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Sample records for relative root length

  1. Soil aggregation and slope stability related to soil density, root length, and mycorrhiza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Frank; Frei, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Eco-engineering measures combine the use of living plants and inert mechanical constructions to protect slopes against erosion and shallow mass movement. Whereas in geotechnical engineering several performance standards and guidelines for structural safety and serviceability of construction exist, there is a lack of comparable tools in the field of ecological restoration. Various indicators have been proposed, including the fractal dimension of soil particle size distribution, microbiological parameters, and soil aggregate stability. We present results of an soil aggregate stability investigation and compare them with literature data of the angle of internal friction ?' which is conventionally used in slope stability analysis and soil failure calculation. Aggregate stability tests were performed with samples of differently treated moraine, including soil at low (~15.5 kN/m³) and high (~19.0 kN/m³) dry unit weight, soil planted with Alnus incana (White Alder) as well as the combination of soil planted with alder and inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Melanogaster variegatus s.l. After a 20 weeks growth period in a greenhouse, a total of 100 samples was tested and evaluated. Positive correlations were found between the soil aggregate stability and the three variables dry unit weight, root length per soil volume, and degree of mycorrhization. Based on robust statistics it turned out that dry unit weight and mycorrhization degree were strongest correlated with soil aggregate stability. Compared to the non-inoculated control plants, mycorrhized White Alder produced significantly more roots and higher soil aggregate stability. Furthermore, the combined biological effect of plant roots and mycorrhizal mycelia on aggregate stability on soil with low density (~15.5 kN/m³) was comparable to the compaction effect of the pure soil from 15.5 to ~19.0 kN/m³. Literature data on the effect of vegetation on the angle of internal friction ?' of the same moraine showed

  2. Radiographic versus electronic root canal working length determination

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    Lumnije Kqiku

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: The present ex vivo study showed that electronic root canal working length determination is not superior to radiographic methods. Both methods provided a good performance in determining the root canal working length.

  3. Effects of fine root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghu Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The study was conducted to characterize the impacts of plant roots systems (e.g., root length density and root biomass on soil preferential flow in forest ecosystems. Area of study: The study was carried out in Jiufeng National Forest Park, Beijing, China. Material and methods: The flow patterns were measured by field dye tracing experiments. Different species (Sophora japonica Linn,Platycladus orientalis Franco, Quercus dentata Thunbwere quantified in two replicates, and 12 soil depth were applied. Plant roots were sampled in the sieving methods. Root length density and root biomass were measured by WinRHIZO. Dye coverage was implied in the image analysis, and maximum depth of dye infiltration by direct measurement. Main results: Root length density and root biomass decreased with the increasing distance from soil surface, and root length density was 81.6% higher in preferential pathways than in soil matrix, and 66.7% for root biomass with respect to all experimental plots. Plant roots were densely distributed in the upper soil layers. Dye coverage was almost 100% in the upper 5-10 cm, but then decreased rapidly with soil depth. Root length density and root biomass were different from species: Platycladus orientalis Franco > Quercus dentata Thunb > Sophora japonica Linn. Research highlights: The results indicated that fine roots systems had strong effects on soil preferential flow, particularly root channels enhancing nutrition transport across soil profiles in forest dynamics.

  4. Accuracy of working length determination with root ZX apex locator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to clinically compare working length (WL) determination with root ZX apex locator and radiography, and then compare them with direct visualization method ex vivo. A total of 75 maxillary central and lateral incisors were selected. Working length determination was carried out using radiographic ...

  5. Working Length Determination of Root Canal of Young Permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Working Length Determination of Root Canal of Young Permanent Tooth: An In Vitro Study. A Diwanji, AS Rathore, R Arora, V Dhar, A Madhusudan, J Doshi. Abstract. Background: Determination of correct working length is one of the keys to success in endodontic therapy. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ...

  6. Fine Mapping of QUICK ROOTING 1 and 2, Quantitative Trait Loci Increasing Root Length in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitomi, Yuka; Nakao, Emari; Kawai, Sawako; Kanno, Noriko; Ando, Tsuyu; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Irie, Kenji; Uga, Yusaku

    2018-02-02

    The volume that the root system can occupy is associated with the efficiency of water and nutrient uptake from soil. Genetic improvement of root length, which is a limiting factor for root distribution, is necessary for increasing crop production. In this report, we describe identification of two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for maximal root length, QUICK ROOTING 1 ( QRO1 ) on chromosome 2 and QRO2 on chromosome 6, in cultivated rice ( Oryza sativa L.). We measured the maximal root length in 26 lines carrying chromosome segments from the long-rooted upland rice cultivar Kinandang Patong in the genetic background of the short-rooted lowland cultivar IR64. Five lines had longer roots than IR64. By rough mapping of the target regions in BC 4 F 2 populations, we detected putative QTLs for maximal root length on chromosomes 2, 6, and 8. To fine-map these QTLs, we used BC 4 F 3 recombinant homozygous lines. QRO1 was mapped between markers RM5651 and RM6107, which delimit a 1.7-Mb interval on chromosome 2, and QRO2 was mapped between markers RM20495 and RM3430-1, which delimit an 884-kb interval on chromosome 6. Both QTLs may be promising gene resources for improving root system architecture in rice. Copyright © 2018 Kitomi et al.

  7. Fine Mapping of QUICK ROOTING 1 and 2, Quantitative Trait Loci Increasing Root Length in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Kitomi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The volume that the root system can occupy is associated with the efficiency of water and nutrient uptake from soil. Genetic improvement of root length, which is a limiting factor for root distribution, is necessary for increasing crop production. In this report, we describe identification of two quantitative trait loci (QTLs for maximal root length, QUICK ROOTING 1 (QRO1 on chromosome 2 and QRO2 on chromosome 6, in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.. We measured the maximal root length in 26 lines carrying chromosome segments from the long-rooted upland rice cultivar Kinandang Patong in the genetic background of the short-rooted lowland cultivar IR64. Five lines had longer roots than IR64. By rough mapping of the target regions in BC4F2 populations, we detected putative QTLs for maximal root length on chromosomes 2, 6, and 8. To fine-map these QTLs, we used BC4F3 recombinant homozygous lines. QRO1 was mapped between markers RM5651 and RM6107, which delimit a 1.7-Mb interval on chromosome 2, and QRO2 was mapped between markers RM20495 and RM3430-1, which delimit an 884-kb interval on chromosome 6. Both QTLs may be promising gene resources for improving root system architecture in rice.

  8. Changes in root lengths of maxillary incisors during orthodontic retention period

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    Ravanmehr H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: External apical root resorption is a common iatrogenic consequence of orthodontic treatment. Much controversy exists in the literature about changes in root lengths at post treatment periods. Although many practitioners believe that resorption becomes stable after active treatment, quantitative data are scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine quantitative changes in root lengths of maxillary incisors during fixed orthodontic post treatment period, and to assess if it is influenced by gender and factors related to active treatment. Materials and Methods: This was a case cross over study, performed on 80 patients (52 females and 28 males aged between 13 and 22 years. At debonding stage and beginning of retention phase of fixed orthodontic treatment, Hawley type retainer was fabricated for maxillary arch. Periapical radiographs of maxillary incisors using standard parallel technique were obtained immediately after debonding, and 3 and 7 months later. Crown and root lengths of maxillary incisors were measured using computer program. Changes in root lengths were calculated considering correction factors. Also associations between some factors and the change in root lengths during post treatment periods were assessed. These included gender, type of treatment plan (non extraction/extraction, technique (standard edgewise/straight-wire edgewise and duration of active treatment (less than 2 years/2 years and more. T-test and 4-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis with P0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: No significant relation was found between apical root resorption of maxillary central incisors and time elapsed after treatment. Significant relation was observed between apical root resorption of maxillary lateral incisors and the length of post treatment period. No significant relation was found between root length changes of maxillary incisors during post treatment period and gender, type of treatment

  9. Relativity and its roots

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh

    1998-01-01

    In this fascinating, accessible introduction to one of the most revolutionary developments in modern physics, Einstein scholar Banesh Hoffmann recounts the successive insights that led to both the special and general theories of relativity.Using simple examples from everyday life, the author presents entertaining, nontechnical demonstrations of what relativity actually means and how it has revolutionized our ideas of time and space. Starting with the geometrical and cosmological ideas of the ancient Greeks, the author traces the succession of ideas and advances that paved the way for modern p

  10. Sample preparation and scanning protocol for computerised analysis of root length and diameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Nielsen, K.F.; Koutstaal, B.P.

    2000-01-01

    Root length and diameter distribution are important characteristics to be considered when describing and comparing root systems. Root length and root-diameter distribution may be obtained in two ways: by microscopical measurements, which are laborious, or by computerised analysis, which is fast but

  11. Root length in the permanent teeth of women with an additional X chromosome (47,XXX females).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lähdesmäki, Raija E; Alvesalo, Lassi J

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differential effects of the X and Y chromosomes on dental development. The expression of sexual dimorphism in terms of tooth size, shape, number and developmental timing has been explained especially by Y chromosome influence. The Y chromosome promotes enamel, crown and root dentin development. The X chromosome has an effect on enamel deposition. The aim of this research is to study the influence of the extra X chromosome on the development of permanent tooth root length. The study subjects (all of whom were from the Kvantti Dental Research Project) were seven 47,XXX females, five female relatives and 51 and 52 population control men and women, respectively. Measurements were made from panoramic radiographs on available permanent teeth by a digital calliper according to established procedures. The results showed that the maxillary root lengths of the 47,XXX females were of the same magnitude as those in normal women, but the mandibular root lengths were longer in 47,XXX females than in normal men or women. Increased enamel thickness in the teeth of 47,XXX females is apparently caused by the active enamel gene in all X chromosomes having no increased influence on crown dentin formation. These results in 47,XXX females indicate an increase in root dentin development, at least in the mandible, which together with the data on crown formation reflects a continuous long-lasting effect of the X chromosome on dental development.

  12. Accuracy of working length determination with root ZX apex locator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... generation of electronic apex locators (EALs), called root. ZX (J. Morita Co., Tustin, .... dentinocemento junction. Dent Items Interest, 50: 855-857. ... apex locator with an automatic compensation circuit. J. Endod. 28: 706-709.

  13. Quantitative Classification of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Root Length and Diameter Using Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongxiang; Zhen, Fengxian; Hannaway, David B; Zhu, Yan; Liu, Leilei; Cao, Weixing; Tang, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative study of root morphological characteristics of plants is helpful for understanding the relationships between their morphology and function. However, few studies and little detailed and accurate information of root characteristics were reported in fine-rooted plants like rice (Oryza sativa L.). The aims of this study were to quantitatively classify fine lateral roots (FLRs), thick lateral roots (TLRs), and nodal roots (NRs) and analyze their dynamics of mean diameter (MD), lengths and surface area percentage with growth stages in rice plant. Pot experiments were carried out during three years with three rice cultivars, three nitrogen (N) rates and three water regimes. In cultivar experiment, among the three cultivars, root length of 'Yangdao 6' was longest, while the MD of its FLR was the smallest, and the mean diameters for TLR and NR were the largest, the surface area percentage (SAP) of TLRs (SAPT) was the highest, indicating that Yangdao 6 has better nitrogen and water uptake ability. High N rate increased the length of different types of roots and increased the MD of lateral roots, decreased the SAP of FLRs (SAPF) and TLRs, but increased the SAP of NRs (SAPN). Moderate decrease of water supply increased root length and diameter, water stress increased the SAPF and SAPT, but decreased SAPN. The quantitative results indicate that rice plant tends to increase lateral roots to get more surface area for nitrogen and water uptake when available assimilates are limiting under nitrogen and water stress environments.

  14. Quantitative Classification of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Root Length and Diameter Using Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongxiang; Zhen, Fengxian; Hannaway, David B.; Zhu, Yan; Liu, Leilei; Cao, Weixing; Tang, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative study of root morphological characteristics of plants is helpful for understanding the relationships between their morphology and function. However, few studies and little detailed and accurate information of root characteristics were reported in fine-rooted plants like rice (Oryza sativa L.). The aims of this study were to quantitatively classify fine lateral roots (FLRs), thick lateral roots (TLRs), and nodal roots (NRs) and analyze their dynamics of mean diameter (MD), lengths and surface area percentage with growth stages in rice plant. Pot experiments were carried out during three years with three rice cultivars, three nitrogen (N) rates and three water regimes. In cultivar experiment, among the three cultivars, root length of ‘Yangdao 6’ was longest, while the MD of its FLR was the smallest, and the mean diameters for TLR and NR were the largest, the surface area percentage (SAP) of TLRs (SAPT) was the highest, indicating that Yangdao 6 has better nitrogen and water uptake ability. High N rate increased the length of different types of roots and increased the MD of lateral roots, decreased the SAP of FLRs (SAPF) and TLRs, but increased the SAP of NRs (SAPN). Moderate decrease of water supply increased root length and diameter, water stress increased the SAPF and SAPT, but decreased SAPN. The quantitative results indicate that rice plant tends to increase lateral roots to get more surface area for nitrogen and water uptake when available assimilates are limiting under nitrogen and water stress environments. PMID:28103264

  15. The effect of cutting length on the rooting and growth of subtropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The length of a cutting can affect both the rooting and plug colonisation of container-grown stock. Using hedges from conventional clonebanks established in the ground, four cutting length treatments (13, 10, 8 and 5 cm) were tested using five Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla clones. The smallest cutting length had the ...

  16. Changes of Root Length and Root-to-Crown Ratio after Apical Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Arx, Thomas; Jensen, Simon S; Bornstein, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Apical surgery is an important treatment option for teeth with post-treatment periodontitis. Although apical surgery involves root-end resection, no morphometric data are yet available about root-end resection and its impact on the root-to-crown ratio (RCR). The present study assess...

  17. Root Length and Anatomy of Impacted Maxillary Canines in Patients with Unilateral Maxillary Canine Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostfa Shahabi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Canine impaction is a common occurrence. In this study, we sought to investigate the root anatomy and length of impacted canines and lateral incisor adjacent to impacted maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, three-dimensional tomographic imaging was performed on 26 patients with unilateral maxillary canine impaction. In this study, we evaluated root length and anatomy of impacted canines, in terms of resorption intensity and curvature, with Planmeca Romexis Viewer 4.0. Furthermore, crown shape as well as root length and anatomy of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines were investigated and compared with the other side on the dental arch, where canine eruption was normal. Results: Root length of impacted canines was significantly lower than that of normal canines (P=0.011. There were no significant differences between root length of lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines and root length of lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.221. Moreover, the resorption intensity of the adjacent lateral incisors was higher than that of the impacted canines. No significant differences were noted in root resorption intensity between the lateral incisors adjacent to the imacted canines and the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.36. In addition, resorption intensity was significantly higher in impacted canines than in normal canines (P=0.024. Root anatomy of impacted canines was not significantly different from that of normal canines (P=0.055. The crown shape of the lateral incisors adjacent to impacted canines was not significantly different from that of the lateral incisors adjacent to normal canines (P=0.052. Conclusion: Impaction can probably affect root length and canine resorption severity. However, root and crown shape of lateral incisors cannot always be associated with canine impaction.

  18. The Effects of Two Different Deficit Irrigation Managements on the Root Length of Maize

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    M. Gheysari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of root to water stress is one of the most important parameters for researchers. Study of growth and distribution of root under different irrigation managements helpsresearchersto a better understanding of soil water content, and the availability of water and nutrition in water stress condition. To investigate the effects of four levels of irrigation under two different deficit irrigation managements on the root length of maize, a study was conducted in 2009. Irrigation managements included fixed irrigation interval-variable irrigation depth (M1 and variable irrigation interval-fixed irrigation depth (M2. Maize plants were planted in 120 large 110-liter containers in a strip-plot design in a randomized complete block with three replications. Root data sampling was done after root washing in five growth stages. The results showed that the effect of irrigation levels on root length was significant (P

  19. Root Length and Anatomy of Impacted Maxillary Canines in Patients with Unilateral Maxillary Canine Impaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mostfa Shahabi; Maryam Omidkhoda; Seyedeh Haniyeh Omidi; Seyed Hosein Hoseini Zarch

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Canine impaction is a common occurrence. In this study, we sought to investigate the root anatomy and length of impacted canines and lateral incisor adjacent to impacted maxillary canine. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, three-dimensional tomographic imaging was performed on 26 patients with unilateral maxillary canine impaction. In this study, we evaluated root length and anatomy of impacted canines, in terms of resorption intensity and curvature, with Planme...

  20. Resorption of lateral incisors during canine eruption: two clinical cases with focus on root length and heredity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zargham, Mostafa; Kjær, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: It is well-known that pressure from orthodontic appliance can provoke root resorption in dentitions with short roots. The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate two clinical cases with focus on root length in dentitions exposed due to pressure from erupting teeth...... resorption on her lateral incisor roots, extremely short roots in the central incisors, and short roots. The intraoral photos demonstrated light crowding in the maxilla. The orthopantomogram of the girl’s mother demonstrated extremely short roots in general. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that short...... root length in general and abnormal incisor morphology are phenotypic traits that were characteristic for both girls who presented with severe lateral incisor resorption due to erupting canines. Furthermore, short roots were also demonstrated in the mothers. Accordingly, short root length in general...

  1. Initial root length in wheat is highly correlated with acid soil tolerance in the field

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    Jorge Fernando Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In acid soils, toxic aluminum ions inhibit plant root growth. In order to discriminate aluminum (Al tolerance, trustful screening techniques are required. In this study, 20 wheat cultivars, showing different levels of Al tolerance, were evaluated in a short-term soil experiment to access their relative root length (RRL. Moreover, the alleles of two important genes (TaALMT1 and TaMATE1B for Al tolerance in wheat were discriminated. Both of these genes encode membrane transporters responsible for the efflux of organic acids by the root apices that are thought to confer tolerance by chelating Al. Genotypes showing TaALMT1 alleles V and VI and an insertion at the TaMATE1B promoter were among the ones showing greater RRL. Mechanisms of Al tolerance, which are not associated with organic acid efflux, can be potentially present in two cultivars showing greater RRL among the ones carrying inferior TaALMT1 and TaMATE1B alleles. The RRL data were highly correlated with wheat performance in acid soil at three developmental stages, tillering (r = −0.93, p < 0.001, silking (r = −0.91, p < 0.001 and maturation (r = −0.90, p < 0.001, as well as with the classification index of aluminum toxicity in the field (r = −0.92, p < 0.001. Since the RRL was obtained after only six days of growth and it is highly correlated with plant performance in acid soil under field conditions, the short-term experiment detailed here is an efficient and rapid method for reliable screening of wheat Al tolerance.

  2. Wheat root length and not branching is altered in the presence of neighbours, including blackgrass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Finch

    Full Text Available The effect of neighbouring plants on crop root system architecture may directly interfere with water and nutrient acquisition, yet this important and interesting aspect of competition remains poorly understood. Here, the effect of the weed blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. on wheat (Triticum aestivum L. roots was tested, since a low density of this species (25 plants m-2 can lead to a 10% decrease in wheat yield and herbicide resistance is problematic. We used a simplified growth system based on gelled medium, to grow wheat alongside a neighbour, either another wheat plant, a blackgrass or Brachypodium dystachion individual (a model grass. A detailed analysis of wheat seminal root system architecture showed that the presence of a neighbour principally affected the root length, rather than number or diameter under a high nutrient regime. In particular, the length of first order lateral roots decreased significantly in the presence of blackgrass and Brachypodium. However, this effect was not noted when wheat plants were grown in low nutrient conditions. This suggests that wheat may be less sensitive to the presence of blackgrass when grown in low nutrient conditions. In addition, nutrient availability to the neighbour did not modulate the neighbour effect on wheat root architecture.

  3. Wheat root length and not branching is altered in the presence of neighbours, including blackgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Jessica A.; Guillaume, Gaëtan; French, Stephanie A.; Colaço, Renato D. D. R.; Davies, Julia M.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of neighbouring plants on crop root system architecture may directly interfere with water and nutrient acquisition, yet this important and interesting aspect of competition remains poorly understood. Here, the effect of the weed blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots was tested, since a low density of this species (25 plants m-2) can lead to a 10% decrease in wheat yield and herbicide resistance is problematic. We used a simplified growth system based on gelled medium, to grow wheat alongside a neighbour, either another wheat plant, a blackgrass or Brachypodium dystachion individual (a model grass). A detailed analysis of wheat seminal root system architecture showed that the presence of a neighbour principally affected the root length, rather than number or diameter under a high nutrient regime. In particular, the length of first order lateral roots decreased significantly in the presence of blackgrass and Brachypodium. However, this effect was not noted when wheat plants were grown in low nutrient conditions. This suggests that wheat may be less sensitive to the presence of blackgrass when grown in low nutrient conditions. In addition, nutrient availability to the neighbour did not modulate the neighbour effect on wheat root architecture. PMID:28542446

  4. Construction Process of the Length of [cube root of 2] by Paper Folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Hatice Kubra; Gurbuz, Mustafa Cagri

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate mathematics teachers' mathematical thinking process while they are constructing the length of [cube root of 2] by paper folding. To carry out this aim, two teachers--who are PhD. students--were interviewed one by one. During the construction, it was possible to observe the consolidation process of…

  5. The accuracy of the radiographic method in root canal length measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Eun Young; Park, Chang Seo

    1998-01-01

    For the successful endodontic treatment, root canal should be cleaned thoroughly by accurate mechanical and chemical canal preparation and sealed completely with canal filling material without damaging the periapical tissues. The accuracy of the root canal length measurement is a prerequisite for the success of the endodontic treatment, and the root canal length is often determined by the standard periapical radiographs and digital tactile sense. In this study, the accuracy and the clinical usefulness of Digora, an intraoral digital imaging processor and the conventional standard radiographs were compared by measuring the length from the top of the file to the root apex. 30 single rooted premolars were invested in a uniformly sized blocks and No.25 K-file was inserted into and fixed in each canal. Each block was placed in equal distance and position to satisfy the principle of the bisecting angle and paralleling techniques and Digora system's image and standard periapical radiographs were taken. Each radiograph was examined by 3 different observers by measuring the length from top of the file to the root apex and each data was compared and analyzed. The results were as follows; 1. In the bisecting angle technique, the average difference between the Digora system and standard periapical radiograph was 0.002 mm and the standard deviation was 0.341 mm which showed no statistically significant difference between the two systems (p>0.05). Also, in the paralleling technique, the average difference between these two system was 0.007 mm and the standard deviation was 0.323 mm which showed no statistically significant difference between the two systems (p>0.05). 2. In Digora system, the average difference between the bisecting angle and paralleling technique was -0.336 mm and the standard deviation was 0.472 mm which showed a statistically significant difference between the two techniques (p 0.05). In conclusion, the determination of the root canal length by using the

  6. Relation between axial length and ocular parameters

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    Xue-Qiu Yang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigatethe relation between axial length(AL, age and ocular parameters.METHODS: A total of 360 subjects(360 eyeswith emmetropia or myopia were recruited. Refraction, center corneal thickness(CCT, AL, intraocular pressure(IOPwere measured by automatic-refractor, Pachymeter, A-mode ultrasound and non-contact tonometer, respectively. Corneal curvature(CC, anterior chamber depth(ACDand white-to-white distance(WWDwere measured by Orbscan II. Three dimensional frequency domain coherent optical tomography(3D-OCTwas used to examine the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness(RNFLT. The Pearson correlation coefficient(rand multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the relationship between AL, age and ocular parameters.RESULTS: The average AL was 24.15±1.26mm. With elongation of the AL, spherical equivalent(SE(r=-0.742,Pr=-0.395, Pr=-0.374, Pr=0.411, Pr=0.099, P=0.060and WWD(r=0.061, P=0.252. There was also a significant correlation between AL and age(P=0.001, SE(PPPCONCLUSION: In longer eyes, there is a tendency toward myopia, a flatter cornea, a deeper ACD and a thinner RNFLT. Age is an influencing factor for the AL as well.

  7. Analysis of aneuploid lines of bread wheat to map chromosomal locations of genes controlling root hair length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Rathjen, Tina; Weligama, Kumara; Forrest, Kerrie; Hayden, Matthew; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2017-06-01

    Long root hairs enable the efficient uptake of poorly mobile nutrients such as phosphorus. Mapping the chromosomal locations of genes that control root hair length can help exploit the natural variation within crops to develop improved cultivars. Genetic stocks of the wheat cultivar 'Chinese Spring' were used to map genes that control root hair length. Aneuploid stocks of 'Chinese Spring' were screened using a rapid method based on rhizosheath size and then selected lines were assayed for root hair length to identify chromosomes harbouring genes controlling root hair length. A series of lines with various fractional deletions of candidate chromosomes were then screened to map the root hair loci more accurately. A line with a deletion in chromosome 5A was analysed with a 90 000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. The phosphorus acquisition efficiency (PAE) of one deletion line was compared with that of euploid 'Chinese Spring' by growing the seedlings in pots at low and luxury phosphorus supplies. Chromosomes 1A, 1D and 5A were found to harbour genes controlling root hair length. The 90 000 SNP array identified two candidate genes controlling root hair length located on chromosome 5A. The line with a deletion in chromosome 5A had root hairs that were approx. 20 % shorter than euploid 'Chinese Spring', but this was insufficient to reduce its PAE. A rapid screen for rhizosheath size enabled chromosomal regions controlling root hair length to be mapped in the wheat cultivar 'Chinese Spring' and subsequent analysis with an SNP array identified candidate genes controlling root hair length. The difference in root hair length between euploid 'Chinese Spring' and a deletion line identified in the rapid screen was still apparent, albeit attenuated, when the seedlings were grown on a fully fertilized soil. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Minimal length uncertainty relation and ultraviolet regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Achim; Mangano, Gianpiero

    1997-06-01

    Studies in string theory and quantum gravity suggest the existence of a finite lower limit Δx0 to the possible resolution of distances, at the latest on the scale of the Planck length of 10-35 m. Within the framework of the Euclidean path integral we explicitly show ultraviolet regularization in field theory through this short distance structure. Both rotation and translation invariance can be preserved. An example is studied in detail.

  9. Rooting depths of plants relative to biological and environmental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxx, T.S.; Tierney, G.D.; Williams, J.M.

    1984-11-01

    In 1981 to 1982 an extensive bibliographic study was completed to document rooting depths of native plants in the United States. The data base presently contains 1034 citations with approximately 12,000 data elements. In this paper the data were analyzed for rooting depths as related to life form, soil type, geographical region, root type, family, root depth to shoot height ratios, and root depth to root lateral ratios. Average rooting depth and rooting frequencies were determined and related to present low-level waste site maintenance

  10. Pulp regeneration in a full-length human tooth root using a hierarchical nanofibrous microsphere system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangwei; Ma, Chi; Xie, Xiaohua; Sun, Hongchen; Liu, Xiaohua

    2016-04-15

    While pulp regeneration using tissue engineering strategy has been explored for over a decade, successful regeneration of pulp tissues in a full-length human root with a one-end seal that truly simulates clinical endodontic treatment has not been achieved. To address this challenge, we designed and synthesized a unique hierarchical growth factor-loaded nanofibrous microsphere scaffolding system. In this system, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) binds with heparin and is encapsulated in heparin-conjugated gelatin nanospheres, which are further immobilized in the nanofibers of an injectable poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) microsphere. This hierarchical microsphere system not only protects the VEGF from denaturation and degradation, but also provides excellent control of its sustained release. In addition, the nanofibrous PLLA microsphere integrates the extracellular matrix-mimicking architecture with a highly porous injectable form, efficiently accommodating dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and supporting their proliferation and pulp tissue formation. Our in vivo study showed the successful regeneration of pulp-like tissues that fulfilled the entire apical and middle thirds and reached the coronal third of the full-length root canal. In addition, a large number of blood vessels were regenerated throughout the canal. For the first time, our work demonstrates the success of pulp tissue regeneration in a full-length root canal, making it a significant step toward regenerative endodontics. The regeneration of pulp tissues in a full-length tooth root canal has been one of the greatest challenges in the field of regenerative endodontics, and one of the biggest barriers for its clinical application. In this study, we developed a unique approach to tackle this challenge, and for the first time, we successfully regenerated living pulp tissues in a full-length root canal, making it a significant step toward regenerative endodontics. This study will make positive scientific

  11. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG-Treated Hydroponic Culture Reduces Length and Diameter of Root Hairs of Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hasan Khan Robin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is an important cereal crop worldwide that often suffers from moisture deficits at the reproductive stage. Polyethylene glycol (PEG-treated hydroponic conditions create negative osmotic potential which is compared with moisture deficit stress. An experiment was conducted in a growth chamber to study the effects of PEG on root hair morphology and associated traits of wheat varieties. Plants of 13 wheat varieties were grown hydroponically and three different doses of PEG 6000 (w/v: 0% (control, 0.3% and 0.6% (less than −1 bar were imposed on 60 days after sowing for 20 days’ duration. A low PEG concentration was imposed to observe how initial low moisture stress might affect root hair development. PEG-treated hydroponic culture significantly decreased root hair diameter and length. Estimated surface area reduction of root hairs at the main axes of wheat plants was around nine times at the 0.6% PEG level compared to the control plants. Decrease in root hair diameter and length under PEG-induced culture decreased “potential” root surface area per unit length of main root axis. A negative association between panicle traits, length and dry weight and the main axis length of young roots indicated competition for carbon during their development. Data provides insight into how a low PEG level might alter root hair development.

  12. Soil sheaths, photosynthate distribution to roots, and rhizosphere water relations for Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.; North, G.B.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Soil sheaths incorporating aggregated soil particles surround young roots of many species, but the effects of such sheaths on water movement between roots and the soil are largely unknown. The quantity and location of root exudates associated with soil sheath along the entire length of its young roots, except within 1.4 cm of the tip. The soil sheaths, which average 0.7 mm in thickness, were composed of soil particles and root hairs, both of which were covered with exuded mucilaginous material. As determined with a [sup 14]C pulse-labeling technique, 2% of newly fixed [sup 14]C-photosynthate was translocated into the roots at 3d, 6% at 9 d, and 8% at 15 d after labeling. The fraction of insoluble [sup 14]C in the roots increased twofold from 3 d to 15 d. Over the same time period, 6%-9% of the [sup 14]C translocated to the roots was exuded into the soil. The soluble [sup 14]C compounds exuded into the soil were greater in the 3-cm segment at the root tip than elsewhere along the root, whereas mucilage was exuded relatively uniformly along roots 15 cm in length. The volumetric efflux of water increase for both sheathed and unsheathed roots as the soil water potential decreased form -0.1 MPa to -1.0 MPa. The efflux rate was greater for unsheathed roots than for sheathed roots, which were more turgid and had a higher water potential, especially at lower soil water potentials. During drying, soil particles in the sheaths aggregate more tightly, making the sheaths less permeable to water and possibly creating air gaps. The soil sheaths of O. ficus-indica thus reduce water loss from the roots to a drying soil. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. A bell pepper cultivar tolerant to chilling enhanced nitrogen allocation and stress-related metabolite accumulation in the roots in response to low root-zone temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, Moses Kwame; Sherman, Tal; Lazarovitch, Naftali; Fait, Aaron; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2017-10-01

    Two bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivars, differing in their response to chilling, were exposed to three levels of root-zone temperatures. Gas exchange, shoot and root phenology, and the pattern of change of the central metabolites and secondary metabolites caffeate and benzoate in the leaves and roots were profiled. Low root-zone temperature significantly inhibited gaseous exchange, with a greater effect on the sensitive commercial pepper hybrid (Canon) than on the new hybrid bred to enhance abiotic stress tolerance (S103). The latter was less affected by the treatment with respect to plant height, shoot dry mass, root maximum length, root projected area, number of root tips and root dry mass. More carbon was allocated to the leaves of S103 than nitrogen at 17°C, while in the roots at 17°C, more nitrogen was allocated and the ratio between C/N decreased. Metabolite profiling showed greater increase in the root than in the leaves. Leaf response between the two cultivars differed significantly. The roots accumulated stress-related metabolites including γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), proline, galactinol and raffinose and at chilling (7°C) resulted in an increase of sugars in both cultivars. Our results suggest that the enhanced tolerance of S103 to root cold stress, reflected in the relative maintenance of shoot and root growth, is likely linked to a more effective regulation of photosynthesis facilitated by the induction of stress-related metabolism. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Resorption of Lateral Incisors during Canine Eruption: Two Clinical Cases with Focus on Root Lengths and Heredity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Zargham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is well-known that pressure from orthodontic appliance can provoke root resorption in dentitions with short roots. The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate two clinical cases with focus on root length in dentitions exposed due to pressure from erupting teeth. This is a pilot study aimed to improve diagnostics for avoiding the resorption of lateral maxillary incisors by pressure from erupting canines. Case Report: The first reported case is of a girl who was 11 years and 7 months old when radiographs showed severe resorption of the lateral incisors, along with malformed central incisors and short roots. The intraoral photos demonstrated light crowding in the maxilla. The orthopantomogram of the girl’s mother demonstrated several short roots. The second reported case is of a girl who was 9 years and 5 months old when radiographs demonstrated nearly complete resorption on her lateral incisor roots, extremely short roots in the central incisors, and short roots. The intraoral photos demonstrated light crowding in the maxilla. The orthopantomogram of the girl’s mother demonstrated extremely short roots in general. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that short root length in general and abnormal incisor morphology are phenotypic traits that were characteristic for both girls who presented with severe lateral incisor resorption due to erupting canines. Furthermore, short roots were also demonstrated in the mothers. Accordingly, short root length in general could be a phenotypic trait, which should be diagnosed early for preventing severe resorption of lateral incisors during canine eruption.

  15. The validity of cone-beam computed tomography in measuring root canal length using a gold standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Y.H.; Jiang, L.; Chen, C.; Gao, X.J.; Wesselink, P.R.; Wu, M.K.; Shemesh, H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The distance between a coronal reference point and the major apical foramen is important for working length determination. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the accuracy of root canal length measurements performed with cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) scans using a

  16. Root length and alveolar bone level of impacted canines and adjacent teeth after orthodontic traction: a long-term evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da SILVA, Aldir Cordeiro; CAPISTRANO, Anderson; de ALMEIDA-PEDRIN, Renata Rodrigues; CARDOSO, Maurício de Almeida; CONTI, Ana Cláudia de Castro Ferreira; CAPELOZZA, Leopoldino

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term effects of orthodontic traction on root length and alveolar bone level in impacted canines and adjacent teeth. Material and Methods Sample consisted of 16 patients (nine males and seven females), mean initial age 11 years and 8 months presenting with unilaterally maxillary impacted canines, palatally displaced, treated with the same surgical and orthodontic approach. Teeth from the impacted-canine side were assigned as Group I (GI), and contralateral teeth as control, Group II (GII). The mean age of patients at the end of orthodontic treatment was 14 years and 2 months and the mean post-treatment time was 5 years and 11 months. Both contralateral erupted maxillary canines and adjacent teeth served as control. Root length and alveolar bone level (buccal and palatal) were evaluated on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. The comparison of root length and alveolar bone level changes between groups were assessed by applying paired t-test, at a significance level of 5% (p<0.05). Results There were no statistically significant differences in root length and buccal and palatal bone levels of canines and adjacent teeth among groups. Conclusions Impacted canine treatment by closed-eruption technique associated with canine crown perforation, has a minimal effect on root length and buccal and palatal alveolar bone level in both canine and adjacent teeth, demonstrating that this treatment protocol has a good long-term prognosis. PMID:28198979

  17. Relative gut lengths of coral reef butterflyfishes (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Goodman, Brett Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Variation in gut length of closely related animals is known to generally be a good predictor of dietary habits. We examined gut length in 28 species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae), which encompass a wide range of dietary types (planktivores, omnivores, and corallivores). We found general dietary patterns to be a good predictor of relative gut length, although we found high variation among groups and covariance with body size. The longest gut lengths are found in species that exclusively feed on the living tissue of corals, while the shortest gut length is found in a planktivorous species. Although we tried to control for phylogeny, corallivory has arisen multiple times in this family, confounding our analyses. The butterflyfishes, a speciose family with a wide range of dietary habits, may nonetheless provide an ideal system for future work studying gut physiology associated with specialization and foraging behaviors. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Relative gut lengths of coral reef butterflyfishes (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2011-06-17

    Variation in gut length of closely related animals is known to generally be a good predictor of dietary habits. We examined gut length in 28 species of butterflyfishes (Chaetodontidae), which encompass a wide range of dietary types (planktivores, omnivores, and corallivores). We found general dietary patterns to be a good predictor of relative gut length, although we found high variation among groups and covariance with body size. The longest gut lengths are found in species that exclusively feed on the living tissue of corals, while the shortest gut length is found in a planktivorous species. Although we tried to control for phylogeny, corallivory has arisen multiple times in this family, confounding our analyses. The butterflyfishes, a speciose family with a wide range of dietary habits, may nonetheless provide an ideal system for future work studying gut physiology associated with specialization and foraging behaviors. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Diversity effects on root length production and loss in an experimental grassland community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommer, L.; Padilla, F.M.; Ruijven, van J.; Caluwe, de H.; Smit-Tiekstra, A.E.; Berendse, F.; Kroon, de H.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in root ecology have revealed that root standing biomass is higher in species-rich plant communities than in species-poor communities. Currently, we do not know whether this below-ground diversity effect is the result of enhanced root production or reduced root mortality or both, which is

  20. The Accuracy of the Digital imaging system and the frequency dependent type apex locator in root canal length measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byoung Rib; Park, Chang Seo

    1998-01-01

    In order to achieve a successful endodontic treatment, root canals must be obturated three-dimensionally without causing any damage to apical tissues. Accurate length determination of the root canal is critical in this case. For this reason, I've used the conventional periapical radiography, Digora (digital imaging system) and Root ZX (the frequency dependent type apex locator) to measure the length of the canal and compare it with the true length obtained by cutting the tooth in half and measuring the length between the occlusal surface and the apical foramen. From the information obtained by these measurements, I was able to evaluate the accuracy and clinical usefulness of each systems, whether the thickness of files used in endodontic therapy has any effect on the measuring systems was also evaluated in an effort to simplify the treatment planning phase of endodontic treatment. 29 canals of 29 sound premolars were measured with no 15, no 20, no 25 files by 3 different dentists each using the periapical radiography, Digora and Root ZX. The measurements were then compared with the true length. The results were as follows ; 1. In comparing mean discrepancies between measurements obtained by using periapical radiography (mean error : -0.449 ± 0.444 mm), Digora (mean error : -0.417 ± 0.415 mm) and Root ZX (mean error : 0.123 ± 0.458 mm) with true length, periapical radiography and Digora system had statistically significant differences (p 0.05). 2. By subtracting values obtained by using periapical radiography, Digora and Root ZX from the true length and making a distribution table of their absolute values, the following analysis was possible. In the case of periapical film, 140 out of 261 (53.6%) were clinically acceptable satisfying the margin of error of less than 0.5 mm, 151 out of 261 (53,6%) were acceptable in the Digora system while Root ZX had 197 out of 261 (75.5%) within the limits of 0.5 mm margin of error. 3. In determining whether the thickness of

  1. Optimization of inhibitory decision rules relative to length and coverage

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail; Zielosko, Beata

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. In contrast with usual rules that have on the right-hand side a relation "attribute ≠ value", inhibitory rules have a relation

  2. Accuracy of two root canal length measurement devices integrated into rotary endodontic motors when removing gutta-percha from root-filled teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, O; Topuz, O; Tinaz, C; Nekoofar, M H; Dummer, P M H

    2008-09-01

    To evaluate ex vivo the accuracy of the integrated electronic root canal length measurement devices within TCM Endo V and Tri Auto ZX motors whilst removing gutta-percha and sealer from filled root canals. Forty freshly extracted maxillary and mandibular incisor teeth with mature apices were selected. Following access cavity preparation, the length of the root canals were measured visually 0.5 mm short of the major foramen (TL). The canals were prepared using the HERO 642 system and then filled with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer using a lateral compaction technique. After 7 days the coronal temporary filling was removed and the roots mounted in an alginate experimental model. The roots were then randomly divided in two groups. The access cavities were filled with chloroform to soften the gutta-percha and allow its penetration using the Tri Auto ZX and the TCM Endo V devices in groups 1 and 2, respectively. The 'automatic apical reverse function' (ARL) of both devices was set to start at the 0.5 setting and the rotary instrument inserted inside the root canal until a beeping sound was heard and the rotation of the file stopped automatically. Once the auto reverse function had been initiated, the foot pedal of the motor was inactivated and the rubber stop placed against the reference point. The distance between the file tip and rubber stop was measured using a digital calliper to 0.01 mm accuracy (ARL). Then, a size 20, 0.02 taper instrument was attached to each device and inserted into the root canals without rotary motion until the integrated ERCLMDs positioned the instrument tips at the 0.5 setting as suggested by the devices. This length was again measured using a digital calliper (EL). The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to investigate statistical differences between the true canal length and those indicated by the two devices when used in 'automatic ARL and when inserted passively (EL). In the presence of gutta-percha, sealer and chloroform, the auto

  3. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...

  4. Optimization of inhibitory decision rules relative to length and coverage

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of algorithms for optimization of inhibitory rules relative to the length and coverage. In contrast with usual rules that have on the right-hand side a relation "attribute ≠ value", inhibitory rules have a relation "attribute = value" on the right-hand side. The considered algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Aluminium localization and toxicity symptoms related to root growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-26

    Oct 26, 2012 ... Aluminium localization and toxicity symptoms related to root growth inhibition in rice (Oryza sativa ... growth of this cultivar when submitted to Al3+ stress. Moreover ..... Caiapó. Previous work has shown the IAC cultivar to be.

  6. Interspecies Interactions in Relation to Root Distribution Across the Rooting Profile in Wheat-Maize Intercropping Under Different Plant Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In wheat-maize intercropping systems, the maize is often disadvantageous over the wheat during the co-growth period. It is unknown whether the impaired growth of maize can be recovered through the enhancement of the belowground interspecies interactions. In this study, we (i determined the mechanism of the belowground interaction in relation to root growth and distribution under different maize plant densities, and (ii quantified the “recovery effect” of maize after wheat harvest. The three-year (2014–2016 field experiment was conducted at the Oasis Agriculture Research Station of Gansu Agricultural University, Wuwei, Northwest China. Root weight density (RWD, root length density (RLD, and root surface area density (RSAD, were measured in single-cropped maize (M, single-cropped wheat (W, and three intercropping systems (i wheat-maize intercropping with no root barrier (i.e., complete belowground interaction, IC, (ii nylon mesh root barrier (partial belowground interaction, IC-PRI, and (iii plastic sheet root barrier (no belowground interaction, IC-NRI. The intercropped maize was planted at low (45,000 plants ha−1 and high (52,000 plants ha−1 densities. During the wheat/maize co-growth period, the IC treatment increased the RWD, RLD, and RSAD of the intercropped wheat in the 20–100 cm soil depth compared to the IC-PRI and IC-NRI systems; intercropped maize had 53% lower RWD, 81% lower RLD, and 70% lower RSAD than single-cropped maize. After wheat harvest, the intercropped maize recovered the growth with the increase of RWD by 40%, RLD by 44% and RSAD by 11%, compared to the single-cropped maize. Comparisons among the three intercropping systems revealed that the “recovery effect” of the intercropped maize was attributable to complete belowground interspecies interaction by 143%, the compensational effect due to root overlap by 35%, and the compensational effect due to water and nutrient exchange (CWN by 80%. The higher maize plant

  7. LINK BETWEEN SKELETAL RELATIONS AND ROOT RESORPTION IN ORTHODONTIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Teodora Preoteasa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available External root resorption is one of the possible complications of the orthodontic treatment, severe cases presenting a higher frequency. The aim of the present study was to test the existence of a relation between the severity of root resorption and the sagittal or vertical skeletal relations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of 55 patients with fixed orthodontic devices, applied bimaxillarily for at least 6 months. The sample presented mostly mild or moderate apical root resorption, with an average value of 1.31 mm (standard deviation 0.60. Patients with abnormal sagittal skeletal relations presented a more severe root resorption compared to those with a normal pattern. The tendency towards more severe external root resorption was also noticed in cases with mandibular clockwise rotation and hiperdivergent facial pattern. A good knowledge on the variables associated to severe root resorption is essential for the identification of the high risk patients, as well as for the selection of the best suited treatment alternative in terms of low probability of root resorption occurrence.

  8. Effects of rice husks and their chars from hydrothermal carbonization on the germination rate and root length of Lepidium sativum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Jürgen; Mukhina, Irina; Dicke, Christiane; Lanza, Giacomo; Kalderis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    Currently, char substrates gain a lot of interest, since they are being discussed as a component in growing media, which may become one option for the replacement of peat. Among different thermal conversion processes of biomass hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has been found to produce chars with similar acidic pH values like peat. The question however is, if these hydrochars, which may contain toxic phenolic compounds are suitable to be introduced as a new substitute for peat in horticulture. In this study rice husk were hydrothermally carbonized at 200° C for 6 hours, yielding in hydrochars containing organic contaminants such as phenols and furfurals, which may affect plants and soil organisms. We investigated potential toxic effects on the germination rate and the root length of cress salad (Lepidium sativum) in four fractions: i) soil control, ii) raw rice husk + soil, iii) unwashed rice char + soil and iv) acetone/water washed rice char + soil. It could be shown that phenols and furfurals, which were removed from the hydrochar after washing by 80 to 96% did not affect the germination rate and the root length of the cress plants. The lowest germination rate and root length were found in the soil control, the highest in the non-washed hydrochar treatment, indicating a fertilization effect and growth stimulation of cress salad by hydrochar. If this result can be confirmed for other target and non-target organisms in future studies, a new strategy for the production of growing media may be developed.

  9. Comparison of digital radiography and apex locator with the conventional method in root length determination of primary teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I E Neena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the Working length in primary teeth endodontics using intra oral digital radiovisiography and apex locator with conventional method for accuracy. Materials and Methods: This in vivo study was conducted on 30 primary teeth which were indicated for pulpectomy in the patients of the age group of 5-11 years All experimental teeth had adequate remaining tooth structure for rubber dam isolation and radiographicaly visible canals. Endodontic treatment was required due to irreversible pulpitis or pulp necrosis. A standardized intraoral periapical radiograph of the tooth was taken using conventional method by paralleling technique. The distance between the source and the tooth, tooth and the films were standardized using X-ray positioning device. During the pulpectomy procedure, the working length was determined by digital radiograph and apex locator. The measurements were then compared with the conventional method of root canal measurement technique for accuracy Result: From the results obtained we can conclude that Working length determined in primary molars using digital radiography and Apex locator did not show any significant difference in the mean working length measurements when compared with the conventional radiographic method. Conclusions: Apex locator is comparable to conventional radiograph in determining the working length without radiation in the primary teeth. Intraoral digital radiography is the safest method in determining the working length with significant reduction in radiation exposure.Hence, both the techniques can be safely used as alternatives to conventional radiographic methods in determining working length in primary teeth.

  10. Root structure-function relationships in 74 species: evidence of a root economics spectrum related to carbon economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumet, Catherine; Birouste, Marine; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Ghestem, Murielle; Osman, Normaniza; Vrignon-Brenas, Sylvain; Cao, Kun-Fang; Stokes, Alexia

    2016-05-01

    Although fine roots are important components of the global carbon cycle, there is limited understanding of root structure-function relationships among species. We determined whether root respiration rate and decomposability, two key processes driving carbon cycling but always studied separately, varied with root morphological and chemical traits, in a coordinated way that would demonstrate the existence of a root economics spectrum (RES). Twelve traits were measured on fine roots (diameter ≤ 2 mm) of 74 species (31 graminoids and 43 herbaceous and dwarf shrub eudicots) collected in three biomes. The findings of this study support the existence of a RES representing an axis of trait variation in which root respiration was positively correlated to nitrogen concentration and specific root length and negatively correlated to the root dry matter content, lignin : nitrogen ratio and the remaining mass after decomposition. This pattern of traits was highly consistent within graminoids but less consistent within eudicots, as a result of an uncoupling between decomposability and morphology, and of heterogeneity of individual roots of eudicots within the fine-root pool. The positive relationship found between root respiration and decomposability is essential for a better understanding of vegetation-soil feedbacks and for improving terrestrial biosphere models predicting the consequences of plant community changes for carbon cycling. © 2016 CNRS. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. N,N-dimethyl hexadecylamine and related amines regulate root morphogenesis via jasmonic acid signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya-González, Javier; Velázquez-Becerra, Crisanto; Barrera-Ortiz, Salvador; López-Bucio, José; Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo

    2017-05-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are natural inhabitants of roots, colonize diverse monocot and dicot species, and affect several functional traits such as root architecture, adaptation to adverse environments, and protect plants from pathogens. N,N-dimethyl-hexadecylamine (C16-DMA) is a rhizobacterial amino lipid that modulates the postembryonic development of several plants, likely as part of volatile blends. In this work, we evaluated the bioactivity of C16-DMA and other related N,N-dimethyl-amines with varied length and found that inhibition of primary root growth was related to the length of the acyl chain. C16-DMA inhibited primary root growth affecting cell division and elongation, while promoting lateral root formation and root hair growth and density in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) wild-type (WT) seedlings. Interestingly, C16-DMA induced the expression of the jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive gene marker pLOX2:uidA, while JA-related mutants jar1, coi1-1, and myc2 affected on JA biosynthesis and perception, respectively, are compromised in C16-DMA responses. Comparison of auxin-regulated gene expression, root architectural changes in WT, and auxin-related mutants aux1-7, tir1/afb2/afb3, and arf7-1/arf19-1 to C16-DMA shows that the C16-DMA effects occur independently of auxin signaling. Together, these results reveal a novel class of aminolipids modulating root organogenesis via crosstalk with the JA signaling pathway.

  12. Root length densities of UK wheat and oilseed rape crops with implications for water capture and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charlotte A.; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Berry, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Root length density (RLD) was measured to 1 m depth for 17 commercial crops of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and 40 crops of winter oilseed rape [Brassica napus; oilseed rape (OSR)] grown in the UK between 2004 and 2013. Taking the critical RLD (cRLD) for water capture as 1cm cm–3, RLDs appeared inadequate for full water capture on average below a depth of 0.32 m for winter wheat and below 0.45 m for OSR. These depths compare unfavourably (for wheat) with average depths of ‘full capture’ of 0.86 m and 0.48 m, respectively, determined for three wheat crops and one OSR crop studied in the 1970s and 1980s, and treated as references here. A simple model of water uptake and yield indicated that these shortfalls in wheat and OSR rooting compared with the reference data might be associated with shortfalls of up to 3.5 t ha–1 and 1.2 t ha–1, respectively, in grain yields under water-limited conditions, as increasingly occur through climate change. Coupled with decreased summer rainfall, poor rooting of modern arable crops could explain much of the yield stagnation that has been observed on UK farms since the 1990s. Methods of monitoring and improving rooting under commercial conditions are reviewed and discussed. PMID:25750427

  13. Root length, biomass, tissue chemistry and mycorrhizal colonization following 14 years of CO2 enrichment and 6 years of N fertilization in a warm temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benton N; Strand, Allan E; Cooper, Emily R; Beidler, Katilyn V; Schönholz, Marcos; Pritchard, Seth G

    2014-09-01

    Root systems serve important roles in carbon (C) storage and resource acquisition required for the increased photosynthesis expected in CO2-enriched atmospheres. For these reasons, understanding the changes in size, distribution and tissue chemistry of roots is central to predicting the ability of forests to capture anthropogenic CO2. We sampled 8000 cm(3) soil monoliths in a pine forest exposed to 14 years of free-air-CO2-enrichment and 6 years of nitrogen (N) fertilization to determine changes in root length, biomass, tissue C : N and mycorrhizal colonization. CO2 fumigation led to greater root length (98%) in unfertilized plots, but root biomass increases under elevated CO2 were only found for roots biomass in N-fertilized plots (19%), but fine root [N] and [C] both increased under N fertilization (29 and 2%, respectively). Mycorrhizal root tip biomass responded positively to CO2 fumigation in unfertilized plots, but was unaffected by CO2 under N fertilization. Changes in fine root [N] and [C] call for further study of the effects of N fertilization on fine root function. Here, we show that the stimulation of pine roots by elevated CO2 persisted after 14 years of fumigation, and that trees did not rely exclusively on increased mycorrhizal associations to acquire greater amounts of required N in CO2-enriched plots. Stimulation of root systems by CO2 enrichment was seen primarily for fine root length rather than biomass. This observation indicates that studies measuring only biomass might overlook shifts in root systems that better reflect treatment effects on the potential for soil resource uptake. These results suggest an increase in fine root exploration as a primary means for acquiring additional soil resources under elevated CO2. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Morphological changes in cotton roots in relation to soil mechanical impedance and matric potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, G.; Mullins, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    Soil mechanical impedance (M1) and matric potential can both root growth rate, modify rooting pattern and root diameter. Cotton seedlings are sensitive to the soil physical environment, particularly during early stages of growth. Soil matric potential and M1 effect on root biomass, axial root length and diameter, and the number and length of lateral roots in soil packed to penetration resistances (PR) of 0.1, 1.0, 1.1 and 1.2 Mpa (mega Pascal 10/sup 6/ Pascal), each at three matric potentials of-10,-100 and -500 kpa (kilopascal ) = 10/sup 3/ Pascal), were determined. Total root length were reduced by 29, 50 and 53% at impedance of 1.0, 1.1 and 1.2 Mpa, respectively, as compared to the control, whereas M1 of 1.2 Mpa resulted in 60% reduction in axial root length. A similar increase in diameter was caused by increasing mechanical impedance, while decreasing matric potential had little effect. Roots that were water stressed did not change their diameter but had a shorter axis and longer lateral length. In contrast, the impeded roots (PR=1.0, 1.1 and 1.2 MPa) had both a shorter axis and a smaller total length, but had increased diameter. These results not only illustrate the plasticity of root response to stress but also demonstrate how the response differs between different types of stresses. (author)

  15. Fourier transforms related to a root system of rank 1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenevelt, W.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract : We introduce an algebra $\\mathcal H$ consisting of difference-reflection operators and multiplication operators that can be considered as a q = 1 analogue of Sahi's double affine Hecke algebra related to the affine root system of type $(C^\\vee_1, C_1)$ . We study eigenfunctions of a

  16. Shortened of the crown and root lengths of the mandibular permanent molar in beta major thalassemia children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Primathena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Beta major thalassemia is a genetically inherited blood disorder due to a genetic mutation on the polypeptide chains of hemoglobin which is manifested in the growth and development of the tooth. The objectives of the investigation were to obtain differences of the crown and root lengths of the mandibular first right side permanent molar between beta major thalassemia children and normal children group at the matching ages of 11 to 13 years old. The descriptive comparative method was used in the study and samples were selected using the purposive sampling technique. Sample numbers, which were obtained using the consecutive sampling technique, consists of 12 children of beta major thalassemia and 12 of normal children at the matching ages of 11 to 13 years. Periapical radiographs of both thalassemia and normal children were administered using the method of Seow and Lai. Data were analyzed using t-test method. The study revealed that the crown and root lengths of the mandibular first right side permanent molar of beta major thalassemia children were shorter than normal children at the ages of 11 to 13 years.

  17. Relation between Tolman length and isothermal compressibility for simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiao-Song; Zhu Ru-Zeng

    2013-01-01

    The Tolman length δ 0 of a liquid with a plane surface has attracted increasing theoretical attention in recent years, but the expression of Tolman length in terms of observable quantities is still not very clear. In 2001, Bartell gave a simple expression of Tolman length δ 0 in terms of isothermal compressibility. However, this expression predicts that Tolman length is always negative, which is contrary to the results of molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) for simple liquids. In this paper, this contradiction is analyzed and the reason for the discrepancy in the sign is found. In addition, we introduce a new expression of Tolman length in terms of isothermal compressibility for simple fluids not near the critical points under some weak restrictions. The Tolman length of simple liquids calculated by using this formula is consistent with that obtained using MDS regarding the sign

  18. Three-dimensional anatomy of equine incisors: tooth length, enamel cover and age related changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Equine incisors are subjected to continuous occlusal wear causing multiple, age related changes of the extragingival crown. It is assumed that the occlusal wear is compensated by continued tooth elongation at the apical ends of the teeth. In this study, μCT-datasets offered the opportunity to analyze the three-dimensional appearance of the extra- and intraalveolar parts of the enamel containing dental crown as well as of the enamel-free dental root. Multiple morphometric measurements elucidated age related, morphological changes within the intraalveolar part of the incisors. Results Equine incisors possess a unique enamel cover displaying large indentations on the mesial and distal sides. After eruption tooth elongation at the apical end outbalances occlusal wear for two to four years resulting in increasing incisor length in this period of time. Remarkably, this maximum length is maintained for about ten years, up to a tooth age of 13 to 15 years post eruption. Variances in the total length of individual teeth are related to different Triadan positions (central-, middle- and corner incisors) as well as to the upper and lower arcades. Conclusion Equine incisors are able to fully compensate occlusal wear for a limited period of time. However, after this ability ceases, it is expected that a diminished intraalveolar tooth length will cause massive changes in periodontal biomechanics. The time point of these morphodynamic and biomechanical changes (13 to 15 years post eruption) occurs in coincidence with the onset of a recently described destructive disease of equine incisor (equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis) in aged horses. However, further biomechanical, cell biological and microbiological investigations are needed to elucidate a correlation between age related changes of incisor morphology and this disease. PMID:24321365

  19. Root length of aquatic plant, Lemna minor L., as an optimal toxicity endpoint for biomonitoring of mining effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalapillai, Yamini; Vigneault, Bernard; Hale, Beverley A

    2014-10-01

    Lemna minor, a free-floating macrophyte, is used for biomonitoring of mine effluent quality under the Metal Mining Effluent Regulations (MMER) of the Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program in Canada and is known to be sensitive to trace metals commonly discharged in mine effluents such as Ni. Environment Canada's standard toxicity testing protocol recommends frond count (FC) and dry weight (DW) as the 2 required toxicity endpoints-this is similar to other major protocols such as those by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-that both require frond growth or biomass endpoints. However, we suggest that similar to terrestrial plants, average root length (RL) of aquatic plants will be an optimal and relevant endpoint. As expected, results demonstrate that RL is the ideal endpoint based on the 3 criteria: accuracy (i.e., toxicological sensitivity to contaminant), precision (i.e., lowest variance), and ecological relevance (metal mining effluents). Roots are known to play a major role in nutrient uptake in conditions of low nutrient conditions-thus having ecological relevance to freshwater from mining regions. Root length was the most sensitive and precise endpoint in this study where water chemistry varied greatly (pH and varying concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, K, dissolved organic carbon, and an anthropogenic organic contaminant, sodium isopropyl xanthates) to match mining effluent ranges. Although frond count was a close second, dry weight proved to be an unreliable endpoint. We conclude that toxicity testing for the floating macrophyte should require average RL measurement as a primary endpoint. © 2014 SETAC.

  20. Length-weight relationships, condition factors and relative weight of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to record the length-weight relationship parameters and condition factors for some commercially important fish of Bushehr coastal waters of Persian Gulf. The length-weight relationships were calculated for five species caught during fishing surveys using different types of fishing gears (trawls, pots ...

  1. Uncovering genes and ploidy involved in the high diversity in root hair density, length and response to local scarce phosphate in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus G Stetter

    Full Text Available Plant root hairs increase the root surface to enhance the uptake of sparingly soluble and immobile nutrients, such as the essential nutrient phosphorus, from the soil. Here, root hair traits and the response to scarce local phosphorus concentration were studied in 166 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana using split plates. Root hair density and length were correlated, but highly variable among accessions. Surprisingly, the well-known increase in root hair density under low phosphorus was mostly restricted to genotypes that had less and shorter root hairs under P sufficient conditions. By contrast, several accessions with dense and long root hairs even had lower hair density or shorter hairs in local scarce phosphorus. Furthermore, accessions with whole-genome duplications developed more dense but phosphorus-insensitive root hairs. The impact of genome duplication on root hair density was confirmed by comparing tetraploid accessions with their diploid ancestors. Genome-wide association mapping identified candidate genes potentially involved in root hair responses tp scarce local phosphate. Knock-out mutants in identified candidate genes (CYR1, At1g32360 and RLP48 were isolated and differences in root hair traits in the mutants were confirmed. The large diversity in root hair traits among accessions and the diverse response when local phosphorus is scarce is a rich resource for further functional analyses.

  2. Aerodynamic roughness length related to non-aggregated tillage ridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kardous

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion in agricultural soils is dependent, in part, on the aerodynamic roughness length (z0 produced by tillage ridges. Although previous studies have related z0 to ridge characteristics (ridge height (RH and spacing (RS, these relationships have not been tested for tillage ridges observed in the North African agricultural fields. In these regions, due to climate and soil conditions, small plowing tools are largely used. Most of these tools produce non-aggregated and closely-spaced small ridges. Thus, experiments were conducted in a 7-m long wind tunnel to measure z0 for 11 ridge types covering the range of geometric characteristics frequently observed in south Tunisia. Experimental results suggest that RH2/RS is the first order parameter controlling z0. A strong relationship between z0 and RH2/RS is proposed for a wide range of ridge characteristics.

  3. The density and length of root hairs are enhanced in response to cadmium and arsenic by modulating gene expressions involved in fate determination and morphogenesis of root hairs in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Bahmani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Root hairs are tubular outgrowths that originate from epidermal cells. Exposure of Arabidopsis to cadmium (Cd and arsenic [arsenite, As(III] increases root hair density and length. To examine the underlying mechanism, we measured the expression of genes involved in fate determination and morphogenesis of root hairs. Cd and As(III downregulated TTG1 and GL2 (negative regulators of fate determination and upregulated GEM (positive regulator, suggesting that root hair fate determination is stimulated by Cd and As(III. Cd and As(III increased the transcript levels of genes involved in root hair initiation (RHD6 and AXR2 and root hair elongation (AUX1, AXR1, ETR1, and EIN2 except CTR1. DR5::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis showed a higher DR5 expression in the root tip, suggesting that Cd and As(III increased the auxin content in the root tip. Knockdown of TTG1 in Arabidopsis resulted in increased root hair density and decreased root hair length compared with the control (Col-0 on 1/2 MS media. This phenotype may be attributed to the downregulation of GL2 and CTR1 and upregulation of RHD6. By contrast, gem mutant plants displayed a decrease in root hair density and length with reduced expression of RHD6, AXR2, AUX1, AXR1, ETR1, CTR1, and EIN2. Taken together, our results indicate that fate determination, initiation, and elongation of root hairs are stimulated in response to Cd and As(III through the modulation of the expression of genes involved in these processes in Arabidopsis.

  4. Cervical length at 23 weeks' gestation - relation to demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significance of differences in median cervical lengths between subgroups was calculated according to maternal age, ethnic origin, maternal body mass ... and mortality worldwide, with major health care and economic consequences.u In South ...

  5. De novo transcriptome analysis of pneumatophores (modified roots in the true mangrove species Avicennia marina and identification of the genes related to root gas exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushothaman Natarajan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves plants which grow in estuaries naturally tolerate extreme conditions of high salinity (90 ppt and high light intensity. Avicennia marina is a true mangrove tree species with physiological adaptations like modified root system (pneumatophores and salt excretion glands in leaves as its one of the unique features to consider. The pneumatophores are a special type of roots with negative geotropism that project above the water surface or the level of flooded soils [1]. In contact with air these roots develop lenticels, which improve gas exchange between roots and environment [2]. In swamps and wetlands the presence of pneumatophores facilitates oxygen diffusion through the tissues, maintaining levels adequate for cellular respiration [3]. Objective of this study was to perform the whole transcriptome analysis of pneumatophore tissue of A. marina by Illumina sequencing and to identify putative genes involved in process of root gas exchange. We generated 19.73 million of paired-end reads and assembled into 86,856 unigenes with an average length of 772 bp. Further, annotation, tissue specific gene expression and genes related to root gas exchange will be presented.

  6. How public relations works: theoretical roots and public relations perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ihlen, Ø.; van Ruler, B.

    2007-01-01

    Public relations is often studied from a managerial, instrumental perspective or a psychological, behavioral perspective. To understand the role of public relations in building trust or mistrust and to develop - or destroy - a license to operate, it needs also to be studied as a social phenomenon.

  7. Tolerance to high soil temperature in foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) is related to shoot and root growth and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoo, Moses Kwame; Bdolach, Eyal; Fait, Aaron; Lazarovitch, Naftali; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2016-09-01

    Roots play important roles in regulating whole-plant carbon and water relations in response to extreme soil temperature. Three foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) lines (448-Ames 21521, 463-P1391643 and 523-P1219619) were subjected to two different soil temperatures (28 and 38 °C). The gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, root morphology and central metabolism of leaves and roots were studied at the grain-filling stage. High soil temperature (38 °C) significantly influenced the shoot transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, root growth and metabolism of all lines. The root length and area were significantly reduced in lines 448 and 463 in response to the stress, while only a small non-specific reduction was observed in line 523 in response to the treatment. The shift of root metabolites in response to high soil temperature was also genotype specific. In response to high soil temperature, glutamate, proline and pyroglutamate were reduced in line 448, and alanine, aspartate, glycine, pyroglutamate, serine, threonine and valine were accumulated in line 463. In the roots of line 523, serine, threonine, valine, isomaltose, maltose, raffinose, malate and itaconate were accumulated. Root tolerance to high soil temperature was evident in line 523, in its roots growth potential, lower photosynthesis and stomatal conductance rates, and effective utilization and assimilation of membrane carbon and nitrogen, coupled with the accumulation of protective metabolites. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Extreme telomere length dimorphism in the Tasmanian devil and related marsupials suggests parental control of telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah S Bender

    Full Text Available Telomeres, specialised structures that protect chromosome ends, play a critical role in preserving chromosome integrity. Telomere dynamics in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii are of particular interest in light of the emergence of devil facial tumour disease (DFTD, a transmissible malignancy that causes rapid mortality and threatens the species with extinction. We used fluorescent in situ hybridisation to investigate telomere length in DFTD cells, in healthy Tasmanian devils and in four closely related marsupial species. Here we report that animals in the Order Dasyuromorphia have chromosomes characterised by striking telomere length dimorphism between homologues. Findings in sex chromosomes suggest that telomere length dimorphism may be regulated by events in the parental germlines. Long telomeres on the Y chromosome imply that telomere lengthening occurs during spermatogenesis, whereas telomere diminution occurs during oogenesis. Although found in several somatic cell tissue types, telomere length dimorphism was not found in DFTD cancer cells, which are characterised by uniformly short telomeres. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of naturally occurring telomere length dimorphism in any species and suggests a novel strategy of telomere length control. Comparative studies in five distantly related marsupials and a monotreme indicate that telomere dimorphism evolved at least 50 million years ago.

  9. Aluminium localization and toxicity symptoms related to root growth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We correlated root growth inhibition with aluminium (Al3+) localization and toxicity symptoms in rice roots using seedlings of two genotypes (tolerant and sensitive) that were exposed to different AlCl3 concentrations. Al3+ localization was evaluated by hematoxylin in primary roots and by morin in cross-sections of the root ...

  10. Genetic variation in pea (Pisum sativum L.) demonstrates the importance of root but not shoot C/N ratios in the control of plant morphology and reveals a unique relationship between shoot length and nodulation intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludidi, Ndiko N; Pellny, Till K; Kiddle, Guy; Dutilleul, Christelle; Groten, Karin; VAN Heerden, Philippus D R; Dutt, Som; Powers, Stephen J; Römer, Peter; Foyer, Christine H

    2007-10-01

    Nodule numbers are regulated through systemic auto-regulatory signals produced by shoots and roots. The relative effects of shoot and root genotype on nodule numbers together with relationships to organ biomass, carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) status, and related parameters were measured in pea (Pisum sativum) exploiting natural genetic variation in maturity and apparent nodulation intensity. Reciprocal grafting experiments between the early (Athos), intermediate (Phönix) and late (S00182) maturity phenotypes were performed and Pearson's correlation coefficients for the parameters were calculated. No significant correlations were found between shoot C/N ratios and plant morphology parameters, but the root C/N ratio showed a strong correlation with root fresh and dry weights as well as with shoot fresh weight with less significant interactions with leaf number. Hence, the root C/N ratio rather than shoot C/N had a predominant influence on plant morphology when pea plants are grown under conditions of symbiotic nitrogen supply. The only phenotypic characteristic that showed a statistically significant correlation with nodulation intensity was shoot length, which accounted for 68.5% of the variation. A strong linear relationship was demonstrated between shoot length and nodule numbers. Hence, pea nodule numbers are controlled by factors related to shoot extension, but not by shoot or root biomass accumulation, total C or total N. The relationship between shoot length and nodule numbers persisted under field conditions. These results suggest that stem height could be used as a breeding marker for the selection of pea cultivars with high nodule numbers and high seed N contents.

  11. Relations between Some Characteristic Lengths in a Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepf, Wolfram; Brede, Markus

    2005-01-01

    The paper's aim is to note a remarkable (and apparently unknown) relation for right triangles, its generalisation to arbitrary triangles and the possibility to derive these and some related relations by elimination using Groebner basis computations with a modern computer algebra system. (Contains 9 figures.)

  12. Incidence of apical root cracks and apical dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, R.; Kaiwar, A.; Shemesh, H.; Wesselink, P.R.; Hou, B.; Wu, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of apical root cracks and dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths. Methods Two hundred forty mandibular incisors were mounted in resin blocks with simulated

  13. Perception of Length to Width Relations of City Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold T. Nefs

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on how people perceive the aspect ratio of city squares. Earlier research has focused on distance perception but not so much on the perceived aspect ratio of the surrounding space. Furthermore, those studies have focused on “open” spaces rather than urban areas enclosed by walls, houses and filled with people, cars, etc. In two experiments, we therefore measured, using a direct and an indirect method, the perceived aspect ratio of five city squares in the historic city center of Delft, the Netherlands. We also evaluated whether the perceived aspect ratio of city squares was affected by the position of the observer on the square. In the first experiment, participants were asked to set the aspect ratio of a small rectangle such that it matched the perceived aspect ratio of the city square. In the second experiment, participants were asked to estimate the length and width of the city square separately. In the first experiment, we found that the perceived aspect ratio was in general lower than the physical aspect ratio. However, in the second experiment, we found that the calculated ratios were close to veridical except for the most elongated city square. We conclude therefore that the outcome depends on how the measurements are performed. Furthermore, although indirect measurements are nearly veridical, the perceived aspect ratio is an underestimation of the physical aspect ratio when measured in a direct way. Moreover, the perceived aspect ratio also depends on the location of the observer. These results may be beneficial to the design of large open urban environments, and in particular to rectangular city squares.

  14. Micro-computed Tomographic Analysis of Apical Microcracks before and after Root Canal Preparation by Hand, Rotary, and Reciprocating Instruments at Different Working Lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Bruna Paloma; Câmara, Andréa Cruz; Duarte, Daniel Amancio; Heck, Richard John; Antonino, Antonio Celso Dantas; Aguiar, Carlos Menezes

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to compare apical microcrack formation after root canal shaping by hand, rotary, and reciprocating files at different working lengths using micro-computed tomographic analysis. Sixty mandibular incisors were randomly divided into 6 experimental groups (n = 10) according to the systems and working lengths used for the root canal preparation: ProTaper Universal for Hand Use (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), HyFlex CM (Coltene-Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland), and Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) files working at the apical foramen (AF) and 1 mm short of the AF (AF - 1 mm). The teeth were imaged with micro-computed tomographic scanning at an isotropic resolution of 14 μm before and after root canal preparation, and the cross-sectional images generated were assessed to detect microcracks in the apical portion of the roots. Overall, 17 (28.3%) specimens presented microcracks before instrumentation. Apical microcracks were present in 1 (ProTaper Universal for Hand Use), 3 (Hyflex CM), and 2 (Reciproc) specimens when the instrumentation terminated at the AF. When instrumentation was terminated at AF - 1 mm, apical microcracks were detected in 3 (ProTaper Universal for Hand Use) and 4 (Hyflex CM and Reciproc) specimens. All these microcracks detected after root canal preparation were already present before instrumentation, and no new apical microcrack was visualized. For all groups, the number of slices presenting microcracks after root canal preparation was the same as before canal preparation. Root canal shaping with ProTaper Universal for Hand Use, HyFlex CM, and Reciproc systems, regardless of the working length, did not produce apical microcracks. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2010-01-01

    Investments in children are generally seen as investments in the future economy. In this study I focus on time investments in children as I investigate the long-term educational effects on children of increasing parents' birth-related leave from 14 to 20 weeks using a natural experiment from 1984...

  16. The relation between the PST1 restriction fragment length ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The elevated apo-AI levels in marathon runners therefore bear no relation to ..... correlation between levels of physical activity and apo-AI levels.15 In the group of ... previously reported for Caucasians in Europe.'9-'3 The higher levels of HDL ...

  17. [Alveolar bone thickness and root length changes in the treatment of skeletal Class III patients facilitated by improved corticotomy: a cone-beam CT analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiaqi; Jiang, Jiuhui; Xu, Li; Liang, Cheng; Li, Cuiying; Xu, Xiao

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the alveolar bone thickness and root length changes of anterior teeth with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT scans were taken for 12 skeletal Class III patients who accepted the improved corticotomy (IC) procedures during pre-surgical orthodontics. The CBCT data in T1 (the maxillary dental arch was aligned and leveled) and T2 (extraction space closure) were superimposed and the alveolar bone thickness at root apex level and root length measurements were done. From T1 to T2, the buccal alveolar bone thickness for the upper lateral incisors increased from (1.89±0.83) to (2.47±1.02) mm (P<0.05), and for central incisors and for canines from (2.32±0.71) to (2.68±1.48) mm and from (2.28±1.08) to (2.41±1.40) mm, respectively. According to Sharpe Grading System, the root resorption grade for 69 teeth of 72 was located in Grade 1, two teeth in Grade 2, one tooth in Grade 3. The improved corticotomy had the potential to increase the buccal alveolar bone thickness and the root resorption in most teeth was in Grade 1 according to Sharpe grading system.

  18. Root Surface Caries Occurence in Relation to Social and Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate the association between root caries and social and dental behaviour amongst adults in a selected suburband adult population. Methods: The setting, study design and root caries diagnosis were as described in the first part of this three part series. Subjects\\' social and dental health behaviour were ...

  19. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of traditional and new developed root sealers against pathogens related root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo-Hee Shin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: Bacterial infection is closely associated with the failure of endodontic treatment, and use of endodontic sealer with antimicrobial activity and biological compatibility is necessary for the success of root canal treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate and to compare the antibacterial effect of two calcium silicate-based root canal sealers (Endoseal and EndoSequence BC sealer as recent development sealers and with three conventional root canal sealers (AH Plus, Sealapex, and Tubli-Seal, before or after setting, on Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and methods: The sealers were soaked in phosphate buffered saline to elute its compositions after and before setting, and the elutes were performed the antimicrobial assay. Also, X-ray fluorescence analysis was carried out to compare compositions of two calcium silicate-based sealers. Results: The conventional root canal sealers have strong antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria, P. endodontalis and P. gingivalis. Endoseal sealer showed antibacterial activity against not only the Gram-negative bacteria, but also against the Gram-positive bacteria, E. faecalis. However, Endosequence BC sealer exhibited a weak antibacterial effect on all bacteria in this study. X-ray fluorescence analysis exhibited that Endoseal contained more types and more amount of the oxide compound known to have strong antimicrobial activity such as Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, Na2O, NiO, and SO2 than Endoseqeunce BC. Conclusion: Endoseal, which contains various types of oxide compounds, seems to be a suitable sealer for preventing bacterial infection in both treated and untreated root canals. Keywords: Root canal sealer, Antimicrobial activity, Oxide compound, E. faecalis

  20. Effects of Hurricane-Felled Tree Trunks on Soil Carbon, Nitrogen, Microbial Biomass, and Root Length in a Wet Tropical Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jean Lodge

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Decaying coarse woody debris can affect the underlying soil either by augmenting nutrients that can be exploited by tree roots, or by diminishing nutrient availability through stimulation of microbial nutrient immobilization. We analyzed C, N, microbial biomass C and root length in closely paired soil samples taken under versus 20–50 cm away from large trunks of two species felled by Hugo (1989 and Georges (1998 three times during wet and dry seasons over the two years following the study conducted by Georges. Soil microbial biomass, % C and % N were significantly higher under than away from logs felled by both hurricanes (i.e., 1989 and 1998, at all sampling times and at both depths (0–10 and 10–20 cm. Frass from wood boring beetles may contribute to early effects. Root length was greater away from logs during the dry season, and under logs in the wet season. Root length was correlated with microbial biomass C, soil N and soil moisture (R = 0.36, 0.18, and 0.27, respectively; all p values < 0.05. Microbial biomass C varied significantly among seasons but differences between positions (under vs. away were only suggestive. Microbial C was correlated with soil N (R = 0.35. Surface soil on the upslope side of the logs had significantly more N and microbial biomass, likely from accumulation of leaf litter above the logs on steep slopes. We conclude that decaying wood can provide ephemeral resources that are exploited by tree roots during some seasons.

  1. A Vegetal Biopolymer-Based Biostimulant Promoted Root Growth in Melon While Triggering Brassinosteroids and Stress-Related Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Lucini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant biostimulants are receiving great interest for boosting root growth during the first phenological stages of vegetable crops. The present study aimed at elucidating the morphological, physiological, and metabolomic changes occurring in greenhouse melon treated with the biopolymer-based biostimulant Quik-link, containing lateral root promoting peptides, and lignosulphonates. The vegetal-based biopolymer was applied at five rates (0, 0.06, 0.12, 0.24, or 0.48 mL plant-1 as substrate drench. The application of biopolymer-based biostimulant at 0.12 and 0.24 mL plant-1 enhanced dry weight of melon leaves and total biomass by 30.5 and 27.7%, respectively, compared to biopolymer applications at 0.06 mL plant-1 and untreated plants. The root dry biomass, total root length, and surface in biostimulant-treated plants were significantly higher at 0.24 mL plant-1 and to a lesser extent at 0.12 and 0.48 mL plant-1, in comparison to 0.06 mL plant-1 and untreated melon plants. A convoluted biochemical response to the biostimulant treatment was highlighted through UHPLC/QTOF-MS metabolomics, in which brassinosteroids and their interaction with other hormones appeared to play a pivotal role. Root metabolic profile was more markedly altered than leaves, following application of the biopolymer-based biostimulant. Brassinosteroids triggered in roots could have been involved in changes of root development observed after biostimulant application. These hormones, once transported to shoots, could have caused an hormonal imbalance. Indeed, the involvement of abscisic acid, cytokinins, and gibberellin related compounds was observed in leaves following root application of the biopolymer-based biostimulant. Nonetheless, the treatment triggered an accumulation of several metabolites involved in defense mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stresses, such as flavonoids, carotenoids, and glucosinolates, thus potentially improving resistance toward plant stresses.

  2. Global identification of the full-length transcripts and alternative splicing related to phenolic acid biosynthetic genes in Salvia miltiorrhiza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao eXu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Salvianolic acids are among the main bioactive components in Salvia miltiorrhiza, and their biosynthesis has attracted widespread interest. However, previous studies on the biosynthesis of phenolic acids using next-generation sequencing platforms are limited with regard to the assembly of full-length transcripts. Based on hybrid-seq (next-generation and single molecular real-time sequencing of the S. miltiorrhiza root transcriptome, we experimentally identified 15 full-length transcripts and 4 alternative splicing events of enzyme-coding genes involved in the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid. Moreover, we herein demonstrate that lithospermic acid B accumulates in the phloem and xylem of roots, in agreement with the expression patterns of the identified key genes related to rosmarinic acid biosynthesis. According to co-expression patterns, we predicted that 6 candidate cytochrome P450s and 5 candidate laccases participate in the salvianolic acid pathway. Our results provide a valuable resource for further investigation into the synthetic biology of phenolic acids in S. miltiorrhiza.

  3. Length scales in glass-forming liquids and related systems: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Dasgupta, Chandan; Sastry, Srikanth

    2016-01-01

    The central problem in the study of glass-forming liquids and other glassy systems is the understanding of the complex structural relaxation and rapid growth of relaxation times seen on approaching the glass transition. A central conceptual question is whether one can identify one or more growing length scale(s) associated with this behavior. Given the diversity of molecular glass-formers and a vast body of experimental, computational and theoretical work addressing glassy behavior, a number of ideas and observations pertaining to growing length scales have been presented over the past few decades, but there is as yet no consensus view on this question. In this review, we will summarize the salient results and the state of our understanding of length scales associated with dynamical slow down. After a review of slow dynamics and the glass transition, pertinent theories of the glass transition will be summarized and a survey of ideas relating to length scales in glassy systems will be presented. A number of studies have focused on the emergence of preferred packing arrangements and discussed their role in glassy dynamics. More recently, a central object of attention has been the study of spatially correlated, heterogeneous dynamics and the associated length scale, studied in computer simulations and theoretical analysis such as inhomogeneous mode coupling theory. A number of static length scales have been proposed and studied recently, such as the mosaic length scale discussed in the random first-order transition theory and the related point-to-set correlation length. We will discuss these, elaborating on key results, along with a critical appraisal of the state of the art. Finally we will discuss length scales in driven soft matter, granular fluids and amorphous solids, and give a brief description of length scales in aging systems. Possible relations of these length scales with those in glass-forming liquids will be discussed. (review article)

  4. Sequential optimization of approximate inhibitory rules relative to the length, coverage and number of misclassifications

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of algorithms for sequential optimization of approximate inhibitory rules relative to the length, coverage and number of misclassifications. Theses algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming approach

  5. CO2 AND N-FERTILIZATION EFFECTS ON FINE ROOT LENGTH, PRODUCTION, AND MORTALITY: A 4-YEAR PONDEROSA PINE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a 4-year study of Pinus ponderosa fine root (<2 mm) responses to atmospheric CO2 and N-fertilization. Seedlings were grown in open-top chambers at 3 CO2 levels (ambient, ambient+175 mol/mol, ambient+350 mol/mol) and 3 N-fertilization levels (0, 10, 20 g?m-2?yr-1). ...

  6. Does Relative Age Affect Career Length in North American Professional Sports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingröver, C; Wattie, N; Baker, J; Schorer, J

    Relative age effects (RAEs) typically favour older members within a cohort; however, research suggests that younger players may experience some long-term advantages, such as longer career length. The purposes of this study were to replicate previous findings on RAEs among National Hockey League (NHL) ice hockey players, National Basketball Association (NBA) basketball players and National Football League (NFL) football players and to investigate the influence of relative age on career length in all three sports. Using official archives, birthdates and number of games played were collected for players drafted into the NBA ( N  = 407), NFL ( N  = 2380) and NHL ( N  = 1028) from 1980 to 1989. We investigated the possibility that younger players might be able to maximize their career length by operationalizing career length as players' number of games played throughout their careers. There was a clear RAE for the NHL, but effects were not significant for the NBA or NFL. Moreover, there was a significant difference in matches played between birth quartiles in the NHL favouring relatively younger players. There were no significant quartiles by career length effects in the NBA or NFL. The significant relationship between relative age and career length provides further support for relative age as an important constraint on expertise development in ice hockey but not basketball or football. Currently, the reason why relatively younger players have longer careers is not known. However, it may be worth exploring the influence of injury risk or the development of better playing skills.

  7. Aconitum Alkaloid Poisoning Related to the Culinary Uses of Aconite Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    Aconite roots (roots or root tubers of the Aconitum species) are eaten as root vegetables and used to prepare herbal soups and meals, mainly for their purported health benefits. Aconite roots contain aconitine and other Aconitum alkaloids, which are well known cardiotoxins and neurotoxins. To better understand why Aconitum alkaloid poisoning related to the culinary uses of aconite roots can occur and characterize the risks posed by these “food supplements”, relevant published reports were reviewed. From 1995 to 2013, there were eight reports of aconite poisoning after consumption of these herbal soups and meals, including two reports of large clusters of cases (n = 19–45) and two reports of cases (n = 15–156) managed by two hospitals over a period of 4.5 to 5 years. The herbal formulae used did not adhere to the suggested guidelines, with regarding to the doses (50–500 g instead of 3–30 g per person) and types (raw instead of processed) of aconite roots used. The quantities of Aconitum alkaloids involved were huge, taking into consideration the doses of aconite roots used to prepare herbal soups/meals and the amounts of aconite roots and herbal soups/meals consumed. In a large cluster of cases, despite simmering raw “caowu” (the root tuber of A. kusnezoffii) in pork broth for 24 h, all 19 family members who consumed this soup and boiled “caowu” developed poisoning. Severe or even fatal aconite poisoning can occur after consumption of herbal soups and foods prepared from aconite roots. Even prolonged boiling may not be protective if raw preparations and large quantities of aconite roots are used. The public should be warned of the risk of severe poisoning related to the culinary and traditional medicinal uses of aconite roots. PMID:25184557

  8. Aconitum alkaloid poisoning related to the culinary uses of aconite roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-09-02

    Aconite roots (roots or root tubers of the Aconitum species) are eaten as root vegetables and used to prepare herbal soups and meals, mainly for their purported health benefits. Aconite roots contain aconitine and other Aconitum alkaloids, which are well known cardiotoxins and neurotoxins. To better understand why Aconitum alkaloid poisoning related to the culinary uses of aconite roots can occur and characterize the risks posed by these "food supplements", relevant published reports were reviewed. From 1995 to 2013, there were eight reports of aconite poisoning after consumption of these herbal soups and meals, including two reports of large clusters of cases (n = 19-45) and two reports of cases (n = 15-156) managed by two hospitals over a period of 4.5 to 5 years. The herbal formulae used did not adhere to the suggested guidelines, with regarding to the doses (50-500 g instead of 3-30 g per person) and types (raw instead of processed) of aconite roots used. The quantities of Aconitum alkaloids involved were huge, taking into consideration the doses of aconite roots used to prepare herbal soups/meals and the amounts of aconite roots and herbal soups/meals consumed. In a large cluster of cases, despite simmering raw "caowu" (the root tuber of A. kusnezoffii) in pork broth for 24 h, all 19 family members who consumed this soup and boiled "caowu" developed poisoning. Severe or even fatal aconite poisoning can occur after consumption of herbal soups and foods prepared from aconite roots. Even prolonged boiling may not be protective if raw preparations and large quantities of aconite roots are used. The public should be warned of the risk of severe poisoning related to the culinary and traditional medicinal uses of aconite roots.

  9. Aconitum Alkaloid Poisoning Related to the Culinary Uses of Aconite Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aconite roots (roots or root tubers of the Aconitum species are eaten as root vegetables and used to prepare herbal soups and meals, mainly for their purported health benefits. Aconite roots contain aconitine and other Aconitum alkaloids, which are well known cardiotoxins and neurotoxins. To better understand why Aconitum alkaloid poisoning related to the culinary uses of aconite roots can occur and characterize the risks posed by these “food supplements”, relevant published reports were reviewed. From 1995 to 2013, there were eight reports of aconite poisoning after consumption of these herbal soups and meals, including two reports of large clusters of cases (n = 19–45 and two reports of cases (n = 15–156 managed by two hospitals over a period of 4.5 to 5 years. The herbal formulae used did not adhere to the suggested guidelines, with regarding to the doses (50–500 g instead of 3–30 g per person and types (raw instead of processed of aconite roots used. The quantities of Aconitum alkaloids involved were huge, taking into consideration the doses of aconite roots used to prepare herbal soups/meals and the amounts of aconite roots and herbal soups/meals consumed. In a large cluster of cases, despite simmering raw “caowu” (the root tuber of A. kusnezoffii in pork broth for 24 h, all 19 family members who consumed this soup and boiled “caowu” developed poisoning. Severe or even fatal aconite poisoning can occur after consumption of herbal soups and foods prepared from aconite roots. Even prolonged boiling may not be protective if raw preparations and large quantities of aconite roots are used. The public should be warned of the risk of severe poisoning related to the culinary and traditional medicinal uses of aconite roots.

  10. In vitro radiographic determination of distances from working length files to root ends comparing Kodak RVG 6000, Schick CDR, and Kodak insight film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radel, Robert T; Goodell, Gary G; McClanahan, Scott B; Cohen, Mark E

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies suggest that digital and film-based radiography are similar for endodontic measurements. This study compared the accuracy and acceptability of measured distances from the tips of size #10 and #15 files to molar root apices in cadaver jaw sections using the newly developed Kodak RVG 6000, and the Schick CDR digital systems to digitized Kodak film. Standardized images were taken of files placed 0.5 to 1.5 mm short of true radiographic lengths. Images were imported into Adobe PhotoShop 7.0, thereby blinding observers who measured distances from files to root apices and assessed images for clarity (acceptability). Repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer post hoc tests demonstrated that Kodak RVG 6000 images with enhanced contrast produced significantly less measurement error than unenhanced contrast Schick CDR images (p Kodak RVG 6000 system provided the best overall images.

  11. Romantic Relationship Length and its Perceived Quality: Mediating Role of Facebook-Related Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Saidur Rahaman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate how Facebook use is leading to negative relationship outcomes such as cheating and breakup by assessing users’ perceived relationship qualities. It was hypothesized that Facebook-related conflict will be negatively related with users’ relationship length and will also be negatively related with their perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Facebook-related conflict further mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Self-report data were gathered from participants (N = 101 in an online survey by employing standard questionnaires. A set of regression and mediation analyses confirmed all the hypotheses of the study. That is, Facebook-related conflict mediates the relationship between relationship length and perceived relationship satisfaction, commitment, and love. Moreover, the magnitude of mediation was highest for relationship satisfaction. Implications for future research and contributions are discussed.

  12. Some problems of special theory of relativity. (Concept of relativistic length)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    Two available definitions of the concept of length (distance) related (a) to moving the length standard and (b) to sending a light signal (similar to the radar method for measuring distances) are analyzed. Considerations in favour of the preferable use of the (b) definition are discussed. The extension of the (b) definition for fast moving bodies results in the introduction of the definition of relativistic length and volume. The increase of the longitudinal dimensions of fast moving objects is a consequence of the above definition. It should be noted that, e.g., for a rod, the definition corresponds to measurements on the lines orthogonal to the world strip of the given rod. It is shown that the known Michelson-Morley and Throuton-Noble experiments are naturally explained in the framework of the proposed concept of relativistic length. It is also shown that the definition introduced, unlike the conventional one, satisfies the principle of relativity

  13. Rhizosphere microbial community structure in relation to root location and plant iron nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C H; Crowley, D E

    2000-01-01

    Root exudate composition and quantity vary in relation to plant nutritional status, but the impact of the differences on rhizosphere microbial communities is not known. To examine this question, we performed an experiment with barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants under iron-limiting and iron-sufficient growth conditions. Plants were grown in an iron-limiting soil in root box microcosms. One-half of the plants were treated with foliar iron every day to inhibit phytosiderophore production and to alter root exudate composition. After 30 days, the bacterial communities associated with different root zones, including the primary root tips, nonelongating secondary root tips, sites of lateral root emergence, and older roots distal from the tip, were characterized by using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fingerprints generated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results showed that the microbial communities associated with the different root locations produced many common 16S rDNA bands but that the communities could be distinguished by using correspondence analysis. Approximately 40% of the variation between communities could be attributed to plant iron nutritional status. A sequence analysis of clones generated from a single 16S rDNA band obtained at all of the root locations revealed that there were taxonomically different species in the same band, suggesting that the resolving power of DGGE for characterization of community structure at the species level is limited. Our results suggest that the bacterial communities in the rhizosphere are substantially different in different root zones and that a rhizosphere community may be altered by changes in root exudate composition caused by changes in plant iron nutritional status.

  14. Quantum scattering in one-dimensional systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardo, Reginald Christian S., E-mail: rcbernardo@nip.upd.edu.ph; Esguerra, Jose Perico H., E-mail: jesguerra@nip.upd.edu.ph

    2016-12-15

    In quantum gravity theories, when the scattering energy is comparable to the Planck energy the Heisenberg uncertainty principle breaks down and is replaced by the minimal length uncertainty relation. In this paper, the consequences of the minimal length uncertainty relation on one-dimensional quantum scattering are studied using an approach involving a recently proposed second-order differential equation. An exact analytical expression for the tunneling probability through a locally-periodic rectangular potential barrier system is obtained. Results show that the existence of a non-zero minimal length uncertainty tends to shift the resonant tunneling energies to the positive direction. Scattering through a locally-periodic potential composed of double-rectangular potential barriers shows that the first band of resonant tunneling energies widens for minimal length cases when the double-rectangular potential barrier is symmetric but narrows down when the double-rectangular potential barrier is asymmetric. A numerical solution which exploits the use of Wronskians is used to calculate the transmission probabilities through the Pöschl–Teller well, Gaussian barrier, and double-Gaussian barrier. Results show that the probability of passage through the Pöschl–Teller well and Gaussian barrier is smaller in the minimal length cases compared to the non-minimal length case. For the double-Gaussian barrier, the probability of passage for energies that are more positive than the resonant tunneling energy is larger in the minimal length cases compared to the non-minimal length case. The approach is exact and applicable to many types of scattering potential.

  15. Events Associated with Early Age-Related Decline in Adventitious Rooting Competence of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumond, Márcio L; de Araujo, Artur T; de Oliveira Junkes, Camila F; de Almeida, Márcia R; Matsuura, Hélio N; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2017-01-01

    The development of adventitious roots is affected by several factors, including the age of the cutting donor plant, which negatively affects rooting capacity. Eucalyptus globulus quickly loses rooting capacity of cuttings as the donor plant ages, although the molecular and biochemical mechanisms behind this process are still unclear. To better understand the bases of rooting competence loss in E. globulus , the time required for a significant decline in rhizogenic ability without exogenous auxin was determined in microcuttings derived from donor plants of different ages after sowing. Tip cuttings of donor plants were severed before and after loss of rooting competence of microcuttings to test the hypothesis that auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis regulate rooting competence decline. There were no significant changes in concentration of carbohydrates, flavonoids, or proteins before and after the loss of rooting capacity. Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) total activity increased with loss of rooting competence. Auxin concentration showed the opposite pattern. In good agreement, TAA1 , a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, had lower expression after loss of rooting capacity. The same applied to the auxin receptor gene TIR1 , suggesting reduced auxin sensitivity. On the other hand, genes associated with auxin response repression ( TPL , IAA12 ) or with the action of cytokinins, the rhizogenesis inhibitor-related ARR1 , showed higher expression in plants with lower rooting competence. Taken together, data suggest that age negatively affects E. globulus rooting by a combination of factors. Decreased endogenous auxin concentration, possibly caused by less biosynthesis, lower auxin sensitivity, higher expression of genes inhibiting auxin action, as well as of genes related to the action of cytokinins, appear to play roles in this process.

  16. Events Associated with Early Age-Related Decline in Adventitious Rooting Competence of Eucalyptus globulus Labill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumond, Márcio L.; de Araujo, Artur T.; de Oliveira Junkes, Camila F.; de Almeida, Márcia R.; Matsuura, Hélio N.; de Costa, Fernanda; Fett-Neto, Arthur G.

    2017-01-01

    The development of adventitious roots is affected by several factors, including the age of the cutting donor plant, which negatively affects rooting capacity. Eucalyptus globulus quickly loses rooting capacity of cuttings as the donor plant ages, although the molecular and biochemical mechanisms behind this process are still unclear. To better understand the bases of rooting competence loss in E. globulus, the time required for a significant decline in rhizogenic ability without exogenous auxin was determined in microcuttings derived from donor plants of different ages after sowing. Tip cuttings of donor plants were severed before and after loss of rooting competence of microcuttings to test the hypothesis that auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis regulate rooting competence decline. There were no significant changes in concentration of carbohydrates, flavonoids, or proteins before and after the loss of rooting capacity. Peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) total activity increased with loss of rooting competence. Auxin concentration showed the opposite pattern. In good agreement, TAA1, a key gene in auxin biosynthesis, had lower expression after loss of rooting capacity. The same applied to the auxin receptor gene TIR1, suggesting reduced auxin sensitivity. On the other hand, genes associated with auxin response repression (TPL, IAA12) or with the action of cytokinins, the rhizogenesis inhibitor-related ARR1, showed higher expression in plants with lower rooting competence. Taken together, data suggest that age negatively affects E. globulus rooting by a combination of factors. Decreased endogenous auxin concentration, possibly caused by less biosynthesis, lower auxin sensitivity, higher expression of genes inhibiting auxin action, as well as of genes related to the action of cytokinins, appear to play roles in this process. PMID:29067033

  17. Expression of Root-Related Transcription Factors Associated with Flooding Tolerance of Soybean (Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Valliyodan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of

  18. Expression of root-related transcription factors associated with flooding tolerance of soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valliyodan, Babu; Van Toai, Tara T; Alves, Jose Donizeti; de Fátima P Goulart, Patricia; Lee, Jeong Dong; Fritschi, Felix B; Rahman, Mohammed Atiqur; Islam, Rafiq; Shannon, J Grover; Nguyen, Henry T

    2014-09-29

    Much research has been conducted on the changes in gene expression of the model plant Arabidopsis to low-oxygen stress. Flooding results in a low oxygen environment in the root zone. However, there is ample evidence that tolerance to soil flooding is more than tolerance to low oxygen alone. In this study, we investigated the physiological response and differential expression of root-related transcription factors (TFs) associated with the tolerance of soybean plants to soil flooding. Differential responses of PI408105A and S99-2281 plants to ten days of soil flooding were evaluated at physiological, morphological and anatomical levels. Gene expression underlying the tolerance response was investigated using qRT-PCR of root-related TFs, known anaerobic genes, and housekeeping genes. Biomass of flood-sensitive S99-2281 roots remained unchanged during the entire 10 days of flooding. Flood-tolerant PI408105A plants exhibited recovery of root growth after 3 days of flooding. Flooding induced the development of aerenchyma and adventitious roots more rapidly in the flood-tolerant than the flood-sensitive genotype. Roots of tolerant plants also contained more ATP than roots of sensitive plants at the 7th and 10th days of flooding. Quantitative transcript analysis identified 132 genes differentially expressed between the two genotypes at one or more time points of flooding. Expression of genes related to the ethylene biosynthesis pathway and formation of adventitious roots was induced earlier and to higher levels in roots of the flood-tolerant genotype. Three potential flood-tolerance TFs which were differentially expressed between the two genotypes during the entire 10-day flooding duration were identified. This study confirmed the expression of anaerobic genes in response to soil flooding. Additionally, the differential expression of TFs associated with soil flooding tolerance was not qualitative but quantitative and temporal. Functional analyses of these genes will be

  19. The Long Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    related leave from 14 to 20 weeks. We use differences-in-differences regression discontinuity design to identify the causal effect of the leave reform and it estimated whether such a large increase in the mandated leave period has a large measurable and persistent effect on children's cognitive...... and educational outcomes. A 100% sample Danish population born in May, June, July, and August 1983, 1984, and 1985 and a dataset with Danish PISA-2000 scores are used for the estimations. Preliminary results indicate there is no positive effect on children's cognitive outcomes from increasing parents' mandated......    The length of parents' total birth related leave was increased with almost 50% in 1984 in Denmark. The previous length of the Danish maternity leave was long, especially compared to e.g. the U.S. today. This paper investigates the long term effects on children of increasing length of birth...

  20. Quantum systems related to root systems and radial parts of Laplace operators

    OpenAIRE

    Olshanetsky, M. A.; Perelomov, A. M.

    2002-01-01

    The relation between quantum systems associated to root systems and radial parts of Laplace operators on symmetric spaces is established. From this it follows the complete integrability of some quantum systems.

  1. Work-related exhaustion and telomere length: a population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Ahola

    Full Text Available Psychological stress is suggested to accelerate the rate of biological aging. We investigated whether work-related exhaustion, an indicator of prolonged work stress, is associated with accelerated biological aging, as indicated by shorter leukocyte telomeres, that is, the DNA-protein complexes that cap chromosomal ends in cells.We used data from a representative sample of the Finnish working-age population, the Health 2000 Study. Our sample consisted of 2911 men and women aged 30-64. Work-related exhaustion was assessed using the Maslach Burnout Inventory--General Survey. We determined relative leukocyte telomere length using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR -based method.After adjustment for age and sex, individuals with severe exhaustion had leukocyte telomeres on average 0.043 relative units shorter (standard error of the mean 0.016 than those with no exhaustion (p = 0.009. The association between exhaustion and relative telomere length remained significant after additional adjustment for marital and socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and morbidities (adjusted difference 0.044 relative units, standard error of the mean 0.017, p = 0.008.These data suggest that work-related exhaustion is related to the acceleration of the rate of biological aging. This hypothesis awaits confirmation in a prospective study measuring changes in relative telomere length over time.

  2. On the relative roles of hydrology, salinity, temperature, and root productivity in controlling soil respiration from coastal swamps (freshwater)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Ken W.; Whitbeck, Julie L.; Howard, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Soil CO2 emissions can dominate gaseous carbon losses from forested wetlands (swamps), especially those positioned in coastal environments. Understanding the varied roles of hydroperiod, salinity, temperature, and root productivity on soil respiration is important in discerning how carbon balances may shift as freshwater swamps retreat inland with sea-level rise and salinity incursion, and convert to mixed communities with marsh plants. Methods We exposed soil mesocosms to combinations of permanent flooding, tide, and salinity, and tracked soil respiration over 2 1/2 growing seasons. We also related these measurements to rates from field sites along the lower Savannah River, Georgia, USA. Soil temperature and root productivity were assessed simultaneously for both experiments. Results Soil respiration from mesocosms (22.7-1678.2 mg CO2 m-2 h-1) differed significantly among treatments during four of the seven sampling intervals, where permanently flooded treatments contributed to low rates of soil respiration and tidally flooded treatments sometimes contributed to higher rates. Permanent flooding reduced the overall capacity for soil respiration as soils warmed. Salinity did reduce soil respiration at times in tidal treatments, indicating that salinity may affect the amount of CO2 respired with tide more strongly than under permanent flooding. However, soil respiration related greatest to root biomass (mesocosm) and standing root length (field); any stress reducing root productivity (incl. salinity and permanent flooding) therefore reduces soil respiration. Conclusions Overall, we hypothesized a stronger, direct role for salinity on soil respiration, and found that salinity effects were being masked by varied capacities for increases in respiration with soil warming as dictated by hydrology, and the indirect influence that salinity can have on plant productivity.

  3. Correlation between heavy metal ions (copper, zinc, lead concentrations and root length of Allium cepa L. in polluted river water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Moreno Palacio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work was performed using the common onion (Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator of toxicity of heavy metals in river water. The test waters were collected at two sampling sites: at the beginning and the end of the Toledo River. The bulbs of A. cepa L. were grown in test water with nine concentration levels of copper, zinc and lead from 0.1 to 50 ppm. In the laboratory, the influence of these test liquids on the root growth was examined during five days. For test liquids containing below 0.03-ppm dissolved Cu the root growth was reduced by 40% However, the same reduction occurred for 1-ppm dissolved Zn. For dissolved Pb, results reveal toxicity above 0.1 and 0.6 ppm at the beginning and the end of the Toledo river water, respectively.O presente trabalho foi realizado utilizando a cebola comum (Allium cepa L. como bioindicador da toxicidade de metais pesados em água de rio. As águas de teste foram coletadas em dois locais: na nascente e na foz do rio Toledo. Os bulbos de A. cepa L. foram cultivados em água de teste com nove níveis de concentração de cobre, zinco e chumbo de 0,1 a 50 ppm. Em laboratório a influência destes líquidos de teste em crescimento de raiz foi examinada durante cinco dias. Em todos os líquidos de teste o metal dissolvido contido foi medido pela técnica TXRF. Para líquidos de teste contendo 0,1-ppm de Cu dissolvido o crescimento da raiz foi reduzido em 50%. Entretanto, ocorreu a mesma redução para 1-ppm de Zn dissolvido. Para Pb dissolvido, o método do Allium teste revela toxidade acima de 0,1 e 0,5 ppm para a nascente e a foz do rio Toledo, respectivamente.

  4. Sequential optimization of approximate inhibitory rules relative to the length, coverage and number of misclassifications

    KAUST Repository

    Alsolami, Fawaz

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of algorithms for sequential optimization of approximate inhibitory rules relative to the length, coverage and number of misclassifications. Theses algorithms are based on extensions of dynamic programming approach. The results of experiments for decision tables from UCI Machine Learning Repository are discussed. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  5. A Simple Derivation of Time Dilation and Length Contraction in Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozi, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate physics majors typically begin their study of modern physics with special relativity. It is here that physics students first encounter the counterintuitive concepts of time dilation and length contraction. Unfortunately, the derivations of these results are often cloaked in several layers of analysis that render them rather…

  6. Length of Recovery From Sports-Related Concussions in Pediatric Patients Treated at Concussion Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Donald J; Coxe, Kathryn; Li, Hongmei; Pommering, Thomas L; Young, Julie A; Smith, Gary A; Yang, Jingzhen

    2018-01-01

    We quantified the length of recovery time by week in a cohort of pediatric sports-related concussion patients treated at concussion clinics, and examined patient and injury characteristics associated with prolonged recovery. A retrospective, cohort design. Seven concussion clinics at a Midwest children's hospital. Patients aged 10 to 17 years with a diagnosed sports-related concussion presenting to the clinic within 30 days of injury. Length of recovery by week. Unadjusted and adjusted multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to model the effect of patient and injury characteristics on length of recovery by week. Median length of recovery was 17 days. Only 16.3% (299/1840) of patients recovered within one week, whereas 26.4% took longer than four weeks to recover. By 2 months postinjury, 6.7% of patients were still experiencing symptoms. Higher symptom scores at injury and initial visit were significantly associated with prolonged symptoms by week. Patients who presented to the clinic more than 2 weeks postinjury or who had 2 or more previous concussions showed increased risk for prolonged recovery. Females were at greater risk for prolonged recovery than males (odds ratio = 2.08, 95% confidence interval = 1.49-2.89). Age was not significantly associated with recovery length. High symptom scores at injury and initial visit, time to initial clinical presentation, presence of 2 or more previous concussions, and female sex are associated with prolonged concussion recovery. Further research should aim to establish objective measures of recovery, accounting for treatment received during the recovery. The median length of recovery is 17 days among pediatric sports-related concussion patients treated at concussion clinics. Only 16.3% of patients recovered within one week, whereas 26.4% took longer than 4 weeks to recover.

  7. COMPRIMENTO DA ESTACA DE RAMO NO ENRAIZAMENTO DE GINSENG BRASILEIRO (Pfaffia glomerata SHOOT CUTTING LENGTH ON ROOTING OF BRAZILIAN GINSENG (Pfaffia glomerata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Teixeira Nicoloso

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen é uma dentre várias espécies conhecidas como ginseng brasileiro e é usada como planta medicinal. O objetivo desse trabalho foi determinar se o comprimento da estaca de ramo influencia o enraizamento da P. glomerata. Os tratamentos usados consistiram de três comprimentos de estacas (10, 15 e 20cm; ± 1cm de variação. As estacas foram obtidas dos 70cm basais de ramos, com 80 a 140cm de comprimento, de plantas possuindo dois anos de idade, cultivadas no Jardim Botânico da UFSM. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com três repetições e 30 estacas por unidade experimental. O bloco experimental consistiu de uma bandeja plástica com capacidade para 36 litros de solução nutritiva. O experimento foi instalado no dia 15 de julho de 1998 e conduzido por 44 dias sob condições controladas de temperatura, luminosidade e umidade do ar. Os resultados indicaram que (i o tamanho da estaca não afeta a percentagem de enraizamento, a produção de massa seca de folhas e raízes. Por outro lado, as mudas obtidas de estacas de 10cm apresentam maior número de brotações, comprimento das brotações, massa seca de talos e massa seca total produzida por estaca que as de 20cm; e (ii o uso de estacas com 10cm de comprimento é viável e, conseqüentemente, possibilita a obtenção de um maior número de estacas por ramo.Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen is among several species known as Brazilian ginsengs and it is used as medicinal plant. The aim of this work was to evaluate the length of the shoot cuttings on rooting of P. glomerata. Treatments consisted of three length of cuttings (10, 15, and 20cm; ± 1cm of variation. Cuttings were obtained from the 70cm of the basal portion from shoots of 80 to 140cm of length, from two-year-old plants grown in the Botanical Garden at State University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Treatments were distributed in a completely randomized block design with

  8. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 1. Length-weight relation and condition factor under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Devi, C.B.L.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and earthworm feeding conditions under different levels for @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated. Length-weight exponent in both species was unaffected by the feeding levels and the consequent...

  9. Do ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal temperate tree species systematically differ in root order-related fine root morphology and biomass?

    OpenAIRE

    Kubisch, Petra; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    While most temperate broad-leaved tree species form ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses, a few species have arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM). It is not known whether EM and AM tree species differ systematically with respect to fine root morphology, fine root system size and root functioning. In a species-rich temperate mixed forest, we studied the fine root morphology and biomass of three EM and three AM tree species from the genera Acer, Carpinus, Fagus, Fraxinus, and Tilia searching for principal dif...

  10. Incidence of apical root cracks and apical dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Kaiwar, Anjali; Shemesh, Hagay; Wesselink, Paul R; Hou, Benxiang; Wu, Min-Kai

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of apical root cracks and dentinal detachments after canal preparation with hand and rotary files at different instrumentation lengths. Two hundred forty mandibular incisors were mounted in resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, and the apex was exposed. The root canals were instrumented with rotary and hand files, namely K3, ProTaper, and nickel-titanium Flex K files to the major apical foramen (AF), short AF, or beyond AF. Digital images of the apical surface of every tooth were taken during the apical enlargement at each file change. Development of dentinal defects was determined by comparing these images with the baseline image. Multinomial logistic regression test was performed to identify influencing factors. Apical crack developed in 1 of 80 teeth (1.3%) with hand files and 31 of 160 teeth (19.4%) with rotary files. Apical dentinal detachment developed in 2 of 80 teeth (2.5%) with hand files and 35 of 160 teeth (21.9%) with rotary files. Instrumentation with rotary files terminated 2 mm short of AF and did not cause any cracks. Significantly less cracks and detachments occurred when instrumentation with rotary files was terminated short of AF, as compared with that terminated at or beyond AF (P hand instruments; instrumentation short of AF reduced the risk of dentinal defects. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sorghum root-system classification in contrasting P environments reveals three main rooting types and root-architecture-related marker-trait associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Londono, Sebastian; Kavka, Mareike; Samans, Birgit; Snowdon, Rod; Wieckhorst, Silke; Uptmoor, Ralf

    2018-02-12

    Roots facilitate acquisition of macro- and micronutrients, which are crucial for plant productivity and anchorage in the soil. Phosphorus (P) is rapidly immobilized in the soil and hardly available for plants. Adaptation to P scarcity relies on changes in root morphology towards rooting systems well suited for topsoil foraging. Root-system architecture (RSA) defines the spatial organization of the network comprising primary, lateral and stem-derived roots and is important for adaptation to stress conditions. RSA phenotyping is a challenging task and essential for understanding root development. In this study, 19 traits describing RSA were analysed in a diversity panel comprising 194 sorghum genotypes, fingerprinted with a 90-k single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and grown under low and high P availability. Multivariate analysis was conducted and revealed three different RSA types: (1) a small root system; (2) a compact and bushy rooting type; and (3) an exploratory root system, which might benefit plant growth and development if water, nitrogen (N) or P availability is limited. While several genotypes displayed similar rooting types in different environments, others responded to P scarcity positively by developing more exploratory root systems, or negatively with root growth suppression. Genome-wide association studies revealed significant quantitative trait loci (P root-system development on chromosomes SBI-02 and SBI-03. Sorghum genotypes with a compact, bushy and shallow root system provide potential adaptation to P scarcity in the field by allowing thorough topsoil foraging, while genotypes with an exploratory root system may be advantageous if N or water is the limiting factor, although such genotypes showed highest P uptake levels under the artificial conditions of the present study. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Glycolysis Is Dynamic and Relates Closely to Respiration Rate in Stored Sugarbeet Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice A. Megguer

    2017-05-01

    storage and that changes in glycolysis are closely related to changes in sugarbeet root respiration.

  13. RNA-seq for gene identification and transcript profiling in relation to root growth of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Li, Huiying; Chen, Liang; Lou, Yanhong; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jinmin

    2015-08-04

    Soil salinity is one of the most significant abiotic stresses affecting plant shoots and roots growth. The adjustment of root architecture to spatio-temporal heterogeneity in salinity is particularly critical for plant growth and survival. Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) is a widely used turf and forage perennial grass with a high degree of salinity tolerance. Salinity appears to stimulate the growth of roots and decrease their mortality in tolerant bermudagrass. To estimate a broad spectrum of genes related to root elongation affected by salt stress and the molecular mechanisms that control the positive response of root architecture to salinity, we analyzed the transcriptome of bermudagrass root tips in response to salinity. RNA-sequencing was performed in root tips of two bermudagrass genotypes contrasting in salt tolerance. A total of 237,850,130 high quality clean reads were generated and 250,359 transcripts were assembled with an average length of 1115 bp. Totally, 103,324 unigenes obtained with 53,765 unigenes (52 %) successfully annotated in databases. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that major transcription factor (TF) families linked to stress responses and growth regulation (MYB, bHLH, WRKY) were differentially expressed in root tips of bermudagrass under salinity. In addition, genes related to cell wall loosening and stiffening (xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases, peroxidases) were identified. RNA-seq analysis identified candidate genes encoding TFs involved in the regulation of lignin synthesis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis controlled by peroxidases, and the regulation of phytohormone signaling that promote cell wall loosening and therefore root growth under salinity.

  14. Length of unemployment and health-related outcomes: a life-course analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janlert, Urban; Winefield, Anthony H; Hammarström, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Most previous studies on the effects of length of unemployment on health have focused on the duration of continuous spells of unemployment rather than on the cumulative length of intermittent spells. This study analysed the relationship between the cumulative length of intermittent spells of unemployment and different health-related outcomes using data from a longitudinal study of school leavers. All pupils who completed compulsory schooling in 1981 in a medium-sized town in northern Sweden (N = 1083) were followed for 14 years with repeated questionnaires including questions about unemployment, health and health behaviour. Men tended to react with a steady state or a levelling off of health symptoms with increased unemployment, whereas women showed deteriorating health symptoms. For health behaviour the reverse occurred. Women's health behaviour was less connected with increased unemployment while men's health behaviour tended to deteriorate. Cumulative length of unemployment is correlated with deteriorated health and health behaviour. Long-term unemployment, even as a result of cumulated shorter employment spells over a number of years should be an urgent target for policy makers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  15. Body mass, wing length, and condition of wintering ducks relative to hematozoa infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph; Ramey, Andrew M.; Reeves, Andrew; Yee, Julie L.

    2017-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack information regarding factors that may be reducing the positive response of waterfowl body condition to habitat improvements. Protozoan blood parasites (i.e., hematozoa) are commonly found in birds and have been related to reduced body mass, wing length, and body condition. We studied relationships between 12 measures of hematozoa infection and body mass, wing length, and body mass divided by wing length (i.e., body condition index [BCI]) of the five most common duck species (northern pintail [Anas acuta], mallard [A. platyrhynchos], green-winged teal [A. crecca], American wigeon [A. Americana], northern shoveler [A. clypeata]) wintering in the Central Valley of California during October 2006-January 2007. After accounting for variation due to species, age-sex cohort, Central Valley region, and month; wing length, body mass, and BCI were found to be negatively related to infection by Leucocytozoon and by "any hematozoa" but not related to infection by only Plasmodium or Haemoproteus, or coinfections of greater than one genera or parasite haplotype (albeit, few ducks had Plasmodium or Haemoproteus infection or coinfections). Evidence of a negative relationship with infection was stronger for body mass and BCI than for wing length and indicated that the relationships varied among species, age-sex cohorts, regions, and months. Compared to uninfected ducks, hematozoa-infected duck body mass, wing length, and BCI was -1.63% (85% CI = -2.79%- -0.47%), -0.12% (-0.41%- +0.17%), and -1.38% (-2.49%- -0.26%), respectively. Although, seemingly small, the -1.63% difference in body mass represents a large percentage (e.g., 38% for northern pintail) of the observed increase in wintering duck body mass associated with Central Valley habitat improvements. Because infection prevalence and relationship to body condition might change over time due to climate or other factors, tracking hematozoa infection prevalence might be important to inform and accurately

  16. Energy levels of one-dimensional systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardo, Reginald Christian S., E-mail: rcbernardo@nip.upd.edu.ph; Esguerra, Jose Perico H., E-mail: jesguerra@nip.upd.edu.ph

    2016-10-15

    The standard approach to calculating the energy levels for quantum systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation is to solve an eigenvalue problem involving a fourth- or higher-order differential equation in quasiposition space. It is shown that the problem can be reformulated so that the energy levels of these systems can be obtained by solving only a second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation. Through this formulation the energy levels are calculated for the following potentials: particle in a box, harmonic oscillator, Pöschl–Teller well, Gaussian well, and double-Gaussian well. For the particle in a box, the second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation is a second-order differential equation with constant coefficients. For the harmonic oscillator, Pöschl–Teller well, Gaussian well, and double-Gaussian well, a method that involves using Wronskians has been used to solve the second-order quasiposition eigenvalue equation. It is observed for all of these quantum systems that the introduction of a nonzero minimal length uncertainty induces a positive shift in the energy levels. It is shown that the calculation of energy levels in systems satisfying the minimal length uncertainty relation is not limited to a small number of problems like particle in a box and the harmonic oscillator but can be extended to a wider class of problems involving potentials such as the Pöschl–Teller and Gaussian wells.

  17. On entropic uncertainty relations in the presence of a minimal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegin, Alexey E.

    2017-07-01

    Entropic uncertainty relations for the position and momentum within the generalized uncertainty principle are examined. Studies of this principle are motivated by the existence of a minimal observable length. Then the position and momentum operators satisfy the modified commutation relation, for which more than one algebraic representation is known. One of them is described by auxiliary momentum so that the momentum and coordinate wave functions are connected by the Fourier transform. However, the probability density functions of the physically true and auxiliary momenta are different. As the corresponding entropies differ, known entropic uncertainty relations are changed. Using differential Shannon entropies, we give a state-dependent formulation with correction term. State-independent uncertainty relations are obtained in terms of the Rényi entropies and the Tsallis entropies with binning. Such relations allow one to take into account a finiteness of measurement resolution.

  18. Temporal and Latitudinal Variations of the Length-Scales and Relative Intensities of the Chromospheric Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K. P.

    2018-05-01

    The Calcium K spectroheliograms of the Sun from Kodaikanal have a data span of about 100 years and covers over 9 solar cycles. The Ca line is a strong chromospheric line dominated by chromospheric network and plages which are good indicators of solar activity. Length-scales and relative intensities of the chromospheric network have been obtained in the solar latitudes from 50 degree N to 50 degree S from the spectroheliograms. The length-scale was obtained from the half-width of the two-dimensional autocorrelation of the latitude strip which gives a measure of the width of the network boundary. As reported earlier for the transition region extreme ultraviolet (EUV) network, relative intensity and width of the chromospheric network boundary are found to be dependent on the solar cycle. A varying phase difference has been noticed in the quantities in different solar latitudes. A cross-correlation analysis of the quantities from other latitudes with ±30 degree latitude revealed an interesting phase difference pattern indicating flux transfer. Evidence of equatorward flux transfer has been observed. The average equatorward flux transfer was estimated to be 5.8 ms-1. The possible reasons of the drift could be meridional circulation, torsional oscillations, or the bright point migration. Cross-correlation of intensity and length-scale from the same latitude showed increasing phase difference with increasing latitude. We have also obtained the cross correlation of the quantities across the equator to see the possible phase lags in the two hemispheres. Signatures of lags are seen in the length scales of southern hemisphere near the equatorial latitudes, but no such lags in the intensity are observed. The results have important implications on the flux transfer over the solar surface and hence on the solar activity and dynamo.

  19. Postsacral vertebral morphology in relation to tail length among primates and other mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gabrielle A

    2015-02-01

    Tail reduction/loss independently evolved in a number of mammalian lineages, including hominoid primates. One prerequisite to appropriately contextualizing its occurrence and understanding its significance is the ability to track evolutionary changes in tail length throughout the fossil record. However, to date, the bony correlates of tail length variation among living taxa have not been comprehensively examined. This study quantifies postsacral vertebral morphology among living primates and other mammals known to differ in relative tail length (RTL). Linear and angular measurements with known biomechanical significance were collected on the first, mid-, and transition proximal postsacral vertebrae, and their relationship with RTL was assessed using phylogenetic generalized least-squares regression methods. Compared to shorter-tailed primates, longer-tailed primates possess a greater number of postsacral vertebral features associated with increased proximal tail flexibility (e.g., craniocaudally longer vertebral bodies), increased intervertebral body joint range of motion (e.g., more circularly shaped cranial articular surfaces), and increased leverage of tail musculature (e.g., longer spinous processes). These observations are corroborated by the comparative mammalian sample, which shows that distantly related short-tailed (e.g., Phascolarctos, Lynx) and long-tailed (e.g., Dendrolagus, Acinonyx) nonprimate mammals morphologically converge with short-tailed (e.g., Macaca tonkeana) and long-tailed (e.g., Macaca fascicularis) primates, respectively. Multivariate models demonstrate that the variables examined account for 70% (all mammals) to 94% (only primates) of the variance in RTL. Results of this study may be used to infer the tail lengths of extinct primates and other mammals, thereby improving our understanding about the evolution of tail reduction/loss. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effect of root pruning and irrigation regimes on leaf water relations and xylem ABA and ionic concentrations in pear trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yufei; Bertelsen, Marianne G.; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    2014-01-01

    relation characteristics, stomatal conductance and xylem sap abscisic acid (ABA) and ionic concentrations. Results showed that leaf water potential, leaf turgor and stomatal conductance of root pruning (RP) treatment was significantly lower than those of non-root pruning (NP) treatment indicating that root...

  1. High phobic anxiety is related to lower leukocyte telomere length in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia I Okereke

    Full Text Available Chronic psychological distress has been linked to shorter telomeres, an indication of accelerated aging. Yet, little is known about relations of anxiety to telomeres. We examined whether a typically chronic form of anxiety--phobic anxiety--is related to telomere length.Relative telomere lengths (RTLs in peripheral blood leukocytes were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction among 5,243 women (aged 42-69 years who: were participants in the Nurses' Health Study; were controls in prior case-control studies of telomeres and disease, or randomly selected healthy participants in a cognitive function sub-study; had completed the Crown-Crisp phobic index proximal to blood collection. Adjusted least-squares mean RTLs (z-scores were calculated across phobic categories. Higher phobic anxiety was generally associated with lower RTLs (age-adjusted p-trend = 0.09; this association was similar after adjustment for confounders--paternal age-at-birth, smoking, body mass index (BMI and physical activity (p-trend = 0.15. Notably, a threshold was identified. Among women with Crown-Crisp<6 points, the multivariable-adjusted least-squares mean RTL z-score = 0.02 standard units; however, among the most phobic women (Crown-Crisp ≥ 6, the multivariable-adjusted least-squares mean RTL z-score = -0.09 standard units (mean difference = -0.10 standard units; p = 0.02. The magnitude of this difference was comparable to that for women 6 years apart in age. Finally, effect modification by BMI, smoking and paternal age was observed: associations were stronger among highly phobic women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2, without smoking history, or born to fathers aged ≥ 40 years.In this large, cross-sectional study high phobic anxiety was associated with shorter telomeres. These results point toward prospective investigations relating anxiety to telomere length change.

  2. Length standards and the Twin Paradox in the Special Theory of Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrubba, James Gasper

    In this Thesis I work towards a discussion of several resolutions of the Twin Paradox by exploring the Lorentz transformations. I begin by asking what it means for a moving length to contract, a question which obviously cannot be divorced from the propagation of length standards from one reference frame to another. I emphasize the conventionality of definitions of length. I go on to argue that it is the imposition of clock synchronization-the conventionality of one-way speeds- and not the effects of acceleration which leads to the asymmetry of light speed observed in Sagnac effect; and further, that this asymmetry leads to apparent paradoxes which are easily resolved when we take into account general covariance. In subsequent discussion of light-speed conventionality, I prove that any transform which preserves synchronization consistent with Michelson-Morley must be a similarity transform; and use this to demonstrate that not all results which appear to depend on Special Relativity actually do. I conclude this Thesis with an argument that the Twin Paradox cannot be resolved consistently if we impose simultaneously all 'physical' conditions which various resolutions impose in part.

  3. An ancient relation between units of length and volume based on a sphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zapassky

    Full Text Available The modern metric system defines units of volume based on the cube. We propose that the ancient Egyptian system of measuring capacity employed a similar concept, but used the sphere instead. When considered in ancient Egyptian units, the volume of a sphere, whose circumference is one royal cubit, equals half a hekat. Using the measurements of large sets of ancient containers as a database, the article demonstrates that this formula was characteristic of Egyptian and Egyptian-related pottery vessels but not of the ceramics of Mesopotamia, which had a different system of measuring length and volume units.

  4. Tooth movement characteristics in relation to root resorption in young and adult rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.; Maltha, J.C.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tooth movement characteristics in relation to root resorption in young and adult rats. Two groups of 30 rats each (aged 6 wk and 9-12 months, respectively) were used. Standardized orthodontic appliances were placed to move the maxillary molars mesially.

  5. Tooth movement characteristics in relation to root resorption in young and adult rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate tooth movement characteristics in relation to root resorption in young and adult rats. Two groups of 30 rats each (aged 6 wk and 9-12 months, respectively) were used. Standardized orthodontic appliances were placed to move the maxillary molars mesially.

  6. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter in relation to root yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava an important staple food is grown both in upland and inland valley in the tropics. A trial to assess dry matter production and partitioning in relation to root yield was conducted in 3 positions along inland valley toposequence using 4 x 4 Latin square design. Dry matter partitioning differed among cultivars, ...

  7. Load dependency in force-length relations in isolated single cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribe, Gentaro; Kaneko, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Naruse, Keiji

    2014-08-01

    The previously reported pressure-volume (PV) relationship in frog hearts shows that end-systolic PV relation (ESPVR) is load dependent, whereas ESPVR in canine hearts is load independent. To study intrinsic cardiac mechanics in detail, it is desirable to study mechanics in a single isolated cardiomyocyte that is free from interstitial connective tissue. Previous single cell mechanics studies used a pair of carbon fibers (CF) attached to the upper surface of opposite cell ends to stretch cells. These studies showed that end-systolic force-length (FL) relation (ESFLR) is load independent. However, the range of applicable mechanical load using the conventional technique is limited because of weak cell-CF attachment. Therefore, the behavior of ESFLR in single cells under physiologically possible conditions of greater load is not yet well known. To cover wider loading range, we contrived a new method to hold cell-ends more firmly using two pairs of CF attached to both upper and bottom surfaces of cells. The new method allowed stretching cells to 2.2 μm or more in end-diastolic sarcomere length. ESFLR virtually behaves in a load independent manner only with end-diastolic sarcomere length less than 1.95 μm. It exhibited clear load dependency with higher preload, especially with low afterload conditions. Instantaneous cellular elastance curves showed that decreasing afterload enhanced relaxation and slowed time to peak elastance, as previously reported. A simulation study of a mathematical model with detailed description of thin filament activation suggested that velocity dependent thin filament inactivation is crucial for the observed load dependent behaviors and previously reported afterload dependent change in Ca(2+) transient shape. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of minimal length uncertainty on the mass-radius relation of white dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Arun; Nandy, Malay K.

    2018-06-01

    Generalized uncertainty relation that carries the imprint of quantum gravity introduces a minimal length scale into the description of space-time. It effectively changes the invariant measure of the phase space through a factor (1 + βp2) - 3 so that the equation of state for an electron gas undergoes a significant modification from the ideal case. It has been shown in the literature (Rashidi 2016) that the ideal Chandrasekhar limit ceases to exist when the modified equation of state due to the generalized uncertainty is taken into account. To assess the situation in a more complete fashion, we analyze in detail the mass-radius relation of Newtonian white dwarfs whose hydrostatic equilibria are governed by the equation of state of the degenerate relativistic electron gas subjected to the generalized uncertainty principle. As the constraint of minimal length imposes a severe restriction on the availability of high momentum states, it is speculated that the central Fermi momentum cannot have values arbitrarily higher than pmax ∼β - 1 / 2. When this restriction is imposed, it is found that the system approaches limiting mass values higher than the Chandrasekhar mass upon decreasing the parameter β to a value given by a legitimate upper bound. Instead, when the more realistic restriction due to inverse β-decay is considered, it is found that the mass and radius approach the values 1.4518 M⊙ and 601.18 km near the legitimate upper bound for the parameter β.

  9. Nectar sugar composition of European Caryophylloideae (Caryophyllaceae) in relation to flower length, pollination biology and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, T; Jürgens, A; Gottsberger, G

    2013-10-01

    Floral nectar composition has been explained as an adaptation to factors that are either directly or indirectly related to pollinator attraction. However, it is often unclear whether the sugar composition is a direct adaptation to pollinator preferences. Firstly, the lower osmolality of sucrose solutions means that they evaporate more rapidly than hexose solutions, which might be one reason why sucrose-rich nectar is typically found in flowers with long tubes (adapted to long-tongued pollinators), where it is better protected from evaporation than in open or short-tubed flowers. Secondly, it can be assumed that temperature-dependent evaporation is generally lower during the night than during the day so that selection pressure to secrete nectar with high osmolality (i.e. hexose-rich solutions) is relaxed for night-active flowers pollinated at night. Thirdly, the breeding system may affect selection pressure on nectar traits; that is, for pollinator-independent, self-pollinated plants, a lower selective pressure on nectar traits can be assumed, leading to a higher variability of nectar sugar composition independent of pollinator preferences, nectar accessibility and nectar protection. To analyse the relations between flower tube length, day vs. night pollination and self-pollination, the nectar sugar composition was investigated in 78 European Caryophylloideae (Caryophyllaceae) with different pollination modes (diurnal, nocturnal, self-pollination) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). All Caryophylleae species (Dianthus and relatives) were found to have nectar with more than 50% sucrose, whereas the sugar composition of Sileneae species (Silene and relatives) ranged from 0% to 98.2%. In the genus Silene, a clear dichotomous distribution of sucrose- and hexose-dominant nectars is evident. We found a positive correlation between the flower tube length and sucrose content in Caryophylloideae, particularly in day-flowering species, using both conventional

  10. Length of stay and associated costs of obesity related hospital admissions in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vellinga, Akke

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is the cause of other chronic diseases, psychological problems, obesity shortens the lifespan and puts strain on health systems. The risk associated with childhood obesity in particular, which will accelerate the development of adult morbidity and mortality, has been identified as an emerging public health problem. METHODS: To estimate the length of stay and associated hospital costs for obesity related illnesses a cost of illness study was set up. All discharges from all acute hospitals in the Republic of Ireland from 1997 to 2004 with a principal or secondary diagnostic code for obesity for all children from 6 to 18 years of age and for adults were collected.A discharge frequency was calculated by dividing obesity related discharges by the total number of diagnoses (principal and secondary) for each year. The hospital costs related to obesity was calculated based on the total number of days care. RESULTS: The discharge frequency of obesity related conditions increased from 1.14 in 1997 to 1.49 in 2004 for adults and from 0.81 to 1.37 for children. The relative length of stay (number of days in care for obesity related conditions per 1000 days of hospital care given) increased from 1.47 in 1997 to 4.16 in 2004 for children and from 3.68 in 1997 to 6.74 in 2004 for adults.Based on the 2001 figures for cost per inpatient bed day, the annual hospital cost was calculated to be 4.4 Euromillion in 1997, increasing to 13.3 Euromillion in 2004. At a 20% variable hospital cost the cost ranges from 0.9 Euromillion in 1997 to 2.7 Euromillion in 2004; a 200% increase. CONCLUSION: The annual increase in the proportion of hospital discharges related to obesity is alarming. This increase is related to a significant increase in economic costs. This paper emphasises the need for action at an early stage of life. Health promotion and primary prevention of obesity should be high on the political agenda.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC CAPABILITIES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS IN RELATION WITH LENGTH OF THEIR SPORTS ENGAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Cvetković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The general objective of this research is to determine how much influence the length of sports engagement has on anaerobic endurance of the football players, as well as on the maximum sprint ability of the players. In addition to the primary objective, the research seeks to determine the maximum power, minimum power, average power and fatigue index in players of cadet age group. Methods: The total sample of respondents in this study is made of 60 players of cadet age group (14-16 years of age, divided in relation to length of their sports engagement, into groups of up to 5 years (11 respondents, 6-7 years (21 respondents and from 8 to 10 years (28 respondents. The study used field RAST test. The RAST test was designed for sports where running is a basic form of movement. According to the protocol of the test respondents have ten minutes to warm up and five minutes to recover. That is followed by the performance of the test, which is composed of six 35-meter sprints at maximum speed. Between sprints respondent is allowed to pause for 10 seconds, intended primarily for turning and preparing for the next section. Based on the obtained time results from six 35-meter sprints, power is calculated for each run and then the following parameters are determined: maximum power (the highest value; minimum power (the lowest value ; average power (the sum of all six values/six and fatigue index which indicates the extent to which strength decreases for each respondent. This paper shall present a descriptive parameters, mean, standard deviation (SD, minimum and maximum of all values, the coefficient of variation (CV of confidence intervals, skewness as measure of asymmetry, kurtosis as measure of flatness and value of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Multivariate procedures MANOVA and discriminant analysis shall be used. Out of univariate procedures ANOVA t-test and Roy’s test shall be applied. Results: Results obtained by multivariate analysis of

  12. Comparison of relativity theories with observer-independent scales of both velocity and length/mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Benedetti, Dario; D'Andrea, Francesco; Procaccini, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    We consider the two most studied proposals of relativity theories with observer-independent scales of both velocity and length/mass: the one discussed by Amelino-Camelia as an illustrative example for the original proposal (Preprint gr-qc/0012051) of theories with two relativistic invariants, and an alternative more recently proposed by Magueijo and Smolin (Preprint hep-th/0112090). We show that these two relativistic theories are much more closely connected than it would appear on the basis of a naive analysis of their original formulations. In particular, in spite of adopting a rather different formal description of the deformed boost generators, they end up assigning the same dependence of momentum on rapidity, which can be described as the core feature of these relativistic theories. We show that this observation can be used to clarify the concepts of particle mass, particle velocity and energy-momentum conservation rules in these theories with two relativistic invariants

  13. Relation of Stump Length with Various Gait Parameters in Trans-tibial Amputee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyel Majumdar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is evaluating the impact of stump length of unilateral below knee amputees (BKA on different gait parameters. Nine unilateral BKA were chosen and divided into three groups comprising patients with short, medium, and long stump length. Each of them underwent gait analysis test by Computer Dynography (CDG system to measure the gait parameters. It was found that the ground reaction force is higher in the patients with medium stump length whereas the velocity, step length both for the prosthetic and sound limb and cadence were high in longer stump length. Statistical analysis shows a significant difference (p<0.05 between the gait parameters of BKA with medium and longer stump length. The patients with longer stump length were more efficient than medium and short stump patients as they consumed comparatively lesser energy while walking with self-selected velocity and conventional (Solid ankle cushioned heel SACH foot.

  14. Fine-mapping of qRL6.1, a major QTL for root length of rice seedlings grown under a wide range of NH4+ concentrations in hydroponic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Wataru; Ebitani, Takeshi; Yano, Masahiro; Sato, Tadashi; Yamaya, Tomoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Root system development is an important target for improving yield in cereal crops. Active root systems that can take up nutrients more efficiently are essential for enhancing grain yield. In this study, we attempted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in root system development by measuring root length of rice seedlings grown in hydroponic culture. Reliable growth conditions for estimating the root length were first established to renew nutrient solutions daily and supply NH4+ as a single nitrogen source. Thirty-eight chromosome segment substitution lines derived from a cross between ‘Koshihikari’, a japonica variety, and ‘Kasalath’, an indica variety, were used to detect QTL for seminal root length of seedlings grown in 5 or 500 μM NH4+. Eight chromosomal regions were found to be involved in root elongation. Among them, the most effective QTL was detected on a ‘Kasalath’ segment of SL-218, which was localized to the long-arm of chromosome 6. The ‘Kasalath’ allele at this QTL, qRL6.1, greatly promoted root elongation under all NH4+ concentrations tested. The genetic effect of this QTL was confirmed by analysis of the near-isogenic line (NIL) qRL6.1. The seminal root length of the NIL was 13.5–21.1% longer than that of ‘Koshihikari’ under different NH4+ concentrations. Toward our goal of applying qRL6.1 in a molecular breeding program to enhance rice yield, a candidate genomic region of qRL6.1 was delimited within a 337 kb region in the ‘Nipponbare’ genome by means of progeny testing of F2 plants/F3 lines derived from a cross between SL-218 and ‘Koshihikari’. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1328-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20390245

  15. Ethylene sensitivity and relative air humidity regulate root hydraulic properties in tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Polanco, Monica; Ibort, Pablo; Molina, Sonia; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Zamarreño, Angel María; García-Mina, Jose María; Aroca, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    The effect of ethylene and its precursor ACC on root hydraulic properties, including aquaporin expression and abundance, is modulated by relative air humidity and plant sensitivity to ethylene. Relative air humidity (RH) is a main factor contributing to water balance in plants. Ethylene (ET) is known to be involved in the regulation of root water uptake and stomatal opening although its role on plant water balance under different RH is not very well understood. We studied, at the physiological, hormonal and molecular levels (aquaporins expression, abundance and phosphorylation state), the plant responses to exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC; precursor of ET) and 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB; inhibitor of ET biosynthesis), after 24 h of application to the roots of tomato wild type (WT) plants and its ET-insensitive never ripe (nr) mutant, at two RH levels: regular (50%) and close to saturation RH. Highest RH induced an increase of root hydraulic conductivity (Lp o ) of non-treated WT plants, and the opposite effect in nr mutants. The treatment with ACC reduced Lp o in WT plants at low RH and in nr plants at high RH. The application of AIB increased Lp o only in nr plants at high RH. In untreated plants, the RH treatment changed the abundance and phosphorylation of aquaporins that affected differently both genotypes according to their ET sensitivity. We show that RH is critical in regulating root hydraulic properties, and that Lp o is affected by the plant sensitivity to ET, and possibly to ACC, by regulating aquaporins expression and their phosphorylation status. These results incorporate the relationship between RH and ET in the response of Lp o to environmental changes.

  16. The Long-Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    The length of parents. birth-related leave varies across countries and has been subject of some debate. I investigate the long-term e¤ects on children of increasing the length of parents.birth-related leave using a natural experiment from 1984 in Denmark when the leave length was increased from 14...... to 20 weeks. Regression discontinuity design is used to identify the causal e¤ect of the reform. A population sample of children born in 1984 and a dataset with PISA-2000 scores are used for the analysis. Results indicate that increasing parents. access to birth-related leave has no measurable e...

  17. Mapping of a Novel Race Specific Resistance Gene to Phytophthora Root Rot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) Using Bulked Segregant Analysis Combined with Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Chao, Juan; Cheng, Xueli; Wang, Rui; Sun, Baojuan; Wang, Hengming; Luo, Shaobo; Xu, Xiaowan; Wu, Tingquan; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici) is a serious limitation to pepper production in Southern China, with high temperature and humidity. Mapping PRR resistance genes can provide linked DNA markers for breeding PRR resistant varieties by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two BC1 populations and an F2 population derived from a cross between P. capsici-resistant accession, Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) and P. capsici-susceptible accession, New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399 (NMCA10399) were used to investigate the genetic characteristics of PRR resistance. PRR resistance to isolate Byl4 (race 3) was controlled by a single dominant gene, PhR10, that was mapped to an interval of 16.39Mb at the end of the long arm of chromosome 10. Integration of bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and Specific Length Amplified Fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) provided an efficient genetic mapping strategy. Ten polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers were found within this region and used to screen the genotypes of 636 BC1 plants, delimiting PhR10 to a 2.57 Mb interval between markers P52-11-21 (1.5 cM away) and P52-11-41 (1.1 cM). A total of 163 genes were annotated within this region and 31 were predicted to be associated with disease resistance. PhR10 is a novel race specific gene for PRR, and this paper describes linked SSR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of PRR resistant varieties, also laying a foundation for cloning the resistance gene.

  18. Mapping of a Novel Race Specific Resistance Gene to Phytophthora Root Rot of Pepper (Capsicum annuum Using Bulked Segregant Analysis Combined with Specific Length Amplified Fragment Sequencing Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Xu

    Full Text Available Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici is a serious limitation to pepper production in Southern China, with high temperature and humidity. Mapping PRR resistance genes can provide linked DNA markers for breeding PRR resistant varieties by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS. Two BC1 populations and an F2 population derived from a cross between P. capsici-resistant accession, Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334 and P. capsici-susceptible accession, New Mexico Capsicum Accession 10399 (NMCA10399 were used to investigate the genetic characteristics of PRR resistance. PRR resistance to isolate Byl4 (race 3 was controlled by a single dominant gene, PhR10, that was mapped to an interval of 16.39Mb at the end of the long arm of chromosome 10. Integration of bulked segregant analysis (BSA and Specific Length Amplified Fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq provided an efficient genetic mapping strategy. Ten polymorphic Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR markers were found within this region and used to screen the genotypes of 636 BC1 plants, delimiting PhR10 to a 2.57 Mb interval between markers P52-11-21 (1.5 cM away and P52-11-41 (1.1 cM. A total of 163 genes were annotated within this region and 31 were predicted to be associated with disease resistance. PhR10 is a novel race specific gene for PRR, and this paper describes linked SSR markers suitable for marker-assisted selection of PRR resistant varieties, also laying a foundation for cloning the resistance gene.

  19. Towards A New Approach For Arabic Root Extraction:Exploit Relations Between The Word Letters And Their Placement In The Word For Arabic Root Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Abu Hawas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a new root-extraction approach for Arabic words. The approach tries to assign for Arabic word a unique root without having a database of word roots, a list of words patterns or even a list of all the prefixes and the suffixes of the Arabic words. Unlike most of Arabic rule-based stemmers, it tries to predict the letters positions that may form the word root one by one using some rules based on the relations among the Arabic word letters and their placement in the word. This paper will focus on two parts of the approach. The first one deals with the rules that distinguish between the Arabic definite article “ال -AL” and the permanent component “ال -AL” that may found in any Arabic word. The second part of the approach adopts the segmentation of the word into three parts and classifies Arabic letters in to groups according to their positions in each segment. The proposed approach is a system composed of several modules that corporate together to extract the word root. The approach has been tested and evaluated using the Holy Quran words. The results of the evaluation show a promising root extraction algorithm.

  20. Relations between overturning length scales at the Spanish planetary boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pilar; Cano, José L.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the behavior of the maximum Thorpe displacement (dT)max and the Thorpe scale LTat the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), extending previous research with new data and improving our studies related to the novel use of the Thorpe method applied to ABL. The maximum Thorpe displacements vary between -900 m and 950 m for the different field campaigns. The maximum Thorpe displacement is always greater under convective conditions than under stable ones, independently of its sign. The Thorpe scale LT ranges between 0.2 m and 680 m for the different data sets which cover different stratified mixing conditions (turbulence shear-driven and convective regions). The Thorpe scale does not exceed several tens of meters under stable and neutral stratification conditions related to instantaneous density gradients. In contrast, under convective conditions, Thorpe scales are relatively large, they exceed hundreds of meters which may be related to convective bursts. We analyze the relation between (dT)max and the Thorpe scale LT and we deduce that they verify a power law. We also deduce that there is a difference in exponents of the power laws for convective conditions and shear-driven conditions. These different power laws could identify overturns created under different mechanisms. References Cuxart, J., Yagüe, C., Morales, G., Terradellas, E., Orbe, J., Calvo, J., Fernández, A., Soler, M., Infante, C., Buenestado, P., Espinalt, Joergensen, H., Rees, J., Vilà, J., Redondo, J., Cantalapiedra, I. and Conangla, L.: Stable atmospheric boundary-layer experiment in Spain (Sables 98). A report, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 96, 337-370, 2000. Dillon, T. M.: Vertical Overturns: A Comparison of Thorpe and Ozmidov Length Scales, J. Geophys. Res., 87(C12), 9601-9613, 1982. Itsweire, E. C.: Measurements of vertical overturns in stably stratified turbulent flow, Phys. Fluids, 27(4), 764-766, 1984. Kitade, Y., Matsuyama, M. and Yoshida, J.: Distribution of overturn induced by internal

  1. Abscisic Acid Accumulation by Roots of Xanthium strumarium L. and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in Relation to Water Stress 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Katrina; Zeevaart, Jan A. D.

    1985-01-01

    Plants of Xanthium strumarium L. and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv `Rheinlands Ruhm' were grown in solution culture, and control and steam-girdled intact plants were stressed. Detached roots of both species were stressed to different extents in two ways: (a) either in warm air or, (b) in the osmoticum Aquacide III. The roots of both species produced and accumulated progressively more abscisic acid (ABA), the greater the stress inflicted by either method. ABA-glucose ester levels in Xanthium roots were not affected by water stress and were too low to be the source of the stress-induced ABA. The fact that ABA accumulated in detached roots and in roots of girdled plants proves that ABA was synthesized in the roots and not merely transported from the shoots. Maximum ABA accumulation in detached roots occurred after 60 to 70% loss of fresh weight. In Xanthium roots, ABA levels continued to increase for at least 11 hours, and no catabolism was apparent when stressed roots were immersed in water, although the roots did stop accumulating ABA. When osmotically stressed, Xanthium roots reached a maximum ABA level after 2 hours, but ABA continued to rise in the medium. Under optimal stress conditions, endogenous ABA levels increased 100 times over their prestress values in detached roots of Xanthium, and 15 times in Lycopersicon under nonoptimal stress, when endogenous ABA was expressed as concentrations based on tissue water content. These are much greater relative increases than observed in the leaves (15 times in Xanthium, 3 times in Lycopersicon), although the roots contain substantially less ABA than the leaves in all circumstances. The results suggest that the endogenous level of ABA in roots could rise appreciably prior to leaf wilt, and could modify the plant's water economy before the leaves become stressed. PMID:16664467

  2. Abscisic Acid Accumulation by Roots of Xanthium strumarium L. and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. in Relation to Water Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, K; Zeevaart, J A

    1985-11-01

    Plants of Xanthium strumarium L. and Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv ;Rheinlands Ruhm' were grown in solution culture, and control and steam-girdled intact plants were stressed. Detached roots of both species were stressed to different extents in two ways: (a) either in warm air or, (b) in the osmoticum Aquacide III. The roots of both species produced and accumulated progressively more abscisic acid (ABA), the greater the stress inflicted by either method. ABA-glucose ester levels in Xanthium roots were not affected by water stress and were too low to be the source of the stress-induced ABA. The fact that ABA accumulated in detached roots and in roots of girdled plants proves that ABA was synthesized in the roots and not merely transported from the shoots.Maximum ABA accumulation in detached roots occurred after 60 to 70% loss of fresh weight. In Xanthium roots, ABA levels continued to increase for at least 11 hours, and no catabolism was apparent when stressed roots were immersed in water, although the roots did stop accumulating ABA. When osmotically stressed, Xanthium roots reached a maximum ABA level after 2 hours, but ABA continued to rise in the medium.Under optimal stress conditions, endogenous ABA levels increased 100 times over their prestress values in detached roots of Xanthium, and 15 times in Lycopersicon under nonoptimal stress, when endogenous ABA was expressed as concentrations based on tissue water content. These are much greater relative increases than observed in the leaves (15 times in Xanthium, 3 times in Lycopersicon), although the roots contain substantially less ABA than the leaves in all circumstances. The results suggest that the endogenous level of ABA in roots could rise appreciably prior to leaf wilt, and could modify the plant's water economy before the leaves become stressed.

  3. METODE RESET PASSWORD LEVEL ROOT PADA RELATIONAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (RDBMS MySQL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taqwa Hariguna

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Database merupakan sebuah hal yang penting untuk menyimpan data, dengan database organisasi akan mendapatkan keuntungan dalam beberapa hal, seperti kecepatan akases dan mengurangi penggunaan kertas, namun dengan implementasi database tidak jarang administrator database lupa akan password yang digunakan, hal ini akan mempersulit dalam proses penangganan database. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggali cara mereset password level root pada relational database management system MySQL.

  4. Modeling the length effect: Specifying the relation with visual and phonological correlates of reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boer, M.; de Jong, P.F.; Haentjens-van Meeteren, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Beginning readers' reading latencies increase as words become longer. This length effect is believed to be a marker of a serial reading process. We examined the effects of visual and phonological skills on the length effect. Participants were 184 second-grade children who read 3- to 5-letter words

  5. Root distribution pattern and their contribution in photosynthesis and biomass in Jerusalem artichoke under drought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puangbut, D.; Vorasoot, N.

    2018-01-01

    Root length density and rooting depth have been established as drought resistant traits and these could be used as selection criteria for drought resistant genotype in many plant species. However, information on deep rooting and the root distribution pattern of Jerusalem artichoke under drought conditions is not well documented in the literature. The objective of this study was to investigate the root distribution pattern in Jerusalem artichoke genotypes under irrigated and drought conditions. This experiment was conducted within a greenhouse using rhizoboxes. Three Jerusalem artichoke genotypes were tested under two water regimes (irrigated and drought). A 2 × 3 factorial experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications over two years. Data were recorded for root traits, photosynthesis and biomass at 30 days after imposing drought. The drought decreased root length, root surface area and root dry weight, while increased the root: shoot ratio, root distribution in the deeper soil and the percentage of root length at deeper in the soil, when compared to the irrigated conditions JA-5 and JA-60 showed high root length in the lower soil profile under drought conditions, indicating these genotypes could be identified as drought resistant genotype. The highest positive correlation was found between root length at deeper soil layer with relative water content (RWC), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and biomass. It is expected that selection of Jerusalem artichoke with high root length coupled with maintaining high RWC and their promotion to Pn could improve the biomass and tuber yield under drought conditions. (author)

  6. Linking root traits to nutrient foraging in arbuscular mycorrhizal trees in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenstat, David M; Kucharski, Joshua M; Zadworny, Marcin; Adams, Thomas S; Koide, Roger T

    2015-10-01

    The identification of plant functional traits that can be linked to ecosystem processes is of wide interest, especially for predicting vegetational responses to climate change. Root diameter of the finest absorptive roots may be one plant trait that has wide significance. Do species with relatively thick absorptive roots forage in nutrient-rich patches differently from species with relatively fine absorptive roots? We measured traits related to nutrient foraging (root morphology and architecture, root proliferation, and mycorrhizal colonization) across six coexisting arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) temperate tree species with and without nutrient addition. Root traits such as root diameter and specific root length were highly correlated with root branching intensity, with thin-root species having higher branching intensity than thick-root species. In both fertilized and unfertilized soil, species with thin absorptive roots and high branching intensity showed much greater root length and mass proliferation but lower mycorrhizal colonization than species with thick absorptive roots. Across all species, fertilization led to increased root proliferation and reduced mycorrhizal colonization. These results suggest that thin-root species forage more by root proliferation, whereas thick-root species forage more by mycorrhizal fungi. In mineral nutrient-rich patches, AM trees seem to forage more by proliferating roots than by mycorrhizal fungi. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Automated Root Tracking with "Root System Analyzer"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnepf, Andrea; Jin, Meina; Ockert, Charlotte; Bol, Roland; Leitner, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    identification number, the distance between branching point to the parent root base, the root length, the root radius and the nodes that belong to each individual root path. This information is relevant for the analysis of dynamic root system development as well as the parameterisation of root architecture models. Here, we show results of Root System Analyzer applied to analyse the root systems of wheat plants grown in rhizotrons. Different treatments with respect to soil moisture and apatite concentrations were used to test the effects of those conditions on root system development. Photographs of the root systems were taken at high spatial and temporal resolution and root systems are automatically tracked.

  8. Relative blood loss and operative time can predict length of stay following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, K; Thastum, M; Nørholt, S E; Blomlöf, J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the length of stay (LOS) following orthognathic surgery and thereby to establish a benchmark. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of postoperative LOS following orthognathic surgery. Patients were treated consecutively during the period 2010 to 2012. Inclusion criteria were (1) patient age ≥18 years, and (2) surgery involving a three-piece Le Fort I osteotomy, or a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO), or bimaxillary surgery. A total of 335 patients were included. The following data were recorded: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), age, sex, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and type of surgery. LOS was defined as the duration of time from date of surgery to date of discharge. The average LOS was 1.3 days following Le Fort I osteotomy, 1.3 days following BSSO, and 1.8 days following bimaxillary surgery. In the multivariate regression model (R(2)=0.11), predictors of a prolonged LOS were operative time (P<0.001) and relative blood loss (P=0.002). No significant effect of age, BMI, sex, or treatment on LOS was observed. The short duration of LOS found in this study supports the possibility of increasing outpatient pathways for selected patients. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic association among root morphology, root quality and root yield in ashwagandha (Withania somnifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Ramesh R.; Reddy Anjaneya Prasanna L.; Subbaiah Chinna J.; Kumar Niranjana A.; Prasad Nagendra H.N.; Bhukya Balakishan

    2011-01-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a dryland medicinal crop and roots are used as valuable drug in traditional systems of medicine. Morphological variants (morphotypes) and the parental populations were evaluated for root - morphometric, quality and yield traits to study genetic association among them. Root morphometric traits (root length, root diameter, number of secondary roots/ plant) and crude fiber content exhibited strong association among them and ...

  10. Select injury-related variables are affected by stride length and foot strike style during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-09-01

    Some frontal plane and transverse plane variables have been associated with running injury, but it is not known if they differ with foot strike style or as stride length is shortened. To identify if step width, iliotibial band strain and strain rate, positive and negative free moment, pelvic drop, hip adduction, knee internal rotation, and rearfoot eversion differ between habitual rearfoot and habitual mid-/forefoot strikers when running with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and a mid-/forefoot strike (FFS) at 3 stride lengths. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 42 healthy runners (21 habitual rearfoot, 21 habitual mid-/forefoot) ran overground at 3.35 m/s with both a RFS and a FFS at their preferred stride lengths and 5% and 10% shorter. Variables did not differ between habitual groups. Step width was 1.5 cm narrower for FFS, widening to 0.8 cm as stride length shortened. Iliotibial band strain and strain rate did not differ between foot strikes but decreased as stride length shortened (0.3% and 1.8%/s, respectively). Pelvic drop was reduced 0.7° for FFS compared with RFS, and both pelvic drop and hip adduction decreased as stride length shortened (0.8° and 1.5°, respectively). Peak knee internal rotation was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak rearfoot eversion was not different between foot strikes but decreased 0.6° as stride length shortened. Peak positive free moment (normalized to body weight [BW] and height [h]) was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak negative free moment was -0.0038 BW·m/h greater for FFS and decreased -0.0004 BW·m/h as stride length shortened. The small decreases in most variables as stride length shortened were likely associated with the concomitant wider step width. RFS had slightly greater pelvic drop, while FFS had slightly narrower step width and greater negative free moment. Shortening one's stride length may decrease or at least not increase propensity for running injuries based on the variables

  11. Root-Crown Relations of Young Sugar Maple and Yellow Birch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl H. Tubbs

    1977-01-01

    Young forest-grown sugar maple and yellow birch (1 to 6 inches d.b.h.) crowns were mapped and roots excavated. Crown dimensions were compared. Sugar maple roots usually terminated within a few feet of the crown perimeter. Yellow birch roots frequently terminated well outside crown perimeters and roots of birch were more irregularly distributed than those of maple....

  12. Study on the Workspace of a 6-DOF Parallel Topology Robot Related to Binary Link Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin-Octavian Miclosina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on the workspace of a parallel topology robot with the structure FP3+6•SPS+MP3. The variable parameters are the binary link lengths, from both upper and lower levels, and the driving kinematical joint strokes. The workspace boundary is determined by SolidWorks software simulations. For different binary link lengths, workspace volume is determined and sections through the workspace are presented.

  13. Plant iodine-131 uptake in relation to root concentration as measured in minirhizotron by video camera:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, K.J.

    1990-09-01

    Glass viewing tubes (minirhizotrons) were placed in the soil beneath native perennial bunchgrass (Agropyron spicatum). The tubes provided access for observing and quantifying plant roots with a miniature video camera and soil moisture estimates by neutron hydroprobe. The radiotracer I-131 was delivered to the root zone at three depths with differing root concentrations. The plant was subsequently sampled and analyzed for I-131. Plant uptake was greater when I-131 was applied at soil depths with higher root concentrations. When I-131 was applied at soil depths with lower root concentrations, plant uptake was less. However, the relationship between root concentration and plant uptake was not a direct one. When I-131 was delivered to deeper soil depths with low root concentrations, the quantity of roots there appeared to be less effective in uptake than the same quantity of roots at shallow soil depths with high root concentration. 29 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs

  14. Age-related declines and disease-associated variation in immune cell telomere length in a wild mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Beirne

    Full Text Available Immunosenescence, the deterioration of immune system capability with age, may play a key role in mediating age-related declines in whole-organism performance, but the mechanisms that underpin immunosenescence are poorly understood. Biomedical research on humans and laboratory models has documented age and disease related declines in the telomere lengths of leukocytes ('immune cells', stimulating interest their having a potentially general role in the emergence of immunosenescent phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether such observations generalise to the immune cell populations of wild vertebrates living under ecologically realistic conditions. Here we examine longitudinal changes in the mean telomere lengths of immune cells in wild European badgers (Meles meles. Our findings provide the first evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune cell telomere lengths in a wild vertebrate. That the rate of age-related decline in telomere length appears to be steeper within individuals than at the overall population level raises the possibility that individuals with short immune cell telomeres and/or higher rates of immune cell telomere attrition may be selectively lost from this population. We also report evidence suggestive of associations between immune cell telomere length and bovine tuberculosis infection status, with individuals detected at the most advanced stage of infection tending to have shorter immune cell telomeres than disease positive individuals. While male European badgers are larger and show higher rates of annual mortality than females, we found no evidence of a sex difference in either mean telomere length or the average rate of within-individual telomere attrition with age. Our findings lend support to the view that age-related declines in the telomere lengths of immune cells may provide one potentially general mechanism underpinning age-related declines in immunocompetence in natural populations.

  15. Genotypic Variation in Yield, Yield Components, Root Morphology and Architecture, in Soybean in Relation to Water and Phosphorus Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Jin, Yi; Du, Yan-Lei; Wang, Tao; Turner, Neil C.; Yang, Ru-Ping; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Li, Feng-Min

    2017-01-01

    Water shortage and low phosphorus (P) availability limit yields in soybean. Roots play important roles in water-limited and P-deficient environment, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study we determined the responses of four soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genotypes [Huandsedadou (HD), Bailudou (BLD), Jindou 21 (J21), and Zhonghuang 30 (ZH)] to three P levels [applied 0 (P0), 60 (P60), and 120 (P120) mg P kg-1 dry soil to the upper 0.4 m of the soil profile] and two water treatment [well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS)] with special reference to root morphology and architecture, we compared yield and its components, root morphology and root architecture to find out which variety and/or what kind of root architecture had high grain yield under P and drought stress. The results showed that water stress and low P, respectively, significantly reduced grain yield by 60 and 40%, daily water use by 66 and 31%, P accumulation by 40 and 80%, and N accumulation by 39 and 65%. The cultivar ZH with the lowest daily water use had the highest grain yield at P60 and P120 under drought. Increased root length was positively associated with N and P accumulation in both the WW and WS treatments, but not with grain yield under water and P deficits. However, in the WS treatment, high adventitious and lateral root densities were associated with high N and P uptake per unit root length which in turn was significantly and positively associated with grain yield. Our results suggest that (1) genetic variation of grain yield, daily water use, P and N accumulation, and root morphology and architecture were observed among the soybean cultivars and ZH had the best yield performance under P and water limited conditions; (2) water has a major influence on nutrient uptake and grain yield, while additional P supply can modestly increase yields under drought in some soybean genotypes; (3) while conserved water use plays an important role in grain yield under drought

  16. Experimental and modeling study on relation of pedestrian step length and frequency under different headways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guang; Cao, Shuchao; Liu, Chi; Song, Weiguo

    2018-06-01

    It is important to study pedestrian stepping behavior and characteristics for facility design and pedestrian flow study due to pedestrians' bipedal movement. In this paper, data of steps are extracted based on trajectories of pedestrians from a single-file experiment. It is found that step length and step frequency will decrease 75% and 33%, respectively, when global density increases from 0.46 ped/m to 2.28 ped/m. With the increment of headway, they will first increase and then remain constant when the headway is beyond 1.16 m and 0.91 m, respectively. Step length and frequency under different headways can be described well by normal distributions. Meanwhile, relationships between step length and frequency under different headways exist. Step frequency decreases with the increment of step length. However, the decrease tendencies depend on headways as a whole. And there are two decrease tendencies: when the headway is between about 0.6 m and 1.0 m, the decrease rate of the step frequency will increase with the increment of step length; while it will decrease when the headway is beyond about 1.0 m and below about 0.6 m. A model is built based on the experiment results. In fundamental diagrams, the results of simulation agree well with those of experiment. The study can be helpful for understanding pedestrian stepping behavior and designing public facilities.

  17. Return to work after lumbar disc surgery is related to the length of preoperative sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikkel Ø; Ernst, Carsten; Rasmussen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    % returned to work if surgically treated within three months. In contrast, only 50% of those whose sick leave exceeded three months returned to work. CONCLUSION: The present analysis suggests that the return-to-work rate after lumbar disc herniation surgery is affected by the length of sick leave. FUNDING......INTRODUCTION: Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is associated with high morbidity and significant socio-economic impact as the majority of the patients are of working age. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of length of sick leave on the return-to-work rate after lumbar disc...... herniation surgery. METHODS: This was a single-centre study of LDH patients who underwent surgery from 18 May 2009 through 28 November 2014. Data were collected prospectively from the DaneSpine database. Questions in DaneSpine include preoperative length of sick leave and working status one year post...

  18. Factors related to axial length elongation and myopia progression in orthokeratology practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjie Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate which baseline factors are predictive for axial length growth over an average period of 2.5 years in a group of children wearing orthokeratology (OK contact lenses.In this retrospective study, the clinical records of 249 new OK wearers between January 2012 and December 2013 from the contact lens clinic at the Eye and ENT Hospital of Fudan University were reviewed. The primary outcome measure was axial length change from baseline to the time of review (July-August 2015. Independent variables included baseline measures of age at initiation of OK wear, gender, refractive error (spherical equivalent, astigmatism, average keratometry, corneal toricity, central corneal thickness, white-to-white corneal diameter, pupil size, corneal topography eccentricity value (e-value, intraocular pressure (IOP and total time in follow-up (months total. The contributions of all independent variables on axial length change at the time of review were assessed using univariate and multivariable regression analyses.Univariate analyses of the right eyes of 249 OK patients showed that smaller increases in axial length were associated with older age at the onset of OK lens wear, greater baseline spherical equivalent myopic refractive error, less time in follow-up and a smaller e-value. Multivariable analyses of the significant right eye variables showed that the factors associated with smaller axial length growth were older age at the onset of OK lens wear (p<0.0001, greater baseline spherical equivalent myopic refractive error (p = 0.0046 and less time in follow-up (p<0.0001.The baseline factors demonstrating the greatest correlation with reduced axial length elongation during OK lens wear in myopic children included greater baseline spherical equivalent myopic refractive error and older age at the onset of OK lens wear.

  19. The K tree score: quantification of differences in the relative branch length and topology of phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Carrasco, Víctor; Talavera, Gerard; Igea, Javier; Castresana, Jose

    2007-11-01

    We introduce a new phylogenetic comparison method that measures overall differences in the relative branch length and topology of two phylogenetic trees. To do this, the algorithm first scales one of the trees to have a global divergence as similar as possible to the other tree. Then, the branch length distance, which takes differences in topology and branch lengths into account, is applied to the two trees. We thus obtain the minimum branch length distance or K tree score. Two trees with very different relative branch lengths get a high K score whereas two trees that follow a similar among-lineage rate variation get a low score, regardless of the overall rates in both trees. There are several applications of the K tree score, two of which are explained here in more detail. First, this score allows the evaluation of the performance of phylogenetic algorithms, not only with respect to their topological accuracy, but also with respect to the reproduction of a given branch length variation. In a second example, we show how the K score allows the selection of orthologous genes by choosing those that better follow the overall shape of a given reference tree. http://molevol.ibmb.csic.es/Ktreedist.html

  20. Root morphology, hydraulic conductivity and plant water relations of high-yielding rice grown under aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoichiro; Okami, Midori

    2011-09-01

    Increasing physical water scarcity is a major constraint for irrigated rice (Oryza sativa) production. 'Aerobic rice culture' aims to maximize yield per unit water input by growing plants in aerobic soil without flooding or puddling. The objective was to determine (a) the effect of water management on root morphology and hydraulic conductance, and (b) their roles in plant-water relationships and stomatal conductance in aerobic culture. Root system development, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and leaf water potential (Ψ(leaf)) were monitored in a high-yielding rice cultivar ('Takanari') under flooded and aerobic conditions at two soil moisture levels [nearly saturated (> -10 kPa) and mildly dry (> -30 kPa)] over 2 years. In an ancillary pot experiment, whole-plant hydraulic conductivity (soil-leaf hydraulic conductance; K(pa)) was measured under flooded and aerobic conditions. Adventitious root emergence and lateral root proliferation were restricted even under nearly saturated conditions, resulting in a 72-85 % reduction in total root length under aerobic culture conditions. Because of their reduced rooting size, plants grown under aerobic conditions tended to have lower K(pa) than plants grown under flooded conditions. Ψ(leaf) was always significantly lower in aerobic culture than in flooded culture, while g(s) was unchanged when the soil moisture was at around field capacity. g(s) was inevitably reduced when the soil water potential at 20-cm depth reached -20 kPa. Unstable performance of rice in water-saving cultivations is often associated with reduction in Ψ(leaf). Ψ(leaf) may reduce even if K(pa) is not significantly changed, but the lower Ψ(leaf) would certainly occur in case K(pa) reduces as a result of lower water-uptake capacity under aerobic conditions. Rice performance in aerobic culture might be improved through genetic manipulation that promotes lateral root branching and rhizogenesis as well as deep rooting.

  1. The Long-Term Effect on Children of Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    The length of parents' birth-related leave varies across countries and has been subject of some debate. In this paper, I will focus on some potential benefits of leave. I investigate the long-term effects on children of increasing the length of parents' birth-related leave using a natural...... experiment from 1984 in Denmark when the leave length was increased quite suddenly by almost 50% from 14 to 20 weeks. Regression discontinuity design is used to identify the causal effect of the leave reform and to estimate whether there is a measurable, persistent effect on children's cognitive...... and educational outcomes at ages 15 and 21. A population sample of Danish children born in the months around implementation of the reform and a dataset with Danish PISA-2000 scores are used for the analysis. Results indicate that increasing parents' access to birth-related leave has no measurable effect...

  2. Stuttering Frequency in Relation to Lexical Diversity, Syntactic Complexity, and Utterance Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagovich, Stacy A.; Hall, Nancy E.

    2018-01-01

    Children's frequency of stuttering can be affected by utterance length, syntactic complexity, and lexical content of language. Using a unique small-scale within-subjects design, this study explored whether language samples that contain more stuttering have (a) longer, (b) syntactically more complex, and (c) lexically more diverse utterances than…

  3. Oblique-Length Contraction Factor in the Special Theory of Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandache F.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper one generalizes the Lorentz Contraction Factor for the case when the lengths are moving at an oblique angle with respect to the motion direction. One shows that the angles of the moving relativistic objects are distorted.

  4. Aerodynamic resistance of spruce forest stand in relation to roughness length and airflow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hurtalová, T.; Matějka, F.; Rožnovský, J.; Janouš, Dalibor

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2003), s. 147-160 ISSN 1335-2806 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/03/1104 Keywords : aerodynamic resistance * spruce forest stand * roughness length Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  5. Alleviation of drought stress by mycorrhizas is related to increased root H2O2 efflux in trifoliate orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Ming; Zou, Ying-Ning; Wu, Qiang-Sheng

    2017-02-08

    The Non-invasive Micro-test Technique (NMT) is used to measure dynamic changes of specific ions/molecules non-invasively, but information about hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) fluxes in different classes of roots by mycorrhiza is scarce in terms of NMT. Effects of Funneliformis mosseae on plant growth, H 2 O 2 , superoxide radical (O 2 ·- ), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, and H 2 O 2 fluxes in the taproot (TR) and lateral roots (LRs) of trifoliate orange seedlings under well-watered (WW) and drought stress (DS) conditions were studied. DS strongly inhibited mycorrhizal colonization in the TR and LRs, whereas mycorrhizal inoculation significantly promoted plant growth and biomass production. H 2 O 2 , O 2 ·- , and MDA concentrations in leaves and roots were dramatically lower in mycorrhizal seedlings than in non-mycorrhizal seedlings under DS. Compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings, mycorrhizal seedlings had relatively higher net root H 2 O 2 effluxes in the TR and LRs especially under WW, as well as significantly higher total root H 2 O 2 effluxes in the TR and LRs under WW and DS. Total root H 2 O 2 effluxes were significantly positively correlated with root colonization but negatively with root H 2 O 2 and MDA concentrations. It suggested that mycorrhizas induces more H 2 O 2 effluxes of the TR and LRs, thus, alleviating oxidative damage of DS in the host plant.

  6. Effect of length of interval between cereal rye cover crop termination and corn planting on seedling root disease and corn growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereal rye cover crops terminated immediately before corn planting can sometimes reduce corn population, early growth, and yield. We hypothesized that cereal rye may act as a green bridge for corn pathogens and may increase corn seedling root disease. A field experiment was conducted over two years ...

  7. Prevalence of lattice degeneration and its relation to axial length in severe myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celorio, J M; Pruett, R C

    1991-01-15

    We studied 436 eyes of 218 patients with myopia of -6.00 diopters or more in both eyes. Of 218 patients, 72 (33.0%) had lattice degeneration of the retina. Among these 72 patients, lattice lesions were uniocular in 39 (54.2%) and binocular in 33 (45.8%). Of 105 males, 33 (31.4%) had lattice degeneration; of 113 females, 39 (34.5%) had lattice degeneration. Contrary to previously published data, we found an inverse relationship between axial length and the prevalence of lattice degeneration in severely myopic eyes. The greatest prevalence of lattice degeneration (63 of 154 eyes, 40.9%) was found in eyes with an axial length of 26.0 to 26.9 mm (-6.00 to -8.70 diopters), and the least prevalence of lattice degeneration (five of 71 eyes, 7.0%) was found in eyes with an axial length of 32.0 mm (-24.00 diopters) or greater. This may explain the observation that retinal detachment after cataract surgery has been noted more commonly among patients with moderate than severe myopia.

  8. Slow oscillation amplitudes and up-state lengths relate to memory improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik P J Heib

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of the active involvement of sleep in memory consolidation. Besides hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes and sleep spindles, slow oscillations appear to play a key role in the process of sleep-associated memory consolidation. Furthermore, slow oscillation amplitude and spectral power increase during the night after learning declarative and procedural memory tasks. However, it is unresolved whether learning-induced changes specifically alter characteristics of individual slow oscillations, such as the slow oscillation up-state length and amplitude, which are believed to be important for neuronal replay. 24 subjects (12 men aged between 20 and 30 years participated in a randomized, within-subject, multicenter study. Subjects slept on three occasions for a whole night in the sleep laboratory with full polysomnography. Whereas the first night only served for adaptation purposes, the two remaining nights were preceded by a declarative word-pair task or by a non-learning control task. Slow oscillations were detected in non-rapid eye movement sleep over electrode Fz. Results indicate positive correlations between the length of the up-state as well as the amplitude of both slow oscillation phases and changes in memory performance from pre to post sleep. We speculate that the prolonged slow oscillation up-state length might extend the timeframe for the transfer of initial hippocampal to long-term cortical memory representations, whereas the increase in slow oscillation amplitudes possibly reflects changes in the net synaptic strength of cortical networks.

  9. Relationship Between the Relative Age Effect and Lengths of Professional Careers in Male Japanese Baseball Players: a Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Hiroki

    2017-12-01

    The mechanisms underlying the relative age effect in sport events have been investigated for more than two decades. The present study focused on the relationship between the relative age effect and lengths of professional careers among professional male Japanese baseball players. The birth dates of players and lengths of professional careers were collected from an official publication, and data were divided into four quarters (Q1: April-June; Q2: July-September; Q3: October-December; Q4: January-March of the following year) grouped by 3 years. Based on the data for Q4, the expected numbers for the lengths of professional careers were calculated for Q1, Q2, and Q3. The number of players with professional careers of more than 19 years was significantly smaller in Q4 than in Q1, Q2, and Q3. The relative age effect among professional male Japanese baseball players was associated with the lengths of professional careers. Relative age appears to be a very important factor for the development of expertise among male Japanese baseball players and involves long-term disadvantages after becoming professional players.

  10. Root growth during molar eruption in extant great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jay; Dean, Christopher; Ross, Sasha

    2009-01-01

    While there is gradually accumulating knowledge about molar crown formation and the timing of molar eruption in extant great apes, very little is known about root formation during the eruption process. We measured mandibular first and second molar root lengths in extant great ape osteological specimens that died while either the first or second molars were in the process of erupting. For most specimens, teeth were removed so that root lengths could be measured directly. When this was not possible, roots were measured radiographically. We were particularly interested in the variation in the lengths of first molar roots near the point of gingival emergence, so specimens were divided into early, middle and late phases of eruption based on the number of cusps that showed protein staining, with one or two cusps stained equated with immediate post-gingival emergence. For first molars at this stage, Gorilla has the longest roots, followed by Pongo and Pan. Variation in first molar mesial root lengths at this stage in Gorilla and Pan, which comprise the largest samples, is relatively low and represents no more than a few months of growth in both taxa. Knowledge of root length at first molar emergence permits an assessment of the contribution of root growth toward differences between great apes and humans in the age at first molar emergence. Root growth makes up a greater percentage of the time between birth and first molar emergence in humans than it does in any of the great apes. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Incontinence after primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter tears is related to relative length of reconstructed external sphincter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norderval, S; Røssaak, K.; Markskog, A

    2012-01-01

    To determine if anatomic primary repair with end-to-end reconstruction of the external anal sphincter (EAS) in its full length combined with separate repair of coexisting internal anal sphincter (IAS) tear, when present, results in less incontinence and better anal sphincter integrity compared...

  12. Sex differences in relative foot length and perceived attractiveness of female feet: relationships among anthropometry, physique, and preference ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Fisher, Maryanne L; Rupp, Barbara; Lucas, Deanna; Fessler, Daniel M T

    2007-06-01

    Foot size proportionate to stature is smaller in women than in men, and small feet apparently contribute to perceived physical attractiveness of females. This exploratory study investigated the sex difference in relative foot length and interrelations among foot length, physique, and foot preference ratings in samples from Austria and Canada, each comprised of 75 men and 75 women. The findings included the following lines of evidence: the sex difference in relative foot length replicated in both data sets; the magnitude of this sex effect was large. Relative foot length was smaller in young, nulliparous, and slim women. Pointed-toe and high-heel shoes were more likely worn by smaller, lighter, and slimmer women. Men reported liking women's feet in general more than vice versa. A vast majority of both men and women favored small feet in women, but large feet in men. One's own foot size appeared to correspond to evaluations of attractiveness; particularly, women with small feet preferred small feet in women in general. The preference for small feet in women was convergent across different methods of evaluating attractiveness. Directions for investigations in this emerging field of research on physical attractiveness are discussed.

  13. Root porosity and radial oxygen loss related to arsenic tolerance and uptake in wetland plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Ye, Z.H.; Wei, Z.J.; Wong, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The rates of radial oxygen loss (ROL), root porosity, concentrations of arsenic (As), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in shoot and root tissues and on root surfaces, As tolerances, and their relationships in different wetland plants were investigated based on a hydroponic experiment (control, 0.8, 1.6 mg As L -1 ) and a soil pot trail (control, 60 mg As kg -1 ). The results revealed that wetland plants showed great differences in root porosity (9-64%), rates of ROL (55-1750 mmo1 O 2 kg -1 root d.w. d -1 ), As uptake (e.g., 8.8-151 mg kg -1 in shoots in 0.8 mg As L -1 treatment), translocation factor (2.1-47% in 0.8 mg As L -1 ) and tolerance (29-106% in 0.8 mg As L -1 ). Wetland plants with higher rates of ROL and root porosity tended to form more Fe/Mn plaque, possess higher As tolerance, higher concentrations of As on root surfaces and a lower As translocation factor so decreasing As toxicity. - Research highlights: → There is significant correlation between the porosity of roots and rates of ROL. → The rates of ROL are significantly correlated with tolerance indices and concentrations of As, Fe, Mn on root surface. → The rates of ROL is negatively correlated with As translocation factor. - Wetland plants with high rates of ROL tended to form more Fe plaque on root surfaces and possess higher As tolerance.

  14. Fiber Length of Calabrian Pine as Related to Position in Cross Section and Growing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim BEKTAS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a better understanding of the variation of growing regions and differences in distance from pith to bark on wood fiber lengths. For this aim, Calabrian pines collected from five different growth regions, namely Kahramanmaras, Burdur, Muğla, İzmir and Balıkesir, were used to determine fiber lengths. In experiment, specimens prepared from logs cross section which is taken from three different distances from pith to bark (r/6, 3r/6 and 5r/6 were evaluated. As a result of analysis, distance from pith in the same area have shown a significant effect on fiber dimensions. In the evaluation among the habitat, it was obtained that r/6 and 3r/6 have a significant effect (p<0.001, p<0.05 respectively on fiber dimensions, however; 5r/6 has a nonsignificant. The results showed that, the quite suitable habitat in terms of fiber lenghts is Balıkesir which has high sand (64.4%, moderate clay (24.2% and lime-poor (3.1% soils. These results will make a positive contribution undoubtedly for the plantations will be established in the future of this species.

  15. Root Effect Haemoglobins in Fish May Greatly Enhance General Oxygen Delivery Relative to Other Vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie L Rummer

    Full Text Available The teleost fishes represent over half of all extant vertebrates; they occupy nearly every body of water and in doing so, occupy a diverse array of environmental conditions. We propose that their success is related to a unique oxygen (O2 transport system involving their extremely pH-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb. A reduction in pH reduces both Hb-O2 affinity (Bohr effect and carrying capacity (Root effect. This, combined with a large arterial-venous pH change (ΔpHa-v relative to other vertebrates, may greatly enhance tissue oxygen delivery in teleosts (e.g., rainbow trout during stress, beyond that in mammals (e.g., human. We generated oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs at five different CO2 tensions for rainbow trout and determined that, when Hb-O2 saturation is 50% or greater, the change in oxygen partial pressure (ΔPO2 associated with ΔpHa-v can exceed that of the mammalian Bohr effect by at least 3-fold, but as much as 21-fold. Using known ΔpHa-v and assuming a constant arterial-venous PO2 difference (Pa-vO2, Root effect Hbs can enhance O2 release to the tissues by 73.5% in trout; whereas, the Bohr effect alone is responsible for enhancing O2 release by only 1.3% in humans. Disequilibrium states are likely operational in teleosts in vivo, and therefore the ΔpHa-v, and thus enhancement of O2 delivery, could be even larger. Modeling with known Pa-vO2 in fish during exercise and hypoxia indicates that O2 release from the Hb and therefore potentially tissue O2 delivery may double during exercise and triple during some levels of hypoxia. These characteristics may be central to performance of athletic fish species such as salmonids, but may indicate that general tissue oxygen delivery may have been the incipient function of Root effect Hbs in fish, a trait strongly associated with the adaptive radiation of teleosts.

  16. Responses of grapevine rootstocks to drought through altered root system architecture and root transcriptomic regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Kubilay; Yağcı, Adem; Sucu, Seda; Tunç, Sümeyye

    2018-06-01

    Roots are the major interface between the plant and various stress factors in the soil environment. Alteration of root system architecture (RSA) (root length, spread, number and length of lateral roots) in response to environmental changes is known to be an important strategy for plant adaptation and productivity. In light of ongoing climate changes and global warming predictions, the breeding of drought-tolerant grapevine cultivars is becoming a crucial factor for developing a sustainable viticulture. Root-trait modeling of grapevine rootstock for drought stress scenarios, together with high-throughput phenotyping and genotyping techniques, may provide a valuable background for breeding studies in viticulture. Here, tree grafted grapevine rootstocks (110R, 5BB and 41B) having differential RSA regulations and drought tolerance were investigated to define their drought dependent root characteristics. Root area, root length, ramification and number of root tips reduced less in 110R grafted grapevines compared to 5BB and 41B grafted ones during drought treatment. Root relative water content as well as total carbohydrate and nitrogen content were found to be much higher in the roots of 110R than it was in the roots of other rootstocks under drought. Microarray-based root transcriptome profiling was also conducted on the roots of these rootstocks to identify their gene regulation network behind drought-dependent RSA alterations. Transcriptome analysis revealed totally 2795, 1196 and 1612 differentially expressed transcripts at the severe drought for the roots of 110R, 5BB and 41B, respectively. According to this transcriptomic data, effective root elongation and enlargement performance of 110R were suggested to depend on three transcriptomic regulations. First one is the drought-dependent induction in sugar and protein transporters genes (SWEET and NRT1/PTR) in the roots of 110R to facilitate carbohydrate and nitrogen accumulation. In the roots of the same rootstock

  17. Arabidopsis MYB-Related HHO2 Exerts a Regulatory Influence on a Subset of Root Traits and Genes Governing Phosphate Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Vinay K; Satheesh, Viswanathan; Poling, Michael D; Raghothama, Kashchandra G; Jain, Ajay

    2016-06-01

    Phosphate (Pi), an essential macronutrient required for growth and development of plants, is often limiting in soils. Pi deficiency modulates the expression of Pi starvation-responsive (PSR) genes including transcription factors (TFs). Here, we elucidated the role of the MYB-related TF HYPERSENSITIVITY TO LOW PHOSPHATE-ELICITED PRIMARY ROOT SHORTENING1 HOMOLOG2 (HHO2, At1g68670) in regulating Pi acquisition and signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana HHO2 was specifically and significantly induced in different tissues in response to Pi deprivation. Transgenic seedlings expressing 35S::GFP::HHO2 confirmed the localization of HHO2 to the nucleus. Knockout mutants of HHO2 showed significant reduction in number and length of first- and higher-order lateral roots and Pi content of different tissues compared with the wild-type irrespective of the Pi regime. In contrast, HHO2-overexpressing lines exhibited augmented lateral root development, enhanced Pi uptake rate and higher Pi content in leaf compared with the wild-type. Expression levels of PSR genes involved in Pi sensing and signaling in mutants and overexpressors were differentially regulated as compared with the wild-type. Attenuation in the expression of HHO2 in the phr1 mutant suggested a likely influence of PHR1 in HHO2-mediated regulation of a subset of traits governing Pi homeostasis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Influence of high latitude light conditions on sensory quality and contents of health and sensory-related compounds in swede roots (Brassica napus L. ssp. rapifera Metzg.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølmann, Jørgen Ab; Hagen, Sidsel Fiskaa; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Johansen, Tor J

    2018-02-01

    Vegetable growers in Arctic areas must increasingly rely on market strategies based on regional origin and product quality. Swede roots (rutabaga) were grown in a phytotron to investigate the effect of high latitude light conditions on sensory quality and some health and sensory-related compounds. Experimental treatments included modifications of 24 h natural day length (69° 39' N) by moving plants at daily intervals to dark chambers with either no light, fluorescent growth light and/or low intensity photoperiod extension. Shortening the photosynthetic light period to 12 h produced smaller roots than 15.7 h and 18 h, with highest scores for bitter and sulfur taste, and lowest scores for sweetness, acidic taste and fibrousness. The photoperiod in combination with the photosynthetic light period also had an influence on glucosinolate (GLS) contents, with lowest concentrations in 24 h natural light and highest in 12 h natural light. Concentrations of vitamin C, glucose, fructose and sucrose were not significantly influenced by any of the treatments. High latitude light conditions, with long photosynthetic light periods and 24 h photoperiod, can enhance sweet/less bitter taste and reduce GLS contents in swede roots, compared to growth under short day conditions. This influence of light conditions on eating quality may benefit marketing of regional products from high latitudes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. [Effects nutrients on the seedlings root hair development and root growth of Poncirus trifoliata under hydroponics condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiu; Xia, Ren-Xue; Zhang, De-Jian; Shu, Bo

    2013-06-01

    Ahydroponics experiment was conducted to study the effects of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn) deficiency on the length of primary root, the number of lateral roots, and the root hair density, length, and diameter on the primary root and lateral roots of Poncirus trifoliata seedlings. Under the deficiency of each test nutrient, root hair could generate, but was mainly concentrated on the root base and fewer on the root tip. The root hair density on lateral roots was significantly larger than that on primary root, but the root hair length was in adverse. The deficiency of each test nutrient had greater effects on the growth and development of root hairs, with the root hair density on primary root varied from 55.0 to 174.3 mm(-2). As compared with the control, Ca deficiency induced the significant increase of root hair density and length on primary root, P deficiency promoted the root hair density and length on the base and middle part of primary root and on the lateral roots significantly, Fe deficiency increased the root hair density but decreased the root hair length on the tip of primary root significantly, K deficiency significantly decreased the root hair density, length, and diameter on primary root and lateral roots, whereas Mg deficiency increased the root hair length of primary root significantly. In all treatments of nutrient deficiency, the primary root had the similar growth rate, but, with the exceptions of N and Mg deficiency, the lateral roots exhibited shedding and regeneration.

  20. Relationships between root respiration rate and root morphology, chemistry and anatomy in Larix gmelinii and Fraxinus mandshurica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuxia; McLaughlin, Neil B; Gu, Jiacun; Li, Xingpeng; Wang, Zhengquan

    2013-06-01

    Tree roots are highly heterogeneous in form and function. Previous studies revealed that fine root respiration was related to root morphology, tissue nitrogen (N) concentration and temperature, and varied with both soil depth and season. The underlying mechanisms governing the relationship between root respiration and root morphology, chemistry and anatomy along the root branch order have not been addressed. Here, we examined these relationships of the first- to fifth-order roots for near surface roots (0-10 cm) of 22-year-old larch (Larix gmelinii L.) and ash (Fraxinus mandshurica L.) plantations. Root respiration rate at 18 °C was measured by gas phase O2 electrodes across the first five branching order roots (the distal roots numbered as first order) at three times of the year. Root parameters of root diameter, specific root length (SRL), tissue N concentration, total non-structural carbohydrates (starch and soluble sugar) concentration (TNC), cortical thickness and stele diameter were also measured concurrently. With increasing root order, root diameter, TNC and the ratio of root TNC to tissue N concentration increased, while the SRL, tissue N concentration and cortical proportion decreased. Root respiration rate also monotonically decreased with increasing root order in both species. Cortical tissue (including exodermis, cortical parenchyma and endodermis) was present in the first three order roots, and cross sections of the cortex for the first-order root accounted for 68% (larch) and 86% (ash) of the total cross section of the root. Root respiration was closely related to root traits such as diameter, SRL, tissue N concentration, root TNC : tissue N ratio and stele-to-root diameter proportion among the first five orders, which explained up to 81-94% of variation in the rate of root respiration for larch and up to 83-93% for ash. These results suggest that the systematic variations of root respiration rate within tree fine root system are possibly due to the

  1. RELATIONS AMONG WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM RESISTANCE TRAITS AND ELEMENTS CONCENTRATION IN MAIZE GERMPLASM ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Brkić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Western corn rootworm – WCR (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is an important maize pest in Croatia. Using native resistance of maize germplasm could reduce chemical treatments and other costs in maize production. Objectives of this study were: i to assess variability of WCR resistance traits (root injury, regrowth and size and concentrations of nine elements in roots of 128 maize genotypes, and ii to determine correlations among the traits and ion concentrations. Results revealed high variability of maize genotypes for both WCR resistance traits and ion concentrations. Significant moderate negative correlations (>-0.4 were detected between root injury and boron as well as between root regrowth and iron, manganese and zinc concentrations in root. Consequently, ion concentration in maize roots might have an impact on WCR resistance research.

  2. Phylogenetic rooting using minimal ancestor deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tria, Fernando Domingues Kümmel; Landan, Giddy; Dagan, Tal

    2017-06-19

    Ancestor-descendent relations play a cardinal role in evolutionary theory. Those relations are determined by rooting phylogenetic trees. Existing rooting methods are hampered by evolutionary rate heterogeneity or the unavailability of auxiliary phylogenetic information. Here we present a rooting approach, the minimal ancestor deviation (MAD) method, which accommodates heterotachy by using all pairwise topological and metric information in unrooted trees. We demonstrate the performance of the method, in comparison to existing rooting methods, by the analysis of phylogenies from eukaryotes and prokaryotes. MAD correctly recovers the known root of eukaryotes and uncovers evidence for the origin of cyanobacteria in the ocean. MAD is more robust and consistent than existing methods, provides measures of the root inference quality and is applicable to any tree with branch lengths.

  3. Root development during soil genesis: effects of root-root interactions, mycorrhizae, and substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, A.; Zaharescu, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    A major driver of soil formation is the colonization and transformation of rock by plants and associated microbiota. In turn, substrate chemical composition can also influence the capacity for plant colonization and development. In order to better define these relationships, a mesocosm study was set up to analyze the effect mycorrhizal fungi, plant density and rock have on root development, and to determine the effect of root morphology on weathering and soil formation. We hypothesized that plant-plant and plant-fungi interactions have a stronger influence on root architecture and rock weathering than the substrate composition alone. Buffalo grass (Bouteloua dactyloides) was grown in a controlled environment in columns filled with either granular granite, schist, rhyolite or basalt. Each substrate was given two different treatments, including grass-microbes and grass-microbes-mycorrhizae and incubated for 120, 240, and 480 days. Columns were then extracted and analyzed for root morphology, fine fraction, and pore water major element content. Preliminary results showed that plants produced more biomass in rhyolite, followed by schist, basalt, and granite, indicating that substrate composition is an important driver of root development. In support of our hypothesis, mycorrhizae was a strong driver of root development by stimulating length growth, biomass production, and branching. However, average root length and branching also appeared to decrease in response to high plant density, though this trend was only present among roots with mycorrhizal fungi. Interestingly, fine fraction production was negatively correlated with average root thickness and volume. There is also slight evidence indicating that fine fraction production is more related to substrate composition than root morphology, though this data needs to be further analyzed. Our hope is that the results of this study can one day be applied to agricultural research in order to promote the production of crops

  4. Length of Residence and Vehicle Ownership in Relation to Physical Activity Among U.S. Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Dale; Ornelas, India; Saelens, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Physical activity among U.S. immigrants over time is not well understood. Transportation may affect this trajectory. Using a survey of documented immigrants (N = 7240), we performed simple, then multivariable logistic regression to calculate ORs and 95 % CIs between length of residence (LOR) and both light-to-moderate (LPA) and vigorous (VPA) activity. We adjusted for demographic variables, then vehicle ownership to assess changes in ORs. Compared to new arrivals, all four LOR time-intervals were associated with lower odds of LPA and higher odds of VPA in simple analysis. All ORs for LPA remained significant after including demographics, but only one remained significant after adding vehicle ownership. Two ORs for VPA remained significant after including demographics and after adding vehicle ownership. Immigrants lower their light-to-moderate activity the longer they reside in the U.S., partly from substituting driving for walking. Efforts to maintain walking for transportation among immigrants are warranted.

  5. Nursing dependency, diagnosis-related groups, and length of hospital stay

    OpenAIRE

    Halloran, Edward J.; Kiley, Marylou

    1987-01-01

    Most efforts to modify the diagnosis-related group (DRG) case classification system focus on variables related to medical management. In this study, we investigated the separate but related natures of medicine and nursing by examining 1,288 adult medical and surgical patients in an urban teaching hospital. The complexity of medical treatment was measured by use of the DRG relative cost weight. The nursing indicator was derived from a set of nursing diagnoses. We found that the DRG cost weight...

  6. Oral cutaneous sinus tract, vertical root fracture, and bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigler, Ronald; Steinbock, Nelly; Berg, Tal

    2013-08-01

    Oral cutaneous sinus tracts (OCSTs) of dental origin are often initially misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated. Accurate diagnosis is especially important in cases of bisphosphonate (BP) therapy because extraction may lead to a risk of osteonecrosis. A case report of misdiagnosis related to a tooth with a vertical root fracture in an oncologic patient treated with BPs is reported here. In 2011, a 75-year-old woman was examined at the oral medicine clinic because of pain and swelling of the left submandibular area. The patient's medical history included oral and intravenous BP therapy because she was diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer and left maxillary stage 1 antiresorptive agent-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw. The lower left odontogenic region showed no signs or symptoms, and no apical pathosis was observed on imaging. Although antibiotics were applied, clinical symptoms worsened and an OCST appeared. Intravenous antibiotic treatment was pursued. Biopsy and direct smear from fistula were not conclusive. A diagnosis of a nonexposed variant of stage 3 antiresorptive agent-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw was established. Symptoms resolved after 2 weeks of antibiotic treatment and reappeared a month later. Endodontic examination revealed that the origin of the OCST was tooth no. 18 caused by a vertical root fracture, and the tooth was extracted. The patient was scheduled for routine checkups because of the fact that osteonecrosis may occur in intravenous BP-treated patients. Early correct diagnosis can prevent unnecessary and ineffective antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention, which is not recommended in intravenous BP cases. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Localization of root canal orifices in mandibular second molars in relation to occlusal dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorduysus, O; Nagas, E; Cehreli, Z C; Gorduysus, M; Yilmaz, Z

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the localization and distribution of canal orifices of mandibular second molar teeth in relation to the mesio-distal and bucco-lingual dimensions of coronal tissue. Fifty extracted mandibular second molar teeth were embedded into plaster blocks with their vertical axes aligned perpendicular to the horizontal plane. The teeth were photographed digitally from the occlusal aspect under 12 x magnification. Thereafter, the occlusal halves of crowns were sectioned off to expose the root canal orifices. The teeth were than photographed under the same magnification, after which the pre- and post-sectioning images of each specimen were stacked into a single file. To plot the coordinate of each canal orifice, a 0.5-mm grid analytical plane was mounted digitally on the stack so that the x- and y-axes of the plane were superimposed on the mesiodistal and buccolingual axes (bisectors) of the tooth crowns. Localization and distribution of the coordinates of the canal orifices were evaluated using the chi-square test (P = 0.05). Only one tooth displayed a single root canal orifice, located in the mesiobuccal-distolingual 'centre' of the occlusal surface. The majority of mandibular second molars had three orifices (72%), followed by those with two (16%) and four (10%). The distal canal was located lingual to the centre of the occlusal plane. The distal canal was located lingual to the centre of the occlusal plane of mandibular second molars. The possibility of observing more divergent localizations and orifice numbers should not be overlooked in clinical practice.

  8. Do Telomeres Adapt to Physiological Stress? Exploring the Effect of Exercise on Telomere Length and Telomere-Related Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Ludlow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a tissue degeneration phenotype marked by a loss of tissue regenerative capacity. Regenerative capacity is dictated by environmental and genetic factors that govern the balance between damage and repair. The age-associated changes in the ability of tissues to replace lost or damaged cells is partly the cause of many age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and sarcopenia. A well-established marker of the aging process is the length of the protective cap at the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres. Telomeres shorten with each cell division and with increasing chronological age and short telomeres have been associated with a range of age-related diseases. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to exercise (i.e., exercise training is associated with telomere length maintenance; however, recent evidence points out several controversial issues concerning tissue-specific telomere length responses. The goals of the review are to familiarize the reader with the current telomere dogma, review the literature exploring the interactions of exercise with telomere phenotypes, discuss the mechanistic research relating telomere dynamics to exercise stimuli, and finally propose future directions for work related to telomeres and physiological stress.

  9. The Electromagnetic Conception of Nature at the Root of the Special and General Relativity Theories and Its Revolutionary Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetto, Enrico R. A.

    2009-01-01

    The revolution in XX century physics, induced by relativity theories, had its roots within the electromagnetic conception of Nature. It was developed through a tradition related to Brunian and Leibnizian physics, to the German "Naturphilosophie" and English XIXth physics. The electromagnetic conception of Nature was in some way realized by the…

  10. Study of flow profile distortions and efficiency in counter pressure moderated partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography in relation to the relative buffer zone lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalke, Daniela; Welsch, Thomas

    2002-06-25

    The influence of the relative buffer zone lengths on the efficiency was investigated in partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography using sodium dodecyl sulfate as separation additive. Varying relative zone lengths were obtained by applying identical initial separation zone lengths but different total lengths of the capillaries. Plate numbers of a homologous series of omega-phenylalcohols were measured to indicate the effect of both a changing relative zone length during the run and a counter pressure applied on the cathodic buffer reservoir. The magnitude and the course of these plate numbers are discussed on the basis of models for flow profile superposition and flow profile deformation which are caused by an intersegmental pressure arising at the boundary between the two buffer zones with different electroosmotic flow velocities. Calculation of the intersegmental pressure and of the resulting laminar flow components in the buffer zones on the basis of some equations for electroosmotic and hydrodynamic flow supported the interpretation that a long background buffer zone should be avoided

  11. Quantitative analysis of cone photoreceptor distribution and its relationship with axial length, age, and early age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Obata

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: It has not been clarified whether early age-related macular degeneration (AMD is associated with cone photoreceptor distribution. We used adaptive optics fundus camera to examine cone photoreceptors in the macular area of aged patients and quantitatively analyzed its relationship between the presence of early AMD and cone distribution. METHODS: Sixty cases aged 50 or older were studied. The eyes were examined with funduscopy and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to exclude the eyes with any abnormalities at two sites of measurement, 2° superior and 5° temporal to the fovea. High-resolution retinal images with cone photoreceptor mosaic were obtained with adaptive optics fundus camera (rtx1, Imagine Eyes, France. After adjusting for axial length, cone packing density was calculated and the relationship with age, axial length, or severity of early AMD based on the age-related eye disease study (AREDS classification was analyzed. RESULTS: Patient's age ranged from 50 to 77, and axial length from 21.7 to 27.5 mm. Mean density in metric units and that in angular units were 24,900 cells/mm2, 2,170 cells/deg2 at 2° superior, and 18,500 cells/mm2, 1,570 cels/deg2 at 5° temporal, respectively. Axial length was significantly correlated with the density calculated in metric units, but not with that in angular units. Age was significantly correlated with the density both in metric and angular units at 2° superior. There was no significant difference in the density in metric and angular units between the eyes with AREDS category one and those with categories two or three. CONCLUSION: Axial length and age were significantly correlated with parafoveal cone photoreceptor distribution. The results do not support that early AMD might influence cone photoreceptor density in the area without drusen or pigment abnormalities.

  12. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  13. A New Empirical Relation between Surface Wave Magnitude and Rupture Length for Turkey Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many practical problems encountered in quantitative oriented disciplines entail finding the best approximate solution to an over determined system of linear equations. In this study, it is investigated the usage of different regression methods as a theoretical, practical and correct estimation tool in order to obtain the best empirical relationship between surface wave magnitude and rupture length for Turkey earthquakes. For this purpose, a detailed comparison is made among four different regression norms: (1 Least Squares, (2 Least Sum of Absolute Deviations, (3 Total Least Squares or Orthogonal and, (4 Robust Regressions. In order to assess the quality of the fit in a linear regression and to select the best empirical relationship for data sets, the correlation coefficient as a quite simple and very practicable tool is used. A list of all earthquakes where the surface wave magnitude (Ms and surface rupture length (L are available is compiled. In order to estimate the empirical relationships between these parameters for Turkey earthquakes, log-linear fit is used and following equations are derived from different norms: for L2 Norm regression (R2=0.71, for L1 Norm regression (R2=0.92, for Robust regression (R2=0.75, for Orthogonal regression (R2=0.68,                            Consequently, the empirical equation given by the Least Sum of Absolute Deviations regression as  with a strong correlation coefficient (R2=0.92 can be thought as more suitable and more reliable for Turkey earthquakes. Also, local differences in rupture length for a given magnitude can be interpreted in terms of local variation in geologic and seismic efficiencies.  Furthermore, this result suggests that seismic efficiency in a region is dependent on rupture length or magnitude.    Resumen Muchos problemas prácticos encontrados en las disciplinas de orientación cuantitativa implican encontrar la mejor solución aproximada para un sistema

  14. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter in relation to root yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Cassava an important staple food is grown both in upland and inland valley in the tropics. A trial to ... high dry matter also produce high leaf area index and root yield ..... Proportion (%) of DM accumulated in root stock.

  15. Trade-offs in relative limb length among Peruvian children: extending the thrifty phenotype hypothesis to limb proportions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Pomeroy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Both the concept of 'brain-sparing' growth and associations between relative lower limb length, childhood environment and adult disease risk are well established. Furthermore, tibia length is suggested to be particularly plastic under conditions of environmental stress. The mechanisms responsible are uncertain, but three hypotheses may be relevant. The 'thrifty phenotype' assumes that some components of growth are selectively sacrificed to preserve more critical outcomes, like the brain. The 'distal blood flow' hypothesis assumes that blood nutrients decline with distance from the heart, and hence may affect limbs in relation to basic body geometry. Temperature adaptation predicts a gradient of decreased size along the limbs reflecting decreasing tissue temperature/blood flow. We examined these questions by comparing the size of body segments among Peruvian children born and raised in differentially stressful environments. In a cross-sectional sample of children aged 6 months to 14 years (n = 447 we measured head circumference, head-trunk height, total upper and lower limb lengths, and zeugopod (ulna and tibia and autopod (hand and foot lengths. RESULTS: Highland children (exposed to greater stress had significantly shorter limbs and zeugopod and autopod elements than lowland children, while differences in head-trunk height were smaller. Zeugopod elements appeared most sensitive to environmental conditions, as they were relatively shorter among highland children than their respective autopod elements. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that functional traits (hand, foot, and head may be partially protected at the expense of the tibia and ulna. The results do not fit the predictions of the distal blood flow and temperature adaptation models as explanations for relative limb segment growth under stress conditions. Rather, our data support the extension of the thrifty phenotype hypothesis to limb growth, and suggest that

  16. High-Resolution Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Typing of Lactococcus lactis Strains Enables Identification of Genetic Markers for Subspecies-Related Phenotypes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kütahya, Oylum Erkus; Starrenburg, Marjo J. C.; Rademaker, Jan L. W.; Klaassen, Corné H. W.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E. T.; Smid, Eddy J.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2011-01-01

    A high-resolution amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) methodology was developed to achieve the delineation of closely related Lactococcus lactis strains. The differentiation depth of 24 enzyme-primer-nucleotide combinations was experimentally evaluated to maximize the number of polymorphisms. The resolution depth was confirmed by performing diversity analysis on 82 L. lactis strains, including both closely and distantly related strains with dairy and nondairy origins. Strains clustered into two main genomic lineages of L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris type-strain-like genotypes and a third novel genomic lineage rooted from the L. lactis subsp. lactis genomic lineage. Cluster differentiation was highly correlated with small-subunit rRNA homology and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) studies. Additionally, the selected enzyme-primer combination generated L. lactis subsp. cremoris phenotype-specific fragments irrespective of the genotype. These phenotype-specific markers allowed the differentiation of L. lactis subsp. lactis phenotype from L. lactis subsp. cremoris phenotype strains within the same L. lactis subsp. cremoris type-strain-like genomic lineage, illustrating the potential of AFLP for the generation of phenotype-linked genetic markers. PMID:21666014

  17. Root porosity and radial oxygen loss related to arsenic tolerance and uptake in wetland plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Ye, Z.H., E-mail: lssyzhh@mail.sysu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wei, Z.J. [School of Information and Technology, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wong, M.H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.h [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2011-01-15

    The rates of radial oxygen loss (ROL), root porosity, concentrations of arsenic (As), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) in shoot and root tissues and on root surfaces, As tolerances, and their relationships in different wetland plants were investigated based on a hydroponic experiment (control, 0.8, 1.6 mg As L{sup -1}) and a soil pot trail (control, 60 mg As kg{sup -1}). The results revealed that wetland plants showed great differences in root porosity (9-64%), rates of ROL (55-1750 mmo1 O{sub 2} kg{sup -1} root d.w. d{sup -1}), As uptake (e.g., 8.8-151 mg kg{sup -1} in shoots in 0.8 mg As L{sup -1} treatment), translocation factor (2.1-47% in 0.8 mg As L{sup -1}) and tolerance (29-106% in 0.8 mg As L{sup -1}). Wetland plants with higher rates of ROL and root porosity tended to form more Fe/Mn plaque, possess higher As tolerance, higher concentrations of As on root surfaces and a lower As translocation factor so decreasing As toxicity. - Research highlights: There is significant correlation between the porosity of roots and rates of ROL. The rates of ROL are significantly correlated with tolerance indices and concentrations of As, Fe, Mn on root surface. The rates of ROL is negatively correlated with As translocation factor. - Wetland plants with high rates of ROL tended to form more Fe plaque on root surfaces and possess higher As tolerance.

  18. Complementarity in nutrient foraging strategies of absorptive fine roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi across 14 coexisting subtropical tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bitao; Li, Hongbo; Zhu, Biao; Koide, Roger T; Eissenstat, David M; Guo, Dali

    2015-10-01

    In most cases, both roots and mycorrhizal fungi are needed for plant nutrient foraging. Frequently, the colonization of roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi seems to be greater in species with thick and sparsely branched roots than in species with thin and densely branched roots. Yet, whether a complementarity exists between roots and mycorrhizal fungi across these two types of root system remains unclear. We measured traits related to nutrient foraging (root morphology, architecture and proliferation, AM colonization and extramatrical hyphal length) across 14 coexisting AM subtropical tree species following root pruning and nutrient addition treatments. After root pruning, species with thinner roots showed more root growth, but lower mycorrhizal colonization, than species with thicker roots. Under multi-nutrient (NPK) addition, root growth increased, but mycorrhizal colonization decreased significantly, whereas no significant changes were found under nitrogen or phosphate additions. Moreover, root length proliferation was mainly achieved by altering root architecture, but not root morphology. Thin-root species seem to forage nutrients mainly via roots, whereas thick-root species rely more on mycorrhizal fungi. In addition, the reliance on mycorrhizal fungi was reduced by nutrient additions across all species. These findings highlight complementary strategies for nutrient foraging across coexisting species with contrasting root traits. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Effects of clodronate on early alveolar bone remodeling and root resorption related to orthodontic forces: a histomorphometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Josefina; Baek, Seung-Hak; Lee, Jae-Il; Chang, Young-Il

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the short-term effects of clodronate, a first-generation bisphosphonate, on early alveolar bone remodeling and root resorption related to orthodontic tooth movement. The samples consisted of 54 sex-matched Wistar rats (weight, 180-230 g) allocated to the 2.5 mmol/L clodronate, 10 mmol/L clodronate, and control groups (n = 18 for each group). After application of a nickel-titanium closed-coil spring (force, 60 g) between the maxillary central incisor and first molar, 2.5 mmol/L of clodronate, 10 mmol/L of clodronate, or saline solution was injected into the subperiosteum adjacent to the maxillary first molar every third day. All animals received tetracycline, calcein, and alizarin red by intraperitoneal injection at 1, 6, and 14 days, respectively. The amounts of tooth movement were measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days. The animals were killed at 4, 7, and 17 days. Histomorphometric analyses of bone mineral appositional rate, labeled surface, percentage of root resorption area, and number of root resorption lacunae of the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary first molar at 4, 7, and 17 days were done. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the post-hoc test were done for statistical analyses. Rats in the 10 mmol/L clodronate group had significant decreases of tooth movement (12 and 15 days, P root resorption area and numbers of root resorption lacunae (7 day, P root resorption related to orthodontic tooth movement, patients should be informed about a possible decrease in the amount of tooth movement and a prolonged period of orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Longitudinal patterns in flathead catfish relative abundance and length at age within a large river: Effects of an urban gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukert, C.P.; Makinster, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) relative abundance and growth in the 274 km long Kansas River to determine if population dynamics of catfish are related to urbanization. Electrofishing was conducted at 462 random sites throughout the river in summer, 2005-2006 to collect fish. Relative abundance of age 1 fish (???200mm), subadult (>200-400mm) and adult fish (>400 mm) ranged from 0.34 to 14.67 fish h-1, mean length at age 1 was 165 (range: 128-195) mm total length (TL) and mean length at age 3 was 376 mm TL (range: 293-419mm TL). The proportion of land use within 200 m of the river edge was between 0 and 0.54 urban. River reaches with high relative abundance of age 1 flathead catfish had high relative abundance of subadult and adult catfish. River reaches with fast flathead catfish growth to age 1 had fast growth to age 3. High urban land use and riprap in the riparian area were evident in river reaches near the heavily populated Kansas City and Topeka, Kansas, USA. Reaches with increased number of log jams and islands had decreased riparian agriculture. Areas of low urbanization had faster flathead catfish growth (r = 0.67, p = 0.005). Relative abundance of flathead catfish was higher in more agricultural areas (r = -0.57, p = 0.02). Changes in land use in riverine environments may alter population dynamics of a fish species within a river. Spatial differences in population dynamics need to be considered when evaluating riverine fish populations. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Comparing relative abundance, lengths, and habitat of temperate reef fishes using simultaneous underwater visual census, video, and trap sampling

    KAUST Repository

    Bacheler, NM

    2017-04-28

    Unbiased counts of individuals or species are often impossible given the prevalence of cryptic or mobile species. We used 77 simultaneous multi-gear deployments to make inferences about relative abundance, diversity, length composition, and habitat of the reef fish community along the southeastern US Atlantic coast. In total, 117 taxa were observed by underwater visual census (UVC), stationary video, and chevron fish traps, with more taxa being observed by UVC (100) than video (82) or traps (20). Frequency of occurrence of focal species was similar among all sampling approaches for tomtate Haemulon aurolineatum and black sea bass Centropristis striata, higher for UVC and video compared to traps for red snapper Lutjanus campechanus, vermilion snapper Rhomboplites aurorubens, and gray triggerfish Balistes capriscus, and higher for UVC compared to video or traps for gray snapper L. griseus and lionfish Pterois spp. For 6 of 7 focal species, correlations of relative abundance among gears were strongest between UVC and video, but there was substantial variability among species. The number of recorded species between UVC and video was correlated (ρ = 0.59), but relationships between traps and the other 2 methods were weaker. Lengths of fish visually estimated by UVC were similar to lengths of fish caught in traps, as were habitat characterizations from UVC and video. No gear provided a complete census for any species in our study, suggesting that analytical methods accounting for imperfect detection are necessary to make unbiased inferences about fish abundance.

  2. Entropy uncertainty relations and stability of phase-temporal quantum cryptography with finite-length transmitted strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molotkov, S. N., E-mail: sergei.molotkov@gmail.com [Russian Federation, Academy of Cryptography (Russian Federation)

    2012-12-15

    Any key-generation session contains a finite number of quantum-state messages, and it is there-fore important to understand the fundamental restrictions imposed on the minimal length of a string required to obtain a secret key with a specified length. The entropy uncertainty relations for smooth min and max entropies considerably simplify and shorten the proof of security. A proof of security of quantum key distribution with phase-temporal encryption is presented. This protocol provides the maximum critical error compared to other protocols up to which secure key distribution is guaranteed. In addition, unlike other basic protocols (of the BB84 type), which are vulnerable with respect to an attack by 'blinding' of avalanche photodetectors, this protocol is stable with respect to such an attack and guarantees key security.

  3. Entropy uncertainty relations and stability of phase-temporal quantum cryptography with finite-length transmitted strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotkov, S. N.

    2012-01-01

    Any key-generation session contains a finite number of quantum-state messages, and it is there-fore important to understand the fundamental restrictions imposed on the minimal length of a string required to obtain a secret key with a specified length. The entropy uncertainty relations for smooth min and max entropies considerably simplify and shorten the proof of security. A proof of security of quantum key distribution with phase-temporal encryption is presented. This protocol provides the maximum critical error compared to other protocols up to which secure key distribution is guaranteed. In addition, unlike other basic protocols (of the BB84 type), which are vulnerable with respect to an attack by “blinding” of avalanche photodetectors, this protocol is stable with respect to such an attack and guarantees key security.

  4. QTL Mapping of Kernel Number-Related Traits and Validation of One Major QTL for Ear Length in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Dongao; Ning, Qiang; Shen, Xiaomeng; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Zuxin

    2016-01-01

    The kernel number is a grain yield component and an important maize breeding goal. Ear length, kernel number per row and ear row number are highly correlated with the kernel number per ear, which eventually determines the ear weight and grain yield. In this study, two sets of F2:3 families developed from two bi-parental crosses sharing one inbred line were used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for four kernel number-related traits: ear length, kernel number per row, ear row number and ear weight. A total of 39 QTLs for the four traits were identified in the two populations. The phenotypic variance explained by a single QTL ranged from 0.4% to 29.5%. Additionally, 14 overlapping QTLs formed 5 QTL clusters on chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 7, and 10. Intriguingly, six QTLs for ear length and kernel number per row overlapped in a region on chromosome 1. This region was designated qEL1.10 and was validated as being simultaneously responsible for ear length, kernel number per row and ear weight in a near isogenic line-derived population, suggesting that qEL1.10 was a pleiotropic QTL with large effects. Furthermore, the performance of hybrids generated by crossing 6 elite inbred lines with two near isogenic lines at qEL1.10 showed the breeding value of qEL1.10 for the improvement of the kernel number and grain yield of maize hybrids. This study provides a basis for further fine mapping, molecular marker-aided breeding and functional studies of kernel number-related traits in maize.

  5. Rooting characteristics of Solanum chacoense and Solanum tuberosum in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increases in root biomass and length have been linked to increased plant nitrogen (N) accumulation; however it is difficult to measure these parameters in soil environments. In vitro methods may aid in elucidating potato-rooting characteristics in relation to N use efficiency (NUE) due to a high lev...

  6. THE RELATION BETWEEN MILD LEG-LENGTH INEQUALITY AND ABLE-BODIED GAIT ASYMMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K. Seeley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The causes of able-bodied gait asymmetries are unclear. Mild ( 1 cm; n = 7. Statistically significant relationships were observed between LLI and the symmetry coefficient for knee joint moment (r = -0.48 and power (r = -0.51, and ankle joint moment (r = -0.41 and power (r = -0.42. Similarly, subjects with relatively large LLI exhibited significantly lower symmetry coefficients for knee joint moment (p = 0.40 and power (p = 0.35, and ankle joint moment (p = 0.40 and power (p = 0.22 than subjects with relatively small LLI. Degree of bilateral symmetry for knee and ankle joint kinetics appears to be related to LLI in able- bodied gait. This finding supports the idea that LLI is one cause of able-bodied gait asymmetries. Other factors, however, are also likely to contribute to these gait asymmetries; these may include other morphological asymmetries as well as asymmetrical neuromuscular input to the lower limb muscles

  7. effects of different concentrations of auxins on rooting and root

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: The effect of auxins and their different concentrations on rooting and root ... primary root length and the longest primary root was recorded with the ... ceuticals, lubricants, foods, electrical insulators, .... stem cuttings of jojoba treated with IBA and NAA, .... increasing cell division and enlargement at each.

  8. Iron plaque formation on roots of different rice cultivars and the relation with lead uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianguo; Leng, Xuemei; Wang, Mingxin; Zhu, Zhongquan; Dai, Qinghua

    2011-07-01

    The relationships between lead (Pb) uptake and iron/manganese plaque formation on rice roots were investigated with three cultivars. The results showed that the rice cultivars with indica consanguinity were more sensitive to soil Pb stress than the cultivar with japonica consanguinity. Pb concentrations and distribution ratios in root tissues were in the order: Shanyou 63 > Yangdao 6 > Wuyunjing 7, but Pb and Fe concentrations and distribution ratios in the plaques showed a reverse order. Mn concentrations and distribution ratios in the plaques of Wuyunjing 7 were significantly higher (P rice root can provide a barrier to soil Pb stress. The plaque will increase sequestration of Pb on rice root surface and in the rhizosphere, providing a means of external exclusion of soil Pb to some extent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Norway spruce fine root dynamics and carbon input into soil in relation to environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Leppälammi-Kujansuu, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the quantity of belowground litter carbon (C) input is scarce but highly valued in C budget calculations. Specifically, the turnover rate of fine roots is considered to be one of the most important parameters in the estimation of changes in soil C stock. In this thesis Norway spruce (Picea abies L. (Karst.)) fine root lifespan and litter production and their responses to nutrient availability and temperature were examined. Aboveground foliage and understory litter C inputs were a...

  10. Root suberin forms an extracellular barrier that affects water relations and mineral nutrition in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baxter

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Though central to our understanding of how roots perform their vital function of scavenging water and solutes from the soil, no direct genetic evidence currently exists to support the foundational model that suberin acts to form a chemical barrier limiting the extracellular, or apoplastic, transport of water and solutes in plant roots. Using the newly characterized enhanced suberin1 (esb1 mutant, we established a connection in Arabidopsis thaliana between suberin in the root and both water movement through the plant and solute accumulation in the shoot. Esb1 mutants, characterized by increased root suberin, were found to have reduced day time transpiration rates and increased water-use efficiency during their vegetative growth period. Furthermore, these changes in suberin and water transport were associated with decreases in the accumulation of Ca, Mn, and Zn and increases in the accumulation of Na, S, K, As, Se, and Mo in the shoot. Here, we present direct genetic evidence establishing that suberin in the roots plays a critical role in controlling both water and mineral ion uptake and transport to the leaves. The changes observed in the elemental accumulation in leaves are also interpreted as evidence that a significant component of the radial root transport of Ca, Mn, and Zn occurs in the apoplast.

  11. Longer wings for faster springs - wing length relates to spring phenology in a long-distance migrant across its range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Steffen; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Emmenegger, Tamara; Amrhein, Valentin; Csörgő, Tibor; Gursoy, Arzu; Ilieva, Mihaela; Kverek, Pavel; Pérez-Tris, Javier; Pirrello, Simone; Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Salewski, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In migratory birds, morphological adaptations for efficient migratory flight often oppose morphological adaptations for efficient behavior during resident periods. This includes adaptations in wing shape for either flying long distances or foraging in the vegetation and in climate-driven variation of body size. In addition, the timing of migratory flights and particularly the timely arrival at local breeding sites is crucial because fitness prospects depend on site-specific phenology. Thus, adaptations for efficient long-distance flights might be also related to conditions at destination areas. For an obligatory long-distance migrant, the common nightingale, we verified that wing length as the aerodynamically important trait, but not structural body size increased from the western to the eastern parts of the species range. In contrast with expectation from aerodynamic theory, however, wing length did not increase with increasing migration distances. Instead, wing length was associated with the phenology at breeding destinations, namely the speed of local spring green-up. We argue that longer wings are beneficial for adjusting migration speed to local conditions for birds breeding in habitats with fast spring green-up and thus short optimal arrival periods. We suggest that the speed of spring green-up at breeding sites is a fundamental variable determining the timing of migration that fine tune phenotypes in migrants across their range.

  12. Length-dependent thermoelectric characteristics of silicon nanowires on plastics in a relatively low temperature regime in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jinyong; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2013-01-01

    We report on the thermoelectric characteristics of p-type silicon nanowires (NWs) on plastics in the relatively low temperature regime below 47 ° C, and for temperature differences of less than 10 K in ambient air. Thermal profile images are utilized to directly determine the temperature difference in the NWs generated by Joule heating in air. The Seebeck coefficient of the NWs increases from 294 to 414 μV K −1 as the NW length varies from 40 to 280 μm. For a temperature difference of 7 K, the maximal Seebeck voltage can be estimated to be 2.7 mV for NWs with a length of 280 μm. In contrast, the output power is maximized for NWs length of 240 μm. The maximized output power obtained experimentally in this study is 2.1 pW at a temperature difference of 6 K. The thermoelectric characteristics are analyzed and discussed. (paper)

  13. Coupling of relative intensity noise and pathlength noise to the length measurement in the optical metrology system of LISA Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, Andreas; the LPF Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstration mission for the space-based gravitational wave observatory, LISA. It demonstrated that the performance requirements for the interferometric measurement of two test masses in free fall can be met. An important part of the data analysis is to identify the limiting noise sources. [1] This measurement is performed with heterodyne interferometry. The performance of this optical metrology system (OMS) at high frequencies is limited by sensing noise. One such noise source is Relative Intensity Noise (RIN). RIN is a property of the laser, and the photodiode current generated by the interferometer signal contains frequency dependant RIN. From this electric signal the phasemeter calculates the phase change and laser power, and the coupling of RIN into the measurement signal depends on the noise frequency. RIN at DC, at the heterodyne frequency and at two times the heterodyne frequency couples into the phase. Another important noise at high frequencies is path length noise. To reduce the impact this noise is suppressed with a control loop. Path length noise not suppressed will couple directly into the length measurement. The subtraction techniques of both noise sources depend on the phase difference between the reference signal and the measurement signal, and thus on the test mass position. During normal operations we position the test mass at the interferometric zero, which is optimal for noise subtraction purposes. This paper will show results from an in-flight experiment where the test mass position was changed to make the position dependant noise visible.

  14. DMSA scan nomograms for renal length and area: Related to patient age and to body weight, height or surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.M.; Que, L.; Rutland, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To create nomograms for renal size as measured from DMSA renal studies, and to test the nomograms for their ability to separate normal from abnormal kidneys. Method: Renal length was measured from posterior oblique views and renal area from posterior views. Results from 253 patients with bilateral normal kidneys were used to create nomograms for renal size relative to patient age, body height, weight or body surface area (BSA). The nomograms enclosed 95% of the normal kidneys, thus indicating the range for 95% confidence limits, and hence the specificity. Each nomogram was then tested against 46 hypertrophied kidneys and 46 damaged kidneys. Results: The results from nomograms of renal length and renal area, compared to age, body height, body weight and BSA are presented. For each nomogram, the range is presented as a fraction of the mean value, and the number of abnormal kidneys (hypertrophied or damaged) outside the normal range is presented as a percentage (indicating the sensitivity). Conclusion: Renal Area was no better than renal length for detecting abnormal kidneys. Patient age was the least useful method of normalisation. BSA normalisation produced the best results most frequently (narrower ranges and highest detection of abnormal kidneys)

  15. Determination of extra and intracellular content from some lytic enzymes related with carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. root cell wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixta Tulia Martínez Peralta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of some enzymes related to cell wall (polygalacturonase, the pectate lyase, protease and xylanase in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L. roots as well as the activity levels were determined. These levels were analyzed in different cellular places: the intercellular fluid that is part of apoplast, the symplast, and the total level (apoplast and symplast in carnation roots. Two methods were tested to extract the intercellular fluid. To obtain the intracellular content (symplast and total extract (apoplast+symplast, three methods were tested, using as extracting solution  i phosphate buffer, ii phosphate buffer + PVPP,  iii before the extraction with phosphate buffer, the carnation roots were washed with acetone.  The results showed the effect of different extracting solutions in the enzymatic activities and in the protein content. A new only one step method is proposed to extract the four enzymes and make the comparative analysis of enzymatic activity.

  16. Assessing the effect of the relative atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) on length-of-day (LOD) variations under climate warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, E.; Hansen, F.; Ulbrich, U.; Nevir, P.; Leckebusch, G. C.

    2009-04-01

    While most studies on model-projected future climate warming discuss climatological quantities, this study investigates the response of the relative atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) to climate warming for the 21th century and discusses its possible effects on future length-of-day variations. Following the derivation of the dynamic relation between atmosphere and solid earth by Barnes et al. (Proc. Roy. Soc., 1985) this study relates the axial atmospheric excitation function X3 to changes in length-of-day that are proportional to variations in zonal winds. On interannual time scales changes in the relative AAM (ERA40 reanalyses) are well correlated with observed length-of-day (LOD, IERS EOP CO4) variability (r=0.75). The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a prominent coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon to cause global climate variability on interannual time scales. Correspondingly, changes in observed LOD relate to ENSO due to observed strong wind anomalies. This study investigates the varying effect of AAM anomalies on observed LOD by relating AAM to variations to ENSO teleconnections (sea surface temperatures, SSTs) and the Pacific North America (PNA) oscillation for the 20th and 21st century. The differently strong effect of strong El Niño events (explained variance 71%-98%) on present time (1962-2000) observed LOD-AAM relation can be associated to variations in location and strength of jet streams in the upper troposphere. Correspondingly, the relation between AAM and SSTs in the NIÑO 3.4 region also varies between explained variances of 15% to 73%. Recent coupled ocean-atmosphere projections on future climate warming suggest changes in frequency and amplitude of ENSO events. Since changes in the relative AAM indicate shifts in large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns due to climate change, AAM - ENSO relations are assessed in coupled atmosphere-ocean (ECHAM5-OM1) climate warming projections (A1B) for the 21st century. A strong rise (+31%) in

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Filippo; Cozzi, Paolo; Casella, Laura; Riccardi, Paolo; Vattari, Alessandra; Orasen, Gabriele; Perrini, Rosaria; Tacconi, Gianni; Tondelli, Alessandro; Biselli, Chiara; Cattivelli, Luigi; Spindel, Jennifer; McCouch, Susan; Abbruscato, Pamela; Valé, Giampiero; Piffanelli, Pietro; Greco, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding-after data editing-57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions. In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10-7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25). In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10-7) and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011). We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study for Traits Related to Plant and Grain Morphology, and Root Architecture in Temperate Rice Accessions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Biscarini

    Full Text Available In this study we carried out a genome-wide association analysis for plant and grain morphology and root architecture in a unique panel of temperate rice accessions adapted to European pedo-climatic conditions. This is the first study to assess the association of selected phenotypic traits to specific genomic regions in the narrow genetic pool of temperate japonica. A set of 391 rice accessions were GBS-genotyped yielding-after data editing-57000 polymorphic and informative SNPS, among which 54% were in genic regions.In total, 42 significant genotype-phenotype associations were detected: 21 for plant morphology traits, 11 for grain quality traits, 10 for root architecture traits. The FDR of detected associations ranged from 3 · 10-7 to 0.92 (median: 0.25. In most cases, the significant detected associations co-localised with QTLs and candidate genes controlling the phenotypic variation of single or multiple traits. The most significant associations were those for flag leaf width on chromosome 4 (FDR = 3 · 10-7 and for plant height on chromosome 6 (FDR = 0.011.We demonstrate the effectiveness and resolution of the developed platform for high-throughput phenotyping, genotyping and GWAS in detecting major QTLs for relevant traits in rice. We identified strong associations that may be used for selection in temperate irrigated rice breeding: e.g. associations for flag leaf width, plant height, root volume and length, grain length, grain width and their ratio. Our findings pave the way to successfully exploit the narrow genetic pool of European temperate rice and to pinpoint the most relevant genetic components contributing to the adaptability and high yield of this germplasm. The generated data could be of direct use in genomic-assisted breeding strategies.

  19. Relative Leukocyte Telomere Length, Hematological Parameters and Anemia - Data from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Antje; Salewsky, Bastian; Buchmann, Nikolaus; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja

    2016-01-01

    The length of the chromosome ends, telomeres, is widely accepted as a biomarker of aging. However, the dynamic of the relationship between telomere length and hematopoietic parameters in the normal aging process, which is of particular interest with respect to age-related anemia, is not well understood. We have analyzed the relationship between relative leukocyte telomere length (rLTL) and several hematological parameters in the older group of the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II) participants. This paper also compares rLTL between both BASE-II age groups (22-37 and 60-83 years). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes of BASE-II participants and used to determine rLTL by a quantitative PCR protocol. Standard methods were used to determine blood parameters, and the WHO criteria were used to identify anemic participants. Telomere length data were available for 444 younger participants (28.4 ± 3.1 years old; 52% women) and 1,460 older participants (68.2 ± 3.7 years old; 49.4% women). rLTL was significantly shorter in BASE-II participants of the older group (p = 3.7 × 10-12) and in women (p = 4.2 × 10-31). rLTL of older men exhibited a statistically significant, positive partial correlation with mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH; p = 0.012) and MCH concentration (p = 0.002). While these correlations were only observed in men, the rLTL of older women was negatively correlated with the number of thrombocytes (p = 0.015) in the same type of analysis. Among all older participants, 6% met the criteria to be categorized as 'anemic'; however, there was no association between anemia and rLTL. In the present study, we have detected isolated correlations between rLTL and hematological parameters; however, in all cases, rLTL explained only a small part of the variation of the analyzed parameters. In disagreement with some other studies showing similar data, we interpret the association between rLTL and some of the hematological parameters studied here to be

  20. Spiral computed tomography in the evaluation of relations of the impacted maxillary canines and the adjacent incisor roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, R.; Stos, W.; Dyras, M.; Urbanik, A.; Wojciechowski, W.; Sztuk, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The relations of the crowns of impacted maxillary canines and the roots of adjacent incisors are difficult to evaluate on conventional radiographs due to superimposition of shadows of these structures. The aim of this study was to analyse the relations between the crowns of impacted canines and the roots of adjacent incisors with the use of computed tomography. Material/Methods: The study involved a group of 65 patients suspicious for an impacted maxillary permanent canine. All the patients underwent pantomography. In 44 individuals in the age of 13-31 years (mean age 17.1 ± 4.5) the examination revealed shadows of the impacted crowns superimposed on the roots of incisors. These patients were subjected to CT. On the basis of those CT examinations (including multiplanar and three-dimensional reconstructions) we defined the location of the impacted canines as buccal, palatal and horizontal. Likewise, the relations between the crowns of impacted canines and the roots of lateral or/and central incisors were studied. Results: From among 54 impacted maxillary canines, 41 (75.9%) were located palatally, 10 (18.5%) buccally, and 3 (5.6%) horizontally. In 14 cases (29.5%), the impacted canine remained in various kind of contact with both adjacent incisors. In addition to those aforementioned 14 cases, the impacted maxillary canine remained in contact with adjacent root of the lateral incisor in 34 cases (in total: 48 cases of contact). We found 17 cases (35.4%) of adherence without features of root resorption and 31 cases (64.4%) of resorption. Among the cases of resorption, there were 18 instances of deep resorption (58.1%) and 13 instances of light resorption (41.9%). There were also 18 cases (33.3%) of contact between the impacted canine and the root of the central incisor, including 10 instances (55.6%) of adjacency without root resorption and 8 cases (44.4%) of resorption. Conclusions: Computed tomography allows for a precise localisation of the impacted

  1. Tree-Substrate Water Relations and Root Development in Tree Plantations Used for Mine Tailings Reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittonny-Larchevêque, Marie; Bussière, Bruno; Pednault, Carl

    2016-05-01

    Tree water uptake relies on well-developed root systems. However, mine wastes can restrict root growth, in particular metalliferous mill tailings, which consist of the finely crushed ore that remains after valuable metals are removed. Thus, water stress could limit plantation success in reclaimed mine lands. This study evaluates the effect of substrates varying in quality (topsoil, overburden, compost and tailings mixture, and tailings alone) and quantity (50- or 20-cm-thick topsoil layer vs. 1-m plantation holes) on root development and water stress exposure of trees planted in low-sulfide mine tailings under boreal conditions. A field experiment was conducted over 2 yr with two tree species: basket willow ( L.) and hybrid poplar ( Moench × A. Henry). Trees developed roots in the tailings underlying the soil treatments despite tailings' low macroporosity. However, almost no root development occurred in tailings underlying a compost and tailings mixture. Because root development and associated water uptake was not limited to the soil, soil volume influenced neither short-term (water potential and instantaneous transpiration) nor long-term (δC) water stress exposure in trees. However, trees were larger and had greater total leaf area when grown in thicker topsoil. Despite a volumetric water content that always remained above permanent wilting point in the tailings colonized by tree roots, measured foliar water potentials at midday were lower than drought thresholds reported for both tested tree species. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eComas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length (SRL, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less ‘leaky’ and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g. functional differences between fine and coarse roots needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria and rice (Oryza show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait

  3. Chances of late surgery in relation to length of wait lists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Adrian R

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportion of patients who undergo surgery within a clinically safe time is an important performance indicator in health systems that use wait lists to manage access to care. However, little is known about chances of on-time surgery according to variations in existing demand. We sought to determine what proportion of patients have had late coronary bypass surgery after registration on wait lists of different size in a network of hospitals with uniform standards for timing of surgery. Methods Using records from a population-based registry, we studied wait-list times prospectively collected in a cohort of patients registered on wait lists for coronary artery bypass grafting procedures. We compared the number of weeks from registration to surgery against target access times established for three urgency groups. The chances of undergoing surgery within target time have been evaluated in relation to wait-list size at registration and the number of surgeries performed without registration on a wait list. Results In 1991–2001, two in three patients were at risk of late surgery when registered on wait lists for isolated coronary bypass procedures in British Columbia, Canada. Although urgent patients had never seen a wait list with clearance time exceeding one week, the odds of on-time surgery were reduced by 25%, odds ratio [OR] = 0.75 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65–0.87 for every additional operation performed without registration on a list. When the wait list at registration required a clearance time of over one month, semi-urgent patients had 51% lower odds of on-time surgery as compared to lists with clearance time less than one week, OR = 0.49 (95%CI 0.41–0.60, after adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity, calendar period, hospital and week on the list. In the non-urgent group, the odds were 69% lower, OR = 0.31 (95%CI 0.20–0.47. Every time an operation in the same hospital was performed without registration on a

  4. Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection: The Relation between Hepatitis B Antigen Expression, Telomere Length, Senescence, Inflammation and Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaedra M Tachtatzis

    Full Text Available Chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection can lead to the development of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We hypothesized that HBV might accelerate hepatocyte ageing and investigated the effect of HBV on hepatocyte cell cycle state and biological age. We also investigated the relation between inflammation, fibrosis and cell cycle phase.Liver samples from patients with chronic HBV (n = 91, normal liver (n = 55 and regenerating liver (n = 15 were studied. Immunohistochemistry for cell cycle phase markers and HBV antigens was used to determine host cell cycle phase. Hepatocyte-specific telomere length was evaluated by quantitative fluorescent in-situ hybridization (Q-FISH in conjunction with hepatocyte nuclear area and HBV antigen expression. The effects of induced cell cycle arrest and induced cellular senescence on HBV production were assessed in vitro.13.7% hepatocytes in chronic HBV had entered cell cycle, but expression of markers for S, G2 and M phase was low compared with regenerating liver. Hepatocyte p21 expression was increased (10.9% in chronic HBV and correlated with liver fibrosis. Mean telomere length was reduced in chronic HBV compared to normal. However, within HBV-affected livers, hepatocytes expressing HBV antigens had longer telomeres. Telomere length declined and hepatocyte nuclear size increased as HBV core antigen (HBcAg expression shifted from the nucleus to cytoplasm. Nuclear co-expression of HBcAg and p21 was not observed. Cell cycle arrest induced in vitro was associated with increased HBV production, in contrast to in vitro induction of cellular senescence, which had no effect.Chronic HBV infection was associated with hepatocyte G1 cell cycle arrest and accelerated hepatocyte ageing, implying that HBV induced cellular senescence. However, HBV replication was confined to biologically younger hepatocytes. Changes in the cellular location of HBcAg may be related to the onset of cellular senescence.

  5. Barley root hair growth and morphology in soil, sand, and water solution media and relationship with nickel toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yanqing; Allen, Herbert E; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2016-08-01

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare (Doyce), was grown in the 3 media of soil, hydroponic sand solution (sand), and hydroponic water solution (water) culture at the same environmental conditions for 4 d. Barley roots were scanned, and root morphology was analyzed. Plants grown in the 3 media had different root morphology and nickel (Ni) toxicity response. Root elongations and total root lengths followed the sequence soil > sand > water. Plants grown in water culture were more sensitive to Ni toxicity and had greater root hair length than those from soil and sand cultures, which increased root surface area. The unit root surface area as root surface area per centimeter of length of root followed the sequence water > sand > soil and was found to be related with root elongation. Including the unit root surface area, the difference in root elongation and 50% effective concentration were diminished, and percentage of root elongations can be improved with a root mean square error approximately 10% for plants grown in different media. Because the unit root surface area of plants in sand culture is closer to that in soil culture, the sand culture method, not water culture, is recommended for toxicity parameter estimation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2125-2133. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. Incidence and severity of root resorption in orthodontically moved premolars in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltha, J C; van Leeuwen, E J; Dijkman, G E H M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2004-05-01

    To study treatment-related factors for external root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. An experimental animal study. Department of Orthodontics and Oral Biology, University Medical Centre Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Twenty-four young adult beagle dogs. Mandibular premolars were bodily moved with continuous or intermittent controlled orthodontic forces of 10, 25, 50, 100, or 200 cN according to standardized protocols. At different points in time histomorphometry was performed to determine the severity of root resorption. Prevalence of root resorptions, defined as microscopically visible resorption lacunae in the dentin. Severity of resorption was defined by the length, relative length, depth, and surface area of each resorption area. The incidence of root resorption increased with the duration of force application. After 14-17 weeks of force application root resorption was found at 94% of the root surfaces at pressure sides. The effect of force magnitude on the severity of root resorption was not statistically significant. The severity of root resorption was highly related to the force regimen. Continuous forces caused significantly more severe root resorption than intermittent forces. A strong correlation (0.60 < r < 0.68) was found between the amount of tooth movement and the severity of root resorption. Root resorption increases with the duration of force application. The more teeth are displaced, the more root resorption will occur. Intermittent forces cause less severe root resorption than continuous forces, and force magnitude is probably not decisive for root resorption.

  7. Clustering, haplotype diversity and locations of MIC-3: a unique root-specific defense-related gene family in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIC-3-related genes of cotton (Gossypium spp.) were identified and shown to have root-specific expression, associated with pathogen defense-related function and specifically increased expression in root-knot nematode (RKN) resistant plants after nematode infection. Here we cloned and sequenced MIC-...

  8. Sugarcane root length density and distribution from root intersection counting on a trench-profile Densidade de comprimento e distribuição de raízes de cana-de-açúcar a partir da contagem de intersecção de raízes na parede do perfil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Carvalho Basilio de Azevedo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Root length density (RLD is a critical feature in determining crops potential to uptake water and nutrients, but it is difficult to be measured. No standard method is currently available for assessing RLD in the soil. In this study, an in situ method used for other crops for studying root length density and distribution was tested for sugarcane (Saccharum spp.. This method involved root intersection counting (RIC on a Rhodic Eutrudox profile using grids with 0.05 x 0.05 m and modeling RLD from RIC. The results were compared to a conventional soil core-sampled method (COR (volume 0.00043 m³. At four dates of the cropping season in three tillage treatments (plowing soil, minimum tillage and direct planting, with eight soil depths divided in 0.1 m soil layer (between 0-0.6 and 1.6-1.8 m and three horizontal distances from the row (0-0.23, 0.23-0.46 and 0.46-0.69 m, COR and RIC methods presented similar RLD results. A positive relationship between COR and RIC was found (R² = 0.76. The RLD profiles considering the average of the three row distances per depth obtained using COR and RIC (mean of four dates and 12 replications were close and did not differ at each depth of 0.1 m within a total depth of 0.6 m. Total RLD between 0 and 0.6 m was 7.300 and 7.100 m m-2 for COR and RIC respectively. For time consumption, the RIC method was tenfold less time-consuming than COR and RIC can be carried out in the field with no need to remove soil samples. The RLD distribution in depth and row distance (2-D variability by RIC can be assessed in relation to the soil properties in the same soil profiles. The RIC method was suitable for studying these 2-D (depth and row distance in the soil profile relationships between soil, tillage and root distribution in the field.A densidade de comprimento de raízes (DCR é uma característica importante para determinar o potencial de absorção de água e nutrientes das plantas, mas é difícil de ser medida. Nenhum m

  9. Root temperature effects on growth and bud break of Rosa hybrida in relation to cytokinin concentrations in xylem sap.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, J.A.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Kuiper, D.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of three divergent root temperatures (11°C, 20°C and 26°C) on growth and bud break of Rosa hybrida were studied. Root morphology was changed considerably with root temperature. Roots at 11°C were white, succulent, short and sparsely branched, whereas at 26°C roots were long, brown, thin

  10. Adult root structure of Mediterranean shrubs: relationship with post-fire regenerative syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura-Mas, S; Lloret, F

    2014-01-01

    Life-history attributes can impose differences on root system structures and properties related to nutrient and water uptake. Here, we assess whether plants with different post-fire regenerative strategies (resprouters, seeders and seeder-resprouters) differ in the topological and morphological properties of their root systems (external path, altitude, magnitude, topological index, specific root length, root length, root-to-shoot biomass ratio, length of the main axis of the root system and link length). To achieve these objectives, we sampled individuals from eight woody species in a shrubland located in the western Mediterranean Basin. We sampled the adult root systems using manual field excavation with the aid of an air compressor. The results indicate that resprouters have a higher root-to-shoot ratio, confirming their higher ability to store water, starch and nutrients and to invest in the belowground biomass. Moreover, this pattern would allow them to explore deeper parts of the soil layers. Seeder species would benefit from a higher specific root length, pointing to increased relative root growth and water uptake rates. This study confirms that seeders and resprouters may differ in nutrient and water uptake ability according to the characteristics of their root system. Species that can both resprout and establish seedlings after fire had different patterns of root system structure; in particular, root:shoot ratio was more similar to resprouters and specific root length was closer to seeders, supporting the distinct functional performance of this type of species. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Radiographic evaluation of apical root resorption following fixed orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Haghanifar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Apical root resorption is an adverse side effect of fixed orthodontic treatment which cannot be repaired. The aim of this study was to use panoramic radiographs to compare the root resorption before and after the orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise .018 appliance.Materials and Methods: The before and after treatment panoramic views of sixty-three patients needed fixed orthodontic treatment included 1520 teeth were categorized into 3 Grades (G0: without resorption, G1: mild resorption with blunt roots or ≤ 1/4 of root length, G2: moderate to severe resorption or > 1/4 to 1/2 of root length. Relationship between root resorption and sex and treatment duration was analyzed with Mann-whitney and Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively.Results: The findings showed that 345 teeth were categorized as Grade 1. Grade 2 of root resorption was not found in this study. The highest amount of root resorption was recorded for the mandibular lateral incisor. In both gender, the root resorption of the mandible was more than that of the maxilla. The males showed significantly higher rate of resorption than the females (P0.05.Conclusion: The mandible and male patients showed higher amount of root resorption. In addition, root resorption was not related to the treatment duration and the side of the jaws.

  12. Relative strength of second harmonic and 3/2 omega emissions from long-scale-length laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.K.; Kumbhare, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on the planar slab targets of carbon, aluminum, and copper, using a 1.0641 μm laser, at laser intensities varying from 2 x 10/sup 12/ to 1 x 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/. The laser had a fluorescent linewidth of 4.5 A. Spectral profiles of parametrically modulated second harmonic as well as 3/2/ω/sub 0/ emissions have been measured for the long-scale-length plasmas so generated. Relative strengths of three emissions with respect to peak signal intensity and spectral energy content as a function of laser intensity are graphically reported. Results are discussed on the basis of two plasmon and parametric decay instabilities

  13. Root rots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn Robbins; Philip M. Wargo

    1989-01-01

    Root rots of central hardwoods are diseases caused by fungi that infect and decay woody roots and sometimes also invade the butt portion of the tree. By killing and decaying roots, root rotting fungi reduce growth, decrease tree vigor, and cause windthrow and death. The most common root diseases of central hardwoods are Armillaria root rot, lnonotus root rot, and...

  14. Length-weight relation and condition factor of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ in the Cochin Backwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.; Nair, K.K.C.; Balasubramanian, T.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Aravindakshan, P.N.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and condition factor of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated using samples from Cochin backwater. Statistical tests support the view that the length-weight exponent of these species may be species...

  15. [Surgical treatment of the aortic root aneurysm related to Marfan syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Si-hong; Sun, Yan-qing; Meng, Xu; Zhang, Hong; Hou, Xiao-tong; Wang, Jian-gang; Gao, Feng

    2005-08-24

    To review the experience of surgical treatment of aortic root aneurysm of Marfan syndrome. We The clinical data of 84 Marfan syndrome patients, 61 males and 23 females, aged 35 +/- 12 (5 - 62), 41 cases presenting with aortic dissection (Debakey type I in 32 cases and type II in 9), 52 cases with moderate to severe aortic regurgitation, and 9 cases with moderate to severe mitral regurgitation, 43 cases with cardiac function of class I - II, 30 with class III and 11 with class IV according the New York Heart Association (NYHA) standard, who underwent surgical treatment for aortic root aneurysm with a mean diameter of 68 mm +/- 14 mm, were analyzed. Bentall procedure was performed in 68 cases, Wheat procedure in 6, Cabrol procedure in 5, and aortic valve replacement and aortoplasty in 5. Concomitant procedures included mitral value replacement and mitral valvuoplasty in 3 cases respectively. Urgent surgery was conducted in 28 cases, and elective operation in 56 cases. There were 3 in-hospital deaths (3.57%). 76 cases were followed up for a mean duration of 55 +/- 31 months. Three patients underwent reoperation. The cardiac function returned to class I - II except for 2 cases that remained at the class III. Bentall procedure should be the first choice of the surgery for aortic root aneurysm of Marfan syndrome with a low mortality and a good late outcome.

  16. Changes of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Root/Shoot Ratio of Durum Wheat and Barley in Relation to Nitrogen Availability and Mercury Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Angelino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to verify, on whole plant level and during all the plant cycle, the hypothesis that nitrogen deficiency reduces root hydraulic conductivity through the water channels (aquaporins activity, and that the plant reacts by changing root/shoot ratio. Root hydraulic conductivity, plant growth, root/shoot ratio and plant water status were assessed for durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L., as influenced by nitrogen availability and HgCl2 treatment. On both species during the plant cycle, nitrogen deficiency induced lower root hydraulic conductivity (-49 and -66% respectively for barley and wheat and lower plant growth. On wheat was also observed cycle delay, lower plant nitrogen content, but not lower leaf turgor pressure and epidermic cell dimension. The lower plant growth was due to lower plant dimension and lower tillering. Root /shoot ratio was always higher for nitrogen stressed plants, whether on dry matter or on surface basis. This was due to lower effect of nitrogen stress on root growth than on shoot growth. On wheat HgCl2 treatment determined lower plant growth, and more than nitrogen stress, cycle delay and higher root/shoot ratio. The mercury, also, induced leaf rolling, lower turgor pressure, lower NAR, higher root cell wall lignification and lower epidermic cell number per surface unity. In nitrogen fertilized plants root hydraulic conductivity was always reduced by HgCl2 treatment (-61 and 38%, respectively for wheat and barley, but in nitrogen unfertilized plants this effect was observed only during the first plant stages. This effect was higher during shooting and caryopsis formation, lower during tillering. It is concluded that barley and durum wheat react to nitrogen deficiency and HgCl2 treatment by increasing the root/shoot ratio, to compensate water stress due to lower water root conductivity probably induced by lower aquaporin synthesis or inactivation. However, this

  17. Changes of Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Root/Shoot Ratio of Durum Wheat and Barley in Relation to Nitrogen Availability and Mercury Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestino Ruggiero

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to verify, on whole plant level and during all the plant cycle, the hypothesis that nitrogen deficiency reduces root hydraulic conductivity through the water channels (aquaporins activity, and that the plant reacts by changing root/shoot ratio. Root hydraulic conductivity, plant growth, root/shoot ratio and plant water status were assessed for durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L., as influenced by nitrogen availability and HgCl2 treatment. On both species during the plant cycle, nitrogen deficiency induced lower root hydraulic conductivity (-49 and -66% respectively for barley and wheat and lower plant growth. On wheat was also observed cycle delay, lower plant nitrogen content, but not lower leaf turgor pressure and epidermic cell dimension. The lower plant growth was due to lower plant dimension and lower tillering. Root /shoot ratio was always higher for nitrogen stressed plants, whether on dry matter or on surface basis. This was due to lower effect of nitrogen stress on root growth than on shoot growth. On wheat HgCl2 treatment determined lower plant growth, and more than nitrogen stress, cycle delay and higher root/shoot ratio. The mercury, also, induced leaf rolling, lower turgor pressure, lower NAR, higher root cell wall lignification and lower epidermic cell number per surface unity. In nitrogen fertilized plants root hydraulic conductivity was always reduced by HgCl2 treatment (-61 and 38%, respectively for wheat and barley, but in nitrogen unfertilized plants this effect was observed only during the first plant stages. This effect was higher during shooting and caryopsis formation, lower during tillering. It is concluded that barley and durum wheat react to nitrogen deficiency and HgCl2 treatment by increasing the root/shoot ratio, to compensate water stress due to lower water root conductivity probably induced by lower aquaporin synthesis or inactivation. However, this

  18. The annual frequency of root fillings, tooth extractions and pulp-related procedures in Danish adults during 1977-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, L.; Reit, C.

    2004-01-01

    endodontic epidemiology, frequency of root fillings, pulp capping, stepwise excavation, tooth extractions......endodontic epidemiology, frequency of root fillings, pulp capping, stepwise excavation, tooth extractions...

  19. Influences of image resolution on herbaceous root morphological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Zeyou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Root images of four herbaceous species (including Plantago virginica,Solidago canadensis,Conyza canadensis and Erigeron philadelphicus were obtained by using EPSON V7000 scanner with different resolutions.Root morphological parameters including root length,diameter,volume and area were determined by using a WinRhizo root analyzing software.The results show a distinct influence of image resolution on root morphological parameter.For different herbaceous species,the optimal resolutions of root images,which would produce an acceptable precision with relative short time,vary with different species.For example,a resolution of 200 dpi was recommended for the root images of Plantago virginica and S.Canadensis, while 400 dpi for Conyza canadensis and Erigeron philadelphicus.

  20. [Effects of arnebia root oil on wound healing of rats with full-thickness skin defect and the related mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J Y; Ma, Q; Yang, Z B; Gong, J J; Wu, Y S

    2017-09-20

    Objective: To observe the effects of arnebia root oil on wound healing of rats with full-thickness skin defect, and to explore the related mechanism. Methods: Eighty SD rats were divided into arnebia root oil group and control group according to the random number table, with 40 rats in each group, then full-thickness skin wounds with area of 3 cm×3 cm were inflicted on the back of each rat. Wounds of rats in arnebia root oil group and control group were treated with sterile medical gauze and bandage package infiltrated with arnebia root oil gauze or Vaseline gauze, respectively, with dressing change of once every two days. On post injury day (PID) 3, 7, 14, and 21, 10 rats in each group were sacrificed respectively for general observation and calculation of wound healing rate. The tissue samples of unhealed wound were collected for observation of histomorphological change with HE staining, observation of expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) with immunohistochemical staining, and determination of mRNA expressions of VEGF and bFGF with real time fluorescent quantitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Data were processed with analysis of variance of factorial design, t test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) On PID 3, there were a few secretions in wounds of rats in the two groups. On PID 7, there were fewer secretions and more granulation tissue in wounds of rats in arnebia root oil group, while there were more secretions and less granulation tissue in wounds of rats in control group. On PID 14, most of the wounds of rats in arnebia root oil group were healed and there was much red granulation tissue in unhealed wounds, while part of wounds of rats in control group was healed and there were a few secretions and less granulation tissue in unhealed wounds. On PID 21, wounds of rats in arnebia root oil group were basically healed, while there were still some unhealed wounds of rats in

  1. Rapid differentiation of closely related isolates of two plant viruses by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, D J; Morton, A; Spence, N J; Miller, A

    1995-09-01

    Immunocapture reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the product has been shown to be an effective procedure for discriminating serologically indistinguishable isolates of two plant viruses, raspberry bushy dwarf (RBDV) and zucchini yellow mosaic (ZYMV). For both viruses, only limited sequence information was available at the time of primer design, but most of the isolates which were tested could be amplified (the one exception being a serologically quite distinct isolate of ZYMV). Restriction endonucleases revealing diagnostic RFLPs were readily identified. Each of two isolates of ZYMV could be detected in the presence of the other and the relative proportions approximately quantified by visual estimation of the relative intensity of the appropriate bands. A range of isolates of different RBDV pathotypes were compared; isolates were grouped in ways that accorded with their known history. Computer analysis of the published sequence from which the primers had been derived showed the sequenced isolate to be identical with an isolate imported from the USSR. The PCR/RFLP procedure is rapid (it can be completed in less than 2 days), effective and will probably be generally applicable to distinguishing closely related virus isolates, even where little sequence information is available.

  2. Rooting depth and root depth distribution of Trifolium repens × T. uniflorum interspecific hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, S N; Hofmann, R W; Williams, W M; van Koten, C

    2016-05-20

    Traits related to root depth distribution were examined in Trifolium repens × T. uniflorum backcross 1 (BC 1 ) hybrids to determine whether root characteristics of white clover could be improved by interspecific hybridization. Two white clover cultivars, two T. uniflorum accessions and two BC 1 populations were grown in 1 -m deep tubes of sand culture. Maximum rooting depth and root mass distribution were measured at four harvests over time, and root distribution data were fitted with a regression model to provide measures of root system shape. Morphological traits were measured at two depths at harvest 3. Root system shape of the hybrids was more similar to T. uniflorum than to white clover. The hybrids and T. uniflorum had a higher rate of decrease in root mass with depth than white clover, which would result in higher proportions of root mass in the upper profile. Percentage total root mass at 100-200 mm depth was higher for T. uniflorum than white clover, and for Crusader BC 1 than 'Crusader'. Roots of the hybrids and T. uniflorum also penetrated deeper than those of white clover. T. uniflorum had thicker roots at 50-100 mm deep than the other entries, and more of its fine root mass at 400-500 mm. The hybrids and white clover had more of their fine root mass higher in the profile. Consequently, T. uniflorum had a higher root length density at 400-500 mm than most entries, and a smaller decrease in root length density with depth. These results demonstrate that rooting characteristics of white clover can be altered by hybridization with T. uniflorum, potentially improving water and nutrient acquisition and drought resistance. Root traits of T. uniflorum are likely to be adaptations to soil moisture and fertility in its natural environment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Smoking and perceived stress in relation to short salivary telomere length among caregivers of children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Velez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Pepper, Micah; Andrade, Asterio; Stoner, Lee; De Vivo, Immaculata; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length (TL), the length of repeated DNA sequence that forms protective caps at the end of chromosomes, has emerged as a novel biomarker of cell aging and oxidative stress. There is increasing research exploring the associations of smoking and perceived stress with TL, and the results are inconsistent. This study aimed to examine whether smoking and perceived stress were associated with shortened salivary TL among primary caregivers of children with disabilities. Using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction method, salivary TL was assessed among 89 caregivers aged 19-69 years (87% were women) who took care of disabled children in the Patagonia Region, Chile. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. The 14-item Perceived Stress Scale was used to assess perceived stress. Mean relative TL was 0.92 (standard error = 0.03). Smokers had age-adjusted mean TL that was 0.07 units lower (β = -0.07, standard error = 0.03; p = 0.012) than non-smokers. Smokers were 2.17 times more likely to have shorter TL ( stress. Caregivers with higher perceived stress were 2.13 times more likely to have shorter TL (odds ratio = 3.13; 95% confidence interval = 1.03-9.55) than caregivers with lower perceived stress after adjustment for age and smoking. This study provides the first evidence of strong associations between smoking and perceived stress and shortened salivary TL among caregivers of children with disabilities. Larger studies with detailed information on smoking status are warranted to confirm our findings.

  4. Does altered aortic flow in marfan syndrome relate to aortic root dilatation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hung-Hsuan; Chiu, Hsin-Hui; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Peng, Hsu-Hsia

    2016-08-01

    To examine possible hemodynamic alterations in adolescent to adult Marfan syndrome (MFS) patients with aortic root dilatation. Four-dimensional flow MRI was performed in 20 MFS patients and 12 age-matched normal subjects with a 3T system. The cross-sectional areas of 10 planes along the aorta were segmented for calculating the axial and circumferential wall shear stress (WSSaxial , WSScirc ), oscillatory shear index (OSIaxial , OSIcirc ), and the nonroundness (NR), presenting the asymmetry of segmental WSS. Pearson's correlation analysis was performed to present the correlations between the quantified indices and the body surface area (BSA), aortic root diameter (ARD), and Z score of the ARD. P < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. Patients exhibited lower WSSaxial in the aortic root and the WSScirc in the arch (P < 0.05-0.001). MFS patients exhibited higher OSIaxial and OSIcirc in the sinotubular junction and arch, but lower OSIcirc in the descending aorta (all P < 0.05). The NR values were lower in patients (P < 0.05). The WSSaxial or WSScirc exhibited moderate to strong correlations with BSA, ARD, or Z score (R(2)  = 0.50-0.72) in MFS patients. The significant differences in the quantified indices, which were associated with BSA, ARD, or Z score, in MFS were opposite to previous reports for younger MFS patients, indicating that altered flows in MFS patients may depend on the disease progress. The possible time dependency of hemodynamic alterations in MFS patients strongly suggests that longitudinal follow-up of 4D Flow is needed to comprehend disease progress. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:500-508. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Global Mechanical Response and Its Relation to Deformation and Failure Modes at Various Length Scales Under Shock Impact in Alumina AD995 Armor Ceramic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dandekar, D. P; McCauley, J. W; Green, W. H; Bourne, N. K; Chen, M. W

    2008-01-01

    ... maps relating the experimentally measured global mechanical response of a material through matured shock wave diagnostics to the nature of concurrent deformation and damage generated at varying length scales under shock wave loading.

  6. Making sense of root cause analysis investigations of surgery-related adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassin, Bryce R; Barach, Paul R

    2012-02-01

    This article discusses the limitations of root cause analysis (RCA) for surgical adverse events. Making sense of adverse events involves an appreciation of the unique features in a problematic situation, which resist generalization to other contexts. The top priority of adverse event investigations must be to inform the design of systems that help clinicians to adapt and respond effectively in real time to undesirable combinations of design, performance, and circumstance. RCAs can create opportunities in the clinical workplace for clinicians to reflect on local barriers and identify enablers of safe and reliable outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Response-based selection of barley cultivars and legume species for complementarity: Root morphology and exudation in relation to nutrient source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Courtney D; Brown, Lawrie K; Adu, Michael O; Mezeli, Malika M; Sandral, Graeme A; Simpson, Richard J; Wendler, Renate; Shand, Charles A; Menezes-Blackburn, Daniel; Darch, Tegan; Stutter, Marc I; Lumsdon, David G; Zhang, Hao; Blackwell, Martin S A; Wearing, Catherine; Cooper, Patricia; Haygarth, Philip M; George, Timothy S

    2017-02-01

    Phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) use efficiency may be improved through increased biodiversity in agroecosystems. Phenotypic variation in plants' response to nutrient deficiency may influence positive complementarity in intercropping systems. A multicomponent screening approach was used to assess the influence of P supply and N source on the phenotypic plasticity of nutrient foraging traits in barley (H. vulgare L.) and legume species. Root morphology and exudation were determined in six plant nutrient treatments. A clear divergence in the response of barley and legumes to the nutrient treatments was observed. Root morphology varied most among legumes, whereas exudate citrate and phytase activity were most variable in barley. Changes in root morphology were minimized in plants provided with ammonium in comparison to nitrate but increased under P deficiency. Exudate phytase activity and pH varied with legume species, whereas citrate efflux, specific root length, and root diameter lengths were more variable among barley cultivars. Three legume species and four barley cultivars were identified as the most responsive to P deficiency and the most contrasting of the cultivars and species tested. Phenotypic response to nutrient availability may be a promising approach for the selection of plant combinations for minimal input cropping systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic Dissection of Root Morphological Traits Related to Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Brassica napus L. under Two Contrasting Nitrogen Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As the major determinant for nutrient uptake, root system architecture (RSA has a massive impact on nitrogen use efficiency (NUE. However, little is known the molecular control of RSA as related to NUE in rapeseed. Here, a rapeseed recombinant inbred line population (BnaZNRIL was used to investigate root morphology (RM, an important component for RSA and NUE-related traits under high-nitrogen (HN and low-nitrogen (LN conditions by hydroponics. Data analysis suggested that RM-related traits, particularly root size had significantly phenotypic correlations with plant dry biomass and N uptake irrespective of N levels, but no or little correlation with N utilization efficiency (NUtE, providing the potential to identify QTLs with pleiotropy or specificity for RM- and NUE-related traits. A total of 129 QTLs (including 23 stable QTLs, which were repeatedly detected at least two environments or different N levels were identified and 83 of them were integrated into 22 pleiotropic QTL clusters. Five RM-NUE, ten RM-specific and three NUE-specific QTL clusters with same directions of additive-effect implied two NUE-improving approaches (RM-based and N utilization-based directly and provided valuable genomic regions for NUE improvement in rapeseed. Importantly, all of four major QTLs and most of stable QTLs (20 out of 23 detected here were related to RM traits under HN and/or LN levels, suggested that regulating RM to improve NUE would be more feasible than regulating N efficiency directly. These results provided the promising genomic regions for marker-assisted selection on RM-based NUE improvement in rapeseed.

  9. Unit Root Properties of Seasonal Adjustment and Related Filters: Special Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell William.R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bell (2012 catalogued unit root factors contained in linear filters used in seasonal adjustment (model-based or from the X-11 method but noted that, for model-based seasonal adjustment, special cases could arise where filters could contain more unit root factors than was indicated by the general results. This article reviews some special cases that occur with canonical ARIMA model based adjustment in which, with some commonly used ARIMA models, the symmetric seasonal filters contain two extra nonseasonal differences (i.e., they include an extra (1 - B(1 - F. This increases by two the degree of polynomials in time that are annihilated by the seasonal filter and reproduced by the seasonal adjustment filter. Other results for canonical ARIMA adjustment that are reported in Bell (2012, including properties of the trend and irregular filters, and properties of the asymmetric and finite filters, are unaltered in these special cases. Special cases for seasonal adjustment with structural ARIMA component models are also briefly discussed.

  10. Simulations of tremor-related creep reveal a weak crustal root of the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, David R.; Bradley, Andrew M.; Johnson, Kaj M.

    2013-01-01

    Deep aseismic roots of faults play a critical role in transferring tectonic loads to shallower, brittle crustal faults that rupture in large earthquakes. Yet, until the recent discovery of deep tremor and creep, direct inference of the physical properties of lower-crustal fault roots has remained elusive. Observations of tremor near Parkfield, CA provide the first evidence for present-day localized slip on the deep extension of the San Andreas Fault and triggered transient creep events. We develop numerical simulations of fault slip to show that the spatiotemporal evolution of triggered tremor near Parkfield is consistent with triggered fault creep governed by laboratory-derived friction laws between depths of 20–35 km on the fault. Simulated creep and observed tremor northwest of Parkfield nearly ceased for 20–30 days in response to small coseismic stress changes of order 104 Pa from the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon Earthquake. Simulated afterslip and observed tremor following the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake show a coseismically induced pulse of rapid creep and tremor lasting for 1 day followed by a longer 30 day period of sustained accelerated rates due to propagation of shallow afterslip into the lower crust. These creep responses require very low effective normal stress of ~1 MPa on the deep San Andreas Fault and near-neutral-stability frictional properties expected for gabbroic lower-crustal rock.

  11. Age-related changes in the plasticity and toughness of human cortical bone at multiple length-scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Elizabeth A.; Schaible, Eric; Bale, Hrishikesh; Barth, Holly D.; Tang, Simon Y.; Reichert, Peter; Busse, Bjoern; Alliston, Tamara; Ager III, Joel W.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2011-08-10

    The structure of human cortical bone evolves over multiple length-scales from its basic constituents of collagen and hydroxyapatite at the nanoscale to osteonal structures at nearmillimeter dimensions, which all provide the basis for its mechanical properties. To resist fracture, bone’s toughness is derived intrinsically through plasticity (e.g., fibrillar sliding) at structural-scales typically below a micron and extrinsically (i.e., during crack growth) through mechanisms (e.g., crack deflection/bridging) generated at larger structural-scales. Biological factors such as aging lead to a markedly increased fracture risk, which is often associated with an age-related loss in bone mass (bone quantity). However, we find that age-related structural changes can significantly degrade the fracture resistance (bone quality) over multiple lengthscales. Using in situ small-/wide-angle x-ray scattering/diffraction to characterize sub-micron structural changes and synchrotron x-ray computed tomography and in situ fracture-toughness measurements in the scanning electron microscope to characterize effects at micron-scales, we show how these age-related structural changes at differing size-scales degrade both the intrinsic and extrinsic toughness of bone. Specifically, we attribute the loss in toughness to increased non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking which suppresses plasticity at nanoscale dimensions and to an increased osteonal density which limits the potency of crack-bridging mechanisms at micron-scales. The link between these processes is that the increased stiffness of the cross-linked collagen requires energy to be absorbed by “plastic” deformation at higher structural levels, which occurs by the process of microcracking.

  12. Immunologically related lectins from stems and roots of developing seedlings of Cucurbita ficifolia: purification and some properties of root and stem lectins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Lorenc-Kubis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemagglutinating activity has been found in acetate extracts from roots and stems of squash seedlings (Cucurbita ficifolia. The hemaglutinating activity changes during seeds germination and seedling development. Dot blot and Western blot techniques have shown that proteins from these vegetative tissues cross-reacted with antibodies raised against endogenous cotyledons lectin CLBa and Con A.Lectins were isolated from stems and roots of 6-day old seedlings by precipitation with ethanol, affinity chromatography on Con A-Sepharose, gel filtration on Bio-gel P100 and separated by electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel. Three purified lectins (RLA1, RLA2, RLA3 were obtained from roots and four from stems (SLA1, SLA2, SLA3, SLA4. The purified lectins from roots and stems agglutinated all human red blood cells, but sheep erythrocytes were most sensitive to agglutination. The hemagglutination of the root lectins RLA2 and RLA3 was inhibited by a very low concentration of arabinose, while RLA1, of xylose and Ga1NAc. Arabinose and Xylose were also found to be the most effective inhibitors of all stem lectins.

  13. Concerted transcription of auxin and carbohydrate homeostasis-related genes underlies improved adventitious rooting of microcuttings derived from far-red treated Eucalyptus globulus Labill mother plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedell, Carolina Michels; de Almeida, Márcia Rodrigues; Fett-Neto, Arthur Germano

    2015-12-01

    Economically important plant species, such as Eucalyptus globulus, are often rooting recalcitrant. We have previously shown that far-red light enrichment applied to E. globulus donor-plants improved microcutting rooting competence and increased rooting zone/shoot carbohydrate ratio. To better understand this developmental response, the relative expression profiles of genes involved in auxin signaling (ARF6, ARF8, AGO1), biosynthesis (YUC3) and transport (AUX1, PIN1, PIN2); sucrose cleavage (SUS1, CWINV1), transport (SUC5), hexose phosphorylation (HXK1, FLN1) and starch biosynthesis (SS3) were quantified during adventitious rooting of E. globulus microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far-red or white light. Expression of auxin transport-related genes increased in the first days of root induction. Far-red enrichment of donor plants induced ARF6, ARF8 and AGO1 in microcuttings. The first two gene products could activate GH3 and other rooting related genes, whereas AGO1 deregulation of the repressor ARF17 may relief rooting inhibition. Increased sink strength at the basal stem with sucrose unloading in root tissue mediated by SUC and subsequent hydrolysis by SUS1 were also supported by gene expression profile. Fructose phosphorylation and starch biosynthesis could also contribute to proper carbon allocation at the site of rooting, as evidenced by increased expression of related genes. These data are in good agreement with increased contents of hexoses and starch at the cutting base severed from far-red exposed donor plants. To sum up, pathways integrating auxin and carbohydrate metabolism were activated in microcuttings derived from donor plants exposed to far red light enrichment, thereby improving rooting response in E. globulus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Auxin uptake, transport and accumulation in relation to rooting and ageing of mung bean cuttings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, B.C.; Shaheed, A.I.

    1986-01-01

    The rooting response of mung bean cuttings (Phaseolus aureus Roxb. cv. Berkin) to indoleacetic acid (IAA) progressively declined when they were aged in water prior to auxin treatment. With increased duration of the ageing period the uptake of basally-supplied auxin by cuttings decreased. This correlated with diminished transpiration. Notwithstanding this decline in the uptake of IAA, a decreasing proportion of the acquired auxin was transported acropetally out of the hypocotyl with increasing age of the cuttings. Recovery of 14 C from cuttings 24 h after the foliar application of 14 C-IAA declined with increasing age of the cuttings. Furthermore, the total amount of radioactivity recovered in the hypocotyl diminished as a function of the increasing age of cuttings, as did the proportion of radioactivity located in the hypocotyl. (author)

  15. Incisor root resorption in class II division 2 patients in relation to orthodontic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faxén Sepanian, Varro; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2018-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The aims were 1. to analyse differences in the occurrence of orthodontic induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) of the upper and lower incisors in Angle Class II division 2 patients, between patients treated with fixed appliance only (one-phase treatment group......-four subjects treated for Class II division 2 malocclusion were divided into two groups: 46 patients in the one-phase treatment group (28 girls, 18 boys, mean age 14.4) and 28 patients in the two-phase treatment group (18 girls, 10 boys, mean age 12.4) where 336 and 201 incisors were analysed respectively...... group showed significantly more OIIRR for lower central incisors (P = 0.002) compared to the two-phase treatment group. For the both groups combined, boys showed more OIIRR than girls (P = 0.002) and patients with agenesis showed more OIIRR than patients without agenesis (P = 0.019) for the lower...

  16. On the algebraic characterization of aperiodic tilings related to ADE-root systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellendonk, J.

    1992-09-01

    The algebraic characterization of sets of locally equivalent aperiodic tilings, being examples of quantum spaces, is conducted for a certain type of tilings in a manner proposed by A. Connes. These 2-dimensional tilings are obtained by application of the strip method to the root lattice of an ADE-Coxeter group. The plane along which the strip is constructed is determined by the canonical Coxeter element leading to the result that a 2- dimensional tiling decomposes into a cartesian product of two 1- dimensional tilings. The properties of the tilings are investigated, including selfsimilarity, and the determination of the relevant algebraic is considered, namely the ordered K 0 -group of an algebra naturaly assigned to the quantum space. The result also yields an application of the 2-dimensional abstract gap labelling theorem. (orig.)

  17. A Standardized Method to Assess Infection Rates of Root-Knot and Cyst Nematodes in Arabidopsis thaliana Mutants with Alterations in Root Development Related to Auxin and Cytokinin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, Rocío; Silva, Ana Cláudia; Díaz-Manzano, Fernando E; Cabrera, Javier; Fenoll, Carmen; Escobar, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes cause a great impact in agricultural systems. The search for effective control methods is partly based on the understanding of underlying molecular mechanisms leading to the formation of nematode feeding sites. In this respect, crosstalk of hormones such as auxins and cytokinins (IAA, CK) between the plant and the nematode seems to be crucial. Thence, the study of loss of function or overexpressing lines with altered IAA and CK functioning is entailed. Those lines frequently show developmental defects in the number, position and/or length of the lateral roots what could generate a bias in the interpretation of the nematode infection parameters. Here we present a protocol to assess differences in nematode infectivity with the lowest interference of root architecture phenotypes in the results. Thus, tailored growth conditions and normalization parameters facilitate the standardized phenotyping of nematode infection.

  18. Influence of day length and temperature on the content of health-related compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindal, Anne Linn Hykkerud; Mølmann, Jørgen; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Johansen, Tor J

    2013-11-13

    Vegetables grown at different latitudes are exposed to various temperatures and day lengths, which can affect the content of health- and sensory-related compounds in broccoli florets. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted under controlled growth conditions, with contrasting temperatures (15/9 and 21/15 °C) and day lengths (12 and 24 h), to investigate the effect on glucosinolates, vitamin C, flavonols, and soluble sugars. Aliphatic glucosinolates, quercetin, and kaempferol were at their highest levels at high temperatures combined with a 12 h day. Levels of total glucosinolates, d-glucose, and d-fructose were elevated by high temperatures. Conversely, the content of vitamin C was highest with a 12 h day length combined with 15/9 °C. Our results indicate that temperature and day length influence the contents of health-related compounds in broccoli florets in a complex way, suggesting no general superiority of any of the contrasting growth conditions.

  19. Root-type-specific plasticity in response to localized high nitrate supply in maize (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng; Hochholdinger, Frank; Li, Chunjian

    2015-10-01

    Shoot-borne roots contribute to most of the nutrient uptake throughout the life cycle of maize (Zea mays). Compared with numerous studies with embryonic roots, detailed information on the phenotypic plasticity of shoot-borne roots in response to a heterogeneous nitrogen supply is scarce. The present study therefore provides a comprehensive profile of fine-scale plastic responses of distinct root types to localized high nitrate supply. Seedlings of the maize inbred line B73 were grown in split-root systems. The anatomy and morphological plasticity of the primary root and the roots initiated from the 2nd, 5th and 7th shoot nodes, and their lateral roots, were studied in response to local high nitrate supply to one side of the root system. In contrast to the insensitivity of axial roots, local high nitrate supply increased the length of 1st-order lateral roots on the primary root and the three whorls of shoot-borne roots at different growth stages, and increased the density of 1st-order lateral roots on the 7th shoot-borne root after silking. The length and density of 2nd-order lateral roots on the three whorls of shoot-borne roots displayed a more flexible response to local high nitrate than 1st-order lateral roots. Root diameter and number, and total area and diameter of metaxylem vessels increased from the primary root to early and then later developed shoot-borne roots, which showed a positive relationship with shoot growth and N accumulation. Maize axial roots and lateral roots responded differently to local high nitrate, and this was related to their function. The extent of morphological plasticity of lateral roots in response to local high nitrate depended on the initiation time of the shoot-borne roots on which the lateral roots developed. Morphological plasticity was higher on 2nd-order than on 1st-order lateral roots. The results suggest that higher order lateral root branching might be a potential target for genetic improvement in future maize breeding.

  20. Unraveling uranium induced oxidative stress related responses in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Part I: responses in the roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Horemans, Nele; Remans, Tony; Opdenakker, Kelly; Smeets, Karen; Bello, Daniel Martinez; Wannijn, Jean; Van Hees, May; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann

    2011-06-01

    When aiming to evaluate the environmental impact of uranium contamination, it is important to unravel the mechanisms by which plants respond to uranium stress. As oxidative stress seems an important modulator under other heavy metal stress, this study aimed to investigate oxidative stress related responses in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to uranium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 μM for 1, 3 and 7 days. Besides analyzing relevant reactive oxygen species-producing and -scavenging enzymes at protein and transcriptional level, the importance of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle under uranium stress was investigated. These results are reported separately for roots and leaves in two papers: Part I dealing with responses in the roots and Part II unraveling responses in the leaves and presenting general conclusions. Results of Part I indicate that oxidative stress related responses in the roots were only triggered following exposure to the highest uranium concentration of 100 μM. A fast oxidative burst was suggested based on the observed enhancement of lipoxygenase (LOX1) and respiratory burst oxydase homolog (RBOHD) transcript levels already after 1 day. The first line of defense was attributed to superoxide dismutase (SOD), also triggered from the first day. The enhanced SOD-capacity observed at protein level corresponded with an enhanced expression of iron SOD (FSD1) located in the plastids. For the detoxification of H(2)O(2), an early increase in catalase (CAT1) transcript levels was observed while peroxidase capacities were enhanced at the later stage of 3 days. Although the ascorbate peroxidase capacity and gene expression (APX1) increased, the ascorbate/dehydroascorbate redox balance was completely disrupted and shifted toward the oxidized form. This disrupted balance could not be inverted by the glutathione part of the cycle although the glutathione redox balance could be maintained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  2. Eating difficulties in relation to gender, length of stay, and discharge to institutional care, among patients in stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergren, A; Ohlsson, O; Hallberg, I R

    2002-07-10

    To describe and compare eating difficulties from admission to discharge, with regard to length of stay (LOS) and discharge to institutional care, as well as in relation to gender. Patients, aged 65 or above, admitted for stroke rehabilitation, having at least one eating difficulty were observed (n =108) as regards to eating on admission and at discharge. Analysis followed earlier findings in which eating difficulties had been found to have three components, i.e. ingestion, deglutition and energy. Of the components, ingestion difficulties were the most common, followed by low energy. The most common single difficulties were low food consumption, difficulties in manipulating food on the plate and transporting it to the mouth. Ingestion difficulties especially decreased during the rehabilitation period. Women were older and ate less on admission and at discharge than men, improved less than men, and also a higher proportion had a low food intake at the time of discharge if having longer LOS and/or being discharged to institutional care. Patients with longer LOS and those discharged to institutional care had more eating difficulties on admission and were more dependent in activities of daily living (ADL) than those with shorter LOS and those who returned home. LOS was mainly explained by ingestion difficulties on admission and low age. Discharge to institutional care was explained by living alone before admission, ingestion difficulties at discharge, male gender and high age. Ingestion difficulties on admission indicate a longer in-hospital stay and decrease to a greater extent than other types of eating difficulties. If these difficulties persist at the time of discharge the patients are more likely to need institutional care. It is important to assess and take systematic measures for each of the three variants of eating difficulties, i.e. ingestion, deglutition, and energy, to improve eating abilities. Women in particular need attention with regard to low food intake.

  3. Relative Abundance of Integral Plasma Membrane Proteins in Arabidopsis Leaf and Root Tissue Determined by Metabolic Labeling and Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernfur, Katja; Larsson, Olaf; Larsson, Christer; Gustavsson, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic labeling of proteins with a stable isotope (15N) in intact Arabidopsis plants was used for accurate determination by mass spectrometry of differences in protein abundance between plasma membranes isolated from leaves and roots. In total, 703 proteins were identified, of which 188 were predicted to be integral membrane proteins. Major classes were transporters, receptors, proteins involved in membrane trafficking and cell wall-related proteins. Forty-one of the integral proteins, including nine of the 13 isoforms of the PIP (plasma membrane intrinsic protein) aquaporin subfamily, could be identified by peptides unique to these proteins, which made it possible to determine their relative abundance in leaf and root tissue. In addition, peptides shared between isoforms gave information on the proportions of these isoforms. A comparison between our data for protein levels and corresponding data for mRNA levels in the widely used database Genevestigator showed an agreement for only about two thirds of the proteins. By contrast, localization data available in the literature for 21 of the 41 proteins show a much better agreement with our data, in particular data based on immunostaining of proteins and GUS-staining of promoter activity. Thus, although mRNA levels may provide a useful approximation for protein levels, detection and quantification of isoform-specific peptides by proteomics should generate the most reliable data for the proteome. PMID:23990937

  4. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  5. Shorter Leukocyte Telomere Length in Relation to Presumed Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mexican-American Men in NHANES 1999–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Wojcicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length is shorter in response to chronic disease processes associated with inflammation such as diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES from 1999 to 2002 was used to explore the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and presumed NAFLD, as indicated by elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels, obesity, or abdominal obesity. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between telomere length and presumed markers of NAFLD adjusting for possible confounders. There was no relationship between elevated ALT levels, abdominal obesity, or obesity and telomere length in adjusted models in NHANES (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.48–2.65; OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.52–2.62, resp.. Mexican-American men had shorter telomere length in relation to presumed NAFLD (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.006–0.79 and using different indicators of NAFLD (OR 0.012, 95% CI 0.0006–0.24. Mexican origin with presumed NAFLD had shorter telomere length than men in other population groups. Longitudinal studies are necessary to evaluate the role of telomere length as a potential predictor to assess pathogenesis of NALFD in Mexicans.

  6. Comparisons between Arabidopsis thaliana and Drosophila melanogaster in relation to Coding and Noncoding Sequence Length and Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Caldwell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a continuing interest in the analysis of gene architecture and gene expression to determine the relationship that may exist. Advances in high-quality sequencing technologies and large-scale resource datasets have increased the understanding of relationships and cross-referencing of expression data to the large genome data. Although a negative correlation between expression level and gene (especially transcript length has been generally accepted, there have been some conflicting results arising from the literature concerning the impacts of different regions of genes, and the underlying reason is not well understood. The research aims to apply quantile regression techniques for statistical analysis of coding and noncoding sequence length and gene expression data in the plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, and fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to determine if a relationship exists and if there is any variation or similarities between these species. The quantile regression analysis found that the coding sequence length and gene expression correlations varied, and similarities emerged for the noncoding sequence length (5′ and 3′ UTRs between animal and plant species. In conclusion, the information described in this study provides the basis for further exploration into gene regulation with regard to coding and noncoding sequence length.

  7. Carbon cost of the fungal symbiont relative to net leaf P accumulation in a split-root VA mycorrhizal symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douds, D.D. Jr.; Johnson, C.R.; Koch, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    Translocation of 14 C-photosynthates to mycorrhizal (++), half mycorrhizal (0+), and nonmycorrhizal (00) split-root systems was compared to P accumulation in leaves of the host plant. Carrizo citrange seedlings (Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf. x Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) were inoculated with the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith. Plants were exposed to 14 CO 2 for 10 minutes and ambient air for 2 hours. Three to 4% of recently labeled photosynthate was allocated to metabolism of the mycorrhiza in each inoculated root half independent of shoot P concentration, growth response, and whether one or both root halves were colonized. Nonmycorrhizal roots respired more of the label translocated to them than did mycorrhizal roots. Label recovered in the potting medium due to exudation or transport into extraradical hyphae was 5 to 6 times greater for (++) versus (00) plants. In low nutrient media, roots of (0+) and (++) plants transported more P to leaves per root weight than roots of (00) plants. However, when C translocated to roots utilized for respiration, exudation, etc., as well as growth is considered, (00) plant roots were at least as efficient at P uptake (benefit) per C utilized (cost) as (0+) and (++) plants. Root systems of (++) plants did not supply more P to leaves than (0+) plants in higher nutrient media, yet they still allocated twice the 14 C-photosynthate to the mycorrhiza as did (0+) root systems

  8. The root epidermis-specific pea gene RH2 is homologous to a pathogenesis-related gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mylona, P.; Moerman, M.; Yang, W.C.; Gloudemans, T.; Kerckhove, van de J.; Kammen, van A.; Bisseling, T.; Franssen, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of pea root and root hair proteins revealed the existence of at least 10 proteins present at elevated levels in root hairs. One of these, named RH2, was isolated and a partial amino acid sequence was determined from two tryptic peptides. Using this sequence

  9. Distribution of local critical current along sample length and its relation to overall current in a long Bi2223/Ag superconducting composite tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, S; Doko, D; Okuda, H; Oh, S S; Ha, D W

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of the local critical current and the n-value along the sample length and its relation to the overall critical current were studied experimentally and analytically for the bent multifilamentary Bi2223/Ag/Ag-Mg alloy superconducting composite tape. Then, based on the results, it was attempted to simulate on a computer the dependence of the critical current on the sample length. The main results are summarized as follows. The experimentally observed relation of the distributed local critical current and n-value to the overall critical current was described comprehensively with a simple voltage summation model, in which the sample was regarded as a one-dimensional series circuit. The sample length dependence of the critical current was reproduced on the computer by a Monte Carlo simulation incorporating the voltage summation model and the regression analysis results for the local critical current distribution and the relation of the n-value to the critical current

  10. Plant root and shoot dynamics during subsurface obstacle interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Nathaniel; Aguilar, Jeffrey; Benfey, Philip; Goldman, Daniel

    As roots grow, they must navigate complex underground environments to anchor and retrieve water and nutrients. From gravity sensing at the root tip to pressure sensing along the tip and elongation zone, the complex mechanosensory feedback system of the root allows it to bend towards greater depths and avoid obstacles of high impedance by asymmetrically suppressing cell elongation. Here we investigate the mechanical and physiological responses of roots to rigid obstacles. We grow Maize, Zea mays, plants in quasi-2D glass containers (22cm x 17cm x 1.4cm) filled with photoelastic gel and observe that, regardless of obstacle interaction, smaller roots branch off the primary root when the upward growing shoot (which contains the first leaf) reaches an average length of 40 mm, coinciding with when the first leaf emerges. However, prior to branching, contacts with obstacles result in reduced root growth rates. The growth rate of the root relative to the shoot is sensitive to the angle of the obstacle surface, whereby the relative root growth is greatest for horizontally oriented surfaces. We posit that root growth is prioritized when horizontal obstacles are encountered to ensure anchoring and access to nutrients during later stages of development. NSF Physics of Living Systems.

  11. Localized iron supply triggers lateral root elongation in Arabidopsis by altering the AUX1-mediated auxin distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giehl, Ricardo F H; Lima, Joni E; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation.

  12. The Impact of Host Family Relations and Length of Stay on Adolescent Identity Expression during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Averil Marie

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationships between host family success, social integration, length of stay and acquisition of adolescent language by students on extended international homestay programmes. Degree of adolescent language acquisition and integration is measured by use of two hallmarks of adolescent language: markers of approximation…

  13. Rapid detection of dihydropteroate polymorphism in AIDS-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia by restriction fragment length polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Lundgren, B

    2000-01-01

    are associated with failure of sulpha prophylaxis and increased mortality in HIV-1 positive patients with PCP, suggesting that DHPS mutations may cause sulpha resistance. To facilitate detection of DHPS mutations we developed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay, detecting mutations at codon...

  14. Root resorption diagnosed with cone beam computed tomography after 6 months of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance and the relation to risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedonas, Dimitrios; Lund, Henrik; Gröndahl, Kerstin; Hansen, Ken

    2012-03-01

    To investigate root resorption after 6 months of active orthodontic treatment and its relation to possible risk factors. Ninety-seven patients (10-18 years) with a Class I malocclusion and crowding treated with fixed appliance and premolar extractions were examined with cone beam computed tomography before and after 6 months of active treatment. The exposure covered all teeth from first molar to first molar in both jaws. The Malmgren index was used to evaluate the degree of root resorption. Irregular root contour (score 1) was seen in most teeth already before active treatment, and therefore resorptions were registered only as score 2 (resorption) or higher. Minor root resorption was noted in 10% of the patients and severe root resorption, >2 mm (score 3) was found in four patients. Root resorption was more frequently seen in the upper jaw, especially the incisors. There was no statistically significant correlation of root resorption with any of the selected risk factors. After 6 months of treatment, clinically significant resorption was diagnosed in 4% of the patients, ie, in 96% of the patients the radiographic examination did not reveal any significant information. The selected risk factors did not have any impact on the amount of resorption after 6 months of active treatment.

  15. Phytoremediation in the tropics--influence of heavy crude oil on root morphological characteristics of graminoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkl, Nicole; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer; Infante, Carmen

    2005-11-01

    When studying species for phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils, one of the main traits is the root zone where enhanced petroleum degradation takes place. Root morphological characteristics of three tropical graminoids were studied. Specific root length (SRL), surface area, volume and average root diameter (ARD) of plants grown in crude oil-contaminated and uncontaminated soil were compared. Brachiaria brizantha and Cyperus aggregatus showed coarser roots in polluted soil compared to the control as expressed in an increased ARD. B. brizantha had a significantly larger specific root surface area in contaminated soil. Additionally, a shift of SRL and surface area per diameter class towards higher diameters was found. Oil contamination also caused a significantly smaller SRL and surface area in the finest diameter class of C. aggregatus. The root structure of Eleusine indica was not significantly affected by crude oil. Higher specific root surface area was related to higher degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons found in previous studies.

  16. Different Phylogenetic and Environmental Controls of First-order Root Morphological and Chemical Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Wang, Q.; Zhao, N.; Yu, G.; He, N.

    2017-12-01

    Fine roots are the most distal roots that act as the primary belowground organs in acquiring limiting nutrients and water from the soil. However, limited by the inconsistency in definitions of fine roots and the different protocols among studies, knowledge of root system traits has, to date, still lagged far behind our understanding of above-ground traits. In particular, whether variation in fine root traits among the plant species along a single root economics spectrum and this underlying mechanism are still hotly debated. In this study, we sampled the first-order root using the standardized protocols, and measured six important root traits related to resource use strategies, from 181 plant species from subtropical to boreal forests. Base on this large dataset, we concluded that different phylogenetic and environmental factors affected on root thickness and nutrient, resulting in the decoupled pattern between them. Specifically, variation in species-level traits related to root thickness (including root diameter, RD and specific root length, SRL) was restricted by common ancestry and little plastic to the changing environments, whereas the large-scale variation in woody root nutrient was mainly controlled by environmental differences, especially soil variables. For community-level traits, mean annual temperature (MAT) mainly influenced the community-level root thickness through the direct effect of changes in plant species composition, while soil P had a positive influence effect on community-level root nitrogen concentration (CWM_RN), reflecting the strong influence of soil fertility on belowground root nutrient. The different environmental constraints and selective pressures acting between root thickness and nutrient traits allows for multiple ecological strategies to adapt to complex environmental conditions. In addition, strong relationships between community-level root traits and environmental variables, due to environmental filters, indicate that in contrast

  17. Step length after discrete perturbation predicts accidental falls and fall-related injury in elderly people with a range of peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allet, Lara; Kim, Hogene; Ashton-Miller, James; De Mott, Trina; Richardson, James K

    2014-01-01

    Distal symmetric polyneuropathy increases fall risk due to inability to cope with perturbations. We aimed to 1) identify the frontal plane lower limb sensorimotor functions which are necessary for robustness to a discrete, underfoot perturbation during gait; and 2) determine whether changes in the post-perturbed step parameters could distinguish between fallers and non fallers. Forty-two subjects (16 healthy old and 26 with diabetic PN) participated. Frontal plane lower limb sensorimotor functions were determined using established laboratory-based techniques. The subjects' most extreme alterations in step width or step length in response to a perturbation were measured. In addition, falls and fall-related injuries were prospectively recorded. Ankle proprioceptive threshold (APrT; p=.025) and hip abduction rate of torque generation (RTG; p=.041) independently predicted extreme step length after medial perturbation, with precise APrT and greater hip RTG allowing maintenance of step length. Injured subjects demonstrated greater extreme step length changes after medial perturbation than non-injured subjects (percent change = 18.5 ± 9.2 vs. 11.3 ± 4.57; p = .01). The ability to rapidly generate frontal plane hip strength and/or precisely perceive motion at the ankle is needed to maintain a normal step length after perturbation, a parameter which distinguishes between subjects sustaining a fall-related injury and those who did not. © 2014.

  18. Relative solvation free energies calculated using an ab initio QM/MM-based free energy perturbation method: dependence of results on simulation length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Rami; Erion, Mark D

    2009-12-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in conjunction with thermodynamic perturbation approach was used to calculate relative solvation free energies of five pairs of small molecules, namely; (1) methanol to ethane, (2) acetone to acetamide, (3) phenol to benzene, (4) 1,1,1 trichloroethane to ethane, and (5) phenylalanine to isoleucine. Two studies were performed to evaluate the dependence of the convergence of these calculations on MD simulation length and starting configuration. In the first study, each transformation started from the same well-equilibrated configuration and the simulation length was varied from 230 to 2,540 ps. The results indicated that for transformations involving small structural changes, a simulation length of 860 ps is sufficient to obtain satisfactory convergence. In contrast, transformations involving relatively large structural changes, such as phenylalanine to isoleucine, require a significantly longer simulation length (>2,540 ps) to obtain satisfactory convergence. In the second study, the transformation was completed starting from three different configurations and using in each case 860 ps of MD simulation. The results from this study suggest that performing one long simulation may be better than averaging results from three different simulations using a shorter simulation length and three different starting configurations.

  19. Allometric relations of total volumes of prolactin cells and corticotropic cells to body length in the annual cyprinodont Cynolebias whitei: effects of environmental salinity, stress and ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, J. M.; Wendelaar Bonga, S. E.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis of the allometric relations of the total volumes occupied by prolactin (PRL) and corticotropic (ACTH) cells (PRL volume and ACTH volume, respectively) to body length and a study of the immunocytochemical staining intensity of PRL and ACTH cells were used to determine the differences in

  20. Delayed Recognition of Deterioration of Patients in General Wards Is Mostly Caused by Human Related Monitoring Failures: A Root Cause Analysis of Unplanned ICU Admissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise S van Galen

    Full Text Available An unplanned ICU admission of an inpatient is a serious adverse event (SAE. So far, no in depth-study has been performed to systematically analyse the root causes of unplanned ICU-admissions. The primary aim of this study was to identify the healthcare worker-, organisational-, technical,- disease- and patient- related causes that contribute to acute unplanned ICU admissions from general wards using a Root-Cause Analysis Tool called PRISMA-medical. Although a Track and Trigger System (MEWS was introduced in our hospital a few years ago, it was implemented without a clear protocol. Therefore, the secondary aim was to assess the adherence to a Track and Trigger system to identify deterioration on general hospital wards in patients eventually transferred to the ICU.Retrospective observational study in 49 consecutive adult patients acutely admitted to the Intensive Care Unit from a general nursing ward. 1. PRISMA-analysis on root causes of unplanned ICU admissions 2. Assessment of protocol adherence to the early warning score system.Out of 49 cases, 156 root causes were identified. The most frequent root causes were healthcare worker related (46%, which were mainly failures in monitoring the patient. They were followed by disease-related (45%, patient-related causes (7, 5%, and organisational root causes (3%. In only 40% of the patients vital parameters were monitored as was instructed by the doctor. 477 vital parameter sets were found in the 48 hours before ICU admission, in only 1% a correct MEWS was explicitly documented in the record.This in-depth analysis demonstrates that almost half of the unplanned ICU admissions from the general ward had healthcare worker related root causes, mostly due to monitoring failures in clinically deteriorating patients. In order to reduce unplanned ICU admissions, improving the monitoring of patients is therefore warranted.

  1. Relational environment and intellectual roots of 'ecological economics': An orthodox or heterodox field of research?

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Aurora A. C.; Castro e Silva, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    The way the fields are delineated has been the Achilles' heel of studies analyzing the status and evolution of given scientific areas. Based on van den Besselaar and Leydesdorff's (Mapping change in scientific specialities; a scientometric reconstruction of the development of artificial intelligence, 1996) contribution, the authors propose a systematic and objective method for delineating the field of ecological economics assuming that aggregated journal-journal citation relations is an appro...

  2. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn; Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus

    2012-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (proot resorption (proot resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  3. Fine roots in stands of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies along a gradient of soil acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Sabine; Cantaluppi, Leonardo; Flueckiger, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Root length of naturally grown young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) was investigated in 26 forest plots of differing base saturation and nitrogen deposition. The relative length of finest roots (<0.25 mm) was found to decrease in soils with low base saturation. A similar reduction of finest roots in plots with high nitrogen deposition was masked by the effect of base saturation. The formation of adventitious roots was enhanced in acidic soils. The analysis of 128 soil profiles for fine roots of all species present in stands of either Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies [Karst.] L. or both showed a decreased rooting depth in soils with ≤20% base saturation and in hydromorphic soils. For base rich, well drained soils an average rooting depth of 108 cm was found. This decreased by 28 cm on acidic, well drained soils. The results suggest an effect of the current soil acidification in Switzerland and possibly also of nitrogen deposition on the fine root systems of forest trees. - Fine root length of Fagus sylvatica and fine root depth in stands of Fagus sylvatica and/or Picea abies were impaired in soils with low base saturation

  4. How does undergraduate college biology students' level of understanding, in regard to the role of the seed plant root system, relate to their level of understanding of photosynthesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njeng'ere, James Gicheha

    This research study investigated how undergraduate college biology students' level of understanding of the role of the seed plant root system relates to their level of understanding of photosynthesis. This research was conducted with 65 undergraduate non-majors biology who had completed 1 year of biology at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge and Southeastern Louisiana University in Hammond. A root probe instrument was developed from some scientifically acceptable propositional statements about the root system, the process of photosynthesis, as well as the holistic nature of the tree. These were derived from research reviews of the science education and the arboriculture literature. This was administered to 65 students selected randomly from class lists of the two institutions. Most of the root probe's items were based on the Live Oak tree. An in-depth, clinical interview-based analysis was conducted with 12 of those tested students. A team of root experts participated by designing, validating and answering the same questions that the students were asked. A "systems" lens as defined by a team of college instructors, root experts (Shigo, 1991), and this researcher was used to interpret the results. A correlational coefficient determining students' level of understanding of the root system and their level of understanding of the process of photosynthesis was established by means of Pearson's r correlation (r = 0.328) using the SAS statistical analysis (SAS, 1987). From this a coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.104) was determined. Students' level of understanding of the Live Oak root system (mean score 5.94) was not statistically different from their level of understanding of the process of photosynthesis (mean score 5.54) as assessed by the root probe, t (129) = 0.137, p > 0.05 one tailed-test. This suggests that, to some degree, level of the root system limits level of understanding of photosynthesis and vice versa. Analysis of quantitative and qualitative

  5. Phosphorus Acquisition Efficiency Related to Root Traits: Is Mycorrhizal Symbiosis a Key Factor to Wheat and Barley Cropping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Pedro; Borie, Fernando; Cornejo, Pablo; López-Ráez, Juan A.; López-García, Álvaro; Seguel, Alex

    2018-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are major crops cultivated around the world, thus playing a crucial role on human diet. Remarkably, the growing human population requires a significant increase in agricultural production in order to feed everybody. In this context, phosphorus (P) management is a key factor as it is component of organic molecules such as nucleic acids, ATP and phospholipids, and it is the most abundant macronutrient in biomass after nitrogen (N), although being one of the scarcest elements in the lithosphere. In general, P fertilization has low efficiency, as only a fraction of the applied P is acquired by roots, leaving a substantial amount to be accumulated in soil as not readily available P. Breeding for P-efficient cultivars is a relatively low cost alternative and can be done through two mechanisms: i) improving P use efficiency (PUE), and/or ii) P acquisition efficiency (PAE). PUE is related to the internal allocation/mobilization of P, and is usually represented by the amount of P accumulated per biomass. PAE relies on roots ability to acquire P from the soil, and is commonly expressed as the relative difference of P acquired under low and high P availability conditions. In this review, plant adaptations related to improved PAE are described, with emphasis on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, which is generally accepted to enhance plant P acquisition. A state of the art (1980–2018) of AM growth responses and P uptake in wheat and barley is made to discuss about the commonly accepted growth promoting effect and P increased uptake by AM fungi and the contrasting evidence about the generally accepted lack of positive responses in both plant species. Finally, the mechanisms by which AM symbiosis can affect wheat and barley PAE are discussed, highlighting the importance of considering AM functional diversity on future studies and the necessity to improve PAE definition by considering the carbon trading between

  6. Umbilical Cord Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations and Relation to Birthweight, Head Circumference and Infant Length at Age 14 Days

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgård, Christine; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Steuerwald, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    infants. In the third trimester, the pregnant women completed questionnaires, and clinical examination included birthweight, head circumference, and infant length at age 14 days. RESULTS: Fifty-three percent of the newborn population had UC 25(OH)D ... linear regression models with adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI, sex, parity, gestational age, or infant age at examination, season of birth, smoking, gestational diabetes, examiner, and cohort identity, we found no relationship between birthweight or head circumference and UC 25(OH)D. However, infants...

  7. Longitudinal changes of telomere length and epigenetic age related to traumatic stress and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boks, Marco P; van Mierlo, Hans C; Rutten, Bart P F; Radstake, Timothy R D J; De Witte, Lot; Geuze, Elbert; Horvath, Steve; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Broen, Jasper C A; Vermetten, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported an association between traumatic stress and telomere length suggesting that traumatic stress has an impact on ageing at the cellular level. A newly derived tool provides an additional means to investigate cellular ageing by estimating epigenetic age based on DNA methylation profiles. We therefore hypothesise that in a longitudinal study of traumatic stress both indicators of cellular ageing will show increased ageing. We expect that particularly in individuals that developed symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases in these ageing parameters would stand out. From an existing longitudinal cohort study, ninety-six male soldiers were selected based on trauma exposure and the presence of symptoms of PTSD. All military personnel were deployed in a combat zone in Afghanistan and assessed before and 6 months after deployment. The Self-Rating Inventory for PTSD was used to measure the presence of PTSD symptoms, while exposure to combat trauma during deployment was measured with a 19-item deployment experiences checklist. These groups did not differ for age, gender, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, military rank, length, weight, or medication use. In DNA from whole blood telomere length was measured and DNA methylation levels were assessed using the Illumina 450K DNA methylation arrays. Epigenetic ageing was estimated using the DNAm age estimator procedure. The association of trauma with telomere length was in the expected direction but not significant (B=-10.2, p=0.52). However, contrary to our expectations, development of PTSD symptoms was associated with the reverse process, telomere lengthening (B=1.91, p=0.018). In concordance, trauma significantly accelerated epigenetic ageing (B=1.97, p=0.032) and similar to the findings in telomeres, development of PTSD symptoms was inversely associated with epigenetic ageing (B=-0.10, p=0.044). Blood cell count, medication and premorbid early life trauma exposure did not

  8. Preserving the Helmholtz dispersion relation: One-way acoustic wave propagation using matrix square roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Laurence

    2016-11-01

    Parabolized acoustic propagation in transversely inhomogeneous media is described by the operator update equation U (x , y , z + Δz) =eik0 (- 1 +√{ 1 + Z }) U (x , y , z) for evolution of the envelope of a wavetrain solution to the original Helmholtz equation. Here the operator, Z =∇T2 + (n2 - 1) , involves the transverse Laplacian and the refractive index distribution. Standard expansion techniques (on the assumption Z << 1)) produce pdes that approximate, to greater or lesser extent, the full dispersion relation of the original Helmholtz equation, except that none of them describe evanescent/damped waves without special modifications to the expansion coefficients. Alternatively, a discretization of both the envelope and the operator converts the operator update equation into a matrix multiply, and existing theorems on matrix functions demonstrate that the complete (discrete) Helmholtz dispersion relation, including evanescent/damped waves, is preserved by this discretization. Propagation-constant/damping-rates contour comparisons for the operator equation and various approximations demonstrate this point, and how poorly the lowest-order, textbook, parabolized equation describes propagation in lined ducts.

  9. Root-shoot relationships in four strains of field-grown Erianthus arundinaceus at seedling stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Shiotsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of cellulosic bioethanol from non-edible plants is a potential countermeasure against global warming. Erianthus species provide cellulosic raw material for bioethanol because they have high biomass productivity and high tolerance to environmental stress, associated with their large, deep root systems. However, it is difficult to select Erianthus species for breeding by direct observation of their root systems because the roots are widely dispersed in the soil. Instead, we examined shoot morphological traits that could be closely related to root morphology to find effective reference indices for selection. The potential to evaluate root structure and function in Erianthus according to bleeding rate was also examined. An analysis of root–shoot relationships in seedlings indicated that root number and mean length were closely related to stem number and diameter, respectively. These results suggest that root–shoot relationships may provide useful criteria for selective breeding of root systems in Erianthus.

  10. Studies of nontarget-mediated distribution of human full-length IgG1 antibody and its FAb fragment in cardiovascular and metabolic-related tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsson, Pia; Söderling, Ann-Sofi; Svensson, Lena; Ahnmark, Andrea; Flodin, Christine; Wanag, Ewa; Screpanti-Sundqvist, Valentina; Gennemark, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Tissue distribution and pharmacokinetics (PK) of full-length nontargeted antibody and its antigen-binding fragment (FAb) were evaluated for a range of tissues primarily of interest for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Mice were intravenously injected with a dose of 10 mg/kg of either human IgG1or its FAb fragment; perfused tissues were collected at a range of time points over 3 weeks for the human IgG1 antibody and 1 week for the human FAb antibody. Tissues were homogenized and antibody concentrations were measured by specific immunoassays on the Gyros system. Exposure in terms of maximum concentration (Cmax ) and area under the curve was assessed for all nine tissues. Tissue exposure of full-length antibody relative to plasma exposure was found to be between 1% and 10%, except for brain (0.2%). Relative concentrations of FAb antibody were the same, except for kidney tissue, where the antibody concentration was found to be ten times higher than in plasma. However, the absolute tissue uptake of full-length IgG was significantly higher than the absolute tissue uptake of the FAb antibody. This study provides a reference PK state for full-length whole and FAb antibodies in tissues related to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases that do not include antigen or antibody binding. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  11. Step length after discrete perturbation predicts accidental falls and fall-related injury in elderly people with a range of peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allet, L; Kim, H; Ashton-Miller, JA; De Mott, T; Richardson, JK

    2013-01-01

    Aims Distal symmetric polyneuropathy increases fall risk due to inability to cope with perturbations. We aimed to 1) identify the frontal plane lower limb sensorimotor functions which are necessary for robustness to a discrete, underfoot perturbation during gait; and 2) determine whether changes in the post-perturbed step parameters could distinguish between fallers and non fallers. Methods Forty-two subjects (16 healthy old and 26 with diabetic PN) participated. Frontal plane lower limb sensorimotor functions were determined using established laboratory-based techniques. The subjects' most extreme alterations in step width or step length in response to a perturbation were measured. In addition, falls and fall-related injuries were prospectively recorded. Results Ankle proprioceptive threshold (APrT; p=.025) and hip abduction rate of torque generation (RTG; p=.041) independently predicted extreme step length after medial perturbation, with precise APrT and greater hip RTG allowing maintenance of step length. Fallers demonstrated greater extreme step length changes after medial perturbation than non fallers (percent change = 16.41±8.42 vs 11.0±4.95; p=.06) Conclusions The ability to rapidly generate frontal plane hip strength and/or precisely perceive motion at the ankle is needed to maintain a normal step length after perturbation, a parameter, which distinguishes between fallers and non fallers. PMID:24183899

  12. Experimentally reduced root-microbe interactions reveal limited plasticity in functional root traits in Acer and Quercus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Ho; Comas, Louise H; Callahan, Hilary S

    2014-02-01

    Interactions between roots and soil microbes are critical components of below-ground ecology. It is essential to quantify the magnitude of root trait variation both among and within species, including variation due to plasticity. In addition to contextualizing the magnitude of plasticity relative to differences between species, studies of plasticity can ascertain if plasticity is predictable and whether an environmental factor elicits changes in traits that are functionally advantageous. To compare functional traits and trait plasticities in fine root tissues with natural and reduced levels of colonization by microbial symbionts, trimmed and surface-sterilized root segments of 2-year-old Acer rubrum and Quercus rubra seedlings were manipulated. Segments were then replanted into satellite pots filled with control or heat-treated soil, both originally derived from a natural forest. Mycorrhizal colonization was near zero in roots grown in heat-treated soil; roots grown in control soil matched the higher colonization levels observed in unmanipulated root samples collected from field locations. Between-treatment comparisons revealed negligible plasticity for root diameter, branching intensity and nitrogen concentration across both species. Roots from treated soils had decreased tissue density (approx. 10-20 %) and increased specific root length (approx. 10-30 %). In contrast, species differences were significant and greater than treatment effects in traits other than tissue density. Interspecific trait differences were also significant in field samples, which generally resembled greenhouse samples. The combination of experimental and field approaches was useful for contextualizing trait plasticity in comparison with inter- and intra-specific trait variation. Findings that root traits are largely species dependent, with the exception of root tissue density, are discussed in the context of current literature on root trait variation, interactions with symbionts and recent

  13. Relative contributions of neutral and non-neutral processes to clinal variation in calyx lobe length in the series Sakawanum (Asarum: Aristolochiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Daiki; Teramine, Tsutomu; Sakaguchi, Shota; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2018-01-25

    Clines, the gradual variation in measurable traits along a geographical axis, play a major role in evolution and can contribute to our understanding of the relative roles of selective and neutral process in trait variation. Using genetic and morphological analyses, the relative contributions of neutral and non-neutral processes were explored to infer the evolutionary history of species of the series Sakawanum (genus Asarum), which shows significant clinal variation in calyx lobe length. A total of 27 populations covering the natural geographical distribution of the series Sakawanum were sampled. Six nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate genetic structure and genetic diversity. The lengths of calyx lobes of multiple populations were measured to quantify their geographical and taxonomic differentiation. To detect the potential impact of selective pressure, morphological differentiation was compared with genetic differentiation (QCT-FST comparison). Average calyx lobe length of A. minamitanianum was 124.11 mm, while that of A. costatum was 13.80 mm. Though gradually changing along the geographical axis within series, calyx lobe lengths were significantly differentiated among the taxa. Genetic differentiation between taxa was low (FST = 0.099), but a significant geographical structure along the morphological cline was detected. Except for one taxon pair, pairwise QCT values were significantly higher than the neutral genetic measures of FST and G'ST. Divergent selection may have driven the calyx lobe length variation in series Sakawanum taxa, although the underlying mechanism is still not clear. The low genetic differentiation indicates recent divergence and/or gene flows between geographically close taxa. These neutral processes would also affect the clinal variation in calyx lobe lengths. Overall, this study implies the roles of population history and divergent selection in shaping the current cline of a flower trait in the series Sakawanum. © The

  14. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  15. Study of root para-nodules formation in wheat (Triticum durum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    djemel

    2013-08-28

    Aug 28, 2013 ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Full Length Research ... formed when wheat roots were inoculated with Frankia and the root length was enhanced. When the .... are modified lateral roots with structure enhanced by rhizobial.

  16. Relation of soluble RANKL and osteoprotegerin levels in blood and gingival crevicular fluid to the degree of root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrovola, J.B.; Halazonetis, D.J.; Makou, M.; Perrea, D.; Dontas, I.; Vlachos, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the determination of the levels of osteoprotegerin and soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-(KB) ligand (RANKL) in blood serum and in gingival crevicular fluid relative to the degree of orthodontic root resorption in a rat model. Blood samples and gingival crevicular fluid were collected from fourteen 6-month-old male Wistar rats weighing 350-500 g. A 25-g closed orthodontic coil spring was inserted between each upper right first molar and the upper incisors. After 21 days of loading, both upper first molars (treated and control) were extracted and studied under microcomputed tomography scanning. Statistical analysis demonstrated a positive linear correlation between the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and the degree of root resorption. The ratio of the initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin to RANKL in blood serum proved to be an independent prognostic factor of the degree of root resorption. The initial concentration of RANKL in gingival crevicular fluid showed a negative correlation to the initial concentration of RANKL in blood serum and for a finite range of initial concentrations of osteoprotegerin in gingival crevicular fluid, the dental root seemed protected against extreme external root resorption. Finally, the concentration of osteoprotegerin in blood serum decreased significantly in cases of severe root resorption. (author)

  17. The effect of sugars in relation to methyl jasmonate on anthocyanin formation in the roots of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana (Poelln.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Góraj-Koniarska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose and sugar alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol applied alone and in solution with methyl jasmonate (JA-Me on the anthocyanin content in the roots of Kalanchoe blossfeldiana. None of the sugars used individually in the experiment affected anthocyanin accumulation in the roots of intact plants. The anthocyanin level was similar to that in the control. Sucrose at concentrations of 0.5% and 3.0%, and glucose at a concentration of 3.0% inhibited anthocyanin accumulation induced by JA-Me. Only fructose at a concentration of 3.0% stimulated anthocyanin accumulation induced by JA-Me. The sugar alcohols, mannitol at a concentration of 3.0% and sorbitol at 0.5% and 3.0%, inhibited anthocyanin accumulation in the roots of intact K. blossfeldiana plants induced by JA-Me. In excised roots, both sugars and JA-Me used individually did not affect the formation of anthocyanins. Also, the sugar alcohols (mannitol and sorbitol applied simultaneously with JA-Me had no effect on the accumulation of anthocyanins. However, roots treated with sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose in solution with JA-Me promoted the induction of anthocyanins in the apical parts of the roots.  The results suggest that anthocyanin elicitation in the roots of K. blossfeldiana by methyl jasmonate may be dependent on the interaction of JA-Me with sugars transported from the stems (leaves to the roots.

  18. Mycorrhizal Glomus spp. vary in their effects on the dynamics and turnover of fine alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, A.; Waly, N.; Chunhui, M.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, H.; Yang, J.

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fine roots in the soil profile has important implications related to water and nutrient uptake. The Objective of this study was to compare the effects of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the fine root dynamics of Medicago sativa L. cv. Sanditi. We used minirhizotrons to observe changes in fine root length density (FRLD, mm/cm2) and fine root surface area density (FRSAD, mm2/cm2) during the growing season. Fine root P concentrations and turnover rate were also measured. The colonization rate of fine roots varied depending on the AMF species. Colonization rates were highest when roots were inoculated with Glomus mosseae and lowest when roots were inoculated G. intraradices. Inoculation with AMF significantly increased both FRLD and FRSAD. G. versiforme increased FRLD and FRSAD most, whereas G. mosseae had the least effect. Inoculation with AMF also decreased fine root turnover rates. Inoculation with a mixture of AMF species increased fine root turnover and P concentrations more than inoculation with a single AMF species. Fine root length density increased to a maximum on Aug. 6 and then decreased. In comparison, FRSAD exhibited two peaks during the growing season. Overall, the Results indicated that inoculation with AMF can significantly promote fine root growth and P uptake by alfalfa growing on soil with low P availability. The AMF may preserve fine root function late in the growing season. (author)

  19. The Protective Effects of Aqueous Extract of Glycyrrhiza Glabra Root Against Liver-related Biochemical Factors Changes Induced by Thioacetamide in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Moghadamnia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thioacetamide is a liver toxin that causes centrilobular necrosis. In this study, the protective effect of aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root against liver-related biochemical factors changes induced by thioacetamide in male rats was investigated. Materials and Methods: 35 male rats were divided into 5 groups of 7 : control group; sham group: receiving a single dose of 150mg/kg thioacetamide intraperitoneally; experimental groups 1 and 2 and 3: they received the aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root at the doses of 100,200,300mg/kg daily orally during 3 months respectively and then a single dose of thioacetamide at 150 mg/kg as intraperitoneal injection . The serum levels of albumin, bilirubin and total protein were measured. Results: The mean of body weight in all experimental groups receiving aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root and thioacetamide did not show significant changes compared to the group receiving thioacetamide. The mean levels of serum bilirubin in all experimental groups receiving aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root and thioacetamide did not show significant changes compared to the group receiving thioacetamide. The mean of serum albumin concentration in all experimental groups receiving aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root and thioacetamide decreased significantly compared to the group receiving thioacetamide. The mean of serum total protein concentration in experimental groups receiving aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root and thioacetamide did not show significant changes compared to the group receiving thioacetamide( p<0. 05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the aqueous extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra root had protective effects against liver-related biochemical factors changes induced by thioacetamide in male rats. 

  20. Estimation of runoff mitigation by morphologically different cover crop root systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Loiskandl, Willibald; Kaul, Hans-Peter; Himmelbauer, Margarita; Wei, Wei; Chen, Liding; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-07-01

    Hydrology is a major driver of biogeochemical processes underlying the distinct productivity of different biomes, including agricultural plantations. Understanding factors governing water fluxes in soil is therefore a key target for hydrological management. Our aim was to investigate changes in soil hydraulic conductivity driven by morphologically different root systems of cover crops and their impact on surface runoff. Root systems of twelve cover crop species were characterized and the corresponding hydraulic conductivity was measured by tension infiltrometry. Relations of root traits to Gardner's hydraulic conductivity function were determined and the impact on surface runoff was estimated using HYDRUS 2D. The species differed in both rooting density and root axes thickness, with legumes distinguished by coarser axes. Soil hydraulic conductivity was changed particularly in the plant row where roots are concentrated. Specific root length and median root radius were the best predictors for hydraulic conductivity changes. For an intensive rainfall simulation scenario up to 17% less rainfall was lost by surface runoff in case of the coarsely rooted legumes Melilotus officinalis and Lathyrus sativus, and the densely rooted Linum usitatissimum. Cover crops with coarse root axes and high rooting density enhance soil hydraulic conductivity and effectively reduce surface runoff. An appropriate functional root description can contribute to targeted cover crop selection for efficient runoff mitigation.

  1. A new methodological approach to assess cardiac work by pressure-volume and stress-length relations in patients with aortic valve stenosis and dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, P; Rupp, H; Rominger, M B; Klose, K J; Maisch, B

    2008-01-01

    In experimental animals, cardiac work is derived from pressure-volume area and analyzed further using stress-length relations. Lack of methods for determining accurately myocardial mass has until now prevented the use of stress-length relations in patients. We hypothesized, therefore, that not only pressure-volume loops but also stress-length diagrams can be derived from cardiac volume and cardiac mass as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and invasively measured pressure. Left ventricular (LV) volume and myocardial mass were assessed in seven patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS), eight with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and eight controls using electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated CMR. LV pressure was measured invasively. Pressure-volume curves were calculated based on ECG triggering. Stroke work was assessed as area within the pressure-volume loop. LV wall stress was calculated using a thick-wall sphere model. Similarly, stress-length loops were calculated to quantify stress-length-based work. Taking the LV geometry into account, the normalization with regard to ventricular circumference resulted in "myocardial work." Patients with AS (valve area 0.73+/-0.18 cm(2)) exhibited an increased LV myocardial mass when compared with controls (Pwork of AS was unchanged when compared with controls (0.539+/-0.272 vs 0.621+/-0.138 Nm, not significant), whereas DCM exhibited a significant depression (0.367+/-0.157 Nm, Pwork was significantly reduced in both AS and DCM when compared with controls (129.8+/-69.6, 200.6+/-80.1, 332.2+/-89.6 Nm/m(2), Pmethodological approach of using CMR and invasive pressure measurement. Myocardial work was reduced in patients with DCM and noteworthy also in AS, while stroke work was reduced in DCM only. Most likely, deterioration of myocardial work is crucial for the prognosis. It is suggested to include these basic physiological procedures in the clinical assessment of the pump function of the heart.

  2. Ethylene: a regulator of root architectural responses to soil phosphorus availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borch, K.; Bouma, T.J.; Lynch, J.P.; Brown, K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene in root architectural responses to phosphorus availability was investigated in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L,) plants grown with sufficient and deficient phosphorus. Although phosphorus deficiency reduced root mass and lateral root number, main root length was

  3. Root fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jens Ove; Christensen, Søren Steno Ahrensburg; Tsilingaridis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze tooth loss after root fractures and to assess the influence of the type of healing and the location of the root fracture. Furthermore, the actual cause of tooth loss was analyzed....

  4. Critical Length Criterion and the Arc Chain Model for Calculating the Arcing Time of the Secondary Arc Related to AC Transmission Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong Haoxi; Li Qingmin; Xing Jinyuan; Li Jinsong; Chen Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The prompt extinction of the secondary arc is critical to the single-phase reclosing of AC transmission lines, including half-wavelength power transmission lines. In this paper, a low-voltage physical experimental platform was established and the motion process of the secondary arc was recorded by a high-speed camera. It was found that the arcing time of the secondary arc rendered a close relationship with its arc length. Through the input and output power energy analysis of the secondary arc, a new critical length criterion for the arcing time was proposed. The arc chain model was then adopted to calculate the arcing time with both the traditional and the proposed critical length criteria, and the simulation results were compared with the experimental data. The study showed that the arcing time calculated from the new critical length criterion gave more accurate results, which can provide a reliable criterion in term of arcing time for modeling and simulation of the secondary arc related with power transmission lines. (paper)

  5. Age-related changes in molar topography and shearing crest length in a wild population of mountain Gorillas from Volcanoes National Park, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, Halszka; McFarlin, Shannon C; Catlett, Kierstin K; Mudakikwa, Antoine; Bromage, Timothy G; Cranfield, Michael R; Stoinski, Tara S; Schwartz, Gary T

    2016-05-01

    Great ape teeth must remain functional over long lifespans. The molars of the most folivorous apes, the mountain gorillas, must maintain shearing function for 40+ years while the animals consume large quantities of mechanically challenging foods. While other folivorous primates experience dental senescence, which compromises their occlusal surfaces and affects their reproductive success as they age, it is unknown whether dental senescence also occurs in mountain gorillas. In this article, we quantified and evaluated how mountain gorilla molars change throughout their long lifespans. We collected high-resolution replicas of M(1)s (n = 15), M(2)s (n = 13), and M(3)s (n = 11) from a cross-sectional sample of wild mountain gorilla skeletons from the Virunga Volcanoes, ranging in age from 4 to 43 years. We employed dental topographic analyses to track how aspects of occlusal slope, angularity, relief index, and orientation patch count rotated change with age. In addition, we measured the relative length of shearing crests in two- and three-dimensions. Occlusal topography was found to decrease, while 2D relative shearing crest length increased, and 3D relative crest lengths were maintained with age. Our findings indicate that shearing function is maintained throughout the long lifetimes of mountain gorillas. Unlike the dental senescence experienced by other folivorous primates, mountain gorillas do not appear to possess senesced molars despite their long lifetimes, mechanically challenging diets, and decreases in occlusal topography with age. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Localized Iron Supply Triggers Lateral Root Elongation in Arabidopsis by Altering the AUX1-Mediated Auxin Distribution[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giehl, Ricardo F.H.; Lima, Joni E.; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-01-01

    Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability, which shapes primary and lateral root development in a nutrient-specific manner. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of Arabidopsis thaliana roots to iron (Fe). Relative to a homogeneous supply, localized Fe supply in horizontally separated agar plates doubled lateral root length without having a differential effect on lateral root number. In the Fe uptake-defective mutant iron-regulated transporter1 (irt1), lateral root development was severely repressed, but a requirement for IRT1 could be circumvented by Fe application to shoots, indicating that symplastic Fe triggered the local elongation of lateral roots. The Fe-stimulated emergence of lateral root primordia and root cell elongation depended on the rootward auxin stream and was accompanied by a higher activity of the auxin reporter DR5-β-glucuronidase in lateral root apices. A crucial role of the auxin transporter AUXIN RESISTANT1 (AUX1) in Fe-triggered lateral root elongation was indicated by Fe-responsive AUX1 promoter activities in lateral root apices and by the failure of the aux1-T mutant to elongate lateral roots into Fe-enriched agar patches. We conclude that a local symplastic Fe gradient in lateral roots upregulates AUX1 to accumulate auxin in lateral root apices as a prerequisite for lateral root elongation. PMID:22234997

  7. Assessment of periapical health, quality of root canal filling, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty three teeth were found to have short root canal fillings, whereas 74 teeth had adequate root canal fillings, and the remaining 10 teeth had over extended root canal filling. A significant correlation was observed between the length of root filling and apical periodontitis (P = 0,023). Inadequately dense root canal filling was ...

  8. Histone acetylation associated up-regulation of the cell wall related genes is involved in salt stress induced maize root swelling

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Hui; Yan, Shihan; Zhao, Lin; Tan, Junjun; Zhang, Qi; Gao, Fei; Wang, Pu; Hou, Haoli; Li, Lijia

    2014-01-01

    Background Salt stress usually causes crop growth inhibition and yield decrease. Epigenetic regulation is involved in plant responses to environmental stimuli. The epigenetic regulation of the cell wall related genes associated with the salt-induced cellular response is still little known. This study aimed to analyze cell morphological alterations in maize roots as a consequence of excess salinity in relation to the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the cell wall related protein ge...

  9. Evaluation of hospital outcomes: the relation between length-of-stay, readmission, and mortality in a large international administrative database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingsma, Hester F; Bottle, Alex; Middleton, Steve; Kievit, Job; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J

    2018-02-14

    Hospital mortality, readmission and length of stay (LOS) are commonly used measures for quality of care. We aimed to disentangle the correlations between these interrelated measures and propose a new way of combining them to evaluate the quality of hospital care. We analyzed administrative data from the Global Comparators Project from 26 hospitals on patients discharged between 2007 and 2012. We correlated standardized and risk-adjusted hospital outcomes on mortality, readmission and long LOS. We constructed a composite measure with 5 levels, based on literature review and expert advice, from survival without readmission and normal LOS (best) to mortality (worst outcome). This composite measure was analyzed using ordinal regression, to obtain a standardized outcome measure to compare hospitals. Overall, we observed a 3.1% mortality rate, 7.8% readmission rate (in survivors) and 20.8% long LOS rate among 4,327,105 admissions. Mortality and LOS were correlated at the patient and the hospital level. A patient in the upper quartile LOS had higher odds of mortality (odds ratio = 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.43-1.47) than those in the lowest quartile. Hospitals with a high standardized mortality had higher proportions of long LOS (r = 0.79, p < 0.01). Readmission rates did not correlate with either mortality or long LOS rates. The interquartile range of the standardized ordinal composite outcome was 74-117. The composite outcome had similar or better reliability in ranking hospitals than individual outcomes. Correlations between different outcome measures are complex and differ between hospital- and patient-level. The proposed composite measure combines three outcomes in an ordinal fashion for a more comprehensive and reliable view of hospital performance than its component indicators.

  10. Water Status Related Root-to-Shoot Communication Regulates the Chilling Tolerance of Shoot in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Shan; Liu, Mei-Jun; Gao, Hui-Yuan; Jin, Li-Qiao; Li, Yu-Ting; Li, Qing-Ming; Ai, Xi-Zhen

    2015-10-16

    Although root-to-shoot communication has been intensively investigated in plants under drought, few studies have examined root-to-shoot communication under chilling. Here we explored whether root-to-shoot communication contributes to the chilling-light tolerance of cucumber shoots and clarified the key signal involves in this communication. After leaf discs chilling-light treatment, the photoinhibitions of Photosystem I (PSI) and Photosystem II (PSII) were similar in leaf discs of two cucumber varieties (JY-3 and JC-4). When the whole plants, including roots, were chilled under light, the photosynthetic performances in JC-4 leaves decreased more seriously than that in JY-3 leaves. However, when the water status of leaves was maintained by warming roots or floating the attached leaves on water, the PSII activity and amount of PSI in the leaves of the two varieties were similar after chilling-light treatment. In addition, the differences of PSII activities and amount of PSI between the two varieties under whole plant chilling-light treatment were independent of ABA pretreatment. Above results indicate that (1) the better water status in leaves under chilling contributes to the higher chilling tolerance of JY-3; (2) the water status, rather than an ABA signal, dominates root-to-shoot communication under chilling and the chilling tolerance of cucumber shoot.

  11. The relation between fine root density and proximity of stems in closed Douglas-fir plantations on homogen[e]ous sandy soils: implications for sampling design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsthoorn, A.F.M.; Klap, J.M.; Oude Voshaar, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Studies have been carried out in two fully stocked, fast growing Douglas-fir plantations of the Dutch ACIFORN project in three consecutive years, to obtain information on fine root densities (Olsthoorn 1991). For the present paper, data collected in early summer 1987 were used to study the relation

  12. Chrysanthemum cutting productivity and rooting ability are improved by grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Sumei; Liu, Ruixia; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi; Fang, Weimin

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum has been commercially propagated by rooting of cuttings, whereas the quality will decline over multiple collections from a single plant. Therefore, we compared the vigour, rooting ability, and some physiological parameters between cuttings harvested from nongrafted "Jinba" (non-grafted cuttings) with those collected from grafted "Jinba" plants onto Artemisia scoparia as a rootstock (grafted cuttings). The yield, length, node number, stem diameter, fresh weight, and dry weight of the grafted cuttings were superior to the non-grafted cuttings. Also grafted cuttings "Jinba" rooted 1 day earlier, but showing enhanced rooting quality including number, length, diameter, and dry weight of roots, where compared to the non-grafted. The physiological parameters that indicated contents of soluble protein, peroxidase activity, soluble sugar, and starch, ratios of soluble sugar/nitrogen ratio, and carbohydrate/nitrogen (C/N), as well as contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and IAA/ABA ratio were significantly increased in the grafted cuttings. This suggested their important parts in mediating rooting ability. Results from this study showed that grafting improved productivity and rooting ability related to an altered physiology, which provide a means to meet the increasing demand.

  13. Seasonal differences in mercury accumulation in Trichiurus lepturus (Cutlassfish) in relation to length and weight in a Northeast Brazilian estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Monica Ferreira; Barbosa, Scheyla C T; Barletta, Mário; Dantas, David V; Kehrig, Helena A; Seixas, Tércia G; Malm, Olaf

    2009-06-01

    At tropical latitudes, and especially on the semi-arid coasts of the Brazilian Northeast, the rainfall regime governs the water quality of estuaries due to the pronounced difference between the rainy and dry seasons. These changes may be responsible for seasonal changes in bioavailability of mercury (Hg) and other pollutants to the estuarine and coastal biota. Mercury bioaccumulates along estuarine-marine food chains usually result in higher concentrations in tissues of top predators and posing a risk to both marine mammals and humans alike. The Goiana River Estuary (7.5 degrees S) is a typical estuary of the semi-arid tropical regions and supports traditional communities with fisheries (mollusks, fish, and crustacean). It is also responsible for an important part of the biological production of the adjacent coastal waters. Trichiurus lepturus (Actinopterygii: Perciformes) is a pscivorous marine straggler. Fish from this species (n = 104) were captured in a trapping barrier used by the local traditional population and using an otter trawl net along the main channel of the low estuary during two dry seasons (D1 = November, December 2005, January 2006; D2 = November, December 2006, January 2007) and the end of a rainy season (R = August, September, October 2006). Fish muscle samples were preserved cold and then freeze-dried prior to analysis of its total mercury (Hg-T) contents. Total mercury was determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) with sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. The studied individuals (n = 104) were sub-adult (30-70 cm, 71 ind.) and adult fish (>70 cm, 33 ind.). Weight (W) (204.1 +/- 97.9 g, total biomass = 21,229.7 g) and total length (TL) (63.1 +/- 10.1 cm, range 29.5-89.0 cm) presented a significant (p increase in length and weight during the time they spend in the estuary. Fish from this estuary are shown to be fit for human consumption (125.3 +/- 61.9 microgHg-T kg(-1) w.wt.; n = 104). Fish mercury contents increased

  14. Plant Functional Traits Associated with Mycorrhizal Root Foraging in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Ectomycorrhizal Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenstat, D. M.; Chen, W.; Cheng, L.; Liu, B.; Koide, R. T.; Guo, D.

    2016-12-01

    Root foraging for nutrient "hot spots" is a key strategy by which some plants maximize nutrient gain from their carbon investment in root and mycorrhizal hyphae. Foraging strategies may depend on costs of root construction, with thick roots generally costing more per unit length than thin roots. Investment in mycorrhizal hyphae, which are considerably thinner than roots, may represent an alternative strategy for cost-effective nutrient foraging, especially for thick-root species. Type of mycorrhiza may matter, as ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are more associated with longer hyphae and ability to mineralize organic matter than arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Among AM trees in both subtropical forests in SE China and in temperate forests in central Pennsylvania, USA, we found that tree species with thin roots proliferated their roots in soil patches enriched with mineral nutrients to a greater extent than species with thick roots. In addition, thick-root species were consistently colonized more heavily with mycorrhizal fungi than thin root species, although nutrient addition tended to diminish colonization. In a common garden in central Pennsylvania of both AM and EM tree species, we found that nutrient patches enriched with organic materials resulted in greater root and mycorrhizal fungal proliferation compared to those enriched with inorganic nutrients and that thick-root species proliferated more with their mycorrhizal fungi whereas thin-root species proliferated more with their roots. We further examined with many more species, patterns of root and mycorrhizal fungal proliferation in organic-nutrient-enriched patches. Foraging precision, or the extent that roots or mycorrhizal hyphae grew in the enriched patch relative to the unenriched patch, was related to both root thickness and type of mycorrhiza. In both AM and EM trees, thick-root species were not selective foragers of either their roots or hyphae. In thin-root species, there was strong selectivity in

  15. Characterization of Root and Shoot Traits in Wheat Cultivars with Putative Differences in Root System Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Figueroa-Bustos

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Root system size is a key trait for improving water and nitrogen uptake efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. This study aimed (i to characterize the root system and shoot traits of five wheat cultivars with apparent differences in root system size; (ii to evaluate whether the apparent differences in root system size observed at early vegetative stages in a previous semi-hydroponic phenotyping experiment are reflected at later phenological stages in plants grown in soil using large rhizoboxes. The five wheat cultivars were grown in a glasshouse in rhizoboxes filled to 1.0 m with field soil. Phenology and shoot traits were measured and root growth and proliferation were mapped to quantify root length density (RLD, root length per plant, root biomass and specific root length (SRL. Wheat cultivars with large root systems had greater root length, more root biomass and thicker roots, particularly in the top 40 cm, than those with small root systems. Cultivars that reached anthesis later had larger root system sizes than those that reached anthesis earlier. Later anthesis allowed more time for root growth and proliferation. Cultivars with large root systems had 25% more leaf area and biomass than those with small root systems, which presumably reflects high canopy photosynthesis to supply the demand for carbon assimilates to roots. Wheat cultivars with contrasting root system sizes at the onset of tillering (Z2.1 in a semi-hydroponic phenotyping system maintained their size ranking at booting (Z4.5 when grown in soil. Phenology, particularly time to anthesis, was associated with root system size.

  16. Root Morphology Was Improved in a Late-Stage Vigor Super Rice Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Chen, Jiana; Cao, Fangbo; Jiang, Ligeng; Zou, Yingbin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that root morphology might be improved and consequently contributing to superior post-heading shoot growth and grain yield in late-stage vigor super rice. A pot experiment was carried out to compare yield attributes, shoot growth and physiological properties and root morphological traits between a late-stage vigor super rice cultivar (Y-liangyou 087) and an elite rice cultivar (Teyou 838). Grain yield and total shoot biomass were 7-9% higher in Y-liangyou 087 than in Teyou 838. Y-liangyou 087 had 60-64% higher post-heading shoot growth rate and biomass production than Teyou 838. Average relative chlorophyll concentration and net photosynthetic rate in flag leaves were 7-11% higher in Y-liangyou 087 than in Teyou 838 during heading to 25 days after heading. Y-liangyou 087 had 41% higher post-heading shoot N uptake but 17-25% lower root biomass and root-shoot ratio at heading and maturity than Teyou 838. Specific root length and length and surface area of fine roots were higher in Y-liangyou 087 than in Teyou 838 at heading and maturity by more than 15%. These results indicated that root-shoot relationships were well balanced during post-heading phase in the late-stage vigor super rice cultivar Y-liangyou 087 by improving root morphology including avoiding a too great root biomass and developing a large fine root system.

  17. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  18. The Interaction between Auxin and Nitric Oxide Regulates Root Growth in Response to Iron Deficiency in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huwei Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fe deficiency (-Fe is a common abiotic stress that affects the root development of plants. Auxin and nitric oxide (NO are key regulator of root growth under -Fe. However, the interactions between auxin and NO regulate root growth in response to Fe deficiency are complex and unclear. In this study, the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and NO levels in roots, and the responses of root growth in rice to different levels of Fe supply were investigated using wild type (WT, ospin1b and osnia2 mutants. -Fe promoted LR formation but inhibited seminal root elongation. IAA levels, [3H] IAA transport, and expression levels of PIN1a-c genes in roots were reduced under -Fe, suggesting that polar auxin transport from shoots to roots was decreased. Application of IAA to -Fe seedlings restored seminal root length, but not LR density, to levels similar to those under normal Fe (+Fe, and the seminal root length was shorter in two ospin1b mutants relative to WT under +Fe, but not under -Fe, confirming that auxin transport participates in -Fe-inhibited seminal root elongation. Moreover, -Fe-induced LR density and -Fe-inhibited seminal root elongation paralleled NO production in roots. Interestingly, similar NO accumulation and responses of LR density and root elongation were observed in osnia2 mutants compared to WT, and the higher expression of NOA gene under -Fe, suggesting that -Fe-induced NO was generated via the NO synthase-like pathway rather than the nitrate reductase pathway. However, IAA could restore the functions of NO in inhibiting seminal root elongation, but did not replace the role of NO-induced LR formation under -Fe. Overall, our findings suggested that NO functions downstream of auxin in regulating LR formation; NO-inhibited seminal root elongation by decreasing meristem activity in root tips under -Fe, with the involvement of auxin.

  19. Fine Root Growth and Vertical Distribution in Response to Elevated CO2, Warming and Drought in a Mixed Heathland–Grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndal, Marie Frost; Tolver, Anders; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg

    2018-01-01

    in single-factor experiments. In a Danish heathland ecosystem, we investigated both individual and combined effects of elevated CO2, warming and drought on fine root length, net production and standing biomass by the use of minirhizotrons, ingrowth cores and soil coring. Warming increased the net root...... production from ingrowth cores, but decreased fine root number and length in minirhizotrons, whereas there were no significant main effects of drought. Across all treatments and soil depths, CO2 stimulated both the total fine root length (+44%) and the number of roots observed (+39%), with highest relative......Belowground plant responses have received much less attention in climate change experiments than aboveground plant responses, thus hampering a holistic understanding of climate change effects on plants and ecosystems. In addition, responses of plant roots to climate change have mostly been studied...

  20. Factors affecting root curvature of mandibular first molar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Moon; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Kim, Jung Hwa; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won

    2006-01-01

    To find the cause of root curvature by use of panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiograph. Twenty six 1st graders whose mandibular 1st molars just emerged into the mouth were selected. Panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiograph were taken at grade 1 and 6, longitudinally. In cephalometric radio graph, mandibular plane angle, ramus-occlusal place angle, gonial angle, and gonion-gnathion distance(Go-Gn distance) were measured. In panoramic radiograph, elongated root length and root angle were measured by means of digital subtraction radiography. Occlusal plane-tooth axis angle was measured, too. Pearson correlations were used to evaluate the relationships between root curvature and elongated length and longitudinal variations of all variables. Multiple regression equation using related variables was computed. The pearson correlation coefficient between curved angle and longitudinal variations of occlusal plane-tooth axis angle and ramus-occlusal plane angle was 0.350 and 0.401, respectively (p 1 +0.745X 2 (Y: root angle, X 1 : variation of occlusal plane-tooth axis angle, X 2 : variation of ramus-occlusal plane angle). It was suspected that the reasons of root curvature were change of tooth axis caused by contact with 2nd deciduous tooth and amount of mesial and superior movement related to change of occlusal plane

  1. The Extended Relativity Theory in Born-Clifford Phase Spaces with a Lower and Upper Length Scales and Clifford Group Geometric Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    2004-01-01

    We construct the Extended Relativity Theory in Born-Clifford-Phase spaces with an upper and lower length scales (infrared/ultraviolet cutoff). The invariance symmetry leads naturally to the real Clifford algebra Cl (2, 6, R ) and complexified Clifford Cl_C ( 4 ) algebra related to Twistors. We proceed with an extensive review of Smith's 8D model based on the Clifford algebra Cl ( 1 ,7) that reproduces at low energies the physics of the Standard Model and Gravity; including the derivation of all the coupling constants, particle masses, mixing angles, ....with high precision. Further results by Smith are discussed pertaining the interplay among Clifford, Jordan, Division and Exceptional Lie algebras within the hierarchy of dimensions D = 26, 27, 28 related to bosonic string, M, F theory. Two Geometric actions are presented like the Clifford-Space extension of Maxwell's Electrodynamics, Brandt's action related the 8D spacetime tangent-bundle involving coordinates and velocities (Finsler geometries) followed by a...

  2. Rooting gene trees without outgroups: EP rooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, Janet S; Little, Roderick J A; Lake, James A

    2012-01-01

    Gene sequences are routinely used to determine the topologies of unrooted phylogenetic trees, but many of the most important questions in evolution require knowing both the topologies and the roots of trees. However, general algorithms for calculating rooted trees from gene and genomic sequences in the absence of gene paralogs are few. Using the principles of evolutionary parsimony (EP) (Lake JA. 1987a. A rate-independent technique for analysis of nucleic acid sequences: evolutionary parsimony. Mol Biol Evol. 4:167-181) and its extensions (Cavender, J. 1989. Mechanized derivation of linear invariants. Mol Biol Evol. 6:301-316; Nguyen T, Speed TP. 1992. A derivation of all linear invariants for a nonbalanced transversion model. J Mol Evol. 35:60-76), we explicitly enumerate all linear invariants that solely contain rooting information and derive algorithms for rooting gene trees directly from gene and genomic sequences. These new EP linear rooting invariants allow one to determine rooted trees, even in the complete absence of outgroups and gene paralogs. EP rooting invariants are explicitly derived for three taxon trees, and rules for their extension to four or more taxa are provided. The method is demonstrated using 18S ribosomal DNA to illustrate how the new animal phylogeny (Aguinaldo AMA et al. 1997. Evidence for a clade of nematodes, arthropods, and other moulting animals. Nature 387:489-493; Lake JA. 1990. Origin of the metazoa. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:763-766) may be rooted directly from sequences, even when they are short and paralogs are unavailable. These results are consistent with the current root (Philippe H et al. 2011. Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella. Nature 470:255-260).

  3. The role of defoliation and root rot pathogen infection in driving the mode of drought-related physiological decline in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguadé, D; Poyatos, R; Gómez, M; Oliva, J; Martínez-Vilalta, J

    2015-03-01

    Drought-related tree die-off episodes have been observed in all vegetated continents. Despite much research effort, however, the multiple interactions between carbon starvation, hydraulic failure and biotic agents in driving tree mortality under field conditions are still not well understood. We analysed the seasonal variability of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in four organs (leaves, branches, trunk and roots), the vulnerability to embolism in roots and branches, native embolism (percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC)) in branches and the presence of root rot pathogens in defoliated and non-defoliated individuals in a declining Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) population in the NE Iberian Peninsula in 2012, which included a particularly dry and warm summer. No differences were observed between defoliated and non-defoliated pines in hydraulic parameters, except for a higher vulnerability to embolism at pressures below -2 MPa in roots of defoliated pines. No differences were found between defoliation classes in branch PLC. Total NSC (TNSC, soluble sugars plus starch) values decreased during drought, particularly in leaves. Defoliation reduced TNSC levels across tree organs, especially just before (June) and during (August) drought. Root rot infection by the fungal pathogen Onnia P. Karst spp. was detected but it did not appear to be associated to tree defoliation. However, Onnia infection was associated with reduced leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity and sapwood depth, and thus contributed to hydraulic impairment, especially in defoliated pines. Infection was also associated with virtually depleted root starch reserves during and after drought in defoliated pines. Moreover, defoliated and infected trees tended to show lower basal area increment. Overall, our results show the intertwined nature of physiological mechanisms leading to drought-induced mortality and the inherent difficulty of isolating their contribution under field conditions. © The

  4. Quantitative and qualitative effects of phosphorus on extracts and exudates of sudangrass roots in relation to vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, S M; Menge, J A; Leonard, R T

    1983-11-01

    A comparison was made of water-soluble root exudates and extracts of Sorghum vulgare Pers. grown under two levels of P nutrition. An increase in P nutrition significantly decreased the concentration of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids in exudates, and decreased the concentration of carboxylic acids in extracts. Higher P did not affect the relative proportions of specific carboxylic acids and had little effect on proportions of specific amino acids in both extracts and exudates. Phosphorus amendment resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of arabinose and a decrease in the proportion of fructose in exudates, but did not have a large effect on the proportion of individual sugars in extracts. The proportions of specific carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids varied between exudates and extracts. Therefore, the quantity and composition of root extracts may not be a reliable predictor of the availability of substrate for symbiotic vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Comparisons of the rate of leakage of compounds from roots with the growth rate of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi suggest that the fungus must either be capable of using a variety of organic substrates for growth, or be capable of inducing a much higher rate of movement of specific organic compounds across root cell membranes than occurs through passive exudation as measured in this study.

  5. Do diagnosis-related groups appropriately explain variations in costs and length of stay of hip replacement? A comparative assessment of DRG systems across 10 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Alexander; Scheller-Kreinsen, David; Quentin, Wilm

    2012-08-01

    This paper assesses the variations in costs and length of stay for hip replacement cases in Austria, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Poland, Spain and Sweden and examines the ability of national diagnosis-related group (DRG) systems to explain the variation in resource use against a set of patient characteristic and treatment specific variables. In total, 195,810 cases clustered in 712 hospitals were analyzed using OLS fixed effects models for cost data (n=125,698) and negative binominal models for length-of-stay data (n=70,112). The number of DRGs differs widely across the 10 European countries (range: 2-14). Underlying this wide range is a different use of classification variables, especially secondary diagnoses and treatment options are considered to a different extent. In six countries, a standard set of patient characteristics and treatment variables explain the variation in costs or length of stay better than the DRG variables. This raises questions about the adequacy of the countries' DRG system or the lack of specific criteria, which could be used as classification variables. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Incontinence after primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter tears is related to relative length of reconstructed external sphincter: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norderval, S; Røssaak, K; Markskog, A; Vonen, B

    2012-08-01

    To determine if anatomic primary repair with end-to-end reconstruction of the external anal sphincter (EAS) in its full length combined with separate repair of coexisting internal anal sphincter (IAS) tear, when present, results in less incontinence and better anal sphincter integrity compared with conventional primary end-to-end repair in which the IAS is not actively reconstructed. Women who sustained third- or fourth-degree obstetric tears were included prospectively in the study following anatomic primary repair. Women treated with conventional primary repair prior to the study period comprised the control group. Three-dimensional endoanal ultrasonography (3D-EAUS) images were classified according to the EAUS defect score, and incontinence according to St Mark's score. Sixty-three women were included in the study group and 61 in the control group, with mean follow-up times of 11 and 21 months, respectively. Among women who had not delivered vaginally prior to the tear, St Mark's score ≥ 3 was reported by 9.6% (5/52) in the study group and 37.5% (15/40) in the control group at follow-up (P = 0.002). The corresponding numbers among women who had previously delivered vaginally were 36.4% (4/11) and 42.9% (9/21), respectively (non-significant). St Mark's score correlated with the EAUS defect score (P = 0.017). An EAS defect exceeding 50% of the sphincter length was significantly less common in the study group, and in a multivariable logistic regression model, mode of repair (anatomic vs conventional) was the only factor explaining the difference in EAS sphincter length between the two groups (P = 0.007). Improved continence status after anatomic primary repair was associated with a better longitudinal reconstruction of the EAS, while the integrity of the IAS did not differ between the groups. Women with a history of vaginal delivery prior to the sphincter tear had an inferior outcome regardless of mode of repair. Copyright © 2012 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley

  7. Information-theoretic lengths of Jacobi polynomials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, A; Dehesa, J S [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain); Sanchez-Moreno, P, E-mail: agmartinez@ugr.e, E-mail: pablos@ugr.e, E-mail: dehesa@ugr.e [Instituto ' Carlos I' de Fisica Teorica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-30

    The information-theoretic lengths of the Jacobi polynomials P{sup ({alpha}, {beta})}{sub n}(x), which are information-theoretic measures (Renyi, Shannon and Fisher) of their associated Rakhmanov probability density, are investigated. They quantify the spreading of the polynomials along the orthogonality interval [- 1, 1] in a complementary but different way as the root-mean-square or standard deviation because, contrary to this measure, they do not refer to any specific point of the interval. The explicit expressions of the Fisher length are given. The Renyi lengths are found by the use of the combinatorial multivariable Bell polynomials in terms of the polynomial degree n and the parameters ({alpha}, {beta}). The Shannon length, which cannot be exactly calculated because of its logarithmic functional form, is bounded from below by using sharp upper bounds to general densities on [- 1, +1] given in terms of various expectation values; moreover, its asymptotics is also pointed out. Finally, several computational issues relative to these three quantities are carefully analyzed.

  8. Self-reported sleep lengths ≥ 9 hours among Swedish patients with stress-related exhaustion: Associations with depression, quality of sleep and levels of fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Giorgio; Jeding, Kerstin; Söderström, Marie; Osika, Walter; Levander, Maria; Perski, Aleksander

    2015-05-01

    Insomnia-type sleep disturbances are frequent among patients suffering from stress-related exhaustion disorder. However, clinical observations indicate that a subgroup suffer from sleep lengths frequently exceeding 9 hours, coupled with great daytime sleepiness. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in socio-demographic variables, use of medications, sleep parameters, anxiety, depression and fatigue, between individuals with varying sleep lengths, in a sample of 420 Swedish patients (mean age 42 ± 9 years; 77% women) referred to treatment for exhaustion disorder. Patients were allocated to the groups: "never/seldom ≥ 9 hours" (n = 248), "sometimes ≥ 9 hours" (n = 115) and "mostly/always ≥ 9 hours" (n = 57), based on their self-rated frequency of sleep lengths ≥ 9 hours. The design was cross-sectional and data was collected by means of questionnaires at pre-treatment. Univariate analyses showed that patients in the "mostly/always ≥ 9 hours" group were more often on sick leave, and reported more depression and fatigue, better sleep quality and more daytime sleepiness, than patients in the other groups. Multivariate analyses showed that these patients scored higher on measures of fatigue than the rest of the sample independently of gender, use of antidepressants, sick leave, depression and quality of sleep. Patients suffering from exhaustion disorder and reporting excessive sleep seem to have a generally poorer clinical picture but better quality of sleep than their counterparts with shorter sleep lengths. The mechanisms underlying these differences, together with their prognostic value and implications for treatment remain to be elucidated in future studies.

  9. Roots & Hollers

    OpenAIRE

    Kollman, Patrick L; Gorman, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    Roots & Hollers, 2011 A documentary by Thomas Gorman & Patrick Kollman Master’s Project Abstract: Roots & Hollers uncovers the wild American ginseng trade, revealing a unique intersection between Asia and rural America. Legendary in Asia for its healing powers, ginseng helps sustain the livelihoods of thousands in Appalachia. A single root can sell for thousands of dollars at auction. Shot on-location in the mountains of Kentucky and West Virginia, this student doc...

  10. Proximal Region of the Gene Encoding Cytadherence-Related Protein Permits Molecular Typing of Mycoplasma genitalium Clinical Strains by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatovova, Oxana; Herrera, Caleb; Baseman, Joel B.

    2006-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR-amplified proximal region of the gene encoding cytadherence accessory protein P110 (MG192) revealed DNA sequence divergences among 54 Mycoplasma genitalium clinical strains isolated from the genitourinary tracts of women attending a sexually transmitted disease-related health clinic, plus one from the respiratory tract and one from synovial fluid. Seven of 56 (12.5%) strains exhibited RFLPs following digestion of the proximal region with restriction endonuclease MboI or RsaI, or both. No sequence variability was detected in the distal portion of the gene. PMID:16455921

  11. Solid renal tumor severity in von Hippel Lindau disease is related to germline deletion length and location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranchie, Jodi K; Afonso, Anoushka; Albert, Paul S; Kalyandrug, Sivaram; Phillips, John L; Zhou, Shubo; Peterson, James; Ghadimi, Bijan M; Hurley, Katheen; Riss, Joseph; Vasselli, James R; Ried, Thomas; Zbar, Berton; Choyke, Peter; Walther, McClellan M; Klausner, Richard D; Linehan, W Marston

    2004-01-01

    von Hippel Lindau disease (VHL) is an autosomal dominant familial cancer syndrome linked to alteration of the VHL tumor suppressor gene. Affected patients are predisposed to develop pheochromocytomas and cystic and solid tumors of the kidney, CNS, pancreas, retina, and epididymis. However, organ involvement varies considerably among families and has been shown to correlate with the underlying germline alteration. Clinically, we observed a paradoxically lower prevalence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients with complete germline deletion of VHL. To determine if a relationship existed between the type of VHL deletion and disease, we retrospectively evaluated 123 patients from 55 families with large germline VHL deletions, including 42 intragenic partial deletions and 13 complete VHL deletions, by history and radiographic imaging. Each individual and family was scored for cystic or solid involvement of CNS, pancreas, and kidney, and for pheochromocytoma. Germline deletions were mapped using a combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative Southern and Southern blot analysis. An age-adjusted comparison demonstrated a higher prevalence of RCC in patients with partial germline VHL deletions relative to complete deletions (48.9 vs. 22.6%, p=0.007). This striking phenotypic dichotomy was not seen for cystic renal lesions or for CNS (p=0.22), pancreas (p=0.72), or pheochromocytoma (p=0.34). Deletion mapping revealed that development of RCC had an even greater correlation with retention of HSPC300 (C3orf10), located within the 30-kb region of chromosome 3p, immediately telomeric to VHL (52.3 vs. 18.9%, p <0.001), suggesting the presence of a neighboring gene or genes critical to the development and maintenance of RCC. Careful correlation of genotypic data with objective phenotypic measures will provide further insight into the mechanisms of tumor formation. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn; Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39±1.27 (8.24±7.22%) and 1.69±1.14 mm (10.16±6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  13. External apical root resorption in maxillary incisors in orthodontic patients: associated factors and radiographic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanekrungsan, Kamonporn [Dept. of Dentistry, Overbrook Hospital, Chiang Rai (Thailand); Patanaporn, Virush; Janhom, Apirum; Korwanich, Narumanus [Dept. of Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the incidence and degree of external apical root resorption of maxillary incisors after orthodontic treatment and to evaluate particular associated factors related to external apical root resorption. The records and maxillary incisor periapical radiographs of 181 patients were investigated. Crown and root lengths were measured and compared on the pre- and post-treatment periapical radiographs. Crown length was measured from the center of the incisal edge to the midpoint of the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Root length was measured from the CEJ midpoint to the root apex. A correction factor for the enlargement difference was used to calculate root resorption. The periapical radiographs of 564 teeth showed that the average root resorption was 1.39{+-}1.27 (8.24{+-}7.22%) and 1.69{+-}1.14 mm (10.16{+-}6.78%) for the maxillary central and lateral incisors, respectively. The results showed that the dilacerated or pointed roots, maxillary premolar extraction cases, and treatment duration were highly significant factors for root resorption (p<0.001). Allergic condition was a significant factor at p<0.01. Age at the start of treatment, large overjet, and history of facial trauma were also factors significantly associated with root resorption (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption among the factors of gender, overbite, tongue-thrusting habit, types of malocclusion, and types of bracket. These results suggested that orthodontic treatment should be carefully performed in pre-treatment extraction patients who have pointed or dilacerated roots and need long treatment duration.

  14. The Need for Deeper Roots: Making a Mission-Driven Case for Poverty-Related Issues in Business Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Michael; de la Cruz, Rachelle

    2016-01-01

    We begin with the argument that if universities are to form and educate future business leaders with a disciplined sensitivity to those who suffer from both material and spiritual poverty, they will be most successful when they draw upon a mission that has a deeper root system than generic values or instrumental rationality. Recognizing that…

  15. Growth promotion-related miRNAs in Oncidium orchid roots colonized by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ye

    Full Text Available Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica.

  16. Effect of canal length and curvature on working length alteration with WaveOne reciprocating files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berutti, Elio; Chiandussi, Giorgio; Paolino, Davide Salvatore; Scotti, Nicola; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Castellucci, Arnaldo; Pasqualini, Damiano

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated the working length (WL) modification after instrumentation with WaveOne Primary (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) reciprocating files and the incidence of overinstrumentation in relation to the initial WL. Thirty-two root canals of permanent teeth were used. The angles of curvature of the canals were calculated on digital radiographs. The initial WL with K-files was transferred to the matched WaveOne Primary reciprocating files. After glide paths were established with PathFile (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), canals were shaped with WaveOne Primary referring to the initial WL. The difference between the postinstrumentation canal length and the initial canal length was analyzed by using a fiberoptic inspection microscope. Data were analyzed with a balanced 2-way factorial analysis of variance (P < .05). Referring to the initial WL, 24 of 32 WaveOne Primary files projected beyond the experimental apical foramen (minimum-maximum, 0.14-0.76 mm). A significant decrease in the canal length after instrumentation (95% confidence interval ranging from -0.34 mm to -0.26 mm) was detected. The canal curvature significantly influenced the WL variation (F(1) = 30.65, P < .001). The interaction between the initial canal length and the canal curvature was statistically significant (F(2) = 4.38, P = .014). Checking the WL before preparation of the apical third of the root canal is recommended when using the new WaveOne NiTi single-file system. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Apical root resorption during orthodontic treatment with aligners? A retrospective radiometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Elena; Drechsler, Thomas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Jacobs, Collin; Haag, Simeon; Wehrbein, Heinrich

    2013-08-14

    Objective of this study was to investigate the incidence and severity of apical root resorptions (ARR) during orthodontic treatment with aligners. The sample comprised 100 patients (17-75 years of age) with a class I occlusion and anterior crowding before treatment, treated exclusively with aligners (Invisalign®, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). The following teeth were assessed: upper and lower anterior teeth and first molars. Root and crown lengths of a total of 1600 teeth were measured twice in pre- and post-treatment panoramic radiographs. Afterwards, relative changes of the root length during treatment were calculated by a root-crown-ratio taking pre- and post-treatment root and crown lengths into consideration. A reduction of this ratio was considered as a shortening of the initial root length. Additionally, tooth movements of the front teeth were assessed by lateral cephalograms and the 3-dimensonal set up of each patient. All patients had a reduction of the pre-treatment root length with a minimum of two teeth. On average 7.36 teeth per patient were affected. 54% of 1600 measured teeth showed no measurable root reduction. A reduction of >0%-10% of the pre-treatment root length was found in 27.75%, a distinct reduction of >10%-20% in 11.94%. 6.31% of all teeth were affected with a considerable reduction of >20%. We found no statistically significant correlation between relative root length changes and the individual tooth, gender, age or sagittal and vertical orthodontic tooth movement; except for extrusion of upper front teeth, which was considered as not clinical relevant due to the small amount of mean 4% ARR. The present study is the first analyzing ARR in patients with a fully implemented orthodontic treatment with aligners (i.e. resolving anterior crowding). The variety was high and no clinical relevant influence factor could be detected. A minimum of two teeth with a root length reduction was found in every patient. On average, 7.36 teeth

  18. Comparative genome analysis of Prevotella intermedia strain isolated from infected root canal reveals features related to pathogenicity and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yunfeng; Shen, Lu; Zou, Yan; Qi, Zhengnan; Yin, Jun; Jiang, Jie; Guo, Liang; He, Lin; Chen, Zijiang; Tang, Zisheng; Qin, Shengying

    2015-02-25

    Many species of the genus Prevotella are pathogens that cause oral diseases. Prevotella intermedia is known to cause various oral disorders e.g. periodontal disease, periapical periodontitis and noma as well as colonize in the respiratory tract and be associated with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis. It is of clinical significance to identify the main drive of its various adaptation and pathogenicity. In order to explore the intra-species genetic differences among strains of Prevotella intermedia of different niches, we isolated a strain Prevotella intermedia ZT from the infected root canal of a Chinese patient with periapical periodontitis and gained a draft genome sequence. We annotated the genome and compared it with the genomes of other taxa in the genus Prevotella. The raw data set, consisting of approximately 65X-coverage reads, was trimmed and assembled into contigs from which 2165 ORFs were predicted. The comparison of the Prevotella intermedia ZT genome sequence with the published genome sequence of Prevotella intermedia 17 and Prevotella intermedia ATCC25611 revealed that ~14% of the genes were strain-specific. The Preveotella intermedia strains share a set of conserved genes contributing to its adaptation and pathogenic and possess strain-specific genes especially those involved in adhesion and secreting bacteriocin. The Prevotella intermedia ZT shares similar gene content with other taxa of genus Prevotella. The genomes of the genus Prevotella is highly dynamic with relative conserved parts: on average, about half of the genes in one Prevotella genome were not included in another genome of the different Prevotella species. The degree of conservation varied with different pathways: the ability of amino acid biosynthesis varied greatly with species but the pathway of cell wall components biosynthesis were nearly constant. Phylogenetic tree shows that the taxa from different niches are scarcely distributed among clades. Prevotella intermedia ZT

  19. Mechanical touch responses of Arabidopsis TCH1-3 mutant roots on inclined hard-agar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Guodong; Wang, Bochu; Liu, Junyu; Yan, Jie; Zhu, Liqing; Yang, Xingyan

    2016-01-01

    The gravity-induced mechanical touch stimulus can affect plant root architecture. Mechanical touch responses of plant roots are an important aspect of plant root growth and development. Previous studies have reported that Arabidopsis TCH1-3 genes are involved in mechano-related events, how-ever, the physiological functions of TCH1-3 genes in Arabidopsis root mechanoresponses remain unclear. In the present study, we applied an inclined hard agar plate method to produce mechanical touch stimulus, and provided evidence that altered mechanical environment could influence root growth. Furthermore, tch1-3 Arabidopsis mutants were investigated on inclined agar surfaces to explore the functions of TCH1-3 genes on Arabidopsis root mechanoresponses. The results showed that two tch2 mutants, cml24-2 and cml24-4, exhibited significantly reduced root length, biased skewing, and decreased density of lateral root. In addition, primary root length and density of lateral root of tch3 (cml12-2) was significantly decreased on inclined agar surfaces. This study indicates that the tch2 and tch3 mutants are hypersensitive to mechanical touch stimulus, and TCH2 (CML24-2 and CML24-4) and TCH3 (CML12-2) genes may participate in the mechanical touch response of Arabidopsis roots.

  20. Symbiosis of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Robinia pseudoacacia L. Improves Root Tensile Strength and Soil Aggregate Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoqiang; Liu, Zhenkun; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust) is a widely planted tree species on Loess Plateau for revegetation. Due to its symbiosis forming capability with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, we explored the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant biomass, root morphology, root tensile strength and soil aggregate stability in a pot experiment. We inoculated R. pseudoacacia with/without AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis or Glomus versiforme), and measured root colonization, plant growth, root morphological characters, root tensile force and tensile strength, and parameters for soil aggregate stability at twelve weeks after inoculation. AM fungi colonized more than 70% plant root, significantly improved plant growth. Meanwhile, AM fungi elevated root morphological parameters, root tensile force, root tensile strength, Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) content in soil, and parameters for soil aggregate stability such as water stable aggregate (WSA), mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD). Root length was highly correlated with WSA, MWD and GMD, while hyphae length was highly correlated with GRSP content. The improved R. pseudoacacia growth, root tensile strength and soil aggregate stability indicated that AM fungi could accelerate soil fixation and stabilization with R. pseudoacacia, and its function in revegetation on Loess Plateau deserves more attention.

  1. Root patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, Ben; Laskowski, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms that pattern lateral root primordial are essential for the elaboration of root system architecture, a trait of key importance for future crop breeding. But which are most important: periodic or local cues? In this issue of Journal of Experimental Botany (pages 1411-1420), Kircher

  2. LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP AND RELATIVE CONDITION FACTOR OF Arapaima gigas SCHINZ, 1822 FROM EXTRACTIVE RESERVE OF JURUÁ RIVER, AMAZONAS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Silva da Cunha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Arapaima gigas (pirarucu is a large fish greatly appreciated in Amazon region. The present work determined the weight-length relationship and the relative condition factor (Kn of eviscerated pirarucu specimens from the extractive reserve (RESEX of Juruá river, Amazonas, Brazil. The relative frequency distributions by weight class indicated amplitude between 20,000 and 115,000g and the classes of greatest frequency were between 30,000 and 80,000g. The equation that describes 3.0157 this relationship is W = 0.0092L3.0157, showing an isometric growth. Kn presented values of 0.98 ± 0.01, ranging between 0.94-1.01. The results indicate that fish stock of A. gigas in the RESEX of Juruá river presents good management conditions since most of the fish caught presented commercial weight and high utilization of meat, and also the equations of weight-length relationship and Kn values can be considered as reference for A. gigas eviscerated of the studied region. Palavras-chave: pirarucu, biometric, homeostasis, management. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18561/2179-5746/biotaamazonia.v4n4p124-126

  3. Root resorption during orthodontic treatment with Invisalign®: a radiometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Giulia; Ravera, Serena; Castroflorio, Tommaso; Garino, Francesco; Rossini, Gabriele; Parrini, Simone; Cugliari, Giovanni; Deregibus, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Root resorption (RR) is described as a permanent loss of tooth structure from the root apex. Many reports in the literature indicate that orthodontically treated patients are more likely to have severe apical root shortening, interesting mostly maxillary, followed by mandibular incisors. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence and severity of RR in adult patients treated with aligners. The study group consisted of 71 class I adult healthy patients (mean age 32.8 ± 12.7) treated with aligners (Invisalign®, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). All incisors, canines, upper first premolars, and first molars were assessed. Root and crown lengths of 1083 teeth were measured in panoramic radiographs at the beginning (T0) and at the end (T1) of clear aligner therapy. Individual root-crown ratio (RCR) of each tooth and therefore the relative changes of RCR (rRCR) were determined. A decrease of rRCR was assessed as a reduction of the root length during treatment. All patients had a minimum of one teeth affected with a reduction of root length, on average 6.38 ± 2.28 teeth per patient. Forty one, 81% of the 1083, measured teeth presented a reduction of the pre-treatment root length. A reduction in percentage of >0% up to 10% was found in 25.94% (n = 281), a distinct reduction of >10% up to 20% in 12.18% (n = 132) of the sample. 3.69% (n = 40) of the teeth were affected with a considerable reduction (>20%). Orthodontic treatment with Invisalign® aligners could lead to RR. However, its incidence resulted to be very similar to that described for orthodontic light forces, with an average percentage of RR root length.

  4. Root resorption during orthodontic treatment with Invisalign®: a radiometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Gay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root resorption (RR is described as a permanent loss of tooth structure from the root apex. Many reports in the literature indicate that orthodontically treated patients are more likely to have severe apical root shortening, interesting mostly maxillary, followed by mandibular incisors. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence and severity of RR in adult patients treated with aligners. The study group consisted of 71 class I adult healthy patients (mean age 32.8 ± 12.7 treated with aligners (Invisalign®, Align Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA. All incisors, canines, upper first premolars, and first molars were assessed. Root and crown lengths of 1083 teeth were measured in panoramic radiographs at the beginning (T0 and at the end (T1 of clear aligner therapy. Individual root-crown ratio (RCR of each tooth and therefore the relative changes of RCR (rRCR were determined. A decrease of rRCR was assessed as a reduction of the root length during treatment. Results All patients had a minimum of one teeth affected with a reduction of root length, on average 6.38 ± 2.28 teeth per patient. Forty one, 81% of the 1083, measured teeth presented a reduction of the pre-treatment root length. A reduction in percentage of >0% up to 10% was found in 25.94% (n = 281, a distinct reduction of >10% up to 20% in 12.18% (n = 132 of the sample. 3.69% (n = 40 of the teeth were affected with a considerable reduction (>20%. Conclusions Orthodontic treatment with Invisalign® aligners could lead to RR. However, its incidence resulted to be very similar to that described for orthodontic light forces, with an average percentage of RR < 10% of the original root length.

  5. Root colonization with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP concentration in hypoxic soils in natural CO2 springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Maček

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Changed ratios of soil gases that lead to hypoxia are most often present in waterlogged soils, but can also appear in soils not saturated with water. In natural CO2 springs (mofettes, gases in soil air differ from those in typical soils. In this study, plant roots from the mofette area Stavešinci (Slovenia were sampled in a spatial scale and investigated for AM fungal colonization. AM fungi were found in roots from areas with high geological CO2 concentration, however mycorrhizal intensity was relatively low and no correlation between AM fungal colonization and soil pattern of CO2/O2 concentrations (up to 37% CO2 was found. The relatively high abundance of arbuscules in root cortex indicated existence of functional symbiosis at much higher CO2 concentrations than normally found in soils. In addition, concentration of two different glomalin-related soil protein fractions – EE-GRSP and TG-GRSP – was measured. No significant correlation between any of the fractions and soil gases was found, however the concentration of both fractions was significantly higher in the upper 0–5 cm, compared to the 5–10 cm layer of the soil.

  6. A New Anatomically Based Nomenclature for the Roots and Root Canals—Part 1: Maxillary Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Kottoor, Jojo; Albuquerque, Denzil Valerian; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy

    2012-01-01

    Numerous terminologies have been employed in the dental literature to describe the roots and root canal systems of maxillary molars. This multiplicity in naming of roots and canals makes the reader susceptible to misinterpretation and confusion. No consensus thus far has been arrived at for defining the names of roots and root canals in maxillary molars, including their various morphological aberrations. The anatomical relation of roots and their root canals were identified and were subsequen...

  7. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  8. Direct and indirect effects of glomalin, mycorrhizal hyphae, and roots on aggregate stability in rhizosphere of trifoliate orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang-Sheng; Cao, Ming-Qin; Zou, Ying-Ning; He, Xin-hua

    2014-07-25

    To test direct and indirect effects of glomalin, mycorrhizal hyphae, and roots on aggregate stability, perspex pots separated by 37-μm nylon mesh in the middle were used to form root-free hyphae and root/hyphae chambers, where trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings were colonized by Funneliformis mosseae or Paraglomus occultum in the root/hyphae chamber. Both fungal species induced significantly higher plant growth, root total length, easily-extractable glomalin-related soil protein (EE-GRSP) and total GRSP (T-GRSP), and mean weight diameter (an aggregate stability indicator). The Pearson correlation showed that root colonization or soil hyphal length significantly positively correlated with EE-GRSP, difficultly-extractable GRSP (DE-GRSP), T-GRSP, and water-stable aggregates in 2.00-4.00, 0.50-1.00, and 0.25-0.50 mm size fractions. The path analysis indicated that in the root/hyphae chamber, aggregate stability derived from a direct effect of root colonization, EE-GRSP or DE-GRSP. Meanwhile, the direct effect was stronger by EE-GRSP or DE-GRSP than by mycorrhizal colonization. In the root-free hyphae chamber, mycorrhizal-mediated aggregate stability was due to total effect but not direct effect of soil hyphal length, EE-GRSP and T-GRSP. Our results suggest that GRSP among these tested factors may be the primary contributor to aggregate stability in the citrus rhizosphere.

  9. An investigation into the variables associated with length of hospital stay related to primary cleft lip and palate surgery and alveolar bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, N; Haers, P E

    2012-10-01

    This retrospective study evaluated variables associated with length of stay (LOS) in hospital for 406 admissions of primary cleft lip and palate and alveolus surgery between January 2007 and April 2009. Three patients were treated as day cases, 343 (84%) stayed one night, 48 (12%) stayed 2 nights and 12 (3%) stayed > 2 nights. Poisson regression analysis showed that there was no association between postoperative LOS and age, distance travelled, diagnosis and type of operation, with a p value > 0.2 for all variables. 60/406 patients stayed 2 nights or more postoperatively mostly due to poor pain control and inadequate oral intake. Patients with palate repair were more likely to have postoperative LOS > 1 night, compared to patients with lip repair, p value = 0.011. Four patients (1%), all of whom had undergone cleft palate surgery, were readmitted within 4 weeks of the operation due to respiratory obstruction or haemorrhage. Using logistic regression, evidence showed that these readmissions were related to a longer original postoperative LOS. This study shows that length of stay for primary cleft lip, palate and alveolus surgery can in most cases be limited to one night postoperatively, provided that adequate support can be provided at home. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Roentgenologic investigations for the anterior tooth length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Pyo; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University , Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The author measured the length of crown, root and tooth on the films which was taken by intraoral bisecting technic with mesh plate on the films. The films were taken from the dry skulls, dentiform, same patients who had to be removed their upper incisors, and the other patients who admitted for dental care. From this serial experiment the results were made as follows: 1. By using the film and mesh plate in the oral cavity, the real tooth length can be measured easily on the film surfaces. 2. The film distortion in the oral cavity can be avoided when taking the film using the mesh plate and film together. 3. When measuring the film, length of crown was elongated and length of root was shortened. 4. When using the well-trained bisecting technic, the real tooth length can be measured directly on the intraoral film.

  11. Root resorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during...... orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost...... processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has...

  12. Water transport through tomato roots infected with Meloidogyne incognita.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorhout, R.; Gommers, F.J.; Kollöffel, C.

    1991-01-01


    The effect of Meloidogyne incognita on water flow in tomato roots was investigated in rooted split-stem cuttings. Total water flow through infected root parts was significantly lower than through comparable uninfected parts. Total water uptake was correlated with total length of the root

  13. Role and significance of total phenols during rooting of Protea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reviewer

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... fluctuations in total phenol concentration of different parts ... Rooting percentage, mean root dry mass and mean number of roots according to root length ... differences at P ≤ 0.05 based on chi-square; 2different letters in.

  14. Descendant root volume varies as a function of root type: estimation of root biomass lost during uprooting in Pinus pinaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjon, Frédéric; Caplan, Joshua S; Fortin, Mathieu; Meredieu, Céline

    2013-01-01

    Root systems of woody plants generally display a strong relationship between the cross-sectional area or cross-sectional diameter (CSD) of a root and the dry weight of biomass (DWd) or root volume (Vd) that has grown (i.e., is descendent) from a point. Specification of this relationship allows one to quantify root architectural patterns and estimate the amount of material lost when root systems are extracted from the soil. However, specifications of this relationship generally do not account for the fact that root systems are comprised of multiple types of roots. We assessed whether the relationship between CSD and Vd varies as a function of root type. Additionally, we sought to identify a more accurate and time-efficient method for estimating missing root volume than is currently available. We used a database that described the 3D root architecture of Pinus pinaster root systems (5, 12, or 19 years) from a stand in southwest France. We determined the relationship between CSD and Vd for 10,000 root segments from intact root branches. Models were specified that did and did not account for root type. The relationships were then applied to the diameters of 11,000 broken root ends to estimate the volume of missing roots. CSD was nearly linearly related to the square root of Vd, but the slope of the curve varied greatly as a function of root type. Sinkers and deep roots tapered rapidly, as they were limited by available soil depth. Distal shallow roots tapered gradually, as they were less limited spatially. We estimated that younger trees lost an average of 17% of root volume when excavated, while older trees lost 4%. Missing volumes were smallest in the central parts of root systems and largest in distal shallow roots. The slopes of the curves for each root type are synthetic parameters that account for differentiation due to genetics, soil properties, or mechanical stimuli. Accounting for this differentiation is critical to estimating root loss accurately.

  15. Real-root property of the spectral polynomial of the Treibich-Verdier potential and related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijie; Kuo, Ting-Jung; Lin, Chang-Shou; Takemura, Kouichi

    2018-04-01

    We study the spectral polynomial of the Treibich-Verdier potential. Such spectral polynomial, which is a generalization of the classical Lamé polynomial, plays fundamental roles in both the finite-gap theory and the ODE theory of Heun's equation. In this paper, we prove that all the roots of such spectral polynomial are real and distinct under some assumptions. The proof uses the classical concept of Sturm sequence and isomonodromic theories. We also prove an analogous result for a polynomial associated with a generalized Lamé equation, where we apply a new approach based on the viewpoint of the monodromy data.

  16. Characterizing pathways by which gravitropic effectors could move from the root cap to the root of primary roots of Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.; McClelen, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Plasmodesmata linking the root cap and root in primary roots Zea mays are restricted to approx. 400 protodermal cells bordering approx. 110000 microns2 of the calyptrogen of the root cap. This area is less than 10% of the cross-sectional area of the root-tip at the cap junction. Therefore, gravitropic effectors moving from the root cap to the root can move symplastically only through a relatively small area in the centre of the root. Decapped roots are non-responsive to gravity. However, decapped roots whose caps are replaced immediately after decapping are strongly graviresponsive. Thus, gravicurvature occurs only when the root cap contacts the root, and symplastic continuity between the cap and root is not required for gravicurvature. Completely removing mucilage from the root tip renders the root non-responsive to gravity. Taken together, these data suggest that gravitropic effectors move apoplastically through mucilage from the cap to the root.

  17. Root hair defective4 encodes a phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate phosphatase required for proper root hair development in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thole, J.M.; Vermeer, J.E.M.; Zhang, Y.; Gadella, Th.W.J.; Nielsen, E.

    2008-01-01

    Polarized expansion of root hair cells in Arabidopsis thaliana is improperly controlled in root hair-defective rhd4-1 mutant plants, resulting in root hairs that are shorter and randomly form bulges along their length. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy in rhd4-1 root hairs, we analyzed

  18. Germination, seedling growth and relative water content of shoot in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... (mg), root : shoot length (R:S) ratio, and relative water content of shoot (RWC, %) were investigated in this study. The results ... seedlings may provide an advantage by allowing access ... Residual chlorine was eliminated by.

  19. A hybrid model for mapping relative differences in belowground biomass and root: Shoot ratios using spectral reflectance, foliar N and plant biophysical data within coastal marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica L. O'Connell,; Byrd, Kristin B.; Maggi Kelly,

    2015-01-01

    Broad-scale estimates of belowground biomass are needed to understand wetland resiliency and C and N cycling, but these estimates are difficult to obtain because root:shoot ratios vary considerably both within and between species. We used remotely-sensed estimates of two aboveground plant characteristics, aboveground biomass and % foliar N to explore biomass allocation in low diversity freshwater impounded peatlands (Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, CA, USA). We developed a hybrid modeling approach to relate remotely-sensed estimates of % foliar N (a surrogate for environmental N and plant available nutrients) and aboveground biomass to field-measured belowground biomass for species specific and mixed species models. We estimated up to 90% of variation in foliar N concentration using partial least squares (PLS) regression of full-spectrum field spectrometer reflectance data. Landsat 7 reflectance data explained up to 70% of % foliar N and 67% of aboveground biomass. Spectrally estimated foliar N or aboveground biomass had negative relationships with belowground biomass and root:shoot ratio in both Schoenoplectus acutus and Typha, consistent with a balanced growth model, which suggests plants only allocate growth belowground when additional nutrients are necessary to support shoot development. Hybrid models explained up to 76% of variation in belowground biomass and 86% of variation in root:shoot ratio. Our modeling approach provides a method for developing maps of spatial variation in wetland belowground biomass.

  20. Expression analysis of cell wall assembly and remodelling-related genes in Arabidopsis roots subjected to boron stress and brassinosteroid at different developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia İşkil

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plant cell walls are affected by many biotic and abiotic stress conditions. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of 24-Epibrassinolide (EBL on some cell wall-related genes in root tissue of five- and ten-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to boron (B deficiency (0 µM or toxicity (3000 µM at the transcriptional level. Expressions of the genes that encode cellulose synthase (CESA1, CESA4, CESA6 and CESA8, cellulose synthase-like (CSLB5, expansin (EXPA5, EXPA8 and EXPA14 and cell wall protein (SEB1 decreased under conditions of B deficiency and toxicity. EBL treatments, in general, led the expressions of these genes to reduce significantly. Expressions of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase genes (XTH21 and XTH23 changed only under conditions of B toxicity. Boron stress and/or EBL treatments caused different responses in expression of pectin methylesterase (PME2 and PME41 genes. As a result of B stress, the expression levels of investigated genes changed more in roots of five-week-old plants than in roots of ten-week-old plants. Results of the present study include new findings that support the ability of BRs to increase molecular aspects of tolerance to stress in plants.

  1. Root anatomy, morphology, and longevity among root orders in Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Estrada, Luis R; Vera-Caraballo, Vivianette; Ruth, Leah E; Eissenstat, David M

    2008-12-01

    Understanding root processes at the whole-plant or ecosystem scales requires an accounting of the range of functions within a root system. Studying root traits based on their branching order can be a powerful approach to understanding this complex system. The current study examined the highly branched root system of the ericoid plant, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (highbush blueberry) by classifying its root orders with a modified version of the morphometric approach similar to that used in hydrology for stream classification. Root anatomy provided valuable insight into variation in root function across orders. The more permanent portion of the root system occurred in 4th- and higher-order roots. Roots in these orders had radial growth; the lowest specific root length, N:C ratios, and mycorrhizal colonization; the highest tissue density and vessel number; and the coarsest root diameter. The ephemeral portion of the root system was mainly in the first three root orders. First- and 2nd-order roots were nearly anatomically identical, with similar mycorrhizal colonization and diameter, and also, despite being extremely fine, median lifespans were not very short (115-120 d; estimated with minirhizotrons). Our research underscores the value of examining root traits by root order and its implications to understanding belowground processes.

  2. Efeito do comprimento de estacas herbáceas de dois clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. no enraizamento adventício Effect of the length of herbaceous cuttings of two clones of japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. in adventicious rooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEWTON ALEX MAYER

    2002-08-01

    characteristics, rusticity, reduction of the plant load and compatibility with some cultivars of Prunus persica. The present study were carried out under intermitent mist inside a lathhouse, belonging to the Vegetal Department of the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Campus of Jaboticabal, São Paulo State. The objective of this study was to verify the influence of four lengths of herbaceous cuttings in the rooting of two japanese apricot clones. The vegetable material, identified as Clone 10 and Clone 15, was originating from the Genetic Improvement Program of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, SP. The experiment was constituted by a 2 x 4 fatorial in randomized blocks, having the factor clone 2 levels (Clone 10 and Clone 15 and the factor cuttings length 4 levels (12, 15, 18 and 25cm. For the observed results, differences was only verified among the clones in the sprouted cutting percentage and number of roots for cutting. The rooting percentage and the mortality of the cuttings were influenced by the cutting lenght, meanwhile, larger cuttings tended to present higher rooting and smaller mortality percentages. The cuttings with 12cm, although presenting few roots number for cutting, they are recommended for allow the obtention of a higher number of cuttings for main plant. There was significant effect of the interaction between the factors for number and length of roots.

  3. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  4. Tolerance at arm's length: the Dutch experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuijer, J

    1990-01-01

    With respect to pedophilia and the age of consent, the Netherlands warrants special attention. Although pedophilia is not as widely accepted in the Netherlands as sometimes is supposed, developments in the judicial practice showed a growing reservedness. These developments are a spin-off of related developments in Dutch society. The tolerance in the Dutch society has roots that go far back in history and is also a consequence of the way this society is structured. The social changes of the sixties and seventies resulted in a "tolerance at arm's length" for pedophiles, which proved to be deceptive when the Dutch government proposed to lower the age of consent in 1985. It resulted in a vehement public outcry. The prevailing sex laws have been the prime target of protagonists of pedophile emancipation. Around 1960, organized as a group, they started to undertake several activities. In the course of their existence, they came to redefine the issue of pedophilia as one of youth emancipation.

  5. IAA oxidase activity in relation to adventitious root formation on stem cuttings of some forest tree species. [Salix tetrasperma, Populus Robusta, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Eucalyptus citriodora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, M.P.; Nanda, K.K.

    1981-01-01

    In rooting tests with stem cuttings, IAA oxidase activity was found to be very high in Salix tetrasperma and Populus 'Robusta' both of which rooted profusely, less in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis which rooted but weakly and insignificant in Eucalyptus citriodora, which did not root at all. Proteins extracted from the stem cuttings of E. citriodora inhibited IAA oxidase activity, and also root formation on hypocotyl cuttings of Phaseolus mungo.

  6. Comparison between gradient-dependent hydraulic conductivities of roots using the root pressure probe: the role of pressure propagations and implications for the relative roles of parallel radial pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Helen; Turner, Neil C; Turner, David W; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2007-07-01

    Hydrostatic pressure relaxations with the root pressure probe are commonly used for measuring the hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)) of roots. We compared the Lp(r) of roots from species with different root hydraulic properties (Lupinus angustifolius L. 'Merrit', Lupinus luteus L. 'Wodjil', Triticum aestivum L. 'Kulin' and Zea mays L. 'Pacific DK 477') using pressure relaxations, a pressure clamp and osmotic gradients to induce water flow across the root. Only the pressure clamp measures water flow under steady-state conditions. Lp(r) determined by pressure relaxations was two- to threefold greater than Lp(r) from pressure clamps and was independent of the direction of water flow. Lp(r) (pressure clamp) was two- to fourfold higher than for Lp(r) (osmotic) for all species except Triticum aestivum where Lp(r) (pressure clamp) and Lp(r) (osmotic) were not significantly different. A novel technique was developed to measure the propagation of pressure through roots to investigate the cause of the differences in Lp(r). Root segments were connected between two pressure probes so that when root pressure (P(r)) was manipulated by one probe, the other probe recorded changes in P(r). Pressure relaxations did not induce the expected kinetics in pressure in the probe at the other end of the root when axial hydraulic conductance, and probe and root capacitances were accounted for. An electric circuit model of the root was constructed that included an additional capacitance in the root loaded by a series of resistances. This accounted for the double exponential kinetics for intact roots in pressure relaxation experiments as well as the reduced response observed with the double probe experiments. Although there were potential errors with all the techniques, we considered that the measurement of Lp(r) using the pressure clamp was the most unambiguous for small pressure changes, and provided that sufficient time was allowed for pressure propagation through the root. The differences in

  7. Survival and freedom from aortic valve-related reoperation after valve-sparing aortic root replacement in 1015 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Fabian A; Doll, Kai-Nicolas; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Liebrich, Markus; Sievers, Hans-Hinrich; Richardt, Doreen; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Detter, Christian; Siepe, Matthias; Czerny, Martin; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize mortality and aortic valve replacement after valve-sparing aortic root replacement (V-SARR) in a multicentre cohort. Between 1994 and 2014, 1015 patients had V-SARR with (n = 288, 28%) or without cusp/commissure repair (n = 727, 72%) at the centres of Lübeck (n = 343, 34%), Stuttgart (n = 346, 34%), Hamburg (n = 109, 11%) and Freiburg (n = 217, 21%), Germany. Comparative survival of an age- and gender-matched general population was calculated. Log-rank tests and multiple logistic regression were used to identify risk factors. The mean follow-up was 5.2 ± 3.9 years. Cumulative follow-up comprised 2933 patient-years. Early survival was 98%. NYHA status and aneurysm size were predictive of death during mid-term follow-up (P = 0.025). Freedom from aortic valve replacement was 90% at 8 years, with the type of V-SARR (root remodelling, David II) being a risk factor (P = 0.015). Bicuspid aortic valve (P = 0.26) and initial valve function (P = 0.4) did not impact reoperation. The need of additional valve repair (cusps/commissures) was not linked to reoperation: freedom from aortic valve replacement at 8 years was 84% if cusp repair was performed versus 90% if V-SARR alone was performed (P = 0.218). Marfan syndrome had no impact on survival or on aortic valve replacement. Mid-term survival of patients after V-SARR is comparable with that of a matched general population. The regurgitant bicuspid aortic valve is a favourable substrate for V-SARR. Prophylactic surgery should be performed before symptoms or large aneurysms are present to achieve optimal mid-term outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  8. Using a relational database to improve mortality and length of stay for a department of surgery: a comparative review of 5200 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Darwin N; Behrns, Kevin E

    2013-07-01

    The emphasis on high-quality care has spawned the development of quality programs, most of which focus on broad outcome measures across a diverse group of providers. Our aim was to investigate the clinical outcomes for a department of surgery with multiple service lines of patient care using a relational database. Mortality, length of stay (LOS), patient safety indicators (PSIs), and hospital-acquired conditions were examined for each service line. Expected values for mortality and LOS were derived from University HealthSystem Consortium regression models, whereas expected values for PSIs were derived from Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality regression models. Overall, 5200 patients were evaluated from the months of January through May of both 2011 (n = 2550) and 2012 (n = 2650). The overall observed-to-expected (O/E) ratio of mortality improved from 1.03 to 0.92. The overall O/E ratio for LOS improved from 0.92 to 0.89. PSIs that predicted mortality included postoperative sepsis (O/E:1.89), postoperative respiratory failure (O/E:1.83), postoperative metabolic derangement (O/E:1.81), and postoperative deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolus (O/E:1.8). Mortality and LOS can be improved by using a relational database with outcomes reported to specific service lines. Service line quality can be influenced by distribution of frequent reports, group meetings, and service line-directed interventions.

  9. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Hertel, Dietrich; Rajab, Yasmin Abou; Barus, Henry; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing toward the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density (WD). We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia); three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density, and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, WD showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and WD. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation mechanisms to environment.

  10. Patterns in hydraulic architecture from roots to branches in six tropical tree species from cacao agroforestry and their relation to wood density and stem growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Malgorzata Kotowska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For decades it has been assumed that the largest vessels are generally found in roots and that vessel size and corresponding sapwood area-specific hydraulic conductivity are acropetally decreasing towards the distal twigs. However, recent studies from the perhumid tropics revealed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution. Worldwide tropical perhumid forests are extensively replaced by agroforestry systems often using introduced species of various biogeographical and climatic origins. Nonetheless, it is unknown so far what kind of hydraulic architectural patterns are developed in those agroforestry tree species and which impact this exerts regarding important tree functional traits, such as stem growth, hydraulic efficiency and wood density. We investigated wood anatomical and hydraulic properties of the root, stem and branch wood in Theobroma cacao and five common shade tree species in agroforestry systems on Sulawesi (Indonesia; three of these were strictly perhumid tree species, and the other three tree species are tolerating seasonal drought. The overall goal of our study was to relate these properties to stem growth and other tree functional traits such as foliar nitrogen content and sapwood to leaf area ratio. Our results confirmed a hump-shaped vessel size distribution in nearly all species. Drought-adapted species showed divergent patterns of hydraulic conductivity, vessel density and relative vessel lumen area between root, stem and branch wood compared to wet forest species. Confirming findings from natural old-growth forests in the same region, wood density showed no relationship to specific conductivity. Overall, aboveground growth performance was better predicted by specific hydraulic conductivity than by foliar traits and wood density. Our study results suggest that future research on conceptual trade-offs of tree hydraulic architecture should consider biogeographical patterns underlining the importance of anatomical adaptation

  11. Root (Botany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert R. Ziemer

    1981-01-01

    Plant roots can contribute significantly to the stability of steep slopes. They can anchor through the soil mass into fractures in bedrock, can cross zones of weakness to more stable soil, and can provide interlocking long fibrous binders within a weak soil mass. In deep soil, anchoring to bedrock becomes negligible, and lateral reinforcement predominates

  12. Pion nucleus scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.T.; Levinson, C.A.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1971-09-01

    Soft pion theory and the Fubini-Furlan mass dispersion relations have been used to analyze the pion nucleon scattering lengths and obtain a value for the sigma commutator term. With this value and using the same principles, scattering lengths have been predicted for nuclei with mass number ranging from 6 to 23. Agreement with experiment is very good. For those who believe in the Gell-Mann-Levy sigma model, the evaluation of the commutator yields the value 0.26(m/sub σ//m/sub π/) 2 for the sigma nucleon coupling constant. The large dispersive corrections for the isosymmetric case implies that the basic idea behind many of the soft pion calculations, namely, slow variation of matrix elements from the soft pion limit to the physical pion mass, is not correct. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. A study of root canal morphology of human primary incisors and molars using cone beam computerized tomography: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaurav, Vivek; Srivastava, Nikhil; Rana, Vivek; Adlakha, Vivek Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Variations in morphology of root canals in primary teeth usually leads to complications during and after endodontic therapy. To improve the success in endodontics, a thorough knowledge of the root canal morphology is essential. The aim of this study was to assess the variation in number and morphology of the root canals of primary incisors and molars and to study the applicability of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) in assessing the same. A total of 60 primary molars and incisors with full root length were collected and various parameters such as the number of roots, number of canals, diameter of root canal at cementoenamel junction and middle-third, length and angulations of roots of primary molars and incisors were studied using CBCT. The observations were put to descriptive statistics to find out the frequency, mean, standard deviation and range for all four subgroups. Further, unpaired t-test was used to compare these parameters between subgroups and analysis of variance test was implemented to evaluate the parameters within the subgroups. The CBCT showed the presence of bifurcation of root canal at middle third in 13% of mandibular incisors while 20% of mandibular molars had two canals in distal root. The diameter of distobuccal root canal of maxillary molars and mesiolingual canal of mandibular molars was found to be minimum. CBCT is a relatively new and effective technology, which provides an auxiliary imaging modality to supplement conventional radiography for assessing the variation in root canal morphology of primary teeth.

  14. Intensive field phenotyping of maize (Zea mays L.) root crowns identifies phenes and phene integration associated with plant growth and nitrogen acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Larry M; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2015-09-01

    Root architecture is an important regulator of nitrogen (N) acquisition. Existing methods to phenotype the root architecture of cereal crops are generally limited to seedlings or to the outer roots of mature root crowns. The functional integration of root phenes is poorly understood. In this study, intensive phenotyping of mature root crowns of maize was conducted to discover phenes and phene modules related to N acquisition. Twelve maize genotypes were grown under replete and deficient N regimes in the field in South Africa and eight in the USA. An image was captured for every whorl of nodal roots in each crown. Custom software was used to measure root phenes including nodal occupancy, angle, diameter, distance to branching, lateral branching, and lateral length. Variation existed for all root phenes within maize root crowns. Size-related phenes such as diameter and number were substantially influenced by nodal position, while angle, lateral density, and distance to branching were not. Greater distance to branching, the length from the shoot to the emergence of laterals, is proposed to be a novel phene state that minimizes placing roots in already explored soil. Root phenes from both older and younger whorls of nodal roots contributed to variation in shoot mass and N uptake. The additive integration of root phenes accounted for 70% of the variation observed in shoot mass in low N soil. These results demonstrate the utility of intensive phenotyping of mature root systems, as well as the importance of phene integration in soil resource acquisition. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Combination of Complement-Dependent Cytotoxicity and Relative Fluorescent Quantification of HLA Length Polymorphisms Facilitates the Detection of a Loss of Heterozygosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Witter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss of heterozygosity (LOH is a common event in malignant cells. In this work we introduce a new approach to identify patients with loss of heterozygosity in the HLA region either at first diagnosis or after HLA mismatched allogeneic HSCT. Diagnosis of LOH requires a high purity of recipient target cells. FACS is time consuming and also frequently prevented by rather nonspecific or unknown immune phenotype. The approach for recipient cell enrichment is based on HLA targeted complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC. Relative fluorescent quantification (RFQ analysis of HLA intron length polymorphisms then allows analysis of HLA heterozygosity. The approach is exemplified in recent clinical cases illustrating the detection of an acquired allele loss. As illustrated in one case with DPB1, distinct HLA loci in donor and patient were sufficient for both proof of donor cell removal and evaluation of allele loss in the patient's leukemic cells. Results were confirmed using HLA-B RFQ analysis and leukemia-associated aberrant immunophenotype (LAIP based cell sort. Both results confirmed suspected loss of HLA heterozygosity. Our approach complements or substitutes for FACS-based cell enrichment; hence it may be further developed as novel routine diagnostic tool. This allows rapid recipient cell purification and testing for loss of HLA heterozygosity before and after allogeneic HSCT in easily accessible peripheral blood samples.

  16. "I Swear I Will Never Betray You": Factors Reported by Spouses as Helping Them Resist Extramarital Sex in Relation to Gender, Marriage Length, and Religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Ido; Lubin, Or Ben-Haim; Asher, Sapir

    2018-02-01

    Studies suggest that married people frequently engage in intimate relationships with people other than their spouses, and the literature has extensively examined motives for doing so. However, less is known about what factors prevent spouses from engaging in extramarital sex. While investment theory, interdependence theory, and moral theories offer insights into this question, they have not been subject to much empirical research. We examine these theories in relation to several characteristics of individuals and couples: gender, length of the marriage, and religiosity. In two studies, 423 participants completed a questionnaire on the perceived importance of 29 reasons to resist the temptation for extramarital sex. Participants also reported the likelihood that they would engage in extramarital sex if the opportunity presented itself. Results show that being female, more religious, and married for less time were associated with greater expectations of refraining from extramarital sex when presented with a hypothetical scenario. Multiple hierarchical regression showed that among factors relevant to conscious decision making, moral standards and fundamental anxieties (fear of remaining alone) predict expectations of refraining from extramarital sex better than concerns about effects on the children or the other participant.

  17. Offspring telomere length in the long lived Alpine swift is negatively related to the age of their biological father and foster mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuolo, François; Zahn, Sandrine; Bize, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    A growing body of studies is showing that offspring telomere length (TL) can be influenced by the age of their parents. Such a relationship might be explained by variation in TL at conception (gamete effect) and/or by alteration of early growth conditions in species providing parental care. In a long-lived bird with bi-parental care, the Alpine swift ( Apus melba ), we exchanged an uneven number of 2 to 4-day-old nestlings between pairs as part of a brood size manipulation. Nestling TL was measured at 50 days after hatching, which allowed investigation of the influence of the age of both their biological and foster parents on offspring TL, after controlling for the manipulation. Nestling TL was negatively related to the age of their biological father and foster mother. Nestling TL did not differ between enlarged and reduced broods. These findings suggest that offspring from older males were fertilized by gametes with shorter telomeres, presumably due to a greater cell division history or a longer accumulation of damage, and that older females may have provided poorer parental care to their offspring. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Genetic Loci Governing Grain Yield and Root Development under Variable Rice Cultivation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Catolos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the major abiotic stress to rice grain yield under unpredictable changing climatic scenarios. The widely grown, high yielding but drought susceptible rice varieties need to be improved by unraveling the genomic regions controlling traits enhancing drought tolerance. The present study was conducted with the aim to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs for grain yield and root development traits under irrigated non-stress and reproductive-stage drought stress in both lowland and upland situations. A mapping population consisting of 480 lines derived from a cross between Dular (drought-tolerant and IR64-21 (drought susceptible was used. QTL analysis revealed three major consistent-effect QTLs for grain yield (qDTY1.1, qDTY1.3, and qDTY8.1 under non-stress and reproductive-stage drought stress conditions, and 2 QTLs for root traits (qRT9.1 for root-growth angle and qRT5.1 for multiple root traits, i.e., seedling-stage root length, root dry weight and crown root number. The genetic locus qDTY1.1 was identified as hotspot for grain yield and yield-related agronomic and root traits. The study identified significant positive correlations among numbers of crown roots and mesocotyl length at the seedling stage and root length and root dry weight at depth at later stages with grain yield and yield-related traits. Under reproductive stage drought stress, the grain yield advantage of the lines with QTLs ranged from 24.1 to 108.9% under upland and 3.0–22.7% under lowland conditions over the lines without QTLs. The lines with QTL combinations qDTY1.3+qDTY8.1 showed the highest mean grain yield advantage followed by lines having qDTY1.1+qDTY8.1 and qDTY1.1+qDTY8.1+qDTY1.3, across upland/lowland reproductive-stage drought stress. The identified QTLs for root traits, mesocotyl length, grain yield and yield-related traits can be immediately deployed in marker-assisted breeding to develop drought tolerant high yielding rice varieties.

  19. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  20. Temperature and diet effect on the pepsin enzyme activities, digestive somatic index and relative gut length of Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus Bloch & Schneider, 1801

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabuj Kanti Mazumder

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An integrated experiment was performed on juvenile Malabar blood snapper (Lutjanus malabaricus to investigate the effect of temperature and diet in their pepsin activities in relation with digestive somatic index (IDS and relative gut length (RGL. One hundred twenty L. malabaricus juvenile (13–15 cm were equally distributed among four exposed temperature treatments (22, 26, 30 and 34 °C representing their seasonal range and to account for end of century predicted temperatures, and two diets as commercial pellet and natural shrimp. After 7 days of acclimation period fish were reared for 30 days in twenty four 400 l glass aquaria at a stocking density of 5 fish tank−1. All treatments were three replications. The result showed that, IDS and RGL gradually decreased with increasing temperature up to 30 °C and again increase at 34 °C. And the values were also higher in pellet feeding fish than shrimp feeding fish at all the temperatures. Alternatively, in pepsin activity, an increased activity was seen between 26 °C to 30 °C and this activity was significantly higher than the 22 °C and 34 °C (P < 0.05. In general, highest pepsin activity was observed among fish which fed on a natural shrimp diet reared at temperature 30 °C (5.47 ± 1.60 U mg protein−1, followed by those at 26, 34 and 22 °C (P < 0.05 at both diet however, no mortalities were observed. These results could be used as a basis for selecting a suitable diet for maximizing the growth and sustainable aquaculture coping with global warming.

  1. The crystal structure of full-length Sizzled from Xenopus laevis yields insights into Wnt-antagonistic function of secreted Frizzled-related proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Qixin; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Junying; Xu, Fei; Liu, Jianmei; Liu, Heli

    2017-09-29

    The Wnt-signaling pathway is crucial to cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. The secreted Frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs) represent the largest family of secreted Wnt inhibitors. However, their function in antagonizing Wnt signaling has remained somewhat controversial. Here, we report the crystal structure of Sizzled from Xenopus laevis , the first full-length structure of an sFRP. Tethered by an inter-domain disulfide bond and a linker, the N-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD) and the C-terminal netrin-like domain (NTR) of Sizzled are arranged in a tandem fashion, with the NTR domain occluding the groove of CRD for Wnt accessibility. A Dual-Luciferase assay demonstrated that removing the NTR domain and replacing the CRD groove residues His-116 and His-118 with aromatic residues may significantly enhance antagonistic function of Sizzled in inhibiting Wnt3A signaling. Sizzled is a monomer in solution, and Sizzled CRD exhibited different packing in the crystal, suggesting that sFRPs do not have a conserved CRD dimerization mode. Distinct from the canonical NTR domain, the Sizzled NTR adopts a novel α/β folding with two perpendicular helices facing the central mixed β-sheet. The subgroup of human sFRP1/2/5 and Sizzled should have a similar NTR domain that features a highly positively charged region, opposite the NTR-CRD interface, suggesting that the NTR domain in human sFRPs, at least sFRP1/2/5, is unlikely to bind to Wnt but is likely involved in biphasic Wnt signaling modulation. In summary, the Sizzled structure provides the first insights into how the CRD and the NTR domains relate to each other for modulating Wnt-antagonistic function of sFRPs. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Water Erosion in Different Slope Lengths on Bare Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Bagio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water erosion degrades the soil and contaminates the environment, and one influential factor on erosion is slope length. The aim of this study was to quantify losses of soil (SL and water (WL in a Humic Cambisol in a field experiment under natural rainfall conditions from July 4, 2014 to June 18, 2015 in individual events of 41 erosive rains in the Southern Plateau of Santa Catarina and to estimate soil losses through the USLE and RUSLE models. The treatments consisted of slope lengths of 11, 22, 33, and 44 m, with an average degree of slope of 8 %, on bare and uncropped soil that had been cultivated with corn prior to the study. At the end of the corn cycle, the stalk residue was removed from the surface, leaving the roots of the crop in the soil. Soil loss by water erosion is related linearly and positively to the increase in slope length in the span between 11 and 44 m. Soil losses were related to water losses and the Erosivity Index (EI30, while water losses were related to rain depth. Soil losses estimated by the USLE and RUSLE model showed lower values than the values observed experimentally in the field, especially the values estimated by the USLE. The values of factor L calculated for slope length of 11, 22, 33, and 44 m for the two versions (USLE and RUSLE of the soil loss prediction model showed satisfactory results in relation to the values of soil losses observed.

  3. Effect of piezocision on root resorption associated with orthodontic force: A microcomputed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Braydon M; Dalci, Oyku; Papadopoulou, Alexandra K; Madukuri, Suman; Mahon, Jonathan; Petocz, Peter; Spahr, Axel; Darendeliler, M Ali

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of piezocision on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption. Fourteen patients were included in this split-mouth study; 1 side was assigned to piezocision, and the other side served as the control. Vertical corticotomy cuts of 4 to 5 mm in length were performed on either side of each piezocision premolar, and 150-g buccal tipping forces were applied to the premolars. After 4 weeks, the maxillary first premolars were extracted and scanned with microcomputed tomography. There was a significantly greater total amount of root resorption seen on the piezocision sides when compared with the control sides (P = 0.029). The piezocision procedure resulted in a 44% average increase in root resorption. In 5 patients, there was noticeable piezocision-related iatrogenic root damage. When that was combined with the orthodontic root resorption found on the piezocision-treated teeth, there was a statistically significant 110% average increase in volumetric root loss when compared with the control side (P = 0.005). The piezocision procedure that initiates the regional acceleratory phenomenon may increase the iatrogenic root resorption when used in conjunction with orthodontic forces. Piezocision applied close to the roots may cause iatrogenic damage to the neighboring roots and should be used carefully. Copyright © 2017.

  4. Phytoremediation in the tropics - influence of heavy crude oil on root morphological characteristics of graminoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkl, Nicole; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer; Infante, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    When studying species for phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils, one of the main traits is the root zone where enhanced petroleum degradation takes place. Root morphological characteristics of three tropical graminoids were studied. Specific root length (SRL), surface area, volume and average root diameter (ARD) of plants grown in crude oil-contaminated and uncontaminated soil were compared. Brachiaria brizantha and Cyperus aggregatus showed coarser roots in polluted soil compared to the control as expressed in an increased ARD. B. brizantha had a significantly larger specific root surface area in contaminated soil. Additionally, a shift of SRL and surface area per diameter class towards higher diameters was found. Oil contamination also caused a significantly smaller SRL and surface area in the finest diameter class of C. aggregatus. The root structure of Eleusine indica was not significantly affected by crude oil. Higher specific root surface area was related to higher degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons found in previous studies. - Describing the effect of crude oil on root morphology of tropical graminoids the work assists in the selection of plant species for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soils

  5. Phytoremediation in the tropics - influence of heavy crude oil on root morphological characteristics of graminoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkl, Nicole [Institute of Plant Production and Agroecology in the Tropics and Subtropics, Department of Biodiversity and Land Rehabilitation, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany) and PDVSA - Intevep, Centro de Investigacion y Apoyo Tecnologico de Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Departamento de Ecologia y Ambiente, P.O. Box 76343, Caracas 1070-A (Venezuela)]. E-mail: nmerkl@uni-hohenheim.de; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer [Institute of Plant Production and Agroecology in the Tropics and Subtropics, Department of Biodiversity and Land Rehabilitation, University of Hohenheim, D-70593 Stuttgart (Germany)]. E-mail: rsk@uni-hohenheim.de; Infante, Carmen [PDVSA - Intevep, Centro de Investigacion y Apoyo Tecnologico de Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., Departamento de Ecologia y Ambiente, P.O. Box 76343, Caracas 1070-A (Venezuela) and Universidad Simon Bolivar (USB), FUNINDES, Unidad de Gestion Ambiental, Caracas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: luchoben@cantv.net

    2005-11-15

    When studying species for phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soils, one of the main traits is the root zone where enhanced petroleum degradation takes place. Root morphological characteristics of three tropical graminoids were studied. Specific root length (SRL), surface area, volume and average root diameter (ARD) of plants grown in crude oil-contaminated and uncontaminated soil were compared. Brachiaria brizantha and Cyperus aggregatus showed coarser roots in polluted soil compared to the control as expressed in an increased ARD. B. brizantha had a significantly larger specific root surface area in contaminated soil. Additionally, a shift of SRL and surface area per diameter class towards higher diameters was found. Oil contamination also caused a significantly smaller SRL and surface area in the finest diameter class of C. aggregatus. The root structure of Eleusine indica was not significantly affected by crude oil. Higher specific root surface area was related to higher degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons found in previous studies. - Describing the effect of crude oil on root morphology of tropical graminoids the work assists in the selection of plant species for phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soils.

  6. [Effects of sowing depth on seedling traits and root characteristics of summer maize].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui-ying; Wang, Ding-bo; Shi, Jian-guo; Zhu, Kun-lun; Dong, Shu-ting; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Ji-wang

    2015-08-01

    Two summer maize hybrids, Zhengdan 958 (ZD958) and Xianyu 335 (XY335), were used as experimental materials. 4 sowing depths (3, 5, 7 and 9 cm) and uneven sowing depth (CK) were designed under sand culture and field experiments to investigate the effects of sowing depth on seedling traits and root characteristics of summer maize. The results showed that the seedling emergence rate gradually decreased and seedling emergence time gradually lengthened as the sowing depth increased. Compared with the sowing depth of 3 cm, the seedling emergence rates of ZD958 and XY335 sown at the depth of 9 cm were reduced by 9.4% and 11.8%, respectively, and the seedling emergence duration was prolonged 1.5 d. With the increasing sowing depth, the seedling length and uniformity decreased significantly, the mesocotyl length increased significantly, while the coleoptile length had no significant difference; the primary radicle length gradually decreased, the total length of secondary radicle gradually increased, and the total root length had no significant difference; the total dry mass of seedling and mesocotyl increased significantly, and the total root dry mass had no significant difference. With the increasing sowing depth, the soluble sugar content in each part of seedling increased and the amount of nutritional consumption of germinating seeds increased, the seedling root growth rate increased, but the root activity decreased, and the number of total nodal root and nodal layers increased. With the increasing sowing depth, harvested ears per unit area were reduced by decreased seedling emergence rate and seedling vigor, thus influenced the yield. In addition, uniform sowing depth could improve the canopy uniformity and relative characteristics, then increase the yield.

  7. Flare up rate related to root canal treatment of asymptomatic pulpally necrotic central incisor teeth in patients attending a military hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Negrish, Abdul Rohman Salem; Habahbeh, Riyad

    2006-10-01

    This prospective study was conducted to determine the flare up rate related to root canal treatment of asymptomatic non vital maxillary central incisor teeth performed in one and two appointments and the relationship, if any between pain and number of treatment visits. The frequency of postobturation pain and swelling was recorded and evaluated over an observation period of 1 week in a 120 consecutive patients undergoing root canal treatment. The patients were assigned randomly into one of two groups of 60 patients each. The canals of all teeth were prepared and filled using the step-back preparation and lateral condensation filling techniques. The data were analyzed statistically using Mann-Whitney test. Eight of the 120 patients were excluded from the analysis as they failed to attend for postoperative reviews. Out of the 112 patients involved in the study 90 patients had no pain, 9 patients had slight pain, 8 patients had moderate pain, and 5 patients had severe pain after 2 days. After 7 days 104 patients had no pain, 4 patients had slight pain, 3 patients had moderate pain and 1 patient had severe pain. No statistically significant difference in the incidence and degree of postoperative pain was found between one and two visit Endodontic procedures. The rate of post obturation flare up in asymptomatic Endodontically treated non vital maxillary centarl incisors was 11.6 and 3.6% after 2 and 7 days, respectively.

  8. Analysis Method of Transfer Pricing Used by Multinational Companies Related to Tax Avoidance and its Consistencies to the Arm's Length Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuraini Sari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate about how Starbucks Corporation uses transfer pricing to minimize the tax bill. In addition, the study also will evaluate how Indonesia’s domestic rules can overcome the case if Starbucks UK case happens in Indonesia. There are three steps conducted in this study. First, using information provided by UK Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (HMRC and other related articles, find methods used by Starbucks UK to minimize the tax bill. Second, find Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD viewpoint regarding Starbucks Corporation cases. Third, analyze how Indonesia’s transfer pricing rules will work if Starbucks UK’s cases happened in Indonesia. The results showed that there were three inter-company transactions that helped Starbucks UK to minimize the tax bill, such as coffee costs, royalty on intangible property, and interest on inter-company loans. Through a study of OECD’s BEPS action plans, it is recommended to improve the OECD Model Tax Convention including Indonesia’s domestic tax rules in order to produce a fair and transparent judgment on transfer pricing. This study concluded that by using current tax rules, although UK HMRC has been disadvantaged because transfer pricing practices done by most of multinational companies, UK HMRC still cannot prove the transfer pricing practices are not consistent with arm’s length principle. Therefore, current international tax rules need to be improved.

  9. Impact of case type, length of stay, institution type, and comorbidities on Medicare diagnosis-related group reimbursement for adult spinal deformity surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunley, Pierce D; Mundis, Gregory M; Fessler, Richard G; Park, Paul; Zavatsky, Joseph M; Uribe, Juan S; Eastlack, Robert K; Chou, Dean; Wang, Michael Y; Anand, Neel; Frank, Kelly A; Stone, Marcus B; Kanter, Adam S; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Mummaneni, Praveen V

    2017-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to educate medical professionals about potential financial impacts of improper diagnosis-related group (DRG) coding in adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. METHODS Medicare's Inpatient Prospective Payment System PC Pricer database was used to collect 2015 reimbursement data for ASD procedures from 12 hospitals. Case type, hospital type/location, number of operative levels, proper coding, length of stay, and complications/comorbidities (CCs) were analyzed for effects on reimbursement. DRGs were used to categorize cases into 3 types: 1) anterior or posterior only fusion, 2) anterior fusion with posterior percutaneous fixation with no dorsal fusion, and 3) combined anterior and posterior fixation and fusion. RESULTS Pooling institutions, cases were reimbursed the same for single-level and multilevel ASD surgery. Longer stay, from 3 to 8 days, resulted in an additional $1400 per stay. Posterior fusion was an additional $6588, while CCs increased reimbursement by approximately $13,000. Academic institutions received higher reimbursement than private institutions, i.e., approximately $14,000 (Case Types 1 and 2) and approximately $16,000 (Case Type 3). Urban institutions received higher reimbursement than suburban institutions, i.e., approximately $3000 (Case Types 1 and 2) and approximately $3500 (Case Type 3). Longer stay, from 3 to 8 days, increased reimbursement between $208 and $494 for private institutions and between $1397 and $1879 for academic institutions per stay. CONCLUSIONS Reimbursement is based on many factors not controlled by surgeons or hospitals, but proper DRG coding can significantly impact the financial health of hospitals and availability of quality patient care.

  10. Current employment status, occupational category, occupational hazard exposure, and job stress in relation to telomere length: The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Landsbergis, Paul; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Seeman, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Telomere length has been proposed as a biomarker of cell senescence, which is associated with a wide array of adverse health outcomes. While work is a major determinant of health, few studies have investigated the association of telomere length with various dimensions of occupation. Accelerated cellular aging could be a common pathway linking occupational exposure to several health outcomes. Methods Leukocyte telomere length was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) in a community-based sample of 981 individuals (age: 45–84 years old). Questionnaires were used to collect information on current employment status, current or main occupation before retirement, and job strain. The O*NET (Occupational Resource Network) database was linked to the questionnaire data to create 5 exposure measures: physical activity on the job, physical hazard exposure, interpersonal stressors, job control, and job demands. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of occupational characteristics with telomere lengths after adjustment for age, sex, race, socioeconomic position, and several behavioral risk factors. Results There were no mean differences in telomere lengths across current employment status, occupational category, job strain categories or levels of most O*NET exposure measures. There was also no evidence that being in lower status occupational categories or being exposed to higher levels of adverse physical or psychosocial exposures accelerated the association between age and telomere shortening. Conclusions Cellular aging as reflected by shorter telomeres does not appear to be an important pathway linking occupation to various health outcomes. PMID:23686115

  11. Role of duration of catheterization and length of hospital stay on the rate of catheter-related hospital-acquired urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Hazmi H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hamdan Al-HazmiDivision of Urology, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: Our aim is to prove that duration of catheterization and length of hospital stay (LOS are associated with the rate of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (UTI, while taking into account type of urinary catheter used, the most common organisms found, patient diagnosis on admission, associated comorbidities, age, sex, precautions that should be taken to avoid UTI, and comparison with other studies.Methods: The study was done in a university teaching hospital with a 920-bed capacity; this hospital is a tertiary care center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study was done on 250 selected patients during the year 2010 as a retrospective descriptive study. Patients were selected as purposive sample, all of them having been exposed to urinary catheterization; hospital-acquired UTI were found in 100 patients. Data were abstracted from the archived patients' files in the medical record department using the annual infection control logbook prepared by the infection control department. The data collected were demographic information about the patients, clinical condition (diagnosis and the LOS, and possible risk factors for infection such as duration of catheterization, exposure to invasive devices or surgical procedures, and medical condition.Results: There was a statistically significant association between the rate of UTI and duration of catheterization: seven patients had UTI out of 46 catheterized patients (15% at 3 days of catheterization, while 30 patients had UTI out of 44 catheterized patients (68% at 8 days of catheterization (median 8 days in infected patients versus 3 days in noninfected patients; P-value <0.05, which means that the longer the duration of catheterization, the higher the UTI rate. There was a statistically significant association between the rate of UTI and LOS

  12. "Roots": Medium and Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnamon, Keneth

    A national telephone survey indicated that audiences rated the television production of "Roots" positively in terms of the following: realistic portrayal of the people and the times; relevance for contemporary race relations; perceived emotional effect; and increased understanding of the psychology of black people. However, a comparison…

  13. Locally Finite Root Supersystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yousofzadeh, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the notion of locally finite root supersystems as a generalization of both locally finite root systems and generalized root systems. We classify irreducible locally finite root supersystems.

  14. Root Morphology Was Improved in a Late-Stage Vigor Super Rice Cultivar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test the hypothesis that root morphology might be improved and consequently contributing to superior post-heading shoot growth and grain yield in late-stage vigor super rice. A pot experiment was carried out to compare yield attributes, shoot growth and physiological properties and root morphological traits between a late-stage vigor super rice cultivar (Y-liangyou 087 and an elite rice cultivar (Teyou 838. Grain yield and total shoot biomass were 7-9% higher in Y-liangyou 087 than in Teyou 838. Y-liangyou 087 had 60-64% higher post-heading shoot growth rate and biomass production than Teyou 838. Average relative chlorophyll concentration and net photosynthetic rate in flag leaves were 7-11% higher in Y-liangyou 087 than in Teyou 838 during heading to 25 days after heading. Y-liangyou 087 had 41% higher post-heading shoot N uptake but 17-25% lower root biomass and root-shoot ratio at heading and maturity than Teyou 838. Specific root length and length and surface area of fine roots were higher in Y-liangyou 087 than in Teyou 838 at heading and maturity by more than 15%. These results indicated that root-shoot relationships were well balanced during post-heading phase in the late-stage vigor super rice cultivar Y-liangyou 087 by improving root morphology including avoiding a too great root biomass and developing a large fine root system.

  15. Socio-ecological implications of modifying rotation lengths in forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Jean-Michel; Laudon, Hjalmar; Björkman, Christer; Ranius, Thomas; Sandström, Camilla; Felton, Adam; Sténs, Anna; Nordin, Annika; Granström, Anders; Widemo, Fredrik; Bergh, Johan; Sonesson, Johan; Stenlid, Jan; Lundmark, Tomas

    2016-02-01

    The rotation length is a key component of even-aged forest management systems. Using Fennoscandian forestry as a case, we review the socio-ecological implications of modifying rotation lengths relative to current practice by evaluating effects on a range of ecosystem services and on biodiversity conservation. The effects of shortening rotations on provisioning services are expected to be mostly negative to neutral (e.g. production of wood, bilberries, reindeer forage), while those of extending rotations would be more varied. Shortening rotations may help limit damage by some of today's major damaging agents (e.g. root rot, cambium-feeding insects), but may also increase other damage types (e.g. regeneration pests) and impede climate mitigation. Supporting (water, soil nutrients) and cultural (aesthetics, cultural heritage) ecosystem services would generally be affected negatively by shortened rotations and positively by extended rotations, as would most biodiversity indicators. Several effect modifiers, such as changes to thinning regimes, could alter these patterns.

  16. Mandibular molar root morphology in Neanderthals and Late Pleistocene and recent Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupczik, Kornelius; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2010-11-01

    Neanderthals have a distinctive suite of dental features, including large anterior crown and root dimensions and molars with enlarged pulp cavities. Yet, there is little known about variation in molar root morphology in Neanderthals and other recent and fossil members of Homo. Here, we provide the first comprehensive metric analysis of permanent mandibular molar root morphology in Middle and Late Pleistocene Homo neanderthalensis, and Late Pleistocene (Aterian) and recent Homo sapiens. We specifically address the question of whether root form can be used to distinguish between these groups and assess whether any variation in root form can be related to differences in tooth function. We apply a microtomographic imaging approach to visualise and quantify the external and internal dental morphologies of both isolated molars and molars embedded in the mandible (n=127). Univariate and multivariate analyses reveal both similarities (root length and pulp volume) and differences (occurrence of pyramidal roots and dental tissue volume proportion) in molar root morphology among penecontemporaneous Neanderthals and Aterian H. sapiens. In contrast, the molars of recent H. sapiens are markedly smaller than both Pleistocene H. sapiens and Neanderthals, but share with the former the dentine volume reduction and a smaller root-to-crown volume compared with Neanderthals. Furthermore, we found the first molar to have the largest average root surface area in recent H. sapiens and Neanderthals, although in the latter the difference between M(1) and M(2) is small. In contrast, Aterian H. sapiens root surface areas peak at M(2). Since root surface area is linked to masticatory function, this suggests a distinct occlusal loading regime in Neanderthals compared with both recent and Pleistocene H. sapiens. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Control of root system architecture by DEEPER ROOTING 1 increases rice yield under drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uga, Yusaku; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Satoshi; Rane, Jagadish; Ishitani, Manabu; Hara, Naho; Kitomi, Yuka; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Ono, Kazuko; Kanno, Noriko; Inoue, Haruhiko; Takehisa, Hinako; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takai, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Kazutoshi; Yano, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    The genetic improvement of drought resistance is essential for stable and adequate crop production in drought-prone areas. Here we demonstrate that alteration of root system architecture improves drought avoidance through the cloning and characterization of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1), a rice quantitative trait locus controlling root growth angle. DRO1 is negatively regulated by auxin and is involved in cell elongation in the root tip that causes asymmetric root growth and downward bending of the root in response to gravity. Higher expression of DRO1 increases the root growth angle, whereby roots grow in a more downward direction. Introducing DRO1 into a shallow-rooting rice cultivar by backcrossing enabled the resulting line to avoid drought by increasing deep rooting, which maintained high yield performance under drought conditions relative to the recipient cultivar. Our experiments suggest that control of root system architecture will contribute to drought avoidance in crops.

  18. l-cysteine desulfhydrase-related H2 S production is involved in OsSE5-promoted ammonium tolerance in roots of Oryza sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongming; Zhou, Heng; Zhang, Jing; Guan, Wenxue; Xu, Sheng; Shen, Wenbiao; Xu, Guohua; Xie, Yanjie; Foyer, Christine Helen

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies revealed that rice heme oxygenase PHOTOPERIOD SENSITIVITY 5 (OsSE5) is involved in the regulation of tolerance to excess ammonium by enhancing antioxidant defence. In this study, the relationship between OsSE5 and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), a well-known signalling molecule, was investigated. Results showed that NH 4 Cl triggered the induction of l-cysteine desulfhydrase (l-DES)-related H 2 S production in rice seedling roots. A H 2 S donor not only alleviated the excess ammonium-triggered inhibition of root growth but also reduced endogenous ammonium, both of which were aggravated by hypotaurine (HT, a H 2 S scavenger) or dl-propargylglycine (PAG, a l-DES inhibitor). Nitrogen metabolism-related enzymes were activated by H 2 S, thus resulting in the induction of amino acid synthesis and total nitrogen content. Interestingly, the activity of l-DES, as well as the enzymes involved in nitrogen metabolism, was significantly increased in the OsSE5-overexpression line (35S:OsSE5), whereas it impaired in the OsSE5-knockdown mutant (OsSE5-RNAi). The application of the HT/PAG or H 2 S donor could differentially block or rescue NH 4 Cl-hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity phenotypes in 35S:OsSE5-1 or OsSE5-RNAi-1 plants, with a concomitant modulation of nitrogen assimilation. Taken together, these results illustrated that H 2 S function as an indispensable positive regulator participated in OsSE5-promoted ammonium tolerance, in which nitrogen metabolism was facilitated. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Tuber and root resistance of potato genotypes against Meloidogyne chitwoodi in the presence of Avena strigosa, related to tuber quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, Thomas H.; Molendijk, Leendert P.G.; Teklu, Misghina G.; Schomaker, Corrie H.

    2017-01-01

    Relative tuber infestation and quality of two Meloidogyne chitwoodi resistant potato genotypes, AR04-4096 and 2011M1, were compared in glasshouse experiments at initial population density (Pi) = 16 second-stage juveniles (g dry soil)−1 in the presence and absence of the bristle oat, Avena strigosa.

  20. ABNORMAL INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM1 Functions in Salicylic Acid Biosynthesis to Maintain Proper Reactive Oxygen Species Levels for Root Meristem Activity in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Zhao, Hongyu; Ruan, Wenyuan; Deng, Minjuan; Wang, Fang; Peng, Jinrong; Luo, Jie; Chen, Zhixiang; Yi, Keke

    2017-03-01

    Root meristem activity determines root growth and root architecture and consequently affects water and nutrient uptake in plants. However, our knowledge about the regulation of root meristem activity in crop plants is very limited. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a short root mutant in rice ( Oryza sativa ) with reduced root meristem activity. This root growth defect is caused by a mutation in ABNORMAL INFLORESCENCE MERISTEM1 ( AIM1 ), which encodes a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in β-oxidation. The reduced root meristem activity of aim1 results from reduced salicylic acid (SA) levels and can be rescued by SA application. Furthermore, reduced SA levels are associated with reduced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aim1 , likely due to increased expression of redox and ROS-scavenging-related genes, whose increased expression is (at least in part) caused by reduced expression of the SA-inducible transcriptional repressors WRKY62 and WRKY76. Like SA, ROS application substantially increased root length and root meristem activity in aim1 These results suggest that AIM1 is required for root growth in rice due to its critical role in SA biosynthesis: SA maintains root meristem activity through promoting ROS accumulation by inducing the activity of WRKY transcriptional repressors, which repress the expression of redox and ROS-scavenging genes. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of synthetic hormone substitutes and genotypes on rooting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vine cuttings were sampled for rooting percentage, number of roots, root length and mini tuber initiation 21 days after treatment (DAT). The number and weight of tubers obtained from IBA and wood ash treated vines were not significantly different. The rice straw ash, IBA and neem leaves powder treated vines produced ...

  2. Family roots of empathy-related characteristics: the role of perceived maternal and paternal need support in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklikowska, Marta; Duriez, Bart; Soenens, Bart

    2011-09-01

    Theories on empathy development have stressed the role of socialization in general and the role of parental support in particular. This 3-wave longitudinal study of middle adolescents (N = 678) aimed to contribute to the extant research on the socialization of empathy (a) by examining the relative contribution of perceived maternal and paternal need supportive parenting on over-time changes in adolescents' emotional and cognitive aspects of empathy (i.e., empathic concern and perspective taking, respectively) and (b) by considering the possibility of reciprocal relations between perceived parenting and adolescent empathy. Whereas paternal need support consistently predicted over-time changes in perspective taking in both sons and daughters, perceived maternal need support predicted changes in empathic concern among daughters only. In addition, although less consistently so, empathy dimensions also predicted over-time changes in perceived parenting. Results are discussed in terms of the nature of empathy and in the light of domain-specific effects of each parent.

  3. An evaluation of inexpensive methods for root image acquisition when using rhizotrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Awaz; Monnier, Yogan; Mao, Zhun; Lobet, Guillaume; Maeght, Jean-Luc; Ramel, Merlin; Stokes, Alexia

    2017-01-01

    Belowground processes play an essential role in ecosystem nutrient cycling and the global carbon budget cycle. Quantifying fine root growth is crucial to the understanding of ecosystem structure and function and in predicting how ecosystems respond to climate variability. A better understanding of root system growth is necessary, but choosing the best method of observation is complex, especially in the natural soil environment. Here, we compare five methods of root image acquisition using inexpensive technology that is currently available on the market: flatbed scanner, handheld scanner, manual tracing, a smartphone application scanner and a time-lapse camera. Using the five methods, root elongation rate (RER) was measured for three months, on roots of hybrid walnut ( Juglans nigra  ×  Juglans regia L.) in rhizotrons installed in agroforests. When all methods were compared together, there were no significant differences in relative cumulative root length. However, the time-lapse camera and the manual tracing method significantly overestimated the relative mean diameter of roots compared to the three scanning methods. The smartphone scanning application was found to perform best overall when considering image quality and ease of use in the field. The automatic time-lapse camera was useful for measuring RER over several months without any human intervention. Our results show that inexpensive scanning and automated methods provide correct measurements of root elongation and length (but not diameter when using the time-lapse camera). These methods are capable of detecting fine roots to a diameter of 0.1 mm and can therefore be selected by the user depending on the data required.

  4. Experimentally reduced root–microbe interactions reveal limited plasticity in functional root traits in Acer and Quercus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei-Ho; Comas, Louise H.; Callahan, Hilary S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Interactions between roots and soil microbes are critical components of below-ground ecology. It is essential to quantify the magnitude of root trait variation both among and within species, including variation due to plasticity. In addition to contextualizing the magnitude of plasticity relative to differences between species, studies of plasticity can ascertain if plasticity is predictable and whether an environmental factor elicits changes in traits that are functionally advantageous. Methods To compare functional traits and trait plasticities in fine root tissues with natural and reduced levels of colonization by microbial symbionts, trimmed and surface-sterilized root segments of 2-year-old Acer rubrum and Quercus rubra seedlings were manipulated. Segments were then replanted into satellite pots filled with control or heat-treated soil, both originally derived from a natural forest. Mycorrhizal colonization was near zero in roots grown in heat-treated soil; roots grown in control soil matched the higher colonization levels observed in unmanipulated root samples collected from field locations. Key Results Between-treatment comparisons revealed negligible plasticity for root diameter, branching intensity and nitrogen concentration across both species. Roots from treated soils had decreased tissue density (approx. 10–20 %) and increased specific root length (approx. 10–30 %). In contrast, species differences were significant and greater than treatment effects in traits other than tissue density. Interspecific trait differences were also significant in field samples, which generally resembled greenhouse samples. Conclusions The combination of experimental and field approaches was useful for contextualizing trait plasticity in comparison with inter- and intra-specific trait variation. Findings that root traits are largely species dependent, with the exception of root tissue density, are discussed in the context of current literature on root

  5. Rooting of hybrid clones of Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx. by stem cuttings derived from micropropagated plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qibin Yu [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland). Dept. of Plant Biology; Maentylae, N. [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Dept. of Biology, Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology; Salonen, M. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Laeyliaeinen (Finland). Haapastensyrjae Breeding Station

    2001-07-01

    Propagation costs could be cut by replacing part of the micropropagation process with steps involving more traditional techniques. This study explored possibilities for improving existing vegetative propagation techniques for aspen using stem cuttings obtained from micropropagated plants. Vegetative propagation through stem cuttings was studied in 10 micropropagated hybrid aspen clones (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx). Cuttings containing one axillary bud were harvested from the same donor plants twice during the growing season: the first harvest in May and the second harvest in July. Rooting percentage was correlated positively with root length, number of roots and height of cutting plant but negatively with length of rooting. The average rooting percentage was 53% in the first harvest and 27% in second harvest. Indole-3-butyric acid treatments (1.2 mM) significantly improved rooting in the second harvest, but not in the first harvest, suggesting different endogenous auxin levels in the cuttings. A significant variation for most traits related to rooting ability was found among the clones, indicating that clonal effects play an important role in the propagation of aspen. Thus, clones with a good response in shoot growth and rooting could be exploited in large-scale propagation using stem cuttings.

  6. Genotypic diversity of root and shoot characteristics of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali ganjali

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Root and shoot characteristics of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. genotypes are believed to be important in drought tolerance. There is a little information about the response of genotypes root growth in hydroponics and greenhouse culture, also the relationships between root size and drought tolerance. This study was conducted to observe whether genotypes differ in root size, and to see that root size is associated with drought tolerance during early vegetative growth. We found significant differences (p0.01 in root dry weight, total root length, tap root length, root area, leaf dry weight, leaf area and shoot biomass per plant among 30 genotypes of chickpea grown in hydroponics culture for three weeks. Each of these parameters correlated with all others, positively. Among 30 genotypes, 10 genotypes with different root sizes were selected and were grown in a greenhouse in sand culture experiment under drought stress (FC %30 for three weeks. There were not linear or non-linear significant correlations between root characters in hydroponics and greenhouse environments. It seems that environmental factors are dominant on genetic factors in seedling stage and so, the expression of genotypics potential for root growth characteristics of genotypes are different in hydroponic and greenhouse conditions. In this study, the selection of genotypes with vigorous roots system in hydroponic condition did not lead to genotypes with the same root characters in greenhouse environment. The genotype×drought interactions for root characters of chickpea seedlings in 30 days were not significant (p

  7. Co-ordinated growth between aerial and root systems in young apple plants issued from in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costes, E; García-Villanueva, E; Jourdan, C; Regnard, J L; Guédon, Y

    2006-01-01

    In several species exhibiting a rhythmic aerial growth, the existence of an alternation between root and shoot growth has been demonstrated. The present study aims to investigate the respective involvement of the emergence of new organs and their elongation in relation to this phenomenon and its possible genotypic variation in young apple plants. Two apple varieties, X6407 (recently named 'Ariane') and X3305 ('Chantecler' x 'Baujade'), were compared. Five plants per variety, issued from in vitro culture, were observed in minirhizotrons over 4 months. For each plant, root emergence and growth were observed twice per week. Growth rates were calculated for all roots with more than two segments and the branching density was calculated on primary roots. On the aerial part, the number of leaves, leaf area and total shoot length were observed weekly. No significant difference was observed between varieties in any of the final characteristics of aerial growth. Increase in leaf area and shoot length exhibited a 3-week rhythm in X3305 while a weaker signal was observed in Ariane. The primary root growth rate was homogeneous between the plants and likewise between the varieties, while their branching density differed significantly. Secondary roots emerged rhythmically, with a 3-week and a 2-week rhythm, respectively, in X3305 and 'Ariane'. Despite a high intra-variety variability, significant differences were observed between varieties in the secondary root life span and mean length. A synchronism between leaf emergence and primary root growth was highlighted in both varieties, while an opposition phase was observed between leaf area increments and secondary root emergence in X3305 only. A biological model of dynamics that summarizes the interactions between processes and includes the assumption of a feedback effect of lateral root emergence on leaf emergence is proposed.

  8. Minimum variance rooting of phylogenetic trees and implications for species tree reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Uyen; Sayyari, Erfan; Mirarab, Siavash

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees inferred using commonly-used models of sequence evolution are unrooted, but the root position matters both for interpretation and downstream applications. This issue has been long recognized; however, whether the potential for discordance between the species tree and gene trees impacts methods of rooting a phylogenetic tree has not been extensively studied. In this paper, we introduce a new method of rooting a tree based on its branch length distribution; our method, which minimizes the variance of root to tip distances, is inspired by the traditional midpoint rerooting and is justified when deviations from the strict molecular clock are random. Like midpoint rerooting, the method can be implemented in a linear time algorithm. In extensive simulations that consider discordance between gene trees and the species tree, we show that the new method is more accurate than midpoint rerooting, but its relative accuracy compared to using outgroups to root gene trees depends on the size of the dataset and levels of deviations from the strict clock. We show high levels of error for all methods of rooting estimated gene trees due to factors that include effects of gene tree discordance, deviations from the clock, and gene tree estimation error. Our simulations, however, did not reveal significant differences between two equivalent methods for species tree estimation that use rooted and unrooted input, namely, STAR and NJst. Nevertheless, our results point to limitations of existing scalable rooting methods.

  9. [Fire behavior of Mongolian oak leaves fuel bed under no-wind and zero-slope conditions. II. Analysis of the factors affecting flame length and residence time and related prediction models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Li; Liu, Bo-Fei; Di, Xue-Ying; Chu, Teng-Fei; Jin, Sen

    2012-11-01

    Taking fuel moisture content, fuel loading, and fuel bed depth as controlling factors, the fuel beds of Mongolian oak leaves in Maoershan region of Northeast China in field were simulated, and a total of one hundred experimental burnings under no-wind and zero-slope conditions were conducted in laboratory, with the effects of the fuel moisture content, fuel loading, and fuel bed depth on the flame length and its residence time analyzed and the multivariate linear prediction models constructed. The results indicated that fuel moisture content had a significant negative liner correlation with flame length, but less correlation with flame residence time. Both the fuel loading and the fuel bed depth were significantly positively correlated with flame length and its residence time. The interactions of fuel bed depth with fuel moisture content and fuel loading had significant effects on the flame length, while the interactions of fuel moisture content with fuel loading and fuel bed depth affected the flame residence time significantly. The prediction model of flame length had better prediction effect, which could explain 83.3% of variance, with a mean absolute error of 7.8 cm and a mean relative error of 16.2%, while the prediction model of flame residence time was not good enough, which could only explain 54% of variance, with a mean absolute error of 9.2 s and a mean relative error of 18.6%.

  10. CT-guided cervical nerve root injections: comparing the immediate post-injection anesthetic-related effects of the transforaminal injection with a new indirect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K.; Zanetti, Marco; Hodler, Juerg

    2011-01-01

    To describe an ''indirect'' cervical nerve root injection technique with a dorsal approach that should carry less inherent risk than the ''direct'' cervical transforaminal injection approach, and to compare the immediate post-injection results of the two procedures. The indirect and direct cervical nerve root injection procedures are described in detail. Fifty-three consecutive patients receiving the indirect nerve root injections during 2009-2010 were age- and gender-matched to 53 patients who underwent direct transforaminal nerve root injections performed in 2006. Pain level data were collected immediately before and 20-30 min after each procedure. The percentages of pain change in the two groups were compared using the unpaired Student's t test. Fifty-two men (mean age 49) and 54 women (mean age 55) were included. The mean percentage of pain reduction for patients receiving indirect nerve root injections was 38.4% and for those undergoing the direct nerve root injections approach it was 43.2%. This was not significantly different (P = 0.455). No immediate or late adverse effects were reported after either injection procedure. The indirect cervical nerve root injection procedure is a potentially safer alternative to direct cervical transforaminal nerve root injections. The short-term pain reduction is similar using the two injection methods. (orig.)

  11. Functional traits and root morphology of alpine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Mandy; Stroude, Raphaël; Buttler, Alexandre; Rixen, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Vegetation has long been recognized to protect the soil from erosion. Understanding species differences in root morphology and functional traits is an important step to assess which species and species mixtures may provide erosion control. Furthermore, extending classification of plant functional types towards root traits may be a useful procedure in understanding important root functions. In this study, pioneer data on traits of alpine plant species, i.e. plant height and shoot biomass, root depth, horizontal root spreading, root length, diameter, tensile strength, plant age and root biomass, from a disturbed site in the Swiss Alps are presented. The applicability of three classifications of plant functional types (PFTs), i.e. life form, growth form and root type, was examined for above- and below-ground plant traits. Plant traits differed considerably among species even of the same life form, e.g. in the case of total root length by more than two orders of magnitude. Within the same root diameter, species differed significantly in tensile strength: some species (Geum reptans and Luzula spicata) had roots more than twice as strong as those of other species. Species of different life forms provided different root functions (e.g. root depth and horizontal root spreading) that may be important for soil physical processes. All classifications of PFTs were helpful to categorize plant traits; however, the PFTs according to root type explained total root length far better than the other PFTs. The results of the study illustrate the remarkable differences between root traits of alpine plants, some of which cannot be assessed from simple morphological inspection, e.g. tensile strength. PFT classification based on root traits seems useful to categorize plant traits, even though some patterns are better explained at the individual species level.

  12. Comparing simple root phenotyping methods on a core set of rice genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R; Al-Shugeairy, Z; Al-Ogaidi, F; Munasinghe, M; Radermacher, M; Vandenhirtz, J; Price, A H

    2014-05-01

    Interest in belowground plant growth is increasing, especially in relation to arguments that shallow-rooted cultivars are efficient at exploiting soil phosphorus while deep-rooted ones will access water at depth. However, methods for assessing roots in large numbers of plants are diverse and direct comparisons of methods are rare. Three methods for measuring root growth traits were evaluated for utility in discriminating rice cultivars: soil-filled rhizotrons, hydroponics and soil-filled pots whose bottom was sealed with a non-woven fabric (a potential method for assessing root penetration ability). A set of 38 rice genotypes including the OryzaSNP set of 20 cultivars, additional parents of mapping populations and products of marker-assisted selection for root QTLs were assessed. A novel method of image analysis for assessing rooting angles from rhizotron photographs was employed. The non-woven fabric was the easiest yet least discriminatory method, while the rhizotron was highly discriminatory and allowed the most traits to be measured but required more than three times the labour of the other methods. The hydroponics was both easy and discriminatory, allowed temporal measurements, but is most likely to suffer from artefacts. Image analysis of rhizotrons compared favourably to manual methods for discriminating between cultivars. Previous observations that cultivars from the indica subpopulation have shallower rooting angles than aus or japonica cultivars were confirmed in the rhizotrons, and indica and temperate japonicas had lower maximum root lengths in rhizotrons and hydroponics. It is concluded that rhizotrons are the preferred method for root screening, particularly since root angles can be assessed. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  13. A New Anatomically Based Nomenclature for the Roots and Root Canals—Part 1: Maxillary Molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jojo Kottoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous terminologies have been employed in the dental literature to describe the roots and root canal systems of maxillary molars. This multiplicity in naming of roots and canals makes the reader susceptible to misinterpretation and confusion. No consensus thus far has been arrived at for defining the names of roots and root canals in maxillary molars, including their various morphological aberrations. The anatomical relation of roots and their root canals were identified and were subsequently named based on definite sets of criteria. A new method for identification and naming of roots and root canal anatomy in maxillary molars, based on their root and canal relationship, was formulated and is presented in this paper. The nomenclature makes certain essential modifications to the traditional approach to accommodate naming of the various aberrations presented in the maxillary molars. A simple, yet extensive, nomenclature system has been proposed that appropriately names the internal and external morphology of maxillary molars.

  14. A new anatomically based nomenclature for the roots and root canals-part 1: maxillary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottoor, Jojo; Albuquerque, Denzil Valerian; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy

    2012-01-01

    Numerous terminologies have been employed in the dental literature to describe the roots and root canal systems of maxillary molars. This multiplicity in naming of roots and canals makes the reader susceptible to misinterpretation and confusion. No consensus thus far has been arrived at for defining the names of roots and root canals in maxillary molars, including their various morphological aberrations. The anatomical relation of roots and their root canals were identified and were subsequently named based on definite sets of criteria. A new method for identification and naming of roots and root canal anatomy in maxillary molars, based on their root and canal relationship, was formulated and is presented in this paper. The nomenclature makes certain essential modifications to the traditional approach to accommodate naming of the various aberrations presented in the maxillary molars. A simple, yet extensive, nomenclature system has been proposed that appropriately names the internal and external morphology of maxillary molars.

  15. Light as stress factor to plant roots - case of root halotropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokawa, Ken; Fasano, Rossella; Kagenishi, Tomoko; Baluška, František

    2014-01-01

    Despite growing underground, largely in darkness, roots emerge to be very sensitive to light. Recently, several important papers have been published which reveal that plant roots not only express all known light receptors but also that their growth, physiology and adaptive stress responses are light-sensitive. In Arabidopsis, illumination of roots speeds-up root growth via reactive oxygen species-mediated and F-actin dependent process. On the other hand, keeping Arabidopsis roots in darkness alters F-actin distribution, polar localization of PIN proteins as well as polar transport of auxin. Several signaling components activated by phytohormones are overlapping with light-related signaling cascade. We demonstrated that the sensitivity of roots to salinity is altered in the light-grown Arabidopsis roots. Particularly, light-exposed roots are less effective in their salt-avoidance behavior known as root halotropism. Here we discuss these new aspects of light-mediated root behavior from cellular, physiological and evolutionary perspectives.

  16. Root canal morphology of primary molars: a micro-computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumes, A C; Sousa-Neto, M D; Leoni, G B; Versiani, M A; da Silva, L A B; da Silva, R A B; Consolaro, A

    2014-10-01

    This was to investigate the root canal morphology of primary molar teeth using micro-computed tomography. Primary maxillary (n = 20) and mandibular (n = 20) molars were scanned at a resolution of 16.7 μm and analysed regarding the number, location, volume, area, structured model index (SMI), area, roundness, diameters, and length of canals, as well as the thickness of dentine in the apical third. Data were statistically compared by using paired-sample t test, independent sample t test, and one-way analysis of variance with significance level set as 5%. Overall, no statistical differences were found between the canals with respect to length, SMI, dentine thickness, area, roundness, and diameter (p > 0.05). A double canal system was observed in the mesial and mesio-buccal roots of the mandibular and maxillary molars, respectively. The thickness in the internal aspect of the roots was lower than in the external aspect. Cross-sectional evaluation of the roots in the apical third showed flat-shaped canals in the mandibular molars and ribbon- and oval-shaped canals in the maxillary molars. External and internal anatomy of the primary first molars closely resemble the primary second molars. The reported data may help clinicians to obtain a thorough understanding of the morphological variations of root canals in primary molars to overcome problems related to shaping and cleaning procedures, allowing appropriate management strategies for root canal treatment.

  17. Radiographic technical quality of root canal treatment performed by a new rotary single-file system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Marco; Bassi, Cristina; Beltrami, Riccardo; Vigorelli, Paolo; Spinelli, Antonio; Cavada, Andrea; Dagna, Alberto; Chiesa, Marco; Poggio, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate radiographically the technical quality of root canal filling performed by postgraduate students with a new single-file Nickel-Titanium System (F6 Skytaper Komet) in clinical practice. Records of 74 patients who had received endodontic treatment by postgraduate students at the School of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Pavia in the period between September 2015 and April 2016 were collected and examined: the final sample consisted 114 teeth and 204 root canals. The quality of endodontic treatment was evaluated by examining the length of the filling in relation to the radiographic apex, the density of the obturation according to the presence of voids and the taper of root canal filling. Chi-squared analysis was used to determine statistically significant differences between the technical quality of root fillings according to tooth's type, position and curvature. The results showed that 75,49%, 82,84% and 90,69% of root filled canals had adequate length, density and taper respectively. Overall, the technical quality of root canal fillings performed by postgraduates students was acceptable in 60,78% of the cases.

  18. Fine root dynamics in lodgepole pine and white spruce stands along productivity gradients in reclaimed oil sands sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamro, Ghulam Murtaza; Chang, Scott X; Naeth, M Anne; Duan, Min; House, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Open-pit mining activities in the oil sands region of Alberta, Canada, create disturbed lands that, by law, must be reclaimed to a land capability equivalent to that existed before the disturbance. Re-establishment of forest cover will be affected by the production and turnover rate of fine roots. However, the relationship between fine root dynamics and tree growth has not been studied in reclaimed oil sands sites. Fine root properties (root length density, mean surface area, total root biomass, and rates of root production, turnover, and decomposition) were assessed from May to October 2011 and 2012 using sequential coring and ingrowth core methods in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench.) Voss) stands. The pine and spruce stands were planted on peat mineral soil mix placed over tailings sand and overburden substrates, respectively, in reclaimed oil sands sites in Alberta. We selected stands that form a productivity gradient (low, medium, and high productivities) of each tree species based on differences in tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH) increments. In lodgepole pine stands, fine root length density and fine root production, and turnover rates were in the order of high > medium > low productivity sites and were positively correlated with tree height and DBH and negatively correlated with soil salinity (P < 0.05). In white spruce stands, fine root surface area was the only parameter that increased along the productivity gradient and was negatively correlated with soil compaction. In conclusion, fine root dynamics along the stand productivity gradients were closely linked to stand productivity and were affected by limiting soil properties related to the specific substrate used for reconstructing the reclaimed soil. Understanding the impact of soil properties on fine root dynamics and overall stand productivity will help improve land reclamation outcomes.

  19. Relation between frequency and H bond length in heavy water: Towards the understanding of the unusual properties of H bond dynamics in nanoporous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pommeret, Stanislas; Leicknam, Jean-Claude; Bratos, Savo; Musat, Raluca; Renault, Jean Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The published work on H bond dynamics mainly refers to diluted solutions HDO/D 2 O rather than to normal water. The reasons for this choice are both theoretical and experimental. Mechanical isolation of the OH vibrator eliminating the resonant energy transfer makes it a better probe of the local H bond network, while the dilution in heavy water reduces the infrared absorption, which permits the use of thicker experimental cells. The isotopic substitution does not alter crucially the nature of the problem. The length r of an OH . . . O group is statistically distributed over a large interval comprised between 2.7 and 3.2 A with a mean value r 0 = 2.86 A. Liquid water may thus be viewed as a mixture of hydrogen bonds of different length. Two important characteristics of hydrogen bonding must be mentioned. (i) The OH stretching vibrations are strongly affected by this interaction. The shorter the length r of the hydrogen bond, the strongest the H bond link and the lower is its frequency ω: the covalent OH bond energy is lent to the OH. . .O bond and reinforces the latter. A number of useful relationships between ω and r were published to express this correlation. The one adopted in our previous work is the relationship due to Mikenda. (ii) Not only the OH vibrations, but also the HDO rotations are influenced noticeably by hydrogen bonding. This is due to steric forces that hinder the HDO rotations. As they are stronger in short than in long hydrogen bonds, rotations are slower in the first case than in the second. This effect was only recently discovered, but its existence is hardly to be contested. In the present contribution, we want to revisit the relationship between the frequency of the OH vibrator and the distance OH. . .O.

  20. Cumulative incidence for wait-list death in relation to length of queue for coronary-artery bypass grafting: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Adrian R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In deciding where to undergo coronary-artery bypass grafting, the length of surgical wait lists is often the only information available to cardiologists and their patients. Our objective was to compare the cumulative incidence for death on the wait list according to the length of wait lists at the time of registration for the operation. Methods The study cohort included 8966 patients who registered to undergo isolated coronary-artery bypass grafting (82.4% men; 71.9% semi-urgent; 22.4% non-urgent. The patients were categorized according to wait-list clearance time at registration: either "1 month or less" or "more than 1 month". Cumulative incidence for wait-list death was compared between the groups, and the significance of difference was tested by means of regression models. Results Urgent patients never registered on a wait list with a clearance time of more than 1 month. Semi-urgent patients registered on shorter wait lists more often than non-urgent patients (79.1% vs. 44.7%. In semi-urgent and non-urgent patients, the observed proportion of wait-list deaths by 52 weeks was lower in category "1 month or less" than in category "more than 1 month" (0.8% [49 deaths] vs. 1.6% [39 deaths], P P Conclusion Long wait lists for coronary-artery bypass grafting are associated with increased probability that a patient dies before surgery. Physicians who advise patients where to undergo cardiac revascularization should consider the risk of pre-surgical death that is associated with the length of a surgical wait list.

  1. A genome-wide association scan (GWAS) for mean telomere length within the COGS project: identified loci show little association with hormone-related cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Pooley, K. A.; Bojesen, S. E.; Weischer, M.; Nielsen, S. F.; Thompson, D.; Amin Al Olama, A.; Michailidou, K.; Tyrer, J. P.; Benlloch, S.; Brown, J.; Audley, T.; Luben, R.; Khaw, K.-T.; Neal, D. E.; Hamdy, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Mean telomere length (TL) in blood cells is heritable and has been reported to be associated with risks of several diseases, including cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis of three GWAS for TL (total n=2240) and selected 1629 variants for replication via the ?iCOGS? custom genotyping array. All ?200 000 iCOGS variants were analysed with TL, and those displaying associations in healthy controls (n = 15 065) were further tested in breast cancer cases (n = 11 024). We found a novel TL associatio...

  2. Seedling root targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  3. The interactive effect of phosphorus and nitrogen on "in vitro" spore germination of Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann, root growth and mycorrhizal colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressan Wellington

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of P and N amendment and its interactions on spore germination, root growth and colonized root length by Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann (INVAM S329 was studied "in vitro" in RiT - DNA transformed roots of Anthylis vulneraria sub sp. Sampaiana (Kidney vetch. Three N media concentrations (5, 10 and 50 mg/l at P constant level (2 mg/l and three P media concentrations (2, 10 and 20 mg/l at N constant level (5 mg/l were utilized as a treatment. Bécard & Fortin medium was used as a basal medium for root growth and colonized root length, and water/agar (0.8% media was the control for spore germination. Spore germination of G. etunicatum at low P level was reduced by N addition in relation to the control media, and at low N level addition of P stimulated spore germination. Total root length was stimulated by N addtion at low P level, but no significant difference (p£0.05 was observed between 10 and 50 mg/l of N. P addition at low N level media also stimulated total root growth, and a significant difference (p£0.05 was observed among P concentrations. Colonized root length by G. etunicatum increased significantly (p£0.05 with P additions at low N levels. Under low P level no significant differences was found between 10 and 50 mg/l of N. These results demonstrate that the interaction between P and N affect differently spore germination, root growth and colonized root lenght.

  4. Radiographing roots and shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariffah Noor Khamseah Al Idid

    1985-01-01

    The effect of seed orientation on germination time and on shoot and root growth patterns is studied. Neutron radiography is used to observe the development of 4 types of plants, maize, greenpea, soya bean and padi. These plants were grown in varying orientations; sand sizes, sand thicknesses, and level of water content. Radiography of the seeds and plants were obtained for time exposure ranging from 3-12 hours and at reactor thermal power level, ranging from 500-750 kilowatts. Results obtained showed that seeds planted in varying orientations need different length of time for shoot emergence. Neutron radiography is now developed to other areas of non-industrial applications in Malaysia. (A.J.)

  5. Adsorption and absorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to rice roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, X.C.; Xu, F.L.; Dawson, R.; Chen, S.H.; Tao, S.

    2007-01-01

    Rice roots and surrounding air, soil and water samples were collected for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analysis. The rice roots were separated into lateral roots and nodal roots, and the PAH concentration in the former was found to be higher than that in the latter. In addition, root physiological characteristics including root biotic mass, root lipid content and specific surface area are also discussed. When normalizing the total, adsorption and absorption PAH fractions on a dry root weight basis to root biomass, root lipid, and surface area bases respectively, the differences between PAHs in the two types of roots diminished by 2 to 3 times on average. Results from sequential extraction indicated that PAHs were more easily absorbed by interior rice roots than adsorbed on the surface. In addition, more than 60% of total PAHs accumulated in root tissue for both lateral and nodal roots. However, the results were highly related to the solvent used, extraction time and methodology. Correlation analysis between bioconcentration factors (root over environment) and K OA , K OW showed water to be more significant for PAH adsorption in rice roots than other environmental media. - A sequential extraction method was applied to divide the PAHs accumulated on rice roots into PAHs in root exudates, PAHs adsorbed on root surfaces, and PAHs absorbed in root tissue

  6. Mycorrhizal Stimulation of Leaf Gas Exchange in Relation to Root Colonization, Shoot Size, Leaf Phosphorus and Nitrogen: A Quantitative Analysis of the Literature Using Meta-Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augé, Robert M; Toler, Heather D; Saxton, Arnold M

    2016-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis often stimulates gas exchange rates of the host plant. This may relate to mycorrhizal effects on host nutrition and growth rate, or the influence may occur independently of these. Using meta-regression, we tested the strength of the relationship between AM-induced increases in gas exchange, and AM size and leaf mineral effects across the literature. With only a few exceptions, AM stimulation of carbon exchange rate (CER), stomatal conductance (g s), and transpiration rate (E) has been significantly associated with mycorrhizal stimulation of shoot dry weight, leaf phosphorus, leaf nitrogen:phosphorus ratio, and percent root colonization. The sizeable mycorrhizal stimulation of CER, by 49% over all studies, has been about twice as large as the mycorrhizal stimulation of g s and E (28 and 26%, respectively). CER has been over twice as sensitive as g s and four times as sensitive as E to mycorrhizal colonization rates. The AM-induced stimulation of CER increased by 19% with each AM-induced doubling of shoot size; the AM effect was about half as large for g s and E. The ratio of leaf N to leaf P has been more closely associated with mycorrhizal influence on leaf gas exchange than leaf P alone. The mycorrhizal influence on CER has declined markedly over the 35 years of published investigations.

  7. Comparative leaf and root anatomy of two Dendrobium species (Orchidaceae) from different habitat in relation to their potential adaptation to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metusala, D.; Supriatna, J.; Nisyawati, Sopandie, D.

    2017-07-01

    Dendrobium capra and Dendrobium arcuatum are closely related in phylogeny, but they have very contrasting vegetative morphology and habitats. D. capra is known as a species that is well-adapted to dry lowland teak forest habitat in East Java, where most trees drop their leaves in summer, while D. arcuatum has adapted to mid or high land moist forest at elevation up to 800 m dpl. In order to investigate their potential adaptation to drought stress in the climate change era, we have compared and analyzed the leaf and root anatomical characteristics of both species. Transversal sections were made using hand mini microtome, dehydrated in graded alcohol series and stained with safranin 1 % and fastgreen 1 %. Leaf scraping technique has been used to prepare paradermal sections, and then dehydrated in graded alcohol series and stained with safranin 1 %. Quantitative anatomical characteristics between D. capra and D. arcuatum have been compared using a t-test. The result showed that there were significant differences on anatomical characters between both species. Compared to D. arcuatum, D. capra shows more developed anatomical features for adapting to drought and dry condition. These anatomical features were a thicker cuticle, thicker epidermis, presence of hypodermis, thicker mesophyll, broader primary vascular bundle, well developed xylem's sclerenchyma, lower stomatal density, thicker and high proportion of velamen.

  8. Mycorrhizal stimulation of leaf gas exchange in relation to root colonization, shoot size, leaf phosphorus and nitrogen: a quantitative analysis of the literature using meta-regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Augé

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM symbiosis often stimulates gas exchange rates of the host plant. This may relate to mycorrhizal effects on host nutrition and growth rate, or the influence may occur independently of these. Using meta-regression, we tested the strength of the relationship between AM-induced increases in gas exchange, and AM size and leaf mineral effects across the literature. With only a few exceptions, AM stimulation of carbon exchange rate (CER, stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration rate (E has been significantly associated with mycorrhizal stimulation of shoot dry weight, leaf phosphorus, leaf nitrogen: phosphorus ratio and percent root colonization. The sizeable mycorrhizal stimulation of CER, by 49% over all studies, has been about twice as large as the mycorrhizal stimulation of gs and E (28% and 26%, respectively. Carbon exchange rate has been over twice as sensitive as gs and four times as sensitive as E to mycorrhizal colonization rates. The AM-induced stimulation of CER increased by 19% with each AM-induced doubling of shoot size; the AM effect was about half as large for gs and E. The ratio of leaf N to leaf P has been more closely associated with mycorrhizal influence on leaf gas exchange than leaf P alone. The mycorrhizal influence on CER has declined markedly over the 35 years of published investigations.

  9. Variations in the Root Form and Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Mandibular First Molars in a Sri Lankan Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Peiris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the number of roots and morphology of the root canal system of permanent mandibular first molars (M1 in a Sri Lankan population. Sample of 529 M1 teeth was used. The number of roots was examined and the lengths of the mesial and distal roots were measured to the nearest 0.01 mm. Vacuum injection protocol was used to inject China ink into the root canal system, making it transparent. Root canal morphology was recorded using Vertucci’s classification. Presence of furcation canals, position of lateral canals, intercanal communications, level of bifurcation, and convergence of the root canal system were recorded. M1 showed three roots in 4.1% of the sample. Commonest root canal morphology of the mesial root was type IV and the distal root was type I. The level of bifurcation of the root canals was commonly observed in the cervical one-third of the root while convergence was observed in the apical one-third in both roots. Prevalence of three rooted mandibular first molars is less than 5%. Mesial root showed the most variable canal morphology. Prevalence of furcation canals was 1.5% while that of middle mesial canals was 0.2%.

  10. Quark ensembles with infinite correlation length

    OpenAIRE

    Molodtsov, S. V.; Zinovjev, G. M.

    2014-01-01

    By studying quark ensembles with infinite correlation length we formulate the quantum field theory model that, as we show, is exactly integrable and develops an instability of its standard vacuum ensemble (the Dirac sea). We argue such an instability is rooted in high ground state degeneracy (for 'realistic' space-time dimensions) featuring a fairly specific form of energy distribution, and with the cutoff parameter going to infinity this inherent energy distribution becomes infinitely narrow...

  11. Radiation-induced nerve root degeneration and hypertrophic neuropathy in the lumbosacral spinal cord of rats: The relation with changes in aging rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogel, A.J. van der

    1977-01-01

    Three-month-old WAG Rij rats were irradiated with 300 kV X-rays on the lumbar region of the spinal column with doses below the level for causing paralysis due to radiation radiculomyelopathy. 8-9 months after irradiation. degeneration of predominantly the ventral nerve roots of the cauda equina was observed. Three stages were distinguishable: I) Demyelination and proliferation of Schwann cells: II) Local swelling of ventral nerve roots, with concentric layers of Schwann cells resembling hypertrophic neuropathy: III) Malignant Schwannoma, invading roots and spinal cord. It is concluded that the degenerative and proliferative lesions represent a continuous series of stages of slowly progressive lesions. The ventral nerve root degeneration (Ist stage) is similar to that observed in aging, unirradiated rats, normally developing at the age of 18-20 months. (orig.) [de

  12. Nano-regime Length Scales Extracted from the First Sharp Diffraction Peak in Non-crystalline SiO2 and Related Materials: Device Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips James

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper distinguishes between two different scales of medium range order, MRO, in non-crystalline SiO2: (1 the first is ~0.4 to 0.5 nm and is obtained from the position of the first sharp diffraction peak, FSDP, in the X-ray diffraction structure factor, S(Q, and (2 the second is ~1 nm and is calculated from the FSDP full-width-at-half-maximum FWHM. Many-electron calculations yield Si–O third- and O–O fourth-nearest-neighbor bonding distances in the same 0.4–0.5 nm MRO regime. These derive from the availability of empty Si dπ orbitals for back-donation from occupied O pπ orbitals yielding narrow symmetry determined distributions of third neighbor Si–O, and fourth neighbor O–O distances. These are segments of six member rings contributing to connected six-member rings with ~1 nm length scale within the MRO regime. The unique properties of non-crystalline SiO2 are explained by the encapsulation of six-member ring clusters by five- and seven-member rings on average in a compliant hard-soft nano-scaled inhomogeneous network. This network structure minimizes macroscopic strain, reducing intrinsic bonding defects as well as defect precursors. This inhomogeneous CRN is enabling for applications including thermally grown ~1.5 nm SiO2 layers for Si field effect transistor devices to optical components with centimeter dimensions. There are qualitatively similar length scales in nano-crystalline HfO2 and phase separated Hf silicates based on the primitive unit cell, rather than a ring structure. Hf oxide dielectrics have recently been used as replacement dielectrics for a new generation of Si and Si/Ge devices heralding a transition into nano-scale circuits and systems on a Si chip.

  13. Thiamine content of eggs and lengths of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to abundance of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in eastern Lake ontario, 2003 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketola, H.G.; Rinchard, J.; O'Gorman, R.; Begnoche, L.J.; Bishop, D.L.; Greulich, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    Early mortality syndrome in fry of Great Lakes salmonines is linked to reduced levels of thiamine in eggs, which reflects maternal consumption of forage fishes such as alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) that contain thiaminase, an enzyme that destroys thiamine. We assessed annual variations in abundance and condition of alewives and thiamine status of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Lake Ontario. We analyzed total thiamine in eggs of 20 coho salmon collected annually between 2003 and 2006 at the Salmon River Hatchery on the Salmon River, New York. Alewife abundance was assessed annually in southern and eastern Lake Ontario with bottom trawls during late April and early May. Mean thiamine concentration in eggs varied annually, with those collected in 2003 (2.5 nmol/g) being significantly higher than those collected in 2004 to 2006 (1.5 to 1.7 nmol/g). Although we did not test survival of fry, if reported threshold levels of thiamine for preventing mortality of Lake Michigan coho salmon fry apply, then many or most Lake Ontario coho salmon produced fry were likely to incur thiamine-deficiency mortality, especially during years 2004 to 2006. Comparison to indices of annual abundance of alewife in Lake Ontario with thiamine concentration in coho salmon eggs failed to show any significant correlations (P > 0.05). However, total length of female spawning coho salmon was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with increasing condition and estimated energy content of adult alewives in the previous spring. These results suggest that growth of coho salmon in Lake Ontario was first limited by energy intake, whereas the amount of thiamine provided by alewives was sufficient for growth (in length) but not for producing thiamine-adequate eggs.

  14. Root morphology of Ni-treated plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskova, A.; Fargasova, A.; Giehl, R. F. H.; Wiren, N. von

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots are very important organs in terms of nutrient and water acquisition but they also serve as anchorages for the aboveground parts of the plants. The roots display extraordinary plasticity towards stress conditions as a result of integration of environmental cues into the developmental processes of the roots. Our aim was to investigate the root morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to a particular stress condition, excess Ni supply. We aimed to find out which cellular processes - cell division, elongation and differentiation are affected by Ni, thereby explaining the seen root phenotype. Our results reveal that a distinct sensitivity exists between roots of different order and interference with various cellular processes is responsible for the effects of Ni on roots. We also show that Ni-treated roots have several auxin-related phenotypes. (authors)

  15. Assessment of Root Morphological Traits of 16 Tropical and Four Temperate Maize Cultivars for Nitrogen Efficiency in Short-Term Nutrient Solution Experiments with the Cigar Roll and Growth Pouch Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saifu, S.; Schulte auf' m Erley, G.; Horst, W. J. [Institute for Plant Nutrition, Leibniz University of Hannover (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Genotypic differences in N efficiency of maize have been reported by many authors. One of the reasons responsible for genotypic differences in N efficiency is differences in N uptake efficiency after anthesis. Continuous root growth and N uptake activity are responsible for the high N uptake efficiency of N-efficient genotypes. This study was conducted mainly to identify root parameters which could be used as secondary selection traits for genotypic differences in N efficiency of maize established in field experiments. The specific objective of the first experiment was to establish a relationship between root parameters with genotypic differences in N efficiency in the field, and to identify root traits to be used as secondary selection criteria for N efficiency. Four temperate and 16 tropical genotypes were grown in low-N nutrient solution with a cigar roll and a growth pouch culture for 9 and 10 days, respectively. In the cigar roll experiment individual root fractions (adventitious, seminal and primary root fractions) and in growth pouch experiment root distribution and root branching angle were of primary interest. Genotypic differences were found in most of the root traits, but the differences were not clear cut between N-efficient and inefficient genotypes with few exceptions. The N-efficient genotypes had the highest percentage of root length in the deepest (>20 cm) interval in the growth pouch, which also positively correlated with N uptake after anthesis and grain yield. The N-efficient genotypes also had a high percentage of roots in the root branching angle interval of 60-90{sup o}. It was concluded that the high N uptake efficiency of N-efficient genotypes might be related to a higher percentage of roots growing downwards (high branching angle) and a high percentage of root length in deeper soil layers enabling them to exploit nitrate in the subsoil more efficiently. These two root parameters were found promising to use as selection criteria for N

  16. [Differences in root developmenly of winter wheat cultivars in Huang-Huai Plain, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xin-Qiang; Gao, Yang; Li, Xin-Qiang; Huang, Ling; Duan, Ai-Wang

    2012-07-01

    Selecting one presently popularized winter wheat cultivar (Zhengmai 9023) and two cultivars (Abo and Fengchan 3) introduced in the 1950s and 1960s in Huang-Huai Plain as test materials, and by using minirhizotron technique, this paper studied the live root length, root diameter distribution, and net root growth rate of the cultivars. Fine roots with a diameter from 0.05 mm to 0.25 mm occupied the majority of the whole root system, and the fine roots with a diameter less than 0.5 mm accounted for 98% of the live root length. The average root diameter varied with plant growth, the variation range being 0.15 - 0.22 mm, and no significant difference was observe among the cultivars. The live root length was significantly positively correlated root number, suggesting that root number was the main factor for the increase of live root length. The most vigorous growth period of the roots was from reviving to jointing stage, and Abo and Fengchan 3 had a longer period increased root vitality, as compared with Zhengmai 9023. For Zhengmai 9023, its fine roots with a diameter more than 0.1 mm had an increasing proportion after jointing stage, which was helpful for improving plant resistance, root activity, and grain-filling at late growth stages.

  17. Effects of electroacupuncture at 2 and 100 Hz on rat type 2 diabetic neuropathic pain and hyperalgesia-related protein expression in the dorsal root ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Fen; Wei, Jun-Jun; Shou, Sheng-Yun; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Jiang, Yong-Liang

    To investigate the analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at 2 and 100 Hz on type 2 diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) and on the expressions of the P2X3 receptor and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Rat type 2 DNP was induced by a high calorie and high sugar diet fed for 7 weeks, plus a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) after 5 weeks. EA at 2 and 100 Hz was carried out once every day after 7 weeks for 7 consecutive days. Body weight, serum fasting insulin (FINS), fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin sensitivity index (ISI), and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were measured. The expressions of L4-L6 DRG P2X3 receptors and CGRP were assessed by immunofluorescence. Type 2 DNP was successfully induced as shown by the increased body weight, FINS, and FBG, as well as the reduced ISI and PWL. Expressions of P2X3 receptors and CGRP in L4-L6 DRGs increased. EA at both 2 and 100 Hz relieved type 2 DNP, but the analgesic effect of EA was stronger at 2 Hz. P2X3 receptor expression decreased in L4-L6 DRGs following EA at 2 Hz and in L5 and L6 DRGs following EA at 100 Hz. EA at both 2 and 100 Hz down-regulated CGRP overexpression in L4-L6 DRGs. These findings indicate that EA at 2 Hz is a good option for the management of type 2 DNP. The EA effect may be related to its down-regulation of the overexpressions of the DRG P2X3 receptors and CGRP in this condition.

  18. Zero-point length from string fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Michele; Spallucci, Euro; Padmanabhan, T.

    2006-01-01

    One of the leading candidates for quantum gravity, viz. string theory, has the following features incorporated in it. (i) The full spacetime is higher-dimensional, with (possibly) compact extra-dimensions; (ii) there is a natural minimal length below which the concept of continuum spacetime needs to be modified by some deeper concept. On the other hand, the existence of a minimal length (zero-point length) in four-dimensional spacetime, with obvious implications as UV regulator, has been often conjectured as a natural aftermath of any correct quantum theory of gravity. We show that one can incorporate the apparently unrelated pieces of information-zero-point length, extra-dimensions, string T-duality-in a consistent framework. This is done in terms of a modified Kaluza-Klein theory that interpolates between (high-energy) string theory and (low-energy) quantum field theory. In this model, the zero-point length in four dimensions is a 'virtual memory' of the length scale of compact extra-dimensions. Such a scale turns out to be determined by T-duality inherited from the underlying fundamental string theory. From a low energy perspective short distance infinities are cutoff by a minimal length which is proportional to the square root of the string slope, i.e., α ' . Thus, we bridge the gap between the string theory domain and the low energy arena of point-particle quantum field theory

  19. Vigorous root growth is a better indicator of early nutrient uptake than root hair traits in spring wheat grown under low fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2016-01-01

    . Vigorous root growth, however, was a better indicator of early nutrient acquisition than RHL and RHD. Vigorous root growth and long and dense root hairs ensured efficient acquisition of macro- and micronutrients during early growth and a high root length to shoot dry matter ratio favored high macronutrient......A number of root and root hair traits have been proposed as important for nutrient acquisition. However, there is still a need for knowledge on which traits are most important in determining macro- and micronutrient uptake at low soil fertility. This study investigated the variations in root growth...... vigor and root hair length (RHL) and density (RHD) among spring wheat genotypes and their relationship to nutrient concentrations and uptake during early growth. Six spring wheat genotypes were grown in a soil with low nutrient availability. The root and root hair traits as well as the concentration...

  20. Endophytic Bacteria Isolated from Panax ginseng Improves Ginsenoside Accumulation in Adventitious Ginseng Root Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Song

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside is the most important secondary metabolite of ginseng. Natural sources of wild ginseng have been overexploited. Although root culture could reduce the length of the growth cycle of ginseng, the number of ginsenosides is fewer and their contents are lower in adventitious roots of ginseng than that in ginseng cultivated in the field. In this study, we investigated the effects of endophytic bacterial elicitors on biomass and ginsenoside production in adventitious roots cultures of Panax ginseng. Endophyte LB 5-3 as an elicitor could increase biomass and ginsenoside accumulation in ginseng adventitious root culture. After 6 days elicitation with a 10.0 mL of strain LB 5-3, the content of total ginsenoside was 2.026 mg g−1 which was four times more than that in unchallenged roots. The combination of methyl jasmonate and strain LB 5-3 had a negative effect on ginseng adventitious root growth and ginsenoside production. The genomic DNA of strain LB 5-3 was sequenced, and was found to be most closely related to Bacillus altitudinis (KX230132.1. The challenged ginseng adventitious root extracts exerted inhibitory effect against the HepG2 cells, which IC50 value was 0.94 mg mL−1.

  1. Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling root and shoot traits associated with drought tolerance in a lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Idrissi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting lentil productivity in rainfed production systems. Specific rooting patterns can be associated with drought avoidance mechanisms that can be used in lentil breeding programs. In all, 252 co-dominant and dominant markers were used for Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL analysis on 132 lentil recombinant inbred lines based on greenhouse experiments for root and shoot traits during two seasons under progressive drought-stressed conditions. Eighteen QTLs controlling a total of 14 root and shoot traits were identified. A QTL-hotspot genomic region related to a number of root and shoot characteristics associated with drought tolerance such as dry root biomass, root surface area, lateral root number, dry shoot biomass and shoot length was identified. Interestingly, a QTL related to root-shoot ratio, an important trait for drought avoidance, explaining the highest phenotypic variance of 27.6 % and 28.9 % for the two consecutive seasons, respectively, was detected. This QTL was closed to the co-dominant SNP marker TP6337 and also flanked by the two SNP TP518 and TP1280. An important QTL related to lateral root number was found close to TP3371 and flanked by TP5093 and TP6072 SNP markers. Also, a QTL associated with specific root length was identified close to TP1873 and flanked by F7XEM6b SRAP marker and TP1035 SNP marker. These two QTLs were detected in both seasons. Our results could be used for marker-assisted selection in lentil breeding programs targeting root and shoot characteristics conferring drought avoidance as an efficient alternative to slow and labour-intensive conventional breeding methods.

  2. Anatomic investigation of the lumbosacral nerve roots and dorsal root ganglia by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Toru; Fuse, Kenzo; Mikawa, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Ryo

    1995-01-01

    The morphology of the lumbosacral nerve roots and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was examined by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 11 healthy male volunteers aged 20-40 years. One hundred and twenty-three nerve roots (15 at the L1 level, 22 each at the L2-L5 levels, and 20 at the S1 level) were examined in terms of the position and angle of the bifurcation of the nerve roots, length of the nerve root, and the position and width of DRG. The nerve roots at the lower levels showed more cephalad position and smaller angle of bifurcation on MRI. The distance from the bifurcation of nerve roots to the cephalad edge of DRG was significantly longer in the upper root levels and was significantly shorter in the L5 roots than the S1 roots. The positions of DRG at the S1 level tended to become cephalad. DRG that was positioned toward more caudal direction was larger and more elliptic. MRI provided useful information concerning morphology and anatomical position of nerve roots and DRG, thereby allowing accurate diagnosis and the determination of surgical indications. (N.K.)

  3. A novel rat model of brachial plexus injury with nerve root stumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jintao; Yang, Jiantao; Yang, Yi; Li, Liang; Qin, Bengang; He, Wenting; Yan, Liwei; Chen, Gang; Tu, Zhehui; Liu, Xiaolin; Gu, Liqiang

    2018-02-01

    The C5-C6 nerve roots are usually spared from avulsion after brachial plexus injury (BPI) and thus can be used as donors for nerve grafting. To date, there are no appropriate animal models to evaluate spared nerve root stumps. Hence, the aim of this study was to establish and evaluate a rat model with spared nerve root stumps in BPI. In rupture group, the proximal parts of C5-T1 nerve roots were held with the surrounding muscles and the distal parts were pulled by a sudden force after the brachial plexus was fully exposed, and the results were compared with those of sham group. To validate the model, the lengths of C5-T1 spared nerve root stumps were measured and the histologies of the shortest one and the corresponding spinal cord were evaluated. C5 nerve root stump was found to be the shortest. Histology findings demonstrated that the nerve fibers became more irregular and the continuity decreased; numbers and diameters of myelinated axons and thickness of myelin sheaths significantly decreased over time. The survival of motoneurons was reduced, and the death of motoneurons may be related to the apoptotic process. Our model could successfully create BPI model with nerve root stumps by traction, which could simulate injury mechanisms. While other models involve root avulsion or rupturing by distal nerve transection. This model would be suitable for evaluating nerve root stumps and testing new therapeutic strategies for neuroprotection through nerve root stumps in the future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. A genome-wide association scan (GWAS) for mean telomere length within the COGS project: identified loci show little association with hormone-related cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, Karen A.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Weischer, Maren; Nielsen, Sune F.; Thompson, Deborah; Amin Al Olama, Ali; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Benlloch, Sara; Brown, Judith; Audley, Tina; Luben, Robert; Khaw, K-T; Neal, David E.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Baynes, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Yang, Rongxi; Rudolph, Anja; Schildkraut, Joellen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Burwinkel, Barbara; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Berchuck, Andrew; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Dunning, Alison M.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.

    2013-01-01

    Mean telomere length (TL) in blood cells is heritable and has been reported to be associated with risks of several diseases, including cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis of three GWAS for TL (total n=2240) and selected 1629 variants for replication via the “iCOGS” custom genotyping array. All ∼200 000 iCOGS variants were analysed with TL, and those displaying associations in healthy controls (n = 15 065) were further tested in breast cancer cases (n = 11 024). We found a novel TL association (Ptrend < 4 × 10−10) at 3p14.4 close to PXK and evidence (Ptrend < 7 × 10−7) for TL loci at 6p22.1 (ZNF311) and 20q11.2 (BCL2L1). We additionally confirmed (Ptrend < 5 × 10−14) the previously reported loci at 3q26.2 (TERC), 5p15.3 (TERT) and 10q24.3 (OBFC1) and found supportive evidence (Ptrend < 5 × 10−4) for the published loci at 2p16.2 (ACYP2), 4q32.2 (NAF1) and 20q13.3 (RTEL1). SNPs tagging these loci explain TL differences of up to 731 bp (corresponding to 18% of total TL in healthy individuals), however, they display little direct evidence for association with breast, ovarian or prostate cancer risks. PMID:23900074

  5. Software Development for Estimating the Conversion Factor (K-Factor) at Suitable Scan Areas, Relating the Dose Length Product to the Effective Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Matsubara, Kosuke; Suzuki, Syouichi; Koshida, Kichiro; Matsunaga, Yuta; Kawaguchi, Ai; Haba, Tomonobu; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kato, Ryouichi

    2017-05-01

    We developed a k-factor-creator software (kFC) that provides the k-factor for CT examination in an arbitrary scan area. It provides the k-factor from the effective dose and dose-length product by Imaging Performance Assessment of CT scanners and CT-EXPO. To assess the reliability, we compared the kFC-evaluated k-factors with those of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publication 102. To confirm the utility, the effective dose determined by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) was evaluated by a phantom study and k-factor studies. In the CCTA, the effective doses were 5.28 mSv in the phantom study, 2.57 mSv (51%) in the k-factor of ICRP, and 5.26 mSv (1%) in the k-factor of the kFC. Effective doses can be determined from the kFC-evaluated k-factors in suitable scan areas. Therefore, we speculate that the flexible k-factor is useful in clinical practice, because CT examinations are performed in various scan regions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A genome-wide association scan (GWAS) for mean telomere length within the COGS project: identified loci show little association with hormone-related cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooley, Karen A; Bojesen, Stig E; Weischer, Maren; Nielsen, Sune F; Thompson, Deborah; Amin Al Olama, Ali; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Benlloch, Sara; Brown, Judith; Audley, Tina; Luben, Robert; Khaw, K-T; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Baynes, Caroline; Shah, Mitul; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Yang, Rongxi; Rudolph, Anja; Schildkraut, Joellen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Burwinkel, Barbara; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D P; Berchuck, Andrew; Eeles, Rosalind A; Easton, Douglas F; Dunning, Alison M; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2013-12-15

    Mean telomere length (TL) in blood cells is heritable and has been reported to be associated with risks of several diseases, including cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis of three GWAS for TL (total n=2240) and selected 1629 variants for replication via the "iCOGS" custom genotyping array. All ∼200 000 iCOGS variants were analysed with TL, and those displaying associations in healthy controls (n = 15 065) were further tested in breast cancer cases (n = 11 024). We found a novel TL association (Ptrend < 4 × 10(-10)) at 3p14.4 close to PXK and evidence (Ptrend < 7 × 10(-7)) for TL loci at 6p22.1 (ZNF311) and 20q11.2 (BCL2L1). We additionally confirmed (Ptrend < 5 × 10(-14)) the previously reported loci at 3q26.2 (TERC), 5p15.3 (TERT) and 10q24.3 (OBFC1) and found supportive evidence (Ptrend < 5 × 10(-4)) for the published loci at 2p16.2 (ACYP2), 4q32.2 (NAF1) and 20q13.3 (RTEL1). SNPs tagging these loci explain TL differences of up to 731 bp (corresponding to 18% of total TL in healthy individuals), however, they display little direct evidence for association with breast, ovarian or prostate cancer risks.

  7. Software development for estimating the conversion factor (k-factor) at suitable scan areas, relating the dose length product to the effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Suzuki, Syouichi; Kato, Ryouichi; Matsubara, Kosuke; Koshida, Kichiro; Matsunaga, Yuta; Kawaguchi, Ai; Haba, Tomonobu; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We developed a k-factor-creator software (kFC) that provides the k-factor for CT examination in an arbitrary scan area. It provides the k-factor from the effective dose and dose-length product by Imaging Performance Assessment of CT scanners and CT-EXPO. To assess the reliability, we compared the kFC-evaluated k-factors with those of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publication 102. To confirm the utility, the effective dose determined by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) was evaluated by a phantom study and k-factor studies. In the CCTA, the effective doses were 5.28 mSv in the phantom study, 2.57 mSv (51%) in the k-factor of ICRP, and 5.26 mSv (1%) in the k-factor of the kFC. Effective doses can be determined from the kFC-evaluated k-factors in suitable scan areas. Therefore, we speculate that the flexible k-factor is useful in clinical practice, because CT examinations are performed in various scan regions. (authors)

  8. Relationships between soluble sugar concentrations in roots and ecosystem stress for first-year sugar maple seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, J.W.; Reed, D.D.; Jurgensen, M.F.; Mroz, G.D.; Bagley, S.T. [Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States). School of Forestry and Wood Products

    1996-03-01

    Accumulation of reducing sugars (i.e. glucose and fructose) in plant roots has been consistently correlated with forest dieback and decline and, therefore, has potential as a biological indicator of ecosystem stress. In this study, the relationships between acidic deposition and `natural` (temperature, mycorrhizae, and nutrition) factors with first-year sugar maple seedling root sugar concentrations and growth were assessed in two sugar maple dominated forests in Michigan. Seedlings at the southern site (Wellston) had greater root growth, phosphorus, total sugar, and sucrose concentrations in roots, but lower reducing sugar concentration in roots. In addition, percent root length colonized by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was less than that found for seedlings growing at the northern site (Alberta). Throughfall deposition of nitrate, sulfate, and hydrogen ions was not significantly correlated with seedling total or reducing sugar concentration. Total sugar concentration in seedling roots was positively correlated with air and soil temperatures at the southern site, but not at the northern site. Seedling tissue phosphorus concentration was correlated with total sugars at both sites, with sucrose at the southern site, and reducing sugars at the northern site. Mycorrhizal colonization rates at the Alberta site were positively correlated with reducing sugar concentration in seedling roots and negatively correlated with sucrose concentration. The results suggest that differences in seedling root sugar concentrations in these two forests are related to seedling root growth and are most likely due to ecological variables, such as available soil phosphorus, temperature, and growing season length through some complex interaction with mycorrhizae rather than acidic deposition stress. 56 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Comparison of root canal lathing measurement by conventional and digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitrova, N.; Slavik, J.; Cecetkova, A.; Jenca, A.; Hanusinova, V.; Ondrasovicova, J.

    2006-01-01

    A correct working length is a critical factor within the endodontic treatment. The length of the root canal can be measured by different methods. The aim of this study was to compare methods used for measuring the length of root canals using conventional and digital radiology. The measurement was provided in both - in vitro and in vivo conditions. (authors)

  10. Effect of different irrigation systems on root growth of maize and cowpea plants in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha A. Mahgoub

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University to study the influence of different irrigation systems on root length density and specific root length of maize and cowpea plants cultivated in sandy soil. Three irrigation systems (Surface, drip and sprinkler irrigation were used in this study. The NPK fertilizers were applied as recommended doses for maize and cowpea. Root samples were collected from the soil profile below one plant (maize and cowpea which was irrigated by the three irrigation systems by using an iron box (30 cm× 20 cm which is divided into 24 small boxes each box is (5× 5 × 5 cm. At surface irrigation, root length density of cowpea reached to soil depth 30-40cm with lateral distances 5-10 cm and 15-20 cm. Vertical distribution of root length density of maize was increased with soil depth till 20-25 cm, and then it decreased till soil depth 35-40cm. Under drip irrigation, root length density of cowpea increased horizontally from 0-5cm to 10-15cm then it decreased till soil depth 25-30 cm and below this depth root length density disappeared. For the root length density and specific root length of maize under drip irrigation, the data showed that root length density and specific root length decreased with increasing in soil depth. The root length density of cowpea under sprinkler irrigation at 0-5cm disappeared from horizontal distance at 25-30 cm. The data showed that root length density of maize under sprinkler irrigation was higher at the soil top layers 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm than other layers from 10-40 cm.

  11. Philosophical Roots of Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovic, M.

    2008-10-01

    We shall consider the philosophical roots of cosmology in the earlier Greek philosophy. Our goal is to answer the question: Are earlier Greek theories of pure philosophical-mythological character, as often philosophers cited it, or they have scientific character. On the bases of methodological criteria, we shall contend that the latter is the case. In order to answer the question about contemporary situation of the relation philosophy-cosmology, we shall consider the next question: Is contemporary cosmology completely independent of philosophical conjectures? The answer demands consideration of methodological character about scientific status of contemporary cosmology. We also consider some aspects of the relation contemporary philosophy-cosmology.

  12. Numerical study of the effect of relative humidity and stoichiometric flow ratio on PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell performance with various channel lengths: An anode partial flooding modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Lei; Cai, Qiong; Xu, Chenxi; Liu, Chunbo; Scott, Keith; Yan, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    A two dimensional, along the channel, non-isothermal, two-phase flow, anode partial flooding model was developed to investigate the effects of relative humidity, stoichiometric flow ratio and channel length, as well as their interactive influence, on the performance of a PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell. Liquid water formation and transport at the anode due to the condensation of supersaturated anode gas initiated by hydrogen consumption was considered. The model considered the heat source/sink in terms of electrochemical reaction, Joule heating and latent heat due to water phase-transfer. The non-uniform temperature distributions inside the MEA (membrane electrode assembly) and channels at various stoichiometric flow ratios were demonstrated. The Peclet number was used to evaluate the contributions of advection and diffusion on liquid water and heat transport. Results indicated that higher anode relative humidity is required to the improved cell performance. As the decrease in the anode relative humidity and increase in channel length, the optimal cathode relative humidity was increased. The initial increase in stoichiometric flow ratio improved the limiting current densities. However, the further increases led to limited contributions. The Peclet number indicated that the liquid water transport through the electrode was mainly determined by the capillary diffusion mechanism. - Highlights: • Interactive effects of RH, stoichiometric flow ratio, channel length are studied. • Fully humidified anode is required to maintain the good cell performance. • Optimal RH_c is 30–40% for channel length of 1–10 cm at high current density. • Effect of stoichiometric flow ratio is more significant for longer channels. • Both liquid water and heat transport are diffusion dominated rather than advection.

  13. Medicolegal aspects of iatrogenic root perforations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsesis, I; Rosen, E; Bjørndal, L

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To retrospectively analyze the medico-legal aspects of iatrogenic root perforations (IRP) that occurred during endodontic treatments. METHODOLOGY: A comprehensive search in a professional liability insurance database was conducted to retrospectively identify cases of IRP following root canal...... treatment (p root perforation is a complication of root canal treatment and may result in tooth extraction...... and in legal actions against the treating practitioner. Mandibular molars are more prone to medico-legal claims related to root perforations. The patient should be informed of the risks during RCT and should get information on alternative treatments and their risks and prognosis...

  14. The root anchorage ability of Salix alba var. tristis using a pull-out test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. The root ... and the University of Natural Resources and applied Life. Sciences ... The design of the apparatus is ..... In The Supporting. Roots of ... Measurements in Geomechanics. Swets and ...

  15. Type of Valvular Heart Disease Requiring Surgery in the 21st Century: Mortality and Length-of-Stay Related to Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudoulas, Konstantinos Dean; Ravi, Yazhini; Garcia, Daniel; Saini, Uksha; Sofowora, Gbemiga G.; Gumina, Richard J.; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: While the incidence of rheumatic heart disease has declined dramatically over the last half-century, the number of valve surgeries has not changed. This study was undertaken to define the most common type of valvular heart disease requiring surgery today, and determine in-hospital surgical mortality and length-of-stay (LOS) for isolated aortic or mitral valve surgery in a United States tertiary-care hospital. Methods: Patients with valve surgery between January 2002 to June 2008 at The Ohio State University Medical Center were studied. Patients only with isolated aortic or mitral valve surgery were analyzed. Results: From 915 patients undergoing at least aortic or mitral valve surgery, the majority had concomitant cardiac proce-dures mostly coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG); only 340 patients had isolated aortic (n=204) or mitral (n=136) valve surgery. In-hospital surgical mortality for mitral regurgitation (n=119), aortic stenosis (n=151), aortic insufficiency (n=53) and mitral stenosis (n=17) was 2.5% (replacement 3.4%; repair 1.6%), 3.9%, 5.6% and 5.8%, respectively (p=NS). Median LOS for aortic insufficiency, aortic stenosis, mitral regurgitation, and mitral stenosis was 7, 8, 9 (replacement 11.5; repair 7) and 11 days, respectively (p<0.05 for group). In-hospital surgical mortality for single valve surgery plus CABG was 10.2% (p<0.005 compared to single valve surgery). Conclusions: Aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation are the most common valvular lesions requiring surgery today. Surgery for isolated aortic or mitral valve disease has low in-hospital mortality with modest LOS. Concomitant CABG with valve surgery increases mortality substantially. Hospital analysis is needed to monitor quality and stimulate improvement among Institutions. PMID:24339838

  16. Estimating Effective Dose of Radiation From Pediatric Cardiac CT Angiography Using a 64-MDCT Scanner: New Conversion Factors Relating Dose-Length Product to Effective Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattner, Sigal; Chelliah, Anjali; Prinsen, Peter; Ruzal-Shapiro, Carrie B; Xu, Yanping; Jambawalikar, Sachin; Amurao, Maxwell; Einstein, Andrew J

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the conversion factors that enable accurate estimation of the effective dose (ED) used for cardiac 64-MDCT angiography performed for children. Anthropomorphic phantoms representative of 1- and 10-year-old children, with 50 metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimeters placed in organs, underwent scanning performed using a 64-MDCT scanner with different routine clinical cardiac scan modes and x-ray tube potentials. Organ doses were used to calculate the ED on the basis of weighting factors published in 1991 in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publication 60 and in 2007 in ICRP publication 103. The EDs and the scanner-reported dose-length products were used to determine conversion factors for each scan mode. The effect of infant heart rate on the ED and the conversion factors was also assessed. The mean conversion factors calculated using the current definition of ED that appeared in ICRP publication 103 were as follows: 0.099 mSv · mGy -1 · cm -1 , for the 1-year-old phantom, and 0.049 mSv · mGy -1 · cm -1 , for the 10-year-old phantom. These conversion factors were a mean of 37% higher than the corresponding conversion factors calculated using the older definition of ED that appeared in ICRP publication 60. Varying the heart rate did not influence the ED or the conversion factors. Conversion factors determined using the definition of ED in ICRP publication 103 and cardiac, rather than chest, scan coverage suggest that the radiation doses that children receive from cardiac CT performed using a contemporary 64-MDCT scanner are higher than the radiation doses previously reported when older chest conversion factors were used. Additional up-to-date pediatric cardiac CT conversion factors are required for use with other contemporary CT scanners and patients of different age ranges.

  17. Clinical impact of antimicrobial resistance in European hospitals: excess mortality and length of hospital stay related to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Kraker, Marlieke E A

    2011-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is threatening the successful management of nosocomial infections worldwide. Despite the therapeutic limitations imposed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), its clinical impact is still debated. The objective of this study was to estimate the excess mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS) associated with MRSA bloodstream infections (BSI) in European hospitals. Between July 2007 and June 2008, a multicenter, prospective, parallel matched-cohort study was carried out in 13 tertiary care hospitals in as many European countries. Cohort I consisted of patients with MRSA BSI and cohort II of patients with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) BSI. The patients in both cohorts were matched for LOS prior to the onset of BSI with patients free of the respective BSI. Cohort I consisted of 248 MRSA patients and 453 controls and cohort II of 618 MSSA patients and 1,170 controls. Compared to the controls, MRSA patients had higher 30-day mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.4) and higher hospital mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 3.5). Their excess LOS was 9.2 days. MSSA patients also had higher 30-day (aOR = 2.4) and hospital (aHR = 3.1) mortality and an excess LOS of 8.6 days. When the outcomes from the two cohorts were compared, an effect attributable to methicillin resistance was found for 30-day mortality (OR = 1.8; P = 0.04), but not for hospital mortality (HR = 1.1; P = 0.63) or LOS (difference = 0.6 days; P = 0.96). Irrespective of methicillin susceptibility, S. aureus BSI has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. In addition, MRSA BSI leads to a fatal outcome more frequently than MSSA BSI. Infection control efforts in hospitals should aim to contain infections caused by both resistant and susceptible S. aureus.

  18. ROOT Reference Documentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fuakye, Eric Gyabeng

    2017-01-01

    A ROOT Reference Documentation has been implemented to generate all the lists of libraries needed for each ROOT class. Doxygen has no option to generate or add the lists of libraries for each ROOT class. Therefore shell scripting and a basic C++ program was employed to import the lists of libraries needed by each ROOT class.

  19. Pulsed Radiofrequency Applied to the Sciatic Nerve Improves Neuropathic Pain by Down-regulating The Expression of Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide in the Dorsal Root Ganglion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hao; Jin, Hailong; Jia, Zipu; Ji, Nan; Luo, Fang

    2018-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies have shown that applying pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) to the neural stem could relieve neuropathic pain (NP), albeit through an unclear analgesic mechanism. And animal experiments have indicated that calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expressed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is involved in generating and maintaining NP. In this case, it is uncertain whether PRF plays an analgesic role by affecting CGRP expression in DRG. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups: Groups A, B, C, and D. In Groups C and D, the right sciatic nerve was ligated to establish the CCI model, while in Groups A and B, the sciatic nerve was isolated without ligation. After 14 days, the right sciatic nerve in Groups B and D re-exposed and was treated with PRF on the ligation site. Thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) and hindpaw withdrawal threshold (HWT) were measured before PRF treatment (Day 0) as well as after 2, 4, 8, and 14 days of treatment. At the same time points of the behavioral tests, the right L4-L6 DRG was sampled and analyzed for CGRP expression using RT-qPCR and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Fourteen days after sciatic nerve ligation, rats in Groups C and D had a shortened TWL (P 0.05). On the 8th and 14th days, the mRNA levels in Group D were restored to those of Groups A and B. Meanwhile, the CGRP content of Group D gradually dropped over time, from 76.4 pg/mg (Day 0) to 57.5 pg/mg (Day 14). Conclusions: In this study, we found that, after sciatic nerve ligation, rats exhibited apparent hyperalgesia and allodynia, and CGRP mRNA and CGRP contents in the L4-L6 DRG increased significantly. Through lowering CGRP expression in the DRG, PRF treatment might relieve the pain behaviors of NP. PMID:29333099

  20. Aluminium-induced reduction of plant growth in alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is mediated by interrupting auxin transport and accumulation in roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengyin; Ren, Xiaoyan; Huang, Bingru; Wang, Ge; Zhou, Peng; An, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate Al3+-induced IAA transport, distribution, and the relation of these two processes to Al3+-inhibition of root growth in alfalfa. Alfalfa seedlings with or without apical buds were exposed to 0 or 100 μM AlCl3 and were foliar sprayed with water or 6 mg L−1 IAA. Aluminium stress resulted in disordered arrangement of cells, deformed cell shapes, altered cell structure, and a shorter length of the meristematic zone in root tips. Aluminium stress significantly decreased the IAA concentration in apical buds and root tips. The distribution of IAA fluorescence signals in root tips was disturbed, and the IAA transportation from shoot base to root tip was inhibited. The highest intensity of fluorescence signals was detected in the apical meristematic zone. Exogenous application of IAA markedly alleviated the Al3+-induced inhibition of root growth by increasing IAA accumulation and recovering the damaged cell structure in root tips. In addition, Al3+ stress up-regulated expression of AUX1 and PIN2 genes. These results indicate that Al3+-induced reduction of root growth could be associated with the inhibitions of IAA synthesis in apical buds and IAA transportation in roots, as well as the imbalance of IAA distribution in root tips. PMID:27435109

  1. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  2. Expressing Parallelism with ROOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piparo, D. [CERN; Tejedor, E. [CERN; Guiraud, E. [CERN; Ganis, G. [CERN; Mato, P. [CERN; Moneta, L. [CERN; Valls Pla, X. [CERN; Canal, P. [Fermilab

    2017-11-22

    The need for processing the ever-increasing amount of data generated by the LHC experiments in a more efficient way has motivated ROOT to further develop its support for parallelism. Such support is being tackled both for shared-memory and distributed-memory environments. The incarnations of the aforementioned parallelism are multi-threading, multi-processing and cluster-wide executions. In the area of multi-threading, we discuss the new implicit parallelism and related interfaces, as well as the new building blocks to safely operate with ROOT objects in a multi-threaded environment. Regarding multi-processing, we review the new MultiProc framework, comparing it with similar tools (e.g. multiprocessing module in Python). Finally, as an alternative to PROOF for cluster-wide executions, we introduce the efforts on integrating ROOT with state-of-the-art distributed data processing technologies like Spark, both in terms of programming model and runtime design (with EOS as one of the main components). For all the levels of parallelism, we discuss, based on real-life examples and measurements, how our proposals can increase the productivity of scientists.

  3. Expressing Parallelism with ROOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piparo, D.; Tejedor, E.; Guiraud, E.; Ganis, G.; Mato, P.; Moneta, L.; Valls Pla, X.; Canal, P.

    2017-10-01

    The need for processing the ever-increasing amount of data generated by the LHC experiments in a more efficient way has motivated ROOT to further develop its support for parallelism. Such support is being tackled both for shared-memory and distributed-memory environments. The incarnations of the aforementioned parallelism are multi-threading, multi-processing and cluster-wide executions. In the area of multi-threading, we discuss the new implicit parallelism and related interfaces, as well as the new building blocks to safely operate with ROOT objects in a multi-threaded environment. Regarding multi-processing, we review the new MultiProc framework, comparing it with similar tools (e.g. multiprocessing module in Python). Finally, as an alternative to PROOF for cluster-wide executions, we introduce the efforts on integrating ROOT with state-of-the-art distributed data processing technologies like Spark, both in terms of programming model and runtime design (with EOS as one of the main components). For all the levels of parallelism, we discuss, based on real-life examples and measurements, how our proposals can increase the productivity of scientists.

  4. Root distribution pattern and nitrogen uptake of some wheat and triticale germplasms in relation to rates and methods of nitrogen application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, N.L.; Seth, Jagdish

    1975-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted under irrigated conditions with four germplasms viz. Triticale(70-2), and wheat varieties HD 4502(durum), Kalyan Sona and Moti (aestivums) at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute Farm, New Delhi, during rabi season of 1972-73. The treatments comprised of three rates of nitrogen viz. 0,60 and 120 kg/ha and two methods of nitrogen application viz. (1) soil + foliar and (2) soil. The root distribution of the four germplasms, studied by 32 P injection technique was increased both vertically and horizontally with the addition of nitrogen. Root distribution of triticale was observed to be deep and spreading in habit, while durum proved to be shallow rooted and compact in nature. The total uptake of nitrogen was significantly increased with higher rates of nitrogen in all the germplasms. The maximum uptake of nitrogen was observed in the durum wheat. (author)

  5. Conjoined lumb