawitter, U; Berninger, T; Goebel, F D

    1994-06-01

    Color vision deficits in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease were reported, and a retinal pathogenic mechanism was proposed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of color vision deficits with HIV-related retinal microangiopathy. A computer graphics system was used to measure protan, deutan, and tritan color contrast sensitivity (CCS) thresholds in 60 HIV-infected patients. Retinal microangiopathy was measured by counting the number of cotton-wool spots, and conjunctival blood-flow sludging was determined. Additional predictors were CD4+ count, age, time on aerosolized pentamidine, time on zidovudine, and Walter Reed staging. The relative influence of each predictor was calculated by stepwise multiple regression analysis (inclusion criterion; incremental P value = < 0.05) using data for the right eyes (RE). The results were validated by using data for the left eyes (LE) and both eyes (BE). The only included predictors in multiple regression analyses for the RE were number of cotton-wool spots (tritan: R = .70; deutan: R = .46; and protan: R = .58; P < .0001 for all axes) and age (tritan: increment of R [Ri] = .05, P = .002; deutan: Ri = .10, P = .004; and protan: Ri = .05, P = .002). The predictors time on zidovudine (Ri = .05, P = .002) and Walter Reed staging (Ri = .03, P = .01) were additionally included in multiple regression analysis for tritan LE. The results for deutan LE were comparable to those for the RE. In the analysis for protan LE, the only included predictor was number of cotton-wool spots. In the analyses for BE, no further predictors were included. The predictors Walter Reed staging and CD4+ count showed a significant association with all three criteria in univariate analysis. Additionally, tritan CCS was significantly associated with conjunctival blood-flow sludging. CCS deficits in patients with HIV disease are primarily associated with the number of cotton

  17. Breastfeeding and its relation to maternal sensitivity and infant attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharner, Anne; Luijk, Maartje P C M; Raat, Hein; Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Moll, Henriette A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-06-01

    To examine the association of breastfeeding with maternal sensitive responsiveness and infant-mother attachment security and disorganization. We included 675 participants of a prospective cohort study. Questionnaires about breastfeeding practices were administered at 2 and 6 months postpartum. At 14 months, maternal sensitive responsiveness was assessed in a 13-minute laboratory procedure using Ainsworth's sensitivity scales, and attachment quality was assessed with the Strange Situation Procedure. Mothers were genotyped for oxytocin receptor genes OXTR rs53576 and OXTR rs2254298. Linear regressions and analyses of covariance adjusted for various background variables were conducted. We tested for mediation and moderation by maternal sensitive responsiveness and maternal oxytocin receptor genotype. Continuous analyses showed that longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with more maternal sensitive responsiveness (B = 0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02; 0.20, p attachment security (B = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.02; 0.46, p attachment disorganization (B = -0.20, 95% CI -0.36; -0.03, p attachment classification, but longer duration of breastfeeding predicted a lower risk of disorganized versus secure attachment classification (n = 151; odds ratio [OR] = 0.81, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.99, p = .04). Maternal sensitive responsiveness did not mediate the associations, and maternal oxytocin receptor genotype was not a significant moderator. Although duration of breastfeeding was not associated with differences in infant-mother attachment classifications, we found subtle positive associations between duration of breastfeeding and sensitive responsiveness, attachment security, and disorganization.

  18. Relation between depression and sociodemographic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar-Danesh Noori

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is one of the most common mental disorders in Western countries and is related to increased morbidity and mortality from medical conditions and decreased quality of life. The sociodemographic factors of age, gender, marital status, education, immigrant status, and income have consistently been identified as important factors in explaining the variability in depression prevalence rates. This study evaluates the relationship between depression and these sociodemographic factors in the province of Ontario in Canada using the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 (CCHS-1.2 dataset. Methods The CCHS-1.2 survey classified depression into lifetime depression and 12-month depression. The data were collected based on unequal sampling probabilities to ensure adequate representation of young persons (15 to 24 and seniors (65 and over. The sampling weights were used to estimate the prevalence of depression in each subgroup of the population. The multiple logistic regression technique was used to estimate the odds ratio of depression for each sociodemographic factor. Results The odds ratio of depression for men compared with women is about 0.60. The lowest and highest rates of depression are seen among people living with their married partners and divorced individuals, respectively. Prevalence of depression among people who live with common-law partners is similar to rates of depression among separated and divorced individuals. The lowest and highest rates of depression based on the level of education is seen among individuals with less than secondary school and those with "other post-secondary" education, respectively. Prevalence of 12-month and lifetime depression among individuals who were born in Canada is higher compared to Canadian residents who immigrated to Canada irrespective of gender. There is an inverse relation between income and the prevalence of depression (p Conclusion The patterns uncovered in this

  19. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Paul P; Keane, Pearse A; O'Neill, Evelyn C; Altaie, Rasha W; Loane, Edward; Neelam, Kumari; Nolan, John M; Beatty, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  20. Risk Factors for Age-Related Maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P. Connell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related maculopathy (ARM is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  1. Factors Related to Suicide in LGBT Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2016-09-01

    There is evidence of heightened vulnerability to nonfatal suicidal behaviors among LGBT populations yet a paucity of studies into fatal behaviors. The specific aim of this article was to identify factors related to suicide in LGBT individuals in Australia. The psychological autopsy (PA) method with a matched case-control study design was used. PA interviews were conducted with 27 next-of-kin of an LGBT person that had died by suicide. Three living LGBT controls per suicide case, matched by age and gender, were also interviewed. The key factors relating to suicide in LGBT people were a lack of acceptance by family and self (reflected in higher internalized homophobia and shame), negative feelings about own sexuality/gender, and dissatisfaction with appearance. LGBT people who died by suicide also tended to go through coming out milestones 2 years earlier than controls. There was a higher prevalence of aggressive behaviors and a more predominant history of physical and sexual abuse. Additionally, there was greater incidence of depression and anxiety and alcohol and substance use disorders. Specific predictive factors for suicide in LGBT populations in Australia were identified, including significantly poorer mental health outcomes and more violence across an array of measures.

  2. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  3. Peripheral intravenous catheter-related phlebitis and related risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaji-Zavareh, M; Ghorbani, R

    2007-08-01

    Peripheral intravenous catheter-related phlebitis is a common and significant problem in clinical practice. This study aims to investigate the incidence of phlebitis and to evaluate some important related factors. 300 patients admitted to medical and surgical wards of hospitals in Semnan, Iran from April 2003 to February 2004 were prospectively studied. Variables evaluated were age, gender, site and size of catheter, type of insertion and underlying conditions (diabetes mellitus, trauma, infectious disease and burns). Phlebitis was defined when at least four criteria were fulfilled (erythema, pain, tenderness, warmth, induration, palpable cord and swelling). Any patient who was discharged or their catheter removed before three days were excluded. Phlebitis occurred in 26 percent (95 percent confidence interval [CI] 21- 31 percent) of patients. There was no significant relationship between age, catheter bore size, trauma and phlebitis. Related risk factors were gender (odds-ratio [OR] 1.50, 95 percent CI 1.01-2.22), site (OR 3.25, 95 percent CI 2.26-4.67) and type of insertion (OR 2.04, 95 percent CI 1.36-3.05) of catheter, diabetes mellitus (OR 7.78, 95 percent CI 4.59-13.21), infectious disease (OR 6.21, 95 percent CI 4.27-9.03) and burns (OR 3.96, 95 percent CI 3.26-4.82). Phlebitis is still an important and ongoing problem in medical practice. In patients with diabetes mellitus and infectious diseases, more attention is needed.

  4. [Genetic control of the sensitivity of Aspergillus nidulans to mutagenic factors. VII. Inheritance of cross-sensitivity to different mutagenic factors by uvs-mutants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, G V; Kameneva, S V

    1977-01-01

    To study the inheritance of the sensitivity to UV, X-rays, methylmethanesulphonate (MMS), nitrosoguanidine (NG) and nitrous acid (NA) in five uvs mutants of Aspergillus nidulans, having multiple sensitivity to these factors, the sensitivity of recombinants obtained from crossing uvs mutants with uvs+ strain, resistant to all the factors analysed, and uvs leads to uvs+ revertants is investigated. Four uvs mutants (15, 17, 19 and 26) are found to have a nomogenic control of sensitivity to different mutagens. In one mutant (uvs11) the sensitivity to five factors is controlled by two non-linked mutations, one of them determining the sensitivity to UV, NG, NA, and the other--to X-rays and MMC. Phenotypic manifestations of uvs mutations is modified by cell genotype, both chromosomal and cytoplasmic factors being responsible for the modification. Phenotypic modification of uvs mutation results in the change to some (but not to all) mutagenic factors. It suggests, that not the product of uvs gene, but some other components of the reparation complex are modified. Otherwise, reparation of different DNA damages can be carried out by a single enzyme acting in different reparation complexes.

  5. Early sensitivity of left perisylvian cortex to relationality in nouns and verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Adina; Reddigari, Samir; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2017-06-01

    The ability to track the relationality of concepts, i.e., their capacity to encode a relationship between entities, is one of the core semantic abilities humans possess. In language processing, we systematically leverage this ability when computing verbal argument structure, in order to link participants to the events they participate in. Previous work has converged on a large region of left posterior perisylvian cortex as a locus for such processing, but the wide range of experimental stimuli and manipulations has yielded an unclear picture of the region's exact role(s). Importantly, there is a tendency for effects of relationality in single-word studies to localize to posterior temporo-parietal cortex, while argument structure effects in sentences appear in left superior temporal cortex. To characterize these sensitivities, we designed two MEG experiments that cross the factors relationality and eventivity. The first used minimal noun phrases and tested for an effect of semantic composition, while the second employed full sentences and a manipulation of grammatical category. The former identified a region of the left inferior parietal lobe sensitive to relationality, but not eventivity or combination, beginning at 170ms. The latter revealed a similarly-timed effect of relationality in left mid-superior temporal cortex, independent of eventivity and category. The results suggest that i) multiple sub-regions of perisylvian cortex are sensitive to the relationality carried by concepts even in the absence of arguments, ii) linguistic context modulates the locus of this sensitivity, consistent with prior studies, and iii) relationality information is accessed early - before 200ms - regardless of the concept's event status or syntactic category. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Price sensitivity to tourism activities: looking for determinant factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Masiero; Juan L. Nicolau

    2011-01-01

    The literature contains evidence that there is a marked heterogeneity in price responses to tourism products, leading to a great variety of tourist sensitivities to price. Thus the role price plays is complex, and a particularly challenging aspect of this complexity is that its effect is not unambiguous, thereby negating the idea that the demand for tourism products and tourist activities can always be regarded as demand for ordinary goods. This article identifies and explains, as a novelty f...

  7. Risk and sensitivity analysis in relation to external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzbutas, R.; Urbonas, R.; Augutis, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents risk and sensitivity analysis of external events impacts on the safe operation in general and in particular the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant safety systems. Analysis is based on the deterministic and probabilistic assumptions and assessment of the external hazards. The real statistic data are used as well as initial external event simulation. The preliminary screening criteria are applied. The analysis of external event impact on the NPP safe operation, assessment of the event occurrence, sensitivity analysis, and recommendations for safety improvements are performed for investigated external hazards. Such events as aircraft crash, extreme rains and winds, forest fire and flying parts of the turbine are analysed. The models are developed and probabilities are calculated. As an example for sensitivity analysis the model of aircraft impact is presented. The sensitivity analysis takes into account the uncertainty features raised by external event and its model. Even in case when the external events analysis show rather limited danger, the sensitivity analysis can determine the highest influence causes. These possible variations in future can be significant for safety level and risk based decisions. Calculations show that external events cannot significantly influence the safety level of the Ignalina NPP operation, however the events occurrence and propagation can be sufficiently uncertain.(author)

  8. Temporal variations of reference evapotranspiration and its sensitivity to meteorological factors in Heihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of daily meteorological data from 15 meteorological stations in the Heihe River Basin (HRB during the period from 1959 to 2012, long-term trends of reference evapotranspiration (ET0 and key meteorological factors that affect ET0 were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test. The evaporation paradox was also investigated at 15 meteorological stations. In order to explore the contribution of key meteorological factors to the temporal variation of ET0, a sensitivity coefficient method was employed in this study. The results show that: (1 mean annual air temperature significantly increased at all 15 meteorological stations, while the mean annual ET0 decreased at most of sites; (2 the evaporation paradox did exist in the HRB, while the evaporation paradox was not continuous in space and time; and (3 relative humidity was the most sensitive meteorological factor with regard to the temporal variation of ET0 in the HRB, followed by wind speed, air temperature, and solar radiation. Air temperature and solar radiation contributed most to the temporal variation of ET0 in the upper reaches; solar radiation and wind speed were the determining factors for the temporal variation of ET0 in the middle-lower reaches.

  9. Factors related to attempted suicide in Davanagere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Gouda M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the factors responsible for suicidal attempts? Objectives: To study the socio-demographic factors, methods and reasons for suicidal attempts. Type of Study: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bapuji and C.G. Hospitals attached to J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere. Participants: A total of 540 suicidal attempters admitted to emergency wards. Methodology: A pretested proforma was administered to the subjects relating the factors responsible for the attempt. The data thus obtained was compiled and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Z -test and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, 61.3% were males and 38.7% were females. Peak occurrence of suicidal attempts was found in the second and third decades (15-29 years. Hindus constituted about 94.6% of the total suicidal attempters. Almost half (52.2% of the subjects had education below or up to matriculation and 83% of them were from the lower (classes IV and V socio-economic groups. Agriculturists, housewives and unskilled workers represented 75% of the total subjects. Fifty-five percent of the subjects were from nuclear families and most (62.4% of them were married; frequent mode of attempting suicides was by organo-phosphorus compounds (66.3% followed by overdosage of tablets (17.8%. Common cause was family problem (27.2% followed by illness (27%.

  10. Relative radiation sensitivity of insulators, stabilizers, and superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Guinan, M.W.

    1980-12-01

    The operating conditions of the magnets including temperature and radiation fields are discussed. Comments were made on the nuclear heating. Components of the magnet system, including the materials used, the important properties, the atomic structure, the damage mechanism, and the effects of room temperature warmup are described. Some failure criteria for the various components are suggested. Available data concerning radiation effects on each component are discussed. Their radiation sensitivities are compared using the conditions calculated for the ETF toroidal field magnet inboard leg, and ranked in order of sensitivity. Comments were made on the implications of this ranking for the directions of future applied materials research

  11. Skeletal Muscle Angiogenesis and Its Relation to Insulin Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindqvist, Anna Maria Charlotte K

    mediator of angiogenesis) are reduced in insulin resistant individuals. Exercise training can improve skeletal muscle capillarization and the angiogenic potential and physical activity has also been proven to enhance muscle insulin sensitivity. Increased skeletal muscle capillarization is associated......) or by overexpression of VEGF-A in the tibialis anterior muscle (transfection; study II) and the effect of the increased muscle capillarization on muscle insulin sensitivity was examined. In study I skeletal muscle specific angiogenesis was induced by administering an α1-adrenergic antagonist (prazosin) to healthy...

  12. Sensitivity, uncertainty assessment, and target accuracies related to radiotoxicity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Hill, R.N.

    1994-01-01

    Time-dependent sensitivity techniques, which have been used in the past for standard reactor applications, are adapted to calculate the impact of data uncertainties and to estimate target data accuracies in radiotoxicity evaluations. The methodology is applied to different strategies of radioactive waste management connected with the European Fast Reactor and the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycles. Results are provided in terms of sensitivity coefficients of basic data (cross sections and decay constants), uncertainties of global radiotoxicity at different times of storing after discharge, and target data accuracies needed to satisfy maximum uncertainty limits

  13. Research on Paramecium aurelia sensitivity factors to natural ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croute, F.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Gros, N.; Planel, H.

    1976-01-01

    Previous results have demonstrated that the proliferative activity of Paramecium aurelia is linked to the level of natural ionizing radiations since this activity is decreased under radiation protection (lead cell) and increased under chronic exposure to very low dose of 60 Co gamma rays. The results of this investigation indicate that cell sensitivity in spite of variations in natural irradiation levels can be isolated; they are called 'radioresistant' in opposition to 'radiosensitive' cells which present the other response. These characters are being retained for 9 months after the strains have been isolated. On the other hand, in the case of radiosensitive strains, it has been demonstrated that autogamy affected the cell response to background irradiation; no response at all occured on the very day when autogamy took place, but it reached a maximum level 8 days approximately after autogamy. Moreover, it has been proved that the catalase activity of Paramecium aurelia is higher than those already studied in other cell varieties. This great amount of catalase, which seems to vary with the age of cultures after autogamy, could act on Paramecium sensitivity to very low radiation doses [fr

  14. Factors controlling upper tropospheric relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling the distribution of relative humidity in the absence of clouds are examined, with special emphasis on relative humidity over ice (RHI under upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions. Variations of temperature are the key determinant for the distribution of RHI, followed by variations of the water vapor mixing ratio. Multiple humidity modes, generated by mixing of different air masses, may contribute to the overall distribution of RHI, in particular below ice saturation. The fraction of air that is supersaturated with respect to ice is mainly determined by the distribution of temperature. The nucleation of ice in cirrus clouds determines the highest relative humdity that can be measured outside of cirrus clouds. While vertical air motion and ice microphysics determine the slope of the distributions of RHI, as shown in a separate study companion (Haag et al., 2003, clouds are not required to explain the main features of the distributions of RHI below the ice nucleation threshold. Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere – composition and chemistry; general or miscellaneous

  15. Factors controlling upper tropospheric relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling the distribution of relative humidity in the absence of clouds are examined, with special emphasis on relative humidity over ice (RHI under upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions. Variations of temperature are the key determinant for the distribution of RHI, followed by variations of the water vapor mixing ratio. Multiple humidity modes, generated by mixing of different air masses, may contribute to the overall distribution of RHI, in particular below ice saturation. The fraction of air that is supersaturated with respect to ice is mainly determined by the distribution of temperature. The nucleation of ice in cirrus clouds determines the highest relative humdity that can be measured outside of cirrus clouds. While vertical air motion and ice microphysics determine the slope of the distributions of RHI, as shown in a separate study companion (Haag et al., 2003, clouds are not required to explain the main features of the distributions of RHI below the ice nucleation threshold.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere – composition and chemistry; general or miscellaneous

  16. Mechanical sensitivity and psychological factors in patients with burning mouth syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Mika; Iida, Takashi; Kamiyama, Hirona; Masuda, Manabu; Kawara, Misao; Svensson, Peter; Komiyama, Osamu

    2018-05-18

    The aim of this study was to compare mechanical sensitivity on the tongue using quantitative sensory testing (QST) and psychological factors using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) between burning mouth syndrome (BMS) patients and healthy participants. Participants comprised 20 female BMS patients (68.1 ± 7.4 years) and 20 healthy females (65.4 ± 4.6 years). Psychological factors were evaluated with GHQ. Tactile detection thresholds (TDT) and filament-prick pain detection thresholds (FPT) were used to evaluate mechanical sensitivity on the tongue in all participants. TDT and FPT were measured on the tongue within both the painful area and the non-painful area in BMS patients, and on the tongue on both sides in healthy participants. As controls, TDT and FPT were measured with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments on the skin of the mentum and palm in all participants. GHQ scores were significantly higher in BMS patients than in healthy participants (P = 0.024). No significant differences in TDT or FPT on the tongue, mentum, or palm were seen between BMS patients and healthy participants (P > 0.05). BMS patients showed no significant differences in TDT or FPT between the painful and non-painful areas on the tongue (P > 0.05). There were no significant correlations among TDT/FPT and GHQ score in BMS patients (P > 0.05). These findings could indicate a more important role for psychological factors than mechanical sensitivity in BMS pathophysiology. Pain on the tongue in elderly female patients with BMS may be more related to psychological factors.

  17. Contrast-enhanced breast MRI: factors affecting sensitivity and specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccoli, C.W. [Department of Radiology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, 132 South 10th Street, 7th floor, Philadelphia, PA 19107-5244 (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) of the breast has been investigated for over 10 years. The reports of sensitivity for cancer detection have generally been greater than 90 %. However, estimates of specificity have varied greatly. Differing results are due to differences in study populations, technical methods and criteria for interpretation. Early and marked signal rise, detected using dynamic imaging technique following contrast administration, is the MRI hallmark of cancer. However, some malignant lesions may enhance slowly or minimally, and a variety of benign lesions may enhance rapidly with marked signal intensity. High resolution techniques generally requiring longer acquisition times are more likely to depict the slowly enhancing malignancies at the cost of a decrease in specificity due to lack of temporal resolution. This disadvantage may be offset by the improved visualization of lesion morphology with high resolution images. This report reviews the methods and results of the leading investigators of breast MRI. (orig.) With 3 figs., 70 refs.

  18. Contrast-enhanced breast MRI: factors affecting sensitivity and specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccoli, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) of the breast has been investigated for over 10 years. The reports of sensitivity for cancer detection have generally been greater than 90 %. However, estimates of specificity have varied greatly. Differing results are due to differences in study populations, technical methods and criteria for interpretation. Early and marked signal rise, detected using dynamic imaging technique following contrast administration, is the MRI hallmark of cancer. However, some malignant lesions may enhance slowly or minimally, and a variety of benign lesions may enhance rapidly with marked signal intensity. High resolution techniques generally requiring longer acquisition times are more likely to depict the slowly enhancing malignancies at the cost of a decrease in specificity due to lack of temporal resolution. This disadvantage may be offset by the improved visualization of lesion morphology with high resolution images. This report reviews the methods and results of the leading investigators of breast MRI. (orig.)

  19. Mortality-related Factors in Patients with Malignant Obstructive Jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, Juferdy; Hasan, Irsan; Gani, Rino Alvani; Simadibrata, Marcellus

    2016-10-01

    to obtain survival rate and mortality-related factors of malignant obstructive jaundice patients. all medical records of obstructive jaundice inpatient at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta from January 2010 to December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. The following factors were analyzed in terms of mortality: age, gender, sepsis, hypoalbumin, serum bilirubin level, serum CA 19-9 level, billiary drainage, non-ampulla Vateri carcinoma, and comorbid factors. total 181 out of 402 patients were enrolled in this study with male proportion was 58.6%, and patients aged 50 years or above was 57.5%. Multivariate analysis showed that only sepsis, unsuccessful or no prior biliary drainage and Charlson comorbid score ≥4 were independent predictors of mortality. Patients with significant prognostic factors had median survival 14 days compared with overall median survival 26 days. Score ≥2 identified as the highest prognostic score threshold with sensitivity 68%, specificity 75%, and AUC on ROC curve 0.769. sepsis, unsuccessful or no prior bilirary drainage, and Charlson comorbid score ≥4 are factors significantly associated with shortened survival in malignant obstructive jaundice patients. Prognostic score  ≥2 was determined to classify patients into high risk mortality group. Mortality of patients with those significant prognostic factors can be predicted in 76.9%.

  20. Sensitivity Analysis of the USLE Soil Erodibility Factor to Its Determining Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitova, Milena; Rousseva, Svetla

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion is recognized as one of the most serious soil threats worldwide. Soil erosion prediction is the first step in soil conservation planning. The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is one of the most widely used models for soil erosion predictions. One of the five USLE predictors is the soil erodibility factor (K-factor), which evaluates the impact of soil characteristics on soil erosion rates. Soil erodibility nomograph defines K-factor depending on soil characteristics, such as: particle size distribution (fractions finer that 0.002 mm and from 0.1 to 0.002 mm), organic matter content, soil structure and soil profile water permeability. Identifying the soil characteristics, which mostly influence the K-factor would give an opportunity to control the soil loss through erosion by controlling the parameters, which reduce the K-factor value. The aim of the report is to present the results of analysis of the relative weight of these soil characteristics in the K-factor values. The relative impact of the soil characteristics on K-factor was studied through a series of statistical analyses of data from the geographic database for soil erosion risk assessments in Bulgaria. Degree of correlation between K-factor values and the parameters that determine it was studied by correlation analysis. The sensitivity of the K-factor was determined by studying the variance of each parameter within the range between minimum and maximum possible values considering average value of the other factors. Normalizing transformation of data sets was applied because of the different dimensions and the orders of variation of the values of the various parameters. The results show that the content of particles finer than 0.002 mm has the most significant relative impact on the soil erodibility, followed by the content of particles with size from 0.1 mm to 0.002 mm, the class of the water permeability of the soil profile, the content of organic matter and the aggregation class. The

  1. Calculation of coolant temperature sensitivity related to thermohydraulic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.C. da; Andrade Lima, F.R. de

    1985-01-01

    It is verified the viability to apply the generalized Perturbation Theory (GPT) in the calculation of sensitivity for thermal-hydraulic problems. It was developed the TEMPERA code in FORTRAN-IV to transient calculations in the axial temperature distribution in a channel of PWR reactor and the associated importance function, as well as effects of variations of thermalhydraulic parameters in the coolant temperature. The results are compared with one which were obtained by direct calculation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. A further investigation of the relations of anxiety sensitivity to smoking motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Susan R; Stewart, Sherry H; Fulton, Heather G; Steeves, Dan; Darredeau, Christine; Gavric, Dubravka

    2008-11-01

    Prior research has shown that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is associated with smoking to reduce negative affect (e.g., [Comeau, N., Stewart, S.H., & Loba, P., (2001). The relations of trait anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and sensation seeking to adolescents' motivations for alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Addictive Behaviors, 26, 803-825.]). However, given limitations in the measurement of smoking motives in previous AS studies, it has yet to be definitively established that AS is specifically related to negative reinforcement smoking motives. Moreover, the overall AS construct is comprised of three lower-order components: physical, psychological, and social concerns (e.g., [Stewart, S.H., Taylor, S., & Baker, J.M., (1997). Gender differences in dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11, 179-200.]). Previous investigations generally have not examined the relative contributions of each of these three AS components to smoking for negative reinforcement motives. The present study attempted to address each of these gaps in the literature. A sample of 119 smokers attending a tobacco intervention program (see [Mullane, J.C., Stewart, S.H., Rhyno, E., Steeves, D., Watt, M., & Eisner, A., (2008). Anxiety sensitivity and difficulties with smoking cessation. In A.M. Columbus (Ed.), Advances in Psychological Research (vol. 54A, pp. 141-155). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.]) completed the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; [Peterson, R.A., & Reiss, S., (1992). The Anxiety Sensitivity Index manual (2nd ed.). Worthington, OH: International Diagnostic Services.]) and the Reasons For Smoking scale (RFS; [Ikard, F.F., Green, D.E., & Horn, D., (1969). A scale to differentiate between types of smoking as related to the management of affect. International Journal of the Addictions, 4, 649-659.]) at pre-treatment. In a principal components analysis (PCA) of the RFS items, stringent parallel analysis supported a two-factor solution (negative and positive

  3. Insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and plasma adipocytokines among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Schou, Morten; Selmer, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young men, but information regarding effects on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution is limited. The objective was to investigate insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and adipocytokines among current...

  4. Examining anxiety sensitivity as an explanatory construct underlying HIV-related stigma: Relations to anxious arousal, social anxiety, and HIV symptoms among persons living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Charles P; Paulus, Daniel J; Jardin, Charles; Heggeness, Luke; Lemaire, Chad; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    Persons living with HIV (PLHIV) are a health disparity subgroup of the overall population for mental and physical health problems. HIV-related stigma has been shown to increase anxiety symptoms and HIV symptoms among PLHIV. However, little is known about factors that may impact the relations between HIV-related stigma and anxiety symptoms and HIV symptoms among PLHIV. To address this gap in the literature, the current study examined anxiety sensitivity (i.e., the extent to which individuals believe anxiety and anxiety-related sensations) in the relation between HIV-related stigma, social anxiety, anxious arousal, and HIV symptoms among a sample of 87 PLHIV (60.9% cis gender male, 52.9% Black, non-Hispanic). Results indicated that anxiety sensitivity mediated the relations between HIV-related stigma and the dependent variables, with effect sizes indicating moderate to large effects of anxiety sensitivity on these relations. Findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity be a mechanistic factor in the relations between HIV-related stigma and social anxiety, anxious arousal, and HIV symptoms, and therefore, be important element in efforts to reduce mental/physical health disparity among this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening the Drug Sensitivity Genes Related to GEM and CDDP in the Lung Cancer Cell-lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu YANG

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Screening of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines with gemcitabine hydrochloride (GEM and cisplatin (CDDP related to drug sensitivity gene might clarify the action mechanism of anti-cancer drugs and provide a new clue for overcoming drug resistance and the development of new anti-cancer drugs, and also provide theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of individual. Methods The drug sensitivity of CDDP and GEM in 4 SCLC cell lines and 6 NSCLC cell lines was determined using MTT colorimetric assay, while the cDNA macroarray was applied to detect the gene expression state related to drug sensitivity of 10 lung cancer cell line in 1 291, and the correlation between the two was analysized. Results There were 6 genes showing significant positive correlation (r≥0.632, P < 0.05 with GEM sensitivity; 45 genes positively related to CDDP; another 41 genes related to both GEM and CDDP (r≥± 0.4. Lung cancer with GEM and CDDP sensitivity of two types of drugs significantly related genes were Metallothinein (Signal transduction molecules, Cathepsin B (Organization protease B and TIMP1 (Growth factor; the GEM, CDDP sensitivity associated genes of lung cancer cell lines mainly distributed in Metallothinein, Cathepsin B, growth factor TIMP1 categories. Conclusion There existed drug-related sensitive genes of GEM, CDDP in SCLC and NSCLC cell lines; of these genes, Metallothinein, Cathepsin B and TIMP1 genes presented a significant positive correlation with GEM drug sensitivity, a significant negative correlation with CDDP drug sensitivity.

  6. Sensitivity Analysis of b-factor in Microwave Emission Model for Soil Moisture Retrieval: A Case Study for SMAP Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugwon Seo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity analysis is critically needed to better understand the microwave emission model for soil moisture retrieval using passive microwave remote sensing data. The vegetation b-factor along with vegetation water content and surface characteristics has significant impact in model prediction. This study evaluates the sensitivity of the b-factor, which is function of vegetation type. The analysis is carried out using Passive and Active L and S-band airborne sensor (PALS and measured field soil moisture from Southern Great Plains experiment (SGP99. The results show that the relative sensitivity of the b-factor is 86% in wet soil condition and 88% in high vegetated condition compared to the sensitivity of the soil moisture. Apparently, the b-factor is found to be more sensitive than the vegetation water content, surface roughness and surface temperature; therefore, the effect of the b-factor is fairly large to the microwave emission in certain conditions. Understanding the dependence of the b-factor on the soil and vegetation is important in studying the soil moisture retrieval algorithm, which can lead to potential improvements in model development for the Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP mission.

  7. Talking about relations: Factors influencing the production of relational descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eBaltaretu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In a production experiment (Experiment 1 and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2, we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as the ball between the man and the drawer. In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to refer unambiguously to a target object (a ball. In Experiment 1a, we addressed the role of spatial position, more specifically if speakers mention the entity positioned leftmost in the scene as (first relatum. The results showed a preference to start with the left entity, however, only as a trend, which leaves room for other factors that could influence spatial reference. Thus, in the following studies, we varied salience systematically, by making one of the relatum candidates animate (Experiment 1b, and by adding attention capture cues, first subliminally by priming one relatum candidate with a flash (Experiment 1c, then explicitly by using salient colors for objects (Experiment 1d. Results indicate that spatial position played a dominant role. Entities on the left were mentioned more often as (first relatum than those on the right (Experiment 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d. Animacy affected reference production in one out of three studies (in Experiment 1d. When salience was manipulated by priming visual attention or by using salient colors, there were no significant effects (Experiment 1c, 1d. In the acceptability rating study (Experiment 2, participants expressed their preference for specific relata, by ranking descriptions on the basis of how good they thought the descriptions fitted the scene. Results show that participants preferred most the description that had an animate entity as the first mentioned relatum. The relevance of these results for models of reference production is discussed.

  8. Kaempferol Sensitizes Human Ovarian Cancer Cells-OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 to Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL)-Induced Apoptosis via JNK/ERK-CHOP Pathway and Up-Regulation of Death Receptors 4 and 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingmei; Tian, Binqiang; Wang, Yong; Ding, Haiying

    2017-10-26

    BACKGROUND Ovarian cancer is the most common gynecological malignancies in women, with high mortality rates worldwide. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily which preferentially induces apoptosis of cancer cells. However, acquired resistance to TRAIL hampers its therapeutic application. Identification of compounds that sensitize cancer cells to TRAIL is vital in combating resistance to TRAIL. The effect of kaempferol, a flavonoid enhancing TRAIL-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells, was investigated in this study. MATERIAL AND METHODS The cytotoxic effects of TRAIL (25 ng/mL) and kaempferol (20-100 µM) on human ovarian cancer cells OVCAR-3 and SKOV-3 were assessed. Effect of kaempferol on the expression patterns of cell survival proteins (Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, survivin, XIAP, c-FLIP) and apoptotic proteins (caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bax) were studied. The influence of kaempferol on expression of DR4 and DR5 death receptors on the cell surface and protein and mRNA levels was also analyzed. Apoptosis following silencing of DR5 and CHOP by small interfering RNA (siRNA), and activation of MAP kinases were analyzed as well. RESULTS Kaempferol enhanced apoptosis and drastically up-regulated DR4, DR5, CHOP, JNK, ERK1/2, p38 and apoptotic protein expression with decline in the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. Further transfection with siRNA specific to CHOP and DR5 indicated the involvement of CHOP in DR5 up-regulation and also the contribution of DR5 in kaempferol-enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS Kaempferol sensitized ovarian cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via up-regulation of DR4 and DR5 through ERK/JNK/CHOP pathways.

  9. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 in an Italian community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eGhisi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety Sensitivity (AS is defined as the fear of anxiety and of arousal-related bodily sensations, arising from erroneous beliefs that these sensations will have adverse consequences. AS plays a key role both in the onset and in the maintenance of several disorders, particularly anxiety disorders. To date, only two studies on American samples have examined the bifactor structure of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3; therefore, findings on different cultures are needed. The main purpose of the present study was to assess the factor structure and psychometric properties of the ASI-3 in an Italian community sample. Participants were recruited from the general population (N=1507. The results of a series of confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the bifactor structure fitted the data better than the most commonly accepted structure for the measure and that it was invariant across gender. Moreover, the current study provided evidence regarding the ASI-3’s reliability and its convergent and divergent validity. Lastly, results pertaining incremental validity of the ASI-3 Physical and Cognitive Concerns subscales above and beyond the total showed that the former was not associated with a measure of physiological anxiety, whereas the latter was weakly associated with a measure of worry.Findings suggest that the ASI-3 is comprised of a dominant general factor and three specific independent factors; given the dominance of the general factor, the use of the ASI-3 total score as a measure of the general fear of anxiety is recommended in both clinical and research settings.

  10. Psychological Factors related to traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafín Aldea Muñoz

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Automobile drivers fine themselves affected by series psychological factors which are directly related to traffic accidents. In this study we intend to investigate these variables, basing our work on the most convenient sources of information, coming from the police, the General Direction of Traffic, the courts, insurance companies, the Red Cross, Social Security, and forensics. Neither could we ignore the influence which certain forces hold over people´s mental health; this can sometimes intensely affect how they drive. In fact, in the most diverse situations we can observe the way in which a person carries out a task can be conditioned by the presence of other person who may have no direct relationship to him. Society has established its limitations and rules, but speed itself feels omnipotence when imposing controls over the most profound behavior in others; man in usually not conscious of these controls. People generally drive their automobiles in a way similar to their habitual behavior and their personality traits. Nevertheless, it is also important to consider the adaptation of their way of driving to their state of mind at any given moment. The majority of subjects tend to adapt their driving to their emotional state.

  11. Calibration method of the pulsed X-ray relative sensitivity for ST401 plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hongwei; Song Guzhou; Wang Kuilu

    2011-01-01

    The relative sensitivity calibration method of the pulsed X-ray in ST401 plastic scintillator is presented. Experimental relative sensitivity calibrations of the plastic scintillators of different thicknesses from 1 mm to 50 mm are accomplished on the 'Chenguang' pulsed X-ray source and a Co radioactive source, The uncertainty of the calibration data is evaluated, which can be treated as the experimental evidence for the relative sensitivity conversion of ST401 plastic scintillator. (authors)

  12. Nursing students’ understanding of factors influencing ethical sensitivity: A qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mohsenpour, Mohaddeseh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ethical sensitivity is considered as a component of professional competency of nurses. Its effects on improvement of nurses’ ethical performance and the therapeutic relationship between nurses and patients have been reported. However, very limited studies have evaluated ethical sensitivity. Since no previous Iranian research has been conducted in this regard, the present study aimed to review nursing students’ understanding of effective factors on ethical sensitivity. Materials an...

  13. Application of the CIPP model in the study of factors that promote intercultural sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Bernardo, Paola

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes a group of factors (related to self, context and process favouring the development of intercultural sensitivity. A social diagnosis was performed in the Spanish province of Castellón in order to identify these factors by means of a correlational study. A non-probabilistic but representative sample consisting of 995 people from 37 different countries living in this province was used. Data were collected by means of an adaptation of the scale proposed by Chen and Starosta (2000 for the assessment of intercultural sensitivity. Results showed four profiles, and their main characteristics were studied. Variables such as country of origin, gender, academic background, number of languages spoken, or the experience of living in a foreign country revealed to have a positive influence on the development of this attitude. El presente artículo propone un conjunto de los factores (personales, contextuales y de proceso que favorecen el desarrollo de la sensibilidad intercultural. Para identificar dichos factores se ha realizado un diagnóstico social en la provincia de Castellón (España. Este estudio de tipo descriptivo de carácter correlacional se ha concretado con una muestra de 995 personas de 37 nacionalidades diferentes, constituyendo una muestra representativa, caracterizada por ser de tipo fortuito o accidental. Para recoger la información se ha utilizado una adaptación de la escala de sensibilidad intercultural de Chen y Starosta (2000. El análisis de datos ha permitido identificar cuatro perfiles, de los cuales se han estudiado sus principales características y se ha podido concluir que variables tales como la condición de origen, el sexo, la formación, la cantidad de lenguas que habla o el haber vivido en otro país influyen positivamente para el desarrollo de esta actitud.

  14. Sensitivity analyses of factors influencing CMAQ performance for fine particulate nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimadera, Hikari; Hayami, Hiroshi; Chatani, Satoru; Morino, Yu; Mori, Yasuaki; Morikawa, Tazuko; Yamaji, Kazuyo; Ohara, Toshimasa

    2014-04-01

    Improvement of air quality models is required so that they can be utilized to design effective control strategies for fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system was applied to the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan in winter 2010 and summer 2011. The model results were compared with observed concentrations of PM2.5 sulfate (SO4(2-)), nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium, and gaseous nitric acid (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3). The model approximately reproduced PM2.5 SO4(2-) concentration, but clearly overestimated PM2.5 NO3(-) concentration, which was attributed to overestimation of production of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3). This study conducted sensitivity analyses of factors associated with the model performance for PM2.5 NO3(-) concentration, including temperature and relative humidity, emission of nitrogen oxides, seasonal variation of NH3 emission, HNO3 and NH3 dry deposition velocities, and heterogeneous reaction probability of dinitrogen pentoxide. Change in NH3 emission directly affected NH3 concentration, and substantially affected NH4NO3 concentration. Higher dry deposition velocities of HNO3 and NH3 led to substantial reductions of concentrations of the gaseous species and NH4NO3. Because uncertainties in NH3 emission and dry deposition processes are probably large, these processes may be key factors for improvement of the model performance for PM2.5 NO3(-). The Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system clearly overestimated the concentration of fine particulate nitrate in the Greater Tokyo Area of Japan, which was attributed to overestimation of production of ammonium nitrate. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for factors associated with the model performance for nitrate. Ammonia emission and dry deposition of nitric acid and ammonia may be key factors for improvement of the model performance.

  15. A Bayesian Multi-Level Factor Analytic Model of Consumer Price Sensitivities across Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuri, Sri Devi; Gruca, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying price sensitive consumers is an important problem in marketing. We develop a Bayesian multi-level factor analytic model of the covariation among household-level price sensitivities across product categories that are substitutes. Based on a multivariate probit model of category incidence, this framework also allows the researcher to…

  16. From species sensitivity to hypoxia to effect factors modelling in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    ’s sensitivity in five climate zone (polar, subpolar, temperate, subtropical, tropical). Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) curves combining DO concentrations and Potentially Affected Fractions (PAF) of species were plotted to estimate hazard concentrations (HC50LOEL) per climate zone, and Effect Factors (EF...

  17. Relative performance of academic departments using DEA with sensitivity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Preeti; Yadav, Shiv Prasad; Singh, S P

    2009-05-01

    The process of liberalization and globalization of Indian economy has brought new opportunities and challenges in all areas of human endeavor including education. Educational institutions have to adopt new strategies to make best use of the opportunities and counter the challenges. One of these challenges is how to assess the performance of academic programs based on multiple criteria. Keeping this in view, this paper attempts to evaluate the performance efficiencies of 19 academic departments of IIT Roorkee (India) through data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique. The technique has been used to assess the performance of academic institutions in a number of countries like USA, UK, Australia, etc. But we are using it first time in Indian context to the best of our knowledge. Applying DEA models, we calculate technical, pure technical and scale efficiencies and identify the reference sets for inefficient departments. Input and output projections are also suggested for inefficient departments to reach the frontier. Overall performance, research performance and teaching performance are assessed separately using sensitivity analysis.

  18. Meta-analysis of the relative sensitivity of semi-natural vegetation species to ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, F.; Jones, M.L.M.; Mills, G.; Ashmore, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study identified 83 species from existing publications suitable for inclusion in a database of sensitivity of species to ozone (OZOVEG database). An index, the relative sensitivity to ozone, was calculated for each species based on changes in biomass in order to test for species traits associated with ozone sensitivity. Meta-analysis of the ozone sensitivity data showed a wide inter-specific range in response to ozone. Some relationships in comparison to plant physiological and ecological characteristics were identified. Plants of the therophyte lifeform were particularly sensitive to ozone. Species with higher mature leaf N concentration were more sensitive to ozone than those with lower leaf N concentration. Some relationships between relative sensitivity to ozone and Ellenberg habitat requirements were also identified. In contrast, no relationships between relative sensitivity to ozone and mature leaf P concentration, Grime's CSR strategy, leaf longevity, flowering season, stomatal density and maximum altitude were found. The relative sensitivity of species and relationships with plant characteristics identified in this study could be used to predict sensitivity to ozone of untested species and communities. - Meta-analysis of the relative sensitivity of semi-natural vegetation species to ozone showed some relationships with physiological and ecological characteristics

  19. Quantitative assessment of factors affecting the sensitivity of a competitive immunomicroarray for pesticide detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belleville, Erik; Dufva, Hans Martin; Aamund, J.,

    2003-01-01

    Analytical protein microarrays offering highly parallel analysis can become an invaluable tool for a wide range of immunodiagnostic applications. Here we describe factors that influence the sensitivity of a competitive immunomicroarray that quantifies small molecules; in this case, the pesticides...

  20. Methylation sensitive-sequence related amplified polymorphism (MS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR NJ TONUKARI

    2011-04-25

    Apr 25, 2011 ... Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) is a simple but an efficient gene amplification marker system for both .... Each polymorphic band reflecting different methylation status at the ... After boiling for 5 min in the water, the .... CpG dinucleotides in the open reading frame of a testicular germ cell-.

  1. A sensitive electrochemiluminescence cytosensor for quantitative evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor expressed on cell surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yanjuan; Zhang, Shaolian; Wen, Qingqing; Huang, Hongxing; Yang, Peihui, E-mail: typh@jnu.edu.cn

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • EGF-cytosensor was used for evaluating EGFR expression level on cell surfaces. • CdSQDs and EGF were coated on magnetic beads (MBs) for ECL-probe. • Good sensitivity was achieved due to the signal amplification of ECL-probe. - Abstract: A sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) strategy for evaluating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression level on cell surfaces was designed by integrating the specific recognition of EGFR expressed on MCF-7 cell surfaces with an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-funtionalized CdS quantum dots (CdSQDs)-capped magnetic bead (MB) probe. The high sensitivity of ECL probe of EGF-funtionalized CdSQD-capped-MB was used for competitive recognition with EGFR expressed on cell surfaces with recombinant EGFR protein. The changes of ECL intensity depended on both the cell number and the expression level of EGFR receptor on cell surfaces. A wide linear response to cells ranging from 80 to 4 × 10{sup 6} cells mL{sup −1} with a detection limit of 40 cells mL{sup −1} was obtained. The EGF-cytosensor was used to evaluate EGFR expression levels on MCF-7 cells, and the average number of EGFR receptor on single MCF-7 cells was 1.35 × 10{sup 5} with the relative standard deviation of 4.3%. This strategy was further used for in-situ and real-time evaluating EGFR receptor expressed on cell surfaces in response to drugs stimulation at different concentration and incubation time. The proposed method provided potential applications in the detection of receptors on cancer cells and anticancer drugs screening.

  2. Price-related sensitivities of greenhouse gas intensity targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, Benito; Muller-Furstenberger, Georg

    2003-12-01

    Greenhouse gas intensities are an appealing tool to foster abatement without imposing constraints on economic growth. This paper shows, however, that the computation of intensities is subject to some significant statistical and conceptual problems which relate to the inflation proofing of GDP growth. It is shown that the choice of price-index, the updating of quantity weights and the choice of base year prices can have a significant impact upon the commitment of intensity targets

  3. Cultural Competence and Related Factors Among Taiwanese Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Nu; Mastel-Smith, Beth; Alfred, Danita; Lin, Yu-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan is a multicultural and multiethnic society with a growing number of immigrants who have diverse ethnic, racial, and cultural needs. Although this diversity highlights the pressing need for culturally competent healthcare providers, cultural competence is a concept that is little understood and implemented only sporadically in Taiwan. This study investigates the cultural competence of Taiwanese nurses and the related factors of influence. An online self-report survey was used to collect data from 221 Taiwanese nurses from December 2012 through January 2013. Data from the demographic questionnaire, the Nurses' Cultural Competence Scale, and the Perceived Nurses' Cultural Competence Rating were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, independent sample t tests, and multiple regressions. The cultural competence of the participants was in the "low to moderate" range, with relatively higher mean scores for the subscales of cultural awareness and cultural sensitivity and relatively lower scores for the subscales of cultural knowledge and cultural skills. Participants generally perceived themselves as being "not culturally competent." Variables found to predict cultural competence included years of work experience, hours of continuing education related to cultural nursing care, and frequency of caring for clients from culturally and ethnically diverse backgrounds. Participating Taiwanese nurses rated their level of cultural competence as in the low-to-moderate range and self-perceived as being not culturally competent. These findings support the need to further expand and enhance cultural-competence-related continuing education and to address the topic of cultural care in the nursing curricula.

  4. Allergic disease and atopic sensitization in children in relation to measles vaccination and measles infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, H.; Bergstrom, A.; Alm, J.; Swartz, J.; Scheynius, A.; van Hage, M.; Johansen, K.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; von Mutius, E.; Ege, M.; Riedler, J.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Waser, M.; Pershagen, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS: A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  5. Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, Helen; Bergstrom, Anna; Alm, Johan S.; Swartz, Jackie; Scheynius, Annika; van Hage, Marianne; Johansen, Kari; Brunekreef, Bert; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J.; Riedler, Josef; Braun-Fahrlaender, Charlotte; Waser, Marco; Pershagen, Goran

    OBJECTIVE. Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS. A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  6. Spatiotemporal Risk of Bacillary Dysentery and Sensitivity to Meteorological Factors in Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengdong Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillary dysentery remains a public health concern in the world. Hunan Province is one of the provinces having the highest risk of bacillary dysentery in China, however, the spatial-temporal distribution, variation of bacillary dysentery and sensitivity to meteorological factors in there are unclear. In this paper, a Bayesian space-time hierarchical model (BSTHM was used to detect space-time variation, and effects of meteorological factors between 2010 and 2015. The risk of bacillary dysentery showed apparent spatial-temporal heterogeneity. The highest risk occurred in the summer season. Economically undeveloped mountainous areas in the west and south of the province had the highest incidence rates. Twenty three (18.9% and 20 (16.4% counties were identified as hot and cold spots, respectively. Among the hotspots, 11 counties (47.8% exhibited a rapidly decreasing trend, suggesting they may become low-risk areas in the future. Of the cold spot counties, six (30% showed a slowly decreasing trend, and may have a higher risk in the future. Among meteorological factors, air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed all played a significant role in the spatial-temporal distribution of bacillary dysentery risk. These findings can contribute to the implementation of an early warning system for controlling and preventing bacillary dysentery.

  7. Nigerian Immigrant Population in Spain Is Little Sensitized to Living-Related Kidney Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; Carrillo, J; López-Navas, A I; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    The Nigerian population is an emerging group in Spain and in Europe, but their sensitization toward living kidney donation has not been studied. The aim of this work was to analyze the attitude toward related renal donation while alive among the population born in Nigeria resident in Spain. A population older than 15 years born in Nigeria and resident in Spain, stratified by age and sex, was studied with the use of the attitude questionnaire about living kidney donation, "PCID-DVR-Ríos." People were randomly selected based on stratification. African immigration support associations advised on the location of potential respondents. Completion of the questionnaire was anonymous and self-administered. Verbal consent was requested to assist in the study. Statistical methods included Student t test, χ 2 , Fisher exact test, and logistic regression analysis. A total of 179 respondents were included in the study: 70% (n = 125) were in favor of living-related kidney donation, and 30% (n = 54) remained against or undecided. This attitude was associated with different psychosocial factors: marital status (P = .001), having offspring (P = .029), risk assessment of live donation (P donation (P donation and/or transplantation (P donation (P donation and/or transplantation (odds ratio, 8.064) persisted as the main related factor. The Nigerian immigrant population in Spain has a less favorable attitude toward living kidney donation than the native western European and Spanish population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ethylene sensitivity and relative air humidity regulate root hydraulic properties in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Polanco, Monica; Ibort, Pablo; Molina, Sonia; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Zamarreño, Angel María; García-Mina, Jose María; Aroca, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    The effect of ethylene and its precursor ACC on root hydraulic properties, including aquaporin expression and abundance, is modulated by relative air humidity and plant sensitivity to ethylene. Relative air humidity (RH) is a main factor contributing to water balance in plants. Ethylene (ET) is known to be involved in the regulation of root water uptake and stomatal opening although its role on plant water balance under different RH is not very well understood. We studied, at the physiological, hormonal and molecular levels (aquaporins expression, abundance and phosphorylation state), the plant responses to exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC; precursor of ET) and 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB; inhibitor of ET biosynthesis), after 24 h of application to the roots of tomato wild type (WT) plants and its ET-insensitive never ripe (nr) mutant, at two RH levels: regular (50%) and close to saturation RH. Highest RH induced an increase of root hydraulic conductivity (Lp o ) of non-treated WT plants, and the opposite effect in nr mutants. The treatment with ACC reduced Lp o in WT plants at low RH and in nr plants at high RH. The application of AIB increased Lp o only in nr plants at high RH. In untreated plants, the RH treatment changed the abundance and phosphorylation of aquaporins that affected differently both genotypes according to their ET sensitivity. We show that RH is critical in regulating root hydraulic properties, and that Lp o is affected by the plant sensitivity to ET, and possibly to ACC, by regulating aquaporins expression and their phosphorylation status. These results incorporate the relationship between RH and ET in the response of Lp o to environmental changes.

  9. Complete spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) affects nociceptive sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Jen; Lee, Kuan H; Grau, James W

    2017-02-01

    Noxious stimulation can induce a lasting increase in neural excitability within the spinal cord (central sensitization) that can promote pain and disrupt adaptive function (maladaptive plasticity). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to regulate the development of plasticity and has been shown to impact the development of spinally-mediated central sensitization. The latter effect has been linked to an alteration in GABA-dependent inhibition. Prior studies have shown that, in spinally transected rats, exposure to regular (fixed spaced) stimulation can counter the development of maladaptive plasticity and have linked this effect to an up-regulation of BDNF. Here it is shown that application of the irritant capsaicin to one hind paw induces enhanced mechanical reactivity (EMR) after spinal cord injury (SCI) and that the induction of this effect is blocked by pretreatment with fixed spaced shock. This protective effect was eliminated if rats were pretreated with the BDNF sequestering antibody TrkB-IgG. Intrathecal (i.t.) application of BDNF prevented, but did not reverse, capsaicin-induced EMR. BDNF also attenuated cellular indices (ERK and pERK expression) of central sensitization after SCI. In uninjured rats, i.t. BDNF enhanced, rather than attenuated, capsaicin-induced EMR and ERK/pERK expression. These opposing effects were related to a transformation in GABA function. In uninjured rats, BDNF reduced membrane-bound KCC2 and the inhibitory effect of the GABA A agonist muscimol. After SCI, BDNF increased KCC2 expression, which would help restore GABAergic inhibition. The results suggest that SCI transforms how BDNF affects GABA function and imply that the clinical usefulness of BDNF will depend upon the extent of fiber sparing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Leadership and Situational Factors Related to AWOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-07-01

    subsequent require- ment placed on military police, legal operations, personnel control facilities, stockades and the correctional training program increase...variables and particularly different aspects of the env,ronmtent. 7 -’:.- -.-’C. . *C? From this overviev , as well as a perusal of an in-depth review ’ of...variahles. The-3nalysis w•’s col•iieted at the University of Wisconsin Computer Center, U!I’,PC 1108 System. Ten factors, dealing with response to AWM

  11. Factor Structure, Internal Consistency, and Screening Sensitivity of the GARS-2 in a Developmental Disabilities Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Martin A. Volker; Elissa H. Dua; Christopher Lopata; Marcus L. Thomeer; Jennifer A. Toomey; Audrey M. Smerbeck; Jonathan D. Rodgers; Joshua R. Popkin; Andrew T. Nelson; Gloria K. Lee

    2016-01-01

    The Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition (GARS-2) is a widely used screening instrument that assists in the identification and diagnosis of autism. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and screening sensitivity of the GARS-2 using ratings from special education teaching staff for a sample of 240 individuals with autism or other significant developmental disabilities. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a correlated three-factor solution si...

  12. MOTHER – CHILD RELATION AND FACTORS AFFECTING THIS RELATION

    OpenAIRE

    TEZEL ŞAHİN, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    The social institution where a child first meet with his birth and sets his social relations is his family. The communication of parents and other members of family determines the place of child in the family. In the preschool period when the basis of future lives is formed, healthy relations made with child are of great importance. What kind of a person the child starting to perceive himself and his environment in this period will be is determined with the life in this period. Family and rel...

  13. MOTHER – CHILD RELATION AND FACTORS AFFECTING THIS RELATION

    OpenAIRE

    TEZEL ŞAHİN, Fatma

    2015-01-01

    The social institution where a child first meet with his birth and sets his social relations is his family. The communication of parents and other members of family determines the place of child in the family. In the preschool period when the basis of future lives is formed, healthy relations made with child are of great importance. What kind of a person the child starting to perceive himself and his environment in this period will be is determined with the life in this period. Family and rel...

  14. [Enviromental factors related to depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Benítez, Catalina Teresa; García-Rodríguez, Alfonso; Leal-Ugarte, Evelia; Peralta-Leal, Valeria; Durán-González, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    As a result of their high prevalence, mayor depressive disorder single episode (MDDSE); major depressive disorder recurrent episodes (MDDREC); and dysthymia are considered an important public health problem. The objective of this paper was to identify and correlate environmental factors in patients with MDDSE, MDDREC and dysthymia. 121 patients from the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social's Subzone General Hospital of San Andres Tuxtla, at Veracruz, were questioned by history with the risk variables. 16 of them were diagnosed with MDDREC, 72 with MDD and 33 with dysthymia; in all of those cases, females prevailed. Depressive disorders were observed more frequently in people over 40 years, married, with medium or low educational level, with dysfunctional family environment, victims of family violence and who were the middle siblings. The main comorbidities that arose were gastrointestinal disorders, obesity and hypertension. 16 of them were diagnosed with MDDREC, 72 with MDD and 33 with dysthymia; in all of those cases, females prevailed. Depressive disorders were observed more frequently in people over 40 years, married, with medium or low educational level, with dysfunctional family environment, victims of family violence and who were the middle siblings. The main comorbidities that arose were gastrointestinal disorders, obesity and hypertension. The main risk factors identified for developing depressive disorders were: being female, over 40 years old and being married. The differences obtained in this study, if it is compared with others, are probably due to sample size, selection criteria and ethnic origin.

  15. The functional highly sensitive brain: a review of the brain circuits underlying sensory processing sensitivity and seemingly related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Bianca; Aron, Elaine; Pospos, Sarah; Jessen, Dana

    2018-04-19

    During the past decade, research on the biological basis of sensory processing sensitivity (SPS)-a genetically based trait associated with greater sensitivity and responsivity to environmental and social stimuli-has burgeoned. As researchers try to characterize this trait, it is still unclear how SPS is distinct from seemingly related clinical disorders that have overlapping symptoms, such as sensitivity to the environment and hyper-responsiveness to incoming stimuli. Thus, in this review, we compare the neural regions implicated in SPS with those found in fMRI studies of-Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), Schizophrenia (SZ) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) to elucidate the neural markers and cardinal features of SPS versus these seemingly related clinical disorders. We propose that SPS is a stable trait that is characterized by greater empathy, awareness, responsivity and depth of processing to salient stimuli. We conclude that SPS is distinct from ASD, SZ and PTSD in that in response to social and emotional stimuli, SPS differentially engages brain regions involved in reward processing, memory, physiological homeostasis, self-other processing, empathy and awareness. We suggest that this serves species survival via deep integration and memory for environmental and social information that may subserve well-being and cooperation.This article is part of the theme issue 'Diverse perspectives on diversity: multi-disciplinary approaches to taxonomies of individual differences'. © 2018 The Authors.

  16. Relational factors in psychopathological responses to childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigoli, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Saita, Emanuela

    2006-06-01

    Childbirth can represent for women the time of greatest vulnerability experience, often associated with being out of control, loneliness or sadness. One hundred and sixty women who had 'normal' births were assessed within 48 hours on potential predictive measures and at 3-6 months post-partum for PTSD. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, perceived and desired support by family members, friends, medical personnel were also assessed. t-Test and chi-square were used to analyze, differences between 'risk group' and 'non-risk group'. Few women (1.25%) showed questionnaire responses suggesting clinically significant levels on PTSD; other women (28.75%) reported clinically significant symptoms for at least one subscale. Being at the first delivery experience, together with perceptions of low levels of support from family members and medical personnel, were found to be related to experience of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Anxiety for the child and previous depression are also related to such symptoms. Moreover, anxiety and depression are related to a difficult recognition of the support received, as well as to the desire for more support, in the care of the newborn, from medical professionals.

  17. Sensitivity Analysis of Onsite Atmospheric Dispersion Factor in Westinghouse type NPP in KOREA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Yoon, Duk Joo; Song, Dong Soo

    2016-01-01

    ARCON96 is a NRC licensed air dispersion model to evaluate onsite atmospheric relative concentration X/Q. The purpose of this paper is to provide some results for checking and testing the functionalities of ARCON96. Specially, this code is optimized to estimate a habitability of control room. Since NUREG 0737 issue, the control room habitability has been studied for a FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report). Some assumptions and methodology is used in this paper. Some methodology is introduced in this paper. The reason of the selection of 2-loop Westinghouse NPP is because of carrying out the study project for the 2-loop Westinghouse NPP in the condition of the defueled NPP condition. Onsite atmospheric dispersion factor sensitivity is performed. Key impact factor is reviewed. Some results are below: a. Time averaged effect of X/Q is timely increased. b. ARCON96 code is more conservative at the low wind speed conditions. c. Building wake impact is significant in the condition of unstable atmospheric class with more than 7m/sec of wind speed. d. Plume meander effect is strong when the distance from the release point is small. e. The other plume meander effect is strong when the meander duration time is accumulated Finally, these results show that the appropriate conservation of ARCON96 is appeared in some conditions. Also these results seem to be in good agreement with NRC Regulatory Guide and positions

  18. Sensitivity Analysis of Onsite Atmospheric Dispersion Factor in Westinghouse type NPP in KOREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Yoon, Duk Joo; Song, Dong Soo [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    ARCON96 is a NRC licensed air dispersion model to evaluate onsite atmospheric relative concentration X/Q. The purpose of this paper is to provide some results for checking and testing the functionalities of ARCON96. Specially, this code is optimized to estimate a habitability of control room. Since NUREG 0737 issue, the control room habitability has been studied for a FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report). Some assumptions and methodology is used in this paper. Some methodology is introduced in this paper. The reason of the selection of 2-loop Westinghouse NPP is because of carrying out the study project for the 2-loop Westinghouse NPP in the condition of the defueled NPP condition. Onsite atmospheric dispersion factor sensitivity is performed. Key impact factor is reviewed. Some results are below: a. Time averaged effect of X/Q is timely increased. b. ARCON96 code is more conservative at the low wind speed conditions. c. Building wake impact is significant in the condition of unstable atmospheric class with more than 7m/sec of wind speed. d. Plume meander effect is strong when the distance from the release point is small. e. The other plume meander effect is strong when the meander duration time is accumulated Finally, these results show that the appropriate conservation of ARCON96 is appeared in some conditions. Also these results seem to be in good agreement with NRC Regulatory Guide and positions.

  19. Preference for tap, bottled, and recycled water: Relations to PTC taste sensitivity and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Daniel; Gauvain, Mary; Z Reisz; Arthur, Isaac; Story, S Drew

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated people's preferences for different water sources and factors that predict such preferences using a blind taste test. Water preferences of 143 participants for one name-brand bottled water, one groundwater-sourced tap water, and one indirect potable reuse (IDR) water were assessed. For predictors of water preference, we measured each participant's PTC taste sensitivity and assessed two personality traits (Neuroticism, Openness to Experience). We also explored participants' descriptions of each water source. Results indicate a preference for water treated with Reverse Osmosis (RO) (bottled and IDR water) over groundwater-sourced water, which had higher pH levels and lower concentrations of Ca and HCO 3 - . PTC taste sensitivity did not predict preferences, while Openness to Experience and Neuroticism predicted preference for IDR water. Positive relations between Openness to Experience and preferences for bottled and IDR water were moderated by gender and were stronger among females. Participants described water primarily by its taste and texture. Findings suggest that (1) tap water treated by RO is equally preferable to some bottled water, (2) personality traits may affect water preferences, and (3) prior findings of gender differences in preferences for bottled water may reflect personality characteristics. Efforts to increase acceptance for sustainable water alternatives, such as IDR, may be more successful by assuring consumers about taste and addressing personality traits that encourage or inhibit use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Right Hemisphere Sensitivity to Novel Metaphoric Relations: Application of the Signal Detection Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashal, N.; Faust, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study used the signal detection theory to test the hypothesis that the right hemisphere (RH) is more sensitive than the left hemisphere (LH) to the distant semantic relations in novel metaphoric expressions. In two divided visual field experiments, sensitivity (d') and criterion ([beta]) were calculated for responses to different types…

  1. Estimating the approximation error when fixing unessential factors in global sensitivity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobol' , I.M. [Institute for Mathematical Modelling of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tarantola, S. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, TP361, Institute of the Protection and Security of the Citizen, Via E. Fermi 1, 21020 Ispra (Italy)]. E-mail: stefano.tarantola@jrc.it; Gatelli, D. [Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, TP361, Institute of the Protection and Security of the Citizen, Via E. Fermi 1, 21020 Ispra (Italy)]. E-mail: debora.gatelli@jrc.it; Kucherenko, S.S. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom); Mauntz, W. [Department of Biochemical and Chemical Engineering, Dortmund University (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    One of the major settings of global sensitivity analysis is that of fixing non-influential factors, in order to reduce the dimensionality of a model. However, this is often done without knowing the magnitude of the approximation error being produced. This paper presents a new theorem for the estimation of the average approximation error generated when fixing a group of non-influential factors. A simple function where analytical solutions are available is used to illustrate the theorem. The numerical estimation of small sensitivity indices is discussed.

  2. Influence of biological and ecological factors on the radio-sensitivity of laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenet, J.L.; Legeay, G.

    1968-01-01

    The biological and ecological factors liable to induce a change in the radio-sensitivity of a species are undoubtedly responsible for the large fluctuations observed during radio-biological experiments. It is easy to limit or to suppress the effects of some of them (genetic or nutritional factors). Since the research worker cannot control the others it is necessary to take them into account. In this report the authors analyse the action of two factors chosen as examples: - the first concerns biological rhythms; - the second attempts to define the role of health conditions. Other factors will be dealt with in a later report. (authors) [fr

  3. Relations among child negative emotionality, parenting stress, and maternal sensitive responsiveness in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulussen-Hoogeboom, M.C.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Peetsma, T.T.D.

    2008-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study focuses on relations between preschool-aged childrens' perceived "difficult" temperament (defined as high negative emotionality) and observed maternal sensitive responsiveness in the context of maternal parenting stress. Design. Participants were fifty-nine

  4. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / ... to learn more about the effects of sustained low-calorie diets in humans on factors affecting aging. ...

  5. The effects of insulin sensitizers on the cardiovascular risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassi, E; Diamanti-Kandarakis, E

    2008-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in pre-menopausal women characterized by menstrual cycle disturbances, chronic anovulation, and clinical and/or biochemical hyperandrogenism. Although, the primary etiology of PCOS remains unknown, insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. A growing body of recent data support that women with PCOS have displayed an increased prevelance of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors putting potentially at a hight risk for heart disease. Most of these CVD risk factors are etiologically correlated with insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia, highlighting the role of insulin sensitizers in the therapeutic quiver for the chronic treatment of PCOS. In this review, we discuss the current literature on the CVD risk factors in PCOS and the influence of insulin sensitizers upon these risk factors.

  6. IgE sensitization and sociodemographic conditions as determinant factors in asthma severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Gaviria

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Latin America there are few data about the factors that influence the control and severity of asthma. Objective: To describe the association between IgE sensitization to intra-home allergens and housing conditions in the severity of asthma. Methods: Sensitization to aero-allergens was evaluated by skin prick test and socio-demographic data by a questionnaire in a population between 6 and 14 years of age with diagnosis of asthma. Asthma control was measured according to spirometric results and to the application of the ACT (Asthma Control Test; the severity and symptom control was evaluated according to the GINA guideline. Results: A total of 150 resident patients from the Aburra Valley (Colombia were included. The median age of participants was 11 years, 95 (63.3 % male. 92 % of the patients resided in the urban area. Mite sensitization was the most prevalent in controlled and uncontrolled patients. Sensitization to cockroach and some poverty conditions were risk factors for asthma severity. Conclusion: Poverty conditions appear to favor the development of severe asthma and in turn IgE sensitization to cockroaches. This sensitization could serve as a biomarker of severity.

  7. Temporal variations of reference evapotranspiration and its sensitivity to meteorological factors in Heihe River Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jie; Xu, Zong-xue; Zuo, De-peng; Wang, Xu-ming

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of daily meteorological data from 15 meteorological stations in the Heihe River Basin (HRB) during the period from 1959 to 2012, long-term trends of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and key meteorological factors that affect ET0 were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test. The evaporation paradox was also investigated at 15 meteorological stations. In order to explore the contribution of key meteorological factors to the temporal variation of ET0, a sensitivity coefficient method...

  8. Comparative analysis for the measured and the predicted relative sensitivity of rhodium In core detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sang Rae; Cha, Kyoon Ho; Bae, Seong Man

    2012-01-01

    Self-powered neutron detector (SPND) is widely used as in-core flux monitoring in nuclear power plants. OPR1000 has applied a rhodium (Rh) as the emitter of the SPND. The SPND contains a neutron-sensitive metallic emitter surrounded by a ceramic insulator. When capturing a neutron, the Rh will be decayed by emitting some electrons which is crossing the sheath and produce current. This current can be measured externally using pico-ammeter. The sensitivity of detectors is closely related with the geometry and material of the detectors. The lifetime of in-core detector is determined by calculating the relative sensitivity of Rh detector. It is required that the Rh detector should be replaced before the burn-up of Rh detector has reached 66% of its original compositions. To predict Rh detector's relative sensitivity ANC code, advanced nodal code capable of two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations, is used. It is determined that the Rh detectors should be replaced on the basis of the predicted sensitivity value calculated by ANC code. When evaluating the life of Rh detectors using ANC code, it is assumed that the uncertainty of the sensitivity calculation include the measurement error of 5%. As a result of the analysis of measured and predicted data for the Rh detector's relative sensitivity, it is possible to reduce the assumed uncertainty

  9. Comparative analysis for the measured and the predicted relative sensitivity of rhodium In core detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sang Rae; Cha, Kyoon Ho; Bae, Seong Man [Nuclear Reactor Safety Lab., KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Self-powered neutron detector (SPND) is widely used as in-core flux monitoring in nuclear power plants. OPR1000 has applied a rhodium (Rh) as the emitter of the SPND. The SPND contains a neutron-sensitive metallic emitter surrounded by a ceramic insulator. When capturing a neutron, the Rh will be decayed by emitting some electrons which is crossing the sheath and produce current. This current can be measured externally using pico-ammeter. The sensitivity of detectors is closely related with the geometry and material of the detectors. The lifetime of in-core detector is determined by calculating the relative sensitivity of Rh detector. It is required that the Rh detector should be replaced before the burn-up of Rh detector has reached 66% of its original compositions. To predict Rh detector's relative sensitivity ANC code, advanced nodal code capable of two-dimensional and three-dimensional calculations, is used. It is determined that the Rh detectors should be replaced on the basis of the predicted sensitivity value calculated by ANC code. When evaluating the life of Rh detectors using ANC code, it is assumed that the uncertainty of the sensitivity calculation include the measurement error of 5%. As a result of the analysis of measured and predicted data for the Rh detector's relative sensitivity, it is possible to reduce the assumed uncertainty.

  10. Sleep System Sensitization: Evidence for Changing Roles of Etiological Factors in Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A.; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J. Todd; Anderson, Jason R.; Drake, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To test for sensitization of the sleep system in response to insomnia development and major life stress. In addition, to evaluate the impact on depression and anxiety associated with sleep system sensitization. Methods A longitudinal study with three annual assessments. The community-based sample included 262 adults with no history of insomnia or depression who developed insomnia 1 year after baseline (67.6% female; 44.0±13.4y). Measures included the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test to assess sleep reactivity, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Insomnia classification was based on DSM-IV criteria. Sleep system sensitization was operationally defined as significant increases in sleep reactivity. Results Sensitization of the sleep system was observed from baseline to insomnia onset at 1-y follow-up among insomniacs with low premorbid vulnerability (pinsomnia remission (pinsomnia onset. The impact of sensitization on depression was stable at 2-y follow-up (p=.01). Conclusions Evidence supports sensitization of the sleep system as consequence of insomnia development and major life stress among individuals with low premorbid sleep reactivity. Sleep system sensitization may serve as a mechanism by which insomnia is perpetuated. Harmful effects of the sensitization process may increase risk for insomnia-related depression and anxiety. PMID:27448474

  11. Sleep system sensitization: evidence for changing roles of etiological factors in insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J Todd; Anderson, Jason R; Drake, Christopher L

    2016-05-01

    To test for sensitization of the sleep system in response to insomnia development and major life stress. In addition, to evaluate the impact on depression and anxiety associated with sleep system sensitization. A longitudinal study with three annual assessments. The community-based sample included 262 adults with no history of insomnia or depression who developed insomnia one year after baseline (67.6% female; 44.0 ± 13.4 yr). Measures included the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test to assess sleep reactivity, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Insomnia classification was based on DSM-IV criteria. Sleep system sensitization was operationally defined as significant increases in sleep reactivity. Sensitization of the sleep system was observed from baseline to insomnia onset at 1-yr follow-up among insomniacs with low premorbid vulnerability (p insomnia remission (p insomnia onset. The impact of sensitization on depression was stable at 2-yr follow-up (p = 0.01). Evidence supports sensitization of the sleep system as a consequence of insomnia development and major life stress among individuals with low premorbid sleep reactivity. Sleep system sensitization may serve as a mechanism by which insomnia is perpetuated. Harmful effects of the sensitization process may increase risk for insomnia-related depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Factors Affecting the Intercultural Sensitivity Perception Level of Psychological Counseling and Guidance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, Ibrahim; Aricioglu, Ahu

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting the intercultural sensitivity perception levels of Psychological Counseling and Guidance students. This study was conducted in Pamukkale University which is located in the western part of Turkey. Data were gathered from 524 freshmen, sophomore, junior and senior students who are…

  13. Factors related to innovative output in the Dutch agrifood industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batterink, M.H.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2006-01-01

    The present study assessed the factors related to innovative output in the Dutch agrifood industry, a scale-intensive, supplierdominated industry. We concentrated on explanatory variables related to cooperation, information sources, innovation objectives, obstacles to innovation, and innovation

  14. Factors Related to Performance of Health Practices Among Asian Adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia G. Ayres, PhD, RN

    2010-06-01

    Conclusions: Study findings extend existing knowledge and contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge base regarding health practices among Asian adolescents. Having this knowledge base provides practitioners with a better understanding of the factors related to health practices in Asian adolescents and assists them in developing culturally sensitive interventions aimed at promoting PHP in this population.

  15. Genetic factors modulate the impact of pubertal androgen excess on insulin sensitivity and fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail R Dowling

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive age women. The syndrome is caused by a combination of environmental influences and genetic predisposition. Despite extensive efforts, the heritable factors contributing to PCOS development are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that genetic background contributes to the development of a PCOS-like reproductive and metabolic phenotype in mice exposed to excess DHEA during the pubertal transition. We tested whether the PCOS phenotype would be more pronounced on the diabetes-prone C57BL/6 background than the previously used strain, BALB/cByJ. In addition, we examined strain-dependent upregulation of the expression of ovarian and extra-ovarian candidate genes implicated in human PCOS, genes containing known strain variants, and genes involved with steroidogenesis or insulin sensitivity. These studies show that there are significant strain-related differences in metabolic response to excess androgen exposure during puberty. Additionally, our results suggest the C57BL/6J strain provides a more robust and uniform experimental platform for PCOS research than the BALB/cByJ strain.

  16. Genetic factors modulate the impact of pubertal androgen excess on insulin sensitivity and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Abigail R; Nedorezov, Laura B; Qiu, Xiaoliang; Marino, Joseph S; Hill, Jennifer W

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive age women. The syndrome is caused by a combination of environmental influences and genetic predisposition. Despite extensive efforts, the heritable factors contributing to PCOS development are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that genetic background contributes to the development of a PCOS-like reproductive and metabolic phenotype in mice exposed to excess DHEA during the pubertal transition. We tested whether the PCOS phenotype would be more pronounced on the diabetes-prone C57BL/6 background than the previously used strain, BALB/cByJ. In addition, we examined strain-dependent upregulation of the expression of ovarian and extra-ovarian candidate genes implicated in human PCOS, genes containing known strain variants, and genes involved with steroidogenesis or insulin sensitivity. These studies show that there are significant strain-related differences in metabolic response to excess androgen exposure during puberty. Additionally, our results suggest the C57BL/6J strain provides a more robust and uniform experimental platform for PCOS research than the BALB/cByJ strain.

  17. Perinatal risk factors for sensitization, atopic dermatitis and wheezing during the first year of life (PIPO study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagendorens, M M; Bridts, C H; Lauwers, K; van Nuijs, S; Ebo, D G; Vellinga, A; De Clerck, L S; Van Bever, H P; Weyler, J J; Stevens, W J

    2005-06-01

    To evaluate the influence of perinatal environmental factors on early sensitization, atopic dermatitis and wheezing during the first year. Information on pregnancy-related factors, parental atopic history, environmental factors and the clinical course of the infant until age one was gathered by questionnaires, as part of a prospective birth cohort study (Prospective study on the Influence of Perinatal factors on the Occurrence of asthma and allergies [PIPO-study]). Quantification of total and specific IgE was performed in 810 children and their parents. Early sensitization was found in 107/810 (13%) of the infants. Multiple regression analysis showed that specific IgE in fathers was a risk factor for early sensitization in their daughters (adjusted odds ratios (OR(adj)) 2.21 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-4.49); P=0.03), whereas in boys, day care attendance was shown to be protective for early sensitization (OR(adj) 0.38 (95% CI 0.20-0.71); P=0.001). Atopic dermatitis occurred in 195/792 infants (25%). Specific IgE in the mother (OR(adj) 1.52 (95% CI 1.06-2.19); P=0.02) and in the infant (OR(adj) 4.20 (95% CI 2.63-6.68); Patopic dermatitis, whereas postnatal exposure to cats was negatively associated with atopic dermatitis (OR(adj) 0.68 (0.47-0.97); P=0.03). Postnatal exposure to cigarette smoke (OR(adj) 3.31 (95% CI 1.79-6.09); Patopic dermatitis, whereas postnatal exposure to cats had a protective effect.

  18. Is non-response to fluconazole maintenance therapy for recurrent Candida vaginitis related to sensitization to atopic reactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, Gilbert G G; Grinceviciene, Svitrigaile; Bellen, Gert; Jaeger, Martin; Ten Oever, Jaap; Netea, Mihai G

    2018-04-01

    Is sensitization to atopic reaction related to treatment response of recurrent Candida vulvovaginal (RVVC)? Analysis of ReCiDiF trial data of optimal (OR) and non-responders (NR) to fluconazole maintenance treatment, to explore medical history, physical status, family history, and vaginal immune response for potential sensitization to atopic reaction. Sociodemographic characteristics of 33 NR women were not different from 38 OR. NR had received higher number of different treatments (mean difference 1.6 different treatments (95% CI: 0.20-2.97), P = .03) and had more episodes of disease (P predictive factor for non-response in multivariate analysis with specificity 77.8% and sensitivity 51.6%. Women with RVVC with vulvar excoriation, longer duration of disease, and family history of atopic disease are at increased risk not to respond to maintenance fluconazole treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Virulence factor genes possessing Enterococcus faecalis strains from rabbits and their sensitivity to enterocins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pogány Simonová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Information concerning the virulence factor genes and antibiotic resistance of rabbit enterococci is limited, so in this study we tested the virulence factor genes in Enterococcus faecalis strains from rabbits. Moreover, their resistance/sensitivity to antibiotics and sensitivity to enterocins was also tested, with the aim of contributing to our enterocin spectra study and to indicate the possibility of enterocin application in prevention or contaminant elimination in rabbit husbandry. A total of 144 rabbit samples were treated using a standard microbiological method. Thirty-one pure colonies of the species Enterococcus faecalis were identified, using the MALDI-TOF identification system and confirmed using phenotyping, among which 15 strains were virulence factor gene absent. The gelE gene was the most detected (42%; however, the expression of gelatinase phenotype did not always correlate with the detection of gelE. Strains did not show ß-haemolysis and were mostly resistant to tested antibiotics, but sensitive to enterocins (Ent, mainly to Ents EK13=A (P, 2019 and Ent M. Rabbit E. faecalis strains displayed antibiotic resistant traits and the presence of expressed and silent virulence genes, but they showed high levels of sensitivity to natural antimicrobials-enterocins, which indicates the possible prevention of multidrug and virulent enterococcal contaminants by enterocins.

  20. Differential Privacy for Relational Algebra: Improving the Sensitivity Bounds via Constraint Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catuscia Palamidessi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Differential privacy is a modern approach in privacy-preserving data analysis to control the amount of information that can be inferred about an individual by querying a database. The most common techniques are based on the introduction of probabilistic noise, often defined as a Laplacian parametric on the sensitivity of the query. In order to maximize the utility of the query, it is crucial to estimate the sensitivity as precisely as possible. In this paper we consider relational algebra, the classical language for queries in relational databases, and we propose a method for computing a bound on the sensitivity of queries in an intuitive and compositional way. We use constraint-based techniques to accumulate the information on the possible values for attributes provided by the various components of the query, thus making it possible to compute tight bounds on the sensitivity.

  1. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation

  2. Advances in radiation biology: Relative radiation sensitivities of human organ systems. Volume 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lett, J.T.; Altman, K.I.; Ehmann, U.K.; Cox, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is a thematically focused issue of Advances in Radiation Biology. The topic surveyed is relative radiosensitivity of human organ systems. Topics considered include relative radiosensitivities of the thymus, spleen, and lymphohemopoietic systems; relative radiosensitivities of the small and large intestine; relative rediosensitivities of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus; relative radiation sensitivity of the integumentary system; dose response of the epidermal; microvascular, and dermal populations; relative radiosensitivity of the human lung; relative radiosensitivity of fetal tissues; and tolerance of the central and peripheral nervous system to therapeutic irradiation.

  3. [Epidemiology of contact dermatitis: prevalence of sensitization to different allergens and associated factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordel-Gómez, Ma T; Miranda-Romero, A; Castrodeza-Sanz, J

    2010-01-01

    In clinical practice, contact dermatitis is a relatively common skin complaint, whose prevalence has increased in recent years. Study by patch testing is essential for diagnosis of contact sensitization. To study the prevalence of sensitization to different allergens in a standard battery and observe the influence of different epidemiological and clinical variables on contact sensitization. A large number of allergens were included in our battery in order to detect new sensitizations whose prevalence might justify further study. This was a retrospective, observational, epidemiological study of 1092 patients, conducted in our skin allergy unit between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2005. All patients were studied with a battery of 51 allergens. We assessed the following variables: sex, age, type of referral, occupation, site and course of skin lesions, personal and family history of atopy, positive patch tests, clinical significance, diagnosis, source of sensitization, and occupational relationship. At least 1 positive result was found in 55% of the patients, and 55.7% presented atopic dermatitis in one of its clinical variants: allergic contact dermatitis (28.2%), irritant contact dermatitis (20.1%), photoallergic contact dermatitis (2.2%), and phototoxic contact dermatitis (1.2%). The most prevalent allergens were nickel sulfate (29.3%), palladium chloride (11.7%), cobalt chloride (10.8%), potassium dichromate (7.5%), fragrance blends (6.3%), and p-phenylenediamine (6.1%). A positive occupational relationship was found in 41.1%, and 21.3% of the patients studied were diagnosed with occupational contact dermatitis. Metal workers, construction workers, and professional hairdressers were the most strongly represented groups. The most common source of sensitization was contact with metallic objects, followed by drugs, cosmetics, and rubber items. Female sex was the only independent variable that had a significant influence on the risk of contact sensitization in

  4. Patterns of sensitization in infants and its relation to atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jøhnke, Hanne; Norberg, Lene Annette; Vach, Werner

    2006-01-01

    Longitudinal studies in infant populations using validated diagnostic criteria of atopic dermatitis and sensitization are rarely reported, and disease definitions, testing procedures, age of study population and evaluation of objective markers vary between countries and studies. The objectives...... of this prospective birth cohort study were to investigate: (i) the prevalence, the cumulative incidence and the pattern of transient and persistent sensitization to common food- and aeroallergens in unselected infants, (ii) the association between sensitization and the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) and (iii......) the association between selected perinatal risk factors with respect to AD and post-natal sensitization. During a one-year period a cohort of 562 unselected newborns was established and followed up at the age of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months of age. At all time points infants were examined clinically and by histamine...

  5. Hostile Intent Attributions and Relational Aggression: The Moderating Roles of Emotional Sensitivity, Gender, and Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.; Woods, Kathleen E.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie; Geiger, Tasha C.; Morales, Julie R.

    2011-01-01

    The current study adopts a relational vulnerability model to examine the association between hostile attribution bias and relational aggression. Specifically, the relational vulnerability model implicates the interactive effects of a number of relational risk factors in the development of relational aggression. A sample of 635 3rd, 4th, and 5th…

  6. Relational Stressors and Depressive Symptoms in Late Adolescence: Rejection Sensitivity as a Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chango, Joanna M.; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Allen, Joseph P.; Schad, Megan M.; Marston, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The role of rejection sensitivity as a critical diathesis moderating the link between adolescent relational stressors and depressive symptoms was examined using multi-method, multi-reporter data from a diverse community sample of 173 adolescents, followed from age 16 to 18. Relational stressors examined included emotional abuse, maternal behavior…

  7. Relation between sensitization and failures of welded joints at furnaces of Cienfuegos refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, H.; Menendez, C.M.; Sendoya, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    This work is concerned about the possible relation between sensitization and failures of welded joints at furnaces of Cienfuegos Refinery. This failures were detected in austenitic pipes by hydraulic testing. For determined the tendency to sensitization of heat affected zones (HAZ) of welded joints and piping, have been used standardized test methods AM and AMU (GOST 6032-89). In addition, the Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (EPR) test was employed to quantity the tendency to intergranular corrosion. It was found that degree of sensitization was higher at HAZ and as a possible explanation is proposed the overheating during welding

  8. Panic disorder and health-related quality of life: the predictive roles of anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun-Ho; Kim, Borah; Choe, Ah Young; Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Tai Kiu; Lee, Sang-Hyuk

    2015-01-30

    Panic disorder (PD) is a very common anxiety disorder and is often a chronic disabling condition. However, little is known about the factors that predict health-related quality of life (HRQOL) other than sociodemographic factors and illness-related symptomatology that explain HRQOL in only small to modest degrees. This study explored whether anxiety-related individual traits including anxiety sensitivity and trait anxiety can predict independently HRQOL in panic patients. Patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (N=230) who met the diagnostic criteria in the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were recruited. Stepwise regression analysis was performed to determine the factors that predict HRQOL in panic disorder. HRQOL was assessed by the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Anxiety sensitivity was an independent predictor of bodily pain and social functioning whereas trait anxiety independently predicted all of the eight domains of the SF-36. Our data suggests that the assessment of symptomatology as well as individual anxiety-related trait should be included in the evaluation of HRQOL in panic patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tumor necrosis factor alpha selectively sensitizes human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells to heat and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, G.H.; McHugh, T.; Weber, R.; Goeddel, D.V.

    1991-01-01

    We report here that infection of the human T-cell line HUT-78 with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases its sensitivity to heat and radiation toxicity. A possible explanation for this result may be the reduced expression of manganous superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in HIV-infected cells compared to uninfected cells. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) further sensitizes HIV-infected cells but not uninfected cells to heat and radiation. This is consistent with the ability of TNF-alpha to induce the expression of MnSOD in uninfected but not in HIV-infected cells. HIV-infected HUT-78 cell lines engineered to overexpress MnSOD are more resistant to heat and radiation than HIV-infected cells that do not overexpress MnSOD. However, treatment with TNF-alpha still sensitizes these cells to heat and radiation

  10. Noise sensitivity in relation to baseline arousal, physiological response and psychological features to noise exposure during task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, K.; Hofman, W.F.; van Kamp, I.

    2010-01-01

    People who consider themselves sensitive to noise, experience more noise annoyance, sleep disturbance and reduced daytime performance. Besides psychological factors, an association with cardiovascular reactions during noise has been established in noise sensitives. Decreased efficiency of the

  11. Ozone effects on radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle): foliar sensitivity as related to metabolite levels and cell architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanassious, R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the first four leaves of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Belle) was followed to determine the relationship between foliar sensitivity to ozone as related to selected soluble metabolites and leaf-cell arrangement. Although relatively high metabolite (protein, sugars, phenols) levels and compact cell arrangement may be advanced as factors contributing to the resistance of young leaves (L/sub 3,4/ of 21-day old plants) these same parameters do not explain the resistance of old leaves (L/sub 1,2/ of 30-day old plants). 16 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  12. DEFINITION OF ETIOLOGICAL ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY FACTORS IN PURULENT-INFLAMMATORY PROCESSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovyk, O; Mishyna, М; Malanchuk, S; Kuzmenko, A; Kozlov, O

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study - assessment of purulent-inflammatory processes etiologic factors and determination of microbial agents' in forms of plankton and biofilms sensitivity to antibiotics. Clinical microbial strains isolated from patients with purulent-inflammatory processes were the subject of the study. The study material comprised of wound tissue, pus, bandage and suture, catheters and drainage devices. Sensitivity of isolates to antimicrobial preparations with various mechanism of activity on the microbial cells was studied with the help of micro-test system. Formation of biofilms was studied with the help of definition of bacteria strains ability to adhesion to the surface of polystyrene flatbeds. It was revealed that one of the leading factors of purulent-inflammatory process development is S.aureus, which disseminated in 36,5% of cases; E.coli disseminated in 17,3% of cases. Among the agents of purulent-inflammatory processes the specific gravity attributed to: Proteus spp. - 14,6%, S.рyogenes - 12,8%, P.aeruginosa - 6,9%, K.pneumoniae - 6,7%. It was revealed that all isolates formed dense biofilms. It was demonstrated that most isolates in plankton form were sensitive to Novapime, Cefepime, Gatifloxacin, Imipenem; sensitive strains were registered in a smaller quantity to Gentamicin, Clindamycin and Doxycycline. In terms of sensitivity of isolates in the form of biofilm to antibacterial preparations it was revealed that most isolates were polyresistant to them. Thus, the study of the sensitivity of allotted microbial strains to antimicrobial preparations demonstrated, that there were strains among cultures with multiple resistances which was the consequence of a wide and not always effective use of antimicrobial preparations.

  13. Influence of interaction of environmental risk factors and sensitization in young asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, A; van Hage-Hamsten, M; Rietz, H; Wickman, M; Nordvall, S L

    1999-10-01

    The increasing prevalence of asthma and allergy in many countries demands evaluation of potential risk factors to improve the possibility of prevention. We studied the association between exposure to cat and dog allergen and allergic sensitization in young children with asthma and interactions with potential environmental risk factors. One hundred eighty-nine young children with asthma were evaluated. IgE antibodies to cat and dog were analyzed. Questionnaires were filled in focusing on exposure to cats and dogs, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and signs of home dampness as indicated by window pane condensation (WPC) during the first years of life. House dust was analyzed for content of cat (Fel d 1) and dog (Can f 1) allergen. There was a strong association between the degree of reported exposure to cat and dog and the concentration of the respective allergens in floor dust. A dose-response relationship was found between cat exposure, measured as either reported degree of cat exposure or cat allergen levels in dust, and sensitization both to cat and dog. No such relationship was found between exposure and sensitization to dog. WPC increased the risk for sensitization to cat (odds ratio = 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.2-5.8), whereas ETS strongly tended to do so both to cat and dog. Interaction was found between exposure to ETS, WPC, and high levels of cat allergen (>8 microg/g dust). The presence of all 3 risk factors revealed a multiplicative interaction with a high risk of sensitization to cat (odds ratio = 42.0, 95% confidence interval 3.7-472.8). Keeping cats indoors may be a health hazard for infants and young children at risk for development of asthma, particularly when they live in a damp house and their parents smoke.

  14. Factors influencing antibiotic prescribing habits and use of sensitivity testing amongst veterinarians in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Briyne, N; Atkinson, J; Pokludová, L; Borriello, S P; Price, S

    2013-11-16

    The Heads of Medicines Agencies and the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe undertook a survey to gain a better insight into the decision-making process of veterinarians in Europe when deciding which antibiotics to prescribe. The survey was completed by 3004 practitioners from 25 European countries. Analysis was to the level of different types of practitioner (food producing (FP) animals, companion animals, equines) and country for Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and the UK. Responses indicate no single information source is universally considered critical, though training, published literature and experience were the most important. Factors recorded which most strongly influenced prescribing behaviour were sensitivity tests, own experience, the risk for antibiotic resistance developing and ease of administration. Most practitioners usually take into account responsible use warnings. Antibiotic sensitivity testing is usually performed where a treatment failure has occurred. Significant differences were observed in the frequency of sensitivity testing at the level of types of practitioners and country. The responses indicate a need to improve sensitivity tests and services, with the availability of rapid and cheaper testing being key factors.

  15. Factors modifying sensitivity to carcinogens and the problem of threshold in carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Maximum allowable concentrations of chemical carcinogens and dose rates of ionizing radiation have been under extensive study both experimentally and epidemiologically. The problem of the carcinogenic hazards of low-level radiation is a very difficult one: in epidemiological studies it is hard to take into account the many factors (e.g. diseases, diet, genetic peculiarities) that may affect sensitivity to radiation; in experimental studies it is hard to extrapolate with accuracy from one species to another or from the individual threshold to that of the whole population. Age, enzyme activity, sex, and DNA repair capability also modify sensitivity to radiation; when factors such as these are better understood it is expected that epidemiological studies will give a solution that allows estimation of the carcinogenic risk from low-level radiation and hence establishment of a threshold dose. (author)

  16. Microcirculatory Improvement Induced by Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Is Related to Insulin Sensitivity Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministrini, Stefano; Fattori, Chiara; Ricci, Maria Anastasia; Bianconi, Vanessa; Paltriccia, Rita; Boni, Marcello; Paganelli, Maria Teresa; Vaudo, Gaetano; Lupattelli, Graziana; Pasqualini, Leonella

    2018-05-12

    Microvascular dysfunction is a potential factor explaining the association of obesity, insulin resistance, and vascular damage in morbidly obese subjects. The purpose of the study was to evaluate possible determinants of microcirculatory improvement 1 year after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) intervention. Thirty-seven morbidly obese subjects eligible for bariatric surgery were included in the study. Post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) of the forearm skin was measured as area of hyperemia (AH) by laser-Doppler flowmetry before LSG and after a 1-year follow-up. After intervention, we observed a significant reduction in BMI, HOMA index, HbA1c, and a significant increase of AH in all patients after surgery; this variation was significant only in those patients having insulin resistance or prediabetes/diabetes. Although significant correlation between the increase of AH and the reduction of both BMI, HOMA index, and HbA1c was observed, BMI was the only independent predictor of AH variation after LSG at the linear regression analysis. Our study shows that LSG intervention is correlated with a significant improvement in the microvascular function of morbidly obese subjects; this improvement seems to be related to the baseline degree of insulin-resistance and to the retrieval of insulin-sensitivity post-intervention.

  17. Sensitive analysis and modifications to reflood-related constitutive models of RELAP5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dong; Liu Xiaojing; Yang Yanhua

    2014-01-01

    Previous system code calculation reveals that the cladding temperature is underestimated and quench front appears too early during reflood process. To find out the parameters shows important effect on the results, sensitive analysis is performed on parameters of constitutive physical models. Based on the phenomenological and theoretical analysis, four parameters are selected: wall to vapor film boiling heat transfer coefficient, wall to liquid film boiling heat transfer coefficient, dry wall interfacial friction coefficient and minimum droplet diameter. In order to improve the reflood simulation ability of RELAP5 code, the film boiling heat transfer model and dry wall interfacial friction model which are corresponding models of those influential parameters are studied. Modifications have been made and installed into RELAP5 code. Six tests of FEBA are simulated by RELAP5 to study the predictability of reflood-related physical models. A dispersed flow film boiling heat transfer (DFFB) model is applied when void fraction is above 0.9. And a factor is multiplied to the post-CHF drag coefficient to fit the experiment better. Finally, the six FEBA tests are calculated again so as to assess the modifications. Better results are obtained which prove the advantage of the modified models. (author)

  18. Multivariate sensitivity analysis to measure global contribution of input factors in dynamic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamboni, Matieyendou; Monod, Herve; Makowski, David

    2011-01-01

    Many dynamic models are used for risk assessment and decision support in ecology and crop science. Such models generate time-dependent model predictions, with time either discretised or continuous. Their global sensitivity analysis is usually applied separately on each time output, but Campbell et al. (2006 ) advocated global sensitivity analyses on the expansion of the dynamics in a well-chosen functional basis. This paper focuses on the particular case when principal components analysis is combined with analysis of variance. In addition to the indices associated with the principal components, generalised sensitivity indices are proposed to synthesize the influence of each parameter on the whole time series output. Index definitions are given when the uncertainty on the input factors is either discrete or continuous and when the dynamic model is either discrete or functional. A general estimation algorithm is proposed, based on classical methods of global sensitivity analysis. The method is applied to a dynamic wheat crop model with 13 uncertain parameters. Three methods of global sensitivity analysis are compared: the Sobol'-Saltelli method, the extended FAST method, and the fractional factorial design of resolution 6.

  19. Multivariate sensitivity analysis to measure global contribution of input factors in dynamic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamboni, Matieyendou [INRA, Unite MIA (UR341), F78352 Jouy en Josas Cedex (France); Monod, Herve, E-mail: herve.monod@jouy.inra.f [INRA, Unite MIA (UR341), F78352 Jouy en Josas Cedex (France); Makowski, David [INRA, UMR Agronomie INRA/AgroParisTech (UMR 211), BP 01, F78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)

    2011-04-15

    Many dynamic models are used for risk assessment and decision support in ecology and crop science. Such models generate time-dependent model predictions, with time either discretised or continuous. Their global sensitivity analysis is usually applied separately on each time output, but Campbell et al. (2006) advocated global sensitivity analyses on the expansion of the dynamics in a well-chosen functional basis. This paper focuses on the particular case when principal components analysis is combined with analysis of variance. In addition to the indices associated with the principal components, generalised sensitivity indices are proposed to synthesize the influence of each parameter on the whole time series output. Index definitions are given when the uncertainty on the input factors is either discrete or continuous and when the dynamic model is either discrete or functional. A general estimation algorithm is proposed, based on classical methods of global sensitivity analysis. The method is applied to a dynamic wheat crop model with 13 uncertain parameters. Three methods of global sensitivity analysis are compared: the Sobol'-Saltelli method, the extended FAST method, and the fractional factorial design of resolution 6.

  20. Social network size relates to developmental neural sensitivity to biological motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Kirby

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to perceive others’ actions and goals from human motion (i.e., biological motion perception is a critical component of social perception and may be linked to the development of real-world social relationships. Adult research demonstrates two key nodes of the brain’s biological motion perception system—amygdala and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS—are linked to variability in social network properties. The relation between social perception and social network properties, however, has not yet been investigated in middle childhood—a time when individual differences in social experiences and social perception are growing. The aims of this study were to (1 replicate past work showing amygdala and pSTS sensitivity to biological motion in middle childhood; (2 examine age-related changes in the neural sensitivity for biological motion, and (3 determine whether neural sensitivity for biological motion relates to social network characteristics in children. Consistent with past work, we demonstrate a significant relation between social network size and neural sensitivity for biological motion in left pSTS, but do not find age-related change in biological motion perception. This finding offers evidence for the interplay between real-world social experiences and functional brain development and has important implications for understanding disorders of atypical social experience. Keywords: Biological motion, Social networks, Middle childhood, Neural specialization, Brain-behavior relations, pSTS

  1. Reward sensitivity predicts ice cream-related attentional bias assessed by inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Tao, Qian; Fang, Ya; Cheng, Chen; Hao, Yangyang; Qi, Jianjun; Li, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2015-06-01

    The cognitive mechanism underlying the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving is unknown. The present study explored the mechanism by examining the role of reward sensitivity in attentional bias toward ice cream cues. Forty-nine college students who displayed high level of ice cream craving (HICs) and 46 who displayed low level of ice cream craving (LICs) performed an inattentional blindness (IB) task which was used to assess attentional bias for ice cream. In addition, reward sensitivity and coping style were assessed by the Behavior Inhibition System/Behavior Activation System Scales and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. Results showed significant higher identification rate of the critical stimulus in the HICs than LICs, suggesting greater attentional bias for ice cream in the HICs. It was indicated that attentional bias for food cues persisted even under inattentional condition. Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the attentional bias and reward sensitivity after controlling for coping style, and reward sensitivity predicted attentional bias for food cues. The mediation analyses showed that attentional bias mediated the relationship between reward sensitivity and food craving. Those findings suggest that the association between individual differences in reward sensitivity and food craving may be attributed to attentional bias for food-related cues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Initial absolute calibration factors for some neutron sensitive self-powered detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, J.

    1975-01-01

    Self-powered flux detectors have found extensive use as monitoring devices in PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) cores and CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) type power reactors. The detectors measure fuel power distributions and indicate trip parameters for reactor control and safety requirements. Both applications demand accurate absolute initial calibration factors. Experimental results obtained in calibrating some neutron sensitive self-powered detectors is presented. (author)

  3. Sensitivity of reproductive potential to environmental factors in sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemineau, P.; Terqui, M.

    1986-01-01

    Ovulation rate, embryo survival, postnatal mortality, interval from parturition to conception, age at first parturition, number of parturitions before culling, and age at culling collectively declineate the ability of a breed to cope with the local environment and management which are often harsh and suboptimal. In tropical and subtropical countries, the reproductive performance of goat and sheep is low and far from their maximum potential. Identification of the main limiting factors and determination of the breed's sensitivity to these factors are essential preliminary steps before choosing the method(s) to improve reproductive performance in such countries. (author)

  4. Silencing of the Wnt transcription factor TCF4 sensitizes colorectal cancer cells to (chemo-) radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendziorra, Emil; Ahlborn, Kerstin; Spitzner, Melanie; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Emons, Georg; Gaedcke, Jochen; Kramer, Frank; Wolff, Hendrik A.; Becker, Heinz; Beissbarth, Tim; Ebner, Reinhard; Ghadimi, B.Michael; Pukrop, Tobias; Ried, Thomas; Grade, Marian

    2011-01-01

    A considerable percentage of rectal cancers are resistant to standard preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Because patients with a priori-resistant tumors do not benefit from multimodal treatment, understanding and overcoming this resistance remains of utmost clinical importance. We recently reported overexpression of the Wnt transcription factor TCF4, also known as TCF7L2, in rectal cancers that were resistant to 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy. Because Wnt signaling has not been associated with treatment response, we aimed to investigate whether TCF4 mediates chemoradioresistance. RNA interference-mediated silencing of TCF4 was employed in three colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, and sensitivity to (chemo-) radiotherapy was assessed using a standard colony formation assay. Silencing of TCF4 caused a significant sensitization of CRC cells to clinically relevant doses of X-rays. This effect was restricted to tumor cells with high T cell factor (TCF) reporter activity, presumably in a β-catenin-independent manner. Radiosensitization was the consequence of (i) a transcriptional deregulation of Wnt/TCF4 target genes, (ii) a silencing-induced G2/M phase arrest, (iii) an impaired ability to adequately halt cell cycle progression after radiation and (iv) a compromised DNA double strand break repair as assessed by γH2AX staining. Taken together, our results indicate a novel mechanism through which the Wnt transcription factor TCF4 mediates chemoradioresistance. Moreover, they suggest that TCF4 is a promising molecular target to sensitize resistant tumor cells to (chemo-) radiotherapy. PMID:21983179

  5. Preschoolers’ Genetic, Physiological, and Behavioral Sensitivity Factors Moderate Links Between Parenting Stress and Child Internalizing, Externalizing, and Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Molly; Thomassin, Kristel; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Beach, Steven R. H.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers’ adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism - the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator - children’s baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator - mothers’ reports of children’s negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (Mage = 30.68 years, SDage = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers’ (Mage = 3.50 years, SDage = .51, 61% boys) negative emotionality and internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems. Results indicated that the genetic sensitivity variable functioned according to a differential susceptibility model; however, the results involving physiological and behavioral sensitivity factors were most consistent with a diathesis-stress framework. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to counter the effects of parenting stress are discussed. PMID:28295263

  6. Evaluation of some predisposing factors to malaria related anaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of some predisposing factors to malaria related anaemia among children in Benin City, Nigeria. ... Tropical Journal of Health Sciences ... It was carried out at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City between June and ...

  7. Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that distinguish ... players' perceived ability to be psychologically well prepared for competitions. ... reference to practical implications for future sport psychological skills training

  8. The number of taste buds is related to bitter taste sensitivity in layer and broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Ken-ichi; Shiraishi, Jun-ichi; Nishimura, Shotaro; Bungo, Takashi; Tabata, Shoji

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between taste sensitivity and the number of taste buds using a bitter tastant, quinine hydrochloride, was investigated in White Leghorn, Rhode Island Red, and broiler chickens. The White Leghorn and Rhode Island Red strains were able to perceive 2.0 mmol/L quinine hydrochloride, but the taste sensitivity of Rhode Island Red chickens was higher than that of White Leghorn chickens. Broiler chickens perceived 0.5 mmol/L quinine hydrochloride. The number of taste buds in the White Leghorn strain was the lowest, then the Rhode Island Red strain, with the number of taste buds highest in the broiler chickens. The number of taste buds was well correlated with bitter taste sensitivity. Therefore, we suggest that the number of taste buds is a vital factor in the perception of bitter taste and may be useful in selecting appropriate feeds for chickens.

  9. Monitoring of treatment with vitamin K antagonists: recombinant thromboplastins are more sensitive to factor VII than tissue-extract thromboplastins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, J S; van den Besselaar, A M H P; de Maat, M P M; Leebeek, F W G; Kruip, M J H A

    2017-03-01

    Essentials Differences in sensitivity to factor VII (FVII) have been suggested between thromboplastins. FVII-induced International Normalized Ratio (INR) changes differ between commercial reagents. Recombinant human thromboplastins are more sensitive to FVII than tissue-extract thromboplastins. Thromboplastin choice may affect FVII-mediated INR stability. Background Differences regarding sensitivity to factor VII have been suggested for recombinant human and tissue-extract thromboplastins used for International Normalized Ratio (INR) measurement, but the evidence is scarce. Differences in FVII sensitivity are clinically relevant, as they can affect INR stability during treatment with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). Objectives To determine whether commercial thromboplastins react differently to changes in FVII. Methods We studied the effect of addition of FVII on the INR in plasma by using three tissue-extract (Neoplastin C1+, Hepato Quick, and Thromborel S) and three recombinant human (Recombiplastin 2G, Innovin, and CoaguChek XS) thromboplastins. Three different concentrations of purified human FVII (0.006, 0.012 and 0.062 μg mL -1 plasma), or buffer, were added to five certified pooled plasmas of patients using VKAs (INR of 1.5-3.5). Changes in FVII activity were measured with two bioassays (Neoplastin and Recombiplastin), and relative INR changes were compared between reagents. Results After addition of 0.062 μg mL -1 FVII, FVII activity in the pooled plasmas increased by approximately 20% (Neoplastin) or 32% (Recombiplastin) relative to the activity in pooled normal plasma. All thromboplastins showed dose-dependent INR decreases. The relative INR change in the pooled plasmas significantly differed between the six thromboplastins. No differences were observed among recombinant or tissue-extract thromboplastins. Pooled results indicated that the FVII-induced INR change was greater for recombinant than for tissue-extract thromboplastins. Conclusions Differences

  10. Krüppel-Like Factor 4 Enhances Sensitivity of Cisplatin to Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuangui; Ma, Zhao; Zhang, Hongdian; Liu, Xiaoqiong; Yu, Zhentao

    2017-07-11

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of Krüppel-Like factor 4 (KLF4) in cisplatin resistance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells, which may eventually help to improve the treatment efficacy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell line CaEs-17, TE-1, EC109, KYSE510, KYSE140, KYSE70, and KYSE30 were selected to detect their sensitivity to cisplatin. 5-Azacytidine-2'-deoxycytidine (5'-Aza-CdR) treatment and methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR) were used to detect the methylation status for KLF4. Cell viability, apoptosis, and cell cycle were measured using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, Annexin V affinity assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS The sensitivity to cisplatin was different in the seven ESCC cell lines, with TE-1 having the lowest sensitivity and KYSE140 having the highest sensitivity. Interestingly, the level of KLF4 was relatively low in TE-1 cells; while it was high in KYSE140 cells. These results suggested that KLF4 may be involved in cisplatin resistance. The promoter region was mostly unmethylated in KYSE140 cells; while it was hypermethylated in TE-1 cells. After treatment with demethylation reagent 5-Aza-CdR, cisplatin sensitivities were significantly increased after upregulation of KLF4, as the IC50 values were significantly decreased in the TE-1 cell treated with 5-Aza-CdR. Furthermore, upregulation of KLF4 induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at S phase. CONCLUSIONS KLF4 enhances the sensitivity of cisplatin to ESCC cells through apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. Our data provided a novel insight to the mechanism of cisplatin resistance; overexpression of KLF4 may be a potential therapeutic strategy for cisplatin resistance in human ESCC.

  11. Elderly Taiwanese's Intrinsic Risk Factors for Fall-related Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    In-Fun Li; Yvonne Hsiung; Hui-Fen Hsing; Mei-Yu Lee; Te-Hsin Chang; Ming-Yuan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Background: As a vital issue in geriatric research, risk factors for falls were concluded to be multifactorial, and prevention has been mostly aimed at decreasing situational and environmental risks that cause and aggravate fall-related injuries, particularly within the institutions. While knowledge is limited about older patients' intrinsic determinants, the purpose of this study was to explore elderly Taiwanese's intrinsic risk factors associated with severe fall-related injuries. Method...

  12. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Vinicius Pacheco; Rocha, Helena Naly Miguens [Laboratório de Ciências do Exercício - Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Sales, Allan Robson Kluser [Unidade de Reabilitação Cardiovascular e Fisiologia do Exercício - Instituto do Coração (InCor) - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Natália Galito; Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas da, E-mail: anobrega@id.uff.br [Laboratório de Ciências do Exercício - Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years) were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors), MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p < 0.02). There were no differences in hsCRP levels among groups with MetS risk factors (p > 0.05). The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01). Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (p{sub sex} < 0.01). Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions.

  13. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Vinicius Pacheco; Rocha, Helena Naly Miguens; Sales, Allan Robson Kluser; Rocha, Natália Galito; Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas da

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years) were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors), MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p < 0.02). There were no differences in hsCRP levels among groups with MetS risk factors (p > 0.05). The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01). Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (p sex < 0.01). Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions

  14. Factor Structure, Internal Consistency, and Screening Sensitivity of the GARS-2 in a Developmental Disabilities Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Volker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition (GARS-2 is a widely used screening instrument that assists in the identification and diagnosis of autism. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and screening sensitivity of the GARS-2 using ratings from special education teaching staff for a sample of 240 individuals with autism or other significant developmental disabilities. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a correlated three-factor solution similar to that found in 2005 by Lecavalier for the original GARS. Though the three factors appeared to be reasonably consistent with the intended constructs of the three GARS-2 subscales, the analysis indicated that more than a third of the GARS-2 items were assigned to the wrong subscale. Internal consistency estimates met or exceeded standards for screening and were generally higher than those in previous studies. Screening sensitivity was .65 and specificity was .81 for the Autism Index using a cut score of 85. Based on these findings, recommendations are made for instrument revision.

  15. HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity in relation to panic, social anxiety, and depression symptoms among HIV-positive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J; Parent, Justin; Grover, Kristin W; Hickey, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Although past work has documented relations between HIV/AIDS and negative affective symptoms and disorders, empirical work has only just begun to address explanatory processes that may underlie these associations. The current investigation sought to test the main and interactive effects of HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity in relation to symptoms of panic disorder (PD), social anxiety disorder (SA), and depression among people with HIV/AIDS. Participants were 164 adults with HIV/AIDS (17.1% women; mean age, 48.40) recruited from AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in Vermont/New Hampshire and New York City. The sample identified as 40.9% white/Caucasian, 31.1% black, 22.0% Hispanic, and 6.1% mixed/other; with more than half (56.7%) reporting an annual income less than or equal to $10,000. Both men and women reported unprotected sex with men as the primary route of HIV transmission (64.4% and 50%, respectively). HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity (AS) were significantly positively related to PD, SA, and depression symptoms. As predicted, there was a significant interaction between HIV symptom distress and anxiety sensitivity in terms of PD and SA symptoms, but not depressive symptoms. Results suggest that anxiety sensitivity and HIV symptom distress are clinically relevant factors to consider in terms of anxiety and depression among people living with HIV/AIDS. It may be important to evaluate these factors among patients with HIV/AIDS to identify individuals who may be at a particularly high risk for anxiety and depression problems. Limitations included recruitment from ASOs, cross-sectional self-report data, and lack of a clinical diagnostic assessment.

  16. An analysis of students’ cognitive structures in relation to their environmental sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercek Cem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic aims of environment-related subjects included in the biology curriculum is to raise environmental awareness. Yet, the fact that the concepts taught especially in the context of environmental issues are abstract influences meaningful learning. This, in turn, influences behaviours displayed. Exhibiting students’ cognitive structures in assuring effective and meaningful concept teaching increases the importance of studies conducted. Unavailability of studies in the literature analysing students’ cognitive structures in relation to their sensitivity to the environment demonstrates the importance of this current study. This study aims to analyse students’ cognitive structures in relation to their environmental sensitivity. The study employs survey model- one of the qualitative research designs. The study group was composed of 56 high school students in the 2016-2017 academic year. The study group was formed through purposeful sampling. Word Association Test (WAT was prepared in order to uncover students’ cognitive structures in relation to their environmental sensitivity. Having transcribed the data obtained, they were put to content analysis and were transferred to the medium of computer. The results showed that students’ cognitive structure concerning their environmental sensitivity was divided into categories.

  17. Anxiety sensitivity as a predictor of anxiety and pain related to third molar removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad; Lindeboom, Jerome A.

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to the fear of anxiety-related symptoms resulting from beliefs that such sensations have negative somatic, social, or psychological consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether AS can predict both anticipated and experienced pain and state and

  18. Anxiety sensitivity as a predictor of anxiety and pain related to third molar removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, A.J.; de Jongh, A.; Lindeboom, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to the fear of anxiety-related symptoms resulting from beliefs that such sensations have negative somatic, social, or psychological consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether AS can predict both anticipated and experienced pain and

  19. Pain sensitivity is inversely related to regional grey matter density in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Nichole M; Zeidan, Fadel; Lobanov, Oleg V; Hadsel, Morten S; Martucci, Katherine T; Quevedo, Alexandre S; Starr, Christopher J; Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Granovsky, Yelena; Yarnitsky, David; Coghill, Robert C

    2014-03-01

    Pain is a highly personal experience that varies substantially among individuals. In search of an anatomical correlate of pain sensitivity, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the relationship between grey matter density across the whole brain and interindividual differences in pain sensitivity in 116 healthy volunteers (62 women, 54 men). Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and psychophysical data from 10 previous functional MRI studies were used. Age, sex, unpleasantness ratings, scanner sequence, and sensory testing location were added to the model as covariates. Regression analysis of grey matter density across the whole brain and thermal pain intensity ratings at 49°C revealed a significant inverse relationship between pain sensitivity and grey matter density in bilateral regions of the posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, intraparietal sulcus, and inferior parietal lobule. Unilateral regions of the left primary somatosensory cortex also exhibited this inverse relationship. No regions showed a positive relationship to pain sensitivity. These structural variations occurred in areas associated with the default mode network, attentional direction and shifting, as well as somatosensory processing. These findings underscore the potential importance of processes related to default mode thought and attention in shaping individual differences in pain sensitivity and indicate that pain sensitivity can potentially be predicted on the basis of brain structure. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Using sensitivity analysis to identify key factors for the propagation of a plant epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbaud, Loup; Bruchou, Claude; Dallot, Sylvie; Pleydell, David R J; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Thébaud, Gaël

    2018-01-01

    Identifying the key factors underlying the spread of a disease is an essential but challenging prerequisite to design management strategies. To tackle this issue, we propose an approach based on sensitivity analyses of a spatiotemporal stochastic model simulating the spread of a plant epidemic. This work is motivated by the spread of sharka, caused by plum pox virus , in a real landscape. We first carried out a broad-range sensitivity analysis, ignoring any prior information on six epidemiological parameters, to assess their intrinsic influence on model behaviour. A second analysis benefited from the available knowledge on sharka epidemiology and was thus restricted to more realistic values. The broad-range analysis revealed that the mean duration of the latent period is the most influential parameter of the model, whereas the sharka-specific analysis uncovered the strong impact of the connectivity of the first infected orchard. In addition to demonstrating the interest of sensitivity analyses for a stochastic model, this study highlights the impact of variation ranges of target parameters on the outcome of a sensitivity analysis. With regard to sharka management, our results suggest that sharka surveillance may benefit from paying closer attention to highly connected patches whose infection could trigger serious epidemics.

  1. Age-related changes in factor VII proteolysis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosu, F A; Craven, S; Dewar, L; Anvari, N; Andrew, M; Blajchman, M A

    1996-08-01

    Previous studies have reported that pre-operative plasmas of patients over the age of 40 years who developed post-operative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) had approximately twice the amount of proteolysed factor VII found in plasmas of patients in whom prophylaxis with heparin or low M(r) heparin was successful. These and other studies also reported higher concentrations of thrombin-antithrombin III in pre- and post-operative plasmas of patients who developed post-operative thrombosis than in plasmas of patients in whom prophylaxis was successful. Whether the extent of factor VII proteolysis seen in the patients who developed post-operative DVT is related to the severity of their disease or age is not known. This report investigated age-related changes in the concentrations of total factor VII protein, factor VII zymogen, factor VIIa, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, thrombin-antithrombin III, and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 in normal plasmas and the relationships between these parameters. With the exception of thrombin-antithrombin III, statistically significant increases in the concentrations of these parameters with age were found. Additionally, the differences between the concentrations of total factor VII protein and factor VII zymogen, an index factor VII proteolysis in vivo, were statistically significant only for individuals over age 40. Using linear regression analysis, a significant correlation was found to exist between the concentrations of plasma factor VIIa and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2. Since factor VIIa-tissue factor probably initiates coagulation in vivo, we hypothesize that the elevated plasma factor VIIa (reflecting a less tightly regulated tissue factor activity and therefore increased thrombin production in vivo) accounts for the high risk for post-operative thrombosis seen in individuals over the age of 40.

  2. Sensitivity of the diagnostic radiological index of protection to procedural factors in fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A. Kyle, E-mail: kyle.jones@mdanderson.org [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Pasciak, Alexander S. [Department of Radiology, The University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee 37922 (United States); Wagner, Louis K. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, The John P. and Katharine G. McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the sensitivity of the diagnostic radiological index of protection (DRIP), used to quantify the protective value of radioprotective garments, to procedural factors in fluoroscopy in an effort to determine an appropriate set of scatter-mimicking primary beams to be used in measuring the DRIP. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations were performed to determine the shape of the scattered x-ray spectra incident on the operator in different clinical fluoroscopy scenarios, including interventional radiology and interventional cardiology (IC). Two clinical simulations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle and patient size, while technical factors were varied according to measured automatic dose rate control (ADRC) data. Factorial simulations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle, field of view, patient size, and beam quality for constant technical factors. Average energy (E{sub avg}) was the figure of merit used to condense fluence in each energy bin to a single numerical index. Results: Beam quality had the strongest influence on the scattered spectrum in fluoroscopy. Many procedural factors affect the scattered spectrum indirectly through their effect on primary beam quality through ADRC, e.g., gantry angle and patient size. Lateral C-arm rotation, common in IC, increased the energy of the scattered spectrum, regardless of the direction of rotation. The effect of patient size on scattered radiation depended on ADRC characteristics, patient size, and procedure type. Conclusions: The scattered spectrum striking the operator in fluoroscopy is most strongly influenced by primary beam quality, particularly kV. Use cases for protective garments should be classified by typical procedural primary beam qualities, which are governed by the ADRC according to the impacts of patient size, anatomical location, and gantry angle.

  3. ROLE OF INSULIN SENSITIZERS ON CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME: A META-ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thethi, Tina K; Katalenich, Bonnie; Nagireddy, Prathima; Chabbra, Pankdeep; Kuhadiya, Nitesh; Fonseca, Vivian

    2015-06-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an increase in cardiovascular (CV) risk factors such as insulin resistance, with accompanying hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia, which are predisposing factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and CV disease. The aim of this meta-analysis is to examine the effect of insulin sensitizers on clinical and biochemical features of PCOS and risk factors for CV disease. A systematic literature review was conducted, and randomized controlled clinical trials were identified by a search of bibliographic databases: Medline database (from 1966 forward), EMBASE (January 1985 forward), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Reviews of reference lists further identified candidate trials. Data was independently abstracted in duplicate by 2 investigators using a standardized data-collection form. Articles without a comparison group and randomization allocation were excluded. Reviewers worked independently and in duplicate to determine the methodological quality of trials, then collected data on patient characteristics, interventions, and outcomes. Of 455 studies, 44 trials were eligible. A random effects model was used. Significant unadjusted results favoring treatment with insulin sensitizers were obtained for body mass index (BMI) (effect size [ES] of 0.58), waist to hip ratio (WHR) (ES of 0.02), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (ES of 0.11), fasting insulin (ES of 2.82), fasting glucose (ES of 0.10), free testosterone (ES of 1.88), and androstenedione level (ES of 0.76). Treatment with insulin sensitizers in women with PCOS results in improvement in CV factors such as BMI, WHR, LDL-C, fasting insulin, glucose, free testosterone, and androstenedione.

  4. Sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus as a risk factor for bronchiectasis in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everaerts S

    2017-08-01

    levels were comparable (P=0.2057. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that sensitization to recombinant f1 or f3 had a 2.8-fold increased risk for bronchiectasis (P=0.0030.Conclusion: These results highlight a potential role for sensitization to A fum in COPD-related bronchiectasis. Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus hypersensitivity, recombinant antigens, ABPA, vitamin D 

  5. Sex Differences in High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Subjects with Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Pacheco Garcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP is a prototypic marker of inflammation usually increased in MetS. Women with MetS-related diseases present higher hsCRP levels than men with MetS-related diseases, suggesting sex differences in inflammatory markers. However, it is unclear whether serum hsCRP levels are already increased in men and/or women with MetS risk factors and without overt diseases or under pharmacological treatment. Objective: To determine the impact of the number of MetS risk factors on serum hsCRP levels in women and men. Methods One hundred and eighteen subjects (70 men and 48 women; 36 ± 1 years were divided into four groups according to the number of MetS risk factors: healthy group (CT; no risk factors, MetS ≤ 2, MetS = 3, and MetS ≥ 4. Blood was drawn after 12 hours of fasting for measurement of biochemical variables and hsCRP levels, which were determined by immunoturbidimetric assay. Results: The groups with MetS risk factors presented higher serum hsCRP levels when compared with the CT group (p 0.05. The best linear regression model to explain the association between MetS risk factors and hsCRP levels included waist circumference and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.40, p < 0.01. Women with MetS risk factors presented higher hsCRP levels when compared with men (psex < 0.01. Conclusions: Despite the absence of overt diseases and pharmacological treatment, subjects with MetS risk factors already presented increased hsCRP levels, which were significantly higher in women than men at similar conditions.

  6. Pathology consultation on anticoagulation monitoring: factor X-related assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wool, Geoffrey D; Lu, Chuanyi M

    2013-11-01

    To review various anticoagulation therapies and related laboratory monitoring issues, with a focus on factor X-related chromogenic assays. A case-based approach is used to review pertinent published literatures and product inserts of anticoagulation drugs and to look back on clinical use of factor X-related chromogenic assays. The number of anticoagulants available to clinicians has increased greatly in the past decade. Whether and how these anticoagulants should be monitored are areas of uncertainty for clinicians, which can lead to misuse of laboratory assays and suboptimal patient management. Factor X-related assays are of particular concern because of the similar and often confusing test names. Based on a common clinical case scenario and literature review regarding anticoagulant monitoring, an up-to-date discussion and review of the various factor X-related assays are provided, focusing on the differences in test designs and clinical utilities between the chromogenic anti-Xa and chromogenic factor X activity assays. Anticoagulation therapy and related laboratory monitoring are rapidly evolving areas of clinical practices. A good knowledge of relevant laboratory assays and their clinical applications is necessary to help optimize patient care.

  7. Dual-function radiation sensitizers and bioreductive drugs: factors affecting cellular uptake and sensitizing efficiency in analogues of RSU 1069

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, J.; Stratford, I.J.; Adams, G.E.; Stephens, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Alkyl aziridine analogues of the hypoxic cell radiosensitizer RSU 1069 have been synthesized and one, RB 7040, containing tetramethyl substituted aziridine, is a more efficient sensitizer in vitro than RSU 1069 (Ahmed et al., 1986). The extent to which variation in drug uptake can influence the sensitizing efficiency of RSU 1069 and its analogues has been investigated by determining cellular uptake as a function of pH of extracellular medium (pHsub(e)) over the range 5.4-8.4. Following exposure of V79 cells for 1 h at room temperature, the ratio of intra-to extracellular concentration (Ci/Ce) was near unity at pH 5.4. Increasing pHsub(e) to 8.4 resulted in no change in the ratio Ci/Ce for RSU 1069 (pKsub(a) = 6.04). Values of Ci/Ce increased three-fold for RSU 1165 (pKsub(a) 7.38) and eleven-fold for RB 7040 (pKsub(a) = 8.45). Radiosensitization by RSU 1069 showed little dependence on pHsub(e) whereas increasing pH caused an apparent increase in sensitizing efficiency of both RSU 1165 and RB 7040. When enhancement ratios for sensitization were normalized to take account of the effect of extracellular pH on drug uptake, efficiency of sensitization was independent of pHsub(e). (author)

  8. Dissociation between sensitization and learning-related neuromodulation in an aplysiid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erixon, N J; Demartini, L J; Wright, W G

    1999-06-14

    Previous phylogenetic analyses of learning and memory in an opisthobranch lineage uncovered a correlation between two learning-related neuromodulatory traits and their associated behavioral phenotypes. In particular, serotonin-induced increases in sensory neuron spike duration and excitability, which are thought to underlie several facilitatory forms of learning in Aplysia, appear to have been lost over the course of evolution in a distantly related aplysiid, Dolabrifera dolabrifera. This deficit is paralleled by a behavioral deficit: individuals of Dolabrifera do not express generalized sensitization (reflex enhancement of an unhabituated response after a noxious stimulus is applied outside of the reflex receptive field) or dishabituation (reflex enhancement of a habituated reflex). The goal of the present study was to confirm and extend this correlation by testing for the neuromodulatory traits and generalized sensitization in an additional species, Phyllaplysia taylori, which is closely related to Dolabrifera. Instead, our results indicated a lack of correlation between the neuromodulatory and behavioral phenotypes. In particular, sensory neuron homologues in Phyllaplysia showed the ancestral neuromodulatory phenotype typified by Aplysia. Bath-applied 10 microM serotonin significantly increased homologue spike duration and excitability. However, when trained with the identical apparatus and protocols that produced generalized sensitization in Aplysia, individuals of Phyllaplysia showed no evidence of sensitization. Thus, this species expresses the neuromodulatory phenotype of its ancestors while appearing to express the behavioral phenotype of its near relative. These results suggests that generalized sensitization can be lost during the course of evolution in the absence of a deficit in these two neuromodulatory traits, and raises the possibility that the two traits may support some other form of behavioral plasticity in Phyllaplysia. The results also raise the

  9. Risk factors for developing tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation associated with nightguard vital bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, R H; Haywood, V B; Phillips, C

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors in the development of tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation associated with the nightguard vital bleaching technique. The potential risk factors evaluated (sex, age, reported allergy, whitening solution, number of times the solution was changed daily [its usage pattern], and dental arch) were collected from the daily log form turned in by each of the 64 participants after completion of the 6-week lightening process. Also evaluated for each participant, from color slides, were tooth characteristics such as gingival recession, defective restorations, abfraction lesions, enamel-cementum abrasion, etc, and reported side effects. The generalized Mantel-Haenszel statistic was used to assess the association between the potential risk factors and the development of tooth sensitivity and/or gingival irritation. No statistical relationship existed between age, sex, allergy, tooth characteristics, or the dental arch lightened and the development of side effects. Initially, a statistically significant association existed between side effects and the whitening solution used. However, when the analysis was controlled for usage pattern, this relationship disappeared. Patients who changed the whitening solution more than once a day reported statistically significantly more side effects than did those who did not change the whitening solution during their usage time.

  10. Diagnosis of gluten related disorders: Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elli, Luca; Branchi, Federica; Tomba, Carolina; Villalta, Danilo; Norsa, Lorenzo; Ferretti, Francesca; Roncoroni, Leda; Bardella, Maria Teresa

    2015-06-21

    Cereal crops and cereal consumption have had a vital role in Mankind's history. In the recent years gluten ingestion has been linked with a range of clinical disorders. Gluten-related disorders have gradually emerged as an epidemiologically relevant phenomenon with an estimated global prevalence around 5%. Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity represent different gluten-related disorders. Similar clinical manifestations can be observed in these disorders, yet there are peculiar pathogenetic pathways involved in their development. Celiac disease and wheat allergy have been extensively studied, while non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a relatively novel clinical entity, believed to be closely related to other gastrointestinal functional syndromes. The diagnosis of celiac disease and wheat allergy is based on a combination of findings from the patient's clinical history and specific tests, including serology and duodenal biopsies in case of celiac disease, or laboratory and functional assays for wheat allergy. On the other hand, non-celiac gluten sensitivity is still mainly a diagnosis of exclusion, in the absence of clear-cut diagnostic criteria. A multimodal pragmatic approach combining findings from the clinical history, symptoms, serological and histological tests is required in order to reach an accurate diagnosis. A thorough knowledge of the differences and overlap in clinical presentation among gluten-related disorders, and between them and other gastrointestinal disorders, will help clinicians in the process of differential diagnosis.

  11. Diagnosis of gluten related disorders: Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elli, Luca; Branchi, Federica; Tomba, Carolina; Villalta, Danilo; Norsa, Lorenzo; Ferretti, Francesca; Roncoroni, Leda; Bardella, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Cereal crops and cereal consumption have had a vital role in Mankind’s history. In the recent years gluten ingestion has been linked with a range of clinical disorders. Gluten-related disorders have gradually emerged as an epidemiologically relevant phenomenon with an estimated global prevalence around 5%. Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity represent different gluten-related disorders. Similar clinical manifestations can be observed in these disorders, yet there are peculiar pathogenetic pathways involved in their development. Celiac disease and wheat allergy have been extensively studied, while non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a relatively novel clinical entity, believed to be closely related to other gastrointestinal functional syndromes. The diagnosis of celiac disease and wheat allergy is based on a combination of findings from the patient’s clinical history and specific tests, including serology and duodenal biopsies in case of celiac disease, or laboratory and functional assays for wheat allergy. On the other hand, non-celiac gluten sensitivity is still mainly a diagnosis of exclusion, in the absence of clear-cut diagnostic criteria. A multimodal pragmatic approach combining findings from the clinical history, symptoms, serological and histological tests is required in order to reach an accurate diagnosis. A thorough knowledge of the differences and overlap in clinical presentation among gluten-related disorders, and between them and other gastrointestinal disorders, will help clinicians in the process of differential diagnosis. PMID:26109797

  12. The Relationship Between Online Video Game Involvement and Gaming-Related Friendships Among Emotionally Sensitive Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domahidi, Emese; Quandt, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Some researchers believe that online gaming spaces can be socially accommodating environments for socially inhibited individuals, such as the socially inept, socially anxious, or shy. While previous research has examined, and found, significant links between these populations and online video game play, it remains unknown to what extent these spaces are contributing to tangible social benefits for the socially inhibited. The current study addresses this question by evaluating the link between gaming-related friendships and shyness, as quantified by emotional sensitivity. Drawing from a representative sample of German game players, the results indicate that emotionally sensitive players are using online gaming spaces differently from their less emotionally sensitive counterparts and reporting tangible differences in their in-game friendship networks. This suggests that online games hold the potential to be socially advantageous for shy individuals by allowing them to overcome their traditional social difficulties and generate new friendships as well as strengthen old ones. PMID:24660878

  13. The relationship between online video game involvement and gaming-related friendships among emotionally sensitive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowert, Rachel; Domahidi, Emese; Quandt, Thorsten

    2014-07-01

    Some researchers believe that online gaming spaces can be socially accommodating environments for socially inhibited individuals, such as the socially inept, socially anxious, or shy. While previous research has examined, and found, significant links between these populations and online video game play, it remains unknown to what extent these spaces are contributing to tangible social benefits for the socially inhibited. The current study addresses this question by evaluating the link between gaming-related friendships and shyness, as quantified by emotional sensitivity. Drawing from a representative sample of German game players, the results indicate that emotionally sensitive players are using online gaming spaces differently from their less emotionally sensitive counterparts and reporting tangible differences in their in-game friendship networks. This suggests that online games hold the potential to be socially advantageous for shy individuals by allowing them to overcome their traditional social difficulties and generate new friendships as well as strengthen old ones.

  14. A relative quantitative Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) method for the analysis of abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarek, Piotr T; Orłowska, Renata; Niedziela, Agnieszka

    2017-04-21

    We present a new methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) approach for the evaluation of relative quantitative characteristics such as demethylation, de novo methylation, and preservation of methylation status of CCGG sequences, which are recognized by the isoschizomers HpaII and MspI. We applied the technique to analyze aluminum (Al)-tolerant and non-tolerant control and Al-stressed inbred triticale lines. The approach is based on detailed analysis of events affecting HpaII and MspI restriction sites in control and stressed samples, and takes advantage of molecular marker profiles generated by EcoRI/HpaII and EcoRI/MspI MSAP platforms. Five Al-tolerant and five non-tolerant triticale lines were exposed to aluminum stress using the physiologicaltest. Total genomic DNA was isolated from root tips of all tolerant and non-tolerant lines before and after Al stress following metAFLP and MSAP approaches. Based on codes reflecting events affecting cytosines within a given restriction site recognized by HpaII and MspI in control and stressed samples demethylation (DM), de novo methylation (DNM), preservation of methylated sites (MSP), and preservation of nonmethylatedsites (NMSP) were evaluated. MSAP profiles were used for Agglomerative hierarchicalclustering (AHC) based on Squared Euclidean distance and Ward's Agglomeration method whereas MSAP characteristics for ANOVA. Relative quantitative MSAP analysis revealed that both Al-tolerant and non-tolerant triticale lines subjected to Al stress underwent demethylation, with demethylation of CG predominating over CHG. The rate of de novo methylation in the CG context was ~3-fold lower than demethylation, whereas de novo methylation of CHG was observed only in Al-tolerant lines. Our relative quantitative MSAP approach, based on methylation events affecting cytosines within HpaII-MspI recognition sequences, was capable of quantifying de novo methylation, demethylation, methylation, and non-methylated status in control

  15. Cancer-related fatigue: Mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Julienne E.

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment, and may persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and may be a risk factor for reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in cancer patients has been well characterized, and there is growing understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation has emerged as a key biological pathway for cancer-related fatigue, with studies documenting links between markers of inflammation and fatigue before, during, and particularly after treatment. There is considerable variability in the experience of cancer-related fatigue that is not explained by disease- or treatment-related characteristics, suggesting that host factors may play an important role in the development and persistence of this symptom. Indeed, longitudinal studies have begun to identify genetic, biological, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors for cancer-related fatigue. Given the multi-factorial nature of cancer-related fatigue, a variety of intervention approaches have been examined in randomized controlled trials, including physical activity, psychosocial, mind-body, and pharmacological treatments. Although there is currently no gold standard for treating fatigue, several of these approaches have shown beneficial effects and can be recommended to patients. This report provides a state of the science review of mechanisms, risk factors, and interventions for cancer-related fatigue, with a focus on recent longitudinal studies and randomized trials that have targeted fatigued patients. PMID:25113839

  16. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization as risk factor for treatment failure in honey bee venom immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Marcel; Fischer, Jörg; Helbling, Arthur; Ruëff, Franziska; Wieczorek, Dorothea; Ollert, Markus; Pfützner, Wolfgang; Müller, Sabine; Huss-Marp, Johannes; Dorn, Britta; Biedermann, Tilo; Lidholm, Jonas; Ruecker, Gerta; Bantleon, Frank; Miehe, Michaela; Spillner, Edzard; Jakob, Thilo

    2016-12-01

    Component resolution recently identified distinct sensitization profiles in honey bee venom (HBV) allergy, some of which were dominated by specific IgE to Api m 3 and/or Api m 10, which have been reported to be underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. We performed a retrospective analysis of component-resolved sensitization profiles in HBV-allergic patients and association with treatment outcome. HBV-allergic patients who had undergone controlled honey bee sting challenge after at least 6 months of HBV immunotherapy (n = 115) were included and classified as responder (n = 79) or treatment failure (n = 36) on the basis of absence or presence of systemic allergic reactions upon sting challenge. IgE reactivity to a panel of HBV allergens was analyzed in sera obtained before immunotherapy and before sting challenge. No differences were observed between responders and nonresponders regarding levels of IgE sensitization to Api m 1, Api m 2, Api m 3, and Api m 5. In contrast, Api m 10 specific IgE was moderately but significantly increased in nonresponders. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization (>50% of specific IgE to HBV) was the best discriminator (specificity, 95%; sensitivity, 25%) with an odds ratio of 8.444 (2.127-33.53; P = .0013) for treatment failure. Some but not all therapeutic HBV preparations displayed a lack of Api m 10, whereas Api m 1 and Api m 3 immunoreactivity was comparable to that of crude HBV. In line with this, significant Api m 10 sIgG 4 induction was observed only in those patients who were treated with HBV in which Api m 10 was detectable. Component-resolved sensitization profiles in HBV allergy suggest predominant IgE sensitization to Api m 10 as a risk factor for treatment failure in HBV immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors Related to Job Satisfaction of Information Technology Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Halil SEYREK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction of employees in any type of organization is important both for the employee and for the organization he/she works for. There are several factors researchers studied that are related to employee satisfaction. Even though there are several common factors for the job satisfaction of employees, there can be differences based on the personal and job characteristics. Information Technology (IT workers are important for current information economy and therefore factors related to their job satisfaction is an important research topic. In this study, based on survey data collected from 455 IT workers from different industries, the factors related to IT worker job satisfaction are investigated. As a result of analyses, it was found that demographic factors like gender, sector (public vs. private, work experience, and wage are not related to the job satisfaction of the worker. On the other hand, the results show that feel of belonging, feel of acceptance, job autonomy, burnout, role clarity and fairness of rewards are factors that affect job satisfaction.

  18. The association between changes in pressure pain sensitivity and changes in cardiovascular physiological factors associated with persistent stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Søren; Petersen, Pernille B.; Harboe, Gitte S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To evaluate the possible association between pressure pain sensitivity of the chest bone (PPS) and cardiovascular physiological factors related to persistent stress in connection with a three-month PPS-guided stress-reducing experimental intervention programme. Methods. Forty......-two office workers with an elevated PPS (≥ 60 arbitrary units) as a sign of increased level of persistent stress, completed a single-blinded cluster randomized controlled trial. The active treatment was a PPS (self-measurement)-guided stress management programme. Primary endpoints: Blood pressure (BP), heart...... between-group reductions were observed in respect to BP, HR, PRP, total and LDL cholesterol, and total number of elevated risk factors (p stress intervention method applied in this study induced a decrease in PPS which was associated with a clinically relevant decrease in resting...

  19. Diversity of dietary habits in the population as important factor of the regional radioecological sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travnikova, I.; Bruk, G.; Shutov, V.

    2001-01-01

    The assessment of the ways and regularities of internal dose formation in the population is impossible without the determination of food consumption habits for the population residing in contaminated areas. Food habits of peoples inhabiting the former Soviet Union differ both due to historical reasons and to religious traditions. Variation of food consumption is an important factor of radio-ecological sensitivity of the population. We try to show this on the example of south-west districts of the Bryansk region contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. In these regions, a set of countermeasures has been applied that strongly deformed traditional food consumption. (orig.)

  20. Error-related ERP components and individual differences in punishment and reward sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Tops, Mattie; Wester, Anne E.; Meijman, Theo F.; Lorist, Monique M.

    2006-01-01

    Although the focus of the discussion regarding the significance of the error related negatively (ERN/Ne) has been on the cognitive factors reflected in this component, there is now a growing body of research that describes influences of motivation, affective style and other factors of personality on

  1. Analysis of related risk factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Song Yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the related risk factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy to provide a theoretical evidence for effectively preventing the occurrence of pancreatic fistula. Methods: A total of 100 patients who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2012 to January, 2015 and had performed pancreaticoduodenectomy were included in the study. The related risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula were collected for single factor and Logistic multi-factor analysis. Results: Among the included patients, 16 had pancreatic fistula, and the total occurrence rate was 16% (16/100. The single-factor analysis showed that the upper abdominal operation history, preoperative bilirubin, pancreatic texture, pancreatic duct diameter, intraoperative amount of bleeding, postoperative hemoglobin, and application of somatostatin after operation were the risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula (P<0.05. The multi-factor analysis showed that the upper abdominal operation history, the soft pancreatic texture, small pancreatic duct diameter, and low postoperative hemoglobin were the dependent risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula (OR=4.162, 6.104, 5.613, 4.034, P<0.05. Conclusions: The occurrence of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy is closely associated with the upper abdominal operation history, the soft pancreatic texture, small pancreatic duct diameter, and low postoperative hemoglobin; therefore, effective measures should be taken to reduce the occurrence of pancreatic fistula according to the patients’ own conditions.

  2. Cancer-related fatigue--mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Julienne E

    2014-10-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common adverse effects of cancer that might persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and might be a risk factor of reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in patients with cancer have been well characterized and there is growing understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation seems to have a key role in fatigue before, during, and after cancer-treatment. However, there is a considerable variability in the presentation of cancer-related fatigue, much of which is not explained by disease-related or treatment-related characteristics, suggesting that host factors might be important in the development and persistence of this symptom. Indeed, longitudinal studies have identified genetic, biological, psychosocial, and behavioural risk factors associated with cancer-related fatigue. Although no current gold-standard treatment for fatigue is available, a variety of intervention approaches have shown beneficial effects in randomized controlled trials, including physical activity, psychosocial, mind-body, and pharmacological treatments. This Review describes the mechanisms, risk factors, and possible interventions for cancer-related fatigue, focusing on recent longitudinal studies and randomized trials that have targeted fatigued patients.

  3. Plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA, factor XI): a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.; Goldsmith, G.H. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A specific, sensitive, and reproducible radioimmunoassay for human plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA, factor XI) has been developed with purified PTA and monospecific rabbit antiserum. Precise measurements of PTA antigen were possible for concentrations as low as 0.3% of that in normal pooled plasma. Normal plasma contained approximately 6 μg PTA/ml. A good correlation (correlation coefficient 0.68) existed between the PTA procoagulant assays and radioimmunoassays among 50 normal adults (25 males and 25 females). PTA antigen was markedly reduced in plasma of 13 patients with congenital homozygous PTA deficiency (range <0.003-0.128 U/ml) and 9 patients with hepatic cirrhosis (0.35 +- 0.17 U/ml), but was normal in those of 9 patients under treatment with warfarin, 8 patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation and 16 patients with other congenital clotting factor abnormalities, including prekallikrein deficiency (Fletcher trait) and high molecular weight kininogen deficiency

  4. Factors influencing the drug sensitization of human tumor cells for in situ lipofection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, K; Huang, L

    1996-07-01

    The cisplatin induced enhancement of in situ lipofection was optimized by considering the factors that can increase the degree of sensitization. Two other anticancer drugs, mechlorethamine (nitrogen mustard) and taxol, enhanced CAT gene expression but the degree of sensitization was not as great as cisplatin. Besides human 2008 ovarian cancer cells we also found that human lung (A549) and head and neck cancer cells (SCC 25) were transiently sensitized by cisplatin. The transfectability of the two commercially available cationic liposomes, Lipofectin and LipofectAmine, was either weak or not consistent among tumors tested. In vivo transfection efficiency of 2008 cells was the highest at 1 microgram DNA per nmol or microgram liposome with all three cationic liposomes. In vitro transfection efficiency of 2008 cells at 1:1 (microgram of DNA:nmole of DC-chol/DOPE liposome) increased in a dose-dependent manner while at 1:10, an optimal ratio for in vitro lipofection, rapidly decreased with an increase in dose. This result indicated that there was a correlation between in vivo and in vitro lipofection at 1:1 ratio for delivering liposomal DNA. Most of the DNA injected into the tumor was concentrated in the tumor and in the skin above the tumor whether cisplatin was preinjected or liposomes were used as carriers.

  5. Clinicopathological Analysis of Factors Related to Colorectal Tumor Perforation

    OpenAIRE

    Medina-Arana, Vicente; Martínez-Riera, Antonio; Delgado-Plasencia, Luciano; Rodríguez-González, Diana; Bravo-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Álvarez-Argüelles, Hugo; Alarcó-Hernández, Antonio; Salido-Ruiz, Eduardo; Fernández-Peralta, Antonia M.; González-Aguilera, Juan J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal tumor perforation is a life-threatening complication of this disease. However, little is known about the anatomopathological factors or pathophysiologic mechanisms involved. Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of factors related with tumoral neo-angiogenesis, which could influence tumor perforation are assessed in this study. A retrospective study of patients with perforated colon tumors (Group P) and T4a nonperforated (controls) was conducted between 2001 and 20...

  6. Effects of system geometry and other physical factors on photon sensitivity of high-resolution positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, F.; Foudray, A. M. K.; Olcott, P. D.; Levin, C. S.

    2007-07-01

    We are studying two new detector technologies that directly measure the three-dimensional coordinates of 511 keV photon interactions for high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) systems designed for small animal and breast imaging. These detectors are based on (1) lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillation crystal arrays coupled to position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPD) and (2) cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). The detectors have excellent measured 511 keV photon energy resolutions (oriented 'edge-on' with respect to incoming 511 keV annihilation photons and arranged to form a compact FOV with detectors very close to, or in contact with, the subject tissues. In this paper, we used Monte Carlo simulation to study various factors that limit the photon sensitivity of a high-resolution PET system dedicated to small animal imaging. To optimize the photon sensitivity, we studied several possible system geometries for a fixed 8 cm transaxial and 8 cm axial FOV. We found that using rectangular-shaped detectors arranged into a cylindrical geometry does not yield the best photon sensitivity. This is due to the fact that forming rectangular-shaped detectors into a ring produces significant wedge-shaped inter-module gaps, through which Compton-scattered photons in the detector can escape. This effect limits the center point source photon sensitivity to 8% photon sensitivity for the LSO-PSAPD box configuration and >15% for CZT box geometry, using a 350-650 keV energy window setting. These simulation results compare well with analytical estimations. The trend is different for a clinical whole-body PET system that uses conventional LSO-PMT block detectors with larger crystal elements. Simulations predict roughly the same sensitivity for both box and cylindrical detector configurations. This results from the fact that a large system diameter (>80 cm) results in relatively small inter-module gaps in clinical whole-body PET. In addition, the relatively large block

  7. Evaluation of DNA damage induced by gamma radiation in gill and muscle tissues of Cyprinus carpio and their relative sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M K, Praveen Kumar; Shyama, Soorambail K; D'Costa, Avelyno; Kadam, Samit B; Sonaye, Bhagatsingh Harisingh; Chaubey, Ramesh Chandra

    2017-10-01

    The effect of radiation on the aquatic environment is of major concern in recent years. Limited data is available on the genotoxicity of gamma radiation on different tissues of aquatic organisms. Hence, the present investigation was carried out to study the DNA damage induced by gamma radiation in the gill and muscle tissues and their relative sensitivity using the comet assay in the freshwater teleost fish, common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The comet assay was optimized and validated in common carp using cyclophosphamide (CP), a reference genotoxic agent. The fish were exposed (acute) to various doses of gamma radiation (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10Gy) and samplings (gill and muscle tissue) were done at regular intervals (24, 48 and 72h) to assess the DNA damage. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed as indicated by an increase in % tail DNA for all doses of gamma radiation in both tissues. We also observed a dose-related increase and a time-dependent decrease of DNA damage. In comparison, DNA damage showed different sensitivity among the tissues at different doses. This shows that a particular dose may have different effects on different tissues which could be due to physiological factors of the particular tissue. Our study also suggests that the gills and muscle of fish are sensitive and reliable tissues for evaluating the genotoxic effects of reference and environmental agents, using the comet assay. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Factors affecting high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T elevation in Japanese metabolic syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitsumoto T

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Takashi Hitsumoto,1 Kohji Shirai2 1Hitsumoto Medical Clinic, Yamaguchi, Japan; 2Department of Vascular Function (donated, Sakura Hospital, Toho University School of Medicine, Chiba, Japan Purpose: The blood concentration of cardiac troponin T (ie, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T [hs-cTnT], measured using a highly sensitive assay, represents a useful biomarker for evaluating the pathogenesis of heart failure or predicting cardiovascular events. However, little is known about the clinical significance of hs-cTnT in metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the factors affecting hs-cTnT elevation in Japanese metabolic syndrome patients. Patients and methods: We enrolled 258 metabolic syndrome patients who were middle-aged males without a history of cardiovascular events. We examined relationships between hs-cTnT and various clinical parameters, including diagnostic parameters of metabolic syndrome. Results: There were no significant correlations between hs-cTnT and diagnostic parameters of metabolic syndrome. However, hs-cTnT was significantly correlated with age (P<0.01, blood concentrations of brain natriuretic peptide (P<0.01, reactive oxygen metabolites (markers of oxidative stress, P<0.001, and the cardio–ankle vascular index (marker of arterial function, P<0.01. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis revealed that these factors were independent variables for hs-cTnT as a subordinate factor. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that in vivo oxidative stress and abnormality of arterial function are closely associated with an increase in hs-cTnT concentrations in Japanese metabolic syndrome patients. Keywords: troponin, metabolic syndrome, risk factor, oxidative stress, cardio–ankle vascular index

  9. Beware the black box: investigating the sensitivity of FEA simulations to modelling factors in comparative biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Walmsley

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Finite element analysis (FEA is a computational technique of growing popularity in the field of comparative biomechanics, and is an easily accessible platform for form-function analyses of biological structures. However, its rapid evolution in recent years from a novel approach to common practice demands some scrutiny in regards to the validity of results and the appropriateness of assumptions inherent in setting up simulations. Both validation and sensitivity analyses remain unexplored in many comparative analyses, and assumptions considered to be ‘reasonable’ are often assumed to have little influence on the results and their interpretation.Here we report an extensive sensitivity analysis where high resolution finite element (FE models of mandibles from seven species of crocodile were analysed under loads typical for comparative analysis: biting, shaking, and twisting. Simulations explored the effect on both the absolute response and the interspecies pattern of results to variations in commonly used input parameters. Our sensitivity analysis focuses on assumptions relating to the selection of material properties (heterogeneous or homogeneous, scaling (standardising volume, surface area, or length, tooth position (front, mid, or back tooth engagement, and linear load case (type of loading for each feeding type.Our findings show that in a comparative context, FE models are far less sensitive to the selection of material property values and scaling to either volume or surface area than they are to those assumptions relating to the functional aspects of the simulation, such as tooth position and linear load case. Results show a complex interaction between simulation assumptions, depending on the combination of assumptions and the overall shape of each specimen. Keeping assumptions consistent between models in an analysis does not ensure that results can be generalised beyond the specific set of assumptions used. Logically, different

  10. Sensitivity to chromosomal breakage as risk factor in young adults with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhuis, Boudewijn J M; Nieuwint, Aggie W M; Oostra, Anneke B; Joenje, Hans; Flach, Géke B; Graveland, A Peggy; Brakenhoff, Ruud H; Leemans, C René

    2016-03-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) may develop in young adults. In contrast to older patients, the well-known etiological factors, exposure to tobacco and alcohol, play a minor role in the carcinogenesis in this patient group. It has been suggested that an intrinsic susceptibility to environmental genotoxic exposures plays a role in the development of OSCC in these patients. The hypothesis was tested whether young OSCC patients have an increased sensitivity to induced chromosomal damage. Fourteen OSCC patients with an average age of 32 years (range 20-42) were selected. Peripheral blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts of patients and 14 healthy controls were subjected to the chromosome breakage test with Mitomycin C. This test is routinely used to identify Fanconi anemia patients, who are well-known for their inherited high sensitivity to this type of DNA damage, but also for the high risk to develop OSCC. Human papilloma virus status of the carcinomas was also determined. None of the 14 young patients with OSCC had an increased response in the MMC-chromosomal breakage test. All tumors tested negative for human papilloma virus. No evidence was obtained for the existence of a constitutional hypersensitivity to DNA chromosomal damage as a potential risk factor for OSCC in young adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A relative quantitative Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) method for the analysis of abiotic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bednarek, Piotr T.; Or?owska, Renata; Niedziela, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Background We present a new methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) approach for the evaluation of relative quantitative characteristics such as demethylation, de novo methylation, and preservation of methylation status of CCGG sequences, which are recognized by the isoschizomers HpaII and MspI. We applied the technique to analyze aluminum (Al)-tolerant and non-tolerant control and Al-stressed inbred triticale lines. The approach is based on detailed analysis of events affecting H...

  12. Genetic analysis of relative traits for a drought-sensitive mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Kangning; Wang Huaqi

    2009-01-01

    A drought-sensitive mutant (M616), selected from Handao 616 (HD616) by 60 Co γ-irradiation at 200Gy, was used. Some morphological and yield related traits of M166 and HD616 related to drought resistance were investigated. We further developed F 1 and F 2 reciprocal hybrid combinations derived from the crosses between M616 and HD616, between M616 and IRAT109, respectively, and genetic analysis of 3 traits including plant height, culm width of main stem and seed setting rate on main panicle were camed out. The results showed that M616 showed obviously sensitive to drought stress. Analysis of variance for three traits in upland and paddy between F 1 reciprocal hybrid combinations showed that each trait had no significant difference, and indicated that there were no differences of cytoplasmic hereditary effect. In addition, 3 traits of F 2 populations, were found that the frequency distributions of culm width showed normal distribution, indicating that culm width was polygenic trait, and the frequency distribution of plant height and seed setting rate did not show normal distribution, indicating that the two traits were qualitative-quantitative traits. Genetic analysis of relative traits for a drought-sensitive mutant of upland rice was a basic work for the gene location and cloning. (authors)

  13. Radiation-induced bystander effects enhanced by elevated sodium chloride through sensitizing cells to bystander factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Lingyan; Han Wei; Chen Shaopeng; Zhao Ye; Jiang Erkang; Bao Lingzhi; Pei Bei; Yang Gen; Zhao Guoping; Wang Jun; Xu An; Wu Lijun

    2008-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been demonstrated to occur widely in various cell lines. However, very little data is available on the genotoxic effects of RIBE combined with other factor(s). We reported previously that with a low dose of α-particle irradiation, the fraction of γ-H2AX foci-positive cells in non-irradiated bystander cells was significantly increased under elevated NaCl culture conditions. In this study, we further investigated the functional role of NaCl in the enhancement of RIBE using a specially designed co-culture system and micronucleus (MN) test. It was shown that the MN frequency was not increased significantly by elevated NaCl (9.0 g/L) alone or by medium exposure. However, with 1.0 cGy α-particle irradiation, the induced MN frequency increased significantly in both irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions. Additional studies showed that elevated NaCl made the non-irradiated bystander cells more vulnerable to bystander factors. Furthermore, it was found that the induced MN frequency in cells both in irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions was weakened when the hypertonic medium was changed to normotonic medium for 2 h before irradiation. Such observations were quite similar to the co-effect of NaCl and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), indicating that elevated NaCl might sensitize non-irradiated cells to bystander factors-induced oxidative stress

  14. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 activity controls 4-hydroxynonenal metabolism and activity in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettazzoni, Piergiorgio; Ciamporcero, Eric; Medana, Claudio; Pizzimenti, Stefania; Dal Bello, Federica; Minero, Valerio Giacomo; Toaldo, Cristina; Minelli, Rosalba; Uchida, Koji; Dianzani, Mario Umberto; Pili, Roberto; Barrera, Giuseppina

    2011-10-15

    4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is an end product of lipoperoxidation with antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties in various tumors. Here we report a greater sensitivity to HNE in PC3 and LNCaP cells compared to DU145 cells. In contrast to PC3 and LNCaP cells, HNE-treated DU145 cells showed a smaller reduction in growth and did not undergo apoptosis. In DU145 cells, HNE did not induce ROS production and DNA damage and generated a lower amount of HNE-protein adducts. DU145 cells had a greater GSH and GST A4 content and GSH/GST-mediated HNE detoxification. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a regulator of the antioxidant response. Nrf2 protein content and nuclear accumulation were higher in DU145 cells compared to PC3 and LNCaP cells, whereas the expression of KEAP1, the main negative regulator of Nrf2 activity, was lower. Inhibition of Nrf2 expression with specific siRNA resulted in a reduction in GST A4 expression and GS-HNE formation, indicating that Nrf2 controls HNE metabolism. In addition, Nrf2 knockdown sensitized DU145 cells to HNE-mediated antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity. In conclusion, we demonstrated that increased Nrf2 activity resulted in a reduction in HNE sensitivity in prostate cancer cells, suggesting a potential mechanism of resistance to pro-oxidant therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The sensitivity of laboratory tests assessing driving related skills to dose-related impairment of alcohol: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, S; Vuurman, E F P M; Ramaekers, J G; Vermeeren, A

    2016-04-01

    Laboratory tests assessing driving related skills can be useful as initial screening tools to assess potential drug induced impairment as part of a standardized behavioural assessment. Unfortunately, consensus about which laboratory tests should be included to reliably assess drug induced impairment has not yet been reached. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the sensitivity of laboratory tests to the dose dependent effects of alcohol, as a benchmark, on performance parameters. In total, 179 experimental studies were included. Results show that a cued go/no-go task and a divided attention test with primary tracking and secondary visual search were consistently sensitive to the impairing effects at medium and high blood alcohol concentrations. Driving performance assessed in a simulator was less sensitive to the effects of alcohol as compared to naturalistic, on-the-road driving. In conclusion, replicating results of several potentially useful tests and their predictive validity of actual driving impairment should deserve further research. In addition, driving simulators should be validated and compared head to head to naturalistic driving in order to increase construct validity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and plasma adipocytokines among abusers of anabolic androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Schou, Morten; Selmer, Christian; Johansen, Marie Louise; Gustafsson, Finn; Frystyk, Jan; Dela, Flemming; Faber, Jens; Kistorp, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prevalent among young men, but information regarding effects on insulin sensitivity and fat distribution is limited. The objective was to investigate insulin sensitivity in relation to fat distribution and adipocytokines among current and former AAS abusers compared with controls. Cross-sectional study among men involved in recreational strength training. Current and former AAS abusers (n=37 and n=33) and controls (n=30) volunteered from the community. We assessed insulin sensitivity by Matsuda index (oral glucose tolerance test). Using overnight fasting blood samples, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Body composition and fat distribution, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Current and former AAS abusers displayed lower Matsuda index than controls (%-difference (95%CI) from controls, -26% (-45; -1) and -39% (-55; -18)). Testosterone was markedly higher among current AAS abusers and subnormal among former AAS abusers compared with controls. Current AAS abusers displayed higher mean VAT than controls (388 (17) vs 293 (12) cm 3 , P<.001) whereas body fat %, adiponectin and leptin concentrations were lower. In contrast, former AAS abusers showed highest leptin concentrations and body fat %. Multivariate linear regressions identified VAT as independent predictor of lower Matsuda index among current AAS abusers compared with controls; while body fat % independently predicted lower Matsuda index among former AAS abusers. Both current and former AAS abusers displayed lower insulin sensitivity which could be mediated by higher VAT and total body fat %, respectively. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sound-by-sound thalamic stimulation modulates midbrain auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnath, Abhilash; Farris, Hamilton E

    2014-01-01

    Descending circuitry can modulate auditory processing, biasing sensitivity to particular stimulus parameters and locations. Using awake in vivo single unit recordings, this study tested whether electrical stimulation of the thalamus modulates auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in neurons of the amphibian midbrain. In addition, by using electrical stimuli that were either longer than the acoustic stimuli (i.e., seconds) or presented on a sound-by-sound basis (ms), experiments addressed whether the form of modulation depended on the temporal structure of the electrical stimulus. Following long duration electrical stimulation (3-10 s of 20 Hz square pulses), excitability (spikes/acoustic stimulus) to free-field noise stimuli decreased by 32%, but returned over 600 s. In contrast, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation using a single 2 ms duration electrical pulse 25 ms before each noise stimulus caused faster and varied forms of modulation: modulation lasted sound-by-sound electrical stimulation varied between different acoustic stimuli, including for different male calls, suggesting modulation is specific to certain stimulus attributes. For binaural units, modulation depended on the ear of input, as sound-by-sound electrical stimulation preceding dichotic acoustic stimulation caused asymmetric modulatory effects: sensitivity shifted for sounds at only one ear, or by different relative amounts for both ears. This caused a change in the relative difference in binaural sensitivity. Thus, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation revealed fast and ear-specific (i.e., lateralized) auditory modulation that is potentially suited to shifts in auditory attention during sound segregation in the auditory scene.

  18. Prognostic Factors for Hormone Sensitive Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Impact of Disease Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhanafy, Alshimaa Mahmoud; Zanaty, Fouad; Ibrahem, Reda; Omar, Suzan

    2018-04-27

    Background and Aim: The optimal management of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer has been controversial in recent years with introduction of upfront chemohormonal treatment based on results of several Western studies. This changing landscape has renewed interest in the concept “disease volume”, the focus of the present study is the Egyptian patients. Methods: Patients with hormone sensitive metastatic prostate cancer presenting at Menoufia University Hospital, Egypt, during the period from June 2013 to May 2016, were enrolled. All received hormonal treatment. Radiologic images were evaluated and patients were stratified according to their disease volume into high or low, other clinical and pathological data that could affect survival also being collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 128 patients were included, with a median age of 70 years (53.9% ≥70). About 46% had co-morbidities, 62% having high volume disease. During the median follow up period of 28 months about half of the patients progressed and one third received chemotherapy. On univariate analysis, disease volume, performance status (PS), prostate specific antigen level (PSA) and presence of pain at presentation were identified as factors influencing overall survival. Multivariate analysis revealed the independent predictor factors for survival to be PS, PSA and disease volume. The median overall survival with 27 months was high volume versus 49 with low volume disease (hazard ratio 2.1; 95% CI 1.2 - 4.4; P=0.02). Median progression free survival was 19 months in the high volume, as compared with 48 months in the low volume disease patients (hazard ratio, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.42 – 7.4; P=0.009). Conclusions: Disease volume is a reliable predictor of survival which should be incorporated with other important factors as; patient performance status and comorbidities in treatment decision-making. Creative Commons Attribution License

  19. Impact of product-related factors on immunogenicity of biotherapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satish Kumar

    2011-02-01

    All protein therapeutics have the potential to be immunogenic. Several factors, including patient characteristics, disease state, and the therapy itself, influence the generation of an immune response. Product-related factors such as the molecule design, the expression system, post-translational modifications, impurities, contaminants, formulation and excipients, container, closure, as well as degradation products are all implicated. However, a critical examination of the available data shows that clear unequivocal evidence for the impact of these latter factors on clinical immunogenicity is lacking. No report could be found that clearly deconvolutes the clinical impact of the product attributes on patient susceptibility. Aggregation carries the greatest concern as a risk factor for immunogenicity, but the impact of aggregates is likely to depend on their structure as well as on the functionality (e.g., immunostimulatory or immunomodulatory) of the therapeutic. Preclinical studies are not yet capable of assessing the clinically relevant immunogenicity potential of these product-related factors. Simply addressing these risk factors as part of product development will not eliminate immunogenicity. Minimization of immunogenicity has to begin at the molecule design stage by reducing or eliminating antigenic epitopes and building in favorable physical and chemical properties. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Towards the development of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) sensitizers: making TNF work against cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Pilati, Pierluigi; Nitti, Donato

    2007-01-01

    Although TNF antitumor activity has been demonstrated in many preclinical models and in non-comparative clinical trials, no evidence exists that TNF-based treatments increase patient survival. Moreover, due to systemic toxicity, TNF can only be administered through sophisticated locoregional drug-delivery systems in patients with some types of organ-confined solid tumors; as a corollary, the impossibility to administer TNF through the systemic route does not allow to test the effectiveness of this cytokine in other clinical settings for the treatment of a broader spectrum of tumor types. A challenge many researchers are tackling is to dissect the cascade of molecular events underlying tumor sensitivity to TNF so to fully explore the anticancer potential of this molecule. The rationale for the development of strategies aimed at sensitizing malignant cells to TNF is to exploit tumor-specific molecular derangements to modulate TNF biological activities and ultimately maximize its tumor-selective cytotoxicity. This would not only enhance the anticancer activity of current TNF-based locoregional regimens, but would also open the avenue to the systemic administration of this cytokine and thus to a much wider clinical experimentation of TNF in the oncology field. In this review we first summarize the molecular biology of TNF and its cancer-related properties; then, the available findings regarding some among the most promising and best characterized TNF sensitizers are overviewed.

  1. Factors affecting the ozone sensitivity of temperate European grasslands: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassin, S. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: seraina.bassin@fal.admin.ch; Volk, M. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2007-04-15

    This overview of experimentally induced effects of ozone aims to identify physiological and ecological principles, which can be used to classify the sensitivity to ozone of temperate grassland communities in Europe. The analysis of data from experiments with single plants, binary mixtures and multi-species communities illustrates the difficulties to relate individual responses to communities, and thus to identify grassland communities most at risk. Although there is increasing evidence that communities can be separated into broad classes of ozone sensitivity, the database from experiments under realistic conditions with representative systems is too small to draw firm conclusions. But it appears that risk assessments, based on results from individuals or immature mixtures exposed in chambers, are only applicable to intensively managed, productive grasslands, and that the risk of ozone damage for most of perennial grasslands with lower productivity tends to be less than previously expected. - An overview of experimentally induced ozone effects suggests that temperate grasslands could be separated into broad classes of ozone sensitivity based on physiological and ecological principles.

  2. Factors affecting the ozone sensitivity of temperate European grasslands: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassin, S.; Volk, M.; Fuhrer, J.

    2007-01-01

    This overview of experimentally induced effects of ozone aims to identify physiological and ecological principles, which can be used to classify the sensitivity to ozone of temperate grassland communities in Europe. The analysis of data from experiments with single plants, binary mixtures and multi-species communities illustrates the difficulties to relate individual responses to communities, and thus to identify grassland communities most at risk. Although there is increasing evidence that communities can be separated into broad classes of ozone sensitivity, the database from experiments under realistic conditions with representative systems is too small to draw firm conclusions. But it appears that risk assessments, based on results from individuals or immature mixtures exposed in chambers, are only applicable to intensively managed, productive grasslands, and that the risk of ozone damage for most of perennial grasslands with lower productivity tends to be less than previously expected. - An overview of experimentally induced ozone effects suggests that temperate grasslands could be separated into broad classes of ozone sensitivity based on physiological and ecological principles

  3. Endogenous factors that relate to the eating habits of adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim in this research was to determine how endogenous factors such as gender, intelligence, self-concept, and personality relate to the eating habits of adolescents. An empirical investigation was conducted using 340 secondary school learners, 162 boys and 178 girls. From the results it appeared that girls tend to have ...

  4. Effects of Procurement Related Factors on Construction Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several Literatures in construction management support the view that procurements have impacts on project performance. Aim of this study is to investigate the effects of procurement related factors of procurement selection criteria, tendering methods and variation orders on project performance. Purpose of the study is to ...

  5. Aerobic fitness related to cardiovascular risk factors in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Low aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK))) is predictive for poor health in adults. In a cross-sectional study, we assessed if VO(2PEAK) is related to a composite risk factor score for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 243 children (136 boys and 107 girls) aged 8 to 11 years. VO(2PEAK...

  6. Expression of human soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR NJ TONUKARI

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... bio-technique in bacterial (Lin et al., 2007), yeast (Xu et al., 2003) ... biological activity, such as human somatotropin (hST) .... sion way with chloroplast transit peptide (Wang et al., .... chloroplast protein synthesis capacity by massive expression of a ... necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in vivo.

  7. The Relative Importance of Job Factors: A New Measurement Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nealey, Stanley M.

    This paper reports on a new two-phase measurement technique that permits a direct comparison of the perceived relative importance of economic vs. non-economic factors in a job situation in accounting for personnel retention, the willingness to produce, and job satisfaction. The paired comparison method was used to measure the preferences of 91…

  8. School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

    2009-01-01

    Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

  9. Overstory removal: stand factors related to success and failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Laacke; Gary O. Fiddler

    1986-01-01

    Overstory removal can offer economic and esthetic advantages over clearcutting and regeneration, but projecting success is difficult. Twenty-nine units on nine operational overstory removal cuts in northern California were studied to determine what factors are related to satisfactory or unsatisfactory stocking after harvest. Stocking determinations were based on number...

  10. Factors and Problems Related to Female Genital Mutilation as Seen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the aetiological factors and problems related to female genital mutilation as seen in children at St. Gaspar Hospital. Data source: Secondary data were obtained from St. Gaspar Hospital, records, registers and patients files or case notes from children ward were retrieved and reviewed, later a special ...

  11. Patient and social work factors related to successful placement of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patient and social work factors related to successful placement of long-term psychiatric in-patients from a specialist psychiatric hospital in South Africa. ... away; a low frequency of behavioural problems (especially of cannabis abuse, verbal or physical aggression, uncontrolled sexual activity), and agitation or restlessness.

  12. Factors Affecting Performance of Undergraduate Students in Construction Related Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…

  13. Evaluating medical and systemic factors related to maternal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study examined maternal morbidity and mortality and neonatal mortality over a multi-year period from de-identified retrospective medical records at Nyakahanga Designated District Hospital in north-western Tanzania. The study aimed to examine factors related to maternal mortality (MMR) and morbidity in ...

  14. Work related injuries and associated factors among small scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aims to assess the magnitude of work related injury and associated factors among small scale industrial workers in Mizan-Aman town, Bench Maji Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. Method: A cross-sectional study design was conducted from February to May, 2016. Data was collected using a structured face to ...

  15. Factors Related to Teenage Dating Violence Prevention Programming in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.

    2017-01-01

    The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…

  16. Relative contributions of individual, institutional and system factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relative contributions of individual, institutional and system factors to utilisation of Research4Life databases by scientists in the National Agricultural Research Institutes (NARIs) in Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design of the correlational type. Simple and stratified ...

  17. Community reintegration and related factors in a Nigerian stroke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The goal of stroke rehabilitation has shifted from mere survival of a victim to how well a survivor can be effectively reintegrated back into the community. Objectives: The present study determined the level of satisfaction with community reintegration (CR) and related factors among Nigerian community-dwelling ...

  18. Exercise self-efficacy moderates the relation between anxiety sensitivity and body mass index and exercise tolerance in treatment-seeking smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farris, S.G.; Davis, M.L.; Rosenfield, D.; Kauffman, B.Y.; Baird, S.O.; Powers, M.B.; Otto, M.W.; Marcus, B.H.; Church, T.S.; Smits, J.A.J.; Zvolensky, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    There is little known about factors that contribute to the comorbidity of cigarette smoking and obesity. The current study sought to test whether exercise self-efficacy moderated the relation between anxiety sensitivity (fear of internal sensations) and BMI and exercise tolerance among cigarette

  19. Burnout in the working population: relations to psychosocial work factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Karin M; Linton, Steven J; Fedeli, Cecilia; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated levels of burnout in the general population irrespective of occupation and relations between burnout and psychosocial work factors. A cross-sectional survey featuring sleep problems, psychological distress, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey), and psychosocial factors at work, was mailed to a random sample of 3,000 participants, aged 20-60. Response rate was 61%. A high level (18%), a low level (19%), and an intermediate group (63%) for burnout were constructed. The high level group was associated with those who were > 50 years old, women, those experiencing psychological distress, and those with a poor psychosocial work climate. The analyses on variables significant in previous analyses showed that the high level group was strongly related to high demands, low control, lack of social support, and disagreeing about values at the workplace even when accounting for age, gender, and psychological distress. We conclude that psychosocial work factors are important in association to burnout regardless of occupation.

  20. Age-related percutaneous penetration part 1: skin factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, S; Meier-Davis, S R; Cayme, B; Shudo, J; Maibach, H I

    2012-05-01

    Changes in the skin that occur in the elderly may put them at increased risk for altered percutaneous penetration from pharmacotherapy along with potential adverse effects. Skin factors that may have a role in age-related percutaneous penetration include blood flow, pH, skin thickness, hair and pore density, and the content and structure of proteins, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), water, and lipids. Each factor is examined as a function of increasing age along with its potential impact on percutaneous penetration. Additionally, topical drugs that successfully overcome the barrier function of the skin can still fall victim to cutaneous metabolism, thereby producing metabolites that may have increased or decreased activity. This overview discusses the current data and highlights the importance of further studies to evaluate the impact of skin factors in age-related percutaneous penetration.

  1. Ultrasonographic diagnosis of ureteral stones: Accuracy and factors influencing on diagnostic sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Mi; Han, Sang Seok; Chang, Seung Kuk; Joo, Sang Hoo; Lee, Jeong Sik; Eun, Choong Ki [Pusan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To determine the accuracy of ultrasonographic diagnosis in patients with clinically suspected ureteral stones and to evaluate the factors influencing on the diagnostic sensitivity for the detection of ureteral stone. The patients (115 cases) with proven presence or absence of ureteral stones were included in the study. At first, both sided kidney and proximal ureters were examined on each decubitus position and then middle ureters were done if proximal ureters were visualized. On the supine view, distal ureters and UVJ were scanned through the acoustic window of the filled bladder. KUB (20 cases), IVU (62 cases), AGP (7 cases), RGP (3 cases), ESWL (9 cases), CT (9 cases), and patients' history of spontaneous passage of stones (5 cases) were included as confirmation methods. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the ultrasonographic diagnosis of ureteral stones were calculated and the factors influencing on the sensitivity on the focus of the position and size of ureteral stone, visibility of ureter, the presence or absence of renal stone and hydronephrosis were analyzed. Of 82 cases with proven ureteral stone, 72 cases were revealed on ultrasonography and there was one false positive examination among 33 cases with proven absence of ureteral stone. The overall diagnostic accuracy was 90%. The ultrasonographic detection rates of ureteral stones as correlated with their locations were 83% (24/29), 100% (11/11), 80% (16/20), and 100% (21/21) of each group of proximal, middle, distal ureter, and UVJ stones. Of 61 stones, those as correlated with their sizes, were 82% (37/45) and 94% (15/16) of each group less than 10 mm and more than 11 mm. Those as correlated with the presence or absence of ureteral visualization on ultrasonography were 92% (69/75) and 43% (3/7) of each group. Those as correlated with presence of absence of renal stones were 85% (41/48) and 91% (31/34) of each group. Those as correlated with presence or absence of hydronephrosis were 89

  2. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor 1 and topoisomerase with acriflavine sensitizes perihilar cholangiocarcinomas to photodynamic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, Ruud; Broekgaarden, Mans; Krekorian, Massis; Alles, Lindy K.; van Wijk, Albert C.; Mackaaij, Claire; Verheij, Joanne; van der Wal, Allard C.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Storm, Gert; Heger, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces tumor cell death by oxidative stress and hypoxia but also survival signaling through activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Since perihilar cholangiocarcinomas are relatively recalcitrant to PDT, the aims were to (1) determine the expression levels of

  3. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor 1 and topoisomerase with acriflavine sensitizes perihilar cholangiocarcinomas to photodynamic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, R.; Broekgaarden, M.; Krekorian, M.; Alles, L.K.; van Wijk, A.C; Mackaaij, C.; Verheij, J.; van der Wal, A.C.; van Gullik, T.M.; Storm, Gerrit; Heger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces tumor cell death by oxidative stress and hypoxia but also survival signaling through activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Since perihilar cholangiocarcinomas are relatively recalcitrant to PDT, the aims were to (1) determine the expression

  4. Temperature sensitive lethal factors and puparial colour sex separation mechanisms in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wied.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch-Petersen, E.

    1990-01-01

    A programme to develop genetic sexing mechanisms in the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), was initiated at the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf, in 1983. Because of the potential benefits arising from the elimination of females early in the developmental cycle, combined with the anticipated relative ease of inducing temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) factors, it was decided to attempt to induce and isolate tsl factors active in the egg or early larval stages. Initially, five recombination suppressor (RS) strains were isolated. The degree of recombination suppression ranged from 77.6% to 99.1%. The viability of each of the five RS strains was assessed and RS 30/55 was selected as the most suitable strain. Ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) was used to induce the tsl factors, by feeding two-day old adult males with a suspension of EMS in a 10% solution of sugar in the drinking water supply. Temperature tolerance tests indicated a discriminating temperature of 32 deg. C when isolating tsl factors active in the egg stage and 35 deg. C when isolating such factors in the early larval stage. A total of 39 and 22 tsl factors have been isolated in the two stages, respectively. However, none has yet proved stable. Induction of tsl factors with a reduced dose of EMS is now being attempted. An alternative genetic sexing programme was initiated in 1985, based on the use of pupal colour dimorphisms. Previously, a genetic sexing strain, T:Y(wp + )101, based on a white female/brown male puparial colour dimorphism, had twice been assessed for stability under mass rearing conditions. In both cases the sexual colour dimorphism disintegrated immediately. Another similarly dimorphic strain, T:Y(wp + )30C, was developed. This strain remained stable for seven generations of mass rearing, after which it started to disintegrate. Disintegration of this strain was probably caused by accidental contamination by wild type medflies. 34 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  5. Influence of grain structure on quench sensitivity relative to localized corrosion of high strength aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, ShengDan, E-mail: csuliusd@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, ChengBo [Light Alloy Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Deng, YunLai; Zhang, XinMing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2015-11-01

    The influence of grain structure on quench sensitivity relative to localized corrosion of high strength aluminum alloy 7055 was investigated by electrochemical test, accelerated exfoliation corrosion test, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The decrease of quench rate led to lower corrosion resistance of both the homogenized and solution heat treated (HS) alloy with equiaxed grains and the hot-rolled and solution heat treated (HRS) alloy with elongated grains, but there was a higher increment in corrosion depth and corrosion current density and a higher decrement in corrosion potential for the latter alloy, which therefore exhibited higher quench sensitivity. It is because in this alloy the larger amount of (sub) grain boundaries led to a higher increment in the amount of quench-induced η phase and precipitates free zone at (sub) grain boundaries with the decrease of quench rate, and there was a larger increment in the content of Zn, Mg and Cu in the η phase at grain boundaries due to slow quenching. The presence of subgrain boundaries in the HRS alloy tended to increase corrosion resistance at high quench rates higher than about 630 °C/min but decrease it at lower quench rates. - Highlights: • (Sub)Grain boundaries increase quench sensitivity relative to localized corrosion. • Subgrain boundaries decrease corrosion resistance below quench rate of 630 °C/min. • More (sub) grain boundaries leads to more GBPs and PFZ with decreasing quench rate.

  6. Factoring the dispersion relation in the presence of Lorentz violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colladay, Don; McDonald, Patrick; Mullins, David

    2010-01-01

    We produce an explicit formula for the dispersion relation for the Dirac equation in the standard model extension in the presence of Lorentz violation. Our expression is obtained using novel techniques which exploit the algebra of quaternions. The dispersion relation is found to conveniently factor in two special cases that each involve a mutually exclusive set of nonvanishing Lorentz-violating parameters. This suggests that a useful approach to studies of Lorentz-violating models is to split the parameter space into two separate pieces, each of which yields a simple, tractable dispersion relation that can be used for analysis.

  7. Quantitative automated microscopy (QuAM elucidates growth factor specific signalling in pain sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levine Jon D

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dorsal root ganglia (DRG-neurons are commonly characterized immunocytochemically. Cells are mostly grouped by the experimenter's eye as "marker-positive" and "marker-negative" according to their immunofluorescence intensity. Classification criteria remain largely undefined. Overcoming this shortfall, we established a quantitative automated microscopy (QuAM for a defined and multiparametric analysis of adherent heterogeneous primary neurons on a single cell base. The growth factors NGF, GDNF and EGF activate the MAP-kinase Erk1/2 via receptor tyrosine kinase signalling. NGF and GDNF are established factors in regeneration and sensitization of nociceptive neurons. If also the tissue regenerating growth factor, EGF, influences nociceptors is so far unknown. We asked, if EGF can act on nociceptors, and if QuAM can elucidate differences between NGF, GDNF and EGF induced Erk1/2 activation kinetics. Finally, we evaluated, if the investigation of one signalling component allows prediction of the behavioral response to a reagent not tested on nociceptors such as EGF. Results We established a software-based neuron identification, described quantitatively DRG-neuron heterogeneity and correlated measured sample sizes and corresponding assay sensitivity. Analysing more than 70,000 individual neurons we defined neuronal subgroups based on differential Erk1/2 activation status in sensory neurons. Baseline activity levels varied strongly already in untreated neurons. NGF and GDNF subgroup responsiveness correlated with their subgroup specificity on IB4(+- and IB4(--neurons, respectively. We confirmed expression of EGF-receptors in all sensory neurons. EGF treatment induced STAT3 translocation into the nucleus. Nevertheless, we could not detect any EGF induced Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Accordingly, intradermal injection of EGF resulted in a fundamentally different outcome than NGF/GDNF. EGF did not induce mechanical hyperalgesia, but blocked

  8. Measurement of Retinal Sensitivity on Tablet Devices in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhichao; Guymer, Robyn H; Jung, Chang J; Goh, Jonathan K; Ayton, Lauren N; Luu, Chi D; Lawson, David J; Turpin, Andrew; McKendrick, Allison M

    2015-06-01

    We compared measurements of central retinal sensitivity on a portable, low-cost tablet device to the established method of microperimetry in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A customized test designed to measure central retinal sensitivity (within the central 1° radius) on a tablet device was developed using an open-source platform called PsyPad. A total of 30 participants with AMD were included in this study, and all participants performed a practice test on PsyPad, followed by four tests of one eye and one test of the other eye. Participants then underwent standardized microperimetry examinations in both eyes. The average test duration on PsyPad was 53.9 ± 7.5 seconds, and no significant learning effect was observed over the examinations performed ( P = 1.000). The coefficient of repeatability of central retinal sensitivity between the first two examinations on PsyPad was ±1.76 dB. The mean central retinal sensitivity was not significantly different between PsyPad (25.7 ± 0.4 dB) and microperimetry (26.1 ± 0.4 dB, P = 0.094), and the 95% limits of agreement between the two measures were between -4.12 and 4.92 dB. The measurements of central retinal sensitivity can be performed effectively using a tablet device, displaying reasonably good agreement with those obtained using the established method of microperimetry. These findings highlight the potential of tablet devices as low-cost and portable tools for developing and performing visual function measures that can be easily and widely implemented.

  9. Sensitized mutagenesis screen in Factor V Leiden mice identifies thrombosis suppressor loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Randal J; Tomberg, Kärt; Siebert, Amy E; Zhu, Guojing; Winn, Mary E; Dobies, Sarah L; Manning, Sara L; Brake, Marisa A; Cleuren, Audrey C; Hobbs, Linzi M; Mishack, Lena M; Johnston, Alexander J; Kotnik, Emilee; Siemieniak, David R; Xu, Jishu; Li, Jun Z; Saunders, Thomas L; Ginsburg, David

    2017-09-05

    Factor V Leiden ( F5 L ) is a common genetic risk factor for venous thromboembolism in humans. We conducted a sensitized N -ethyl- N -nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen for dominant thrombosuppressor genes based on perinatal lethal thrombosis in mice homozygous for F5 L ( F5 L/L ) and haploinsufficient for tissue factor pathway inhibitor ( Tfpi +/- ). F8 deficiency enhanced the survival of F5 L/L Tfpi +/- mice, demonstrating that F5 L/L Tfpi +/- lethality is genetically suppressible. ENU-mutagenized F5 L/L males and F5 L/+ Tfpi +/- females were crossed to generate 6,729 progeny, with 98 F5 L/L Tfpi +/- offspring surviving until weaning. Sixteen lines, referred to as "modifier of Factor 5 Leiden ( MF5L1-16 )," exhibited transmission of a putative thrombosuppressor to subsequent generations. Linkage analysis in MF5L6 identified a chromosome 3 locus containing the tissue factor gene ( F3 ). Although no ENU-induced F3 mutation was identified, haploinsufficiency for F3 ( F3 +/- ) suppressed F5 L/L Tfpi +/- lethality. Whole-exome sequencing in MF5L12 identified an Actr2 gene point mutation (p.R258G) as the sole candidate. Inheritance of this variant is associated with suppression of F5 L/L Tfpi +/- lethality ( P = 1.7 × 10 -6 ), suggesting that Actr2 p.R258G is thrombosuppressive. CRISPR/Cas9 experiments to generate an independent Actr2 knockin/knockout demonstrated that Actr2 haploinsufficiency is lethal, supporting a hypomorphic or gain-of-function mechanism of action for Actr2 p.R258G Our findings identify F8 and the Tfpi/F3 axis as key regulators in determining thrombosis balance in the setting of F5 L and also suggest a role for Actr2 in this process.

  10. Factors influencing the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...

  11. QTL mapping of inbreeding-related cold sensitivity and conditional lethality in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-01-01

    of inbreeding-related and conditionally expressed lethality in Drosophila melanogaster. The lethal effect was triggered by exposure to a cold shock. We used a North Carolina crossing Design 3 to establish the mapping population, as well as to estimate the average dominance ratio and heritability. We found two......Inbreeding depression is a central theme within genetics, and is of specific interest for researchers within evolutionary and conservation genetics and animal and plant breeding. Inbreeding effects are thought to be caused by the joint expression of conditional and unconditional deleterious alleles....... Whenever the expression of deleterious alleles is conditional, this can result in extreme environmental sensitivity in certain inbred lineages. Analysis of conditional lethal effects can reveal some of the loci that are sensitive to inbreeding. We performed a QTL (quantitative trait locus) mapping study...

  12. Oxytocin and Social Sensitivity: Gene Polymorphisms in Relation to Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Jane McQuaid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the neuropeptide oxytocin has been associated with enhanced prosocial behaviors, it has also been linked to aggression and mental health disorders. Thus, it was suggested that oxytocin might act by increasing the salience of social stimuli, irrespective of whether these are positive or negative, thus increasing vulnerability to negative mental health outcomes. The current study (N = 243, conducted among White university students, examined the relation of trauma, depressive symptoms including suicidal ideation in relation to a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP within the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR, rs53576, and a SNP on the CD38 gene that controls oxytocin release, rs3796863. Individuals with the polymorphism on both alleles (AA genotype of the CD38 SNP had previously been linked to elevated plasma oxytocin levels. Consistent with the social sensitivity perspective, however, in the current study, individuals carrying the AA genotype displayed elevated feelings of alienation from parents and peers as well as increased levels of suicidal ideation. Moreover, they tended to report elevated depressive symptoms compared to CC homozygotes. It was also observed that the CD38 genotype moderated the relation between trauma and suicidal ideation scores, such that high levels of trauma were associated with elevated suicidal ideation among all CD38 genotypes, but this relationship was stronger among individuals with the AA genotype. In contrast, there was no relationship between the OXTR SNP, rs53576, depression or suicidal ideation. These findings support a social sensitivity hypothesis of oxytocin, wherein the AA genotype of the CD38 SNP, which has been considered the ‘protective allele’ was associated with increased sensitivity and susceptibility to disturbed social relations and suicidal ideation.

  13. Dysregulated stress signal sensitivity and inflammatory disinhibition as a pathophysiological mechanism of stress-related chronic fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, Jana; Skoluda, Nadine; Rohleder, Nicolas; Nater, Urs M

    2016-09-01

    Chronic stress and its subsequent effects on biological stress systems have long been recognized as predisposing and perpetuating factors in chronic fatigue, although the exact mechanisms are far from being completely understood. In this review, we propose that sensitivity of immune cells to glucocorticoids (GCs) and catecholamines (CATs) may be the missing link in elucidating how stress turns into chronic fatigue. We searched for in vitro studies investigating the impact of GCs or CATs on mitogen-stimulated immune cells in chronically stressed or fatigued populations, with 34 original studies fulfilling our inclusion criteria. Besides mixed cross-sectional findings for stress- and fatigue-related changes of GC sensitivity under basal conditions or acute stress, longitudinal studies indicate a decrease with ongoing stress. Research on CATs is still scarce, but initial findings point towards a reduction of CAT sensitivity under chronic stress. In the long run, resistance of immune cells to stress signals under conditions of chronic stress might translate into self-maintaining inflammation and inflammatory disinhibition under acute stress, which in turn lead to fatigue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors related to falls among community dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhirunyaratn, Piyathida; Prasomrak, Prasert; Jindawong, Bangonsri

    2013-09-01

    Falls among the elderly can lead to disability, hospitalization and premature death. This study aimed to determine the factors related to falls among community dwelling elderly. This case-control study was conducted at the Samlium Primary Care Unit (SPCU), Khon Kaen, Thailand. Cases were elderly individuals who had fallen within the previous six months and controls were elderly who had not fallen during that same time period. Subjects were taken from elderly persons registered at the SPCU. The sample size was calculated to be 111 cases and 222 controls. Face to face interviews were conducted with subjects between May and June, 2011. The response rate was 100%. On bivariate analysis, the statistically significant factors related to falls were: regular medication use, co-morbidities, mobility, depression, cluttered rooms, slippery floors, unsupported toilets (without a hand rail), sufficient exercise, rapid posture change and wearing slippers. When controlling for others significant factors, multiple logistic regression revealed significant factors were: regular medication use (AOR: 2.22; 95%CI: 1.19 - 4.12), depression (AOR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03 - 2.99), sufficient exercise (AOR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.19 - 0.58) and wearing slippery shoes (AOR: 2.31; 95% CI: 1.24 - 4.29). Interventions need to be considered to modify these significant factors associated with falls and education should be provided to these at risk.

  15. Health related quality of life and influencing factors among welders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. Welders are exposed to many occupational hazards; these hazards might cause some occupational diseases. The aim of the study was to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL of electric welders in Shanghai China and explore influencing factors to HRQL of welders. METHODS: 301 male welders (without pneumoconiosis and 305 non-dust male workers in Shanghai were enrolled in this study. Short Form-36 (SF-36 health survey questionnaires were applied in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, working and health factors were also collected. Multiple stepwise regress analysis was used to identify significant factors related to the eight dimension scores. RESULTS: Six dimensions including role-physical (RP, bodily pain (BP, general health (GH, validity (VT, social function (SF, and mental health (MH were significantly worse in welders compared to non-dust workers. Multiple stepwise regress analysis results show that native place, monthly income, quantity of children, drinking, sleep time, welding type, use of personal protective equipment (PPE, great events in life, and some symptoms including dizziness, discomfort of cervical vertebra, low back pain, cough and insomnia may be influencing factors for HRQL of welders. Among these factors, only sleep time and the use of PPE were salutary. CONCLUSIONS: Some dimensions of HRQL of these welders have been affected. Enterprises which employ welders should take measures to protect the health of these people and improve their HRQL.

  16. [Risk factors related to surgical site infection in elective surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Garay, Ulises; Morales-Márquez, Lucy Isabel; Sandoval-Balanzarios, Miguel Antonio; Velázquez-García, José Arturo; Maldonado-Torres, Lulia; Méndez-Cano, Andrea Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    The risk factors for surgical site infections in surgery should be measured and monitored from admission to 30 days after the surgical procedure, because 30% of Surgical Site Infection is detected when the patient was discharged. Calculate the Relative Risk of associated factors to surgical site infections in adult with elective surgery. Patients were classified according to the surgery contamination degree; patient with surgery clean was defined as no exposed and patient with clean-contaminated or contaminated surgery was defined exposed. Risk factors for infection were classified as: inherent to the patient, pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative. Statistical analysis; we realized Student t or Mann-Whitney U, chi square for Relative Risk (RR) and multivariate analysis by Cox proportional hazards. Were monitored up to 30 days after surgery 403 patients (59.8% women), 35 (8.7%) developed surgical site infections. The factors associated in multivariate analysis were: smoking, RR of 3.21, underweight 3.4 hand washing unsuitable techniques 4.61, transfusion during the procedure 3.22, contaminated surgery 60, and intensive care stay 8 to 14 days 11.64, permanence of 1 to 3 days 2.4 and use of catheter 1 to 3 days 2.27. To avoid all risk factors is almost impossible; therefore close monitoring of elective surgery patients can prevent infectious complications.

  17. Factors that influence the relative use of multiple memory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Mark G; Goodman, Jarid

    2013-11-01

    Neurobehavioral evidence supports the existence of at least two anatomically distinct "memory systems" in the mammalian brain that mediate dissociable types of learning and memory; a "cognitive" memory system dependent upon the hippocampus and a "stimulus-response/habit" memory system dependent upon the dorsolateral striatum. Several findings indicate that despite their anatomical and functional distinctiveness, hippocampal- and dorsolateral striatal-dependent memory systems may potentially interact and that, depending on the learning situation, this interaction may be cooperative or competitive. One approach to examining the neural mechanisms underlying these interactions is to consider how various factors influence the relative use of multiple memory systems. The present review examines several such factors, including information compatibility, temporal sequence of training, the visual sensory environment, reinforcement parameters, emotional arousal, and memory modulatory systems. Altering these parameters can lead to selective enhancements of either hippocampal-dependent or dorsolateral striatal-dependent memory, and bias animals toward the use of either cognitive or habit memory in dual-solution tasks that may be solved adequately with either memory system. In many learning situations, the influence of such experimental factors on the relative use of memory systems likely reflects a competitive interaction between the systems. Research examining how various factors influence the relative use of multiple memory systems may be a useful method for investigating how these systems interact with one another. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Mechanical factors relate to pain in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Monica R; Costigan, Patrick A; Olney, Sandra J

    2008-07-01

    Pain experienced by people with knee osteoarthritis is related to psychosocial factors and damage to articular tissues and/or the pain pathway itself. Mechanical factors have been speculated to trigger this pain experience; yet mechanics have not been identified as a source of pain in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify whether mechanics could explain variance in pain intensity in people with knee osteoarthritis. Data from 53 participants with physician-diagnosed knee osteoarthritis (mean age=68.5 years; standard deviation=8.6 years) were analyzed. Pain intensity was reported on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Mechanical measures included weight-bearing varus-valgus alignment, body mass index and isokinetic quadriceps torque. Gait analysis captured the range of adduction-abduction angle, range of flexion-extension angle and external knee adduction moment during level walking. Pain intensity was significantly related to the dynamic range of flexion-extension during gait and body mass index. A total of 29% of the variance in pain intensity was explained by mechanical variables. The range of flexion-extension explained 18% of variance in pain intensity. Body mass index added 11% to the model. The knee adduction moment was unrelated to pain intensity. The findings support that mechanical factors are related to knee osteoarthritis pain. Because limitations in flexion-extension range of motion and body size are modifiable factors, future research could examine whether interventions targeting these mechanics would facilitate pain management.

  19. Risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Nano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To assess the risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina using a case-control study. METHODS: Surveys were used for subjects' antioxidant intake, age/gender, race, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (and type of treatment, smoking, sunlight exposure, red meat consumption, fish consumption, presence of age-related macular degeneration and family history of age-related macular degeneration. Main effects models for logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: There were 175 cases and 175 controls with a mean age of 75.4 years and 75.5 years, respectively, of whom 236 (67.4% were female. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration, 159 (45.4% had age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 154 (44.0% in their right eyes, and 138 (39.4% in both eyes. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 47.8% had the dry type, 40.3% had the wet type, and the type was unknown for 11.9%. The comparable figures for right eyes were: 51.9%, 34.4%, and 13.7%, respectively. The main effects model was dominated by higher sunlight exposure (OR [odds ratio]: 3.3 and a family history of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 4.3. Other factors included hypertension (OR: 2.1, smoking (OR: 2.2, and being of the Mestizo race, which lowered the risk of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 0.40. Red meat/fish consumption, body mass index, and iris color did not have an effect. Higher age was associated with progression to more severe age-related macular degeneration. CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure, family history of age-related macular degeneration, and an older age were the significant risk factors. There may be other variables, as the risk was not explained very well by the existing factors. A larger sample may produce different and better results.

  20. Factors related to the liquidations of ETFs during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminio Romero-Pérez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factors related to the closing of 50 ETFs in 2008. The study compared the sample of liquidated ETFs to a matched sample of active ETFs. The factors used as explanatory variables were: market capitalization, liquidity, ETF return, Index return, tracking error, fund age, and premium. Lower liquidity values, higher tracking errors, and higher ETF returns were associated with higher probabilities of liquidation. The researcher found evidence that ETFs’ market makers were profiting from the creation of new ETFs’ shares just before liquidating the ETFs’ shares at a premium.

  1. Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors required during Trypanosoma cruzi parasitophorous vacuole development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Juan Agustín; Vanrell, María Cristina; Salassa, Betiana Nebaí; Nola, Sébastien; Galli, Thierry; Colombo, María Isabel; Romano, Patricia Silvia

    2017-06-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is an obligate intracellular parasite that exploits different host vesicular pathways to invade the target cells. Vesicular and target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) are key proteins of the intracellular membrane fusion machinery. During the early times of T. cruzi infection, several vesicles are attracted to the parasite contact sites in the plasma membrane. Fusion of these vesicles promotes the formation of the parasitic vacuole and parasite entry. In this work, we study the requirement and the nature of SNAREs involved in the fusion events that take place during T. cruzi infection. Our results show that inhibition of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor protein, a protein required for SNARE complex disassembly, impairs T. cruzi infection. Both TI-VAMP/VAMP7 and cellubrevin/VAMP3, two v-SNAREs of the endocytic and exocytic pathways, are specifically recruited to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane in a synchronized manner but, although VAMP3 is acquired earlier than VAMP7, impairment of VAMP3 by tetanus neurotoxin fails to reduce T. cruzi infection. In contrast, reduction of VAMP7 activity by expression of VAMP7's longin domain, depletion by small interfering RNA or knockout, significantly decreases T. cruzi infection susceptibility as a result of a minor acquisition of lysosomal components to the parasitic vacuole. In addition, overexpression of the VAMP7 partner Vti1b increases the infection, whereas expression of a KIF5 kinesin mutant reduces VAMP7 recruitment to vacuole and, concomitantly, T. cruzi infection. Altogether, these data support a key role of TI-VAMP/VAMP7 in the fusion events that culminate in the T. cruzi parasitophorous vacuole development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Analysis of Influencing Factors Related to Health Promotion Behavior in Hospital Radiological Technologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jong Kyung; Kwon, Duk Mun; Kang, Yeong Han

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors that could affect health of radiological technologists, which is useful for health care and development of programs for health promotion. Subjects were 234 of radiological technologists who work in general hospitals. Some questionnaires were made about perceptions of health condition and promotional behavior of health for this study. The questionnaires of health perception were 20 items that consist of the present condition of health, health concern and sensitivity. The reliability was sufficient(Cronbach's α=0.79). The other questionnaires about health promotion behavior were 47 items that consist of self-realization, health responsibility, exercise, nutrition, personal relationships, and stress management. The results turned out to be was sufficient (Cronbach's α=0.93). Every data was treated statistically, comparison of average(t-test, ANOVA), correlation, and multiple regression. Related factors to health promotion behavior were age, marriage, salary, class of one's position, career, employment, and religion, in general features. In health life habit, related factors were smoke and exercise. Results of health promotion behavior was 2.90 of mean score, 0.37 of standard deviation. Correlations between factors of health perception and health promotion behavior was positive(p<0.01). Health promotion behavior were affected by sensitivity, presents condition of health, exercise, smoke, career. Sensitivity was the most affectable variable, which means that promotional behavior score became higher and higher as the score of sensitivity and present condition were increased. In addition, persons who exercise regularly, had been smoked, and has higher career showed higher score of promotional behavior. Radiological technologists have to keep their health, trying not to infected by a disease. Most of all, no smoking and regular exercise are the most important thing to all of members.

  3. Analysis of Influencing Factors Related to Health Promotion Behavior in Hospital Radiological Technologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Jong Kyung [Kim, In Hwan Internal Medicine Health Promotion Cnter, Youngcheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Duk Mun [Dept. of Radiology Technology, Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic Univesity Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors that could affect health of radiological technologists, which is useful for health care and development of programs for health promotion. Subjects were 234 of radiological technologists who work in general hospitals. Some questionnaires were made about perceptions of health condition and promotional behavior of health for this study. The questionnaires of health perception were 20 items that consist of the present condition of health, health concern and sensitivity. The reliability was sufficient(Cronbach's {alpha}=0.79). The other questionnaires about health promotion behavior were 47 items that consist of self-realization, health responsibility, exercise, nutrition, personal relationships, and stress management. The results turned out to be was sufficient (Cronbach's {alpha}=0.93). Every data was treated statistically, comparison of average(t-test, ANOVA), correlation, and multiple regression. Related factors to health promotion behavior were age, marriage, salary, class of one's position, career, employment, and religion, in general features. In health life habit, related factors were smoke and exercise. Results of health promotion behavior was 2.90 of mean score, 0.37 of standard deviation. Correlations between factors of health perception and health promotion behavior was positive(p<0.01). Health promotion behavior were affected by sensitivity, presents condition of health, exercise, smoke, career. Sensitivity was the most affectable variable, which means that promotional behavior score became higher and higher as the score of sensitivity and present condition were increased. In addition, persons who exercise regularly, had been smoked, and has higher career showed higher score of promotional behavior. Radiological technologists have to keep their health, trying not to infected by a disease. Most of all, no smoking and regular exercise are the most important thing to all of members.

  4. Factors related to job satisfaction among South Korean dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seong-Hwa; Chung, Jae-Kyun; Choi, Youn-Hee; Sohn, Woosung; Song, Keun-Bae

    2006-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the level and distribution of job satisfaction and to explore work environment factors associated with job satisfaction of South Korean dentists. A stratified systematic random sample of 1029 dentists was selected from the 10 357 registered dentists in the Korean Dental Association. They were surveyed via a self-administered mail questionnaire. Job satisfaction was measured by a modified version of the Dentist Satisfaction Survey. The response rate was 62.2%. The mean score of overall job satisfaction among South Korean dentists was 3.2 out of 5. In terms of work environment factors, the most satisfying aspect was patient relations (3.7) and the least satisfying aspect was personal time (2.8). Multiple regression analysis identified a model including patient relations, perception of income, personal time, staff, and specialty training that accounted for 35% of variation in overall job satisfaction. The majority of the variance was explained by patient relations. This study suggests that patient relations, perception of income, personal time, staff, and specialty training are important work environment factors for job satisfaction among South Korean dentists. The findings of this study will be helpful to policy makers to design plans to increase the level of job satisfaction among South Korean dentists.

  5. Study on the mortality in Ecuador related to dietary factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira-Mosquera, Juan Alejandro; Pérez-Rodríguez, Fernando; Sánchez-Llaguno, Sungey; Moreno Rojas, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Diet is an important factor related to the development of numerous diseases. In developing countries like Ecuador, this aspect is not considered as priority however, the study of the incidence of certain diet-related diseases could help to assess consumption habits of a country from a Public Health perspective and support national nutrition policies and programs. The objective the present study is to investigate the mortality rate of certain diet-related diseases in Ecuador and its possible relationship with Ecuadorian consumption habits. For that, mortality rates (2001-2008) associated with five different disease groups related to dietary factors (cancer of colon, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and liver diseases) were collected, analyzed and compared to consumption patterns in Ecuador. According to results, Ecuador has a low level of cancer of colon in comparison with developed countries (e.g. Spain). The group with the highest number of deaths corresponded to cardiovascular diseases followed by cerebrovascular diseases. The mortality study per province revealed that Amazonian provinces showed few deaths in relation to other provinces in Ecuador. This could be due to different factors including fails in the disease surveillance information systems, environmental factors and consumption patterns. In this sense, further investigation on native products consumption such as "chontaduro" might help to find valuable foods contributing to healthier Ecuadorian diet. These results, though preliminary, evidence that a major effort should be made by national and international organisations to collect data on consumption patterns and nutritional aspects of the Ecuadorian population in order to better support the development of effective food security and nutrition policies. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation-induced bystander effects enhanced by elevated sodium chloride through sensitizing cells to bystander factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Lingyan; Han Wei; Chen Shaopeng; Zhao Ye; Jiang Erkang; Bao Lingzhi; Pei Bei; Yang Gen; Zhao Guoping; Wang Jun; Xu An [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China); Wu Lijun [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031, Anhui (China)], E-mail: ljw@ipp.ac.cn

    2008-09-26

    Radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been demonstrated to occur widely in various cell lines. However, very little data is available on the genotoxic effects of RIBE combined with other factor(s). We reported previously that with a low dose of {alpha}-particle irradiation, the fraction of {gamma}-H2AX foci-positive cells in non-irradiated bystander cells was significantly increased under elevated NaCl culture conditions. In this study, we further investigated the functional role of NaCl in the enhancement of RIBE using a specially designed co-culture system and micronucleus (MN) test. It was shown that the MN frequency was not increased significantly by elevated NaCl (9.0 g/L) alone or by medium exposure. However, with 1.0 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiation, the induced MN frequency increased significantly in both irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions. Additional studies showed that elevated NaCl made the non-irradiated bystander cells more vulnerable to bystander factors. Furthermore, it was found that the induced MN frequency in cells both in irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions was weakened when the hypertonic medium was changed to normotonic medium for 2 h before irradiation. Such observations were quite similar to the co-effect of NaCl and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}), indicating that elevated NaCl might sensitize non-irradiated cells to bystander factors-induced oxidative stress.

  7. Asthma-Related School Absenteeism, Morbidity, and Modifiable Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Joy; Qin, Xiaoting; Beavers, Suzanne F; Mirabelli, Maria C

    2016-07-01

    Asthma is a leading cause of chronic disease-related school absenteeism. Few data exist on how information on absenteeism might be used to identify children for interventions to improve asthma control. This study investigated how asthma-related absenteeism was associated with asthma control, exacerbations, and associated modifiable risk factors using a sample of children from 35 states and the District of Columbia. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Child Asthma Call-back Survey is a random-digit dial survey designed to assess the health and experiences of children aged 0-17 years with asthma. During 2014-2015, multivariate analyses were conducted using 2006-2010 data to compare children with and without asthma-related absenteeism with respect to clinical, environmental, and financial measures. These analyses controlled for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Compared with children without asthma-related absenteeism, children who missed any school because of asthma were more likely to have not well controlled or very poorly controlled asthma (prevalence ratio=1.50; 95% CI=1.34, 1.69) and visit an emergency department or urgent care center for asthma (prevalence ratio=3.27; 95% CI=2.44, 4.38). Mold in the home and cost as a barrier to asthma-related health care were also significantly associated with asthma-related absenteeism. Missing any school because of asthma is associated with suboptimal asthma control, urgent or emergent asthma-related healthcare utilization, mold in the home, and financial barriers to asthma-related health care. Further understanding of asthma-related absenteeism could establish how to most effectively use absenteeism information as a health status indicator. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Time spent with friends in adolescence relates to less neural sensitivity to later peer rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L; Telzer, Eva H; Fuligni, Andrew J; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2012-01-01

    Involvement with friends carries many advantages for adolescents, including protection from the detrimental effects of being rejected by peers. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which friendships may serve their protective role at this age, or the potential benefit of these friendships as adolescents transition to adulthood. As such, this investigation tested whether friend involvement during adolescence related to less neural sensitivity to social threats during young adulthood. Twenty-one adolescents reported the amount of time they spent with friends outside of school using a daily diary. Two years later they underwent an fMRI scan, during which they were ostensibly excluded from an online ball-tossing game by two same-age peers. Findings from region of interest and whole brain analyses revealed that spending more time with friends during adolescence related to less activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula--regions previously linked with negative affect and pain processing--during an experience of peer rejection 2 years later. These findings are consistent with the notion that positive relationships during adolescence may relate to individuals being less sensitive to negative social experiences later on.

  9. Cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimer accumulation in relation to UV-B sensitivity in mung bean cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Junmin; Wang Ruibin; Meng Zhaoni

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the experiment is to reveal the relationship between cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) accumulation and UV-B sensitivity in mung bean cultivars. Two mung bean cultivars (Phaseolus raditus L. cv. Qindou -2 0 and Zhonglü -1 ) were grown in greenhouse with treatment or without treatment of UV-B radiation (0.4 W * m -2 ) for four days. The UV-B-induced CPDs in mung bean DNA were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with specific monoclonal antibody and the relationship between CPDs accumulation and the UV-B sensitivity of mung bean seedlings were discussed. The UV-B-induced inhibition of the biomass and net photosynthetic rate of the primary leaves of cultivar Zhonglü -1 were respectively lower than that of cultivar Qindou -2 0, so that the cultivar Zhonglü -1 was more tolerant to UV-B than the cultivar Qindou -2 0. Meanwhile, the cultivar Zhonglü -1 had lower CPD accumulation and susceptibility to CPD induction, higher photorepair capacity and same dark repair capacity as compared with the cultivar Qindou -2 0. Different UV-B sensitivities between two mung bean cultivars may be mainly caused by the differences in CPD accumulation, which are caused by the different susceptibility to CPD induction and the different photorepair capacities. In addition, the different susceptibility to CPD induction between two mung bean cultivars is related to the different levels of UV-absorbing compounds

  10. Calcitonin gene-related peptide alters the firing rates of hypothalamic temperature sensitive and insensitive neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimm Eleanor R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient hyperthermic shifts in body temperature have been linked to the endogenous hormone calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, which can increase sympathetic activation and metabolic heat production. Recent studies have demonstrated that these centrally mediated responses may result from CGRP dependent changes in the activity of thermoregulatory neurons in the preoptic and anterior regions of the hypothalamus (POAH. Results Using a tissue slice preparation, we recorded the single-unit activity of POAH neurons from the adult male rat, in response to temperature and CGRP (10 μM. Based on the slope of firing rate as a function of temperature, neurons were classified as either warm sensitive or temperature insensitive. All warm sensitive neurons responded to CGRP with a significant decrease in firing rate. While CGRP did not alter the firing rates of some temperature insensitive neurons, responsive neurons showed an increase in firing rate. Conclusion With respect to current models of thermoregulatory control, these CGRP dependent changes in firing rate would result in hyperthermia. This suggests that both warm sensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the POAH may play a role in producing this hyperthermic shift in temperature.

  11. Organizational factors related to occupational accidents in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, J M Jackson; Fonseca, E D; Lima, F P A; Duarte, F J C M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to understand the influence of organizational factors on occupational accident causation. A field study was undertaken and focused on the phase of concreting the floors of a residential block in a building project in Brazil. The methodological approach was based on the analysis of carpenters' work practices and of the workers' accounts of minor falls. Observations were noted on work practices over this stage. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with the workers hired by the subcontractors and with professionals working for the main contractor. The results show that falls were related to the introduction of new building technology and its use by the workforce. The production planning and organization of activities by the subcontracted firms also led to temporary demands that were additional determining factors for falls on site. The work analysis reveals the need to consider organizational factors in prevention practices.

  12. Risk Factors and Biomarkers of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nathan G.; Singh, Malkit K.; ElShelmani, Hanan; Mansergh, Fiona C.; Wride, Michael A.; Padilla, Maximilian; Keegan, David; Hogg, Ruth E.; Ambati, Balamurali K.

    2016-01-01

    A biomarker can be a substance or structure measured in body parts, fluids or products that can affect or predict disease incidence. As age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world, much research and effort has been invested in the identification of different biomarkers to predict disease incidence, identify at risk individuals, elucidate causative pathophysiological etiologies, guide screening, monitoring and treatment parameters, and predict disease outcomes. To date, a host of genetic, environmental, proteomic, and cellular targets have been identified as both risk factors and potential biomarkers for AMD. Despite this, their use has been confined to research settings and has not yet crossed into the clinical arena. A greater understanding of these factors and their use as potential biomarkers for AMD can guide future research and clinical practice. This article will discuss known risk factors and novel, potential biomarkers of AMD in addition to their application in both academic and clinical settings. PMID:27156982

  13. Local retinal sensitivity in relation to specific retinopathy lesions in diabetic macular oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Wael; Hasler, Pascal; Sander, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy and recently diagnosed untreated DMO. Investigations included microperimetry, fluorescein angiography, colour fundus photography, and OCT. All measures and gradings were made for each of the nine fields of an early treatment diabetic retinopathy study macula template......Purpose: To study microperimetric macular sensitivity in diabetic macular oedema (DMO) in relation to lesion characteristics obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT), colour fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography (FA). Methods: The study comprised 20 eyes in 15 patients...... in foveal petaloid (r = -0.50, p = 0.02) and extrafoveal honeycomb patterns (r = -0.8, p detectable effect of focal noncystoid oedema...

  14. Factors relating to age of onset in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, A B; Schopler, E

    1988-06-01

    We examined the distribution of ages of onset of autism and related communication handicaps and assessed factors related to age of onset. Subjects were approximately 1,800 children seen at Division TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped CHildren) since 1970. Exact numbers of subjects varied with different analyses due to missing data. Data were gathered through direct assessment, interview, and questionnaire. Seventy-six percent of autistic children were identified by parents by 24 months of age, and 94% by 36 months. Families reporting early onset tended to seek help sooner and to be seen by TEACCH sooner. Early onset was most clearly related to severity as measured by IQ and ratings on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (Schopler, Reichler, & Renner, 1986). The findings support the treatment of age of onset of autism by DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987).

  15. Medical residents' job satisfaction and their related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eun-Kyung; Han, Eui-Ryoung; Woo, Young-Jong

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate medical residents' job satisfaction and their related factors to improve the quality of residency program. The study subjects were 159 medical residents being trained at Chonnam National University Hospital, South Korea, in 2011. The participants were asked to complete a short form Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire (MSQ). The mean score for 20 items on the short form MSQ varied between 2.91 and 3.64 on a 5-point Likert scale. The assessment of related factors with job satisfaction revealed that medical residents had higher levels for job satisfaction, particularly those who were women (beta=0.200, p=0.022), and those who had mentorship experience (beta=0.219, p=0.008). This study results indicate that we should expand and support the mentorship program during medical residency to promote job satisfaction.

  16. Evironmental assessment factors relating to reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    This document is in two parts. Part I presents the criteria and evaluation factors, based primarily on US experience, which may be used to carry out an environmental assessment of spent fuel reprocessing. The concept of As Low as is Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) is introduced in limiting radiation exposure. The factors influencing both occupational and general public radiation exposure are reviewed. Part II provides information on occupational and general public radiation exposure in relation to reprocessing taken from various sources including UNSCEAR and GESMO. Some information is provided in relation to potential accidents at reprocessing or MOX fuel refabrication plants. The magnitude of the services, energy, land use and non-radiological effluents for the reference design of reprocessing plant are also presented

  17. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.

  18. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings

  19. Factors relating to the perceived management of emergency situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkvad Rasmussen, Maria; Tolsgaard, Martin G; Dieckmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    -workers familiarity with ALS principles', 'own confidence as ALS-provider' and 'own social/inter-personal skills'. CONCLUSION: The results of this survey emphasise that ALS providers' perceived ability to apply ALS skills were substantially affected by teamwork skills and co-workers' skills. Team related factors...... associated with successful outcome were related to clear role distribution, clear inter-personal communication and attentive listening, as well as respectful behaviour and positive team atmosphere. Although intensity of setting was attributed to ability to apply ALS principles, this did not affect management...

  20. Contributing factors to the use of health-related websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Traci

    2006-03-01

    This study explicates the influence of audience factors on website credibility and the subsequent effect that credibility has on the intention to revisit a site. It does so in an experimental setting in which participants were given two health-related search tasks. Reliance on the web for health-related information positively influenced website credibility in both searches. Knowledge was a significant predictor for the search task that required more cognitive ability. Of the credibility dimensions, trust/expertise and depth were significant predictors of intention to revisit a site in both searches. Fairness and goodwill were nonsignificant predictors in both searches.

  1. Identification of adipokine clusters related to parameters of fat mass, insulin sensitivity and inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Flehmig

    Full Text Available In obesity, elevated fat mass and ectopic fat accumulation are associated with changes in adipokine secretion, which may link obesity to inflammation and the development of insulin resistance. However, relationships among individual adipokines and between adipokines and parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism or inflammation are largely unknown. Serum concentrations of 20 adipokines were measured in 141 Caucasian obese men (n = 67 and women (n = 74 with a wide range of body weight, glycemia and insulin sensitivity. Unbiased, distance-based hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to recognize patterns among adipokines and their relationship with parameters of obesity, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and inflammation. We identified two major adipokine clusters related to either (1 body fat mass and inflammation (leptin, ANGPTL3, DLL1, chemerin, Nampt, resistin or insulin sensitivity/hyperglycemia, and lipid metabolism (vaspin, clusterin, glypican 4, progranulin, ANGPTL6, GPX3, RBP4, DLK1, SFRP5, BMP7, adiponectin, CTRP3 and 5, omentin. In addition, we found distinct adipokine clusters in subgroups of patients with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D. Logistic regression analyses revealed ANGPTL6, DLK1, Nampt and progranulin as strongest adipokine correlates of T2D in obese individuals. The panel of 20 adipokines predicted T2D compared to a combination of HbA1c, HOMA-IR and fasting plasma glucose with lower sensitivity (78% versus 91% and specificity (76% versus 94%. Therefore, adipokine patterns may currently not be clinically useful for the diagnosis of metabolic diseases. Whether adipokine patterns are relevant for the predictive assessment of intervention outcomes needs to be further investigated.

  2. Individual, home and neighborhood factors related to childhood obesity intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Fabiana Brito

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most pressing global population health issues, and importantly one that affects racial/ethnic minorities and those of low socioeconomic status disproportionately. Obesity tracks from childhood into adulthood and is related to serious medical and economic consequences throughout the life course. Childhood obesity is well recognized as a complex and multifaceted problem influenced by broader social, geographic and environmental factors. A social ecological framework that i...

  3. Morale as a Protection Factor against Mission Related Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Inventory [34]. Morale as a Protection Factor against Mission Related Stress RTO-MP HFM-134 10 - 7 - Inventario de Valoración y Afrontamiento...17-37. [27] Miguel-Tobal, J. J. and Cano Vindel, A. (1986). Inventario de Situaciones y Respuestas de Ansiedad. Madrid: Tea Ediciones. (2ª Edic...Psychology, 56, 2, 267-283. [35] Cano Vindel, A. and Miguel-Tobal, J. J. (1992). Inventario de Valoración y Afrontamiento (IVA). Mimeo: Universidad

  4. Deployment-related risk factors of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Where much is known about the consequences of spinal and low back pain (LBP) during military deployments, there is lesser knowledge of risk factors for LBP among the deployed forces. The objective of this study was to identify deployment-related exposures associated with LBP. The study was a ques...... their subordinates and involve medical personnel, especially deployed physiotherapists, by giving advice to soldiers of different military occupational specialties on how to optimize ergonomics at work....

  5. Brain pericyte-derived soluble factors enhance insulin sensitivity in GT1-7 hypothalamic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Takata, Fuyuko; Matsumoto, Junichi; Machida, Takashi; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Dohgu, Shinya; Kataoka, Yasufumi

    2015-02-20

    Insulin signaling in the hypothalamus plays an important role in food intake and glucose homeostasis. Hypothalamic neuronal functions are modulated by glial cells; these form an extensive network connecting the neurons and cerebral vasculature, known as the neurovascular unit (NVU). Brain pericytes are periendothelial accessory structures of the blood-brain barrier and integral members of the NVU. However, the interaction between pericytes and neurons is largely unexplored. Here, we investigate whether brain pericytes could affect hypothalamic neuronal insulin signaling. Our immunohistochemical observations demonstrated the existence of pericytes in the mouse hypothalamus, exhibiting immunoreactivity of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (a pericyte marker), and laminin, a basal lamina marker. We then exposed a murine hypothalamic neuronal cell line, GT1-7, to conditioned medium obtained from primary cultures of rat brain pericytes. Pericyte-conditioned medium (PCM), but not astrocyte- or aortic smooth muscle cell-conditioned medium, increased the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in GT1-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. PCM also enhanced insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor β without changing its expression or localization in cytosolic or plasma membrane fractions. These results suggest that pericytes, rather than astrocytes, increase insulin sensitivity in hypothalamic neurons by releasing soluble factors under physiological conditions in the NVU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Uncovering the influence of social skills and psychosociological factors on pain sensitivity using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoichi; Nishi, Yuki; Nishi, Yuki; Osumi, Michihiro; Morioka, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Pain is a subjective emotional experience that is influenced by psychosociological factors such as social skills, which are defined as problem-solving abilities in social interactions. This study aimed to reveal the relationships among pain, social skills, and other psychosociological factors by using structural equation modeling. A total of 101 healthy volunteers (41 men and 60 women; mean age: 36.6±12.7 years) participated in this study. To evoke participants' sense of inner pain, we showed them images of painful scenes on a PC screen and asked them to evaluate the pain intensity by using the visual analog scale (VAS). We examined the correlation between social skills and VAS, constructed a hypothetical model based on results from previous studies and the current correlational analysis results, and verified the model's fit using structural equation modeling. We found significant positive correlations between VAS and total social skills values, as well as between VAS and the "start of relationships" subscales. Structural equation modeling revealed that the values for "start of relationships" had a direct effect on VAS values (path coefficient =0.32, p social support. The results indicated that extroverted people are more sensitive to inner pain and tend to get more social support and maintain a better psychological condition.

  7. EPIGENETIC RISK FACTORS OF FETAL SENSITIZATION TO ALLERGENS IN THE SYSTEM «MOTHER-FETUS-NEWBORN»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Lityaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the state of health of 110 women with allergopathology at the stage of pregnancy and their newborn children, with an assessment of the influence of factors burdening fetal fetal development and contributing to the implementation of allergopathology in the first months of life.Trigger factors of disturbances in the formation of the intestinal microbiota, immune system and congenital decrease in the resistance of the child's organism — gestosis (c2 = 5.2, p = 0.022, Feto-placental insufficiency (c2 = 6.2, p = 0.012, chronic intrauterine fetal hypoxia (c2 = 5.7, p = 0.017, due to the presence in a woman with an allergic disease of combined somatic pathology and pathology of the genitals, malnutrition and microecological status.Such women should be classified as a high-risk group for intrauterine fetal sensitization and taken from the first days of pregnancy for primary prevention of allergopathology already at the stage of intrauterine development of the fetus. 

  8. Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity among Patients Perceiving Gluten-Related Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capannolo, Annalisa; Viscido, Angelo; Barkad, Mohamed Ali; Valerii, Giorgio; Ciccone, Fabiana; Melideo, Dina; Frieri, Giuseppe; Latella, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a recently recognized disorder, characterized by the occurrence of symptoms following gluten ingestion. It is often self-diagnosed by the patient, but should be confirmed by the response to a gluten-free diet, followed by a gluten challenge. Celiac disease (CD) and wheat allergy (WA) must first be ruled out. (1) to determine the frequency of visits performed for symptoms self-perceived as gluten-related; (2) to assess in this cohort, the proportion of patients satisfying the diagnostic criteria for NCGS. A two-year prospective study including all consecutive patients complaining of gluten-related symptoms. NCGS was diagnosed on the basis of the disappearance of the symptoms within 6 months of a gluten-free diet, followed by their reappearance with the reintroduction of gluten in the diet for 1 month. Three hundred and ninety two patients complaining of gluten-related symptoms were enrolled; 26 of these (6.63%) were affected by CD, 2 (0.51%) by WA and 27 were diagnosed with NCGS (6.88%). The remaining 337 patients (85.96%) did not experience any change of symptoms with a gluten-free diet. The PPV of the gluten-related symptom was found to be 7%. Eighty six percent of patients reporting gluten-related symptoms have neither NCGS, nor CD, nor WA. Self-perceived gluten-related symptoms are rarely indicative of the presence of NCGS. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Relative Sensitivity of Photosynthesis and Respiration to Freeze-Thaw Stress in Herbaceous Species 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Kenneth L.; Arora, Rajeev; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1989-01-01

    The relative effect of a freeze-thaw cycle on photosynthesis, respiration, and ion leakage of potato leaf tissue was examined in two potato species, Solanum acaule Bitt. and Solanum commersonii Dun. Photosynthesis was found to be much more sensitive to freezing stress than was respiration, and demonstrated more than a 60% inhibition before any impairment of respiratory function was observed. Photosynthesis showed a slight to moderate inhibition when only 5 to 10% of the total electrolytes had leaked from the tissue (reversible injury). This was in contrast to respiration which showed no impairment until temperatures at which about 50% ion leakage (irreversible injury) had occurred. The influence of freeze-thaw protocol was further examined in S. acaule and S. commersonii, in order to explore discrepancies in the literature as to the relative sensitivities of photosynthesis and respiration. As bath cooling rates increased from 1°C/hour to about 3 or 6°C/hour, there was a dramatic increase in the level of damage to all measured cellular functions. The initiation of ice formation in deeply supercooled tissue caused even greater damage. As the cooling rates used in stress treatments increased, the differential sensitivity between photosynthesis and respiration nearly disappeared. Examination of agriculturally relevant, climatological data from an 11 year period confirmed that air cooling rates in the freezing range do not exceed 2°C/hour. It was demonstrated, in the studies presented here, that simply increasing the actual cooling rate from 1.0 to 2.9°C/hour, in frozen tissue from paired leaflet halves, meant the difference between cell survival and cell death. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:16666712

  10. Sensitivity to structure in action sequences: An infant event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, Claire D; Gerson, Sarah A; Domínguez-Martínez, Estefanía; Kaduk, Katharina; Hunnius, Sabine; Reid, Vincent

    2017-05-06

    Infants are sensitive to structure and patterns within continuous streams of sensory input. This sensitivity relies on statistical learning, the ability to detect predictable regularities in spatial and temporal sequences. Recent evidence has shown that infants can detect statistical regularities in action sequences they observe, but little is known about the neural process that give rise to this ability. In the current experiment, we combined electroencephalography (EEG) with eye-tracking to identify electrophysiological markers that indicate whether 8-11-month-old infants detect violations to learned regularities in action sequences, and to relate these markers to behavioral measures of anticipation during learning. In a learning phase, infants observed an actor performing a sequence featuring two deterministic pairs embedded within an otherwise random sequence. Thus, the first action of each pair was predictive of what would occur next. One of the pairs caused an action-effect, whereas the second did not. In a subsequent test phase, infants observed another sequence that included deviant pairs, violating the previously observed action pairs. Event-related potential (ERP) responses were analyzed and compared between the deviant and the original action pairs. Findings reveal that infants demonstrated a greater Negative central (Nc) ERP response to the deviant actions for the pair that caused the action-effect, which was consistent with their visual anticipations during the learning phase. Findings are discussed in terms of the neural and behavioral processes underlying perception and learning of structured action sequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On the Sensitivity of Neutrino Telescopes to a Modified Dispersion Relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, M.; Gago, A. M.; Bazo, J. L.; Miranda, O. G.

    2008-01-01

    We consider a modified dispersion relation and its effect on the flavour ratios of high-energy neutrinos originated at distant astrophysical sources such as active galactic nuclei. This dispersion relation arise naturally in different new physics (NP) effects such as violation of CPT invariance, of the equivalence principle and of Lorentz invariance. It is a common notion in the literature that by using the flux of high-energy neutrinos expected from distant astrophysical sources, the sensitivity to possible NP effects may be improved beyond the current bounds. However, performing a realistic analysis that takes into account the expected number of events in future neutrino telescopes, we find that the average detected flavour ratios with and without the inclusion of new physics have essentially the same value, making difficult to obtain an improved bound for this type of new physics

  12. Bicycling-related accidents and factors contributing to injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Perez, L.M.; Wideberg, J.; Gonzalez Perez-Somarriba, B.

    2016-07-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to find the epidemiological characteristics of bicycling-related maxillofacial fractures in a defined population, and identify factors contributing to injury. Methodology: A prospective study was carried out involving patients presenting with maxillofacial fractures sustained in bicycling-related accidents. Results: Between 908 of all cycling accidents attending for medical treatment, 122 patients (13% of all cycling accidents) were admitted with facial fractures between 2007 and 2014. Male and female ratio was 2.6:1, and the mean age was 29.4 years (standard deviation: 12.8, range: 12-79 years). Causes of injury included collisions (63%) and accidental falls (37%). The fracture patterns seen were mandibular (49%), zygomatic (32%), orbital (13%), nasal (7%), maxillary (2%), and frontal (2%). Condylar fractures were the most common of the mandibular fractures (63%). The most frequently observed concomitant lesions were orthopedic injuries. Conclusions: Bicycling-related maxillofacial injuries are common and therefore important to identify in order to design a sustainable transport system and for units that provide assistance to traffic accident victims. Missed diagnosis or delayed treatment can lead to facial deformities and functional problems. Wearing protective helmets and the improvement of the helmets design is one aspect that would be of interest for the prevention of injuries. Keywords: Cycling; bicycle-related trauma; maxillofacial fractures; risk factors; helmets. (Author)

  13. Study of multiplication factor sensitivity to the spread of WWER spent fuel isotopics calculated by different codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, L.

    2001-01-01

    As a sensitivity study the impact on the system reactivity was studied in the case that different calculational methodologies of spent fuel isotopic concentrations were used for WWER spent fuel inventory computations. The sets of isotopic concentrations obtained by calculations with different codes and libraries as a result of the CB2 international benchmark focused on WWER-440 burnup credit were used to show the spread of the calculated spent fuel system reactivity. Using the MCNP 4B code and changing the isotopics input data, the multiplication factor of an infinite array of the WWER-440 fuel pin cells was calculated. The evaluation of the results shows the sensitivity of the calculated reactivity to different calculational methodologies used for the spent fuel inventory computation. In the studied cases of the CB2 benchmark, the spread of the reference k-results relative to the mean was found less or about ±1% in spite of the fact that the data of isotopic concentrations were spread much more. (author)

  14. Preschoolers' genetic, physiological, and behavioral sensitivity factors moderate links between parenting stress and child internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Molly; Thomassin, Kristel; Bilms, Joanie; Suveg, Cynthia; Shaffer, Anne; Beach, Steven R H

    2017-05-01

    This study examined three potential moderators of the relations between maternal parenting stress and preschoolers' adjustment problems: a genetic polymorphism-the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR, ss/sl allele) gene, a physiological indicator-children's baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and a behavioral indicator-mothers' reports of children's negative emotionality. A total of 108 mothers (M age  = 30.68 years, SD age  = 6.06) reported on their parenting stress as well as their preschoolers' (M age  = 3.50 years, SD age  = 0.51, 61% boys) negative emotionality and internalizing, externalizing, and sleep problems. Results indicated that the genetic sensitivity variable functioned according to a differential susceptibility model; however, the results involving physiological and behavioral sensitivity factors were most consistent with a diathesis-stress framework. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to counter the effects of parenting stress are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The relation of Cx43 and NMDA to visceral sensitization in rats with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-yu ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the relationship between connexin 43 (Cx43 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors and visceral sensitization in the rats with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Methods  Thirty rats were gavaged with Triehinella spiralis to reproduce the IBS model. These rats were randomly divided into IBS group, IBS+colon distension group, and IBS+STI-571+colon distension group, and other groups of normal rats were randomized into normal group and normal+colon distension group, with 10 rats in each group. Immunofluorescent double staining were used to observe the expressions of intestine Cx43 and sacral NMDA re ceptors of rats in all the groups. Results  The Cx43 and sacral NMDA expressions in the normal group, normal+colon distension group and IBS group showed no significant changes (P>0.05, however, Cx43 and sacral NMDA expressions were significantly higher in IBS rats with colon distension as compared with those in normal group, normal+colon distension group, and IBS group (P<0.05, while they were significantly lower in the IBS+STI-571+colon distension group after STI-571 intervention (P<0.05. Conclusion  Cx43 and sacral NMDA may be the most important factor of visceral sensitization in IBS rats. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.12.02

  16. Obesity related factors in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Parvaneh Reza; Ghanbari, Atefeh; Rad, Afagh Hasanzadeh

    2013-05-01

    Overweight and obesity is becoming an increasingly prevalent problem in both developed and developing world, and is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21(st) century. Although various studies demonstrated pediatric obesity-related factors, but, due to its ongoing hazardous effects, researchers aimed to assess obesity-related factors in school-aged children in Rasht, Iran. This was a case-control study which was performed in eight primary schools of Rasht. A cluster sampling method was used to select 320 students including 80 in case (BMI ≥85(th) percentile for age and gender) and 240 in control group (BMI = 5(th)-85(th) percentile for age and gender). Data were collected by a scale, a tape meter, and a form which consisted of obesity-related factors, and were analyzed by Chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and stepwise multivariate regression tests in SPSS 19. Findings showed that the mean and standard deviation of birth weight (g) in case and control groups were 3671 ± 5.64 and 190 ± 5.46, respectively (P = 0.000). 82.5% of case and 92.9% of control group had exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months (P = 0.024). Also, multivariate regression analysis indicated that birth weight, age, exclusive breastfeeding, and frequency of meals have significant effects on body mass index (BMI). It seems that more accurate interventions for primordial prevention are essential to reduce childhood obesity risk factors, including promotion of pre-pregnancy and prenatal care to have neonates who are appropriate for gestational age and also improving exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life. In addition, identifying children at risk for adolescent obesity provides physicians and midwives with an opportunity for earlier intervention with the goal of limiting the progression of abnormal weight gain.

  17. Pain Processing after Social Exclusion and Its Relation to Rejection Sensitivity in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Bungert

    Full Text Available There is a general agreement that physical pain serves as an alarm signal for the prevention of and reaction to physical harm. It has recently been hypothesized that "social pain," as induced by social rejection or abandonment, may rely on comparable, phylogenetically old brain structures. As plausible as this theory may sound, scientific evidence for this idea is sparse. This study therefore attempts to link both types of pain directly. We studied patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD because BPD is characterized by opposing alterations in physical and social pain; hyposensitivity to physical pain is associated with hypersensitivity to social pain, as indicated by an enhanced rejection sensitivity.Twenty unmedicated female BPD patients and 20 healthy participants (HC, matched for age and education played a virtual ball-tossing game (cyberball, with the conditions for exclusion, inclusion, and a control condition with predefined game rules. Each cyberball block was followed by a temperature stimulus (with a subjective pain intensity of 60% in half the cases. The cerebral responses were measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. The Adult Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire was used to assess rejection sensitivity.Higher temperature heat stimuli had to be applied to BPD patients relative to HCs to reach a comparable subjective experience of painfulness in both groups, which suggested a general hyposensitivity to pain in BPD patients. Social exclusion led to a subjectively reported hypersensitivity to physical pain in both groups that was accompanied by an enhanced activation in the anterior insula and the thalamus. In BPD, physical pain processing after exclusion was additionally linked to enhanced posterior insula activation. After inclusion, BPD patients showed reduced amygdala activation during pain in comparison with HC. In BPD patients, higher rejection sensitivity was associated with lower activation differences during

  18. Factors related to the performance of Specialized Dental Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Christiane de Azevedo Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Specialized Dental Care Centers (SDCC have the mission to expand access to public medium complexity dental care and support the primary health care actions at this level of complexity. However, it is necessary to ensure the quality of services and to evaluate such services continuously to identify weaknesses and strengths that support the processes of leadership/management. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of studies on the assessment of oral health in specialized care that may indicate which factors should be investigated. Therefore, this integrated literature review sought to explore the plethora of publications on the evaluation of SDCC in the LILACS and MEDLINE data bases in October 2013 to identify factors possibly related to the performance of such health services. Thus, 13 references were included in this review pointing to forms of organization and management of work processes related to the creation of healthcare networks (operation of regulation centers and setting up of health consortiums. They include the contextual characteristics of the places where SDCCs are located (population size, Family Health Strategy coverage, Municipal Human Development Index, governance, governing capacity were factors that influenced the SDCCs performance.

  19. Factors related to treatment refusal in Taiwanese cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ting-Yu; Wang, Chao-Hui; Lin, Yu-Fen; Chou, Shu-Lan; Wang, Ching-Ting; Juang, Hsiao-Ting; Lin, Yung-Chang; Lin, Mei-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates for cancer have increased dramatically in the recent 30 years in Taiwan. However, not all patients receive treatment. Treatment refusal might impair patient survival and life quality. In order to improve this situation, we proposed this study to evaluate factors that are related to refusal of treatment in cancer patients via a cancer case manager system. This study analysed data from a case management system during the period from 2010 to 2012 at a medical center in Northern Taiwan. We enrolled a total of 14,974 patients who were diagnosed with cancer. Using the PRECEDE Model as a framework, we conducted logistic regression analysis to identify independent variables that are significantly associated with refusal of therapy in cancer patients. A multivariate logistic regression model was also applied to estimate adjusted the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 253 patients (1.69%) refused treatment. The multivariate logistic regression result showed that the high risk factors for refusal of treatment in cancer patient included: concerns about adverse effects (prefuse treatment have poor survival. The present study provides evidence of factors that are related to refusal of therapy and might be helpful for further application and improvement of cancer care.

  20. Fibroblast growth factor-23 and phosphorus related factors in young Japanese women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sanae; Ishida, Hiromi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus homeostasis is determined by dietary intake, intestinal absorption, and renal tubular reabsorption of phosphorus. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is considered to be a sensitive early biomarker of disordered phosphorus metabolism in both patients with chronic kidney diseases and healthy subjects. However, the number of studies evaluating serum FGF-23 concentrations in healthy subjects is limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between serum FGF-23 concentrations and phosphorus related factors in 182 young Japanese women (mean age, 19.5±0.4 years). We found that higher serum concentrations of inorganic phosphorus and lower serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D as well as lower fat but higher phosphorus and calcium intake were weakly but significantly associated with high serum concentrations of FGF-23, adjusted for postmenarcheal age and body weight. These results suggested that in young Japanese women, serum FGF-23 might be indicative of phosphorus nutrition status. However, it is worthy of note that maturity factors, including postmenarcheal age and physical attributes, such as body weight, might be related to serum FGF-23 concentrations.

  1. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  2. Factors determining sensitivity or resistance of tumor cell lines towards artesunate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertel, Serkan; Eichhorn, Tolga; Sieber, Sebastian; Sauer, Alexandra; Weiss, Johanna; Plinkert, Peter K; Efferth, Thomas

    2010-04-15

    Clinical oncology is still challenged by the development of drug resistance of tumors that result in poor prognosis for patients. There is an urgent necessity to understand the molecular mechanisms of resistance and to develop novel therapy strategies. Artesunate (ART) is an anti-malarial drug, which also exerts profound cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells. We first applied a gene-hunting approach using cluster and COMPARE analyses of microarray-based transcriptome-wide mRNA expression profiles. Among the genes identified by this approach were genes from diverse functional groups such as structural constituents of ribosomes (RPL6, RPL7, RPS12, RPS15A), kinases (CABC1, CCT2, RPL41), transcriptional and translational regulators (SFRS2, TUFM, ZBTB4), signal transducers (FLNA), control of cell growth and proliferation (RPS6), angiogenesis promoting factors (ITGB1), and others (SLC25A19, NCKAP1, BST1, DBH, FZD7, NACA, MTHFD2). Furthermore, we applied a candidate gene approach and tested the role of resistance mechanisms towards established anti-cancer drugs for ART resistance. By using transfected or knockout cell models we found that the tumor suppressor p16(INK4A) and the anti-oxidant protein, catalase, conferred resistance towards ART, while the oncogene HPV-E6 conferred sensitivity towards ART. The tumor suppressor p53 and its downstream protein, p21, as well as the anti-oxidant manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase did not affect cellular response to ART. In conclusion, our pharmacogenomic approach revealed that response of tumor cells towards ART is multi-factorial and is determined by gene expression associated with either ART sensitivity or resistance. At least some of the functional groups of genes (e.g. angiogenesis promoting factors, cell growth and proliferation-associated genes signal transducers and kinases) are also implicated in clinical responsiveness of tumors towards chemotherapy. It merits further investigation, whether ART is responsive in

  3. Relation of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors between Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Tanya; Moran, Antoinette; Jacobs, David R; Steffen, Lyn M; Sinaiko, Alan R; Zhou, Xia; Steinberger, Julia

    2015-11-01

    To explore the relations of parent-child cardiometabolic risk factors and assess the influence of adiposity on these associations. Associations of adiposity, blood pressure (BP), lipids, fasting insulin and glucose, and a risk factor cluster score (CS) were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 179 parents and their children (6-18 years, N = 255). Insulin resistance was assessed by euglycemic clamp in parents and children aged 10 years or older. Metabolic syndrome in parents was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. CSs of the risk factors were created based on age-specific z-scores. Analyses included Pearson correlation and linear regression, adjusted for parent and child age, sex, race, and body mass index (BMI), accounting for within-family correlation. We found positive parent-child correlations for measures of adiposity (BMI, BMI percentile, waist, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat; r = 0.22-0.34, all P ≤ .003), systolic BP (r = 0.20, P = .002), total cholesterol (r = 0.39, P parent-child correlations, except systolic BP, remained significant. Although adiposity is strongly correlated between parents and children, many cardiometabolic risk factors correlate independent of parent and child BMI. Adverse parental cardiometabolic profiles may identify at-risk children independent of the child's adiposity status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors Relating to Self-Efficacy Among Psychiatric Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, Hironori; Kobayashi, Mako; Odachi, Ryo; Yamane, Toshie

    This study aimed to clarify the factors related to self-efficacy experienced by psychiatric nurses. Analysis of qualitative descriptive data from a free self-description questionnaire administered to 16 psychiatric nurses working in psychiatric hospitals revealed 24 codes across the following 8 categories as factors that increase self-efficacy: A1. possibility of practical use in nursing, A2. nursing judgment, A3. improvement of psychiatric symptoms, A4. the patients presenting a positive attitude, A5. building a relationship of trust with the patients, A6. building a relationship of trust with other nurses, A7. work progressing according to plan and A8. team medical practice. Twenty-five codes across the following 10 categories were identified as factors that decrease self-efficacy: B1. lack of communication, B2. uncertainty in caregiving, B3. recurrence of psychiatric symptoms, B4. feeling overpowered by a patient, B5. sense of being too busy to work adequately, B6. difficulty in bringing about self-improvement, B7. sense of loss regarding one's role as a nurse, B8. lack of physical strength, B9. mechanical performance of nursing and B10. fluctuating view of nursing due to mistakes. These factors require intervention for psychiatric nurses' self-efficacy.

  5. Analysis of factors related to arm weakness in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daegu; Hwang, Ji Hye; Chu, Inho; Chang, Hyun Ju; Shim, Young Hun; Kim, Jung Hyun

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ratio of significant weakness in the affected arm of breast cancer-related lymphedema patients to their unaffected side. Another purpose was to identify factors related to arm weakness and physical function in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema. Consecutive patients (n = 80) attended a single evaluation session following their outpatient lymphedema clinic visit. Possible independent factors (i.e., lymphedema, pain, psychological, educational, and behavioral) were evaluated. Handgrip strength was used to assess upper extremity muscle strength and the disabilities of arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) questionnaire was used to assess upper extremity physical function. Multivariate logistic regression was performed using factors that had significant differences between the handgrip weakness and non-weakness groups. Out of the 80 patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema, 29 patients (36.3 %) had significant weakness in the affected arm. Weakness of the arm with lymphedema was not related to lymphedema itself, but was related to the fear of using the affected limb (odds ratio = 1.76, 95 % confidence interval = 1.30-2.37). Fears of using the affected limb and depression significantly contributed to the variance in DASH scores. Appropriate physical and psychological interventions, including providing accurate information and reassurance of physical activity safety, are necessary to prevent arm weakness and physical dysfunction in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema.

  6. Factors related to tinnitus and hyperacusis handicap in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazh, Hashir; Lammaing, Karen; Moore, Brian C J

    2017-09-01

    The aim was to assess factors related to tinnitus and hyperacusis handicap in older people. Retrospective cross-sectional. Data were gathered for 184 patients with an average age of 69 years. Tinnitus handicap as measured via the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) was significantly predicted by tinnitus annoyance as measured via the visual analogue scale (VAS) (regression coefficient, b = 2.9, p tinnitus on the patient's life as measured via the VAS (b = 3.9, p tinnitus annoyance significantly predicts tinnitus handicap, it is important to explore factors associated with annoyance that may be useful in designing appropriate rehabilitative interventions aimed at reducing tinnitus handicap in older people. Future studies should explore whether hyperacusis and insomnia in older people with tinnitus need to be managed in conjunction with treatment for depression.

  7. Relations of age and personality dimensions to cognitive ability factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, P T; Fozard, J L; McCrae, R R; Bosśe, R

    1976-11-01

    The relation between three cognitive ability factors - Information Processing Ability (IPA), Manual Dexterity (MD), and Pattern Analysis Capability (PAC) - and three personality dimensions - Anxiety, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience - were examined in three age groups. Subjects were 969 male volunteers ranging in age from 25 to 82. Subjects high in anixety scored lower on all three cognitive factors; subjects open to experience scored higher on IPA and PAC; and introverted subjects scored higher on PAC. Most of these effects remained when the education and socio-economic status were held constant in covariance analyses. Older subjects performed less well than younger ones on MD and PAC, but not on IPA. While personality has some influence on cognitive performance, the declines with age in performance on some cognitive tasks are not mediated by personality.

  8. Sensitivity of PCR IS6110 in relation to culture and staining in Pott′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid diagnosis is essential to decrease the morbidity and mortality of Pott′s disease. The bacteriological methods are time-consuming or insensitive. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR provides a rapid diagnostic tool and hope for early diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to compare and assess of a rapid and effective method among diagnostic battery (Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN microscopy, BACTEC culture and PCR of Pott′s disease. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five specimens from clinico-radiological suspected cases of Pott′s disease were included in this study. They were processed for ZN microscopy, BACTEC culture, and PCR IS6110. The tests tool′s efficiency, positive agreement Kc (Kappa coefficient, and significance level (P value were calculated for correlation between PCR and performed tests. Results: The PCR sensitivity reached to 96% and 46.3% among positive and negative specimens on ZN microscopy. Further, 94% and 36.4% sensitivity were found among positive and negative specimens by BACTEC culture. The total 38 (58.5% specimens were detected either ZN microscopy or by BACTEC culture. Thus, the overall sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 95% and 74.1%. The kappa coefficient and P value, calculated for PCR against BACTEC culture and combined results of performed bacteriological tests were (Kc=0.60, (P<0.001 and (Kc=0.70, (P<0.001, respectively. Above statistical relations showed a fair agreement with significant differences. Conclusion: The PCR IS6110 may be useful in rapid detection of clinico-radiological suspected cases of Pott′s disease and those that are negative with bacteriological methods.

  9. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 regulates heat and cold pain sensitivity and persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Maike; Mair, Norbert; Lim, Hee-Young; Zschiebsch, Katja; Blees, Johanna; Häussler, Annett; Brüne, Bernhard; Ferreiròs, Nerea; Kress, Michaela; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2014-06-01

    The present study assessed the functions of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in sensory neurons in models of acute, inflammatory, ischemic, and neuropathic pain. The alpha subunit, HIF1α, was specifically deleted in neurons of the dorsal root ganglia by mating HIF1α(fl/fl) mice with SNScre mice. SNS-HIF1α(-/-) mice were more sensitive to noxious heat and cold pain stimulation than were HIF1α(fl/fl) control mice. They also showed heightened first-phase nociceptive responses in the formalin and capsaicin tests with increased numbers of cFos-positive neurons in the dorsal horn, and intensified hyperalgesia in early phases after paw inflammation and hind limb ischemia/reperfusion. The behavioral cold and heat pain hypersensitivity was explained by increased calcium fluxes after transient receptor potential channel activation in primary sensory neurons of SNS-HIF1α(-/-) mice and lowered electrical activation thresholds of sensory fibers. SNS-HIF1α(-/-) mice however, developed less neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve injury, which was associated with an abrogation of HIF1-mediated gene up-regulation. The results suggest that HIF1α is protective in terms of acute heat and cold pain but in case of ongoing activation in injured neurons, it may promote the development of neuropathic pain. The duality of HIF1 in pain regulation may have an impact on the side effects of drugs targeting HIF1, which are being developed, for example, as anticancer agents. Specifically, in patients with cancer neuropathy, however, temporary HIF1 inhibition might provide a welcome combination of growth and pain reduction.

  10. [Factors related to the life space of daycare center users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Koki; Kato, Chikako; Kondo, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    We examined the factors related to life space and changes in the care level after one year in daycare center users. The participants were 83 older adults (age, > 65 years; mean age, 79.5±6.8 years) with MMSE scores of ≥20, who could walk independently, who needed support (1-2) or care (1), and who underwent rehabilitation at a daycare center. The life space was evaluated by the Life Space Assessment (LSA). The subjects' basic information (i.e., age, medical history.) was collected, and their physical function (i.e., grip strength, timed up and go test [TUG]), mental function (i.e., vitality, fear of falls), and social function (i.e., friends, hobbies, public transportation) were assessed to investigate the factors associated with their LSA scores. In addition, a follow-up survey was conducted on the care level at approximately one year later. A multiple regression analysis indicated that TUG scores (β=-0.33), hobbies (β=0.30), friends (β=0.29), public transportation (β=0.26), and grip strength (β=0.24) were related to the life space. Next, the participants were divided into LSA-high and LSA-low groups, and changes in the care level (improvement, maintenance, deterioration) at approximately one year after the initial assessment were examined using a chi-squared test. A significant difference was observed in the distribution of the groups (p=0.03). Multiple factors were related to the life space. Moreover, it is possible that improvements in the level of care may be achieved by improving the life space.

  11. Hypoxia and anemia: factors in decreased sensitivity to radiation therapy and chemotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Louis; Blackwell, Kimberly

    2004-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors that occurs across a wide variety of malignancies. Hypoxia and anemia (which contributes to tumor hypoxia) can lead to ionizing radiation and chemotherapy resistance by depriving tumor cells of the oxygen essential for the cytotoxic activities of these agents. Hypoxia may also reduce tumor sensitivity to radiation therapy and chemotherapy through one or more indirect mechanisms that include proteomic and genomic changes. These effects, in turn, can lead to increased invasiveness and metastatic potential, loss of apoptosis, and chaotic angiogenesis, thereby further increasing treatment resistance. Investigations of the prognostic significance of pretreatment tumor oxygenation status have shown that hypoxia (oxygen tension [pO(2)] value effect of hypoxia on standard cancer treatment, a variety of hypoxia- and anemia-targeted therapies have been studied in an effort to improve therapeutic effectiveness and patient outcomes. Early evidence from experimental and clinical studies suggests the administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) may enhance the effectiveness of radiation therapy and chemotherapy by increasing hemoglobin levels and ameliorating anemia in patients with disease- or treatment-related anemia. However, further research is needed in the area of hypoxia-related treatment resistance and its reversal.

  12. Treatment, material, care, and patient-related factors in contact lens-related dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Padmapriya; Sinnott, Loraine T; Nichols, Jason J

    2008-08-01

    To examine the effect of general contact lens and material characteristics, care solutions, treatment, and patient-related factors on contact lens-related dry eye. The data were derived from the Contact Lens and Dry Eye Study, designed as a cross-sectional and nested case-control study including 360 subjects. In separate statistical models, logistic regression was used to examine general contact lens characteristics, specific hydrogel lens materials, care solutions, and patient-related factors associated with dry eye status (controlled for age, gender, and current treatments). Several factors were significantly associated with dry eye, including treatment factors such as a recent contact lens refitting (odds ratios [OR] = 5.75, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 2.14 to 15.46) and use of artificial tears/rewetting drops (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.16), in addition, currently worn materials including Food and Drug Administration (FDA) group II (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.14 to 6.19) and IV (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.08 to 3.24). Significant patient-related factors included decreased overall satisfaction (OR = 3.57, 95% CI = 2.08 to 5.88,), dry eye in the absence of contact lens wear (OR = 6.54, 95% CI = 2.57 to 16.62), reduced daily lens wear duration (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.26), and reduced ability to wear lenses as long as desired (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.30 to 4.54). Care solutions were not associated with contact lens-related dry eye. The strong association of common treatment factors with dry eye status in contact lens wearers suggests that these treatments are not entirely effective. The use of high water content materials was strongly related to dry eye in lens wearers, whereas care solutions were not. Contact lens-related dry eye was also associated with several patient-related factors such as greater ocular discomfort (without lenses), dissatisfaction, and inability to wear lenses for desired durations.

  13. The transcription factor Prep1 controls hepatic insulin sensitivity and gluconeogenesis by targeting nuclear localization of FOXO1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulebyakin, Konstantin; Penkov, Dmitry; Blasi, Francesco; Akopyan, Zhanna; Tkachuk, Vsevolod

    2016-01-01

    Liver plays a key role in controlling body carbohydrate homeostasis by switching between accumulation and production of glucose and this way maintaining constant level of glucose in blood. Increased blood glucose level triggers release of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. Insulin represses hepatic glucose production and increases glucose accumulation. Insulin resistance is the main cause of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. Currently thiazolidinediones (TZDs) targeting transcriptional factor PPARγ are used as insulin sensitizers for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. However, TZDs are reported to be associated with cardiovascular and liver problems and stimulate obesity. Thus, it is necessary to search new approaches to improve insulin sensitivity. A promising candidate is transcriptional factor Prep1, as it was shown earlier it could affect insulin sensitivity in variety of insulin-sensitive tissues. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible involvement of transcriptional factor Prep1 in control of hepatic glucose accumulation and production. We created mice with liver-specific Prep1 knockout and discovered that hepatocytes derived from these mice are much more sensitive to insulin, comparing to their WT littermates. Incubation of these cells with 100 nM insulin results in almost complete inhibition of gluconeogenesis, while in WT cells this repression is only partial. However, Prep1 doesn't affect gluconeogenesis in the absence of insulin. Also, we observed that nuclear content of gluconeogenic transcription factor FOXO1 was greatly reduced in Prep1 knockout hepatocytes. These findings suggest that Prep1 may control hepatic insulin sensitivity by targeting FOXO1 nuclear stability. - Highlights: • A novel model of liver-specific Prep1 knockout is established. • Ablation of Prep1 in hepatocytes increases insulin sensitivity. • Prep1 controls hepatic insulin sensitivity by regulating localization of FOXO1. • Prep1 regulates

  14. Tumor necrosis factor: specific binding and internalization in sensitive and resistant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, M.; Yip, Y.K.; Vilcek, J.

    1985-01-01

    Highly purified, Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was labeled with 125 I and employed to determine receptor binding, internalization, and intracellular degradation in murine L929 cells (highly sensitive to the cytotoxic action of TNF) and in diploid human FS-4 cells (resistant to TNF cytotoxicity). 125 I-labeled TNF bound specifically to high-affinity receptors on both L929 and FS-4 cells. Scatchard analysis of the binding data indicated the presence of 2200 binding sites per L929 cell and 7500 binding sites per FS-4 cell. The calculated dissociation constants are 6.1 x 10 -10 M and 3.2 x 10 -10 M for L929 and FS-4 cells, respectively. In both L929 and FS-4 cells, incubation at 37 0 C resulted in a rapid internalization of the bulk of the cell-bound TNF, followed by the appearance of trichloroacetic acid-soluble 125 I radioactivity in the tissue culture medium, due to degradation of TNF. Degradation but not cellular uptake of TNF was inhibited in the presence of chloroquine (an inhibitor of lysosomal proteases) in both L929 and FS-4 cells, suggesting that degradation occurs intracellularly, probably within lysosomes. These results show that resistance of FS-4 cells to TNF cytotoxicity is not due to a lack of receptors or their inability to internalize and degrade TNF

  15. Relative sensitivity of depth discrimination for ankle inversion and plantar flexion movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger

    2014-02-01

    25 participants (20 women, 5 men) were tested for sensitivity in discrimination between sets of six movements centered on 8 degrees, 11 degrees, and 14 degrees, and separated by 0.3 degrees. Both inversion and plantar flexion movements were tested. Discrimination of the extent of inversion movement was observed to decline linearly with increasing depth; however, for plantar flexion, the discrimination function for movement extent was found to be non-linear. The relatively better discrimination of plantar flexion movements than inversion movements at around 11 degrees from horizontal is interpreted as an effect arising from differential amounts of practice through use, because this position is associated with the plantar flexion movement made in normal walking. The fact that plantar flexion movements are discriminated better than inversion at one region but not others argues against accounts of superior proprioceptive sensitivity for plantar flexion compared to inversion that are based on general properties of plantar flexion such as the number of muscle fibres on stretch.

  16. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid sensitizes neuroblastoma to paclitaxel by inhibiting thioredoxin-related protein 14-mediated autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Zijun; Yang, Kaibin; Ye, Litong; You, Zhiyao; Chen, Rirong; Liu, Ying; He, Youjian

    2017-07-01

    Paclitaxel is not as effective for neuroblastoma as most of the front-line chemotherapeutics due to drug resistance. This study explored the regulatory mechanism of paclitaxel-associated autophagy and potential solutions to paclitaxel resistance in neuroblastoma. The formation of autophagic vesicles was detected by scanning transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. The autophagy-associated proteins were assessed by western blot. Autophagy was induced and the autophagy-associated proteins LC3-I, LC3-II, Beclin 1, and thioredoxin-related protein 14 (TRP14), were found to be upregulated in neuroblastoma cells that were exposed to paclitaxel. The inhibition of Beclin 1 or TRP14 by siRNA increased the sensitivity of the tumor cells to paclitaxel. In addition, Beclin 1-mediated autophagy was regulated by TRP14. Furthermore, the TRP14 inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) downregulated paclitaxel-induced autophagy and enhanced the anticancer effects of paclitaxel in normal control cancer cells but not in cells with upregulated Beclin 1 and TRP14 expression. Our findings showed that paclitaxel-induced autophagy in neuroblastoma cells was regulated by TRP14 and that SAHA could sensitize neuroblastoma cells to paclitaxel by specifically inhibiting TRP14. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  17. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during......People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time...... admission. Most studies are based on low power, thus compromising quality and generalisability. The few studies with sufficient statistical power mainly identified non-modifiable risk predictors such as male gender, diagnosis, or recent deliberate self-harm. Also, the predictive value of these predictors...

  18. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time...... trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during...... is low. It would be of great benefit if future studies would be based on large samples while focusing on modifiable predictors over the course of an admission, such as hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and family/social situations. This would improve our chances of developing better risk assessment...

  19. [The epidemiological study of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and related factors among automobile assembly workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Xu; Qin, Ru-Li; Li, Yu-Zhen; Zhang, Xue-Yan; Jia, Ning; Zhang, Qiu-Ling; Li, Gang; Zhao, Jie; Li, Huan-Huan; Jiang, Hai-Qiang

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the work-related musculoskeletal disorders among automobile assembly workers, to discusses the related risk factors and their relationship. The selected 1508 automobile assembly workers from a north car manufacturing company were regarded as the study object. The hazard zone jobs checklist, Nordic musculoskeletal symptom questionnaire (NMQ) and pain questionnaire were used to perform the epidemiological cross-sectional and retrospective survey and study for the General status, awkward ergonomics factors and related influencing factors, and musculoskeletal disorders of workers. The predominant body sites of occurring WMSDs among automobile assembly workers were mainly low back, wrist, neck and shoulders, the predominant workshop section of occurring WMSDs were mostly concentrated in engine compartment, interior ornament, door cover, chassis and debugging section. The predominant body site of WMSDs among engine compartment and chassis section workers was low back, interior ornament workers were low back and wrist, door cover workers was wrist, chassis workers was low back, debugging workers were neck and low back. Neck musculoskeletal disorders had the trend with the increase of a body height; Smoking may increase the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. The WMSDs appears to be a serious ergonomic proble assem among automobile assembly workers, predominant occurring site of WMSDs is with different workshop section, its characteristics is quite obvious, probably related to its existing awkward work position or activities. The worker height and smoking habits may be important factors which affect musculoskeletal disorders happen.

  20. Factors related to drug approvals : predictors of outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberti, Lawrence; Breckenridge, Alasdair; Hoekman, Jarno; McAuslane, Neil; Stolk, Pieter; Leufkens, Bert

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in characterising factors associated with positive regulatory outcomes for drug marketing authorisations. We assessed empirical studies published over the past 15 years seeking to identify predictive factors. Factors were classified to one of four 'factor clusters':

  1. Pointwise second-order necessary optimality conditions and second-order sensitivity relations in optimal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowska, Hélène; Hoehener, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    This paper is devoted to pointwise second-order necessary optimality conditions for the Mayer problem arising in optimal control theory. We first show that with every optimal trajectory it is possible to associate a solution p (ṡ) of the adjoint system (as in the Pontryagin maximum principle) and a matrix solution W (ṡ) of an adjoint matrix differential equation that satisfy a second-order transversality condition and a second-order maximality condition. These conditions seem to be a natural second-order extension of the maximum principle. We then prove a Jacobson like necessary optimality condition for general control systems and measurable optimal controls that may be only ;partially singular; and may take values on the boundary of control constraints. Finally we investigate the second-order sensitivity relations along optimal trajectories involving both p (ṡ) and W (ṡ).

  2. Prognostic Factors in Tuberculosis Related Mortalities in Hospitalized Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazal Haque

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Setting. The study was undertaken at the Department of Pulmonology at a public, tertiary care centre in Karachi, Pakistan. Objectives. To evaluate factors concerned with in-hospital deaths in patients admitted with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB. Design. A retrospective case-control audit was performed for 120 patients hospitalised with pulmonary TB. Sixty of those discharged after treatment were compared to sixty who did not survive. Radiological findings, clinical indicators, and laboratory values were compared between the two groups to identify factors related to poor prognosis. Results. Factors concerned with in-hospital mortality listed late presentation of disease (P<0.01, noncompliance to antituberculosis therapy (P<0.01, smoking (P<0.01, longer duration of illness prior to treatment (P<0.01, and low body weight (P<0.01. Most deaths occurred during the first week of admission (P<0.01 indicating late referrals as significant. Immunocompromised status and multi-drug resistance were not implicated in higher mortality. Conclusions. Poor prognosis was associated with noncompliance to therapy resulting in longer duration of illness, late patient referrals to care centres, and development of complications. Early diagnosis, timely referrals, and monitored compliance may help reduce mortality. Adherence to a more radically effective treatment regimen is required to eliminate TB early during disease onset.

  3. [Identification of risk factors in relatives of type-2 diabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Alvarez, Norma Angélica; Vela-Otero, Yolanda; Carrada-Brav, Teodoro

    2006-01-01

    To identify risk factors and warning signs in a sample of first-degree relatives of type-2 diabetics at the Family Medicine Unit 2 of the General Hospital in Irapuato, Guanajuato, Mexico. In a non-probabilistic sample of 360 relatives, a 14-item questionnaire was applied to measure abdominal perimeter and body mass index (obesity and overweight), eating habits, addictions and sedentarism. The questionnaire was made by general consent of experts, by applying Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient. Specific rates of prevalence by sex and age groups were estimated. 233 (65%) relatives were females. As part of their family history background, arterial hypertension was recorded in 263 (73%) and acute myocardial infarction in 97 (27%). Among the dangerous food for health consumed by the relatives of diabetics are cola drinks in 94.7%, red meat in 83%, candies in 74.7% and chips in 65.8%; only half of them consumed fresh fruits and vegetables; a quarter of them ate prickly pears or whole wheat bread. There were 163 (45.3%) persons with high-risk abdominal perimeter, and sedentarism was present in 267 (74.2%). However, obesity was 3 times more frequent in females, but excessive drinking or smoking habits were 7 times more prevailing in males. A high-risk behavior was demonstrated among relativies of diabetic patients. Therefore, a public-health educational program is required to modify risky habits. A change towards prevention rather than cure is much needed in health staff.

  4. [Factors related to patient satisfaction with hospital emergency services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Hidalgo, Pedro; Bermejo Alegría, Rosa María; Más Castillo, Adelia; Hidalgo Montesinos, María Dolores; Gomis Cebrián, Rafael; Calle Urra, José Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    To determine the perceived quality variables related to satisfaction and to identify the influence of sociodemographic factors on user satisfaction with hospital emergencies. A telephone survey was conducted with a specifically designed questionnaire for use in a sample of 3,600 users of hospital emergency services in nine public hospitals in 2008 and 2009. The adjusted model including all perceived quality and sociodemographic variables explained 47.1% of the variance (adjusted R(2)). Of all the independent variables included, only eight were significant in predicting the level of patient satisfaction. These variables were related to the patient's opinion of the relationship with medical staff (p = 0.041), nurses' and porters' professionalism (p = 0.010 and 0.022), infrastructure (cleanliness and comfort) (p = 0.033 and 0.008), information received at discharge (p = 0.000), waiting time in the emergency department (p = 0.000) and the perception of treatment-diagnosis without failure (p = 0.028). The variables influencing emergency patients' satisfaction were determined, allowing areas where corrective action could be introduced to be identified. In addition, possible confounding factors that should be controlled for when comparing results among distinct hospitals were identified. The emergency satisfaction questionnaire is a useful instrument to evaluate and improve quality of care. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk of alcohol dependence: prevalence, related problems and socioeconomic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gabrielle Martins-Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study evaluated the possible alcohol dependence and related problems among adolescents and determined possible associations with socioeconomic factors and gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 936 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years enrolled at public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data related to alcohol consumption and associated problems were collected using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT. The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI, mother's schooling and type of school were used to assess socioeconomic factors. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05 and Poisson regression. The prevalence of possible dependence was 16.4%, 52.1% reported concern of a family member regarding the adolescent's alcohol consumption. Female adolescents were less likely to exhibit possible dependence in comparison to males. Participants with living in a low vulnerability area were more likely to consume alcohol in comparison to those living in underprivileged areas. The results of the present study demonstrate that possible dependence was significantly associated with the male gender and low social vulnerability.

  6. Fatigue in Intensive Care Nurses and Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Sevim; Taşdemir, Nurten; Kurt, Aylin; İlgezdi, Ebru; Kubalas, Özge

    2017-10-01

    Fatigue negatively affects the performance of intensive care nurses. Factors contributing to the fatigue experienced by nurses include lifestyle, psychological status, work organization and sleep problems. To determine the level of fatigue among nurses working in intensive care units and the related factors. This descriptive study was conducted with 102 nurses working in intensive care units in the West Black Sea Region of Turkey. Data were collected between February and May 2014 using a personal information form, the Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue (VAS-F), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index. The intensive care nurses in the study were found to be experiencing fatigue. Significant correlations were observed between scores on the VAS-F Fatigue and anxiety (p=0.01), depression (p=0.002), and sleep quality (pnurses' levels of fatigue. These results can be of benefit in taking measures which may be used to reduce fatigue in nurses, especially the fatigue related to work organization and social life.

  7. Social and psychologic factors related to falls among the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossey, J M

    1985-08-01

    Studies on falls are reviewed. Little information exists on which social or psychologic factors predispose an older person to fall or to sustain a fall-related injury. Risk of falling appears to be greater among females, the cognitively impaired, and those who use hypnotics, tranquilizers, and diuretics. The potential significance of depression and senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type on the risk of falling is explored. It is suggested that because of the associated impaired judgment, distraction, and psychomotor retardation, the presence of either clinical condition may increase an individual's risk of falling. In the final section of the article, directions for future research are discussed. Development of a systematic research program is suggested including epidemiologic studies of all falls and of medically treated falls. Such studies should be multidisciplinary and include assessment of social and psychologic factors as well as physical and functional health status, ambulatory function, perceptual acuity, and the circumstances surrounding the fall. The psychologic consequences of falling, particularly in the absence of a serious fall-related injury, is identified as an important research area.

  8. Study Of Socio- Economic Factors In Relation To Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Mahjabeen

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: what are the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy and their implications? Objectives: (i To study the socio-economic factors in relation to leprosy.(ii To assess the impact of disease on patients’ job/income. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting and Participants: Patients attending the dermatology OPD, J.N. Medical college hospital, A.M.U., Aligarh. Sample size: 200 leprosy patients. Study variables: education, occupation, social class, incapacitation, change in job, reduction in income. Statically analysis: Chi-square test Results: 46% of the leprosy patients were illiterate. A large majority of patients (78% were involved in heavy manual work as farmers and labourers. 68.5% patients belonged to low social classes (IV and V. More males (26.3% suffered from incapacitation than females (8.5%. 2.5% patients lost their job or were unable to work and 11.5% had to change their jobs due to the disease or disability caused by it. 17.5% patients had a history of reduction in their income after occurrence of leprosy.

  9. Occupational stress and related factors among surgical residents in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sanghee; Jo, Hye Sung; Boo, Yoon Jung; Lee, Ji Sung; Kim, Chong Suk

    2015-11-01

    The application rate for surgical residents in Korea has continuously decreased over the past few years. The demanding workload and the occupational stress of surgical training are likely causes of this problem. The aim of this study was to investigate occupational stress and its related factors in Korean surgical residents. With the support of the Korean Surgical Society, we conducted an electronic survey of Korean surgical residents related to occupational stress. We used the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) to measure occupational stress. We analyzed the data focused on the stress level and the factors associated with occupational stress. The mean KOSS score of the surgical residents was 55.39, which was significantly higher than that of practicing surgeons (48.16, P occupation rate and exercise were all significantly associated with KOSS score. Surgical residents have high occupational stress compared to practicing surgeons and other professionals. Their mean number of assigned patients, resident recruitment rate and exercise were all significantly associated with occupational stress for surgical residents.

  10. [Research on prevalence and related factors in allergic rhinitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze-hai; Lin, Wen-sen; Li, Shu-yan; Zhao, Shao-cheng; Wang, Li; Yang, Zhong-gang; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Zhen-fu; Yu, Jin-zhen

    2011-03-01

    To obtain the prevalence and related factors in allergic rhinitis (AR) and other allergic diseases in rural area in China through epidemiological investigation with large sample and multi-faceted survey data. Face to face survey was conducted in different regions (rural areas of Cangzhou, Hebei, coastal fishing village of Bohai Bay, area of Wuling Mountain, Chengde, urban areas of Tianjin) from April 2007 to May 2009. In the same time, serum specific IgE (sIgE) was detected in the digits of every 0, 1or 5 in them. SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the data. Five thousand and ten cases were investigated. There were 823 cases with the symptoms or signs of AR (16.4%). Four hundred and two cases were found to have positive serum sIgE antibody in 1576 detected cases (25.5%). One hundred and fourty-six cases with nasal allergic symptoms or signs were diagnosed as AR. The incidence of AR was 9.3% (146/1576). The occurrence of allergic symptoms or signs had a significant statistical difference with factors such as age, occupation, atopic constitution (χ(2) value were 7.96, 9.73, 16.53, 8.95 respectively, all P cat epithelium in rural areas and dust mites in city. The incidence of AR is higher whether in urban or rural areas, it should be taken seriously as the impact on human health. The occurrence is closely related to physical characteristics and environmental factors.

  11. Heightened emotional sensitivity intensifies associations between relational aggression and victimization among girls but not boys: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Duffy, Amanda L

    2014-08-01

    Founded in the social process model, the aim of this study was to identify whether the associations of relational aggression with concurrent and subsequent relational victimization differed depending on early adolescents' personal vulnerabilities and gender. The vulnerabilities of interest were social-information processing variables that convey greater emotional sensitivity, including rejection sensitivity, fear of negative evaluation, and avoidance of intimacy. Participants were 358 early adolescents (176 boys, 178 girls) aged 9 to 13 years. Relational aggression and victimization were assessed via peer nominations, whereas the three indicators of emotional sensitivity were assessed via self-report. Overall, results revealed greater relational aggression at Time 1 to be associated with greater relational victimization at both Time 1 and Time 2. However, this finding was qualified by both emotional sensitivity and gender. When considered separately, girls who were relationally aggressive and emotionally sensitive were at increased risk of victimization at both assessment points. In contrast, no link was found between relational aggression and victimization for boys, although relational vulnerabilities did have unique associations with boys' relational victimization. These findings have implications for our understanding of relational aggression and victimization, as well as for the development of interventions aimed at reducing these problems.

  12. Fluorescent nanodiamond tracking reveals intraneuronal transport abnormalities induced by brain-disease-related genetic risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haziza, Simon; Mohan, Nitin; Loe-Mie, Yann; Lepagnol-Bestel, Aude-Marie; Massou, Sophie; Adam, Marie-Pierre; Le, Xuan Loc; Viard, Julia; Plancon, Christine; Daudin, Rachel; Koebel, Pascale; Dorard, Emilie; Rose, Christiane; Hsieh, Feng-Jen; Wu, Chih-Che; Potier, Brigitte; Herault, Yann; Sala, Carlo; Corvin, Aiden; Allinquant, Bernadette; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Treussart, François; Simonneau, Michel

    2017-05-01

    Brain diseases such as autism and Alzheimer's disease (each inflicting >1% of the world population) involve a large network of genes displaying subtle changes in their expression. Abnormalities in intraneuronal transport have been linked to genetic risk factors found in patients, suggesting the relevance of measuring this key biological process. However, current techniques are not sensitive enough to detect minor abnormalities. Here we report a sensitive method to measure the changes in intraneuronal transport induced by brain-disease-related genetic risk factors using fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs). We show that the high brightness, photostability and absence of cytotoxicity allow FNDs to be tracked inside the branches of dissociated neurons with a spatial resolution of 12 nm and a temporal resolution of 50 ms. As proof of principle, we applied the FND tracking assay on two transgenic mouse lines that mimic the slight changes in protein concentration (∼30%) found in the brains of patients. In both cases, we show that the FND assay is sufficiently sensitive to detect these changes.

  13. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), syphilis and TB (tuberculosis). Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing). Results Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32%) of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs. PMID:21477299

  14. Factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing in Tijuana, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson Thomas L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess factors associated with drug-related harms related to policing among injection drug users (IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods IDUs who were over 18 years old and had injected drugs within the last six months were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and underwent questionnaires and testing for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis and TB (tuberculosis. Random effects logistic regression was used to simultaneously model factors associated with five drug-related harms related to policing practices in the prior six months (i.e., police led them to rush injections; affected where they bought drugs; affected locations where they used drugs; feared that police will interfere with their drug use; receptive syringe sharing. Results Of 727 IDUs, 85% were male; median age was 38 years. Within the last 6 months, 231 (32% of IDUs reported that police had led them to rush injections, affected where they bought or used drugs or were very afraid police would interfere with their drug use, or shared syringes. Factors independently associated with drug-related harms related to policing within the last six months included: recent arrest, homelessness, higher frequencies of drug injection, use of methamphetamine, using the local needle exchange program and perceiving a decrease in the purity of at least one drug. Conclusions IDUs who experienced drug-related harms related to policing were those who were most affected by other micro and macro influences in the physical risk environment. Police education programs are needed to ensure that policing practices do not exacerbate risky behaviors or discourage protective behaviors such as needle exchange program use, which undermines the right to health for people who inject drugs.

  15. Productivity loss at work; health-related and work-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Swenne G; Geuskens, Goedele A; Hooftman, Wendela E; Koppes, Lando L J; van den Bossche, Seth N J

    2010-09-01

    Productivity loss is an increasing problem in an aging working population that is decreasing in numbers. The aim of this study is to identify work-related and health-related characteristics associated with productivity loss, due to either sickness absence or reduced performance at work. In this cross-sectional study, data of the Netherlands Working Conditions Survey of 2007 were used, which includes a national representative sample of 22,759 employees aged 15 to 64 years. Demographic characteristics, health-related and work-related factors were assessed with a questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to study the relationship of work-related and health-related factors with low performance at work and sickness absence in the past 12 months. Poor general health, the number of longstanding health conditions, and most types of longstanding health conditions were associated with productivity loss. Health-related factors were in general stronger associated with sickness absence than with low performance at work. Performance: poor health OR 1.54 CI 1.38-1.71, >1 health conditions OR 1.21 CI 1.09-1.35; sickness absence: poor health OR 2.62 CI 2.33-2.93, >1 health conditions OR 2.47 CI 2.21-2.75. Of the different types of longstanding health conditions, only psychological complaints and to a small extent musculoskeletal symptoms, were associated with low performance (respectively OR 1.54 CI 1.27-1.87; OR 1.09 CI 1.00-1.18). Low performance at work was less likely among employees with high physically demanding work (shift work OR 0.70 CI 0.63-0.76, using force OR 0.78 CI 0.72-0.84, and repetitive movements OR 0.74 CI 0.70-0.79). Psychosocial factors were stronger associated with low performance at work than with sickness absence (performance: job autonomy OR 1.28 CI 1.21-1.37, job demands OR 1.23 CI 1.16-1.31, emotionally demanding work OR 1.73 CI 1.62-1.85; sickness absence: job autonomy ns, job demands OR 1.09 CI 1.03-1.17, emotionally demanding work OR

  16. Examining Dark Triad traits in relation to sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouri, Sarah; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Becker, Stephen P; Shamsi, Mahin; Shakouri, Zeinab; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Kalak, Nadeem; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Triad (DT) describes a set of three closely related personality traits, Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between DT traits, sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty. A total of 341 adults (M=29years) completed a series of questionnaires related to the DT traits, sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty. A higher DT total score was associated with increased sleep disturbances, and higher scores for anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty. In regression analyses Machiavellianism and psychopathy were predictors of sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty. Results indicate that specific DT traits, namely Machiavellianism and psychopathy, are associated with sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty in young adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental factors and dam characteristics associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in newborn Holstein calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M.M.; Van Eetvelde, M.; Bogaert, H.; Hostens, M.; Vandaele, L.; Shamsuddin, M.; Opsomer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The objective of the present retrospective cohort study was to evaluate potential associations between environmental factors and dam characteristics, including level of milk production during gestation, and insulin traits in newborn Holstein calves. Birth weight and gestational age of the calves at delivery were determined. On the next day, heart girth, wither height and diagonal length of both the calves and their dams were measured. Parity, body condition score and age at calving were recorded for all dams. For the cows, days open before last gestation, lactation length (LL), lenght of dry period (DP) and calving interval were also calculated. The magnitude and shape of the lactation curve both quantified using the MilkBot model based on monthly milk weights, were used to calculate the amount of milk produced during gestation. Using the same procedure, cumulative milk production from conception to drying off (MGEST) was calculated. A blood sample was collected from all calves (n=481; 169 born to heifers and 312 born to cows) at least 5 h after a milk meal on day 3 of life to measure basal glucose and insulin levels. In addition, an intravenous glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test was performed in a subset of the calves (n=316). After descriptive analysis, generalized linear mixed models were used to identify factors that were significantly associated with the major insulin traits (Insb, basal insulin level; QUICKI, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index; AIR, acute insulin response; DI, disposition index) of the newborn calves. The overall average birth weight of the calves was 42.7 ± 5.92 kg. The insulin traits were significantly associated with MGEST (P=0.076) and longer DP (P=0.034). The QUICKI was estimated to be lower in calves born to the cows having passed a higher MGEST (P=0.030) and longer DP (P=0.058). Moreover, the AIR (P=0.009) and DI (P=0.049) were estimated to be lower in male compared with female calves. Furthermore, the AIR

  18. Brain activations related to saccadic response conflict are not sensitive to time on task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa eBeldzik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex in the performance monitoring and cognitive control has been a challenge to neuroscientists for the past decade. In light of recent findings, the conflict monitoring hypothesis has been elaborated to an action-outcome predictor theory. One of the findings that led to this re-evaluation was the fMRI study in which conflict-related brain activity was investigated in terms of the so-called time on task effect, i.e. a linear increase of the BOLD signal with longer response times. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions involved in the processing of saccadic response conflict and to account for the time on task effect. A modified spatial cueing task was implemented in the event-related fMRI study with oculomotor responses. The results revealed several brain regions which show higher activity for incongruent trials in comparison to the congruent ones, including pre-supplementary motor area together with the frontal and parietal regions. Further analysis accounting for the effect of response time provided evidence that these brain activations were not sensitive to time on task but reflected purely the congruency effect.

  19. Brain Activations Related to Saccadic Response Conflict are not Sensitive to Time on Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldzik, Ewa; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Oginska, Halszka; Marek, Tadeusz; Fafrowicz, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex in the performance monitoring and cognitive control has been a challenge to neuroscientists for the past decade. In light of recent findings, the conflict monitoring hypothesis has been elaborated to an action-outcome predictor theory. One of the findings that led to this re-evaluation was the fMRI study in which conflict-related brain activity was investigated in terms of the so-called time on task effect, i.e., a linear increase of the BOLD signal with longer response times. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions involved in the processing of saccadic response conflict and to account for the time on task effect. A modified spatial cueing task was implemented in the event-related fMRI study with oculomotor responses. The results revealed several brain regions which show higher activity for incongruent trials in comparison to the congruent ones, including pre-supplementary motor area together with the frontal and parietal regions. Further analysis accounting for the effect of response time provided evidence that these brain activations were not sensitive to time on task but reflected purely the congruency effect.

  20. Glutathione regulation of redox-sensitive signals in tumor necrosis factor-α-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsou, T.-C.; Yeh, S.C.; Tsai, F.-Y.; Chen, J.-W.; Chiang, H.-C.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the regulatory role of glutathione in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction as evaluated by using vascular endothelial adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. Since TNF-α induces various biological effects on vascular cells, TNF-α dosage could be a determinant factor directing vascular cells into different biological fates. Based on the adhesion molecule expression patterns responding to different TNF-α concentrations, we adopted the lower TNF-α (0.2 ng/ml) to rule out the possible involvement of other TNF-α-induced biological effects. Inhibition of glutathione synthesis by L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) resulted in down-regulations of the TNF-α-induced adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. BSO attenuated the TNF-α-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation, however, with no detectable effect on AP-1 and its related mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Deletion of an AP-1 binding site in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) promoter totally abolished its constitutive promoter activity and its responsiveness to TNF-α. Inhibition of ERK, JNK, or NF-κB attenuates TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 promoter activation and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding. Our study indicates that TNF-α induces adhesion molecule expression and monocyte-endothelial monolayer binding mainly via activation of NF-κB in a glutathione-sensitive manner. We also demonstrated that intracellular glutathione does not modulate the activation of MAPKs and/or their downstream AP-1 induced by lower TNF-α. Although AP-1 activation by the lower TNF-α was not detected in our systems, we could not rule out the possible involvement of transiently activated MAPKs/AP-1 in the regulation of TNF-α-induced adhesion molecule expression

  1. Response characteristics of vibration-sensitive interneurons related to Johnston's organ in the honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Hiroyuki; Rybak, Jürgen; Menzel, Randolf; Itoh, Tsunao

    2009-07-10

    Honeybees detect airborne vibration by means of Johnston's organ (JO), located in the pedicel of each antenna. In this study we identified two types of vibration-sensitive interneurons with arborizations in the primary sensory area of the JO, namely, the dorsal lobe-interneuron 1 (DL-Int-1) and dorsal lobe-interneuron 2 (DL-Int-2) using intracellular recordings combined with intracellular staining. For visualizing overlapping areas between the JO sensory terminals and the branches of these identified interneurons, the three-dimensional images of the individual neurons were registered into the standard atlas of the honeybee brain (Brandt et al. [2005] J Comp Neurol 492:1-19). Both DL-Int-1 and DL-Int-2 overlapped with the central terminal area of receptor neurons of the JO in the DL. For DL-Int-1 an on-off phasic excitation was elicited by vibrational stimuli applied to the JO when the spontaneous spike frequency was low, whereas tonic inhibition was induced when it was high. Moreover, current injection into a DL-Int-1 led to changes of the response pattern from on-off phasic excitation to tonic inhibition, in response to the vibratory stimulation. Although the vibration usually induced on-off phasic excitation in DL-Int-1, vibration applied immediately after odor stimulation induced tonic inhibition in it. DL-Int-2 responded to vibration stimuli applied to the JO by a tonic burst and were most sensitive to 265 Hz vibration, which is coincident with the strongest frequency of airborne vibrations arising during the waggle dance. These results suggest that DL-Int-1 and DL-Int-2 are related to coding of the duration of the vibration as sensed by the JO. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Study on alcohol dependence and factors related to erectile dysfunction among aborigines in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jian-Kang; Ma, Mi-Chia; Lin, Yen-Chin; Chiang, Han-Sun; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Relatively few studies have addressed the risk factors of erectile dysfunction (ED) in Taiwanese- most have described ED and medical problems in the general population. In this study, the cardiovascular risk factors of ED among aborigines in Taiwan were investigated. However, alcohol dependence (AD) was prevalent in Taiwan's aborigine population. So this study also focused on the relationship among AD, the cardiovascular risk factors and ED. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and data was obtained from a baseline survey of 192 aboriginal adults (35-75 years of age). The participants' demographic data, AD, markers of endothelial function, serum testosterone, and ED status were assessed. Ninety-four (49%) of the 192 participants had a history of alcoholism and 79 (84%) of those with alcoholism had ED. The study reported that AD and hyperlipidemia, metabolic syndrome (MetS), ED, abnormality of testosterone, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are highly prevalent among the aborigines. Factors that may affect ED included age, AD, central obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, MetS, and testosterone. ED is highly prevalent among aborigines with the risk factors of AD, MetS, old age, and abnormal testosterone serum level. MetS, atherosclerosis, and ED are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, an increased focus on Taiwanese aborigines with ED is necessary. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. [Study on the current situation and influential factors of anxiety sensitivity among middle school students in Chongqing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Da-Jun; Guo, Lan-Ting; Feng, Zheng-Zhi; Wu, Ming-Xia

    2007-09-01

    To explore the status and influencing factors on anxiety sensitivity among middle school students in Chongqing. 58 classes from 12 schools were randomly selected in four administrative districts of Chongqing city. A total number of 2700 students was included for final analysis including 48.5% from junior high school and 51.5% from senior high school students with 49.2% boys and 50.8% girls. The Chinese version of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revision, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used. (1) There was no significant difference between grade groups (P = 0.49). (2) The level of girl's anxiety sensitivity was always higher than boy's (P < 0.001). (3) Data from multiple linear regression showed that the influential factors to the degree of anxiety sensitivity were: state of anxiety, trait anxiety, life events, sex, stress from learning, etc (standard coefficients of regression were 0.258, 0.163, 0.112, 0.093, 0.124, -0.096, 0.096). The major influential factors of anxiety sensitivity would include: sex, stress from learning, life events, interpersonal relationship, state of anxiety and trait anxiety.

  4. Capturing age-related changes in functional contrast sensitivity with decreasing light levels in monocular and binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Gallery, Hanna; Konstantakopoulou, Evgenia; Harlow, Jonathan A; Barbur, John L

    2013-09-09

    It is challenging to separate the effects of normal aging of the retina and visual pathways independently from optical factors, decreased retinal illuminance, and early stage disease. This study determined limits to describe the effect of light level on normal, age-related changes in monocular and binocular functional contrast sensitivity. We recruited 95 participants aged 20 to 85 years. Contrast thresholds for correct orientation discrimination of the gap in a Landolt C optotype were measured using a 4-alternative, forced-choice (4AFC) procedure at screen luminances from 34 to 0.12 cd/m(2) at the fovea and parafovea (0° and ±4°). Pupil size was measured continuously. The Health of the Retina index (HRindex) was computed to capture the loss of contrast sensitivity with decreasing light level. Participants were excluded if they exhibited performance outside the normal limits of interocular differences or HRindex values, or signs of ocular disease. Parafoveal contrast thresholds showed a steeper decline and higher correlation with age at the parafovea than the fovea. Of participants with clinical signs of ocular disease, 83% had HRindex values outside the normal limits. Binocular summation of contrast signals declined with age, independent of interocular differences. The HRindex worsens more rapidly with age at the parafovea, consistent with histologic findings of rod loss and its link to age-related degenerative disease of the retina. The HRindex and interocular differences could be used to screen for and separate the earliest stages of subclinical disease from changes caused by normal aging.

  5. High – Sensitivity C - reactive protein is associated with Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Indians with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Asegaonkar, Shilpa B; Bavikar, Jayashree Suhas; Marathe, Amruta; Tekade, Mangesh; Asegaonkar, Balaji N.; Jayashree, Bardapurkar

    2013-01-01

    Background: India is experiencing twin epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases imposing huge toll on healthcare system. In type 2 diabetes 65-80% deaths occur due to cardiovascular disease whose etiology cannot be explained by chronic hyperglycemia, dyslipedemia and traditional cardiac risk factors. To improve risk stratification serum high-sensitivity C- reactive protein estimation is an adjunct to other risk factors. Study design: O.P.D. based Cross sectional study....

  6. The Relation between Cosmological Redshift and Scale Factor for Photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Shuxun, E-mail: tshuxun@mail.bnu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Department of Physics, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2017-09-10

    The cosmological constant problem has become one of the most important ones in modern cosmology. In this paper, we try to construct a model that can avoid the cosmological constant problem and have the potential to explain the apparent late-time accelerating expansion of the universe in both luminosity distance and angular diameter distance measurement channels. In our model, the core is to modify the relation between cosmological redshift and scale factor for photons. We point out three ways to test our hypothesis: the supernova time dilation; the gravitational waves and its electromagnetic counterparts emitted by the binary neutron star systems; and the Sandage–Loeb effect. All of this method is feasible now or in the near future.

  7. [Quality-of-life-related factors in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Serrano, Marta; Martínez-Montilla, José Manuel; Guerra-Martín, María Dolores; Vargas-Martínez, Ana Magdalena; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín S

    To determine quality of life (QoL) and its relationship to lifestyles in adolescents in high schools. Cross-sectional, observational study with 256 students aged 12 to 17 in Seville (Spain). Multiple linear regression models were tested (p <0.05). The boys had higher scores in most of the QoL areas. The female gender was inversely related to physical, psychological, familial QoL areas and the general QoL index. Family functionality and performing physical activity were the factors most associated with better QoL in all areas. All multivariate models were statistically significant and explained from 11% of social QoL variability to 35% of the general QoL index. The findings could be useful for developing interventions to promote health in schools, with the objective of promoting healthy lifestyles and QoL. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Factors Protect against Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Kun Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is a principal mediator of signal transduction in the cell, and disruption of its normal function (a mechanism known as ER stress has been associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases. ER stress has been demonstrated to contribute to onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR by induction of multiple inflammatory signaling pathways. Recent studies have begun to describe the gene expression profile of ER stress-related genes in DR; moreover, genes that play a protective role against DR have been identified. P58IPK was determined to be able to reduce retinal vascular leakage under high glucose conditions, thus protecting retinal cells. It has also been found by our lab that ER-associated protein degradation factors exhibit significantly different expression patterns in rat retinas under sustained high glucose conditions. Future research based upon these collective genomic findings will contribute to our overall understanding of DR pathogenesis as well as identify potential therapeutic targets.

  9. Gender-related factors influencing perceptions of homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, F Y; McCreary, D R; Carpenter, K M; Engle, A; Korchynsky, R

    1999-01-01

    There is a long history linking gender role conformity to perceived homosexuality. However, the lack of a systematic theoretical model hinders the elucidation of the interrelationships among gender stereotypes, conformity to gender stereotypes, and perceived homosexuality, as well as other factors which may mediate these relationships. The purpose of the present study was to propose such a model by combining theories of gender stereotype formation and maintenance with research investigating perceptions of homosexuality. Specifically, this study examined college students' perceptions of gender role characteristics in male and female adult target persons and these students' perceptions of the likelihood that the targets were homosexual. Path analysis demonstrated that the sex and occupation of the target person were significantly related to perceived masculinity, femininity, and homosexuality of the target person. Furthermore, individual differences in these relationships were observed, indicating that the sex and gender role characteristics of the participant influenced perceptions of the gender role attributes and homosexuality of the target person.

  10. Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette

    Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors Jette Østergaard Rathe1, Pia V. Larsen1, Morten Andersen2, Janus L. Thomsen3, Maja S. Paulsen1, Jens Søndergaard1 1. Research Unit of General Practice, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark 2. Centre...... for Pharmacoepidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medicine Solna, Stockholm, Sweden 3. Danish Quality Unit of General Practice, Odense, Denmark Background Generic substitution means that chemically equivalent but less expensive drugs are dispensed in place of a brand name product. Although generic medicines...... by definition are bioequivalent to their brand name counterparts there are concerns about whether generic substitution is always accompanied by clinical equivalence in terms of effectiveness and that it may cause concerns and thereby causing some skepticism towards generic substitution. There is, however...

  11. Factors related to orthodontic treatment time in adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Camila Esteves de Oliveira Melo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The length of time that it takes an orthodontist to treat adult patients varies widely. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate how different variables influence treatment time. METHODS: Seventy clinical case reports of successfully treated adult patients were examined. The patients were selected from 4,723 records held by three experienced orthodontists. The influence exerted by the following variables on treatment time was assessed: age, sex, facial pattern, severity of malocclusion (measured by the PAR index, sagittal relationship of canines, type of brackets (ceramic or metal, tooth extractions, missed appointments and orthodontic appliance issues/breakages, the latter being the dependent variable. Assessment was performed by multiple linear regression analysis, followed by the stepwise method with P < 0.05. RESULTS: The number of times a patient missed their appointment (no-show (R² = 14.4%, p < 0.0001 and the number of appliance issues/breakages (R² = 29.71%, p = 0.0037 significantly affected variability in treatment time, and these two variables together can predict 43.75% (R² total of the overall variability in treatment time. Other factors, such as canine relationship at the beginning of treatment, bracket type (metal or ceramic, tooth extractions, age at start of treatment, severity of the initial malocclusion, sex and facial pattern had no significant bearing on treatment time. CONCLUSIONS: The duration of orthodontic treatment in adults, when performed by experienced orthodontists, is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. However, several factors which were not included in this study may contribute to variability in orthodontic treatment time.

  12. Nosocomial infections and related factors in southern khorasan hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Bijari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Nosocomial infections are defined as infections occurring during a patient's stay at hospital (48-72h after admission.Nosocomial infections are one of the important problems of health. This study aimed was determine the prevalence of nosocomial infections, and related factors in hospitals with more than 100 beds in south Khorasan Province. Materials and Methods: In this crass-sectional study, an investigator-administered questionnaire was completed for each patient with nosocomial infections diagnosis in hospitals with more than 100 beds in South Khorasan. This questionnaire conation demographic characteristic of patients, department, duration of admission, kind of pathogen and risk factors that was designed according to standard questionnaire of Iranian Nasocomial infections surveillance system (INIS of Center for communicable Disease Control, Ministry of Health. Data were analyzed with SPSS 16 software. Results and discussion: Number of patients with nosocomial infection was 358. The incidence of nosocomial infection was 0.9%. ICU had the highest incidence rate (17.3%. The most common nosocomial infection was pneumonia (43%, and urinary tract infection (UTI (15.1%. In 33.5% culture result were negative. In other cases, culture results showed klebsiella spp. (12.8% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.8% were the most prevalent bacteria. Most factors associated with nosocomial infection in patients were urinary catheters (70.4%, suction (66.8% and tracheal tube (54.2%. 24% of patients expired. The results showed lower ratio of nosocomial infection, that the main reason is failure to detection and reporting of actual cases of nosocomial infection. Promoting detection and reporting system for Prevention and control of nosocomial infection was recommended

  13. Factors related to resistance to hematopoietic death in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Nobuko; Okumoto, Masaaki; Yonezawa, Morio; Nishikawa, Ryosuke; Takamori, Yasuhiko; Esaki, Kozaburo.

    1994-01-01

    Mouse strain difference in the radiosensitivity to hematopoietic death is thought to be determined by several factors besides radiosensitivity and the initial number of hematopoietic stem cells. Factors related to the survival of mice exposed to X-irradiation were analyzed using BALB/cHeA and STS/A strains whose LD 50/30 values differ markedly (BALB/cHeA, 5.55 Gy; STS/A, 8.45 Gy). STS/A mice exposed to 4 Gy of X-irradiation showed a small reduction but rapid recovery of blood cells (leukocytes, erythrocytes, and thrombocytes) when compared with BALB/cHeA mice. The survival of endogenous and exogenous CFU-S was much higher, by a magnitude of one log or more, in STS/A mice than those in BALB/cHeA mice; whereas the initial numbers of femoral CFU-S were similar for the two strains. The recovery of exogenous CFU-S was much more rapid in STS/A mice than it was in BALB/cHeA mice after 4 Gy of X-irradiation. Furthermore, spleen colonies produced by the transfusion of STS/A marrow cells into syngeneic recipients were significantly larger than those produced by BALB/cHeA marrow cells, regardless of whether the mice used for sources of marrow cells had been irradiated. But, there was no such difference when unirradiated marrow cells from the two strains were transfused into (BALB/cHeA X STS/A) F 1 recipients. These results indicate the possible contribution of a host factor (s) that stimulates the growth of spleen colonies after radiation to the radioresistance of STS/A mice, in addition to the primary effect of higher number of survivals of endogenous and exogenous CFU-S in STS/A mice. (author)

  14. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenov, Kaloyan; Cabello, Maria; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Cieza, Alarcos; Sabariego, Carla; Raggi, Alberto; Anczewska, Marta; Pitkänen, Tuuli; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness) and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality. PMID:26900847

  15. Demographic And Risk Factors Related To Military Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasolinejad

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tuberculosis is one the major health care problems in developing countries. Miliary tuberculosis is induced by blood dissemination of multiple tubercle bacilli, the paramount importance of accurate diagnosis of military tuberculosis is because of its dismal outcome if untreated and the chance of cure if diagnosis happens early in the course of the disorder. In this study we describe the demographic and risk factors related to military tuberculosis, which enables us to control and reduce the incidence of military tuberculosis. This ultimately reduces the mortality and morbidity consistent with this disorder. Materials and Methods: we conducted a retrospective case control study, which compares 28 patients with military tuberculosis and 56 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis as control. We reviewed all the patients' documents registered between years 1994-2004, after extracting raw data we analyzed them with chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results and Conclusion: We found that HIV (P< 0.05 infection and lack of BCG vaccination (P< 0.05 increases the number of military tuberculosis among our patients. In addition we did not find any other significant risk factor.

  16. [Becoming parents. Factors related to the feeling of competence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonard, N; Paul, D

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, priority measures have been established within the health field in Québec for raising parents' self-esteem in regard to their role, and ensuring that their parenting skills improve. The study Perceptions de la relation conjugale, du fonctionnement familial et du sentiment de compétence parentale chez des pères et des mères d'un premier enfant âgé d'un an was conducted in keeping with these measures. Nathalie Léonard conducted the research as part of her studies toward a master's degree in nursing science; her thesis advisor was Denise Paul. One goal of her correlative descriptive study was to describe perceptions of the feeling of parental competence among couples with a first child one year of age. A survey of the literature enabled listing of the factors that influence the feeling of parental competence in three categories, according to whether it is linked to the parents, to the child or to their surroundings. Awareness of these factors enables nurses in hospital and community settings to provide more effective support to parents of a first child in their process of adapting to parenthood.

  17. Factors Related to Social Support in Neurological and Mental Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaloyan Kamenov

    Full Text Available Despite the huge body of research on social support, literature has been primarily focused on its beneficial role for both physical and mental health. It is still unclear why people with mental and neurological disorders experience low levels of social support. The main objective of this study was to explore what are the strongest factors related to social support and how do they interact with each other in neuropsychiatric disorders. The study used cross-sectional data from 722 persons suffering from dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke, and substance use disorders. Multiple linear regressions showed that disability was the strongest factor for social support. Extraversion and agreeableness were significant personality variables, but when the interaction terms between personality traits and disability were included, disability remained the only significant variable. Moreover, level of disability mediated the relationship between personality (extraversion and agreeableness and level of social support. Moderation analysis revealed that people that had mental disorders experienced lower levels of support when being highly disabled compared to people with neurological disorders. Unlike previous literature, focused on increasing social support as the origin of improving disability, this study suggested that interventions improving day-to-day functioning or maladaptive personality styles might also have an effect on the way people perceive social support. Future longitudinal research, however, is warranted to explore causality.

  18. Some interesting prognostic factors related to cutaneous malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joan Figueroa, AlejandroYuri; Diaz Anaya, Amnia; Montero Leon, Jorge Felipe; Jimenez Mendes, Lourdes

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of present research was to determine the independent prognostic value and the 3 and 5 years survival of more significant clinicopathological prognostic factors and in each stage, according to pathological staging system of tumor-nodule-metastasis (TNM) in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). METHODS: A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted applying the Cox proportional risk form and the Kaplan-Meier method, aimed to search of different risk variables in patients with CMM. We studied 157 patients with CMM, seen during 8 years (1993 to 2001), diagnosed and treated in National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology of La Habana. RESULTS: The more powerful prognostic variables related to localized disease (stage I and II) were the Breslow density (P: 0,000), the mitosis rate (P: 0,004), and the Clark level (P: 0,04); among the variables related to the regional disease (stage III) the number of lymphatic ganglia involved was the more weighthy (P:0,000) and the more important in Stage IV was the distant visceral metastasis (P:0,003). Survival was decreasing according to the advance of the pathological stage of disease. CONCLUSIONS: The more involved independent prognostic factors were the Breslow rate, the number of involved regional lymphatic nodules and the distant visceral metastasis, which is endorsed by a world consensus. However, variables as age, sex, lesion site, ulceration, host-tumor inflammatory response, histological subtype, satellitosis and transient metastasis, considered as independent prognostic indicators in big casuistries, had not statistical significance in present paper. (author)

  19. [Study on sensitivity of climatic factors on influenza A (H1N1) based on classification and regression tree and wavelet analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hong; Lin, Xiao-ling; Dai, Xiang-yu; Gao, Li-dong; Chen, Bi-yun; Zhang, Xi-xing; Zhu, Pei-juan; Tian, Huai-yu

    2012-05-01

    To analyze the periodicity of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in Changsha in year 2009 and its correlation with sensitive climatic factors. The information of 5439 cases of influenza A (H1N1) and synchronous meteorological data during the period between May 22th and December 31st in year 2009 (223 days in total) in Changsha city were collected. The classification and regression tree (CART) was employed to screen the sensitive climatic factors on influenza A (H1N1); meanwhile, cross wavelet transform and wavelet coherence analysis were applied to assess and compare the periodicity of the pandemic disease and its association with the time-lag phase features of the sensitive climatic factors. The results of CART indicated that the daily minimum temperature and daily absolute humidity were the sensitive climatic factors for the popularity of influenza A (H1N1) in Changsha. The peak of the incidence of influenza A (H1N1) was in the period between October and December (Median (M) = 44.00 cases per day), simultaneously the daily minimum temperature (M = 13°C) and daily absolute humidity (M = 6.69 g/m(3)) were relatively low. The results of wavelet analysis demonstrated that a period of 16 days was found in the epidemic threshold in Changsha, while the daily minimum temperature and daily absolute humidity were the relatively sensitive climatic factors. The number of daily reported patients was statistically relevant to the daily minimum temperature and daily absolute humidity. The frequency domain was mostly in the period of (16 ± 2) days. In the initial stage of the disease (from August 9th and September 8th), a 6-day lag was found between the incidence and the daily minimum temperature. In the peak period of the disease, the daily minimum temperature and daily absolute humidity were negatively relevant to the incidence of the disease. In the pandemic period, the incidence of influenza A (H1N1) showed periodic features; and the sensitive climatic factors did have a "driving

  20. Hospitalisations and costs relating to ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheridan, A

    2012-03-08

    BACKGROUND: Ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs) are conditions for which the provision of timely and effective outpatient care can reduce the risks of hospitalisation by preventing, controlling or managing a chronic disease or condition. AIMS: The aims of this study were to report on ACSCs in Ireland, and to provide a baseline for future reference. METHODS: Using HIPE, via Health Atlas Ireland, inpatient discharges classified as ACSCs using definitions from the Victorian ACSC study were extracted for the years 2005-2008. Direct methods of standardisation allowed comparison of rates using the EU standard population as a comparison for national data, and national population as comparison for county data. Costs were estimated using diagnosis-related groups. RESULTS: The directly age-standardised discharge rate for ACSC-related discharges increased slightly, but non-significantly, from 15.40 per 1,000 population in 2005 to 15.75 per 1,000 population in 2008. The number of discharges increased (9.5%) from 63,619 in 2005 to 69,664 in 2008, with the estimated associated hospital costs increasing (31.5%) from 267.8 million in 2005 to 352.2 million in 2008. Across the country, there was considerable variation in the discharge rates for the Top-10 ACSCs for the years 2005-2008. Significantly lower rates of hospitalisation were observed in more urban areas including Cork, Dublin and Galway. The most common ACSC in 2008 was diabetes with complications (29.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The variation in rates observed indicates the scope of reducing hospitalisations and associated costs for ACSCs, across both adult\\'s and children\\'s services and particularly in relation to diabetes complications.

  1. Development of a sensitive ELISA for the quantification of human tumour necrosis factor-alpha using 4 polyclonal antibodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grebenchtchikov, N.J.; Ven-Jongekrijg, J. van der; Pesman, G.J.; Geurts-Moespot, A.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Sweep, C.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the availability of many assays to measure concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in body fluids, these assays often lack specificity or sensitivity and are often of questionable reliability, resulting in inconsistent results. Therefore, we have developed an ELISA that is

  2. Risk factors associated with sensitive skin and potential role of lifestyle habits: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falcone, D.; Richters, R.J.H.; Uzunbajakava, N.E.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2017-01-01

    Sensitive skin (SS) is a widespread condition, but still not completely understood. To identify risk factors that increase the likelihood of SS, 258 women aged between 20 and 65 years old and resident in the Netherlands were surveyed by questionnaire, which included questions on sociodemographic

  3. Expression of UV-Sensitive Parapinopsin in the Iguana Parietal Eyes and Its Implication in UV-Sensitivity in Vertebrate Pineal-Related Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Seiji; Kawano-Yamashita, Emi; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Terakita, Akihisa

    2012-01-01

    The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identification of parapinopsin in the reptile lineage and show its expression in the parietal eye of the green iguana. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that iguana parapinopsin is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies specific to parapinopsin and parietopsin, a parietal eye green-sensitive pigment, revealed that parapinopsin and parietopsin are colocalized in the outer segments of the parietal eye photoreceptor cells in iguanas. These results strongly suggest that parapinopsin underlies the wavelength discrimination involving UV reception in the iguana parietal eye. The current findings support the idea that parapinopsin is a common photopigment underlying the UV-sensitivity in wavelength discrimination of the pineal-related organs found from lampreys to reptiles. PMID:22720013

  4. Expression of UV-sensitive parapinopsin in the iguana parietal eyes and its implication in UV-sensitivity in vertebrate pineal-related organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Seiji; Kawano-Yamashita, Emi; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa; Terakita, Akihisa

    2012-01-01

    The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identification of parapinopsin in the reptile lineage and show its expression in the parietal eye of the green iguana. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that iguana parapinopsin is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies specific to parapinopsin and parietopsin, a parietal eye green-sensitive pigment, revealed that parapinopsin and parietopsin are colocalized in the outer segments of the parietal eye photoreceptor cells in iguanas. These results strongly suggest that parapinopsin underlies the wavelength discrimination involving UV reception in the iguana parietal eye. The current findings support the idea that parapinopsin is a common photopigment underlying the UV-sensitivity in wavelength discrimination of the pineal-related organs found from lampreys to reptiles.

  5. Expression of UV-sensitive parapinopsin in the iguana parietal eyes and its implication in UV-sensitivity in vertebrate pineal-related organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Wada

    Full Text Available The pineal-related organs of lower vertebrates have the ability to discriminate different wavelengths of light. This wavelength discrimination is achieved through antagonistic light responses to UV or blue and visible light. Previously, we demonstrated that parapinopsin underlies the UV reception in the lamprey pineal organ and identified parapinopsin genes in teleosts and frogs of which the pineal-related organs were reported to discriminate light. In this study, we report the first identification of parapinopsin in the reptile lineage and show its expression in the parietal eye of the green iguana. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that iguana parapinopsin is a UV-sensitive pigment, similar to lamprey parapinopsin. Interestingly, immunohistochemical analyses using antibodies specific to parapinopsin and parietopsin, a parietal eye green-sensitive pigment, revealed that parapinopsin and parietopsin are colocalized in the outer segments of the parietal eye photoreceptor cells in iguanas. These results strongly suggest that parapinopsin underlies the wavelength discrimination involving UV reception in the iguana parietal eye. The current findings support the idea that parapinopsin is a common photopigment underlying the UV-sensitivity in wavelength discrimination of the pineal-related organs found from lampreys to reptiles.

  6. The transcription factor Prep1 controls hepatic insulin sensitivity and gluconeogenesis by targeting nuclear localization of FOXO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulebyakin, Konstantin; Penkov, Dmitry; Blasi, Francesco; Akopyan, Zhanna; Tkachuk, Vsevolod

    2016-12-02

    Liver plays a key role in controlling body carbohydrate homeostasis by switching between accumulation and production of glucose and this way maintaining constant level of glucose in blood. Increased blood glucose level triggers release of insulin from pancreatic β-cells. Insulin represses hepatic glucose production and increases glucose accumulation. Insulin resistance is the main cause of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. Currently thiazolidinediones (TZDs) targeting transcriptional factor PPARγ are used as insulin sensitizers for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. However, TZDs are reported to be associated with cardiovascular and liver problems and stimulate obesity. Thus, it is necessary to search new approaches to improve insulin sensitivity. A promising candidate is transcriptional factor Prep1, as it was shown earlier it could affect insulin sensitivity in variety of insulin-sensitive tissues. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a possible involvement of transcriptional factor Prep1 in control of hepatic glucose accumulation and production. We created mice with liver-specific Prep1 knockout and discovered that hepatocytes derived from these mice are much more sensitive to insulin, comparing to their WT littermates. Incubation of these cells with 100 nM insulin results in almost complete inhibition of gluconeogenesis, while in WT cells this repression is only partial. However, Prep1 doesn't affect gluconeogenesis in the absence of insulin. Also, we observed that nuclear content of gluconeogenic transcription factor FOXO1 was greatly reduced in Prep1 knockout hepatocytes. These findings suggest that Prep1 may control hepatic insulin sensitivity by targeting FOXO1 nuclear stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Moral sensitivity relating to the application of the code of ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Soon; Kang, Se-Won; Ahn, Jeong-Ah

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the clinical application of the 2006 Third Revised Korean Nurses' Code of Ethics and the moral sensitivity of nurses. A total of 303 clinical nurses in South Korea participated in the survey in May and June 2011. As instruments of this study, we used the 15 statements of the Korean Nurses' Code of Ethics and Korean Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire. The mean score for application was 3.77 ± 0.59 (out of 5), and the mean score for moral sensitivity was 5.14 ± 0.55 (out of 7). The correlation coefficient (r) of the application and moral sensitivity was 0.336 (p moral sensitivity also scored high on application (t = -5.018, p moral sensitivity of nurses are necessary for improving the application of the code of ethics.

  8. [Factors related to subjective fatigue symptoms of adolescent girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Junko; Fukuda, Sayuri; Murakami, Toshio; Kawamoto, Naoki

    2011-09-01

    To assess changes in subjective fatigue symptoms of adolescent girls over a 15-year period and investigate factors related to these symptoms. A total of 86 items on physical health (including subjective fatigue symptoms), dietary life, and daily living were investigated and five items on physical activity were measured for approximately 100 female first-year dietetic students at a junior college each October over the 15-year period from 1994 to 2008. A total of 1,547 students (mean age, 19.2 +/- 0.3 years) were studied. Subjects were first divided into two groups using the median subjective fatigue score as the cutoff point, and annual changes in the proportion of students in the high subjective fatigue group were investigated by simple regression analysis. In addition, relationships between the two subjective fatigue groups and each item were investigated. 1) The proportion of students with many subjective fatigue symptoms showed a significantly increasing trend over the 15-year period. 2) Investigation of relationships between subjective fatigue symptoms and each factor revealed significance for many items, including dietary habits, life satisfaction, amount of sleep, and desire for a positive body image. 3) In order to determine which of the items were most strongly related to subjective fatigue symptoms, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for the 15-year period as well as three 5-year periods into which it was divided. The results showed that the dietary habits score (an indicator of dietary habits) and life satisfaction were related to subjective fatigue symptoms during all four periods. As for other items, relationships were observed for amount of sleep in three, diet and salt intake score in two, and liking for coffee/tea, juice drinks, and oily food, bedtime snack, desire for body image, self-assessment of body type, and health consciousness in one. These findings indicate that perspectives in education for promoting the health of

  9. Classification analysis of organization factors related to system safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huizhen; Zhang Li; Zhang Yuling; Guan Shihua

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the different types of organization factors which influence the system safety. The organization factor can be divided into the interior organization factor and exterior organization factor. The latter includes the factors of political, economical, technical, law, social culture and geographical, and the relationships among different interest groups. The former includes organization culture, communication, decision, training, process, supervision and management and organization structure. This paper focuses on the description of the organization factors. The classification analysis of the organization factors is the early work of quantitative analysis. (authors)

  10. Factors related to drug approvals: predictors of outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, Lawrence; Breckenridge, Alasdair; Hoekman, Jarno; McAuslane, Neil; Stolk, Pieter; Leufkens, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    There is growing interest in characterising factors associated with positive regulatory outcomes for drug marketing authorisations. We assessed empirical studies published over the past 15 years seeking to identify predictive factors. Factors were classified to one of four 'factor clusters': evidentiary support; product or indication characteristics; company experience or strategy; social and regulatory factors. We observed a heterogeneous mix of technical factors (e.g., study designs, clinical evidence of efficacy) and less studied social factors (e.g., company-regulator interactions). We confirmed factors known to be of relevance to drug approval decisions (imperative) and a cohort of less understood (compensatory) social factors. Having robust supportive clinical evidence, addressing rare or serious illness, following scientific advice and prior company experience were associated with positive outcomes, which illustrated the multifactorial nature of regulatory decision making and factors need to be considered holistically while having varying, context-dependent importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intrinsic factors that can affect sensitivity to chromosome-aberration induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The paper addresses the question, are there individuals who are hypersensitive, or are more likely to be hypersensitive, to the induction of chromosome aberrations by radiation and chemicals. Lymphocytes of persons heterozygous for xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia telangiectasia, and Fauconi's anemia were subjected to chemical and/or ionizing radiations to determine their sensitivity to chromosome aberration induction. In the majority of cases the sensitivity was intermediate between that of normal individuals and homozygotes for these genes

  12. Phenotypic factor analysis of psychopathology reveals a new body-related transdiagnostic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Patrizia; Antfolk, Jan; Santtila, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Comorbidity challenges the notion of mental disorders as discrete categories. An increasing body of literature shows that symptoms cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries and interact in shaping the latent structure of psychopathology. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, we reveal the latent sources of covariation among nine measures of psychopathological functioning in a population-based sample of 13024 Finnish twins and their siblings. By implementing unidimensional, multidimensional, second-order, and bifactor models, we illustrate the relationships between observed variables, specific, and general latent factors. We also provide the first investigation to date of measurement invariance of the bifactor model of psychopathology across gender and age groups. Our main result is the identification of a distinct "Body" factor, alongside the previously identified Internalizing and Externalizing factors. We also report relevant cross-disorder associations, especially between body-related psychopathology and trait anger, as well as substantial sex and age differences in observed and latent means. The findings expand the meta-structure of psychopathology, with implications for empirical and clinical practice, and demonstrate shared mechanisms underlying attitudes towards nutrition, self-image, sexuality and anger, with gender- and age-specific features.

  13. [Risk factors and protective factors relating to suicide in the Netherlands and Flanders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, A; Kerkhof, A J F M; Molenberghs, G; van Audenhove, C

    2016-01-01

    The suicide rate is 82% higher in the Flanders region of Belgium than in the Netherlands. To investigate to what extent Flanders and the Netherlands differ with regard to the risk factors and protective factors relating to suicide and attempted suicide. By means of a structured postal questionnaire, we collected data on the following topics from 2999 Flemish and Dutch people between 18 and 64 years: mental well-being and earlier attempts to commit suicide, the help they had received and their intention to seek help for psychological problems, awareness of the mental health care available, satisfaction with the help received, and attitudes to suicide. The incidence of psychological problems and suicidality did not differ significantly between Flanders and the Netherlands. Compared to Flemish people, Dutch people with psychological problems had received more psychological help and more often expressed the intention to seek help in the future. Furthermore, the Dutch were better informed about mental health care, and patient satisfaction was higher in the Netherlands. Compared to the Flemish people, the Dutch had more positive and understanding attitude to suicide. In general, risk factors for suicide were similar in the Netherlands and Flanders. However, the Dutch were characterised by more protective factors. We attempt to explain these differences and suggest ways of improving suicidal prevention policy.

  14. Exercise Self-Efficacy Moderates the Relation between Anxiety Sensitivity and Body Mass Index and Exercise Tolerance in Treatment-Seeking Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G.; Davis, Michelle L.; Rosenfield, David; Kauffman, Brooke Y.; Baird, Scarlett O.; Powers, Mark B.; Otto, Michael W.; Marcus, Bess H.; Church, Timothy S.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    There is little known about factors that contribute to the comorbidity of cigarette smoking and obesity. The current study sought to test whether exercise self-efficacy moderated the relation between anxiety sensitivity (fear of internal sensations) and BMI and exercise tolerance among cigarette smokers. Smokers (n = 72; 50% female; Mcpd = 19.3, SD = 10.65) were recruited to participate in a smoking cessation treatment trial. During medical screen, we measured weight, height, and exercise tolerance (functional capacity) employing a standardized maximal exercise testing protocol. After adjusting for participant sex and cigarettes per day, exercise self-efficacy moderated the association between anxiety sensitivity and BMI, such that the positive association between anxiety sensitivity and BMI was significantly stronger when exercise self-efficacy was low. The same pattern of results emerged for exercise tolerance. Exercise self-efficacy moderated the association between anxiety sensitivity and exercise tolerance, such that the negative association between anxiety sensitivity and exercise tolerance was significantly stronger when exercise self-efficacy was low. Among smokers, anxiety sensitivity may be a risk variable that, directly and indirectly in the context of low self-efficacy for exercise, causes or maintains higher body weight and lower exercise tolerance. PMID:27725844

  15. Bayesian Sensitivity Analysis of a Nonlinear Dynamic Factor Analysis Model with Nonparametric Prior and Possible Nonignorable Missingness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Niansheng; Chow, Sy-Miin; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Zhu, Hongtu

    2017-12-01

    Many psychological concepts are unobserved and usually represented as latent factors apprehended through multiple observed indicators. When multiple-subject multivariate time series data are available, dynamic factor analysis models with random effects offer one way of modeling patterns of within- and between-person variations by combining factor analysis and time series analysis at the factor level. Using the Dirichlet process (DP) as a nonparametric prior for individual-specific time series parameters further allows the distributional forms of these parameters to deviate from commonly imposed (e.g., normal or other symmetric) functional forms, arising as a result of these parameters' restricted ranges. Given the complexity of such models, a thorough sensitivity analysis is critical but computationally prohibitive. We propose a Bayesian local influence method that allows for simultaneous sensitivity analysis of multiple modeling components within a single fitting of the model of choice. Five illustrations and an empirical example are provided to demonstrate the utility of the proposed approach in facilitating the detection of outlying cases and common sources of misspecification in dynamic factor analysis models, as well as identification of modeling components that are sensitive to changes in the DP prior specification.

  16. Situationally-sensitive knowledge translation and relational decision making in hyperacute stroke: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine J Murtagh

    the challenges of decision making about rtPA in hyperacute stroke were relational decision support and situationally-sensitive knowledge translation.

  17. Situationally-sensitive knowledge translation and relational decision making in hyperacute stroke: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtagh, Madeleine J; Burges Watson, Duika L; Jenkings, K Neil; Lie, Mabel L S; Mackintosh, Joan E; Ford, Gary A; Thomson, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    decision making about rtPA in hyperacute stroke were relational decision support and situationally-sensitive knowledge translation.

  18. Childhood bruxism: Related factors and impact on oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Castilho, Thuanny; Marinho, Marcello; Fraga, Renato Silva; Antunes, Leonardo Santos

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess childhood bruxism relating associated factors and the bruxism's impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). A case-control study was performed with 3- to 6-year-old children obtained from public preschools in Brazil. The case and control groups had 21 and 40 children, respectively. Associations between bruxism and respiratory problems (p = 0.04, OR: 0.33, CI: 0.09 to 1.14), dental wear (p 0.05). The association between presence and absence of impact with bruxism or other variables showed no statistical relationship (p > 0.05). It could be concluded that childhood bruxism is related to respiratory problems, dental wear, dental caries, and malocclusion. Despite being a topic that demands special care in dentistry, bruxism does not significantly affect the OHRQoL. © 2015 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Factors related to persisting perforations after ventilation tube insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell Ferster, Ashley P; Tanner, April Michelle; Karikari, Kodjo; Roberts, Christopher; Wiltz, Derek; Carr, Michele M

    2016-02-01

    Over a million ventilation tubes are placed annually in the United States, making this one of the most commonly performed procedures in the field of medicine. Certain factors increase the risk of persistent tympanic membrane perforation following the extrusion of short term ventilation tubes. Persistent perforations may fail to heal on their own, necessitating surgical closure to avoid conductive hearing loss. It is important to detect factors that may predict children who are at increased risk for persistent perforations. This study was a retrospective chart review that involved 757 patients between 2003 and 2008. The patients studied were within the age of 2 months-17 years, and all had short term tubes placed. The chart data also included demographic information, comorbidities, and information related to tube insertion and follow-up care. Chi-square, t-test, and multivariate logistic regression were conducted to compare variables between patients with perforations and those without. Data from 757 patients was analyzed, showing that perforation rate is associated with rhinorrhea, operative tube removal, aural polyps, and otorrhea (OR 1.72, 8.16, 4.69, and 1.72 respectively). The absence of otorrhea decreased the likelihood of TM perforations and no significant differences were found in gender, total number of sets of tubes, type of tube, use of nasal steroids, adenoidectomy, or nasal congestion. Our findings suggest that children with rhinorrhea, otorrhea, aural polyps, or prolonged intubation requiring operative tube removal should be identified clinically as children at risk of persisting perforation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychoneurometric operationalization of threat sensitivity: Relations with clinical symptom and physiological response criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, James R; Venables, Noah C; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative calls for the incorporation of neurobiological approaches and findings into conceptions of mental health problems through a focus on biobehavioral constructs investigated across multiple domains of measurement (units of analysis). Although the constructs in the RDoC system are characterized in "process terms" (i.e., as functional concepts with brain and behavioral referents), these constructs can also be framed as dispositions (i.e., as dimensions of variation in biobehavioral functioning across individuals). Focusing on one key RDoC construct, acute threat or "fear," the current article illustrates a construct-oriented psychoneurometric strategy for operationalizing this construct in individual difference terms-as threat sensitivity (THT+). Utilizing data from 454 adult participants, we demonstrate empirically that (a) a scale measure of THT+ designed to tap general fear/fearlessness predicts effectively to relevant clinical problems (i.e., fear disorder symptoms), (b) this scale measure shows reliable associations with physiological indices of acute reactivity to aversive visual stimuli, and (c) a cross-domain factor reflecting the intersection of scale and physiological indicators of THT+ predicts effectively to both clinical and neurophysiological criterion measures. Results illustrate how the psychoneurometric approach can be used to create a dimensional index of a biobehavioral trait construct, in this case THT+, which can serve as a bridge between phenomena in domains of psychopathology and neurobiology. Implications and future directions are discussed with reference to the RDoC initiative and existing report-based conceptions of psychological traits. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. Relative sensitivities of DCE-MRI pharmacokinetic parameters to arterial input function (AIF) scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Cai, Yu; Moloney, Brendan; Chen, Yiyi; Huang, Wei; Woods, Mark; Coakley, Fergus V; Rooney, William D; Garzotto, Mark G; Springer, Charles S

    2016-08-01

    Dynamic-Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI) has been used widely for clinical applications. Pharmacokinetic modeling of DCE-MRI data that extracts quantitative contrast reagent/tissue-specific model parameters is the most investigated method. One of the primary challenges in pharmacokinetic analysis of DCE-MRI data is accurate and reliable measurement of the arterial input function (AIF), which is the driving force behind all pharmacokinetics. Because of effects such as inflow and partial volume averaging, AIF measured from individual arteries sometimes require amplitude scaling for better representation of the blood contrast reagent (CR) concentration time-courses. Empirical approaches like blinded AIF estimation or reference tissue AIF derivation can be useful and practical, especially when there is no clearly visible blood vessel within the imaging field-of-view (FOV). Similarly, these approaches generally also require magnitude scaling of the derived AIF time-courses. Since the AIF varies among individuals even with the same CR injection protocol and the perfect scaling factor for reconstructing the ground truth AIF often remains unknown, variations in estimated pharmacokinetic parameters due to varying AIF scaling factors are of special interest. In this work, using simulated and real prostate cancer DCE-MRI data, we examined parameter variations associated with AIF scaling. Our results show that, for both the fast-exchange-limit (FXL) Tofts model and the water exchange sensitized fast-exchange-regime (FXR) model, the commonly fitted CR transfer constant (K(trans)) and the extravascular, extracellular volume fraction (ve) scale nearly proportionally with the AIF, whereas the FXR-specific unidirectional cellular water efflux rate constant, kio, and the CR intravasation rate constant, kep, are both AIF scaling insensitive. This indicates that, for DCE-MRI of prostate cancer and possibly other cancers, kio and kep may be more suitable imaging

  2. Can Bcl-XL expression predict the radio sensitivity of Bilharzial-related squamous bladder carcinoma? a prospective comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Nermen A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local pelvic recurrence after radical cystectomy for muscle invasive bilharzial related squamous cell carcinoma accounts for 75% of treatment failures even in organ confined tumors. Despite the proven value of lymphadenectomy, up to 60% of patients undergoing cystectomy do not have it. These factors are in favor of adjuvant radiotherapy reevaluation. objectives: to evaluate the effect of adjuvant radiotherapy on disease free survival in muscle invasive bilharzial related squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and to test the predictability of radio-sensitivity using the anti apoptotic protein Bcl-XL. Methods The study prospectively included 71 patients, (47 males, 24 females with muscle invasive bilharzial related squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder (Stage pT2a-T3N0-N3M0 who underwent radical cystectomy in Assiut university hospitals between January 2005 and December 2006. Thirty eight patients received adjuvant radiotherapy to the pelvis in the dose of 50Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks (Group 1, while 33 patients did not receive adjuvant radiotherapy (group 2. Immunohistochemical characterization for bcl-xL expression was done. Follow up was done every 3 months for 12 to 36 months with a mean of 16 ± 10 months. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Three years cumulative disease free survival was calculated and adjusted to Bcl-XL expression and side effects of the treatment were recorded. Results The disease free cumulative survival was 48% for group 1 and 29% for group 2 (log rank p value 0.03. The multivariate predictors of tumor recurrence were the positive Bcl-XL expression (odd ratio 41.1, 95% CI 8.4 - 102.3, p Conclusions Adjuvant radiotherapy for muscle invasive bilharzial related squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder has potential effectiveness and minor side effects. Moreover, Bcl-XL expression is a valuable tool for predicting those who might not respond to this adjuvant treatment.

  3. Absorption and retention of nickel from drinking water in relation to food intake and nickel sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, G D; Søderberg, U; Jørgensen, P J; Templeton, D M; Rasmussen, S N; Andersen, K E; Grandjean, P

    1999-01-01

    Two studies were performed to examine the influence of fasting and food intake on the absorption and retention of nickel added to drinking water and to determine if nickel sensitization played any role in this regard. First, eight nonallergic male volunteers fasted overnight before being given nickel in drinking water (12 micrograms Ni/kg) and, at different time intervals, standardized 1400-kJ portions of scrambled eggs. When nickel was ingested in water 30 min or 1 h prior to the meal, peak nickel concentrations in serum occurred 1 h after the water intake, and the peak was 13-fold higher than the one seen 1 h after simultaneous intake of nickel-containing water and scrambled eggs. In the latter case, a smaller, delayed peak occurred 3 h after the meal. Median urinary nickel excretion half-times varied between 19.9 and 26.7 h. Within 3 days, the amount of nickel excreted corresponded to 2.5% of the nickel ingested when it was mixed into the scrambled eggs. Increasing amounts were excreted as the interval between the water and the meal increased, with 25.8% of the administered dose being excreted when the eggs were served 4 h prior to the nickel-containing drinking water. In the second experiment, a stable nickel isotope, 61Ni, was given in drinking water to 20 nickel-sensitized women and 20 age-matched controls, both groups having vesicular hand eczema of the pompholyx type. Nine of 20 nickel allergic eczema patients experienced aggravation of hand eczema after nickel administration, and three also developed a maculopapular exanthema. No exacerbation was seen in the control group. The course of nickel absorption and excretion in the allergic groups did not differ and was similar to the pattern seen in the first study, although the absorption in the women was less. A sex-related difference in gastric emptying rates may play a role. Thus, food intake and gastric emptying are of substantial significance for the bioavailability of nickel from aqueous solutions

  4. Assessment of Factors Related to Auto-PEEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalini, Giuseppe; Tuzzo, Daniele; Rosano, Antonio; Testa, Marco; Grazioli, Michele; Pennestrì, Vincenzo; Amodeo, Guido; Marsilia, Paolo F; Tinnirello, Andrea; Berruto, Francesco; Fiorillo, Marialinda; Filippini, Matteo; Peratoner, Alberto; Minelli, Cosetta; Bernardini, Achille

    2016-02-01

    Previous physiological studies have identified factors that are involved in auto-PEEP generation. In our study, we examined how much auto-PEEP is generated from factors that are involved in its development. One hundred eighty-six subjects undergoing controlled mechanical ventilation with persistent expiratory flow at the beginning of each inspiration were enrolled in the study. Volume-controlled continuous mandatory ventilation with PEEP of 0 cm H2O was applied while maintaining the ventilator setting as chosen by the attending physician. End-expiratory and end-inspiratory airway occlusion maneuvers were performed to calculate respiratory mechanics, and tidal flow limitation was assessed by a maneuver of manual compression of the abdomen. The variable with the strongest effect on auto-PEEP was flow limitation, which was associated with an increase of 2.4 cm H2O in auto-PEEP values. Moreover, auto-PEEP values were directly related to resistance of the respiratory system and body mass index and inversely related to expiratory time/time constant. Variables that were associated with the breathing pattern (tidal volume, frequency minute ventilation, and expiratory time) did not show any relationship with auto-PEEP values. The risk of auto-PEEP ≥5 cm H2O was increased by flow limitation (adjusted odds ratio 17; 95% CI: 6-56.2), expiratory time/time constant ratio 15 cm H2O/L s (3; 1.3-6.9), age >65 y (2.8; 1.2-6.5), and body mass index >26 kg/m(2) (2.6; 1.1-6.1). Flow limitation, expiratory time/time constant, resistance of the respiratory system, and obesity are the most important variables that affect auto-PEEP values. Frequency expiratory time, tidal volume, and minute ventilation were not independently associated with auto-PEEP. Therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing auto-PEEP and its adverse effects should be primarily oriented to the variables that mainly affect auto-PEEP values. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. Influence of Ethnic-Related Diversity Experiences on Intercultural Sensitivity of Students at a Public University in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamam, Ezhar; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the influence of ethnic-related diversity experiences on intercultural sensitivity among Malaysian students at a multiethnic, multicultural and multilingual Malaysian public university. Results reveal a significant differential level of ethnic-related diversity experiences (but not at the level of intercultural…

  6. MOTHER – CHILD RELATION AND FACTORS AFFECTING T H I S RELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma TEZEL ŞAHİ N

    2014-09-01

    in order to make him attain his personality. In this circle where enough support is given to the child, the qualities of the discipline and education given by the mother are positive. The child is grown up as brave and adaptive persons to the society. He learns to build his life upon positive efforts. The purpose of the current study wa s to determine a healthy mother - child relation, its importance and factors affecting mother - child relation. In this line, the studies regarding the issue were discussed and some recommendations were given over the studies to be carried out.

  7. Impact of environmental factors on PADC radon detector sensitivity during long term storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasikiewicz, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    A broad set of data on poly-allyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) exposure to various environmental conditions has been collected for a period of 1 year in order to study the aging effect on the sensitivity to radon detection. Aging is a phenomenon that occurs during long PADC storage resulting in a loss of sensitivity and/or creation of false tracks. Conditions under investigation were storages under pure nitrogen or air atmospheres, in water solutions of different pHs, in a range of temperatures, humidity and exposure to UV, gamma and neutron radiations. It was found that PADC strongly responds to some external conditions through physical changes in the polymer material; for example, etching of UV exposed detectors led to 10% loss of their thickness and the removal of the tracks layer. Performance of detectors was compared with a control that was the sensitivity of detectors from the same sheet at the time of primary calibration - within 1 month of each sheet being manufactured. Substantial difference in performance was found between storage under pure, dry nitrogen and in the presence of water. The former preserves PADC radon detection properties for the period of one year without noticeable change. The latter, on the other hand significantly reduces its performance even after 3 months' storage. It was also established that storage under low temperature is not a suitable means to preserve PADC sensitivity to radon detection due to significant loss in the detector sensitivity.

  8. Children's dental fear and anxiety: exploring family related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingli; Gao, Xiaoli

    2018-06-04

    Dental fear and anxiety (DFA) is a major issue affecting children's oral health and clinical management. This study investigates the association between children's DFA and family related factors, including parents' DFA, parenting styles, family structure (nuclear or single-parent family), and presence of siblings. A total of 405 children (9-13 years old) and their parents were recruited from 3 elementary schools in Hong Kong. Child's demographic and family-related information was collected through a questionnaire. Parents' and child's DFA were measured by using the Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (CDAS) and Children Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS), respectively. Parenting styles were gauged by using the Parent Authority Questionnaire (PAQ). DFA was reported by 33.1% of children. The mean (SD) CFSS-DS score was 29.1 (11.0). Children with siblings tended to report DFA (37.0% vs. 24.1%; p = 0.034) and had a higher CFSS-DS score (29.9 vs. 27.4; p = 0.025) as compared with their counterpart. Children from single-parent families had lower CFSS-DS score as compared with children from nuclear families (β = - 9.177; p = 0.029). Subgroup analysis showed a higher CFSS-DS score among boys with siblings (β = 7.130; p = 0.010) as compared with their counterpart; girls' from single-parent families had a lower CFSS-DS score (β = - 13.933; p = 0.015) as compared with girls from nuclear families. Children's DFA was not associated with parents' DFA or parenting styles (p > 0.05). Family structure (nuclear or single-parent family) and presence of siblings are significant determinants for children's DFA. Parental DFA and parenting style do not affect children's DFA significantly.

  9. Trampoline related injuries in children: risk factors and radiographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Peter Michael; Juen, David; Stranzinger, Enno; Wolf, Rainer; Slongo, Theddy

    2013-05-01

    Backyard trampolines are immensely popular among children, but are associated with an increase of trampoline-related injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographs of children with trampoline related injuries and to determine the risk factors. Between 2003 and 2009, 286 children under the age of 16 with backyard trampoline injuries were included in the study. The number of injuries increased from 13 patients in 2003 to 86 in 2009. The median age of the 286 patients was 7 years (range: 1-15 years). Totally 140 (49%) patients were males, and 146 (51%) females. Medical records and all available diagnostic imaging were reviewed. A questionnaire was sent to the parents to evaluate the circumstances of each injury, the type of trampoline, the protection equipment and the experience of the children using the trampoline. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of the University Hospital of Bern. The questionnaires and radiographs of the 104 patients were available for evaluation. A fracture was sustained in 51 of the 104 patients. More than 75% of all patients sustaining injuries and in 90% of patients with fractures were jumping on the trampoline with other children at the time of the accident. The most common fractures were supracondylar humeral fractures (29%) and forearm fractures (25%). Fractures of the proximal tibia occurred especially in younger children between 2-5 years of age. Children younger than 5 years old are at risk for specific proximal tibia fractures ("Trampoline Fracture"). A child jumping simultaneously with other children has a higher risk of suffering from a fracture.

  10. IgE sensitization to food allergens and airborne allergens in relation to biomarkers of type 2 inflammation in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patelis, A; Alving, K; Middelveld, R; James, A; Ono, J; Ohta, S; Izuhara, K; Borres, M P; Forsberg, B; Janson, C; Malinovschi, A

    2018-05-10

    We have recently reported that sensitization to food allergens and sensitization to airborne allergens had independent associations with increased fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and blood eosinophils in middle-aged adults and in young subjects with asthma. To investigate the relation between IgE sensitization and several type 2 inflammation biomarkers in adult asthmatics. FeNO, urinary eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (U-EDN), serum eosinophil cationic protein (S-ECP) and periostin were measured in 396 asthmatics, aged 17-76 years, from the Swedish GA2LEN study. Sensitization to airborne allergens was examined with skin prick tests (≥3 mm wheal) and sensitization to food allergens with measurement of specific IgE (≥0.35 kU/L). Asthmatics sensitized to food allergens had higher FeNO, 22.3 ppb (18.6, 26.7) vs 16.1 ppb (14.2, 18.2) (P = .005), S-ECP, 17.7 mg/L (14.8, 21.1) vs 12.8 mg/L (10.9, 14.9) (P = .01), and periostin, 73.7 (67.5, 80.3) ng/mL vs 59.9 (55.8, 64.2) ng/mL (P = .003), than non-sensitized subjects. Periostin levels in this group were also significantly higher than in the group sensitized only to airborne allergens (P = .01). Sensitization to food allergens related independently to FeNO (P = .02), S-ECP (P = .006) and periostin (P = .004), whereas sensitization only to airborne allergens related only to FeNO (P = .02) after adjustments for age, sex, height, weight and smoking history. FeNO correlated weakly with S-ECP (r = .17, P < .001), periostin (r = .19, P < .001) and U-EDN (0.16, P < .001). S-ECP also correlated weakly with U-EDN (r = .12, P = .02). None of the correlations between the remaining pairs of markers of type 2 inflammation were significant. Sensitization to food allergens related to several local and systemic type 2 inflammation markers, such as FeNO, S-ECP and periostin. Assessing the profile of allergic sensitization, including to food allergens, might improve the understanding and

  11. Breeding for quality of button mushrooms: genetically dissecting bruising sensitivity and quality-related traits of Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, W.

    2014-01-01

    The present-day cultivars of button mushroom are too sensitive to mechanical damage. Consequently, mushrooms for the fresh market are still handpicked, which is a main cost factor for the Dutch mushroom industry. The main objective of this thesis is to use the phenotypic variation and

  12. Direct shortwave forcing of climate by anthropogenic sulfate aerosol: Sensitivity to particle size, composition, and relative humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemesure, S.; Wagener, R.; Schwartz, S.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, New York (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Recent estimates of global or hemispheric average forcing of climate by anthropogenic sulfate aerosol due to scattering of shortwave radiation are uncertain by more than a factor of 2. This paper examines the sensitivity of forcing to these microphysical properties for the purposes of obtaining a better understanding of the properties required to reduce the uncertainty in the forcing.

  13. Contributory Factors Related to Permanent Deformation of Hot Asphalt Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Husein Abd

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Permanent deformation (Rutting of asphalt pavements which appears in many roads in Iraq, have caused a major impact on pavement performance by reducing the useful service life of pavement and creating services hazards for highway users. The main objective of this research is investigating the effect of some contributory factors related to permanent deformation of asphalt concrete mixture. To meet the objectives of this research, available local materials are used including asphalt binder, aggregates, mineral filler and modified asphalt binder. The Superpave mix design system was adopted with varying volumetric compositions. The Superpave Gyratory Compactor was used to compact 24 asphalt concrete cylindrical specimens. To collect the required data and investigate the development of permanent deformation in asphalt concrete under repeated loadings, Wheel-Tracking apparatus has been used in a factorial testing program during which 44 slab samples; with dimensions of 400×300×50 mm; were tested to simulate . actual pavement. Based on wheel-tracking test results, it has been concluded that increasing the compaction temperature from 110 to 150ºC caused a decreasing in permanent deformation by 20.5 and 15.6 percent for coarse and fine gradation control asphalt mixtures respectively. While the permanent deformation decreased about 21.3 percent when the compaction temperature is increased from 110 to 150ºC for coarse gradation asphalt mixtures modified with styrene butadiene styrene SBS with 3 percent by asphalt binder weight.

  14. Factors related to smoking habits of male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-09-15

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  15. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Nyi Nyi; Ahmad, Zulkifli; Musa, Razlan; Hamid, Farique Rizal Abdul; Ghazali, Haslan; Bakar, Mohd Hilmi Abu

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1) the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2) mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3) there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  16. Nonadherence Behaviors and Some Related Factors in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Pari; Shahgholian, Nahid; Ghadami, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the renal replacement therapy of choice for most patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), however, adherence to the recommended lifestyle is critical for a positive prognosis. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence to immunosuppressive therapy and lifestyle recommendations along with some related factors among kidney transplant patients. In this descriptive analytical study, all patients completed a questionnaire regarding medication intake and lifestyle recommendations (preventing of infection, self-monitoring, prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and sun protection). The participants were divided into 4 groups according to the level of adherence (good, partial, poor, and nonadherent) indicated in their responses. Most kidney recipients were adherent to their drug prescriptions, but were partial, poor, or nonadherent regarding lifestyle recommendations. Increased passage of time since transplantation and low family support and educational level resulted in nonadherence. Men showed greater adherence to medication intake than women. Patients with lower number of drugs and reported drug side-effects illustrated better adherence to medication intake. Women adhered to infection protection recommendations more than men, and older and married patients adhered to cardiovascular prevention recommendations more than others. However, younger patients showed greater adherence to self-monitoring recommendations, and singles, young individuals, and women were adherent to sun protection recommendations. Nonadherence is common among kidney transplant recipients. Thus, it is necessary to determine patients who are at risk of nonadherence and to introduce more educational programs to improve their adherence and their quality of life (QOL).

  17. Residential Load Manageability Factor Analyses by Load Sensitivity Affected by Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eskandari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Load side management is the basic and significant principle to keeping the balance between generation side and consumption side of electrical power energy. Load side management on typical medium voltage feeder is the power energy consumption control of connected loads with variation of essential parameters that loads do reaction to their variation. Knowing amount of load's reaction to each parameters variation in typical medium voltage feeder during the day, leads to gain Load Manageability Factor (LMF for that specific feeder that helps power utilities to manage their connected loads. Calculating this LMF needs to find out each types of load with unique inherent features behavior to each parameters variation. This paper results and future work results will help us to catch mentioned LMF. In this paper analysis of residential load behavior due to temperature variation with training artificial neural network will be done. Load behavior due to other essential parameters variations like energy pricing variation, major event happening, and power utility announcing to the customers, and etc will study in future works. Collecting all related works results in a unit mathematical equation or an artificial neural network will gain LMF.

  18. Relation between visual function index and falls-related factors in patients with age-related cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Na Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the relation between vision function index and falls-related factors in patients with age-related cataract.METHODS:Ninety-six patients with age-related cataract were interviewed using a seven-item visual function questionnaire(VF-7, then classified into poor, moderate, or good visual function group. The differences of the three groups on visual acuity, balance and mobility function, cognition, depressive symptoms, self-reported fear of falling were analyzed. RESULTS:The patients in poor visual function group had older age, tendency to depression, was more afraid of falling, compared with groups with higher score in VF-7, and they had worse visual acuity, performed worse on all balance and mobility tests. CONCLUSION:Poor visual function is related to worse visual acuity, weaker balance and mobility performance in patients with age-related cataract. The VF-7, as a simple and convenient self-reported method, can be used as a falling risk monitoring in patients with age-related cataract.

  19. Hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 is a novel angiogenic factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle E LeBlanc

    Full Text Available Hepatoma-derived growth factor-related protein-3 (Hdgfrp3 or HRP-3 was recently reported as a neurotrophic factor and is upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma to promote cancer cell survival. Here we identified HRP-3 as a new endothelial ligand and characterized its in vitro and in vivo functional roles and molecular signaling. We combined open reading frame phage display with multi-round in vivo binding selection to enrich retinal endothelial ligands, which were systematically identified by next generation DNA sequencing. One of the identified endothelial ligands was HRP-3. HRP-3 expression in the retina and brain was characterized by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Cell proliferation assay showed that HRP-3 stimulated the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. HRP-3 induced tube formation of HUVECs in culture. Wound healing assay indicated that HRP-3 promoted endothelial cell migration. HRP-3 was further confirmed for its in vitro angiogenic activity by spheroid sprouting assay. HRP-3 extrinsically activated the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase ½ (ERK1/2 pathway in endothelial cells. The angiogenic activity of HRP-3 was independently verified by mouse cornea pocket assay. Furthermore, in vivo Matrigel plug assay corroborated HRP-3 activity to promote new blood vessel formation. These results demonstrated that HRP-3 is a novel angiogenic factor.

  20. The role of anxiety sensitivity in the relation between anxious arousal and cannabis and alcohol use problems among low-income inner city racial/ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Daniel J; Manning, Kara; Hogan, Julianna B D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-05-01

    The current study explored anxiety sensitivity as a factor accounting for the association between anxious arousal and problems related to use of cannabis and alcohol among a health disparity sample (low income minorities). Specifically, participants were 130 low-income racial/ethnic minorities who reported daily cannabis use (M age =37.7 SD=10.0; 28.5% female). There were significant indirect associations of anxious arousal via anxiety sensitivity in relation to: cannabis use problems, cannabis withdrawal symptoms, use of cannabis to cope, as well as hazardous drinking, alcohol use problems, and alcohol consumption. These data indicate anxiety sensitivity is a possible mechanism underlying the relation between anxious arousal and substance use problems among low-income racial/ethnic minorities. Future work could evaluate the efficacy of cannabis and alcohol use treatments incorporating anxiety sensitivity reduction techniques to facilitate amelioration of anxiety and substance use and offset mental health inequalities for this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensitivity of transatlantic dust transport to chemical aging and related atmospheric processes

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2017-03-20

    We present a sensitivity study on transatlantic dust transport, a process which has many implications for the atmosphere, the ocean and the climate. We investigate the impact of key processes that control the dust outflow, i.e., the emission flux, convection schemes and the chemical aging of mineral dust, by using the EMAC model following Abdelkader et al. (2015). To characterize the dust outflow over the Atlantic Ocean, we distinguish two geographic zones: (i) dust interactions within the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), or the dust–ITCZ interaction zone (DIZ), and (ii) the adjacent dust transport over the Atlantic Ocean (DTA) zone. In the latter zone, the dust loading shows a steep and linear gradient westward over the Atlantic Ocean since particle sedimentation is the dominant removal process, whereas in the DIZ zone aerosol–cloud interactions, wet deposition and scavenging processes determine the extent of the dust outflow. Generally, the EMAC simulated dust compares well with CALIPSO observations; however, our reference model configuration tends to overestimate the dust extinction at a lower elevation and underestimates it at a higher elevation. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the Caribbean responds to the dust emission flux only when the emitted dust mass is significantly increased over the source region in Africa by a factor of 10. These findings point to the dominant role of dust removal (especially wet deposition) in transatlantic dust transport. Experiments with different convection schemes have indeed revealed that the transatlantic dust transport is more sensitive to the convection scheme than to the dust emission flux parameterization. To study the impact of dust chemical aging, we focus on a major dust outflow in July 2009. We use the calcium cation as a proxy for the overall chemical reactive dust fraction and consider the uptake of major inorganic acids (i.e., H2SO4, HNO3 and HCl) and their anions, i.e., sulfate (SO42−), bisulfate

  2. Assessing inspection sensitivity as it relates to damage tolerance in composite rotor hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Dennis P.; Rackow, Kirk

    2001-08-01

    Increasing niche applications, growing international markets, and the emergence of advanced rotorcraft technology are expected to greatly increase the population of helicopters over the next decade. In terms of fuselage fatigue, helicopters show similar trends as fixed-wing aircraft. The highly unsteady loads experienced by rotating wings not only directly affect components in the dynamic systems but are also transferred to the fixed airframe structure. Expanded use of rotorcraft has focused attention on the use of new materials and the optimization of maintenance practices. The FAA's Airworthiness Assurance Center (AANC) at Sandia National Labs has joined with Bell Helicopter andother agencies in the rotorcraft industry to evaluate nondestructive inspection (NDI) capabilities in light of the damage tolerance of assorted rotorcraft structure components. Currently, the program's emphasis is on composite rotor hubs. The rotorcraft industry is constantly evaluating new types of lightweight composite materials that not only enhance the safety and reliability of rotor components but also improve performance and extended operating life as well. Composite rotor hubs have led to the use of bearingless rotor systems that are less complex and require less maintenance than their predecessors. The test facility described in this paper allows the structural stability and damage tolerance of composite hubs to be evaluated using realistic flight load spectrums of centrifugal force and bending loads. NDI was integrated into the life-cycle fatigue tests in order to evaluate flaw detection sensitivity simultaneously wiht residual strength and general rotor hub peformance. This paper will describe the evolving use of damage tolerance analysis (DTA) to direct and improve rotorcraft maintenance along with the related use of nondestructive inspections to manage helicopter safety. OVeralll, the data from this project will provide information to improve the producibility, inspectability

  3. Expression of Root-Related Transcription Factors Associated with Flooding Tolerance of Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Valliyodan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of

  4. Expression of root-related transcription factors associated with flooding tolerance of soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliyodan, Babu; Van Toai, Tara T; Alves, Jose Donizeti; de Fátima P Goulart, Patricia; Lee, Jeong Dong; Fritschi, Felix B; Rahman, Mohammed Atiqur; Islam, Rafiq; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T

    2014-09-29

    Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs) associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of these genes will be

  5. Unscrambling cyanobacteria community dynamics related to environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia eBertos-Fortis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a two-year monthly time-series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An epidemic population structure (dominance of a single cluster was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this cluster simultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs e.g. Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formed a consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocyanobacteria and

  6. Imagiologic features and the relative imaging factors in hepatolenticular degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Wenqing; Liu Pengcheng; Huang Rong; Yan Weiqiang; Zhao Yan; Liu Yuanjian; Luo Lili; Zou Liqiu; Liu Hanqiao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT, MR and ultrasound features of hepatolenticular degeneration (HLD), and investigate relative factors affecting the imaging manifestations. Methods: Fifty-four HLD were reported, and the 35 male and 19 female patients ranged in the age from 3 to 40 years. CT was performed in 29 patients, MR in 11, both CT and MR in 5, ultrasound in 26. Six cases were hospitalized for 3 times, and 9 for twice. Results: (1) The putamen was affected on MR in all cases (100%), the caudate nucleus in 8. The thalami in 5, the globus pallidum in 2, the red nucleus in 2, the substantia nigra in 3, the midbrain in 1, the pons in 2, the white matter of frontal lobi in 1. According to the different basal ganglia involved in brain, resembling 'woodpecker' or 'butterfly spreading the wing' in appearance were showed on the MR images respectively. (2) Positive signs were found by CT scans in 18 cases (72%), but negative in 7 cases (28%). It is important manifestation that low density in brain occurred bilaterally and symmetrically. (3) The sonographic changes of chronic liver disease were showed on US in all 26 cases. Among the number, 12 cases were regarded as cirrhosis at the same time. Conclusion: (1) T 2 signal intensity and CT density changes are often not parallel to the clinical symptoms. T 1 WI is suitable for the follow-up, but quantitative analysis is still difficult. (2) Damage of liver occurs almost in all HLD, and earlier than that of brain. On the early stage, the liver damage is reversible, the brain lesions are symmetric. Moderately, the liver damage changes static. Lately, the brain presents atrophic. (3) The investigation suggests that there are 4 factors affecting CT and MR imaging features: the systemic disease resulting from metabolic disorder and the selected affinity caused by gene defect, deposition of copper together with cellular damage, endogenous and autonomous discharge of copper and histiocyte repaired, and extro-generate expelled copper

  7. Proteomic Characterization of Inbreeding-Related Cold Sensitivity in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, C.J.; Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie; Beck, Hans C.

    2013-01-01

    insight into the molecular interplay between intrinsic stress responses, inbreeding depression and temperature tolerance, we performed a proteomic characterization of a well-defined conditional inbreeding effect in a single line of Drosophila melanogaster, which suffers from extreme cold sensitivity...

  8. Effect of Skull Resistivity on the Relative Sensitivity Distributions of EEG and MEG Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malmivuo, J

    2001-01-01

    The authors have previously published calculations that show that, despite the high resistivity of the skull, the spatial sensitivity of magnetoencephalography, MEG, is no better than that of electroencephalography, EEG...

  9. Effect factors for marine eutrophication in LCIA based on species sensitivity to hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is an important environmental stressor to marine species, especially in benthic coastal waters. Increasing anthropogenic emissions of nutrients and organic matter contribute to the depletion of dissolved oxygen (DO). Biotic sensitivity to low levels of DO is determined by the organisms...

  10. Factors Influencing Sensitivity to Lexical Tone in an Artificial Language: Implications for Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell-Harris, Catherine L.; Lancaster, Alia; Ladd, D. Robert; Dediu, Dan; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether musical training, ethnicity, and experience with a natural tone language influenced sensitivity to tone while listening to an artificial tone language. The language was designed with three tones, modeled after level-tone African languages. Participants listened to a 15-min random concatenation of six 3-syllable words.…

  11. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization as risk factor for treatment failure in honey bee venom immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frick, Marcel; Fischer, Jörg; Helbing, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Component resolution recently identified distinct sensitization profiles in honey bee venom (HBV) allergy, some of which were dominated by specific IgE to Api m 3 and/or Api m 10, which have been reported to be underrepresented in therapeutic HBV preparations. OBJECTIVE: We performed...... responders and nonresponders regarding levels of IgE sensitization to Api m 1, Api m 2, Api m 3, and Api m 5. In contrast, Api m 10 specific IgE was moderately but significantly increased in nonresponders. Predominant Api m 10 sensitization (>50% of specific IgE to HBV) was the best discriminator...... (specificity, 95%; sensitivity, 25%) with an odds ratio of 8.444 (2.127-33.53; P = .0013) for treatment failure. Some but not all therapeutic HBV preparations displayed a lack of Api m 10, whereas Api m 1 and Api m 3 immunoreactivity was comparable to that of crude HBV. In line with this, significant Api m 10...

  12. Voltage-Sensitive Load Controllers for Voltage Regulation and Increased Load Factor in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel controller design for controlling appliances based on local measurements of voltage. The controller finds the normalized voltage deviation accounting for the sensitivity of voltage measurements to appliance state. The controller produces a signal indicating desired pow...

  13. Effect factors for marine eutrophication in LCIA based on species sensitivity to hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2016-01-01

    -observed-effect-concentrations (LOEC), were compiled from literature for 91 demersal species of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, echinoderms, annelids, and cnidarians, and converted to temperature-specific benthic (100 m depth) LOEC values. Species distribution and LOEC values were combined using a species sensitivity distribution (SSD...

  14. Effect of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Adiponectin, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, and Insulin Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Patel, H.; Ouchi, N.; Kihara, S.; Funahashi, T.; Heine, R.J.; Grobbee, D.E.; Kluft, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - Epidemiological studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumers have enhanced insulin sensitivity and a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived plasma protein, has been found to be negatively associated with adiposity and positively associated with insulin

  15. Factors related to outcomes in lupus-related protein-losing enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Doo-Ho; Kim, Yong-Gil; Bae, Seung-Hyeon; Ahn, Soomin; Hong, Seokchan; Lee, Chang-Keun; Yoo, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), characterized by severe hypoalbuminemia and peripheral edema, is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. This present study aimed to identify the distinctive features of lupus-related PLE and evaluate the factors related to the treatment response. From March 1998 to March 2014, the clinical data of 14 patients with lupus PLE and seven patients with idiopathic PLE from a tertiary center were reviewed. PLE was defined as a demonstration of protein leakage from the gastrointestinal tract by either technetium 99m-labelled human albumin scanning or fecal α1-antitrypsin clearance. A positive steroid response was defined as a return of serum albumin to ≥ 3.0 g/dL within 4 weeks after initial steroid monotherapy, and remission as maintenance of serum albumin ≥ 3.0 g/dL for at least 3 months. A high serum total cholesterol level was defined as a level of ≥ 240 mg/dL. The mean age of the lupus-related PLE patients was 37.0 years, and the mean follow-up duration was 55.8 months. Significantly higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum total cholesterol levels were found for lupus PLE than for idiopathic PLE. Among the 14 patients with lupus PLE, eight experienced a positive steroid response, and the serum total cholesterol level was significantly higher in the positive steroid response group. A positive steroid response was associated with an initial high serum total cholesterol level and achievement of remission within 6 months. In lupus-related PLE, a high serum total cholesterol level could be a predictive factor for the initial steroid response, indicating a good response to steroid therapy alone.

  16. Factors perceived as being related to accidental falls by persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsagård, Ylva; Denison, Eva; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Boström, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    This study explores and describes factors that persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) perceive as being related to accidental falls. A qualitative content analysis with primarily deductive approach was conducted using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Twelve persons with MS, and identified as fallers, were interviewed. Factors perceived to cause accidental falls that had not previously been targeted in MS populations in relation to falls were identified as divided attention, reduced muscular endurance, fatigue and heat sensitivity. Previously reported risk factors such as changed gait pattern, limited walking ability, impaired proprioception, vision and spasticity were supported. Activities involving walking, recreation and leisure, maintaining and changing body position, lifting or carrying, taking care of the home, washing the body, moving around, preparing meals and housekeeping were limited and considered to be risk activities. Supportive persons and assistive device reduced falls, and unsuitable physical environments and climate conditions induced falls. Several preventative strategies were described as partially compensating for the impairments, limitations and restrictions. Investigating accidental falls using the perspective of the patient gave important information about variables not earlier targeted in MS research.

  17. An evaluation of anxiety sensitivity, emotional dysregulation, and negative affectivity among daily cigarette smokers: relation to smoking motives and barriers to quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Leyro, Teresa M; Marshall, Erin C

    2008-12-01

    The present investigation evaluated the relations between anxiety sensitivity and motivational bases of cigarette smoking, as well as barriers to quitting smoking, above and beyond concurrent substance use, negative affectivity, and emotional dysregulation among a community sample of 189 daily cigarette smokers (46% women; M(age)=24.97 years, SD=9.78). Results indicated that anxiety sensitivity was significantly related to coping, addictive, and habitual smoking motives, as well as greater perceived barriers to quitting. These effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by concurrent tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use and discernable from shared variance with negative affectivity and emotional dysregulation. Emotional dysregulation was significantly related to stimulation, habitual, and sensorimotor smoking motives and greater perceived barriers to quitting, whereas negative affectivity was only significantly related to smoking for relaxation. These findings uniquely add to a growing literature suggesting anxiety sensitivity is an important and unique cognitive factor for better understanding clinically-relevant psychological processes related to cigarette smoking.

  18. 25 CFR Appendix C to Subpart C - Relative Need Distribution Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relative Need Distribution Factor C Appendix C to Subpart...—Relative Need Distribution Factor The Relative Need Distribution Factor (RNDF) is a mathematical formula for distributing the IRR Program construction funds using the following three factors: Cost to...

  19. Perfil de sensibilidade e fatores de risco associados à resistência do Mycobacterium tuberculosis, em centro de referência de doenças infecto-contagiosas de Minas Gerais Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis at a referral center for infectious diseases in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: sensitivity profile and related risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Beatriz de Souza

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os fatores determinantes da multirresistência do Mycobacterium tuberculosis às drogas tuberculostáticas em centro de referência de doenças infecto-contagiosas do Estado de Minas Gerais, Hospital Eduardo de Menezes. MÉTODOS: Estudo tipo caso-controle, retrospectivo, realizado de setembro de 2000 a janeiro de 2004. Nesse período, 473 culturas com crescimento de M. tuberculosis relativas a 313 pacientes foram analisadas quanto ao perfil de sensibilidade, no Laboratório Central de Minas Gerais. Foram selecionados os casos multirresistentes definidos como resistência a pelo menos rifampicina e isoniazida, depois de pareados com o grupo controle de pacientes com tuberculose sensível a todas as drogas na razão de 1:3. A associação dos dados demográficos e clínicos foi feita por análise estatística uni e multivariada. RESULTADOS: Durante o período de estudo, doze casos de tuberculose multirresistente foram identificados (3,83%. Na análise univariada, a tuberculose multirresistente foi mais comum no sexo masculino, em pacientes com baciloscopia de escarro positiva, pacientes com cavitações maiores que 4 cm de diâmetro e pacientes com um ou mais tratamentos prévios para tuberculose (p = 0,10. Após a análise multivariada somente o tratamento anterior para tuberculose permaneceu estatisticamente significativo (p = 0,0374, com odds ratio de 14,36 (1,96 - 176,46. CONCLUSÃO: O fator de risco que se mostrou independentemente associado ao desenvolvimento de tuberculose multirresistente neste estudo foi a presença de um ou mais tratamentos prévios para tuberculose.OBJECTIVE: To assess the determining factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis multidrug resistance at a referral center for infectious diseases in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted using data collected from September of 2000 to January of 2004. During this period, 473 cultures presenting growth of M

  20. High MICs for Vancomycin and Daptomycin and Complicated Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections with Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Esther; Chaves, Fernando; Lalueza, Antonio; Fortún, Jesús; Loza, Elena; Pujol, Miquel; Ardanuy, Carmen; Morales, Isabel; de Cueto, Marina; Resino-Foz, Elena; Morales-Cartagena, Alejandra; Rico, Alicia; Romero, María P.; Orellana, María Ángeles; López-Medrano, Francisco; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prognostic role of high MICs for antistaphylococcal agents in patients with methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus catheter-related bloodstream infection (MSSA CRBSI). We prospectively reviewed 83 episodes from 5 centers in Spain during April 2011–June 2014 that had optimized clinical management and analyzed the relationship between E-test MICs for vancomycin, daptomycin, oxacillin, and linezolid and development of complicated bacteremia by using multivariate analysis. Complicated MSSA CRBSI occurred in 26 (31.3%) patients; MICs for vancomycin and daptomycin were higher in these patients (optimal cutoff values for predictive accuracy = 1.5 μg/mL and 0.5 μg/mL). High MICs for vancomycin (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.2–5.5) and daptomycin (hazard ratio 2.4, 95% CI 1.1–5.9) were independent risk factors for development of complicated MSSA CRBSI. Our data suggest that patients with MSSA CRBSI caused by strains that have high MICs for vancomycin or daptomycin are at increased risk for complications. PMID:27192097

  1. Computational Analysis of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutations Predicts Differential Drug Sensitivity Profiles toward Kinase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akula, Sravani; Kamasani, Swapna; Sivan, Sree Kanth; Manga, Vijjulatha; Vudem, Dashavantha Reddy; Kancha, Rama Krishna

    2018-05-01

    A significant proportion of patients with lung cancer carry mutations in the EGFR kinase domain. The presence of a deletion mutation in exon 19 or L858R point mutation in the EGFR kinase domain has been shown to cause enhanced efficacy of inhibitor treatment in patients with NSCLC. Several less frequent (uncommon) mutations in the EGFR kinase domain with potential implications in treatment response have also been reported. The role of a limited number of uncommon mutations in drug sensitivity was experimentally verified. However, a huge number of these mutations remain uncharacterized for inhibitor sensitivity or resistance. A large-scale computational analysis of clinically reported 298 point mutants of EGFR kinase domain has been performed, and drug sensitivity profiles for each mutant toward seven kinase inhibitors has been determined by molecular docking. In addition, the relative inhibitor binding affinity toward each drug as compared with that of adenosine triphosphate was calculated for each mutant. The inhibitor sensitivity profiles predicted in this study for a set of previously characterized mutants correlated well with the published clinical, experimental, and computational data. Both the single and compound mutations displayed differential inhibitor sensitivity toward first- and next-generation kinase inhibitors. The present study provides predicted drug sensitivity profiles for a large panel of uncommon EGFR mutations toward multiple inhibitors, which may help clinicians in deciding mutant-specific treatment strategies. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Community reintegration and related factors in a Nigerian stroke sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akosile, Christopher; Nworah, Chioma; Okoye, Emmanuel; Adegoke, Babatunde; Umunnah, Joseph; Fabunmi, Ayodeji

    2016-09-01

    The goal of stroke rehabilitation has shifted from mere survival of a victim to how well a survivor can be effectively reintegrated back into the community. The present study determined the level of satisfaction with community reintegration (CR) and related factors among Nigerian community-dwelling stroke survivors (CDSS). This was a cross-sectional survey of 71 volunteering CDSS (35 males, 36 females) from selected South-Eastern Nigerian communities. Reintegration to Normal Living Index was used to assess participants' CR. Data was analysed using Spearman rank-order correlation, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests at p≤0.05. Participants generally had deficits in CR which was either mild/moderate (52.1%) or severe (47.9%). Scores in the CR domains of distance mobility, performance of daily activities, recreational activities and family roles were particularly low (median scores ≤ 4). CR was significantly correlated with and influenced by age (r=-0.35; p=0.00) and presence/absence of diabetes mellitus (u=3.56.50; p=0.01), pre- (k=6.13; p=0.05) and post-stroke employment (k=18.26; p=0.00) status, type of assistive mobility device being used (AMD) (k=25.39; p=0.00) and support from the community (k=7.15; p=0.03) respectively. CR was generally poor for this CDSS sample. Survivors who are older, having diabetes as co-morbidity, using AMD (particularly wheel-chair) and without employment pre- and/or post-stroke may require keener attention. Rehabilitation focus may be targeted at enhancing mobility functions, vocational and social skills.

  3. Factors Related To HPV Vaccine Practice Among Adult Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelia Perwita Sari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is one of most common diseases among women worldwide. Human papilloma virus (HPV is known as precursor of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer can be prevented effectively by practicing hpv vaccine. But the coverage of HPV vaccine is remain low. The objection of study was to analyze factors related to HPV vaccine pratice among adult women. This study used case control design with sample size 25 for each group. Sample case was women who took HPV vaccine in IBI Kota Kediri on 2013, while sample control was neighboor from the sample case who didn’t take HPV vaccine. The independent variabels were age, education level, marital status, income level, knowledge, family support, family history of cervical cancer and the dependent variable was HPV vaccine practice. Those variables was analyzed with chi square or Fisher’s exact with significancy level at 95%. The result showed that there were correlation between education level (p = 0.006; c = 0.346, knowledge (p = 0.001; c = 0.464, and family support (p = 0.000; c = 0.516 with HPV vaccination practice. While there were no correlation between age (p = 0.275, marital status (0.490 and income level (p = 0.098 and family history of cervical cancer (p = 1.000 with HPV vaccination practice. Based on data from this study can be concluded that family support and knowledge had average strenght correlation withHPV vaccine practice among adult women. So, the intervention should be focused in increasing knowledge among women and their family about the important of HPV vaccine as a cervical cancer prevention. Keywords: practice, preventive, HPV, vaccine, adult women

  4. Prevelance of Spontaneus Preterm Birth and Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Ege

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth is a process that has social and economical consequences which increase morbidity and mortality of infant and newborn. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of spontaneous preterm birth and related factors. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted in Faruk Sükan maternity and child hospital in Konya province. The universe was composed of the women who apply to hospital for delivery. The three hundred women who had vaginal delivery between February 15 and March 31, 2007 were included in study as using non-randomly sampling method. A questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were collected by a researcher with face to face interview during postpartum 24 hours in hospital. Percentage and mean distribution and student t and chi-square test were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Of women, 79.3 % were illiterate and primary school graduated. The prevalence of preterm birth in study group was 17.3 %. In study group who experiencing preterm birth, 51.9 % of the women were reported that they had premature rupture of membranes and 48.1 % had early uterine contraction. It was determined a relationship between preterm birth and age, length of marriage, number of delivery, weight of the last child, history of preterm birth of women and her mother, history of bleeding during pregnancy, having problem with husband’s family, vaginal douching during pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, hypertension during preganacy. CONCLUSIONS: Preterm birth is an important health problem for mothers and newborns. It becomes important the frequency and quality of preterm follow-up in terms of early diagnosis and early intervention of preterm birth. It seems important that health professionals should be aware of symptoms of preterm birth, making the pregnant women be aware of this symtoms to solve the problem.

  5. Nonadherence behaviors and some related factors in kidney transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pari Hedayati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kidney transplantation is the renal replacement therapy of choice for most patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD, however, adherence to the recommended lifestyle is critical for a positive prognosis. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence to immunosuppressive therapy and lifestyle recommendations along with some related factors among kidney transplant patients. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, all patients completed a questionnaire regarding medication intake and lifestyle recommendations (preventing of infection, self-monitoring, prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD, and sun protection. The participants were divided into 4 groups according to the level of adherence (good, partial, poor, and nonadherent indicated in their responses. Results: Most kidney recipients were adherent to their drug prescriptions, but were partial, poor, or nonadherent regarding lifestyle recommendations. Increased passage of time since transplantation and low family support and educational level resulted in nonadherence. Men showed greater adherence to medication intake than women. Patients with lower number of drugs and reported drug side-effects illustrated better adherence to medication intake. Women adhered to infection protection recommendations more than men, and older and married patients adhered to cardiovascular prevention recommendations more than others. However, younger patients showed greater adherence to self-monitoring recommendations, and singles, young individuals, and women were adherent to sun protection recommendations. Conclusions: Nonadherence is common among kidney transplant recipients. Thus, it is necessary to determine patients who are at risk of nonadherence and to introduce more educational programs to improve their adherence and their quality of life (QOL.

  6. Health-related quality of life and related factors of military police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Franciele Cascaes; Hernandez, Salma Stéphany Soleman; Arancibia, Beatriz Angélica Valdivia; Castro, Thiago Luis da Silva; Filho, Paulo José Barbosa Gutierres; da Silva, Rudney

    2014-04-27

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of demographic characteristics, occupation, anthropometric indices, and leisure-time physical activity levels on coronary risk and health-related quality of life among military police officers from the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The sample included 165 military police officers who fulfilled the study’s inclusion criteria. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Short Form Health Survey were used, in addition to a spreadsheet of socio-demographic, occupational and anthropometric data. Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive analysis followed by Spearman Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis using the backward method. The waist-to-height ratio was identified as a risk factor low health-related quality of life. In addition, the conicity index, fat percentage, years of service in the military police, minutes of work per day and leisure-time physical activity levels were identified as risk factors for coronary disease among police officers. These findings suggest that the Military Police Department should adopt an institutional policy that allows police officers to practice regular physical activity in order to maintain and improve their physical fitness, health, job performance, and quality of life.

  7. Competitiveness as a moderator of the relation between appearance-related factors and disordered eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleien, Jenna L; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined competitiveness as a moderator of the relationships between appearance-related factors (i.e., thin-ideal internalization, appearance contingent self-worth) and disordered eating behaviors (i.e., dieting, excessive exercise). Participants were 441 undergraduate females for cross-sectional analyses, with 237 also contributing data longitudinally, 1 year later. Results showed that, in a model including thin-ideal internalization and appearance contingent self-worth and their interactions with competitiveness, thin-ideal internalization (but not appearance contingent self-worth) interacted with competitiveness to identify concurrent levels of both dieting and excessive exercise. Individuals high in both thin-ideal internalization and competitiveness exhibited the highest levels of concurrent dieting and excessive exercise. After controlling for baseline levels of the dependent variables, neither appearance-related factor interacted with competitiveness to predict dieting or excessive exercise. These findings suggest that individuals who are both competitive and accept and strive to achieve the thin ideal may be at risk for disordered eating behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phytoplankton growth and PSII efficiency sensitivity to a glyphosate-based herbicide (Factor 540®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedbol, Élise; Lucotte, Marc; Labrecque, Michel; Lepage, Laurent; Juneau, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    The use of glyphosate-based herbicides in agriculture has increased steadily since the mid 90's and there is now evidence of glyphosate leaching and contamination of aquatic ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide (Factor 540 ® ) on growth and photosynthetic capacity of algae and cyanobacteria. Six algal and three cyanobacterial species/strains, of three different taxonomic groups, were exposed to five glyphosate concentrations (10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000μgl -1 ) during 48h. All species have significant growth inhibition at concentrations varying between 50 and 500μgl -1 . The photosynthetic response, after glyphosate exposure, varied among species, but a general pattern has emerged. There was an increase in the amount of photons absorbed (ABS/RC), in dissipated (DI O /RC) and trapped (TR O /RC) energy in the photosystem II reaction centers, along with a decreased of the maximum photosystem II quantum yield (F V /F M ) and electron transport per reaction center (ET O /RC). The EC 50 and LOEC values for growth and photosynthesis were calculated and established that growth was the most affected parameter by glyphosate-based herbicide, while parameter TR O /RC was the least affected. All species showed reduced growth at glyphosate concentrations lower than the Canadian standard for the protection of aquatic life, set at 800μgl -1 or the American aquatic life benchmark for acute toxicity in non vascular plants of 12 100μgl -1 questioning the validity of these thresholds in assessing the risks related to the presence of glyphosate and glyphosate-based herbicides in aquatic systems. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor 1 and topoisomerase with acriflavine sensitizes perihilar cholangiocarcinomas to photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijer, Ruud; Broekgaarden, Mans; Krekorian, Massis; Alles, Lindy K; van Wijk, Albert C; Mackaaij, Claire; Verheij, Joanne; van der Wal, Allard C; van Gulik, Thomas M; Storm, Gert; Heger, Michal

    2016-01-19

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces tumor cell death by oxidative stress and hypoxia but also survival signaling through activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Since perihilar cholangiocarcinomas are relatively recalcitrant to PDT, the aims were to (1) determine the expression levels of HIF-1-associated proteins in human perihilar cholangiocarcinomas, (2) investigate the role of HIF-1 in PDT-treated human perihilar cholangiocarcinoma cells, and (3) determine whether HIF-1 inhibition reduces survival signaling and enhances PDT efficacy. Increased expression of VEGF, CD105, CD31/Ki-67, and GLUT-1 was confirmed in human perihilar cholangiocarcinomas. PDT with liposome-delivered zinc phthalocyanine caused HIF-1α stabilization in SK-ChA-1 cells and increased transcription of HIF-1α downstream genes. Acriflavine was taken up by SK-ChA-1 cells and translocated to the nucleus under hypoxic conditions. Importantly, pretreatment of SK-ChA-1 cells with acriflavine enhanced PDT efficacy via inhibition of HIF-1 and topoisomerases I and II. The expression of VEGF, CD105, CD31/Ki-67, and GLUT-1 was determined by immunohistochemistry in human perihilar cholangiocarcinomas. In addition, the response of human perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (SK-ChA-1) cells to PDT with liposome-delivered zinc phthalocyanine was investigated under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Acriflavine, a HIF-1α/HIF-1β dimerization inhibitor and a potential dual topoisomerase I/II inhibitor, was evaluated for its adjuvant effect on PDT efficacy. HIF-1, which is activated in human hilar cholangiocarcinomas, contributes to tumor cell survival following PDT in vitro. Combining PDT with acriflavine pretreatment improves PDT efficacy in cultured cells and therefore warrants further preclinical validation for therapy-recalcitrant perihilar cholangiocarcinomas.

  10. Skeletal muscle phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are related to insulin sensitivity and respond to acute exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Sean A; Brozinick, Joseph T; Kiseljak-Vassiliades, Katja; Strauss, Allison N; Bacon, Samantha D; Kerege, Anna A; Bui, Hai Hoang; Sanders, Phil; Siddall, Parker; Wei, Tao; Thomas, Melissa; Kuo, Ming Shang; Nemkov, Travis; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Hansen, Kirk C; Perreault, Leigh; Bergman, Bryan C

    2016-06-01

    Several recent reports indicate that the balance of skeletal muscle phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a key determinant of muscle contractile function and metabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between skeletal muscle PC, PE and insulin sensitivity, and whether PC and PE are dynamically regulated in response to acute exercise in humans. Insulin sensitivity was measured via intravenous glucose tolerance in sedentary obese adults (OB; n = 14), individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D; n = 15), and endurance-trained athletes (ATH; n = 15). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained at rest, immediately after 90 min of cycle ergometry at 50% maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2 max), and 2-h postexercise (recovery). Skeletal muscle PC and PE were measured via infusion-based mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis. ATH had greater levels of muscle PC and PE compared with OB and T2D (P insulin sensitivity (both P insulin sensitivity among the entire cohort (r = -0.43, P = 0.01). Muscle PC and PE were altered by exercise, particularly after 2 h of recovery, in a highly group-specific manner. However, muscle PC:PE ratio remained unchanged in all groups. In summary, total muscle PC and PE are positively related to insulin sensitivity while PC:PE ratio is inversely related to insulin sensitivity in humans. A single session of exercise significantly alters skeletal muscle PC and PE levels, but not PC:PE ratio. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Close relation of interpersonal sensitivity with negative core beliefs about the self, the central construct of cognitive vulnerability to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shirata, Toshinori

    2018-05-01

    Interpersonal sensitivity is a personality trait linked with anxious attachment conceptualized in attachment theory. This personality trait is comprised of four components, i.e., interpersonal awareness, separation anxiety, timidity and fragile inner-self, which are measured by the corresponding subscales of the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). Meanwhile, one study showed that six items of the IPSM tentatively used as negative self-schemas predicted the onset of depression. To clarify if interpersonal sensitivity reflects cognitive vulnerability, we examined the relation of this personality trait with negative core beliefs about the self. The study population consisted of 335 Japanese volunteers. Interpersonal sensitivity was measured by the IPSM, and negative core beliefs about the self were assessed by the negative-self subscale of the Brief Core Schema Scales (BCSS). Multiple regression analysis showed that scores of the four subscales of the IPSM were strongly correlated with those of the negative-self subscale of the BCSS (P < 0.001). Similarly, sequential equation modeling demonstrated that the four components of interpersonal sensitivity were strongly predicted by core beliefs of negative-self (P < 0.001). The present study shows that interpersonal sensitivity is closely related to negative core beliefs about the self, suggesting that this personality trait can be regarded as a cognitive vulnerability to depression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sensitization to 10 mites in a tropic area. Der p and Der f are important risk factor for sensitization to other mites from Pyroglyphidae, Acaridae, Chortoglyphidae, and Glyciphagidae families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sánchez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much is known about the frequency of sensitization to Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, although less is known about sensitization to other species and their possible interactions. Objective: In patients with allergic manifestations, to evaluate the frequency of sensitization to 10 species of mites in a tropical area and their possible interactions. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Sensitization was evaluated by skin tests. A generalized linear Poisson regression model with robust variance was used. Based on the sensitization probability reasons and social networking analysis, explorations of relationship for 10 mites were performed. Results: 147 patients were included. The highest sensitization was found to mites' family Pyroglyphidae (> 70 % and less frequently was the Glycyphagidae family (< 50 %. Sensitization to any mites significantly increased the likelihood of sensitization to others. Sensitization to Der f or Der p increased, more than 20 times the likelihood of sensitization to other mites of the Pyroglyphidae family and more than 10 times to mites from other families. Sensitization to mites from Glycyphagidae, Chortoglyphidae or Acaridae family also increased the risk of sensitization to other mites but less than 5 times. Conclusion: Sensitization to mites is frequent in tropical area. Pyroglyphidae sensitization is the main risk factor for polysensitization with other mites from Glycyphagidae, Chortoglyphidae or Acaridae. These results must be considered at diagnosis and treatment of allergy diseases.

  13. Nasal insulin changes peripheral insulin sensitivity simultaneously with altered activity in homeostatic and reward-related human brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heni, M; Kullmann, S; Ketterer, C; Guthoff, M; Linder, K; Wagner, R; Stingl, K T; Veit, R; Staiger, H; Häring, H-U; Preissl, H; Fritsche, A

    2012-06-01

    Impaired insulin sensitivity is a major factor leading to type 2 diabetes. Animal studies suggest that the brain is involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity. We investigated whether insulin action in the human brain regulates peripheral insulin sensitivity and examined which brain areas are involved. Insulin and placebo were given intranasally. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide were measured in 103 participants at 0, 30 and 60 min. A subgroup (n = 12) was also studied with functional MRI, and blood sampling at 0, 30 and 120 min. For each time-point, the HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated as an inverse estimate of peripheral insulin sensitivity. Plasma insulin increased and subsequently decreased. This excursion was accompanied by slightly decreased plasma glucose, resulting in an initially increased HOMA-IR. At 1 h after insulin spray, the HOMA-IR subsequently decreased and remained lower up to 120 min. An increase in hypothalamic activity was observed, which correlated with the increased HOMA-IR at 30 min post-spray. Activity in the putamen, right insula and orbitofrontal cortex correlated with the decreased HOMA-IR at 120 min post-spray. Central insulin action in specific brain areas, including the hypothalamus, may time-dependently regulate peripheral insulin sensitivity. This introduces a potential novel mechanism for the regulation of peripheral insulin sensitivity and underlines the importance of cerebral insulin action for the whole organism.

  14. A specific and sensitive method for visualization of tumor necrosis factor in the murine central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertsen, K L; Drøjdahl, N; Owens, T

    2001-01-01

    -PCR and Western blot analysis on homogenates prepared from microdissected brain regions. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are discussed with emphasis on the specificity and sensitivity of the histological procedures. Our strategy for detection of TNF mRNA and protein provides a solid basis...... for clarifying the cellular synthesis, regulation and function of TNF in the normal, injured or diseased CNS. Furthermore, the methodology can readily be applied in studies of other cytokines and growth factors in the CNS....

  15. Canine tracheal epithelial cells are more sensitive than rat tracheal epithelial cells to transforming growth factor beta induced growth inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbs, A.F.; Hahn, F.F.; Kelly, G.; Thomassen, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) markedly inhibited growth of canine tracheal epithelial (CTE) cells. Reduced responsiveness to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition accompanied neoplastic progression of these cells from primary to transformed to neoplastic. This was similar to the relationship between neoplastic progression and increased resistance to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition seen for rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells. The canine cells were more sensitive than rat cells to TGFβ-induced growth inhibition at all stages in the neoplastic process. (author)

  16. Epidemiologic Tools to Study the Influence of Environmental Factors on Fecundity and Pregnancy-related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Rémy; Ballester, Ferran; Casas, Maribel; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; Iniguez, Carmen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Philippat, Claire; Rey, Sylvie; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Vrijheid, Martine

    2014-01-01

    Adverse pregnancy outcomes entail a large health burden for the mother and offspring; a part of it might be avoided by better understanding the role of environmental factors in their etiology. Our aims were to review the assessment tools to characterize fecundity troubles and pregnancy-related outcomes in human populations and their sensitivity to environmental factors. For each outcome, we reviewed the possible study designs, main sources of bias, and their suggested cures. In terms of study design, for most pregnancy outcomes, cohorts with recruitment early during or even before pregnancy allow efficient characterization of pregnancy-related events, time-varying confounders, and in utero exposures that may impact birth outcomes and child health. Studies on congenital anomalies require specific designs, assessment of anomalies in medical pregnancy terminations, and, for congenital anomalies diagnosed postnatally, follow-up during several months after birth. Statistical analyses should take into account environmental exposures during the relevant time windows; survival models are an appropriate approach for fecundity, fetal loss, and gestational duration/preterm delivery. Analysis of gestational duration could distinguish pregnancies according to delivery induction (and possibly pregnancy-related conditions). In conclusion, careful design and analysis are required to better characterize environmental effects on human reproduction. PMID:24363355

  17. Personal, Psychosocial and Environmental Factors Related to Sick Building Syndrome in Official Employees of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome (SBS is a combination of symptoms that can be attributed to exposure to specific building conditions. The present study recruited 389 participants aged 20–65 years from 87 offices of 16 institutions to examine if personal factors, work-related psychosocial stress, and work environments, were associated with five groups of SBS symptoms, including symptoms for eyes, upper respiratory tract, lower respiratory tract, skin, and non-specific systems. Indoor environmental conditions were monitored. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression (MLR analyses and were reported as adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR. SBS symptoms for eyes were associated with older age, sensitivity to tobacco, and low indoor air flow. Upper respiratory symptoms were related to smoking, low social support, longer work days, and dry air. High indoor air flow was associated with reduced upper respiratory symptoms (aOR = 0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.13–0.67. Lower respiratory symptoms were associated with high work pressure, longer work hours, chemical exposure, migraine, and exposure to new interior painting. Recent interior painting exposure was associated with a high estimated relative risk of low respiratory symptoms (aOR = 20.6; 95% CI = 2.96–143. Smoking, longer work days, low indoor air flow, indoor dryness, and volatile organics exposure, were associated with other non-specified symptoms including headache, tiredness, difficulty concentrating, anger, and dizziness. In conclusion, there are various SBS symptoms associated with different personal characteristics, psychosocial, and environmental factors. Psychosocial factors had stronger relationships with lower respiratory symptoms than with other types of SBS symptoms. Good ventilation could reduce risk factors and may relieve SBS symptoms.

  18. Auxotrophy-stimulated sensitivity to quaternary ammonium salts and its relation to active transport in yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachowicz, T.M.; Oblak, E.; Piatkowski, J.

    1992-01-01

    In previous studies we have observed that auxotrophic mutants of yeast were much more sensitive to quaternary ammonium salts than the corresponding isogenic wild type strains. The super sensitivity of the auxotrophs seems to be a characteristic feature of yeast and yeast-like microorganisms: the level of sensitivity of the quaternary ammonium salts of the bacterial auxotrophs and their original prototrophic forms appeared to be the same. The super sensitivity of yeast auxotrophs disappeared on minimal media with ammonium as a nitrogen source. In this report there are presented the data indicating that enrichment of the minimal medium with arginine restores the super sensitivity of auxotrophic yeast mutants to the quaternary ammonium salts. The results of amino-acid transport into the auxotrophic yeast cells treated with a quaternary ammonium salt in the presence and absence of arginine are given. A working hypothesis of the mechanism of these salts action as a specific inhibition of nutrient transport is discussed. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs, 8 figs

  19. Sickness-related dysfunction in persons with self-reported multiple chemical sensitivity at four levels of severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Pamela Reed; Vogel, Valerie M

    2009-01-01

    To examine quality of life outcome for persons who self-report chemical sensitivity, often referred to as multiple chemical sensitivity. Multiple chemical sensitivity is poorly understood with few providers specialising in its treatment. This lack of treatment and the ubiquity of chemicals engender severe life impacts such as job loss, financial loss, social isolation and even homelessness for persons who experience these sensitivities. Survey. We examined chemical incitants, symptoms and sickness-related behavioural dysfunction as measured by the Sickness Impact Profile in 254 persons self-identified with multiple chemical sensitivity. Chemicals rated as causing the most symptomatology in respondents were pesticide, formaldehyde, fresh paint, new carpet, diesel exhaust, perfume and air fresheners. The five highest rated symptoms in this sample were tiredness/lethargy, difficulty concentrating, muscle aches, memory difficulties and long-term fatigue. Overall mean Sickness Impact Profile score was 25.25%, showing serious impairment, with the most serious dysfunction in the categories of work (55.36%), alertness behaviour (53.45%) and recreation and pastimes (45.20%). Multiple chemical sensitivity is an important health care issue because it often includes serious dysfunction, is poorly understood by providers and poses extensive financial and treatment obstacles for those who experience it. Persons with multiple chemical sensitivity seek medical treatment in a variety of contexts and informed providers can both avoid iatrogenic harm due to medical exposures and provide any possible treatment for the chemical sensitivities. Understanding the impact of the health condition is crucial to communicate with and treat persons who experience the sensitivities.

  20. Increase of ozone concentrations, its temperature sensitivity and the precursor factor in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised about the possible connections between the local and regional photochemical problem and global warming. The current study assesses the trend of ozone in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD in South China and investigates the interannual changes of sensitivity of ozone to air temperature, as well as the trends in regional precursors. Results reveal, at the three monitoring sites from the mid-1990s to 2010, an increase in the mean ozone concentrations from 1.0 to 1.6 µg m−3 per year. The increase occurred in all seasons, with the highest rate in autumn. This is consistent with trends and temperature anomalies in the region. The increase in the sensitivity of ozone to temperature is clearly evident from the correlation between ozone (OMI [Ozone Monitoring Instrument] column amount and surface air temperature (from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder displayed in the correlation maps for the PRD during the prominently high ozone period of July–September. It is observed to have increased from 2005 to 2010, the latter being the hottest year on record globally. To verify this temporal change in sensitivity, the ground-level trends of correlation coefficients/regression slopes are analysed. As expected, results reveal a statistically significant upward trend over a 14-year period (1997–2010. While the correlation revealed in the correlation maps is in agreement with the corresponding OMI ozone maps when juxtaposed, temperature sensitivity of surface ozone also shows an association with ozone concentration, with R=0.5. These characteristics of ozone sensitivity are believed to have adverse implications for the region. As shown by ground measurements and/or satellite analyses, the decrease in nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx in Hong Kong is not statistically significant while NO2 of the PRD has only very slightly changed. However, carbon dioxide has remarkably declined in the whole region. While these observations concerning

  1. Facilitating Effects of Nanoparticles/Materials on Sensitive Immune-Related Lung Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken-ichiro Inoue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the adverse health effects of nanoparticles/materials have been proposed and are being clarified, their facilitating effects on preexisting pathological conditions have not been fully examined. In this paper, we provide insights into the immunotoxicity of nanoparticles/materials as an aggravating factor in hypersusceptible subjects, especially those with immune-related respiratory disorders using our in vivo experimental model. We first exhibit the effects of nanoparticles/materials on lung inflammation induced by bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide: LPS in vivo as a disease model in innate immunity, and demonstrated that nanoparticles instilled through both an intratracheal tube and an inhalation system can exacerbate the lung inflammation. Secondly, we introduce the effects of nanoparticles/materials on allergic asthma in vivo as a disease model in adaptive immunity, and showed that repetitive pulmonary exposure to nanoparticles has aggravating effects on allergic airway inflammation, including adjuvant effects on Th2-milieu. Taken together, nanoparticle exposure may synergistically facilitate pathological inflammatory conditions in the lung via both innate and adaptive immunological abnormalities.

  2. Facilitating Effects of Nanoparticles/Materials on Sensitive Immune-Related Lung Disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.I.; Takano, H.

    2011-01-01

    Although the adverse health effects of nanoparticles/materials have been proposed and are being clarified, their facilitating effects on preexisting pathological conditions have not been fully examined. In this paper, we provide insights into the immunotoxicity of nanoparticles/materials as an aggravating factor in hyper susceptible subjects, especially those with immune-related respiratory disorders using our in vivo experimental model. We first exhibit the effects of nanoparticles/materials on lung inflammation induced by bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide: LPS) in vivo as a disease model in innate immunity, and demonstrated that nanoparticles instilled through both an intratracheal tube and an inhalation system can exacerbate the lung inflammation. Secondly, we introduce the effects of nanoparticles/materials on allergic asthma in vivo as a disease model in adaptive immunity, and showed that repetitive pulmonary exposure to nanoparticles has aggravating effects on allergic airway inflammation, including adjuvant effects on Th2-milieu. Taken together, nanoparticle exposure may synergistically facilitate pathological inflammatory conditions in the lung via both innate and adaptive immunological abnormalities.

  3. Diabetes distress and related factors in South African adults with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aDepartment of Behavioural Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, College of ... Keywords: adults, depression, diabetes-related distress, glycaemic index, South Africa ... self-care and glycaemic control.7,8 Diabetes-related distress is.

  4. Response to the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in relation to climate sensitivity in the CMIP3 models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, Frida A.M.; Ekman, Annica M.L.; Rodhe, Henning [Stockholm University, Department of Meteorology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-10-15

    The radiative flux perturbations and subsequent temperature responses in relation to the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 are studied in the ten general circulation models incorporated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 3 (CMIP3), that include a parameterization of volcanic aerosol. Models and observations show decreases in global mean temperature of up to 0.5 K, in response to radiative perturbations of up to 10 W m{sup -2}, averaged over the tropics. The time scale representing the delay between radiative perturbation and temperature response is determined by the slow ocean response, and is estimated to be centered around 4 months in the models. Although the magnitude of the temperature response to a volcanic eruption has previously been used as an indicator of equilibrium climate sensitivity in models, we find these two quantities to be only weakly correlated. This may partly be due to the fact that the size of the volcano-induced radiative perturbation varies among the models. It is found that the magnitude of the modelled radiative perturbation increases with decreasing climate sensitivity, with the exception of one outlying model. Therefore, we scale the temperature perturbation by the radiative perturbation in each model, and use the ratio between the integrated temperature perturbation and the integrated radiative perturbation as a measure of sensitivity to volcanic forcing. This ratio is found to be well correlated with the model climate sensitivity, more sensitive models having a larger ratio. Further, if this correspondence between ''volcanic sensitivity'' and sensitivity to CO{sub 2} forcing is a feature not only among the models, but also of the real climate system, the alleged linear relation can be used to estimate the real climate sensitivity. The observational value of the ratio signifying volcanic sensitivity is hereby estimated to correspond to an equilibrium climate sensitivity, i.e. equilibrium temperature

  5. Factors influencing the implicitation of discourse relations across languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Jet; Zufferey, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Relations that hold between discourse segments can, but need not, be made explicit by means of discourse connectives. Even though the explicit signaling of discourse relations is optional, not all relations can be easily conveyed implicitly. It has been proposed that readers and listeners have

  6. Use of indexed sensitivity factors in the analysis of nickel and iron based alloys: study of the decalibration of sheathed Chromel/Alumel thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    Sheathed Chromel versus Alumel thermocouples decalibrate when exposed to temperatures in excess of 1100 0 C. Thermocouples sheathed in Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel were studied in this work. Quantified SIMS data showed that the observed decalibrations were due to significant alterations that took place in the Chromel and Alumel thermoelements. The amount of alteration was different for each thermocouple and was influenced by the particular sheath material used in the thermocouple construction. Relative sensitivity factors, indexed by a matrix ion species ratio, were used to quantify SIMS data for three nickel-based alloys, Chromel, Alumel, and Inconel-600, and an iron-based alloy, type 304 stainless steel. Oxygen pressure >2 x 10 -6 torr in the sputtering region gave enhanced sensitivity and superior quantitative results as compared to data obtained at instrumental residual pressure

  7. The role of Candida albicans homologous recombination factors Rad54 and Rdh54 in DNA damage sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Theodore C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fungal pathogen Candida albicans is frequently seen in immune suppressed patients, and resistance to one of the most widely used antifungals, fluconazole (FLC, can evolve rapidly. In recent years it has become clear that plasticity of the Candida albicans genome contributes to drug resistance through loss of heterozygosity (LOH at resistance genes and gross chromosomal rearrangements that amplify gene copy number of resistance associated genes. This study addresses the role of the homologous recombination factors Rad54 and Rdh54 in cell growth, DNA damage and FLC resistance in Candida albicans. Results The data presented here support a role for homologous recombination in cell growth and DNA damage sensitivity, as Candida albicans rad54Δ/rad54Δ mutants were hypersensitive to MMS and menadione, and had an aberrant cell and nuclear morphology. The Candida albicans rad54Δ/rad54Δ mutant was defective in invasion of Spider agar, presumably due to the altered cellular morphology. In contrast, mutation of the related gene RDH54 did not contribute significantly to DNA damage resistance and cell growth, and deletion of either Candida albicans RAD54 or Candida albicans RDH54 did not alter FLC susceptibility. Conclusions Together, these results support a role for homologous recombination in genome stability under nondamaging conditions. The nuclear morphology defects in the rad54Δ/rad54Δ mutants show that Rad54 performs an essential role during mitotic growth and that in its absence, cells arrest in G2. The viability of the single mutant rad54Δ/rad54Δ and the inability to construct the double mutant rad54Δ/rad54Δ rdh54Δ/rdh54Δ suggests that Rdh54 can partially compensate for Rad54 during mitotic growth.

  8. Environmental factors and dam characteristics associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in newborn Holstein calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M.M.; Van Eetvelde, M.; Bogaert, H.; Hostens, M.; Vandaele, L.; Shamsuddin, M.; Opsomer, G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present retrospective cohort study was to evaluate potential associations between environmental factors and dam characteristics, including level of milk production during gestation, and insulin traits in newborn Holstein calves

  9. Cape Point GAW Station Rn-222 detector: factors affecting sensitivity and accuracy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brunke, EG

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Specific factors of a baseline Rn-222 detector installed at Cape Point, South Africa, were studied with the aim of improving its performance. Direct sunlight caused air turbulence within the instrument, resulting in 13.6% variability...

  10. Sensitivity and responsiveness of the health-related quality of life in stroke patients-40 (HRQOLISP-40) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent-Onabajo, Grace O; Owolabi, Mayowa O; Hamzat, Talhatu K

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity and responsiveness of the Health-Related Quality of Life in Stroke Patients-40 (HRQOLISP-40) scale in evaluating stroke patients from onset to 12 months. Fifty-five patients with first-incidence stroke were followed-up for 12 months. The HRQOLISP-40 scale was used to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) while stroke severity was assessed with the Stroke Levity Scale. Sensitivity to change was assessed by analyzing changes in the HRQOLISP-40 scores between pairs of months with paired samples t-test. Standardized effect size (SES) and standardized response mean (SRM) were used to express responsiveness. Overall HRQOL and domains in the physical sphere of the HRQOLISP-40 were sensitive to change at different time intervals in the first 12 months post-stroke. Marked responsiveness (SES and SRM >0.7) was demonstrated by the overall scale, and the physical, psycho-emotional and cognitive domains at varying time intervals. For instance, SRM was greater than 0.7 between 1 and 6, 3 and 12, 1 and 9, and 1 and 12 months for both the physical and psycho-emotional domains. The HRQOLISP-40 is a sensitive and responsive stroke-specific quality of life measure that can be used to evaluate the outcome of stroke rehabilitation. Enhancing the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of stroke survivors can be regarded as the ultimate goal of stroke rehabilitation. Sensitive and responsive stroke-specific HRQOL measures are required for use in evaluative studies, and clinical trials and practice. The Health-Related Quality of Life in Stroke Patients-40 (HRQOLISP-40) is a sensitive and responsive stroke-specific scale.

  11. 41 CFR 109-43.307-52 - Nuclear-related or proliferation-sensitive personal property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as practicable, any civilian utility or commercial value of the personal property. ... proliferation-sensitive personal property. 109-43.307-52 Section 109-43.307-52 Public Contracts and Property... MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS UTILIZATION AND DISPOSAL 43-UTILIZATION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 43.3-Utilization of...

  12. Rejection sensitivity relates to hypocortisolism and depressed mood state in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; Riese, Harriette; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rijsdijk, Fruehling V.; Ormel, Johan

    Rejection sensitivity and the associated fear of negative social evaluation (FNSE) trait are characteristics of hypocortisolemic syndromes such as atypical depression. However, a meta-analysis showed that acute FNSE evokes strong cortisol responses in humans. This is consistent with suggestions that

  13. Screening for HIV-related PTSD: Sensitivity and specificity of the 17 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the 17-item Post traumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), a self-report instrument, in the detection of HIVrelated PTSD. An adapted version of the PTSD module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) served as the gold standard. Method: 85 HIV-positive ...

  14. How Are Task Reflexivity and Intercultural Sensitivity Related to the Academic Performance of MBA Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubovnikova, Joanne; Napiersky, Uwe; Vlachopoulos, Panos

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in business school environments is increasingly focused on how to best equip students with the skills necessary for leadership in the global workplace. This paper examines the impact of two particularly important cognitive capabilities--task reflexivity and intercultural sensitivity, on academic performance in an MBA programme. It…

  15. Sensitivity of transatlantic dust transport to chemical aging and related atmospheric processes

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed; Metzger, Swen; Steil, Benedikt; Klingmü ller, Klaus; Tost, Holger; Pozzer, Andrea; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Barrie, Leonard; Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-01-01

    We present a sensitivity study on transatlantic dust transport, a process which has many implications for the atmosphere, the ocean and the climate. We investigate the impact of key processes that control the dust outflow, i.e., the emission flux

  16. Relating hyporheic fluxes, residence times, and redox-sensitive biogeochemical processes upstream of beaver dams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Lautz, Laura; Hare, Danielle K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Small dams enhance the development of patchy microenvironments along stream corridors by trapping sediment and creating complex streambed morphologies. This patchiness drives intricate hyporheic flux patterns that govern the exchange of O2 and redox-sensitive solutes between the water column and the stream bed. We used multiple tracer techniques, naturally occurring and injected, to evaluate hyporheic flow dynamics and associated biogeochemical cycling and microbial reactivity around 2 beaver dams in Wyoming (USA). High-resolution fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing was used to collect temperature data over 9 vertical streambed profiles and to generate comprehensive vertical flux maps using 1-dimensional (1-D) heat-transport modeling. Coincident with these locations, vertical profiles of hyporheic water were collected every week and analyzed for dissolved O2, pH, dissolved organic C, and several conservative and redox-sensitive solutes. In addition, hyporheic and net stream aerobic microbial reactivity were analyzed with a constant-rate injection of the biologically sensitive resazurin (Raz) smart tracer. The combined results revealed a heterogeneous system with rates of downwelling hyporheic flow organized by morphologic unit and tightly coupled to the redox conditions of the subsurface. Principal component analysis was used to summarize the variability of all redox-sensitive species, and results indicated that hyporheic water varied from oxic-stream-like to anoxic-reduced in direct response to the hydrodynamic conditions and associated residence times. The anaerobic transition threshold predicted by the mean O2 Damko

  17. Cluster subgroups based on overall pressure pain sensitivity and psychosocial factors in chronic musculoskeletal pain: Differences in clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Suzana C; George, Steven Z; Leite, Raquel D V; Oliveira, Anamaria S; Chaves, Thais C

    2018-05-17

    We aimed to empirically derive psychosocial and pain sensitivity subgroups using cluster analysis within a sample of individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) and to investigate derived subgroups for differences in pain and disability outcomes. Eighty female participants with CMP answered psychosocial and disability scales and were assessed for pressure pain sensitivity. A cluster analysis was used to derive subgroups, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate differences between subgroups. Psychosocial factors (kinesiophobia, pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression) and overall pressure pain threshold (PPT) were entered into the cluster analysis. Three subgroups were empirically derived: cluster 1 (high pain sensitivity and high psychosocial distress; n = 12) characterized by low overall PPT and high psychosocial scores; cluster 2 (high pain sensitivity and intermediate psychosocial distress; n = 39) characterized by low overall PPT and intermediate psychosocial scores; and cluster 3 (low pain sensitivity and low psychosocial distress; n = 29) characterized by high overall PPT and low psychosocial scores compared to the other subgroups. Cluster 1 showed higher values for mean pain intensity (F (2,77)  = 10.58, p cluster 3, and cluster 1 showed higher values for disability (F (2,77)  = 3.81, p = 0.03) compared with both clusters 2 and 3. Only cluster 1 was distinct from cluster 3 according to both pain and disability outcomes. Pain catastrophizing, depression, and anxiety were the psychosocial variables that best differentiated the subgroups. Overall, these results call attention to the importance of considering pain sensitivity and psychosocial variables to obtain a more comprehensive characterization of CMP patients' subtypes.

  18. Relating biomarkers to whole-organism effects using species sensitivity distributions : A pilot study for marine species exposed to oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.G.D.; Bechmann, R.K.; Hendriks, A.J.; Skadsheim, A.; Larsen, B.K.; Baussant, T.; Bamber, S.; Sannei, S.

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers are widely used to measure environmental impacts on marine species. For many biomarkers, it is not clear how the signal levels relate to effects on the whole organism. This paper shows how species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) can be applied to evaluate multiple biomarker responses in

  19. Relative sensitivity of developmental and immune parameters in juvenile versus adult male rats after exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonk, E.C.M.; Verhoef, A.; Gremmer, E.R.; van Loveren, H.; Piersma, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    The developing immune system displays a relatively high sensitivity as compared to both general toxicity parameters and to the adult immune system. In this study we have performed such comparisons using di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) as a model compound. DEHP is the most abundant phthalate in the

  20. Serotonin-related gene expression in female monkeys with individual sensitivity to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethea, C L; Streicher, J M; Mirkes, S J; Sanchez, R L; Reddy, A P; Cameron, J L

    2005-01-01

    Female cynomolgus monkeys exhibit different degrees of reproductive dysfunction with moderate metabolic and psychosocial stress. In this study, the expression of four genes pivotal to serotonin neural function was assessed in monkeys previously categorized as highly stress resistant (n=3; normal menstrual cyclicity through two stress cycles), medium stress resistant (n=5; ovulatory in the first stress cycle but anovulatory in the second stress cycle), or low stress resistant (i.e. stress-sensitive; n=4; anovulatory as soon as stress is initiated). In situ hybridization and quantitative image analysis was used to measure mRNAs coding for SERT (serotonin transporter), 5HT1A autoreceptor, MAO-A and MAO-B (monoamine oxidases) at six levels of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). Optical density (OD) and positive pixel area were measured with NIH Image software. In addition, serotonin neurons were immunostained and counted at three levels of the DRN. Finally, each animal was genotyped for the serotonin transporter long polymorphic region (5HTTLPR). Stress sensitive animals had lower expression of SERT mRNA in the caudal region of the DRN (PMAO-A mRNA signal in the stress-sensitive group (PMAO-A OD was positively correlated with progesterone from a pre-stress control cycle (PMAO-B mRNA exhibited a similar downward trend in the stress-sensitive group. MAO-B OD also correlated with control cycle progesterone (PMAO-A) or exhibited a lower trend (5HT1A, MAO-B) in the stress sensitive animals, which probably reflects the lower number of serotonin neurons present.

  1. Diet Quality throughout Early Life in Relation to Allergic Sensitization and Atopic Diseases in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh N. Nguyen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Early-life nutrition is an important modifiable determinant in the development of a child’s immune system, and may thereby influence the risk of allergic sensitization and atopic diseases. However, associations between overall dietary patterns and atopic diseases in childhood remain unclear. We examined associations of diet quality in early life with allergic sensitization, self-reported physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergies, eczema, and asthma among 5225 children participating in a population-based cohort in the Netherlands. Diet was assessed during pregnancy, infancy, and childhood using validated food-frequency questionnaires. We calculated food-based diet quality scores (0–10 or 0–15, reflecting adherence to dietary guidelines. At age 10 years, allergic sensitization was assessed with skin prick tests. Information on physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergies, eczema, and asthma was obtained with questionnaires. We observed no associations between diet quality during pregnancy and allergic sensitization (odds ratio (OR = 1.05 per point in the diet score, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.99, 1.13, allergies (0.96, 95% CI: 0.88, 1.04, eczema (0.99, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.06, or asthma (0.93, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.03 in childhood. Also, diet quality in infancy or childhood were not associated with atopic outcomes in childhood. Our findings do not support our hypothesis that a healthy dietary pattern in early life is associated with a lower risk of allergic sensitization or atopic diseases in childhood.

  2. Maladaptive Five Factor Model personality traits associated with Borderline Personality Disorder indirectly affect susceptibility to suicide ideation through increased anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Raymond P; Lengel, Greg J; Smith, Caitlin E; Capron, Dan W; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N; Wingate, LaRicka R

    2016-12-30

    The current study investigated the relationship between maladaptive Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, and suicide ideation in a sample of 131 undergraduate students who were selected based on their scores on a screening questionnaire regarding Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) symptoms. Those who endorsed elevated BPD symptoms in a pre-screen analyses completed at the beginning of each semester were oversampled in comparison to those with low or moderate symptoms. Indirect effect (mediation) results indicated that the maladaptive personality traits of anxious/uncertainty, dysregulated anger, self-disturbance, behavioral dysregulation, dissociative tendencies, distrust, manipulativeness, oppositional, and rashness had indirect effects on suicide ideation through anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. All of these personality traits correlated to suicide ideation as well. The maladaptive personality traits of despondence, affective dysregulation, and fragility were positive correlates of suicide ideation and predicted suicide ideation when all traits were entered in one linear regression model, but were not indirectly related through anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. The implication for targeting anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns in evidence-based practices for reducing suicide risk in those with BPD is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Global sensitivity analysis of a model related to memory formation in synapses: Model reduction based on epistemic parameter uncertainties and related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulasiri, Don; Liang, Jingyi; He, Yao; Samarasinghe, Sandhya

    2017-04-21

    We investigate the epistemic uncertainties of parameters of a mathematical model that describes the dynamics of CaMKII-NMDAR complex related to memory formation in synapses using global sensitivity analysis (GSA). The model, which was published in this journal, is nonlinear and complex with Ca 2+ patterns with different level of frequencies as inputs. We explore the effects of parameter on the key outputs of the model to discover the most sensitive ones using GSA and partial ranking correlation coefficient (PRCC) and to understand why they are sensitive and others are not based on the biology of the problem. We also extend the model to add presynaptic neurotransmitter vesicles release to have action potentials as inputs of different frequencies. We perform GSA on this extended model to show that the parameter sensitivities are different for the extended model as shown by PRCC landscapes. Based on the results of GSA and PRCC, we reduce the original model to a less complex model taking the most important biological processes into account. We validate the reduced model against the outputs of the original model. We show that the parameter sensitivities are dependent on the inputs and GSA would make us understand the sensitivities and the importance of the parameters. A thorough phenomenological understanding of the relationships involved is essential to interpret the results of GSA and hence for the possible model reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of product- and person-related factors on consumer hedonic responses to soy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Backhaus, Birte W.; van Hoof, Joris Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Consumers in Western countries increasingly appreciate health benefits of soy products. However, several barriers prevent full acceptance of these products. This study investigates the effects of product-related factors (perceived familiarity and expected healthiness) and person-related factors

  5. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy in a 14-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Helena; Vinding, Troels; la Cour, Morten

    2005-01-01

    To examine the association between potential risk factors and the 14-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM).......To examine the association between potential risk factors and the 14-year incidence of age-related maculopathy (ARM)....

  6. Examination of some factors affecting sensitivity and reproducibility in radioimmunoassay of thyrotropin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, R.J.; Hollingsworth, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    Conditions for measuring human thyrotropin by radioimmunoassay have been investigated, to improve the sensitivity and reproducibility of the assay. The Chloramine-T method of iodination was used, the reaction time being 20 s. Doubling the iodination reaction volume from 55 to 95 μl did not affect the immunoreactivity. Purification of labeled hormone by use of anion-exchange resin followed by silica (Quso G-32) instead of Sephadex gel-filtration or anion exchange alone yielded a product that was the least (less than 4 percent) contaminated with Na 125 I. Human serum albumin (2.5 g/liter)in phosphate-buffered saline, instead of bovine serum, should be used as diluent for unknowns; within-assay variance was 3 percent for the former, 62 percent for the latter. The assay worked equally well for both pregnant and nonpregnant patients, with use of 50 to 100 μl of serum per determination. A five-week-old labeled hormone yielded higher values than did two-week-old material. In 29 euthyroid patients the mean thyrotropin value was 5.7 microunits/ml (range 2.8 to 11); nine hypothyroid patients had a mean of 112 microunits/ml (range 38 to 267); and 13 hyperthyroid subjects showed suppressed thyrotropin with a mean of 3.1 microunits/ml (range 2.2 to 4.5). Following these suggestions, one can expect a highly purified immunoreactive tracer and a sensitive assay. (U.S.)

  7. Longitudinal health-related quality of life outcomes and related factors after pediatric SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, M; Atenafu, E; Hancock, K

    2009-08-01

    Our purpose was to investigate longitudinally health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes and related factors up to 2 years post-pediatric SCT. A total of 99 mothers of patients, aged 1.5-17 years, completed two standardized HRQOL questionnaires, generic and disease specific (DS), about the child, and reported on their own symptoms of depression and family function pre-SCT, 12 and 24 months post-SCT. Clinical (diagnosis, radiation), child (age) and family (maternal depression) information was also obtained. Significant improvement in physical and psychosocial HRQOL from pre-SCT to 1 or 2 years post-SCT was reported. Survivors of ALL were reported to have poorer physical and psychosocial HRQOL than survivors of solid tumors on the DS measure. Maternal depression was negatively associated with physical and psychosocial HRQOL. Maternal education (higher) at pre-SCT predicted improvements in physical domains 2 years post-SCT; mother's age (older) and child's age (younger) also predicted improvements of physical and emotional HRQOL. We conclude that survivors of pediatric SCT improved physical and psychosocial HRQOL by 1 and 2 years post-SCT. Older survivors whose mothers are younger and distressed, with lower education at SCT have compromised HRQOL compared to other survivors. This study has important implications for the care of SCT survivors and their families.

  8. A prospective study of gait related risk factors for exercise-related lower leg pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, T M; De Clercq, D; Delbaere, K; Vanderstraeten, G; De Cock, A; Witvrouw, E

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine prospectively gait related risk factors for exercise-related lower leg pain (ERLLP) in 400 physical education students. Static lower leg alignment was determined, and 3D gait kinematics combined with plantar pressure profiles were collected. After this evaluation, all sports injuries were registered by the same sports physician during the duration of the study. Forty six subjects developed ERLLP and 29 of them developed bilateral symptoms thus giving 75 symptomatic lower legs. Bilateral lower legs of 167 subjects who developed no injuries in the lower extremities served as controls. Cox regression analysis revealed that subjects who developed ERLLP had an altered running pattern before the injury compared to the controls and included (1) a significantly more central heel-strike, (2) a significantly increased pronation, accompanied with more pressure underneath the medial side of the foot, and (3) a significantly more lateral roll-off. These findings suggest that altered biomechanics play a role in the genesis of ERLLP and thus should be considered in prevention and rehabilitation.

  9. Multiple Factors Related to the Secretion of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XingChun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The glucagon-like peptide-1 is secreted by intestinal L cells in response to nutrient ingestion. It regulates the secretion and sensitivity of insulin while suppressing glucagon secretion and decreasing postprandial glucose levels. It also improves beta-cell proliferation and prevents beta-cell apoptosis induced by cytotoxic agents. Additionally, glucagon-like peptide-1 delays gastric emptying and suppresses appetite. The impaired secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 has negative influence on diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance related diseases. Thus, glucagon-like peptide-1-based therapies (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors are now well accepted in the management of type 2 diabetes. The levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 are influenced by multiple factors including a variety of nutrients. The component of a meal acts as potent stimulants of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. The levels of its secretion change with the intake of different nutrients. Some drugs also have influence on GLP-1 secretion. Bariatric surgery may improve metabolism through the action on GLP-1 levels. In recent years, there has been a great interest in developing effective methods to regulate glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. This review summarizes the literature on glucagon-like peptide-1 and related factors affecting its levels.

  10. SU-D-209-05: Sensitivity of the Diagnostic Radiological Index of Protection (DRIP) to Procedural Factors in Fluoroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Pasciak, A [University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, TN (United States); Wagner, L [UT Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the sensitivity of the Diagnostic Radiological Index of Protection (DRIP) to procedural factors in fluoroscopy in an effort to determine an appropriate set of scatter-mimicking primary beams (SMPB) to be used in measuring the DRIP. Methods: A series of clinical and factorial Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to determine the shape of the scattered X-ray spectra incident on the operator in different clinical fluoroscopy scenarios. Two clinical evaluations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle and patient size while technical factors were varied according to measured automatic dose rate control (ADRC) data. Factorial evaluations studied the sensitivity of the scattered spectrum to gantry angle, field of view, patient size and beam quality for constant technical factors. Average energy was the figure of merit used to condense fluence in each energy bin to a single numerical index. Results: Beam quality had the strongest influence on the scattered spectrum in fluoroscopy. Many procedural factors affected the scattered spectrum indirectly through their effects on primary beam quality through ADRC, e.g., gantry angle and patient size. Lateral C-arm rotation, common in interventional cardiology, increased the energy of the scattered spectrum, regardless of the direction of rotation. The effect of patient size on scattered radiation depended on ADRC characteristics, patient size, and procedure type. Conclusion: The scattered spectrum striking the operator in fluoroscopy, and therefore the DRIP, is most strongly influenced by primary beam quality, particularly kV. Use cases for protective garments should be