We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....
Andersen, Steffen; Lau, Morten I.; Rutström, E. Elisabet
, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....
Full Text Available Background and aims. The purpose of this study was to identify patients at the risk of cerebrovascular attack (CVA by detecting calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA in panoramic radiography and evaluating their risk factors. Materials and methods. A total of 960 panoramic radiographs of patients above 40 years old were evaluated. Doppler Sonography (DS was performed for patients who showed calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA in panoramic radiography in order to determine the presence of CCAA and the degree of stenosis. Cardiovascular risk factors in both groups of patients with CCAA (12 subjects and without CCAA (3 subjects were compared using a questionnaire filled out by the patients. Statistical analysis including Fisher and independent t-test applied for data analysis. Results. Fifteen patients (30 sides showed calcification in their panoramic radiographs, and underwent DS which revealed CCAA in 16 sides (12 patients. Two patients (13.33% showed stenosis greater than 70%. Among the risk factors, only age showed a significant association with the occurrence of carotid calcified atheroma (P=0.026. Conclusion. Considering the results, dentists should refer especially elderly patients with radiographically identified atheromas for further examinations, as asymptomatic CCAA might be associated with high degrees of stenosis.
Dato, Serena; Krabbe, Karen S; Thinggaard, Mikael; Pedersen, Bente K; Christensen, Kaare; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Christiansen, Lene
Systemic low-grade inflammation is consistently associated with functional status, cognitive functioning, multimorbidity, and survival in oldest olds. If inflammation is either a cause or a consequence of age-related pathology, genetic determinants of late-life survival can reside in cytokine genes polymorphisms, regulating inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to test associations between commonly studied polymorphisms in interleukin (IL)6, IL10, IL15, and IL18, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha genes and late-life survival in a longitudinal cohort of nonagenarians: the Danish 1905 cohort. Additionally, associations were investigated between inflammatory markers and major predictors of mortality as cognitive and functional status. Modest sex-specific associations were found with survival, cognitive functioning, and handgrip strength. Evaluation of combined genotypes indicated that, in nonagenarian men, the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory activity at IL18 and IL10 loci is protective against cognitive decline. In conclusion, in this large study with virtually complete follow-up, commonly studied polymorphisms in cytokine genes do not have a major impact on late-life survival or associated risk phenotypes.
Dato, Serena; Krabbe, Karen S; Thinggaard, Mikael;
Systemic low-grade inflammation is consistently associated with functional status, cognitive functioning, multimorbidity, and survival in oldest olds. If inflammation is either a cause or a consequence of age-related pathology, genetic determinants of late-life survival can reside in cytokine gen...
such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...
We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...... relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky...
Hämäläinen, Jarmo A; Lohvansuu, Kaisa; Ervast, Leena; Leppänen, Paavo H T
Multiple risk factors can affect the development of specific reading problems or dyslexia. In addition to the most prevalent and studied risk factor, phonological processing, auditory discrimination problems have also been found in children and adults with reading difficulties. The present study examined 37 children between the ages of 5 and 6, 11 of which had multiple risk factors for developing reading problems. The children participated in a passive oddball EEG experiment with sinusoidal sounds with changes in sound frequency, duration, or intensity. The responses to the standard stimuli showed a negative voltage shift in children at risk for reading problems compared to control children at 107-215 ms in frontocentral areas corresponding to P1 offset and N250 onset. Source analyses showed that the difference originated from the left and right auditory cortices. Additionally, the children at risk for reading problems had a larger late discriminative negativity (LDN) response in amplitude for sound frequency change than the control children. The amplitudes at the P1-N250 time window showed correlations to letter knowledge and phonological identification whereas the amplitudes at the LDN time window correlated with verbal short-term memory and rapid naming. These results support the view that problems in basic auditory processing abilities precede the onset of reading instruction and can act as one of the risk factors for dyslexia.
We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged wealth or an even higher level than what can be obtained with certainty. We study preferences...... such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...... and have decreasing relative risk premium. We finally introduce the notion of partial risk neutral preferences on binary lotteries and show that partial risk neutrality is equivalent to preferences with decreasing relative risk premium...
Macoveanu, Julian; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars V
brain. RESULTS: We included 30 monozygotic and 37 dizygotic twins in our analysis. Neural activity in the anterior insula and ventral striatum increased linearly with the amount of gambling risk in the entire cohort. Individual neuroticism scores were positively correlated with the neural response...
Macoveanu, Julian; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars V
brain. RESULTS: We included 30 monozygotic and 37 dizygotic twins in our analysis. Neural activity in the anterior insula and ventral striatum increased linearly with the amount of gambling risk in the entire cohort. Individual neuroticism scores were positively correlated with the neural response...
We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...
Englund, Jessica; Sernhed, Kerstin; Nystroem, Olle; Graveus, Frank (Grontmij AB, (Sweden))
The project, within which this work report was prepared, aimed to complement the Vaermeforsk publication 'Handbook of fuels' on fuel related risks and measures to reduce the risks. The fuels examined in this project where the fuels included in the first version of the handbook from 2005 plus four additional fuels that will be included in the second and next edition of the handbook. Following fuels were included: woodfuels (sawdust, wood chips, powder, briquettes), slash, recycled wood, salix, bark, hardwood, stumps, straw, reed canary grass, hemp, cereal, cereal waste, olive waste, cocoa beans, citrus waste, shea, sludge, forest industrial sludge, manure, Paper Wood Plastic, tyre, leather waste, cardboard rejects, meat and bone meal, liquid animal and vegetable wastes, tall oil pitch, peat, residues from food industry, biomal (including slaughterhouse waste) and lignin. The report includes two main chapters; a general risk chapter and a chapter of fuel specific risks. The first one deals with the general concept of risk, it highlights laws and rules relevant for risk management and it discuss general risks that are related to the different steps of fuel handling, i.e. unloading, storing, processing the fuel, transportation within the facility, combustion and handling of ashes. The information that was used to produce this chapter was gathered through a literature review, site visits, and the project group's experience from risk management. The other main chapter deals with fuel-specific risks and the measures to reduce the risks for the steps of unloading, storing, processing the fuel, internal transportation, combustion and handling of the ashes. Risks and measures were considered for all the biofuels included in the second version in the handbook of fuels. Information about the risks and risk management was gathered through interviews with people working with different kinds of fuels in electricity and heat plants in Sweden. The information from
Hamlin, Teri L.
It is important to the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), as well as future manned spaceflight programs, to understand the early mission risk and progression of risk as the program gains insights into the integrated vehicle through flight. The risk progression is important to the SSP as part of the documentation of lessons learned. The risk progression is important to future programs to understand reliability growth and the first flight risk. This analysis uses the knowledge gained from 30 years of operational flights and the current Shuttle PRA to calculate the risk of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) at significant milestones beginning with the first flight. Key flights were evaluated based upon historical events and significant re-designs. The results indicated that the Shuttle risk tends to follow a step function as opposed to following a traditional reliability growth pattern where risk exponentially improves with each flight. In addition, it shows that risk can increase due to trading safety margin for increased performance or due to external events. Due to the risk drivers not being addressed, the risk did not improve appreciably during the first 25 flights. It was only after significant events occurred such as Challenger and Columbia, where the risk drivers were apparent, that risk was significantly improved. In addition, this paper will show that the SSP has reduced the risk of LOCV by almost an order of magnitude. It is easy to look back afte r 30 years and point to risks that are now obvious, however; the key is to use this knowledge to benefit other programs which are in their infancy stages. One lesson learned from the SSP is understanding risk drivers are essential in order to considerably reduce risk. This will enable the new program to focus time and resources on identifying and reducing the significant risks. A comprehensive PRA, similar to that of the Shuttle PRA, is an effective tool quantifying risk drivers if support from all of the stakeholders is
Full Text Available In social sciences, most events occur in specific time and space. We call such events here "Spatiotemporal Events". It is obvious that events, having always a beginning and an end, appear at a specific place or in particular space. Suppose there exists an conceptual data model regulating some rules to describe those factors, it enables us to store various spatiotemporal events as data and to refer with one another. We, therefore, define a simple spatiotemporal data model, calling "Reki-Show". We also call the information system, consisting of Reki-Show data model, "Reki-Show System", and consider Reki-Show System as the basic information system to deal with the various events in human society. Accordingly, we have recognized that it is indispensable in the future social sciences to have the database and tool for both the temporal and spatial attributes, and have been developing Reki-Show Authoring Tools based on the conceptual framework in Reki-Show System. At present, the fundamental component has been developed already through some steps, and the system is now applied to the empirical research. We would like to make a report of the outline at this stage. This paper explains the basic concept in Reki-Show (Conseptual Data Modeling, followed by the outline of the implemented system.
We describe neutrino radiation in general relativity by introducing the energy-momentum tensor of a null fluid into the Einstein equations. Investigating the geometry and analysis at null infinity, we prove that a component of the null fluid enlarges the Christodoulou memory effect of gravitational waves. The description of neutrinos in general relativity as a null fluid can be regarded as a limiting case of a more general description using the massless limit of the Einstein-Vlasov system. The present authors with co-authors have work in progress to generalize the results of this paper using this more general description. Gigantic neutrino bursts occur in our universe in core-collapse supernovae and in the mergers of neutron star binaries.
The on-site version of Balance of Power reached a total audience of 21,331 between November 10, 1994 and January 31, 1996; in addition, the Physics on Wheels van offered exhibits and programs to an additional 30,000 students in the 1995-1996 school year. The program provided a groundbreaking new approach to informal science education, combining a dynamic demonstration with an intensely interactive game show. Between the on-site programming and the Physics on Wheels van programs, 51,331 students were impacted by the activities, exhibits and energy-conservation message of Balance of Power.
Christopher R. Hatcher
Full Text Available Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula has had a conservation status of vulnerable since the 1970s. Little research has focussed on the ecology and even less has examined its juvenile stages. For the first time, reliance on invertebrate prey for growth was assessed in seedling Venus flytrap by systematic elimination of invertebrates from the growing environment. Prey were experimentally removed from a subset of Venus flytrap seedlings within a laboratory environment. The amount of growth was measured by measuring trap midrib length as a function of overall growth as well as prey spectrum. There was significantly lower growth in prey-eliminated plants than those utilising prey. This finding, although initially unsurprising, is actually contrary to the consensus that seedlings (traps < 5 mm do not catch prey. Furthermore, flytrap was shown to have prey specificity at its different growth stages; the dominant prey size for seedlings did not trigger mature traps. Seedlings are capturing and utilising prey for nutrients to increase their overall trap size. These novel findings show Venus flytrap to have a much more complex evolutionary ecology than previously thought.
Jensen, Carsten Strøby
Employment relations literature often distinguishes between social democratic/corporatist models of employment relations and liberal models of employment relations as they are seen as opposite or at least different ways of organizing labor markets. They are often characterized as having very...... different risk profiles in terms of relationships between employees, employers, and the state. Low levels of labor market regulation very often characterize the liberal models of employment relations as we know them from, for instance, the USA and the UK. This means that employment conditions are very often...... insecure and that the burden of unemployment risk mostly lies with the employees rather than the employer. Corporatist – or social democratic – employment relations models are, in contrast to the liberal models, often characterized by stricter regulation of the labor market and by high standards...
... Health Image Library (PHIL) New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children’s Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by ... Media Relations (404) 639-3286 Getting a flu vaccine reduces a child's risk of flu-related intensive care hospitalization by ...
Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Schotman, P.C.
We use data from a television game show, involving elementary lotteries and substantial prize money, as a natural experiment to measure risk attitudes. We find robust evidence of substantial risk aversion. As an extension, we estimate the various models using transformations of the 'true' probabilit
Connell, Paul P
Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.
Voeten Helene ACM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time. Results Porn video shows and local brew dens were identified as popular events where unprotected multipartner, concurrent, coerced and transactional sex occurs between adolescents. Video halls - rooms with a TV and VCR - often show pornography at night for a very small fee, and minors are allowed. Forced sex, gang rape and multiple concurrent relationships characterised the sexual encounters of youth, frequently facilitated by the abuse of alcohol, which is available for minors at low cost in local brew dens. For many sexually active girls, their vulnerability to STI/HIV infection is enhanced due to financial inequality, gender-related power difference and cultural norms. The desire for love and sexual pleasure also contributed to their multiple concurrent partnerships. A substantial number of girls and young women engaged in transactional sex, often with much older working partners. These partners had a stronger socio-economic position than young women, enabling them to use money/gifts as leverage for sex. Condom use was irregular during all types of sexual encounters. Conclusions In Kisumu, local brew dens and porn video halls facilitate risky sexual encounters between youth. These places should be regulated and monitored by the government. Our study strongly points to female vulnerabilities and the role of men in perpetuating the local epidemic. Young men should be targeted in prevention activities, to change their attitudes related to power and control in relationships. Girls
Prentice, R L
Relative risk regression methods are described. These methods provide a unified approach to a range of data analysis problems in environmental risk assessment and in the study of disease risk factors more generally. Relative risk regression methods are most readily viewed as an outgrowth of Cox's regression and life model. They can also be viewed as a regression generalization of more classical epidemiologic procedures, such as that due to Mantel and Haenszel. In the context of an epidemiologic cohort study, relative risk regression methods extend conventional survival data methods and binary response (e.g., logistic) regression models by taking explicit account of the time to disease occurrence while allowing arbitrary baseline disease rates, general censorship, and time-varying risk factors. This latter feature is particularly relevant to many environmental risk assessment problems wherein one wishes to relate disease rates at a particular point in time to aspects of a preceding risk factor history. Relative risk regression methods also adapt readily to time-matched case-control studies and to certain less standard designs. The uses of relative risk regression methods are illustrated and the state of development of these procedures is discussed. It is argued that asymptotic partial likelihood estimation techniques are now well developed in the important special case in which the disease rates of interest have interpretations as counting process intensity functions. Estimation of relative risks processes corresponding to disease rates falling outside this class has, however, received limited attention. The general area of relative risk regression model criticism has, as yet, not been thoroughly studied, though a number of statistical groups are studying such features as tests of fit, residuals, diagnostics and graphical procedures. Most such studies have been restricted to exponential form relative risks as have simulation studies of relative risk estimation
Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl
Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making, rather than to risk preferences....
Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl
Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...... tasks that vary the bias induced by random choices, we are able to generate both negative and positive correlations between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Structural estimation allowing for heterogeneity of noise yields no significant relation between risk aversion and cognitive ability. Our...... results suggest that cognitive ability is related to random decision making rather than to risk preferences....
Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Schotman, P.C.
We use data from a television game show involving elementary lotteries as a natural experiment to measure risk attitudes. Unique features of our data set are the substantial monetary stakes and the large sample size. CRRA and CARA utility specifications perform approximately equally well. We find ro
Flynn, Mark A; Morin, David; Park, Sung-Yeon; Stana, Alexandru
Past research has examined portrayals of risk behavior in various media, including television, advertising, and film. To address an underexplored area, this study analyzed drinking, smoking, and sexual activities in MTV reality programming popular among adolescent viewers from 2004 to 2011. Cast members' demographic attributes were also examined in relation to their risk behaviors. Results demonstrated that drinking and casual sexual behaviors were pervasive among cast members. Smoking and more intense sexual behaviors were also present, but to a smaller degree. Men and young adult cast members were more likely to engage in risk behaviors than women and teenage cast members. Also, ethnic/racial minority characters were shown drinking more often than were White cast members. Interpretations of these findings are discussed based in social cognitive theory and the concept of super peers. Implications for future research are provided.
Interruption, as a linguistic phenomenon, can be see everywhere. And talk show programs are common setting for in⁃terruptions. So in this thesis three questions are addressed as followed: What function does the interruption have in these two kinds of talk shows (relatively formal and informal) respectively; what are the similarities of relatively formal and informal talk show programs;what are the differences between relatively formal and informal talk shows.
Rubini, Mauro; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Manzon, Vanessa S; Rinaldo, Natascia; Bianucci, Raffaella
Plague has been responsible for two major historic pandemics (6th-8th century CE; 14th-19th century CE) and a modern one. The recent Malagasy plague outbreaks raised new concerns on the deadly potential of the plague-causing bacteria Yersinia pestis. Between September 2014 and April 2015, outbreaks of bubonic and pneumonic plague hit the Malagasy population. Two hundred and sixty-three cases, including 71 deaths, have been reported in 16 different districts with a case fatality rate of 27%. The scope of our study was to ascertain whether the risk factors for health in modern-day populations exposed to plague and in ancient populations that faced the two historic pandemics varied or remained substantially unaltered. The risk of mortality of the Malagasy population with those obtained from the reconstruction of three samples of European populations exposed to the historic pandemics was contrasted. The evidence shows that the risks of death are not uniform across age neither in modern nor in historic populations exposed to plague and shows precise concentrations in specific age groups (children between five and nine years of age and young adults). Although in the post-antibiotic era, the fatality rates have drastically reduced, both modern and historic populations were exposed to the same risk factors that are essentially represented by a low standard of environmental hygiene, poor nutrition, and weak health systems.
Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete
trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during...... admission. Most studies are based on low power, thus compromising quality and generalisability. The few studies with sufficient statistical power mainly identified non-modifiable risk predictors such as male gender, diagnosis, or recent deliberate self-harm. Also, the predictive value of these predictors......People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time...
Discussion: We diagnosed him as having arm banging type of sleep related rhythmic movement disorder. To our knowledge, no precise description on this type of sleep related rhythmic movement disorder has been found. In addition, this patient seemed to be the youngest case of sleep related rhythmic movement disorder showing arm banging.
Full Text Available Only sparse data was available on long-term of Takotusbo Cardiomyopathy (TC. Previous studies suggested prognosis is not necessarily benign. We report the long-term follow-up of 12 TC patients actively managed with risk factor reduction. Retrospective analysis of all patients diagnosed with TC at our hospital between 1998 and 2010. We identified 12 patients with TC among 1651 cases of emergent left heart catheterization over 12 years. Mean follow-up time was 8.3 ± 3.6 years. All were female, 87% had hypertension, 25% had history of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD, 67% had hyperlipidemia, 44% had some preceding emotional trauma, and 44% had some physical/physiological stress. Previous studies have shown that over 50% of TC patients experience future cardiac events, and 10% have a recurrence of TC. Patients were prescribed therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC and guideline directed medical therapy (GDMT for aggressive risk factor reduction. TLC included diet, exercise, and cardiac rehabilitation. GDMT often included aspirin, beta-blockers, ACE-inhibitors, and statins. Follow-up echocardiograms showed recovery and maintenance of the ejection fraction. There was no cardiac mortality and no recurrences of TC. Aggressive risk factor reduction with TLC and GDMT may be effective in improving the long term outcomes of patients with TC.
Ning, Yang; Woodward, Mark
The proportional hazards model assumes that the log hazard ratio is a linear function of parameters. In the current paper, we model the log relative risk as an inverse polynomial, which is particularly suitable for modeling bounded and asymmetric functions. The parameters estimated by maximizing the partial likelihood are consistent and asymptotically normal. The advantages of the inverse polynomial model over the ordinary polynomial model and the fractional polynomial model for fitting various asymmetric log relative risk functions are shown by simulation. The utility of the method is further supported by analyzing two real data sets, addressing the specific question of the location of the minimum risk threshold.
Daastoel, P.Oe.U.; Drottz-Sjoeberg, B.M. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Psychology
This pilot study is based on the assumption and the knowledge that previous results show that the normal use of the word risk varies across subjects. The risk definitions the subjects use have also been shown to be related to various educational interests. A related field of research has developed measures for Sensation Seeking personality trait, with four facets. Three independent groups of first year psychology students reported their normal definition of the word risk using one of three measurement formats. The results showed, e.g. that the typical open-ended response to the personal definition of risk was danger. Subjects who defined risk as the combination of probability and consequences tended to score higher on the total Sensation Seeking Scale, as compared to those defining risk as the probability of an event.
Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl
Recent experimental studies suggest that risk aversion is negatively related to cognitive ability. In this paper we report evidence that this relation might be spurious. We recruit a large subject pool drawn from the general Danish population for our experiment. By presenting subjects with choice...
Findings from the first large clinical trial of its kind indicate that taking high doses of aspirin daily for at least 2 years substantially reduces the risk of colorectal cancer among people at increased risk of the disease.
Boffetta, P; Cardis, E; Vainio, H; Coleman, M P; Kogevinas, M; Nordberg, G; Parkin, D M; Partensky, C; Shuker, D; Tomatis, L
The International Agency for Research on Cancer has previously evaluated the cancer risks associated with fossil fuel-based industrial processes such as coal gastification and coke production, substances and mixtures such as coal tars, coal tar pitch and mineral oils, and a number of substances emitted from fossil-fuelled plants such as benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and formaldehyde. Based on these evaluations and other evidence from the literature, the carcinogenic risks to the general population and occupational groups from the fossil fuel cycle, the nuclear fuel cycle and renewable cycles are reviewed. Cancer risks from waste disposal, accidents and misuses, and electricity distribution are also considered. No cycle appears to be totally free from cancer risk, but the quantification of the effects of such exposures (in particular of those involving potential exposure to large amounts of carcinogens, such as coal, oil and nuclear) requires the application of methods which are subject to considerable margins of error. Uncertainties due to inadequate data and unconfirmed assumptions are discussed. Cancer risks related to the operation of renewable energy sources are negligible, although there may be some risks from construction of such installations. The elements of knowledge at our disposal do not encourage any attempt toward a quantitative comparative risk assessment. However, even in the absence of an accurate quantification of risk, qualitative indication of carcinogenic hazards should lead to preventive measures.
van de Ven, Wynand P M M; van Vliet, René C J A; van Kleef, Richard C
If consumers have a choice of health plan, risk selection is often a serious problem (e.g., as in Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, the United States of America, and Switzerland). Risk selection may threaten the quality of care for chronically ill people, and may reduce the affordability and efficiency of healthcare. Therefore, an important question is: how can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection? Although this seems easy, showing such evidence is not straightforward. The novelty of this paper is two-fold. First, we provide a conceptual framework for showing evidence of risk selection in competitive health insurance markets. It is not easy to disentangle risk selection and the insurers' efficiency. We suggest two methods to measure risk selection that are not biased by the insurers' efficiency. Because these measures underestimate the true risk selection, we also provide a list of signals of selection that can be measured and that, in particular in combination, can show evidence of risk selection. It is impossible to show the absence of risk selection. Second, we empirically measure risk selection among the switchers, taking into account the insurers' efficiency. Based on 2-year administrative data on healthcare expenses and risk characteristics of nearly all individuals with basic health insurance in the Netherlands (N > 16 million) we find significant risk selection for most health insurers. This is the first publication of hard empirical evidence of risk selection in the Dutch health insurance market.
Full Text Available Motherhood involves a switch in natural rewards, whereby offspring become highly rewarding. Nucleus accumbens (NAC is a key CNS region for natural rewards and addictions, but to date no study has evaluated on a large scale the events in NAC that underlie the maternal change in natural rewards. In this study we utilized microarray and bioinformatics approaches to evaluate postpartum NAC gene expression changes in mice. Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET indicated that postpartum (relative to virgin NAC gene expression profile was significantly enriched for genes related to addiction and reward in 5 of 5 independently curated databases (e.g., Malacards, Phenopedia. Over 100 addiction/reward related genes were identified and these included: Per1, Per2, Arc, Homer2, Creb1, Grm3, Fosb, Gabrb3, Adra2a, Ntrk2, Cry1, Penk, Cartpt, Adcy1, Npy1r, Htr1a, Drd1a, Gria1, and Pdyn. ToppCluster analysis found maternal NAC expression profile to be significantly enriched for genes related to the drug action of nicotine, ketamine, and dronabinol. Pathway analysis indicated postpartum NAC as enriched for RNA processing, CNS development/differentiation, and transcriptional regulation. Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis identified possible networks for transcription factors, including Nr1d1, Per2, Fosb, Egr1, and Nr4a1. The postpartum state involves increased risk for mental health disorders and MSET analysis indicated postpartum NAC to be enriched for genes related to depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Mental health related genes included: Fabp7, Grm3, Penk, and Nr1d1. We confirmed via quantitative PCR Nr1d1, Per2, Grm3, Penk, Drd1a, and Pdyn. This study indicates for the first time that postpartum NAC involves large scale gene expression alterations linked to addiction and reward. Because the postpartum state also involves decreased response to drugs, the findings could provide insights into how to mitigate addictions.
Salian, Vinutha V; Narayana, Badiadka; Yathirajan, Hemmige S; Akkurt, Mehmet; Çelik, Ömer; Ersanlı, Cem Cüneyt; Glidewell, Christopher
Four compounds are reported, all of which lie along a versatile reaction pathway which leads from simple carbonyl compounds to terphenyls. (2E)-1-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-3- [4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)phenyl]prop-2-en-1-one, C18H14Cl2O, (I), prepared from 4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)benzaldehyde and 2,4-dichloroacetophenone, exhibits disorder over two sets of atomic sites having occupancies of 0.664 (6) and 0.336 (6). The related chalcone (2E)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)prop-2-en-1-one reacts with acetone to produce (5RS)-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-[4-(propan-2-yl)phenyl]cyclohex-2-en-1-one, C21H21ClO, (II), which exhibits enantiomeric disorder with occupancies at the reference site of 0.662 (4) and 0.338 (4) for the (5R) and (5S) forms; the same chalcone reacts with methyl 3-oxobutanoate to give methyl (1RS,6SR)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-6-[4-(propan-2-yl)phenyl]-2-oxocyclohex-3-ene-1-carboxylate, C23H23ClO3, (III), where the reference site contains both (1R,6S) and (1S,6R) forms with occupancies of 0.923 (3) and 0.077 (3), respectively. Oxidation, using 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone, of ethyl (1RS,6SR)-6-(4-bromophenyl)-4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-oxocyclohex-3-ene-1-carboxylate, prepared in a similar manner to (II) and (III), produces ethyl 4''-bromo-4-fluoro-5'-hydroxy-1,1':3',1''-terphenyl-4'-carboxylate, C21H16BrFO3, (IV), which crystallizes with Z' = 2 in the space group P-1. There are no significant intermolecular interactions in the structures of compounds (I) and (II), but for the major disorder component of compound (III), the molecules are linked into sheets by a combination of C-H...O and C-H...π(arene) hydrogen bonds. The two independent molecules of compound (IV) form two different centrosymmetric dimers, one built from inversion-related pairs of C-H...O hydrogen bonds and the other from inversion-related pairs of C-H...π(arene) hydrogen bonds. Comparisons are made with related compounds.
Full Text Available Through this article it is brought to attention the essential aspects related to the perceived risks for critical infrastructure, both theoretically and practically, considering perception as an important input in the risk management process. For the practical part, the added value component in the field consists from the results of research based on survey, conducted in a wider framework of determining the level of awareness of the critical infrastructure issue by a pilot sample, consisting of persons with managerial and operational attributions in this sector.
Domes, Gregor; Mense, Julia; Vohs, Knut; Habermeyer, Elmar
Offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may be characterized by a lack in emotional functioning that manifests in irritability and a lack of remorse. The proposed link between ASPD and negative emotionality led to the question of emotional processing anomalies in ASPD. Furthermore, the effect of childhood maltreatment/abuse on emotional processing was tested in the present study. Violent and sexual offenders with ASPD (n=35), without ASPD (n=34), and healthy non-criminal controls (n=24) were compared in an Emotional Stroop Task (EST) using neutral, negative, and violence-related words. Secondary analyses focused on the effect of psychopathic traits and childhood maltreatment. Offenders with ASPD showed a stronger attentional bias to violence-related and negative words as compared to controls. Comparable results were obtained when grouping offenders to high, medium, and low psychopathic subgroups. Offenders with childhood maltreatment specifically showed stronger violence-related attentional bias than non-maltreated offenders. The data suggest that enhanced attention to violence-related stimuli in adult criminal offenders is associated with adverse developmental experiences and delinquency but to a lesser extent with antisocial or psychopathic traits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Levine, Jeffrey M; Savino, Fay; Peterson, Marilyn; Wolf, Carolyn Reinach
Pressure ulcers, although sometimes unavoidable, are frequently viewed as a failure of the health care system. Private civil lawsuits alleging malpractice or negligence related to pressure ulcers are becoming increasingly common. Because of their graphic nature, a photograph of a wound may add value to a plaintiff's case whether or not a negligent act has truly occurred. When the family shows up with a camera, caregivers should be "on notice" that a lawsuit may occur. This applies not only to nursing homes, but to any setting in which pressure ulcers occur including hospital, rehabilitation facility, home care, or hospice. When the threat of litigation arises, we recommend steps that include reestablishing trust with the family, reassessing the patient, reevaluating the care plan, documenting problem behaviors, and incorporating Quality Improvement principles.
Adults with a form of muscular dystrophy called myotonic muscular dystrophy (MMD) may be at increased risk of developing cancer, according to a study by investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health.
Oliveira,Márcio Rogério de; Inokuti,Thiago Tadashi; Bispo,Nuno Noronha da Costa; Oliveira,Deise Aparecida de Almeida Pires; Oliveira, Rodrigo Franco de; Silva Jr.,Rubens Alexandre da
Introduction Falls are a serious public health problem. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether elderly individuals with increased risk of falls have a postural balance deficit, evaluated using a force platform during a one-leg stance. Materials and methods The sample consisted of 94 physically independent elderly individuals from the EELO project. The instruments used were the Downton scale, in order to assess the risk as well as the history of falls, and the force platform t...
Espenhahn, Svenja; de Berker, Archy O; van Wijk, Bernadette C M; Rossiter, Holly E; Ward, Nick S
Oscillatory activity in the beta frequency range (15-30Hz) recorded from human sensorimotor cortex is of increasing interest as a putative biomarker of motor system function and dysfunction. Despite its increasing use in basic and clinical research, surprisingly little is known about the test-retest reliability of spectral power and peak frequency measures of beta oscillatory signals from sensorimotor cortex. Establishing that these beta measures are stable over time in healthy populations is a necessary precursor to their use in the clinic. Here, we used scalp electroencephalography (EEG) to evaluate intra-individual reliability of beta-band oscillations over six sessions, focusing on changes in beta activity during movement (Movement-Related Beta Desynchronization, MRBD) and after movement termination (Post-Movement Beta Rebound, PMBR). Subjects performed visually-cued unimanual wrist flexion and extension. We assessed Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) and between-session correlations for spectral power and peak frequency measures of movement-related and resting beta activity. Movement-related and resting beta power from both sensorimotor cortices was highly reliable across sessions. Resting beta power yielded highest reliability (average ICC=0.903), followed by MRBD (average ICC=0.886) and PMBR (average ICC=0.663). Notably, peak frequency measures yielded lower ICC values compared to the assessment of spectral power, particularly for movement-related beta activity (ICC=0.386-0.402). Our data highlight that power measures of movement-related beta oscillations are highly reliable, while corresponding peak frequency measures show greater intra-individual variability across sessions. Importantly, our finding that beta power estimates show high intra-individual reliability over time serves to validate the notion that these measures reflect meaningful individual differences that can be utilised in basic research and clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 The
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The phantom auditory perception of subjective tinnitus is associated with aberrant brain activity as evidenced by magneto- and electroencephalographic studies. We tested the hypotheses (1 that psychoacoustically measured tinnitus loudness is related to gamma oscillatory band power, and (2 that tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related distress are related to distinct brain activity patterns as suggested by the distinction between loudness and distress experienced by tinnitus patients. Furthermore, we explored (3 how hearing impairment, minimum masking level, and (4 psychological comorbidities are related to spontaneous oscillatory brain activity in tinnitus patients. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Resting state oscillatory brain activity recorded electroencephalographically from 46 male tinnitus patients showed a positive correlation between gamma band oscillations and psychoacoustic tinnitus loudness determined with the reconstructed tinnitus sound, but not with the other psychoacoustic loudness measures that were used. Tinnitus-related distress did also correlate with delta band activity, but at electrode positions different from those associated with tinnitus loudness. Furthermore, highly distressed tinnitus patients exhibited a higher level of theta band activity. Moreover, mean hearing loss between 0.125 kHz and 16 kHz was associated with a decrease in gamma activity, whereas minimum masking levels correlated positively with delta band power. In contrast, psychological comorbidities did not express significant correlations with oscillatory brain activity. CONCLUSION: Different clinically relevant tinnitus characteristics show distinctive associations with spontaneous brain oscillatory power. Results support hypothesis (1, but exclusively for the tinnitus loudness derived from matching to the reconstructed tinnitus sound. This suggests to preferably use the reconstructed tinnitus spectrum to determine psychoacoustic tinnitus loudness
Morgan Charlie D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies suggest that older adults at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease may show olfactory processing deficits before other signs of dementia appear. Methods We studied 60 healthy non-demented individuals, half of whom were positive for the genetic risk factor the Apolipoprotein E ɛ4 allele, in three different age groups. Event-related potentials to visual and olfactory identification tasks were recorded and analyzed for latency and amplitude differences, and plotted via topographical maps. Results Varying patterns of brain activation were observed over the post-stimulus epoch for ɛ4- versus ɛ4+ individuals on topographical maps. Individuals with the ɛ4 allele demonstrated different ERP peak latencies during identification of olfactory but not visual stimuli. High correct ApoE classification rates were obtained utilizing the olfactory ERP. Conclusions Olfactory ERPs demonstrate functional decline in individuals at risk for Alzheimer’s disease at much earlier ages than previously observed, suggesting the potential for pre-clinical detection of AD at very early stages.
C.W. Njue (Carolyne); H.A.C.M. Voeten (Hélène); P. Remes (Pieter)
textabstractBackground: Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya. Met
Bodenlos, Jamie S; Wormuth, Bernadette M
Television watching has been positively associated with overeating and obesity. How popular food-related television shows affects eating behavior has not been examined. An experimental study was conducted to examine how exposure to a food-related television program affects amount and type of food consumed in adults (N=80). Participants were randomized to watch a cooking or nature television program and were then presented with 800 total calories of chocolate covered candies, cheese curls, and carrots. Food was weighed before and after the ad libitum eating session to determine amount consumed. After controlling for dietary restraint, hunger and food preference, significantly more chocolate covered candies were consumed among individuals who watched the cooking program compared to the nature program. No significant differences between conditions were found for overall caloric intake or for cheese curl or carrot consumption. Findings suggest that watching food-related television programs may affect eating behavior and has implications for obesity prevention and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schmidt, Martina E; Semik, Johanna; Habermann, Nina; Wiskemann, Joachim; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Steindorf, Karen
Fatigue is a major burden for breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant therapy. Yet, its pathophysiology is still not well understood. Hypothesized mechanisms include dysregulations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may be reflected in alterations in the diurnal cortisol patterns. However, studies on the association between cortisol and fatigue during adjuvant cancer therapy are rare. We therefore assessed salivary cortisol at awakening, 0.5h post-awakening, noon, 5 pm and 10 pm/bedtime in 265 breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant therapy at three timepoints. Cancer-related fatigue was assessed with the Fatigue Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ) covering the physical, affective, and cognitive fatigue dimensions. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed cross-sectionally at the three timepoints as well as longitudinally considering changes in cortisol and fatigue over time. The results showed that the physical dimension of cancer-related fatigue was significantly associated with increased evening cortisol levels and higher overall cortisol secretion. These associations were independent of depressive symptoms. Morning cortisol levels, the cortisol awakening response and the diurnal slope were not consistently associated with physical fatigue. Affective and cognitive fatigue showed no clear association with any of the cortisol parameters. In conclusion, the physical but not the affective or cognitive dimension of fatigue seems associated with cortisol dysregulations in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant therapy, characterized by an unaffected cortisol level in the morning but blunted decline to the evening level. Research focusing on disturbances of the cortisol rhythm and HPA dysregulations during and after cancer treatment may open new strategies to reduce cancer-related fatigue.
Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Pochmann, Daniela; Rocha, Andreia S; Nunes, Fernanda; Almeida, Amanda S; Marques, Daniela M; Porciúncula, Lisiane O
Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide. Anxiogenic effects of caffeine have been described in adult animals with controversial findings about its anxiogenic potential. Besides, the effects of caffeine on anxiety with aging are still poorly known. In this study, adult mice (6months old) started to receive caffeine (0.3 and 1.0mg/mL, drinking water) during 12-14months only in the light cycle and at weekdays. The open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) testing were used to determine the effects of caffeine on anxiety-related behavior in adult and aged mice (18-20months old). Because aging alters synaptic proteins, we also evaluated SNAP-25 (as a nerve terminals marker), GFAP (as an astrocyte marker) and adenosine A1 and A2A receptors levels in the cortex. According to the OF analysis, caffeine did not change both hypolocomotion and anxiety with aging. However, aged mice showed less anxiety behavior in the EPM, but after receiving caffeine (0.3mg/mL) during adulthood they were anxious as adult mice. While SNAP-25 and adenosine A2A receptors increased with aging, both GFAP and adenosine A1 receptors were not affected. Caffeine at moderate dose prevented the age-related increase of the SNAP-25, with no effect on adenosine A2A receptors. The absence of effect for the highest dose suggests that tolerance to caffeine may have developed over time. Aged mice showed high responsiveness to the OF, being difficult to achieve any effect of caffeine. On the other hand this substance sustained the adult anxious behavior over time in a less stressful paradigm, and this effect was coincident with changes in the SNAP-25, suggesting the involvement of this synaptic protein in the ability of caffeine to preserve changes related to emotionality with aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Njue, C.; Voeten, H.A.C.M.; Remes, P.
Background: Kisumu has shown a rising HIV prevalence over the past sentinel surveillance surveys, and most new infections are occurring among youth. We conducted a qualitative study to explore risk situations that can explain the high HIV prevalence among youth in Kisumu town, Kenya\\ud \\ud Methods: We conducted in-depth interviews with 150 adolescents aged 15 to 20, held 4 focus group discussions, and made 48 observations at places where youth spend their free time.\\ud \\ud Results: Porn video...
The increasing demands for protection money from foreign exploration and pipeline construction companies by left-wing guerrilla groups in various South American countries led to greater attention being focused on security services. This paper discusses the various alternatives to consider when choosing a security service. The experience of a Canadian pipeline company with projects in South America, and in need of security services, is described. The company felt that it was important that the security firm have a Calgary presence. It ended up hiring Calgary Protection Concepts Corporation, which is run by former Canadian police and intelligence officers, who provide a wide range of security services. Staff spend time in the country involved to look over the local security situation, develop contacts with local intelligence officers, and contract overseas agents who arrange for bodyguards, escorts and armored cars. ProCon also helps companies develop crisis management plans, guiding senior personnel through scenarios such as kidnapping, extortion and civil strife. ProCon also has a 24-hour emergency assistance call centre to provide immediate advice, to notify personnel and family members and to monitor the situation. Trust is key to hiring an outside security service since the security firm becomes party to extremely confidential information. Top security firms usually specialize in either security work or political risk analysis, but not both. The reason for this is that there are big differences in mentality, training and capabilities between studying risks and actively guarding against hazards.
Pertierra, Luis R; Aragón, Pedro; Shaw, Justine D; Bergstrom, Dana M; Terauds, Aleks; Olalla-Tárraga, Miguel Ángel
The two non-native grasses that have established long-term populations in Antarctica (Poa pratensis and Poa annua) were studied from a global multidimensional thermal niche perspective to address the biological invasion risk to Antarctica. These two species exhibit contrasting introduction histories and reproductive strategies and represent two referential case studies of biological invasion processes. We used a multistep process with a range of species distribution modelling techniques (ecological niche factor analysis, multidimensional envelopes, distance/entropy algorithms) together with a suite of thermoclimatic variables, to characterize the potential ranges of these species. Their native bioclimatic thermal envelopes in Eurasia, together with the different naturalized populations across continents, were compared next. The potential niche of P. pratensis was wider at the cold extremes; however, P. annua life history attributes enable it to be a more successful colonizer. We observe that particularly cold summers are a key aspect of the unique Antarctic environment. In consequence, ruderals such as P. annua can quickly expand under such harsh conditions, whereas the more stress-tolerant P. pratensis endures and persist through steady growth. Compiled data on human pressure at the Antarctic Peninsula allowed us to provide site-specific biosecurity risk indicators. We conclude that several areas across the region are vulnerable to invasions from these and other similar species. This can only be visualized in species distribution models (SDMs) when accounting for founder populations that reveal nonanalogous conditions. Results reinforce the need for strict management practices to minimize introductions. Furthermore, our novel set of temperature-based bioclimatic GIS layers for ice-free terrestrial Antarctica provide a mechanism for regional and global species distribution models to be built for other potentially invasive species.
Futro, Agnieszka; Masłowska, Katarzyna; Dwyer, Cathy M.
Although neonatal farm animals are frequently subjected to painful management procedures, the role of maternal behaviour in pain coping, has not been much studied. We investigated whether ewes were able to distinguish between lambs in pain and those that were not, and whether their behaviour altered depending on the severity of lamb pain. Eighty male lambs were allocated to one of 4 pain treatments within 24 hours of birth. Lambs were either handled only (C), bilaterally castrated with tight rubber rings (RR), as for RR but with the application of a Burdizzo clamp immediately proximal to the ring (Combined) or subjected to short scrotum castration (SSC) where the testicles were retained within the abdomen and only the scrotum removed. The behaviour of the ewe, treated lamb and untreated sibling where present (n = 54) were recorded for 30 minutes after treatment. Castration treatment increased the expression of abnormal standing and lying postures, specific pain-related behaviours (head-turning, stamping/kicking, easing quarters, tail wagging) and composite pain scores (P<0.001 for all). The greatest expression of pain-related behaviours was shown by lambs in the RR group, which were the only group to show rolling responses indicative of severe pain, followed by the SSC group. Ewes expressed more licking/sniffing responses to the RR and SSC lambs than towards the Combined and C lambs (P<0.05), and oriented most to RR lambs and least to C lambs (P<0.001). Ewes with two lambs also directed more attention towards the treated than the untreated lamb (P<0.001). The quantity of maternal care directed towards the lamb was positively correlated with the expression of active pain behaviours. The data demonstrate that ewes are able to discriminate between lambs in pain and those that are not, and that their response is increased with a greater severity of pain. PMID:26217942
Full Text Available Although neonatal farm animals are frequently subjected to painful management procedures, the role of maternal behaviour in pain coping, has not been much studied. We investigated whether ewes were able to distinguish between lambs in pain and those that were not, and whether their behaviour altered depending on the severity of lamb pain. Eighty male lambs were allocated to one of 4 pain treatments within 24 hours of birth. Lambs were either handled only (C, bilaterally castrated with tight rubber rings (RR, as for RR but with the application of a Burdizzo clamp immediately proximal to the ring (Combined or subjected to short scrotum castration (SSC where the testicles were retained within the abdomen and only the scrotum removed. The behaviour of the ewe, treated lamb and untreated sibling where present (n = 54 were recorded for 30 minutes after treatment. Castration treatment increased the expression of abnormal standing and lying postures, specific pain-related behaviours (head-turning, stamping/kicking, easing quarters, tail wagging and composite pain scores (P<0.001 for all. The greatest expression of pain-related behaviours was shown by lambs in the RR group, which were the only group to show rolling responses indicative of severe pain, followed by the SSC group. Ewes expressed more licking/sniffing responses to the RR and SSC lambs than towards the Combined and C lambs (P<0.05, and oriented most to RR lambs and least to C lambs (P<0.001. Ewes with two lambs also directed more attention towards the treated than the untreated lamb (P<0.001. The quantity of maternal care directed towards the lamb was positively correlated with the expression of active pain behaviours. The data demonstrate that ewes are able to discriminate between lambs in pain and those that are not, and that their response is increased with a greater severity of pain.
Full Text Available The paper aims to present the main problems related to the seismic risk and housing in urban settlements in Romania, with special focus on Bucharest, which is the most exposed city. The paper emphasizes the framework related to evolution of technical regulations and seismic safety of residential buildings, highlighting the main dysfunctions in the National Program for Seismic Retrofitting. At the same time, because the collapse of a single residential building may have major negative effects on the surrounding area (buildings, streets, utilities etc., the paper is proposing a methodology for evaluation of damages which may appear in such a case. The article is also suggesting several solutions for improving the design and expertise process and also for the seismic retrofitting of vulnerable buildings, especially housing.
Aslan, Alp; John, Thomas
Previous developmental work has indicated that animacy is a foundational ontogenetic category that is given priority already early in life. Here, we investigated whether such priority is also present in children's episodic memory, examining whether young children show enhanced retention of animacy-related information. Kindergartners and younger and older elementary school children were presented with fictitious (non)words (e.g., BULA, LAFE) paired with properties characteristic of humans (e.g., "likes music"), (nonhuman) animals (e.g., "builds nests"), and inanimate things (e.g., "has four edges") and were asked to rate the animacy status of each nonword. After a retention interval, a surprise recognition test for the nonwords was administered. We found enhanced recognition of nonwords paired with human and animal properties compared with (the same) nonwords paired with inanimate properties. The size of this animacy advantage was comparable across age groups, suggesting developmental invariance of the advantage over the age range examined (i.e., 4-11years). The results support a functional-evolutionary view on memory, suggesting that already young children's memory is "tuned" to process and retain animacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ignacio Bravo A.
Full Text Available The study by Taylor et al published in June 2010 in the American Journal of Hypertension questions the effectiveness of reducing salt intake in the diet in the prevention and treatment of high blood pressure and other cardiovascular conditions. The publication of this article has lead to great controversy and medical associations and learned societies responded promptly. The response criticized the results of the meta-analysis and pointed out its methodological shortcomings. In this review we critically appraise the experimental evidence that shows the importance of diet salt intake and its role as a determinant of blood pressure. We briefly describe the paradigm that explains the role of salt intake in contributing in the regulation of blood pressure (Guyton hypothesis and model and we mention the experimental evidence that supports this. We briefly comment on the classical studies that indicate that salt intake (NaCl contributes directly to the development of high blood pressure and target tissues. Finally, we briefly mention the experimental data that is related with the controversy on the role of salt (NaCl or sodium as prohypertensive agents.
Easterly, C.E.; Jones, T.D.
Development efforts since the late 1970s have resulted in a generalized method for ranking health hazards. This method provides the basis for a wide range of applications where decisions are needed for allocating resources on the basis of health risk considerations. It has been used for more than a decade to solve real problems, and it is supported by 23 publications in the open literature. The diversity of this generalized methodology allows us to provide support in a great number of problem areas. we give four examples in this manuscript: the relative toxicities of petroleum mixtures; a method to derive Emergency Response Planning Guides; an estimate of the possible carcinogenic potency of tungsten, an alternative material to depleted uranium for heavy armor penetrators; and an approach to low dose extrapolation. Our experience suggests that many more applications of the original concept and variations on it can be of utility in military situations. Some potentially fruitful areas may be in the: development of a health-risk-ranking system for alternative solutions to manufacturing, waste management, and remediation; provision of a basis for identifying levels of hazardous agents which are below health concerns, or which should be of concern; development of a framework for evaluating chemicals and radioactive materials on the same basis, and in the development of a battery of in vitro bioassays which could take the place of long-term whole animal tests.
Isidro Juan Mirón Pérez
Full Text Available There are two principal concepts to take into account relating food and climate change: food security and food safety. Most papers linking climate change to food risks deal with the first one: the security of the food supply.The increase of the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, together with the rise of the temperatures on a global level would theorically lead to greater yields of crops grown for human and animal consumption. Howevwe, most of these studies have shown that, in general, crop yields are decreasing as this global change also brings about an increase in the frequency of extreme weather events. In adition, these weather anomalies would be unevenly spread and affect developing countries, which are less capable of tackling this change, more severely. All these factors would result in greater uncertainty in the supply of food, which consequently would be less predictable and leave it more exposed to market speculation.A rise in average temperatures would be expected to increase the risk of proliferation of foodborne disease-causing microorganisms such as Salmonella or Campylobacter. Nevertheless, a trend of this sort has not been detected yet in developed countries, where information systems allow the temporal evolution of the occurrence of those diseases to be tracked, since means for food preservation and food controls are wide spread.
Shah, Sachin J; Cronin, Patrick; Hong, Clemens S; Hwang, Andrew S; Ashburner, Jeffrey M; Bearnot, Benjamin I; Richardson, Calvin A; Fosburgh, Blair W; Kimball, Alexandra B
No-shows, or missed appointments, are a problem for many medical practices. They result in fragmented care and reduce access for all patients. To determine whether telephone reminder calls targeted to patients at high risk of no-show can reduce no-show rates. Single-center randomized controlled trial. A total of 2247 primary care patients in a hospital-based primary care clinic at high risk of no-show (>15 % risk) for their appointment in 7 days. Seven days prior to their appointment, intervention arm patients were placed in a calling queue to receive a reminder phone call from a patient service coordinator. Coordinators were trained to engage patients in concrete planning. All patients received an automated phone call (usual care). Primary outcome was no-show rate. Secondary outcomes included arrival rate, cancellation rate, reschedule rate, time to cancellation, and change in revenue. The no-show rate in the intervention arm (22.8 %) was significantly lower (absolute risk difference -6.4 %, p < 0.01, 95 % CI [-9.8 to -3.0 %]) than that in the control arm (29.2 %). Arrival, cancellation, and reschedule rates did not differ significantly. In the intervention arm, rescheduling and cancellations occurred further in advance of the appointment (mean difference, 0.35 days; 95 % CI [0.07-0.64]; p = 0.01). Reimbursement did not differ significantly. A phone call 7 days prior to an appointment led to a significant reduction in no-shows and increased reimbursement among patients at high risk of no-show. The use of targeted interventions may be of interest to practices taking on increased accountability for population health.
Aslan, Alp; Bauml, Karl-Heinz T.
Evolutionary psychologists propose that human cognition evolved through natural selection to solve adaptive problems related to survival and reproduction, with its ultimate function being the enhancement of reproductive fitness. Following this proposal and the evolutionary-developmental view that ancestral selection pressures operated not only on…
Talsma, D.; Wijers, Albertus; Klaver, Peter; Mulder, Gijsbertus
This study aimed to identify different processes in working memory, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and response times. Abstract polygons were presented for memorization and subsequent recall in a delayed matching-to-sample paradigm. Two polygons were presented bilaterally for memorization and
Talsma, D; Wijers, A.A.; Klaver, P; Mulder, G.
This study aimed to identify different processes in working memory, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and response times. Abstract polygons were presented for memorization and subsequent recall in a delayed matching-to-sample paradigm. Two polygons were presented bilaterally for memorization and
Qi-Song Yu; He-Chao Huang; Feng Ding; Xin-Bo Wang
Objective:To explore the related risk factors for pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy to provide a theoretical evidence for effectively preventing the occurrence of pancreatic fistula.Methods:A total of 100 patients who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2012 to January, 2015 and had performed pancreaticoduodenectomy were included in the study. The related risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula were collected for single factor and Logistic multi-factor analysis.Results:Among the included patients, 16 had pancreatic fistula, and the total occurrence rate was 16% (16/100). The single-factor analysis showed that the upper abdominal operation history, preoperative bilirubin, pancreatic texture, pancreatic duct diameter, intraoperative amount of bleeding, postoperative hemoglobin, and application of somatostatin after operation were the risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula (P<0.05). The multi-factor analysis showed that the upper abdominal operation history, the soft pancreatic texture, small pancreatic duct diameter, and low postoperative hemoglobin were the dependent risk factors for developing pancreatic fistula (OR=4.162, 6.104, 5.613, 4.034,P<0.05).Conclusions:The occurrence of pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy is closely associated with the upper abdominal operation history, the soft pancreatic texture, small pancreatic duct diameter, and low postoperative hemoglobin; therefore, effective measures should be taken to reduce the occurrence of pancreatic fistula according to the patients’own conditions.
Full Text Available Not so long ago, information technology (IT risk occupied a small corner of operational risk - the opportunity loss from a missed IT development deadline. Today, the success of an entire financial institution may lay on managing a broad landscape of IT risks. IT risk is a potential damage to an organization's value, resulting from inadequate managing of processes and technologies. IT risk includes the failure to respond to security and privacy requirements, as well as many other issues such as: human error, internal fraud through software manipulation, external fraud by intruders, obsolesce in applications and machines, reliability issues or mismanagement. The World Economic Forum provides best information about this problem. They rank a breakdown of critical information infrastructure among the most likely core global risks, with 10-20 % likelihood over the next 10 years and potential worldwide impact of $250 billion. Sustained investment in IT - almost $1.2 trillion or 29% of 2006 private-sector capital investment in the U.S. alone fuels growing exposure to IT risk. Greg Hughes, chief strategy officer in Symantec Corp. recently claimed "IT risk management is more than using technology to solve security problems. With proper planning and broad support, it can give an organization the confidence to innovate, using IT to outdistance competitors".
Maki, Kevin C; Phillips, Alyssa K
Both genetics and lifestyle contribute to type 2 diabetes (T2D), a condition of elevated circulating glucose induced by a collection of metabolic defects including peripheral insulin resistance, elevated hepatic glucose output, and impaired pancreatic insulin secretion. Because the prevalence of T2D and its modifiable risk factors (overweight/obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and physical inactivity) have been increasing in recent decades, there has been growing interest in lifestyle interventions that target T2D management and prevention. Although it is increasingly recognized that lifestyle interventions aimed at encouraging physical activity and reducing body weight can improve insulin sensitivity, nutritional contributions to T2D risk reduction are less clear. Evidence from prospective cohort and randomized controlled trials suggests that diets rich in refined dietary carbohydrate [particularly those with a high glycemic index (GI)] may elevate T2D risk; however, the appropriate combination of macronutrients to optimize metabolic health has not been fully described. To date, the collective evidence suggests that diets rich in low-GI carbohydrates, cereal fiber, resistant starch, fat from vegetable sources (unsaturated fat), and lean sources of protein should be emphasized, whereas refined sugars and grains (high-GI carbohydrates) are to be avoided in order to lower risk of T2D and its related risk factors and comorbidities.
De Bruijn, E; Nijmeijer, S W R; Forbes, P A; Koelman, J H T M; Van Der Helm, F C T; Tijssen, M A J; Happee, R
To identify effects of a deviant motor drive in the autospectral power of dystonic muscles during voluntary contraction in cervical dystonia patients. Submaximal (20%) isometric head-neck tasks were performed with the head fixed, measuring surface EMG of the sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis and semispinalis capitis in CD patients and controls. Autospectral power of muscle activity, and head forces was analyzed using cumulative distribution functions (CDF). A downward shift between the theta/low alpha-band (3-10Hz) and the high alpha/beta-band (10-30Hz) was detected using the CDF10, defined as the cumulative power from 3 to 10Hz relative to power from 3 to 30Hz. CDF10 was increased in dystonic muscles compared to controls and patient muscles unaffected by dystonia, due to a 3-10Hz power increase and a 10-30Hz decrease. CDF10 also increased in patient head forces. Submaximal isometric contractions with the head fixed provided a well-defined test condition minimizing effects of reflexive feedback and tremor. We associate shifts in autospectral power with prokinetic sensorimotor control. Analysis of autospectral power in isometric tasks with the head fixed is a promising approach in research and diagnostics of cervical dystonia. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ashenhurst, James R; Harden, K Paige; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim
Research using twins has found that much of the variability in externalizing phenotypes-including alcohol and drug use, impulsive personality traits, risky sex, and property crime-is explained by genetic factors. Nevertheless, identification of specific genes and variants associated with these traits has proven to be difficult, likely because individual differences in externalizing are explained by many genes of small individual effect. Moreover, twin research indicates that heritable variance in externalizing behaviors is mostly shared across the externalizing spectrum rather than specific to any behavior. We use a longitudinal, "deep phenotyping" approach to model a general externalizing factor reflecting persistent engagement in a variety of socially problematic behaviors measured at 11 assessment occasions spanning early adulthood (ages 18 to 28). In an ancestrally homogenous sample of non-Hispanic Whites (N = 337), we then tested for enrichment of associations between the persistent externalizing factor and a set of 3,281 polymorphisms within 104 genes that were previously identified as associated with alcohol-use behaviors. Next, we tested for enrichment among domain-specific factors (e.g., property crime) composed of residual variance not accounted for by the common factor. Significance was determined relative to bootstrapped empirical thresholds derived from permutations of phenotypic data. Results indicated significant enrichment of genetic associations for persistent externalizing, but not for domain-specific factors. Consistent with twin research findings, these results suggest that genetic variants are broadly associated with externalizing behaviors rather than unique to specific behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record
Castillo-Castrejon, Marisol; Meraz-Cruz, Noemí; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; Flores-Pliego, Arturo; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martín; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe
Problem Human parturition is associated with an intrauterine pro-inflammatory environment in the choriodecidua. Evidence that some mediators of this signaling cascade also elicit responses leading to labor prompted us to characterize the cellular sources of these mediators in the human choriodecidua. Method of study Leukocyte-enriched preparations from human choriodecidua (ChL) and intervillous placental blood leukocytes (PL) were maintained in culture. Secretions of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and MMP-9 were documented. Leukocyte phenotype of ChL and PL was determined by flow cytometry using specific fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies. Results and Conclusions ChL showed a distinct pro-inflammatory secretion pattern of cytokines and chemokines when compared with PL, including higher amounts of TNF-α and IL-6, and decreased secretions of IL-4 and IL-1ra. ChL also secreted more MIP-1α and MCP-1 and MMP-9 than PL. No significant differences were found in leukocytes subsets between compartments. Based on our findings, we propose that ChL isolated from fetal membranes at term are functionally different from PL and may collaborate to modulate the microenvironment linked to induction and progression of human labor. PMID:24286217
Patrick R Steffen
Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that psychotherapy participants show increased physiological responsiveness to stress. The purpose of the present study was to examine differences between individuals participating in outpatient psychotherapy and matched controls using an experimental design. Forty-two psychotherapy participants and forty-eight matched controls were assessed on cardiovascular and cortisol functioning at baseline, during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, and during a twenty-minute recovery period. Psychotherapy participants and matched controls did not differ at baseline or during the TSST on the physiological measures but psychotherapy participants had higher cortisol and heart rate during the recovery period. In regards to reactivity, cortisol increased during the recovery period for the psychotherapy participants but decreased for those in the matched control group. Psychotherapy participants experiencing clinically significant levels of distress displayed elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate during the TSST when compared to psychotherapy participants not experiencing clinically significant levels of distress. Overall, physiological reactivity to stress appears to be an important issue for those in psychotherapy and directly addressing this issue may help improve psychotherapy outcomes.
de Sousa Abreu, Raquel; Sanchez-Diaz, Patricia C; Vogel, Christine; Burns, Suzanne C; Ko, Daijin; Burton, Tarea L; Vo, Dat T; Chennasamudaram, Soudhamini; Le, Shu-Yun; Shapiro, Bruce A; Penalva, Luiz O F
Musashi1 (Msi1) is a highly conserved RNA-binding protein with pivotal functions in stem cell maintenance, nervous system development, and tumorigenesis. Despite its importance, only three direct mRNA targets have been characterized so far: m-numb, CDKN1A, and c-mos. Msi1 has been shown to affect their translation by binding to short elements located in the 3'-untranslated region. To better understand Msi1 functions, we initially performed an RIP-Chip analysis in HEK293T cells; this method consists of isolation of specific RNA-protein complexes followed by identification of the RNA component via microarrays. A group of 64 mRNAs was found to be enriched in the Msi1-associated population compared with controls. These genes belong to two main functional categories pertinent to tumorigenesis: 1) cell cycle, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis and 2) protein modification (including ubiquitination and ubiquitin cycle). To corroborate our findings, we examined the impact of Msi1 expression on both mRNA (transcriptomic) and protein (proteomic) expression levels. Genes whose mRNA levels were affected by Msi1 expression have a Gene Ontology distribution similar to RIP-Chip results, reinforcing Msi1 participation in cancer-related processes. The proteomics study revealed that Msi1 can have either positive or negative effects on gene expression of its direct targets. In summary, our results indicate that Msi1 affects a network of genes and could function as a master regulator during development and tumor formation.
Andersen, Jens Kirk; Nørrung, Birgit; da Costa Alves Machado, Simone
criteria. The approach requires the availability of a quantitative microbiological risk assessment model to get risk estimates for food products from sampled food lots. By relating these food lot risk estimates to the mean risk estimate associated to a representative baseline data set, a relative risk......A risk-based microbiological criterion is described, that is based on the relative risk associated to the analytical result of a number of samples taken from a food lot. The acceptable limit is a specific level of risk and not a specific number of microorganisms, as in other microbiological...... estimate can be obtained. This relative risk estimate then can be compared with a critical value, defined by the criterion. This microbiological criterion based on a relative risk limit is particularly useful when quantitative enumeration data are available and when the prevalence of the microorganism...
Evans, Jacquelyn M.; Hill, Cody M.; Anderson, Kendall J.
Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a chronic inflammatory myopathy and vasculopathy driven by genetic and environmental influences. Here, we investigated the genetic underpinnings of an analogous, spontaneous disease of dogs also termed dermatomyositis (DMS). As in JDM, we observed a significant association with a haplotype of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (DLA-DRB1*002:01/-DQA1*009:01/-DQB1*001:01), particularly in homozygosity (P-val = 0.0001). However, the high incidence of the haplotype among healthy dogs indicated that additional genetic risk factors are likely involved in disease progression. We conducted genome-wide association studies in two modern breeds having common ancestry and detected strong associations with novel loci on canine chromosomes 10 (P-val = 2.3X10-12) and 31 (P-val = 3.95X10-8). Through whole genome resequencing, we identified primary candidate polymorphisms in conserved regions of PAN2 (encoding p.Arg492Cys) and MAP3K7CL (c.383_392ACTCCACAAA>GACT) on chromosomes 10 and 31, respectively. Analyses of these polymorphisms and the MHC haplotypes revealed that nine of 27 genotypic combinations confer high or moderate probability of disease and explain 93% of cases studied. The pattern of disease risk across PAN2 and MAP3K7CL genotypes provided clear evidence for a significant epistatic foundation for this disease, a risk further impacted by MHC haplotypes. We also observed a genotype-phenotype correlation wherein an earlier age of onset is correlated with an increased number of risk alleles at PAN2 and MAP3K7CL. High frequencies of multiple genetic risk factors are unique to affected breeds and likely arose coincident with artificial selection for desirable phenotypes. Described herein is the first three-locus association with a complex canine disease and two novel loci that provide targets for exploration in JDM and related immunological dysfunction. PMID:28158183
Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Saar, Meeli; Tafeit, Erwin; Kaimbacher, Petra; Kruschitz, Renate; Weghuber, Daniel; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Mangge, Harald
Objective. Risk phenotypes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ markedly between countries, like the reported high difference in CVD mortality in Austria and Estonia. Hitherto, the goal of this study was to find out risk profiles in body fat distribution yet present in childhood, paving the way for later clinical end points. Methods. he subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) distribution patterns in 553 Austrian (A) and Estonian (E) clinically healthy normal weight boys aged 11.1 (±0.8) years were analysed. We applied the patented optical device Lipometer which determines the individual subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Results. Total body fat did not differ significantly between E and A boys. A discriminant analysis using all Lipometer data, BMI, and the total body fat (TBF) yielded 84.6% of the boys correctly classified in Estonians and Austrians by 9 body sites. A factor analysis identified the SAT distribution of E as critically similar to male adult patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Conclusions. We show in normal weight Estonian boys a highly significant decreased fat accumulation on the lower body site compared to age matched Austrian males. This SAT-Top phenotype may play an important role for the increased cardiovascular risk seen in the Estonian population.
Ádám, Balázs; Gulis, Gabriel
their relationship. The experiences accumulated during the preparation of several case studies in a large scale international project (RAPID) are used for argumentation and formulation of recommendations on how risk assessment can be systematically integrated into the HIA process. Risk assessment uses well...... than assessing a present situation. As part of this process, however, methods applied in risk assessment are used. Risk assessment typically characterises relation of a well-defined risk factor to a well-defined health outcome. Within HIA usually several individual risk assessments are needed...... in the risk appraisal phase to describe effects of various factors on different health outcomes. Consequently, HIA is typically led by a large, preferably intersectoral steering group with representatives of communities at risk. Risk assessment, in contrary, is mainly a licensed scientific process completed...
Mihaela-Daciana BOLOS; Bradut-Vasile BOLOS
We explore issues related to trademarks, from accounting recognition perspective. The research is a conceptual exploration emphasizing some issues on intellectual property interferences with accounting and some aspects that should be considered in auditpractice
The rapid increase in mobile telephone use has generated concern about possible health risks related to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from this technology.......The rapid increase in mobile telephone use has generated concern about possible health risks related to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from this technology....
Ismail, B; Teng, I L; Muhammad Samudi, Y
In Malaysia technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) wastes are mainly the product of the oil and gas industry and mineral processing. Among these TENORM wastes are tin tailing, tin slag, gypsum and oil sludge. Mineral processing and oil and gas industries produce large volume of TENORM wastes that has become a radiological concern to the authorities. A study was carried out to assess the radiological risk related to workers working at these disposal sites and landfills as well as to the members of the public should these areas be developed for future land use. Radiological risk was assessed based on the magnitude of radiation hazard, effective dose rates and excess cancer risks. Effective dose rates and excess cancer risks were estimated using RESRAD 6.4 computer code. All data on the activity concentrations of NORM in wastes and sludges used in this study were obtained from the Atomic Energy Licensing Board, Malaysia, and they were collected over a period of between 5 and 10 y. Results obtained showed that there was a wide range in the total activity concentrations (TAC) of nuclides in the TENORM wastes. With the exception of tin slag and tin tailing-based TENORM wastes, all other TENORM wastes have TAC values comparable to that of Malaysia's soil. Occupational Effective Dose Rates estimated in all landfill areas were lower than the 20 mSv y(-1) permissible dose limit. The average Excess Cancer Risk Coefficient was estimated to be 2.77×10(-3) risk per mSv. The effective dose rates for residents living on gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes landfills were estimated to be lower than the permissible dose limit for members of the public, and was also comparable to that of the average Malaysia's ordinary soils. The average excess cancer risk coefficient was estimated to be 3.19×10(-3) risk per mSv. Results obtained suggest that gypsum and oil sludge-based TENORM wastes should be exempted from any radiological regulatory
Boxer, Paul; Goldstein, Sara E; DeLorenzo, Tahlia; Savoy, Sarah; Mercado, Ignacio
This study examines whether disconnection between educational aspirations and expectations is associated with socioeconomic status, academic performance, academic risk-related behaviors and related psychosocial factors in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of early adolescents from a public middle school (N = 761). Results suggest that students who aspire to achieve more than they expect to achieve also are likely to have more economically disadvantaged backgrounds and poorer academic performance. These students also show a variety of academic and social risks. Specifically, students whose aspirations exceeded their expectations reported lower levels of school bonding, higher levels of test/performance anxiety, and elevated behavioral/emotional difficulties. Results are discussed in terms of social-cognitive theory as well as applications for promoting student social and academic success.
Full Text Available Abstract The article analyses the effect of two ambient scents (peppermint and vanilla and their intensiveness on risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Purpose of the article: The purpose of this article is to identify the relationship of ambient scent type and intensiveness with risk related behaviour that is expressed through selected decision making heuristics. Methodology/methods: 2x2 factorial experiment with control group was run. Ambient scent type (vanilla vs. peppermint and intensiveness (8 (1mg vs. 16 sprays (2mg of scent concentrate in the same room were manipulated as between subject variables. Risk aversion, effect of anchoring heuristic on bidding, and affect (risk and benefit heuristics were tracked as dependent variables. Scientific aim: To identify whether ambient scent type and intensiveness have effect on risk related behaviour. Findings: Evidence suggests that there are effects of ambient scent on risk related behaviour, thus fulfilling the missing gap to relate ambient environment to decision making heuristics when risks are involved. However, not all heuristics were affected by experimental conditions. Subjects were bidding significantly higher amounts under low anchor conditions, when peppermint scent was around (if compared to vanilla group. Affect risk was perceived as lower in peppermint ambient scent conditions, if compared to the control group. Intensity of ambient scent also had influence on affect risk: subjects perceived less risk under high scent intensity conditions. Conclusions: By manipulating ambient scent, marketers may reduce or increase consumers risk perception and behaviour and as a consequence influence their purchase decisions. Marketers could use peppermint scent in high intensiveness in the situations where they want consumers to undertake higher risks (expensive purchases, gambling, insurance, since stakes were higher under peppermint ambient scent
context of this paradiagm in order to estimate "toxic equivalency factors" for the class of materials known as dioxins . The many dioxin congeners are...the toxic equivalent factor (our relative potency) concept as promulgated by the EPA for congeners of PCBs, dioxins and furans represents a...these ideas. In the conceptual approach, the biomarkers in the table are used to "translate" the data fiom higher dose animal and human data to the
The values of pneumoconiosis risk in welders calculated against the dust doses that induce this pathology do not show linear relationship. In the group of electrical welders, relative risk (RR) was found statistically significant at the doses of 251-500 g; 1001-1500 g and 5501-6000 g. In the group of semi-automatic welders, similar results were observed. Odd ratio, calculated at workposts of semi-automatic welding with CO2 shield, showed that, depending on the size of a daily dose of dust, statistically significant RR was found at the doses of 1.6-2.0; 2.1-2.5; and 2.6-3.0 mg/kg/day. In the group of electric welders, statistically significant RR was observed at the doses of 2.1-2.5; 6.1-6.5; and 9.1-9.5 mg/kg/day. This may suggest that welding dust at workposts of semi-automatic welding is more aggressive. The division of welders by their dates of birth showed that in the group of welders born by 1945, the mean age at which they developed pneumoconiosis was almost 50 +/- 0.4 years, and the mean duration of occupational exposure was 25 +/- 0.3 years. In the group of welders born after 1945, these values were 36 +/- 0.6 years and 12.8 +/- 0.2 years, respectively.
Elschot, Mattijs; Selnæs, Kirsten M; Sandsmark, Elise; Krüger-Stokke, Brage; Størkersen, Øystein; Giskeødegård, Guro F; Tessem, May-Britt; Moestue, Siver A; Bertilsson, Helena; Bathen, Tone F
The objective of this study is to investigate if quantitative imaging features derived from combined (18)F-Fluciclovine Positron Emission Tomograpy (PET) / multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) show potential for detection and characterization of primary prostate cancer. Methods: Twenty-eight (28) patients diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer underwent simultaneous (18)F-Fluciclovine PET/MRI before radical prostatectomy. Volumes-of-interest (VOIs) of prostate tumors, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) nodules, prostatitis, and healthy tissue were delineated on T2-weighted images using histology as a reference. Tumor VOIs were marked as high-grade (≥ Gleason Grade group 3) or not. MRI and PET features were extracted on the voxel and VOI-level. Partial least-squared discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) with double leave-one-patient-out cross validation was performed to classify tumor from benign tissue (BPH, prostatitis, healthy tissue) and high-grade tumor from other tissue (low-grade tumor, benign tissue). The performances of PET, MRI, and combined PET/MRI features were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: Voxel and VOI features were extracted from 40 tumor (26 high-grade), 36 BPH, 6 prostatitis, and 37 healthy tissue VOIs. PET/MRI performed better than MRI and PET for classification of tumor vs benign tissue (voxel: AUC 87%, 81%, and 83%; VOI: AUC 96%, 93%, and 93%, respectively) and high-grade tumor vs other tissue (voxel: AUC 85%, 79%, and 81%; VOI: AUC 93%, 93%, and 91%, respectively). T2-weighted MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI and PET features were most important for classification. Conclusion: Combined (18)F-Fluciclovine PET/multiparametric MRI shows potential for improving detection and characterization of high-risk prostate cancer, in comparison to MRI and PET alone. Copyright © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.
Living in a technological society with large energy requirements involves a number of related actities with attendant health risks, both to the working and to the general public. Therefore, the formulation of some general principles for risk acceptance is necessary. In addition to maximizing benefits and minimizing risk, relevant considerations must be made about the perception of risk as voluntary or involuntary, the number of persons collectively at risk at any one occasion, and the extent to which a risk is a familiar one. With regard to a given benefit, such as a given amount of energy, comparisons of the risks of alternate modes of production may be utilized. However, cost-benefit consideration is essential to the amelioration of current or prospective risks. This is unusual, since it is based on some estimate of the monetary value per premature death averted. It is proposed that increased longevity would be a more satisfactory measure. On a societal basis, large expenditures for additional energy-related pollution control do not appear justifiable since much larger, nonenergy-related health risks are relatively underaddressed. Knowledgeable health professionals could benefit the public by imparting authoritative information in this area.
A' Tifah Jaffar, Nur; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd
This review examines the evidence of the occurrence of risk exposure on work-related lower back disorders in the workplace. This review also investigates potential interactions between the risk factors in the workplace which include heavy physical work risk factor, static work postures risk factor, frequent bending and twisting risk factor, lifting risk factor, pushing and pulling risk factor, repetitive work risk factor, vibration risk factor, psychological and psychosocial risk factor that may be associated with symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders of lower back. These risk factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or social factors. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching using databases and the searching strategy was used combined keyword for risk factors, work-related lower back disorders, heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting, pushing and pulling, repetitive work, vibration, psychological and psychosocial risk factor. A total of 67 articles were identified and reviewed. The risk factors identified that related for low back disorder are seven which are heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting, pushing and pulling, repetitive work, vibration, psychological and psychosocial risk factor and the level of evidence supporting the relationship with lower back disorders also described such as strong, moderate, insufficient, limited and no evidence. This result confirms that, existing of higher physical and psychosocial demand related to reported risk factors of low back disorders. The result also showed that previous reviews had evaluated relationship between risk factors of low back disorders and specific types of musculoskeletal disorders. This review also highlights the scarves evidence regarding some of the frequently reported risk factors for work related lower back disorders.
Glöckner, Andreas; Hilbig, Benjamin E
Previous findings concerning the relation of risk aversion and cooperation in repeated prisoner's dilemma games have been inconclusive. We hypothesized that this was due to an interaction between personality and environment. Specifically, we argued that in cooperation-friendly environments--given certain beliefs--defection is more risky than cooperation. The main reason for this is that, in such a situation, defection potentially yields outcomes of higher variance (and vice versa, for cooperation-unfriendly environments). In line with this hypothesis, we showed, in two experiments and a reanalysis of a study by Fudenberg, Rand, and Dreber (American Economic Review, in press), that the degree of cooperation increases with dispositional risk aversion in cooperation-friendly environments, but not in cooperation-unfriendly environments. We also found similar person-situation interactions for neuroticism and extraversion.
Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen
In this study the dynamics of risk perceptions related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) held by Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers were evaluated. Since the first domestic case of BSE in 2003, Canadian consumers and cow-calf producers have needed to make decisions on whether or not their purchasing/production behavior should change. Such changes in their behavior may relate to their levels of risk perceptions about BSE, risk perceptions that may be evolving over time and be affected by BSE media information available. An econometric analysis of the behavior of consumers and cow-calf producers might identify the impacts of evolving BSE risk perceptions. Risk perceptions related to BSE are evaluated through observed market behavior, an approach that differs from traditional stated preference approaches to eliciting risk perceptions at a particular point in time. BSE risk perceptions may be specified following a Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) derived from sociology, psychology, and economics. Based on the SARF, various quality and quantity indices related to BSE media information are used as explanatory variables in risk perception equations. Risk perceptions are approximated using a predictive difference approach as defined by Liu et al. (1998). Results showed that Canadian consumer and cow-calf producer risk perceptions related to BSE have been amplified or attenuated by both quantity and quality of BSE media information. Government policies on risk communications need to address the different roles of BSE information in Canadian consumers' and cow-calf producers' behavior.
Tayal, S C; Rashid, S; Muttu, K M; Hildreth, A J
A retrospective analysis was done to examine whether sexual behaviour was associated with meningococcal carriage. Over the 4 month period from January to April 1994, 136 (27.4%) of the 496 consecutive new/re-registered genito-urinary medicine clinic attenders showed meningococcal carriage. Two (15.4%) of 13 homosexual men compared with 134 (27.7%) of 484 heterosexual men and women had evidence of meningococcal carriage. Relative risk (RR) of meningococcal carriage was 1.8 with > 10 lifetime partners and 1.2 with 3-10 partners (P < 0.007). RR with age group of 16-25 was 4.2 and for 26-35 it was 3.5. There was no relationship with meningococcal carriage and pharyngeal symptoms, sexual orientation, intravenous drug use, number of partners per month and orogenital sex. Further longitudinal studies may be of value in order to determine whether a high number of sexual partners is a marker for meningococcal carriage. In addition, further study may show whether there is an increased risk of meningococcal carriage and disease in those who live with meningococcal carriers.
Nordfjærn, Trond; Rundmo, Torbjørn
There is insufficient knowledge regarding the role of personality traits, transport-related risk cognitions and safety motivation for demand for transport risk mitigation. The aim of this study is to test a model aimed to predict public demand for transport risk mitigation by these psychological risk constructs. A mailed self-completion questionnaire survey was conducted in a random sample of the Norwegian population aged 18–65 years obtained from the Norwegian population registry (n...
Sørensen, Rikke; Olesen, Jonas B; Charlot, Mette;
Antithrombotic therapy is a cornerstone of treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease with bleeding being the most feared complication. This review describes the risk of bleeding related to different combinations of antithrombotic drugs used for cardiovascular disease: acute coronary...
Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin; Iyengar, Sudha K; Wang, Jie Jin
Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the United States and often coexists with chronic kidney disease. Both conditions share common genetic and environmental risk factors. A total of 1183 participants aged 54+ were examined in the population-based, prospective cohort Blue Mountains Eye Study (Australia) to determine if chronic kidney disease increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Moderate chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerul...
Pyenson, Bruce S; Sander, Marcia S; Jiang, Yiding; Kahn, Howard; Mulshine, James L
Lung cancer screening is not established as a public health practice, yet the results of a recent large randomized controlled trial showed that screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography reduces lung cancer mortality. Using actuarial models, this study estimated the costs and benefits of annual lung cancer screening offered as a commercial insurance benefit in the high-risk US population ages 50-64. Assuming current commercial reimbursement rates for treatment, we found that screening would cost about $1 per insured member per month in 2012 dollars. The cost per life-year saved would be below $19,000, an amount that compares favorably with screening for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancers. Our results suggest that commercial insurers should consider lung cancer screening of high-risk individuals to be high-value coverage and provide it as a benefit to people who are at least fifty years old and have a smoking history of thirty pack-years or more. We also believe that payers and patients should demand screening from high-quality, low-cost providers, thus helping set an example of efficient system innovation.
Previous chapters of this review have dealt with the key considerations related to the application of biotechnology in veterinary science and animal production. This article explores the theory and practice of risk communication and sets out the basic principles for good risk communication when dealing with new technologies, uncertainty, and cautious and sceptical consumers. After failure to communicate with consumers and stakeholders about the risk to human health from bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the 1990s, Government Agencies in the United Kingdom have made significant improvements in risk communication. The official inquiry that followed the BSE crisis concluded that a policy of openness was the correct approach, and this article emphasises the importance of consultation, consistency and transparency. There are, however, many different factors that affect public perception of risk (religious, political, social, cultural, etc.) and developing effective risk communication strategies must take all of these complex issues into consideration.
An increased blood concentration of triglycerides (TG) has long been recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Through competition from HDL cholesterol and the arrival of statin treatment for high LDL cholesterol the importance of TG as risk factor was largely forgotten. A high concentration of TG indicates high blood levels of TG-rich lipoproteins including cholesterol rich remnant particles. Studies using Mendelian randomizations have demonstrated that a low HDL cholesterol does not carry a direct atherogenic function and that remnant particles do so. New efforts should be exercised in order to diminish residual cardiovascular risk during statin treatment through decreasing TG rich lipoproteins.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impaired glucose metabolism has been linked with increased cancer risk, but the association between serum glucose and cancer risk remains unclear. We used repeated measurements of glucose and fructosamine to get more insight into the association between the glucose metabolism and risk of cancer. METHODS: We selected 11,998 persons (>20 years old with four prospectively collected serum glucose and fructosamine measurements from the Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS study. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess standardized log of overall mean glucose and fructosamine in relation to cancer risk. Similar analyses were performed for tertiles of glucose and fructosamine and for different types of cancer. RESULTS: A positive trend was observed between standardized log overall mean glucose and overall cancer risk (HR= 1.08; 95% CI: 1.02-1.14. Including standardized log fructosamine in the model resulted in a stronger association between glucose and cancer risk and aninverse association between fructosamine and cancer risk (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.08-1.26 and HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.82-0.96, respectively. Cancer risks were highest among those in the highest tertile of glucose and lowest tertile of fructosamine. Similar findings were observed for prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer while none observed for breast cancer. CONCLUSION: The contrasting effect between glucose, fructosamine, and cancer risk suggests the existence of distinct groups among those with impaired glucose metabolism, resulting in different cancer risks based on individual metabolic profiles. Further studies are needed to clarify whether glucose is a proxy of other lifestyle-related or metabolic factors.
Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Holmberg, Lars; Garmo, Hans; Zethelius, Björn; Wigertz, Annette; Carroll, Paul; Lambe, Mats; Hammar, Niklas; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke
Impaired glucose metabolism has been linked with increased cancer risk, but the association between serum glucose and cancer risk remains unclear. We used repeated measurements of glucose and fructosamine to get more insight into the association between the glucose metabolism and risk of cancer. We selected 11,998 persons (>20 years old) with four prospectively collected serum glucose and fructosamine measurements from the Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS) study. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess standardized log of overall mean glucose and fructosamine in relation to cancer risk. Similar analyses were performed for tertiles of glucose and fructosamine and for different types of cancer. A positive trend was observed between standardized log overall mean glucose and overall cancer risk (HR= 1.08; 95% CI: 1.02-1.14). Including standardized log fructosamine in the model resulted in a stronger association between glucose and cancer risk and aninverse association between fructosamine and cancer risk (HR = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.08-1.26 and HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.82-0.96, respectively). Cancer risks were highest among those in the highest tertile of glucose and lowest tertile of fructosamine. Similar findings were observed for prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer while none observed for breast cancer. The contrasting effect between glucose, fructosamine, and cancer risk suggests the existence of distinct groups among those with impaired glucose metabolism, resulting in different cancer risks based on individual metabolic profiles. Further studies are needed to clarify whether glucose is a proxy of other lifestyle-related or metabolic factors.
Full Text Available A 74-year-old man was hospitalized for diabetic nephropathy evaluation and assessment of the effect of treatment on his tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN. When he was 62 years old, he developed polyarthralgia and had superficial lymph node swelling, mildly increased serum creatinine concentration, hypergammaglobulinemia, hypocomplementemia, high serum IL-2R level, and positive titer of antinuclear antibody. Several tissues were biopsied. Mild chronic sialadenitis and reactive lymphadenitis were identified. Renal specimen showed mild glomerular ischemia, extensive storiform fibrosis, and abundant infiltrating monocytes and plasma cells. He was treated with oral prednisolone and cyclophosphamide. After the treatment, most of his clinical parameters quickly returned to within the reference range. However, he developed diabetes mellitus soon after steroid therapy. At the time of rebiopsy, a high level of serum IgG4 was detected. The second renal biopsy showed diabetic nephropathy without any tubulointerstitial damage. The first biopsied tissues were retrospectively investigated. Large numbers of IgG4-positive plasma cells were detected in the kidneys and lymph nodes. A retrospective diagnosis of IgG4-related TIN with lymph node involvement was made. In conclusion, this paper describes a retrospectively diagnosed case of IgG4-related TIN with lymph node involvement, showing good clinical and pathological prognosis.
Full Text Available to estimated risks. Thus, the present study aimed at determining the public health risk associated with exposure to pathogenic bacteria in polluted river water under undisturbed conditions and conditions of sediment resuspension in the Apies River, Gauteng...
Full Text Available The shipworm, Teredo navalis, is absent from most of the Baltic Sea. In the last 20 years, increased frequency of T. navalis has been reported along the southern Baltic Sea coasts of Denmark, Germany, and Sweden, indicating possible range-extensions into previously unoccupied areas. We evaluated the effects of historical and projected near-future changes in salinity, temperature, and oxygen on the risk of spread of T. navalis in the Baltic. Specifically, we developed a simple, GIS-based, mechanistic climate envelope model to predict the spatial distribution of favourable conditions for adult reproduction and larval metamorphosis of T. navalis, based on published environmental tolerances to these factors. In addition, we used a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrographic model to simulate the probability of spread of T. navalis larvae within the study area. Climate envelope modeling showed that projected near-future climate change is not likely to change the overall distribution of T. navalis in the region, but will prolong the breeding season and increase the risk of shipworm establishment at the margins of the current range. Dispersal simulations indicated that the majority of larvae were philopatric, but those that spread over a wider area typically spread to areas unfavourable for their survival. Overall, therefore, we found no substantive evidence for climate-change related shifts in the distribution of T. navalis in the Baltic Sea, and no evidence for increased risk of spread in the near-future.
This article discusses the cultural consequences of discourses and practices aimed at training subjects for a rational, informed choice in relation to risks, calculated on the basis of scientific knowledge. The epidemiological risk concept is a central element in this process, especially in the context of health practices. The article begins by briefly characterizing the epidemiological risk concept, emphasizing that as an abstract model, it reduces the complexity of the phenomena it studies. Grasping reality through this abstraction generates values and meanings. Canguilhem's reflection on the relations between science, technique, and life is further discussed from the perspective of deepening an understanding of the cultural consequences of this process, contributing to the transformation of classical concepts of individuality, autonomy, and sociability. Such vital themes as individuality, alterity, and the relationship with death are present (albeit disguised) in issues that involve the central nature of risk in the contemporary world.
Volpe, Lane E; Ball, Helen L; McKenna, James J
A large social science and public health literature addresses infant sleep safety, with implications for infant mortality in the context of accidental deaths and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). As part of risk reduction campaigns in the USA, parents are encouraged to place infants supine and to alter infant bedding and elements of the sleep environment, and are discouraged from allowing infants to sleep unsupervised, from bed-sharing either at all or under specific circumstances, or from sofa-sharing. These recommendations are based on findings from large-scale epidemiological studies that generate odds ratios or relative risk statistics for various practices; however, detailed behavioural data on nighttime parenting and infant sleep environments are limited. To address this issue, this paper presents and discusses the implications of four case studies based on overnight observations conducted with first-time mothers and their four-month old infants. These case studies were collected at the Mother-Baby Behavioral Sleep Lab at the University of Notre Dame USA between September 2002 and June 2004. Each case study provides a detailed description based on video analysis of sleep-related risks observed while mother-infant dyads spent the night in a sleep lab. The case studies provide examples of mothers engaged in the strategic management of nighttime parenting for whom sleep-related risks to infants arose as a result of these strategies. Although risk reduction guidelines focus on eliminating potentially risky infant sleep practices as if the probability of death from each were equal, the majority of instances in which these occur are unlikely to result in infant mortality. Therefore, we hypothesise that mothers assess potential costs and benefits within margins of risk which are not acknowledged by risk-reduction campaigns. Exploring why mothers might choose to manage sleep and nighttime parenting in ways that appear to increase potential risks to infants may
Tian, Yan; Yoo, Jina H
This study investigates audience responses to health-related reality TV shows in the setting of The Biggest Loser. It conceptualizes a model for audience members' parasocial interaction and identification with cast members and explores antecedents and outcomes of parasocial interaction and identification. Data analysis suggests the following direct relationships: (1) audience members' exposure to the show is positively associated with parasocial interaction, which in turn is positively associated with identification, (2) parasocial interaction is positively associated with exercise self-efficacy, whereas identification is negatively associated with exercise self-efficacy, and (3) exercise self-efficacy is positively associated with exercise behavior. Indirect effects of parasocial interaction and identification on exercise self-efficacy and exercise behavior are also significant. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
Bakhuizen, Sabine E; de Haan, Timo R; Teune, Margreet J; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; van der Heyden, Jantien L; van der Ham, David P; Mol, Ben Willem J
Infants suffering from neonatal sepsis face an increased risk of early death and long-term neurodevelopmental delay. This paper analyses and summarises the existing data on short-term and long-term outcomes of neonatal sepsis, based on 12 studies published between January 2000 and 1 April 2012 and covering 3669 neonates with sepsis. Infants who have suffered neonatal sepsis face an increased risk of mortality and severe complications such as brain damage and, or, neurodevelopmental delay. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available When individuals get older, the risk of many chronic diseases increases. This increase is in agreement with common theories of aging, such as mutation accumulation, wear and tear, antagonistic pleiotropy, etc. Surprisingly, however, the risk of some chronic conditions (e.g. asthma, arterial hypertension declines in the old. The cancer incidence rate also declines at old ages after a steep increase during adult life. It contrasts with the continuing increase in total mortality that is often referred to as the aging process. Which forces contribute to a decline in cancer risk in the old? In this paper we review evidence from experimental biology, illustrating the ambivalent role of individual aging in cancer risk, in particular in forming non-monotonic age-patterns of cancer incidence rate. We show that age-associated changes in the organism may contribute not only to the rise, but also to the deceleration and the decline in cancer risk at old ages.
Golpe, Sandra; Isorna, Manuel; Barreiro, Carmen; Braña, Teresa; Rial, Antonio
According to the last Survey on Drug Use among Secondary School Students (ESTUDES 2014-2015), consumption levels of alcohol and other substances have decreased in the last years in Spain. However, available data on binge drinking remain worrying, given the negative consequences related with this pattern. The aim of this paper is to analyse binge drinking among adolescents, providing updated data on prevalence in addition to information about the consequences and some predictive factors of binge drinking. A correlational method was used for this purpose, comprised of administering a survey to Compulsory Secondary School, High School and Vocational Training students. Based on a sample of 3,419 Galician adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 14.57; SD = 1.76), the results show that binge drinking is a common and global practice, with few socio-demographic differences but related with a wide range of risk practices. Furthermore, variables such as consumption expectancies, consumption by family and friends, as well as curfew time and allowance money have been identified as interesting predictive factors that should be taken into account at the preventive level.
Wang, S; Ni, Y; Guo, F; Sun, Z; Ahmed, A; Zhao, R
The serotonin system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis play important roles in modulating fear and stress-coping characteristics. Tonic immobility (TI) is a fear-related phenotype, and previously we have shown that broiler chickens showing short TI (STI) duration experience better growth performance and higher adaptability to stress. Here, we sought to further elucidate the central mechanisms underlying the phenotypic differences between chickens showing STI and long TI duration, by comparing the hypothalamic expression of genes in the serotonergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis under basal and corticosterone-exposed situations. The STI broilers had significantly lower (P chickens at the level of both mRNA (P chickens, but the protein content was approximately 2 times higher (P chickens. The uncoupled expression of GR mRNA and protein was associated with significantly lower (P chickens. Corticosterone administration reduced the mRNA expression of postsynaptic serotonin receptors, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1B (P = 0.059) and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7 (P stress-related genes.
Jessica Berman; 阿萌
@@ A diet rich in garlic(大蒜), onions(洋葱), shallots(青葱), leeks(韭葱) and scallions(韭菜) may cut the risk of prostate (前列腺的) cancer. That is according to a new study by researchers at the U.S. National Cancer Institute.
Griva, Fay; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Potamianos, Gregory
The present study explored the relation of time perspective to perceived risk for breast cancer and mammography screening. Women free from breast cancer (N = 194), eligible for mammography screening in terms of age, completed the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999) and measures of perceived risk, attitude toward performing mammography screening, intention to get a mammogram, and mammography screening behavior. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that perceived risk of breast cancer (β= .18, p < .01) and intention to be screened (β = .35, p < .01) were significantly associated with mammography screening, after controlling for the effects of sociodemographic (e.g., age, education, and economic level) and health-related variables (e.g., family history of breast cancer and previous benign breast disease). Path analyses including the main psychological variables indicated that perceived risk was indirectly related to intention via attitude (β = .17, p < .01), and to mammography screening through attitude and intention (β = .06, p < .01). Attitude was indirectly related to mammography screening via intention (β = .20, p < .01). Also, a significant indirect association was observed between future orientation and mammography screening, via perceived risk (β = .10, p < .01). Theoretical implications of study findings and suggestions for future research on use of mammography are presented.
Roy, Amanda L; Raver, C Cybele
Using cumulative risk and latent class analysis (LCA) models, we examined how exposure to deep poverty (income-to-needs ratio poverty-related risks (i.e., single-parent household, residential crowding, caregiver depression, and multiple life stressors) in preschool is related to children's future difficulty in school in a longitudinal sample of 602 Head Start-enrolled, low-income families. Results from the LCA revealed 4 risk profiles: low risk, deep poverty and single, single and stressed, and deep poverty and crowded household. Tests of measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups established that, although patterns of risk are similar across groups (i.e., risks covary in the same way), the prevalence of risk profiles differs. African American families were overrepresented in the "deep poverty and single" profile while Latino and White families were overrepresented in the "deep poverty and crowded" profile. Finally, children's third grade functioning in 3 domains (i.e., academic performance, behavior problems, and self-regulatory skills) was predicted using a cumulative risk index and LCA-identified risk profiles. Both approaches demonstrated that children who experienced higher levels of risk in preschool had worse school performance than children with low levels of risk. However, LCA also revealed that children who experienced "single and stressed" family settings had more behavior problems than low-risk children while children who experienced "deep poverty and crowded" family settings had worse academic performance. The results indicate that all risks are not equal for children's development and highlight the utility of LCA for tailoring intervention efforts to best meet the needs of target populations.
MIN LIU; WAN-NIAN LIANG; QI CHEN; XUE-QIN XIE; JIANG WU; XIONG HE; ZE-JUN LIU
Objective To study the potential risk factors for severe acute respiratory syndromes (SARS)-related deaths in Beijing. Methods Epidemiological data were collected among the confirmed SARS patients officially reported by Beijing Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (BCDC), and information was also supplemented by a follow-up case survey. Chi-square test and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Old age (over 60 years) was found to be significantly associated with SARS-related deaths in the univariate analysis. Also, history of contacting SARS patients within 2 weeks prior to the onset of illness, health occupation, and inferior hospital ranking as well as longer interval of clinic consulting (longer than 1 day) were the risk factors for SARS-related deaths. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis found four risk factors for SARS-related deaths. Conclusion Old age (over 60 years) is the major risk factor for SARS-related deaths.Moreover, hospital health workers, the designated hospitals for SARS clinical services and the interval of consulting doctors (less than 1 day) are protective factors for surviving from SARS.
Zhang, Xiuying; Zhong, Taiyang; Chen, Dongmei; Cheng, Min; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Xiaomin; Li, Xinhui
Arsenic (As) is a major global environmental pollutant due to its high toxicity on human and animal health. This study collected 427 relevant papers to study As concentrations in Chinese arable soil and evaluate the health risk of exposure to As for humans. Results showed that the average of As concentration was 9.46 mg/kg in Chinese arable soil. Soil As concentrations in Hunan Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region posed high carcinogenic and non-cancer risks on human health through diet, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangdong, and Xinjiang provinces had relative high health risks, while As concentrations in the other provinces posed low health risks on humans. The physical factors controlled the spatial pattern of health risk on a provincial scale, but the As-related human activities introduced high health risk on people, particularly the agricultural activities such as sewage irrigation and fertilizer application should be given more attention due to its large area.
Kemppainen, Kaisa M; Ardissone, Alexandria N; Davis-Richardson, Austin G; Fagen, Jennie R; Gano, Kelsey A; León-Novelo, Luis G; Vehik, Kendra; Casella, George; Simell, Olli; Ziegler, Anette G; Rewers, Marian J; Lernmark, Åke; Hagopian, William; She, Jin-Xiong; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Akolkar, Beena; Schatz, Desmond A; Atkinson, Mark A; Triplett, Eric W
Gut microbiome dysbiosis is associated with numerous diseases, including type 1 diabetes. This pilot study determines how geographical location affects the microbiome of infants at high risk for type 1 diabetes in a population of homogenous HLA class II genotypes. High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing was performed on stool samples collected from 90 high-risk, nonautoimmune infants participating in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study in the U.S., Germany, Sweden, and Finland. Study site-specific patterns of gut colonization share characteristics across continents. Finland and Colorado have a significantly lower bacterial diversity, while Sweden and Washington state are dominated by Bifidobacterium in early life. Bacterial community diversity over time is significantly different by geographical location. The microbiome of high-risk infants is associated with geographical location. Future studies aiming to identify the microbiome disease phenotype need to carefully consider the geographical origin of subjects. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
boundaries in order to have an impact on prevention. Furthermore, there is a need to move beyond the notion of ''magic bullets'', instead developing an integrated paradigm encompassing clusters of biomarkers related to behavioural measures of developmental psychopathology. Finally, as most psychiatric......: the high-risk group comprised twins at risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin affected); the low risk group (control group) comprised twins at low risk of developing affective disorder (DZ or MZ twin; index co-twin not affected). At baseline 234 participants were divided......-risk twins and 5 low-risk twins) developed a psychiatric disorder during the 7-year follow-up period: 24 developed mood disorder (67%), 7 anxiety disorder (19%) and 5 (14%) substance abuse, schizophrenia or personality disorder. The results showed that familial risk, impaired stress tolerance and discrete...
Matsui, Takeru; Yoshikawa, Genki; Mihara, Tomoko; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Kawasaki, Takeru; Nakano, Miyako; Fujie, Makoto; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takashi
Ralstonia solanacearum phages ΦRP12 and ΦRP31 are jumbo phages isolated in Thailand. Here we show that they exhibit similar virion morphology, genome organization and host range. Genome comparisons as well as phylogenetic and proteomic tree analyses support that they belong to the group of ΦKZ-related phages, with their closest relatives being R. solanacearum phages ΦRSL2 and ΦRSF1. Compared with ΦRSL2 and ΦRSF1, ΦRP12 and ΦRP31 possess larger genomes (ca. 280 kbp, 25% larger). The replication of ΦRP12 and ΦRP31 was not affected by rifampicin treatment (20 μg/ml), suggesting that phage-encoded RNAPs function to start and complete the infection cycle of these phages without the need of host-encoded RNAPs. In contrast, ΦRSL2 and ΦRSF1, encoding the same set of RNAPs, did not produce progeny phages in the presence of rifampicin (5 μg/ml). This observation opens the possibility that some ΦRP12/ΦRP31 factors that are absent in ΦRSL2 and ΦRSF1 are involved in their host-independent transcription. PMID:28659872
cigarette smoking were also related to exudative AMD. After controlling for environmental risk factors, CFH and HTRA1 SNPs were independently associated with exudative AMD, with OR of 3.50 (1.45-8.45) for CT genotype in Y402H, 3.34 (1.33-8.36) for GG genotype in rs1410996 and 3.85 (1.58-9.42) for AA genotype in rs11200638 respectively. The interaction analysis between gene and environmental factors showed that smoking synergistically increased susceptibility of AMD for heterozygotes of rs1410996, with ORinteraction of 7.33 (Pinteraction=0.029). Conclusions In a Han Chinese population, CFH and HTRA1 polymorphisms appear to be independently and possibly additivelv hereditary contributors to exudative AMD. Y402H polymorphism conferred a significant but relatively lower contribution in Chinese than in Caucasians with a low frequency of risk allele. The gene-environment interaction may be a best way to encourage those with a high genetic risk to prevent AMD by avoiding modifiable factors until there is effective treatment for AMD.
Ferrer, Aleix; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Zinsstag, Jakob
Wastewater reuse contributes to closing the nutrient recycling loop as a sustainable way of managing water resources. Bangkok has over a thousand man-made drainage and irrigation canals for such purposes. Its use for agricultural and recreational purposes has a long tradition in rural and peri-urban areas. However, the continuation of these practices is increasingly questioned since potential health risks are an issue if such practices are not appropriately managed. The microbial and chemical quality of canal water has considerably deteriorated over the last decade, mainly because of discharged, untreated domestic and industrial wastewater. It is important to understand the health risks of wastewater reuse and identify risky behaviors from the most highly exposed actors promote the safe use of wastewater. This study assessed diarrhea infection risks caused by the use of and contact with wastewater in Klong Luang municipality, a peri-urban setting in Northern Bangkok, using quantitative microbial risk assessment. Wastewater samples were collected from canals, sewers at household level, and vegetables grown in the canals for consumption. Samples were also collected from irrigation water from the agricultural fields. Two protozoa, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, were quantified and analyzed by real-time PCR, exposure assessment was conducted, and finally, the risk of infection due to contact with wastewater in different scenarios was calculated. The results showed that canal water and vegetables were heavily contaminated with G. lamblia and E. histolytica. Infection risk was high in tested scenarios and largely exceeded the acceptable risk given by WHO guidelines.
Christensen, Jonas Schmidt; Thing, Lone Friis
Elite Athletes experiences with risks related to Cardiac Screening Jonas Schmidt Christensen1, Lone Friis Thing1 1University of Copenhagen - Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports (NEXS), Cardiac screening of elite athletes are recommended by both the American Heart Association & the European...... is dominated by studies with a clinical medical focus and studies of athlete’s perspectives on cardiac screening are consequently an absence. By using an interpretive sociological perspective (Denzin 2001) and qualitative research done with elite athletes of both gender this paper seeks to explore how elite...... athletes experience risks associated with cardiac screening. To make possible an analysis of how elite athletes come to an understanding of and position themselves in relation to the risk discourse (Lupton 2013) they are met by, the focus is on Foucault’s technologies of the self and a subjectivity...
Lohmann, M; Epp, A; Röder, B; Böl, G-F
Information about and explanation of risks as well as the initiation of behavioral changes and preventive actions are core tasks of risk communication. During the EHEC/HUS outbreak in spring 2011, the governmental agencies responsible for risk communication mainly focused on these tasks. In general, risk communication is understood as a continuous, long-term process that aims at an adequate handling of risks. In contrast, crisis communication is focused rather on an acute event and aims at timely information and behavioral measures. During the EHEC/HUS outbreak, risk communication partly changed over to crisis communication. The risk communication activities of the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (Bundesinstitüt für Risikobewertung, BfR) during the EHEC/HUS outbreak are presented here. The results of a representative survey that was conducted in Germany shortly after the outbreak show details of the success of these risk communication activities. Finally, the necessity of communication about scientific uncertainty is addressed and new ways in risk communication with regard to new media are highlighted.
Darren M. Allcock
Full Text Available The incidence of overweight and obesity is rising at an alarming pace in the pediatric population, just as in the adult population. The adult comorbidities associated with this risk factor are well-recognized and are being further elucidated continually. Additionally, we are gradually developing a better understanding of the risks of overweight and obesity among children while they are still young. However, there is now a growing body of evidence showing that childhood obesity not only leads all too frequently to adult obesity, but is in itself a risk factor for cardiometabolic syndrome and resultant cardiovascular risk in adulthood. If current trends continue, the problem of pediatric overweight and obesity will become of unmanageable proportions once these individuals reach adulthood. Future research efforts toward understanding this complex problem will need to focus on those overweight and obese children who later went on to change their metabolic course and become normal-weight adults.
Stock return volatilities are related to firms' financial status. Financially constrained firms are more volatile. Their stock return volatilities react more negatively to lagged return changes than financially unconstrained firms. This strong negative relation between volatilities and lagged returns for financially constrained firms are not affected by industry differences or firm leverage. Moreover, the debt-equity ratio is not as important as financial constraints for the firm-level risk-r...
Liew, Gerald; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin; Iyengar, Sudha K; Wang, Jie Jin
Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the United States and often coexists with chronic kidney disease. Both conditions share common genetic and environmental risk factors. A total of 1183 participants aged 54+ were examined in the population-based, prospective cohort Blue Mountains Eye Study (Australia) to determine if chronic kidney disease increases the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Moderate chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate macular degeneration was 3.9% in participants with no/mild chronic kidney disease (35 of 897) and 17.5% in those with moderate chronic kidney disease (50 of 286). After adjusting for age, sex, cigarette smoking, hypertension, complement factor H polymorphism, and other risk factors, persons with moderate chronic kidney disease were 3 times more likely to develop early age-related macular degeneration than persons with no/mild chronic kidney disease (odds ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.8 to 5.7, P macular degeneration (odds ratio = 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 2.8, P chronic kidney disease have a higher risk of early age-related macular degeneration, suggesting the possibility of shared pathophysiologic mechanisms between the two conditions.
Jahn, Danielle R; DeVylder, Jordan E; Hilimire, Matthew R
Schizotypy has been linked to suicide risk, but it is not known whether established suicide-related risk factors mediate this relation. The aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of depressive symptoms, social anxiety, self-esteem, and intimate disclosure in peer relationships in the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and suicide ideation or lifetime suicide attempts. This aim was tested in 590 young adults using a nonparametric bootstrapping procedure. After inclusion of the mediators, interpersonal schizotypy was no longer directly associated with either suicide ideation or lifetime suicide attempts. Depression and self-esteem mediated the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and suicide ideation. No variables mediated the relation between interpersonal schizotypy and lifetime suicide attempts, and there were no significant direct relations when mediators were included. Schizotypy appears to be a distal risk factor for suicidal behavior; assessing depressive symptoms and self-esteem may provide more proximal information about suicide risk, and may be targets for mitigating suicide risk in individuals with schizotypy.
Blank, V L; Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, Finn
the non-specific and the specific cases. However, two accident patterns (specific risks) also show relatively high ARRs among workers in their 40s (and even 30s), results that might be explained by particular exposures and/or age-related performance problems. The findings suggest that technological...
The control of work-related risks calls for practical improvements in job content and the working environment. For assessment of risks, it is essential to resort to the most practical methods in the local context. Important common methods are examination of the process, equipment and organisation of work, walk-through surveys, evaluation of risk factors in the working environment, inquiries and questionnaires as well as monitoring of various health indicators. Biological tests and other health indicators can thus only be regarded as components of overall occupational health-risk assessment strategy, with their advantages, disadvantages and limitations. Important are the validity of biological tests and the ethical aspects related to their use, such as confidentiality of data and the individual worker's informed consent, preference being given to noninvasive-methods. Occupational health services should thus play a positive role by providing practical advice, training and information for participatory risk assessment keeping in view such an overall strategy that facilitates immediate preventive action. Biological monitoring should be applied when the additional guidance it provides on preventive action is essential. Proposals to use biological monitoring must emphasise this justification aspect.
Full Text Available The aim of the report is to assess the risk factors among patients with spontaneous ipsilateral subconjunctival hemorrhage (SCH who presented to the outpatients’ department in General Hospital of Veria, Veria, Greece. Thirty-five patients with SCH participated in the study. A thorough case history was taken and a full ophthalmic examination was performed to identify the risk factors related to the clinical finding. The common hematological parameters associated with the coagulation profile of each patient were evaluated. With the exception of SCH, the ophthalmic examination was normal in all patients. Identified risk factors include history of systemic hypertension (21 patients [60%], mean systolic value: 170 mmHg±15 mmHg, strenuous exercise [19 patients (54%] and minor ocular trauma [5 patients (14%]. Other risk factors [each in 2 patients (6%] included: diabetes mellitus, smoking, severe cough, straining at stool, and weight lifting. Seven patients (20% were under medication related to bleeding diathesis. The values of the blood coagulation parameters were within the normal limits in all patients. Twenty-nine patients (83% had elevated blood pressure during the ophthalmological examination. Our study provides documentation regarding the potential risk factors associated with SCH. It is interesting to observe the high incidence of hypertension among the patients with SCH. Therefore, it is highly recommended that the blood pressure be checked in all patients with SCH and that the patients be referred to a general practitioner for further management if indicated.
Full Text Available The threat posed to coral reefs by changes in seawater pH and carbonate chemistry (ocean acidification raises the need for a better mechanistic understanding of physiological processes linked to coral calcification. Current models of coral calcification argue that corals elevate extracellular pH under their calcifying tissue relative to seawater to promote skeleton formation, but pH measurements taken from the calcifying tissue of living, intact corals have not been achieved to date. We performed live tissue imaging of the reef coral Stylophora pistillata to determine extracellular pH under the calcifying tissue and intracellular pH in calicoblastic cells. We worked with actively calcifying corals under flowing seawater and show that extracellular pH (pHe under the calicoblastic epithelium is elevated by ∼0.5 and ∼0.2 pH units relative to the surrounding seawater in light and dark conditions respectively. By contrast, the intracellular pH (pHi of the calicoblastic epithelium remains stable in the light and dark. Estimates of aragonite saturation states derived from our data indicate the elevation in subcalicoblastic pHe favour calcification and may thus be a critical step in the calcification process. However, the observed close association of the calicoblastic epithelium with the underlying crystals suggests that the calicoblastic cells influence the growth of the coral skeleton by other processes in addition to pHe modification. The procedure used in the current study provides a novel, tangible approach for future investigations into these processes and the impact of environmental change on the cellular mechanisms underpinning coral calcification.
Brasky, Theodore M; Li, Yanli; Jaworowicz, David J; Potischman, Nancy; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hutson, Alan D; Nie, Jing; Shields, Peter G; Trevisan, Maurizio; Rudra, Carole B; Edge, Stephen B; Freudenheim, Jo L
Breast tissues undergo extensive physiologic changes during pregnancy, which may affect breast carcinogenesis. Gestational hypertension, preeclampsia/eclampsia, gestational diabetes, pregnancy weight gain, and nausea and vomiting (N&V) during pregnancy may be indicative of altered hormonal and metabolic profiles and could impact breast cancer risk. Here, we examined associations between these characteristics of a woman's pregnancy and her subsequent breast cancer risk. Participants were parous women that were recruited to a population-based case-control study (Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer Study). Cases (n = 960), aged 35-79 years, had incident, primary, histologically confirmed breast cancer. Controls (n = 1,852) were randomly selected from motor vehicle records (pregnancy experiences. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). N&V during pregnancy was inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Relative to those who never experienced N&V, ever experiencing N&V was associated with decreased risk (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56-0.84) as were increased N&V severity (p trend pregnancies (p trend pregnancies. Associations were stronger for more recent pregnancies (breast cancer subtype including estrogen receptor and HER2 expression status. Other pregnancy characteristics examined were not associated with risk. We observed strong inverse associations between pregnancy N&V and breast cancer risk. Replication of these findings and exploration of underlying mechanisms could provide important insight into breast cancer etiology and prevention.
Full Text Available Background. Peritonitis represents a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD. The aim of this paper was to systematically collect data on patient-related risk factors for PD-associated peritonitis, to analyze the methodological quality of these studies, and to summarize published evidence on the particular risk factors. Methods. Studies were identified by searches of Pubmed (1990–2012 and assessed for methodological quality by using a modified form of the STROBE criteria. Results. Thirty-five methodologically acceptable studies were identified. The following nonmodifiable risk factors were considered valid and were associated with an increased risk of peritonitis: ethnicity, female gender, chronic lung disease, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, antihepatitis C virus antibody positivity, diabetes mellitus, lupus nephritis or glomerulonephritis as underlying renal disease, and no residual renal function. We also identified the following modifiable, valid risk factors for peritonitis: malnutrition, overweight, smoking, immunosuppression, no use of oral active vitamin D, psychosocial factors, low socioeconomic status, PD against patient’s choice, and haemodialysis as former modality. Discussion. Modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors analyzed in this paper might serve as a basis to improve patient care in peritoneal dialysis.
Marsh, K. A.; Velusamy, T.; Dowell, C. D.; Grogan, K.; Beichman, C. A.
We have imaged the circumstellar disk of Fomalhaut at 350 mm wavelength, using SHARC II (Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera II) at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The spatial resolution of the raw images (9") has been enhanced by a factor of 3 using the HiRes deconvolution procedure. We find that at this wavelength and signal-to-noise ratio (approx.12), the observed morphology is that of a simple inclined ring (i approx. 70 deg), with little or no other apparent structure--this is the first observation that shows clearly the ring morphology of the disk. We have combined our 350 mm data with Spitzer Space Telescope images at 24, 70, and 160 mm in order to estimate the two-dimensional spatial variation of relative column density ("tau map") using our DISKFIT procedure. The tau map is based on the following physical assumptions: (1) the wavelength variation of opacity is the same throughout the disk, (2) the radial variation of dust temperature is dictated by the energy balance of individual grains in the stellar radiation field, and (3) the vertical scale height of the disk follows a power-law radial variation. The results confirm the ringlike morphology but also show that the geometric center is displaced from the star by about 8 AU and that the ring has an apocentric enhancement of approximately 14% in integrated column density. If we interpret the displacement in terms of elliptical orbital motion due to gravitational perturbation by an unseen planet, then the implied forced eccentricity is 0.06; dynamical modeling then predicts an apocentric density enhancement consistent with that inferred from the tau map.
Routinely collected data for 187,000 Scottish singleton livebirths in 1980-2 were used to relate the risk of birthweight below 2500 g, 2000 g, 1500 g, and 1000 g to sex of infant and nine maternal factors. Maternal height was a major predictor of birthweight below 2500g but was less important in predicting birthweight in the lower intervals. A history of prenatal death and spontaneous abortion was important for all four intervals and was associated with most extreme risks for birthweight belo...
Zhang, Hongmao; Chu, Wei; Zhang, Zhibin
Little is known about seeding regeneration of cultivated trees compared to wild relatives in areas where seed dispersers are shared. Here, we investigated the differences in seed fates of cultivated walnut (Juglans regia) and wild Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica) trees under rodent predation and dispersal. J. regia seeds have higher nutritional value (large size, mass and kernel mass) and lower mechanical defensiveness (thin endocarp) than J. mandshurica seeds. We tracked seeds of J. regia and J. mandshurica under both enclosure and field conditions to assess differences in competing for seed dispersers of the two co-occurring tree species of the same genus. We found that rodents preferred to harvest, eat and scatter-hoard seeds of J. regia as compared to those of J. mandshurica. Seeds of J. regia were removed and scatter-hoarded faster than those of J. mandshurica. Caches of J. regia were more likely to be rediscovered by rodents than those of J. mandshurica. These results suggest that J. regia showed earlier dispersal fitness but not the ultimate dispersal fitness over J. mandshurica in seeding regeneration under rodent mediation, implying that J. regia has little effect on seeding regeneration of J. mandshurica in the field. The effects of seed traits on seed dispersal fitness may vary at different dispersal stages under animal mediation.
Lowet, E; Roberts, M J; Bosman, C A; Fries, P; De Weerd, P
Neuronal gamma-band synchronization (25-80 Hz) in visual cortex appears sustained and stable during prolonged visual stimulation when investigated with conventional averages across trials. However, recent studies in macaque visual cortex have used single-trial analyses to show that both power and frequency of gamma oscillations exhibit substantial moment-by-moment variation. This has raised the question of whether these apparently random variations might limit the functional role of gamma-band synchronization for neural processing. Here, we studied the moment-by-moment variation in gamma oscillation power and frequency, as well as inter-areal gamma synchronization, by simultaneously recording local field potentials in V1 and V2 of two macaque monkeys. We additionally analyzed electrocorticographic V1 data from a third monkey. Our analyses confirm that gamma-band synchronization is not stationary and sustained but undergoes moment-by-moment variations in power and frequency. However, those variations are neither random and nor a possible obstacle to neural communication. Instead, the gamma power and frequency variations are highly structured, shared between areas and shaped by a microsaccade-related 3-4-Hz theta rhythm. Our findings provide experimental support for the suggestion that cross-frequency coupling might structure and facilitate the information flow between brain regions.
Justin G Boyles
Full Text Available Several recent papers evaluate the relationship between ecological characteristics and extinction risk in bats. These studies report that extinction risk is negatively related to geographic range size and positively related to habitat specialization. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that extinction risk is also related to dietary specialization in insectivorous vespertilionid bats using both traditional and phylogenetically-controlled analysis of variance. We collected dietary data and The World Conservation Union (IUCN rankings for 44 Australian, European, and North American bat species. Our results indicate that species of conservation concern (IUCN ranking near threatened or above are more likely to have a specialized diet than are species of least concern. Additional analyses show that dietary breadth is not correlated to geographic range size or wing morphology, characteristics previously found to correlate with extinction risk. Therefore, there is likely a direct relationship between dietary specialization and extinction risk; however, the large variation in dietary breadth within species of least concern suggests that diet alone cannot explain extinction risk. Our results may have important implications for the development of predictive models of extinction risk and for the assignment of extinction risk to insectivorous bat species. Similar analyses should be conducted on additional bat families to assess the generality of this relationship between niche breadth and extinction risk.
Lipid traits (total, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. DNA methylation is not only an inherited but also modifiable epigenetic mark that has been related to cardiovascular risk factors. Our aim was to identify loci s...
Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Kuchenbaeker, Karoline B
1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, a list of 175 genes was developed based of their involvement in cancer-related pathways. METHODS: Using data from a genome-wide map of SNPs associated with allelic expression, we assessed the association of ~320 SNPs located in the vicinity of these genes with breast...
Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete
People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during admission. Most studies are based on low power, thus compromising quality and generalisability. The few studies with sufficient statistical power mainly identified non-modifiable risk predictors such as male gender, diagnosis, or recent deliberate self-harm. Also, the predictive value of these predictors is low. It would be of great benefit if future studies would be based on large samples while focusing on modifiable predictors over the course of an admission, such as hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and family/social situations. This would improve our chances of developing better risk assessment tools. PMID:28257103
Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete
People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during admission. Most studies are based on low power, thus compromising quality and generalisability. The few studies with sufficient statistical power mainly identified non-modifiable risk predictors such as male gender, diagnosis, or recent deliberate self-harm. Also, the predictive value of these predictors is low. It would be of great benefit if future studies would be based on large samples while focusing on modifiable predictors over the course of an admission, such as hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and family/social situations. This would improve our chances of developing better risk assessment tools.
Full Text Available People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during admission. Most studies are based on low power, thus compromising quality and generalisability. The few studies with sufficient statistical power mainly identified non-modifiable risk predictors such as male gender, diagnosis, or recent deliberate self-harm. Also, the predictive value of these predictors is low. It would be of great benefit if future studies would be based on large samples while focusing on modifiable predictors over the course of an admission, such as hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and family/social situations. This would improve our chances of developing better risk assessment tools.
Ádám, Balázs; Gulis, Gabriel
as a powerful tool for the evaluation of potential health consequences of planned measures. It is often discussed whether HIA is not just another term or form of risk assessment and what is their relation. Our aim is to discuss similarities and differences between the two methods so as to clarify......The level and distribution of health risks in a society is substantially influenced by measures of various policies, programmes or projects. Risk assessment can evaluate the nature, likelihood and severity of an adverse effect. Health impact assessment (HIA) provides similar function when used...... standardised scientific methods to characterise the probability and magnitude of harm caused by a hazard, preferably in a quantitative manner. In turn, HIA is a process to assess future impacts of recent proposals and is dominated by qualitative evaluation. It makes a projection for a future scenario rather...
Men who took 400 international units (I.U.) of vitamin E daily had more prostate cancers compared to men who took a placebo, according to an updated review of data from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). The findings showed that, per 1,000 men, there were 76 prostate cancers in men who took only vitamin E supplements, vs. |
Marshall, Randall D.; Bryant, Richard A.; Amsel, Lawrence; Suh, Eun Jung; Cook, Joan M.; Neria, Yuval
There are now replicated findings that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms related to the September 11, 2001, attacks occurred in large numbers of persons who did not fit the traditional definition of exposure to a traumatic event. These data are not explained by traditional epidemiologic “bull’s eye” disaster models, which assume the psychological effects are narrowly, geographically circumscribed, or by existing models of PTSD onset. In this article, the authors develop a researchable model to explain these and other terrorism-related phenomena by synthesizing research and concepts from the cognitive science, risk appraisal, traumatic stress, and anxiety disorders literatures. They propose the new term relative risk appraisal to capture the psychological function that is the missing link between the event and subjective response in these and other terrorism-related studies to date. Relative risk appraisal highlights the core notion from cognitive science that human perception is an active, multidimensional process, such that for unpredictable societal threats, proximity to the event is only one of several factors that influence behavioral responses. Addressing distortions in relative risk appraisal effectively could reduce individual and societal vulnerability to a wide range of adverse economic and ethnopolitical consequences to terrorist attacks. The authors present ways in which these concepts and related techniques can be helpful in treating persons with September 11– or terrorism-related distress or psychopathology. PMID:17516775
María Eugenia Nano
Full Text Available PURPOSES: To assess the risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in Argentina using a case-control study. METHODS: Surveys were used for subjects' antioxidant intake, age/gender, race, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes (and type of treatment, smoking, sunlight exposure, red meat consumption, fish consumption, presence of age-related macular degeneration and family history of age-related macular degeneration. Main effects models for logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze the results. RESULTS: There were 175 cases and 175 controls with a mean age of 75.4 years and 75.5 years, respectively, of whom 236 (67.4% were female. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration, 159 (45.4% had age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 154 (44.0% in their right eyes, and 138 (39.4% in both eyes. Of the cases with age-related macular degeneration in their left eyes, 47.8% had the dry type, 40.3% had the wet type, and the type was unknown for 11.9%. The comparable figures for right eyes were: 51.9%, 34.4%, and 13.7%, respectively. The main effects model was dominated by higher sunlight exposure (OR [odds ratio]: 3.3 and a family history of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 4.3. Other factors included hypertension (OR: 2.1, smoking (OR: 2.2, and being of the Mestizo race, which lowered the risk of age-related macular degeneration (OR: 0.40. Red meat/fish consumption, body mass index, and iris color did not have an effect. Higher age was associated with progression to more severe age-related macular degeneration. CONCLUSION: Sunlight exposure, family history of age-related macular degeneration, and an older age were the significant risk factors. There may be other variables, as the risk was not explained very well by the existing factors. A larger sample may produce different and better results.
Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.
We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.
The prevention of work-related diseases and disorders, including those of neuropsychobehavioral nature, calls for integrated action to improve both job content and the working environment. Recent international labor standards have highlighted the importance of a good safety and health management system that ensures the assessment of risks and the appropriate control of these risks. Internationally, programs to cope with work-related risks place an increasing emphasis on participatory management of preventive measures, practical methods of risk assessment, and immediate improvements with the support of action-oriented training and information. Psychosocial factors, work performance, and job content need special attention. Workplace strategies must be developed by active participation of employers and workers, with their informed consent. These strategies and linked training activities should build on local practice and achievements rather than administrative models and be geared to the real local needs. In coping with the neurobehavioral effects, international sharing of positive experiences is useful especially with respect to: (i) providing information on potential neurobehavioral effects including labeling, safety datasheets, and precautions; (ii) providing practical advice about locally achieved improvements; (iii) providing action-oriented training; and (iv) creating opportunities for participatory workplace improvements.
Elgar, Frank J; Xie, Annie; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; White, James; Pickett, Kate E
Research on socioeconomic differences in overweight and obesity and on the ecological association between income inequality and obesity prevalence suggests that relative deprivation may contribute to lifestyle risk factors for obesity independently of absolute affluence. We tested this hypothesis using data on 25,980 adolescents (11-15 years) in the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation was applied to the HBSC Family Affluence Scale, an index of common material assets, with more affluent schoolmates representing the comparative reference group. Regression analysis tested the associations between relative deprivation and four obesity risk factors (skipping breakfasts, physical activity, and healthful and unhealthful food choices) plus dietary restraint. Relative deprivation uniquely related to skipping breakfasts, less physical activity, fewer healthful food choices (e.g., fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads), and a lower likelihood of dieting to lose weight. Consistent with Runciman's (1966) theory of relative deprivation and with psychosocial interpretations of the health consequences of income inequality, the results indicate that having mostly better off schoolmates can contribute to poorer health behaviours independently of school-level affluence and subjective social status. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the social origins of obesity and targeting health interventions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Most forms of risky behavior reach their peak during adolescence. A prominent line of research is exploring the relationship between people’s emotional self-efficacy and risk taking, but little is known about this relationship in the cognitive-deliberative domain among adolescents. The main aim of the present study consists in investigating whether trait EI (Emotional Intelligence is positively related to risk taking under predominantly cognitive-deliberative conditions among adolescents. Ninety-four adolescents played the cold version of the Columbia Card Task one month following an assessment of their trait EI. Results showed that trait EI is associated with risk taking under cognitive-deliberative conditions among adolescents. Moreover, the present research showed that trait EI is related to risk taking through the decision makers’ self-motivation. These results provide novel insights into research investigating the connections between emotional intelligence, decision science and adolescence research.
Hae Dong Woo
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To systematically investigate the effects of dietary flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses on the risk of smoking-related cancer in observational studies. METHODS: Summary estimates and corresponding standard errors were calculated using the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR or relative risk (RR and 95% CI of selected studies and weighted by the inverse variance. RESULTS: A total of 35 studies, including 19 case-controls (9,525 cases and 15,835 controls and 15 cohort studies (988,082 subjects and 8,161 cases, were retrieved for the meta-analysis. Total dietary flavonoids and most of the flavonoid subclasses were inversely associated with smoking-related cancer risk (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.93. In subgroup analyses by cancer site, significant associations were observed in aerodigestive tract and lung cancers. Total dietary flavonoid intake was significantly associated with aerodigestive tract cancer risk (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.54-0.83 marginally associated with lung cancer risk (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.71-1.00. Subgroup analyses by smoking status showed significantly different results. The intake of total flavonoids, flavonols, flavones, and flavanones, as well as the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol was significantly associated with decreased risk of smoking-related cancer in smokers, whereas no association was observed in non-smokers, except for flavanones. In meta-analysis for the effect of subclasses of dietary flavonoids by cancer type, aerodigestive tract cancer was inversely associated with most flavonoid subclasses. CONCLUSION: The protective effects of flavonoids on smoking-related cancer risk varied across studies, but the overall results indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids, especially flavonols, was inversely associated with smoking-related cancer risk. The protective effects of flavonoids on smoking-related cancer risk were more prominent in smokers.
Oda, Kenji [Hiroshima City Hospital (Japan); Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko
It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)
Tabor, Ann; Alfirevic, Zarko
Introduction: As a consequence of the introduction of effective screening methods, the number of invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures is steadily declining. The aim of this review is to summarize the risks related to these procedures. Material and Methods: Review of the literature. Results: Data...... from randomised controlled trials as well as from systematic reviews and a large national registry study are consistent with a procedure-related miscarriage rate of 0.5-1.0% for amniocentesis as well as for chorionic villus sampling (CVS). In single-center studies performance may be remarkably good due...... not be performed before 15 + 0 weeks' gestation. CVS on the other hand should not be performed before 10 weeks' gestation due to a possible increase in risk of limb reduction defects. Discussion: Experienced operators have a higher success rate and a lower complication rate. The decreasing number of prenatal...
Middeldorp, S; Libourel, EJ; Hamulyak, K; van der Meer, J; Buller, HR
The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is increased in pregnancy and during the post-partum period, The absolute risk for pregnancy-related VTE in heterozygous women with the factor V Leiden mutation is approximately 2%, but studies on this risk for homozygous women show conflicting results. In a
Neff, Bonita Dostal
Diversity should be first understood from an individual's own culture. Yet few public relations professionals have had a course in interpersonal communication. If public relations is viewed as a profession where the management of people is important, then knowledge of diversity in the workplace seems imperative. The multicultural, intercultural,…
Yu, Binbing; Wang, Zhuoqiao
In cross-sectional or cohort studies with binary outcomes, it is biologically interpretable and of interest to estimate the relative risk or prevalence ratio, especially when the response rates are not rare. Several methods have been used to estimate the relative risk, among which the log-binomial models yield the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of the parameters. Because of restrictions on the parameter space, the log-binomial models often run into convergence problems. Some remedies, e.g., the Poisson and Cox regressions, have been proposed. However, these methods may give out-of-bound predicted response probabilities. In this paper, a new computation method using the SAS Nonlinear Programming (NLP) procedure is proposed to find the MLEs. The proposed NLP method was compared to the COPY method, a modified method to fit the log-binomial model. Issues in the implementation are discussed. For illustration, both methods were applied to data on the prevalence of microalbuminuria (micro-protein leakage into urine) for kidney disease patients from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. The sample SAS macro for calculating relative risk is provided in the appendix.
Morua, Agustin Robles; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Mayer, Alex S
Waterborne disease is estimated to cause about 10% of all diseases worldwide. However, related risk perceptions are not well understood, particularly in the developing world where waterborne disease is an enormous problem. We focus on understanding risk perceptions related to these issues in a region within northern Mexico. Our findings show how waterborne disease problems and solutions are understood in eight small communities along a highly contaminated river system. We found major differences in risk perceptions between health professionals, government officials, and lay citizens. Health professionals believed that a high level of human-waste-related risk existed within the region. Few officials and lay citizens shared this belief. In addition, few officials and lay citizens were aware of poor wastewater-management-related disease outbreaks and water contamination. Finally, aside from health professionals, a few interviewees understood the importance of basic hygiene and water treatment measures that could help to prevent disease. Our results add to the literature on environmentally-related risk perceptions in the developing world. We discuss recommendations for improving future human-wastewater-related risk communication within the region.
Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo
that traffic related exposures affect schizophrenia risk and that this potential effect is responsible for the urban-rural differences. The geographical distance from place of residence to nearest major road was used as a proxy variable for traffic related exposures. We used a large population-based sample...... of the Danish population (1.89 million people) including information on all permanent addresses linked with geographical information on all roads and house numbers in Denmark. Schizophrenia in cohort members (10,755 people) was identified by linkage with the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. RESULTS...
Full Text Available Late-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a common sight-threatening disease of the central retina affecting approximately 1 in 30 Caucasians. Besides age and smoking, genetic variants from several gene loci have reproducibly been associated with this condition and likely explain a large proportion of disease. Here, we developed a genetic risk score (GRS for AMD based on 13 risk variants from eight gene loci. The model exhibited good discriminative accuracy, area-under-curve (AUC of the receiver-operating characteristic of 0.820, which was confirmed in a cross-validation approach. Noteworthy, younger AMD patients aged below 75 had a significantly higher mean GRS (1.87, 95% CI: 1.69-2.05 than patients aged 75 and above (1.45, 95% CI: 1.36-1.54. Based on five equally sized GRS intervals, we present a risk classification with a relative AMD risk of 64.0 (95% CI: 14.11-1131.96 for individuals in the highest category (GRS 3.44-5.18, 0.5% of the general population compared to subjects with the most common genetic background (GRS -0.05-1.70, 40.2% of general population. The highest GRS category identifies AMD patients with a sensitivity of 7.9% and a specificity of 99.9% when compared to the four lower categories. Modeling a general population around 85 years of age, 87.4% of individuals in the highest GRS category would be expected to develop AMD by that age. In contrast, only 2.2% of individuals in the two lowest GRS categories which represent almost 50% of the general population are expected to manifest AMD. Our findings underscore the large proportion of AMD cases explained by genetics particularly for younger AMD patients. The five-category risk classification could be useful for therapeutic stratification or for diagnostic testing purposes once preventive treatment is available.
Virendra C Patil
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Anthropometric variables and their relation to conventional coronary artery disease (CAD risk factors in railway employees have been inadequately studied in India. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Solapur division of the Central railway in the year 2004, to assess the anthropometric variables in railway employees and their relation to conventional CAD risk factors. Materials and Methods: A total of 995 railway employees, with 872 males and 123 females participated in this cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, fasting lipid profile, and blood sugar level. Various anthropometric indices were calculated for body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, and abdominal volume index (AVI. Statistical analysis was done by EPI Info 6 statistical software. Results: Compared to all other obesity indices, WHtR was most prevalent in both genders. High WHtR was present in 699 (80.16% males and 103 (83.73% females. Age ≥45 years, high systolic BP, high diastolic BP, low HDL, high triglyceride, and diabetes mellitus were positively correlated with high BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI. High BMI, high WC, high WHR, high WHtR, and high AVI were negatively associated with physical inactivity. Conclusions: Over all, anthropometric variables in both genders were significantly deranged in subjects with coronary risk factors. Compared to all other anthropometric variables, WHtR was statistically significantly associated with a majority of coronary artery risk factors. Hence we recommend inclusion of WHtR as a parameter of obesity to predict coronary artery disease risk factor along with WC, WHR, and BMI in epidemiologic studies.
Abia, Akebe Luther King; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Genthe, Bettina; Momba, Maggy Ndombo Benteke
Although higher microbial concentrations have been reported in sediments than in the overlying water column, most quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) studies have not clearly indicated the contribution of sediment-borne pathogens to estimated risks. Thus, the present study aimed at determining the public health risk associated with exposure to pathogenic bacteria in polluted river water under undisturbed conditions and conditions of sediment resuspension in the Apies River, Gauteng, South Africa. Microbial pathogens were isolated and identified using culture and molecular methods. The beta-Poisson dose-response model was used to estimate the probability of infection (Pi) with the various pathogens, following accidental/intentional ingestion of 1mL or 100mL (or 50mL) of untreated river water. Mean wet season Escherichia coli counts ranged between 5.8E+01 and 8.8E+04MPN/100mL (water column) and between 2.40E+03 and 1.28E+05MPN/100mL (sediments). Mean dry season E. coli counts ranged between 5.11E+00 and 3.40E+03MPN/100mL (water column) and between 5.09E+00 and 6.30E+03MPN/100mL (sediments). Overall (water and sediments) Vibrio cholerae was the most detected pathogen (58.8%) followed by Salmonella spp. (23.9%) and Shigella (10.1%). Ingestion of 1mL of river water could lead to 0%-4% and 1%-74% Pi with E. coli during the dry and wet season, respectively. During the dry season, the Pi with V. cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. were 0%-1.39%, 0%-4.11% and 0%-0.16% respectively, depending on volume of water ingested. The risks of infections with all microorganisms increased during the wet season. A 2-log increase in water E. coli count following sediments disturbance led to approximately 10 times higher Pi with E. coli than when sediments were undisturbed. Therefore, the use of the untreated water from the Apies River for drinking, household purposes or recreational activities poses a potential health risk to the users of the river.
Egenvall, A; Tranquille, C A; Lönnell, A C; Bitschnau, C; Oomen, A; Hernlund, E; Montavon, S; Franko, M A; Murray, R C; Weishaupt, M A; Weeren, van R; Roepstorff, L
Orthopaedic, or other, injuries in sports medicine can be quantified using the 'days-lost to training' concept. Both the training regimen and the surface used in training and racing can affect the health of racehorses. Our aim was to associate 'days-lost to training' in elite-level show-jumpers to horse characteristics, training and management strategies, and the time spent working on various training and competition surfaces. We designed a longitudinal study of professional riders in four European countries. Data were recorded using training diaries. Reasons for days-lost were classified into non-acute and acute orthopaedic, medical, hoof-related, and undefined. We produced descriptive statistics of training durations, relative to type of training, surfaces used, and days-lost. We created zero-inflated negative-binomial random-effects models using the overall days-lost as outcome. In the whole dataset, duration variables related to training surfaces were analysed as independent. The Swedish data only were also used to test whether duration variables were related to competition surfaces. Thirty-one riders with 263 horses provided data on 39,028 days at risk. Of these, 2357 (6.0%) were days-lost (55% and 22% of these were due to non-acute and acute orthopaedic injuries, respectively) in 126 horses. In the all-country model, controlling for season, a significant variable was country. Switzerland and the UK had lower incidence-rate ratios (IR) compared to Sweden (IRs 0.2 and 0.03, respectively). Horses with previous orthopaedic problems had almost a doubled IR (1.8) of days-lost due to orthopaedic injury, compared to baseline. If the horse had jumping training more than 1 min per day at risk the IRs were 6.9-7 (compared to less than this amount of time); this was, however, likely an effect of a small baseline. Variation in training was a protective factor with a dose-response relationship; the category with the highest variation had an IR of 0.1. In the Swedish model
Kuzma, Jennifer; Priest, Susanna
Emerging technologies are defined by their novelty and thus are accompanied by significant uncertainty in determining appropriate ways to manage risks associated with them. Yet, there is a body of prior knowledge about risk management and oversight policy for other technologies that have already permeated society. Here, we describe two ways in which prospective oversight policy analysis for emerging technologies can draw upon these past experiences. One involves comparing specific products that have already been marketed to similar products of the emerging technology (cognate-product approach). The other treats the emerging technology as a body of products and methods and relates it to another technological field that has already emerged and penetrated markets (whole-technology approach). In this article, we describe our work using these approaches to inform risk and oversight policy for nanotechnology and its products. We draw parallels between biotechnology and nanotechnology as whole fields of development and also between genetically engineered organisms in the food supply and agricultural products of nanotechnology. Through these comparisons, we find that both approaches to historical learning have value and present lessons that could be applied to nanotechnology. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.
Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Adoue, Véronique; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Canisius, Sander; Lemaçon, Audrey; Droit, Arnaud; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Baynes, Caroline; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith S; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Broeks, Annegien; Burwinkel, Barbara; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Couch, Fergus J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Eriksson, Mikael; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flyger, Henrik; García-Closas, Montserrat; Giles, Graham G; Goldberg, Mark S; González-Neira, Anna; Grenaker-Alnæs, Grethe; Guénel, Pascal; Haeberle, Lothar; Haiman, Christopher A; Hamann, Ute; Hallberg, Emily; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Jakubowska, Anna; Jones, Michael; Kabisch, Maria; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindblom, Annika; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Maranian, Mel; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Milne, Roger L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olswold, Curtis; Peto, Julian; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rudolph, Anja; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Southey, Melissa C; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tollenaar, Rob A E M; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Vachon, Celine; Van Den Ouweland, Ans M W; Wang, Qin; Winqvist, Robert; Zheng, Wei; Benitez, Javier; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M; Pharoah, Paul D P; Kristensen, Vessela; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F; Pastinen, Tomi; Nord, Silje; Simard, Jacques
There are significant inter-individual differences in the levels of gene expression. Through modulation of gene expression, cis-acting variants represent an important source of phenotypic variation. Consequently, cis-regulatory SNPs associated with differential allelic expression are functional candidates for further investigation as disease-causing variants. To investigate whether common variants associated with differential allelic expression were involved in breast cancer susceptibility, a list of genes was established on the basis of their involvement in cancer related pathways and/or mechanisms. Thereafter, using data from a genome-wide map of allelic expression associated SNPs, 313 genetic variants were selected and their association with breast cancer risk was then evaluated in 46,451 breast cancer cases and 42,599 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 41 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. The associations were evaluated with overall breast cancer risk and with estrogen receptor negative and positive disease. One novel breast cancer susceptibility locus on 4q21 (rs11099601) was identified (OR = 1.05, P = 5.6x10-6). rs11099601 lies in a 135 kb linkage disequilibrium block containing several genes, including, HELQ, encoding the protein HEL308 a DNA dependant ATPase and DNA Helicase involved in DNA repair, MRPS18C encoding the Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S18C and FAM175A (ABRAXAS), encoding a BRCA1 BRCT domain-interacting protein involved in DNA damage response and double-strand break (DSB) repair. Expression QTL analysis in breast cancer tissue showed rs11099601 to be associated with HELQ (P = 8.28x10-14), MRPS18C (P = 1.94x10-27) and FAM175A (P = 3.83x10-3), explaining about 20%, 14% and 1%, respectively of the variance inexpression of these genes in breast carcinomas.
Adoue, Véronique; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Canisius, Sander; Lemaçon, Audrey; Droit, Arnaud; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Arndt, Volker; Baynes, Caroline; Blomqvist, Carl; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith S.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Broeks, Annegien; Burwinkel, Barbara; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Couch, Fergus J.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Eriksson, Mikael; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flyger, Henrik; García-Closas, Montserrat; Giles, Graham G.; Goldberg, Mark S.; González-Neira, Anna; Grenaker-Alnæs, Grethe; Guénel, Pascal; Haeberle, Lothar; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamann, Ute; Hallberg, Emily; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hopper, John L.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jones, Michael; Kabisch, Maria; Kataja, Vesa; Lambrechts, Diether; Marchand, Loic Le; Lindblom, Annika; Lubinski, Jan; Mannermaa, Arto; Maranian, Mel; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Milne, Roger L.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Olswold, Curtis; Peto, Julian; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Rudolph, Anja; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Southey, Melissa C.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; Tomlinson, Ian; Torres, Diana; Truong, Thérèse; Vachon, Celine; Van Den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Wang, Qin; Winqvist, Robert; Investigators, kConFab/AOCS; Zheng, Wei; Benitez, Javier; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Kristensen, Vessela; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Pastinen, Tomi; Nord, Silje; Simard, Jacques
There are significant inter-individual differences in the levels of gene expression. Through modulation of gene expression, cis-acting variants represent an important source of phenotypic variation. Consequently, cis-regulatory SNPs associated with differential allelic expression are functional candidates for further investigation as disease-causing variants. To investigate whether common variants associated with differential allelic expression were involved in breast cancer susceptibility, a list of genes was established on the basis of their involvement in cancer related pathways and/or mechanisms. Thereafter, using data from a genome-wide map of allelic expression associated SNPs, 313 genetic variants were selected and their association with breast cancer risk was then evaluated in 46,451 breast cancer cases and 42,599 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 41 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. The associations were evaluated with overall breast cancer risk and with estrogen receptor negative and positive disease. One novel breast cancer susceptibility locus on 4q21 (rs11099601) was identified (OR = 1.05, P = 5.6x10-6). rs11099601 lies in a 135 kb linkage disequilibrium block containing several genes, including, HELQ, encoding the protein HEL308 a DNA dependant ATPase and DNA Helicase involved in DNA repair, MRPS18C encoding the Mitochondrial Ribosomal Protein S18C and FAM175A (ABRAXAS), encoding a BRCA1 BRCT domain-interacting protein involved in DNA damage response and double-strand break (DSB) repair. Expression QTL analysis in breast cancer tissue showed rs11099601 to be associated with HELQ (P = 8.28x10-14), MRPS18C (P = 1.94x10-27) and FAM175A (P = 3.83x10-3), explaining about 20%, 14% and 1%, respectively of the variance inexpression of these genes in breast carcinomas. PMID:27792995
Full Text Available Risk assessment is taking the place of dangerousness in recent criminal research. Detection of static and dynamic risk factors related and/or interacting to recidivism in accordance with personality characteristics and crime types may help crime prevention strategies to improve. Out of all participants 35% (n=41 are sentenced for manslaughter/physical injury, 35% (n=41 sexual crime and 30% (n=35 theft. The mean age of the participants is 33.81 (sd=9-12 years. During the interview, a questionnaire which is prepared by the researcher by reviewing the literature, Symptom Checklist Short Form, aggression inventory was used. Interviews are conducted face to face by the researcher at the relevant correctional facilities with the permissions of Ministry of Justice and ethical committee. Recidivism is found related to having a period far away from nuclear family before age 18, criminal and drag-alcohol abusing friends, anti-social behaviors; abusing illegal drags, displaying disciplinary problems in prison and during military service. Discussion: Results are evaluated under demographics, relationships in family and close friends, childhood abuse by leaning on current literature. Key words: prevention and control, crime, risk assessment
Morabito, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Di Stefano, Valentina; Orlandini, Simone; Gensini, Gian Franco
Short-term impacts of high temperatures on the elderly are well known. Even though Italy has the highest proportion of elderly citizens in Europe, there is a lack of information on spatial heat-related elderly risks. Development of high-resolution, heat-related urban risk maps regarding the elderly population (≥ 65). A long time-series (2001-2013) of remote sensing MODIS data, averaged over the summer period for eleven major Italian cities, were downscaled to obtain high spatial resolution (100 m) daytime and night-time land surface temperatures (LST). LST was estimated pixel-wise by applying two statistical model approaches: 1) the Linear Regression Model (LRM); 2) the Generalized Additive Model (GAM). Total and elderly population density data were extracted from the Joint Research Centre population grid (100 m) from the 2001 census (Eurostat source), and processed together using "Crichton's Risk Triangle" hazard-risk methodology for obtaining a Heat-related Elderly Risk Index (HERI). The GAM procedure allowed for improved daytime and night-time LST estimations compared to the LRM approach. High-resolution maps of daytime and night-time HERI levels were developed for inland and coastal cities. Urban areas with the hazardous HERI level (very high risk) were not necessarily characterized by the highest temperatures. The hazardous HERI level was generally localized to encompass the city-centre in inland cities and the inner area in coastal cities. The two most dangerous HERI levels were greater in the coastal rather than inland cities. This study shows the great potential of combining geospatial technologies and spatial demographic characteristics within a simple and flexible framework in order to provide high-resolution urban mapping of daytime and night-time HERI. In this way, potential areas for intervention are immediately identified with up-to-street level details. This information could support public health operators and facilitate coordination for heat-related
Full Text Available Short-term impacts of high temperatures on the elderly are well known. Even though Italy has the highest proportion of elderly citizens in Europe, there is a lack of information on spatial heat-related elderly risks.Development of high-resolution, heat-related urban risk maps regarding the elderly population (≥ 65.A long time-series (2001-2013 of remote sensing MODIS data, averaged over the summer period for eleven major Italian cities, were downscaled to obtain high spatial resolution (100 m daytime and night-time land surface temperatures (LST. LST was estimated pixel-wise by applying two statistical model approaches: 1 the Linear Regression Model (LRM; 2 the Generalized Additive Model (GAM. Total and elderly population density data were extracted from the Joint Research Centre population grid (100 m from the 2001 census (Eurostat source, and processed together using "Crichton's Risk Triangle" hazard-risk methodology for obtaining a Heat-related Elderly Risk Index (HERI.The GAM procedure allowed for improved daytime and night-time LST estimations compared to the LRM approach. High-resolution maps of daytime and night-time HERI levels were developed for inland and coastal cities. Urban areas with the hazardous HERI level (very high risk were not necessarily characterized by the highest temperatures. The hazardous HERI level was generally localized to encompass the city-centre in inland cities and the inner area in coastal cities. The two most dangerous HERI levels were greater in the coastal rather than inland cities.This study shows the great potential of combining geospatial technologies and spatial demographic characteristics within a simple and flexible framework in order to provide high-resolution urban mapping of daytime and night-time HERI. In this way, potential areas for intervention are immediately identified with up-to-street level details. This information could support public health operators and facilitate coordination for heat-related
Hofhuis, José G M; van Stel, Henk F.; Schrijvers, Augustinus J P; Rommes, Johannes H.; Spronk, Peter E.
Purpose: Severe critical illness requiring treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU) may have a serious impact on patients and their families. However, optimal follow-up periods are not defined and data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) before ICU admission as well as those beyond 2 years f
Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas;
PURPOSE: Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether....... The reference group (n = 59) received lectures, and the aerobic exercise group (n = 57) performed worksite aerobic exercise (30 min twice a week). Levels of biomarkers (high-sensitive C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, cholesterol, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride) were collected...... at baseline and after 4 months. A repeated-measure, multi-adjusted, mixed-model intention-to-treat analysis was applied to compare between-group differences. The study was registered as ISRCTN86682076. RESULTS: Significant (p high...
Malmusi, Davide; Borrell, Carme; Benach, Joan
In this paper, we briefly review theories and findings on migration and health from the health equity perspective, and then analyse migration-related health inequalities taking into account gender, social class and migration characteristics in the adult population aged 25-64 living in Catalonia, Spain. On the basis of the characterisation of migration types derived from the review, we distinguished between immigrants from other regions of Spain and those from other countries, and within each group, those from richer or poorer areas; foreign immigrants from low-income countries were also distinguished according to duration of residence. Further stratification by sex and social class was applied. Groups were compared in relation to self-assessed health in two cross-sectional population-based surveys, and in relation to indicators of socio-economic conditions (individual income, an index of material and financial assets, and an index of employment precariousness) in one survey. Social class and gender inequalities were evident in both health and socio-economic conditions, and within both the native and immigrant subgroups. Migration-related health inequalities affected both internal and international immigrants, but were mainly limited to those from poor areas, were generally consistent with their socio-economic deprivation, and apparently more pronounced in manual social classes and especially for women. Foreign immigrants from poor countries had the poorest socio-economic situation but relatively better health (especially men with shorter length of residence). Our findings on immigrants from Spain highlight the transitory nature of the 'healthy immigrant effect', and that action on inequality in socio-economic determinants affecting migrant groups should not be deferred.
Khan, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Milne, Roger L.; Muranen, Taru A.; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per; Irwanto, Astrid; Humphreys, Keith; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Gibson, Lorna; Aitken, Zoe; Hopper, John L.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Bui, Minh; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Stone, Jennifer; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hunter, David J.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Veer, Laura J. V. a. n't.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Schrauder, Michael G.; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, Pilar M.; Perez, Jose I. A.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Olson, Janet E.; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Paridaens, Robert; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mulot, Claire; Marme, Frederick; Burwinkel, Barbara; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Asperen, Christi J.; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Barile, Monica; Mariani, Paolo; Hooning, Maartje J.; Martens, John W. M.; Collée, J. Margriet; Jager, Agnes; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Giles, Graham G.; McLean, Catriona; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Jones, Michael; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Easton, Douglas F.; Nevanlinna, Heli
Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–0.96), rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95–0.99), rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94–0.99), rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95–0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01–1.05) located in the 3′ UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects. PMID:25390939
Full Text Available Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in microRNAs (miRNA or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS. Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC. Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.88-0.96, rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99, rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05 located in the 3' UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects.
Khan, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Milne, Roger L; Muranen, Taru A; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per; Irwanto, Astrid; Humphreys, Keith; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Gibson, Lorna; Aitken, Zoe; Hopper, John L; Tsimiklis, Helen; Bui, Minh; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Southey, Melissa C; Apicella, Carmel; Stone, Jennifer; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A; van der Luijt, Rob B; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Chanock, Stephen J; Hunter, David J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J; Hogervorst, Frans B; Fasching, Peter A; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, Pilar M; Perez, Jose I A; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Pharoah, Paul D P; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Olson, Janet E; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Paridaens, Robert; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mulot, Claire; Marme, Frederick; Burwinkel, Barbara; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Asperen, Christi J; Kristensen, Vessela N; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Ambrosone, Christine B; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Barile, Monica; Mariani, Paolo; Hooning, Maartje J; Martens, John W M; Collée, J Margriet; Jager, Agnes; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Giles, Graham G; McLean, Catriona; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Jones, Michael; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Easton, Douglas F; Nevanlinna, Heli
Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-0.96), rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99), rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99), rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) located in the 3' UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects.
Full Text Available Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR, 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.01 to 1.35; I2 = 53.8%; p = 0.007. High levels of total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (RRs ranging from 0.92 to 0.95; all p < 0.05. The stratified analysis based on AMD subtypes showed that these blood lipids were only significantly associated with the risk of early AMD (all p < 0.05. The association between the blood lipids and AMD risk did not differ substantially based on the other characteristics of the participants. A high HDL-C level was associated with an increased AMD risk, whereas participants with high TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations may show a decreased risk for this disease. Further well-designed large studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions.
Hansen, Stefan Nygaard; Andersen, Per Kragh; Parner, Erik Thorlund
been computed, can be fitted using standard generalized estimating equation software. Regression models can however yield problematic results if the number of covariates is large in relation to the number of events observed. Guidelines of events per variable are often used in practice. These rules...... of thumb for the number of events per variable have primarily been established based on simulation studies for the logistic regression model and Cox regression model. In this paper we conduct a simulation study to examine the small sample behavior of the pseudo-observation method to estimate risk...... differences and relative risks for right-censored data. We investigate how coverage probabilities and relative bias of the pseudo-observation estimator interact with sample size, number of variables and average number of events per variable....
Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy
This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.
Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.
We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.
In 2003, EPA produced an external review draft of a multi-year comprehensive reassessment of dioxin exposure and human health effects. This reassessment, Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds, was submitted to the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) for review in October 2004. In 2006, the NAS expert panel published its review titled Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment. The NAS expert panel’s Key Findings, as listed in the Public Summary of its review, identified “three areas that require substantial improvement to support a scientifically robust health assessment: •Justification of approaches to dose-response modeling for cancer and non-cancer end points. •Transparency and clarity in selection of key data sets for analysis. •Transparency, thoroughness, and clarity in quantitative uncertainty analysis.” The NAS also recommended that “EPA routinely monitor new scientific information related to TCDD…with the understanding that future revisions should provide a risk assessment based on the current state-of-the-science.” The objective of this project is to respond to NAS coments on dose-response modeling conducted in the EPA Reassessment of the health effects associated with dioxin exposure. In order to do this, we will address the Key Findings of the NAS review in a transparent and open manner.
Anderson, Brian A; Kronemer, Sharif I; Rilee, Jessica J; Sacktor, Ned; Marvel, Cherie L
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is often contracted through engaging in risky reward-motivated behaviors such as needle sharing and unprotected sex. Understanding the factors that make an individual more vulnerable to succumbing to the temptation to engage in these risky behaviors is important to limiting the spread of HIV. One potential source of this vulnerability concerns the degree to which an individual is able to resist paying attention to irrelevant reward information. In the present study, we examine this possible link by characterizing individual differences in value-based attentional bias in a sample of HIV+ individuals with varying histories of risk-taking behavior. Participants learned associations between experimental stimuli and monetary reward outcome. The degree of attentional bias for these reward-associated stimuli, reflected in their ability to capture attention when presented as task-irrelevant distractors, was then assessed both immediately and six months following reward learning. Value-driven attentional capture was related to substance abuse history and non-planning impulsiveness during the time leading up to contraction of HIV as measured via self-report. These findings suggest a link between the ability to ignore reward-associated information and prior HIV-related risk-taking behavior. Additionally, particular aspects of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders were related to attentional bias, including motor deficits commonly associated with HIV-induced damage to the basal ganglia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Phthalates might be implicated with obesity and insulin sensitivity. We evaluated the levels of primary and secondary metabolites of Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP in urine in obese and normal-weight subjects both before and during puberty, and investigated their relationships with auxological parameters and indexes of insulin sensitivity.DEHP metabolites (MEHP, 6-OH-MEHP, 5-oxo-MEHP, 5-OH-MEHP, and 5-CX-MEHP, were measured in urine by RP-HPLC-ESI-MS. Traditional statistical analysis and a data mining analysis using the Auto-CM analysis were able to offer an insight into the complex biological connections between the studied variables.The data showed changes in DEHP metabolites in urine related with obesity, puberty, and presence of insulin resistance. Changes in urine metabolites were related with age, height and weight, waist circumference and waist to height ratio, thus to fat distribution. In addition, clear relationships in both obese and normal-weight subjects were detected among MEHP, its products of oxidation and measurements of insulin sensitivity.It remains to be elucidated whether exposure to phthalates per se is actually the risk factor or if the ability of the body to metabolize phthalates is actually the key point. Further studies that span from conception to elderly subjects besides further understanding of DEHP metabolism are warranted to clarify these aspects.
Dimitar Grozdanov Christozov
Full Text Available This paper discusses applications of the measures of the risk of misinforming and the role of the warranty of misinforming in the context of the informing component of Customer Related Management (CRM issues. This study consists of two parts. Firstly, we propose an approach for customers’ grouping based on their attitude toward assessing product's properties and their expertise on the terminology/domain of the seller’s message describing the product. Also we discuss what the most appropriate personal/group warranty is for each of these group/clusters.
Samih Antoine Azar
Full Text Available In this paper, expected utility, defined by a Taylor series expansion around expected wealth, is maximized. The coefficient of relative risk aversion (CRRA that is commensurate with a 100% investment in the risky asset is simulated. The following parameters are varied: the riskless return, the market standard deviation, the market stock premium, and the skewness and the kurtosis of the risky return. Both the high extremes and the low extremes are considered. With these figures, the upper bound of the market CRRA is 3.021 and the lower bound is 0.466. Log utility, which corresponds to a CRRA of 1, is not excluded.
Tabor, Ann; Alfirevic, Zarko
from randomised controlled trials as well as from systematic reviews and a large national registry study are consistent with a procedure-related miscarriage rate of 0.5-1.0% for amniocentesis as well as for chorionic villus sampling (CVS). In single-center studies performance may be remarkably good due...... to very skilled operators, but these figures cannot be used for general counselling. Amniocentesis performed prior to 15 weeks had a significantly higher miscarriage rate than CVS and mid-trimester amniocentesis, and also increased the risk of talipes equinovarus. Amniocentesis should therefore...
<正> Story: Show Time!The whole class presents the story"Under the Sea".Everyone is so excited and happy.Both Leo and Kathy show their parentsthe characters of the play."Who’s he?"asks Kathy’s mom."He’s the prince."Kathy replies."Who’s she?"asks Leo’s dad."She’s the queen."Leo replieswith a smile.
@@ The State Administration of Radio,Film and Television (SARFT),China's media watchdog,issued a new set of mles on June 9 that strictly regulate TV match-making shows,which have been sweeping the country's primetime programming. "Improper social and love values such as money worship should not be presented in these shows.Humiliation,verbal attacks and sex-implied vulgar content are not allowed" the new roles said.
Otrock, Z K; Liu, C; Grossman, B J
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a life-threatening complication of transfusion. Greater understanding of the pathophysiology of this syndrome has much improved during the last two decades. Plasma-containing components from female donors with leucocyte antibodies were responsible for the majority of TRALI fatalities before mitigation strategies were implemented. Over the past 15 years, measures to mitigate risk for TRALI have been implemented worldwide and they continued to evolve with time. The AABB requires that all plasma containing components and whole blood for transfusion must be collected from men, women who have not been pregnant, or women who have tested negative for human leucocyte antigen antibodies. Although the incidence of TRALI has decreased following the institution of TRALI mitigation strategies, TRALI is still the most common cause of transfusion-associated death in the United States. In this review, we focus on TRALI risk mitigation strategies. We describe the measures taken by blood collection facilities to reduce the risk of TRALI in the United States, Canada and European countries. We also review the literature for the effectiveness of these measures. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; O’Grady, Kevin E.
Aims Drunk driving is a major public health concern, but drugged driving has received little attention. This study examines drugged driving and riding with a drugged driver in a college student sample, in terms of prevalence, age-related trends, race/sex differences, overlap with drunk driving, and risk for alcohol and marijuana dependence. Methods Students (N=1194) ages 19 to 22 were interviewed annually for three years about past-year frequency of drugged driving, riding with a drugged/drunk driver, drunk driving, access to a car, and alcohol/drug dependence. Annual follow-up rates were excellent (88% to 91%). Repeated measures analyses were conducted using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results One in six (17%wt) 19-year-olds with access to a car drove drugged in the past year; prevalence remained stable through age 22. Drugged driving was more prevalent among males (pdrunk (ranges between 47% and 60%). Both drugged and drunk driving were independently associated with increased risk for alcohol dependence, holding constant age, sex, and race. Drunk driving did not add to the risk for marijuana dependence in the context of drugged driving. Conclusions The prevalence of drugged driving is similar to drunk driving among college students. Both are strongly associated with underlying alcohol and drug dependence. Prevention and treatment implications are discussed. PMID:21601379
Hubbs, Ann; Greskevitch, Mark; Kuempel, Eileen; Suarez, Fernando; Toraason, Mark
Workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica used in abrasive blasting are at increased risk of developing a debilitating and often fatal fibrotic lung disease called silicosis. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends that silica sand be prohibited as abrasive blasting material and that less hazardous materials be used in blasting operations. However, data are needed on the relative risks associated with exposure to abrasive blasting materials other than silica. NIOSH has completed acute studies in rats (Hubbs et al., 2001; Porter et al., 2002). To provide dose-response data applicable to making recommendation for occupational exposure limits, NIOSH has collaborated with the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to design longer term studies with silica substitutes. For risk assessment purposes, selected doses will include concentrations that are relevant to human exposures. Rat lung burdens achieved should be comparable to those estimated in humans with working lifetime exposures, even if this results in "overloading" doses in rats. To quantify both dose and response, retained particle burdens in the lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes will be measured, as well as biochemical and pathological indices of pulmonary response. This design will facilitate assessment of the pulmonary fibrogenic potential of inhaled abrasive blasting agents at occupationally relevant concentrations.
Dusan, F; Toribio, J-A; East, I J
To assess biosecurity practices in the fancy poultry show sector that would influence the establishment and spread of exotic diseases in poultry in New South Wales. A cross-sectional survey of 105 fancy poultry exhibitors at seven agricultural shows. Exhibitors were interviewed about biosecurity practices on their farms and their knowledge of exotic diseases. Poultry stewards at 18 shows were interviewed about biosecurity practices at their shows. Although many exhibitors travelled only short distances to attend shows, some exhibitors attended up to 30 shows per year and travelled interstate to exhibit poultry. A network diagram revealed extensive connections and interactions of poultry throughout the eastern half of NSW. Five of 18 shows included cash sales without any record of purchasers; 46% of exhibitors reintroduced exhibited birds back into their flocks without a quarantine period; and 16% failed to wash cages used to transport the birds. There was a general awareness that exhibition of birds posed a risk to flock health, but knowledge of avian influenza and practices that could be adopted to minimise the risk of disease introduction was limited. The factors that could assist the establishment and spread of exotic diseases in poultry in NSW include the mixing of birds at shows, inadequate recording of exhibitor details at shows, inadequate biosecurity practices when reintroducing exhibited poultry back into flocks, cash sales associated with shows that did not include the collection of purchaser details, and inadequate identification of birds.
Pass, Rachel; Frudd, Karen; Barnett, James P; Blindauer, Claudia A; Brown, David R
The cellular prion protein has been identified as a metalloprotein that binds copper. There have been some suggestions that prion protein also influences zinc and manganese homeostasis. In this study we used a series of cell lines to study the levels of zinc and manganese under different conditions. We overexpressed either the prion protein or known transporters for zinc and manganese to determine relations between the prion protein and both manganese and zinc homeostasis. Our observations supported neither a link between the prion protein and zinc metabolism nor any effect of altered zinc levels on prion protein expression or cellular infection with prions. In contrast we found that a gain of function mutant of a manganese transporter caused reduction of manganese levels in prion infected cells, loss of observable PrP(Sc) in cells and resistance to prion infection. These studies strengthen the link between manganese and prion disease.
Pifarré, P; Simó, M; Gispert, J-D; Plaza, P; Fernández, A; Pujol, J
A non-pharmacological method to reduce anxiety is "progressive relaxation" (PR). The aim of the method is to reduce mental stress and associated mental processes by means of progressive suppression of muscle tension. The study was addressed to evaluate changes in brain glucose metabolism induced by PR in patients under a stressing state generated by a diagnostic medical intervention. The effect of PR was compared to a dose of sublingual diazepam, with the prediction that both interventions would be associated with a reduction in brain metabolism. Eighty-four oncological patients were assessed with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. Maps of brain glucose distribution from 28 patients receiving PR were compared with maps from 28 patients receiving sublingual diazepam and with 28 patients with no treatment intervention. Compared to reference control subjects, the PR and diazepam groups showed a statistically significant, bilateral and generalized cortical hypometabolism. Regions showing the most prominent changes were the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. No significant differences were identified in the direct comparison between relaxation technique and sublingual diazepam. Our findings suggest that relaxation induced by a physical/psychological procedure can be as effective as a reference anxiolytic in reducing brain activity during a stressful state.
Full Text Available The tubenose goby, Proterorhinus semilunaris, has expanded its range throughout Europe. Comprehensive studies to identify its impact on native riverine ecosystems, however, are relatively scarce. Here, we evaluate dietary preferences of P. semilunaris on a non-native river to reveal any such impacts. Fish were sampled monthly over 2011–2012 from three sites along the River Dyje (Czech Republic; Danube basin with differing population levels and food availability. Both the amount of food consumed and dietary composition varied seasonally, with site having a strong effect. Food consumed differed between males and females, but not dietary composition; while diet differed between age classes, but not food consumed. In general, Trichoptera, Chironomidae and zooplankton dominated the diet at all sites, with Trichoptera taken more often earlier in the year and zooplankton later. Mussels were always avoided, despite high abundance, while less preferred prey were occasionally taken in high numbers in response to increased availability or energy demand (e.g. spawning. Fish eggs and fry (all P. semilunaris were only taken in high numbers at one site, being related to high population level and fry drift from a reservoir. Male feeding declined over the breeding season, presumably due to nest guarding, while female feeding declined over winter, possibly resulting in high mortality. Proterorhinus semilunaris is a feeding opportunist, which may facilitate colonisation in habitats with poor prey availability. No predation pressure on native species was observed through consumption of eggs or fry, though small/young indigenous fish may be affected through diet competition.
Achenbach, P; Bonifacio, E; Williams, A J K;
. METHODS: Autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), glutamate decarboxylase (GADA) and IA-2 (IA2A) were measured in 549 participants at study entry, and IA2A-positive samples tested for IA2betaA. First-phase insulin response (FPIR) and oral glucose tolerance were determined at baseline. RESULTS: Of 212 ICA/IA2A......-positive participants (median age 12.1 years; 57% male), 113 developed diabetes (5 year cumulative risk 56%), and 148 were also GADA-positive and IAA-positive (4Ab-positive). IA2betaA were detected in 137 (65%) ICA/IA2A-positive participants and were associated with an increased 5 year diabetes risk (IA2beta......A-positive 65 vs 39% in IA2betaA-negative, p=0.0002). The effect was most marked in 4Ab-positive relatives (72% vs 52%, p=0.003). Metabolic testing further refined risk assessment. Among 101 4Ab-positive relatives with IA2betaA, the 5 year risk was 94% in those with a low FPIR (vs 50% in those with a normal...
Wong, Nathan D; Sciammarella, Maria; Arad, Yadon; Miranda-Peats, Romalisa; Polk, Donna; Hachamovich, Rory; Friedman, John; Hayes, Sean; Daniell, Anthony; Berman, Daniel S
Aortic calcium, aortic valve calcium (AVC), and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have been associated with cardiovascular event risk. We examined the prevalence of thoracic aortic calcium (TAC) and AVC in relation to the presence and extent of CAC, cardiovascular risk factors, and estimated risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). In 2,740 persons without known CHD aged 20 to 79 years, CAC was assessed by electron beam- or multidetector-computed tomography. We determined the prevalence of TAC and AVC in relation to CAC, CHD risk factors, and predicted 10-year risk of CHD. A close correspondence of TAC and AVC was observed with CAC. TAC and AVC increased with age; by the eighth decade of life, the prevalence of TAC was similar to that of CAC (>80%), and 36% of men and 24% of women had AVC. Age, male gender, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were directly related to the likelihood of CAC, TAC, and AVC; higher diastolic blood pressure and cigarette smoking additionally predicted CAC. Body mass index and higher systolic and lower diastolic blood pressures were also related to TAC, and higher body mass index and lower diastolic blood pressure were related to AVC. Calculated risk of CHD increased with the presence of AVC and TAC across levels of CAC. TAC and AVC provided incremental value over CAC in association with the 10-year calculated risk of CHD. If longitudinal studies show an incremental value of aortic and aortic valve calcium over that of CAC for prediction of cardiovascular events, future guidelines for risk assessment incorporating CAC assessment may additionally incorporate the measurement of aortic and/or aortic valve calcium.
Usset, Joseph L; Raghavan, Rama; Tyrer, Jonathan P; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Webb, Penelope; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Berchuck, Andrew; Brinton, Louise; Cunningham, Julie M; DeFazio, Anna; Doherty, Jennifer A; Edwards, Robert P; Gayther, Simon A; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Goodman, Marc T; Høgdall, Estrid; Jensen, Allan; Johnatty, Sharon E; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Kjaer, Susanne K; Larson, Melissa C; Lurie, Galina; Massuger, Leon; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Pike, Malcolm C; Ramus, Susan J; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph; Song, Honglin; Thompson, Pamela J; van den Berg, David J; Vierkant, Robert A; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wu, Anna H; Yang, Hannah; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Pharoah, Paul; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L
Many epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk factors relate to hormone exposure and elevated estrogen levels are associated with obesity in postmenopausal women. Therefore, we hypothesized that gene-environment interactions related to hormone-related risk factors could differ between obese and non-obese women. We considered interactions between 11,441 SNPs within 80 candidate genes related to hormone biosynthesis and metabolism and insulin-like growth factors with six hormone-related factors (oral contraceptive use, parity, endometriosis, tubal ligation, hormone replacement therapy, and estrogen use) and assessed whether these interactions differed between obese and non-obese women. Interactions were assessed using logistic regression models and data from 14 case-control studies (6,247 cases; 10,379 controls). Histotype-specific analyses were also completed. SNPs in the following candidate genes showed notable interaction: IGF1R (rs41497346, estrogen plus progesterone hormone therapy, histology = all, P = 4.9 × 10(-6)) and ESR1 (rs12661437, endometriosis, histology = all, P = 1.5 × 10(-5)). The most notable obesity-gene-hormone risk factor interaction was within INSR (rs113759408, parity, histology = endometrioid, P = 8.8 × 10(-6)). We have demonstrated the feasibility of assessing multifactor interactions in large genetic epidemiology studies. Follow-up studies are necessary to assess the robustness of our findings for ESR1, CYP11A1, IGF1R, CYP11B1, INSR, and IGFBP2 Future work is needed to develop powerful statistical methods able to detect these complex interactions. Assessment of multifactor interaction is feasible, and, here, suggests that the relationship between genetic variants within candidate genes and hormone-related risk factors may vary EOC susceptibility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(5); 780-90. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.
Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D
Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.
Strand, Sarah; Lechuga, David; Zachariah, Thomas; Beaulieu, Kathryn
The objective of this study was to determine the relative risk and reported symptoms of concussions in 11- to 13-year-old, female soccer players. For this, a survey to compare the reported incidence of concussion in age-matched female soccer players to nonsoccer players was performed. The survey included 342 girls between the ages of 11 and 13: 195 were involved in an organized soccer team and 147 were not involved in organized soccer but were allowed to participate in any other sport or activity. A total of 94 of the 195 soccer players, or 48%, reported at least one symptom consistent with a concussion. The most prevalent symptom for these girls was headache (84%). A total of 34 of the 147 nonsoccer players, or 23%, reported at least one symptom consistent with a concussion in the previous six months. These results determined that the relative risk of probable concussions among 11- to 13-year-old, female soccer players is 2.09 (p concussions in young female soccer players is significantly higher than in a control group of nonsoccer players of the same sex and age.
Tamosiūnas, Abdonas; Reklaitiene, Regina; Domarkiene, Stanislava; Baceviciene, Migle; Virviciūte, Dalia
The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of risk factors in different occupational groups of Kaunas men and women aged 35-64 years, and to assess the prognostic value of occupation on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. The four random samples of Kaunas men and women (3,293 men and 3,561 women) aged 35-64 years from the Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) study (1983-2002) were examined using the standard epidemiological methods. The participants of the first three surveys were followed-up, in terms the end points reached, from the beginning of each survey until January 1, 2004. A multivariate Cox model was used for the analysis. In 1983-1984, the proportion of manual workers was greater than proportion of non-manual workers among both men and women. Twenty years later, the proportion of female manual workers decreased twice to 26.2%. The prevalence of majority risk factors showed no difference in manual and non-manual workers among both men and women. The risk of death from cardiovascular diseases among manual workers was 1.5 times greater than among non-manual workers. The different prognostic value of various variables has been determined on all-cause mortality risk in groups of manual and non-manual workers.
van de Werfhorst, Herman G; Hofstede, Saskia
In this paper we empirically examined two explanatory mechanisms for educational inequality: cultural reproduction and relative risk aversion, using survey data taken from secondary school pupils in Amsterdam. Cultural reproduction theory seeks to explain class variations in schooling by cultural differences between social classes. Relative risk aversion theory argues that educational inequalities can be understood by between-class variation in the necessity of pursuing education at branching points in order to avoid downward mobility. We showed that class variations in early demonstrated ability are for a substantial part cultural: cultural capital - measured by parental involvement in highbrow culture - affected school performance at the primary and secondary level. However, relative risk aversion - operationalized by being concerned with downward mobility - strongly affects schooling ambitions, whereas cultural capital had no effect. Thus, we conclude that 'primary effects' of social origin on schooling outcomes are manifested through cultural capital and not through relative risk aversion (in addition to other potential sources of class variations such as genetics). Relative risk aversion, and not cultural capital, affects schooling ambitions, which is relevant for our understanding of secondary effects.
Full Text Available Obese people are at higher risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD than people with normal body fat. Therefore, the aim of this review was to synthetize the traditional risk factors for CVD. The search was made in Medline and Scielo, using the key-words cardiovascular disease, glucose, triglycerides, lipoproteins, obesity and body fat distribution. The studies showed that high values of glicemia, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides and, low rate of high-density lipoproteins are the main risk factors associated with central body fat distribution, which seems to be a greater risk factor for CDV than obesity itself. RESUMO Pessoas obesas têm um risco mais elevado para o desenvolvimento de doenças cardiovasculares do que pessoas com gordura corporal normal. Portanto, o objetivo desta revisão foi sintetizar os fatores de risco mais tradicionais para as doenças cardiovasculares (DCV. A pesquisa foi feita no Medline e Scielo, usando as palavras-chave doença cardiovascular, glicose, triglicérides, lipoproteínas, obesidade e distribuição da gordura corporal. Os estudos mostraram que altas taxas de glicemia, lipoproteínas de baixa densidade, triglicérides e baixa taxa de lipoproteínas de alta densidade são os principais fatores de risco, para as DCV, associados à distribuição da gordura na região central. Esta gordura parece ser o maior fator de risco para as DCV, associada à glicemia, lipoproteínas de baixa densidade, triglicérides e lipoproteínas de alta densidade, do que a obesidade por si só.
Herbert, Andrew P; Deakin, Jon A; Schmidt, Christoph Q; Blaum, Bärbel S; Egan, Claire; Ferreira, Viviana P; Pangburn, Michael K; Lyon, Malcolm; Uhrín, Dusan; Barlow, Paul N
A common single nucleotide polymorphism in the factor H gene predisposes to age-related macular degeneration. Factor H blocks the alternative pathway of complement on self-surfaces bearing specific polyanions, including the glycosaminoglycan chains of proteoglycans. Factor H also binds C-reactive protein, potentially contributing to noninflammatory apoptotic processes. The at risk sequence contains His (rather than Tyr) at position 402 (384 in the mature protein), in the seventh of the 20 complement control protein (CCP) modules (CCP7) of factor H. We expressed both His(402) and Tyr(402) variants of CCP7, CCP7,8, and CCP6-8. We determined structures of His(402) and Tyr(402) CCP7 and showed them to be nearly identical. The side chains of His/Tyr(402) have similar, solvent-exposed orientations far from interfaces with CCP6 and -8. Tyr(402) CCP7 bound significantly more tightly than His(402) CCP7 to a heparin affinity column as well as to defined-length sulfated heparin oligosaccharides employed in gel mobility shift assays. This observation is consistent with the position of the 402 side chain on the edge of one of two glycosaminoglycan-binding surface patches on CCP7 that we inferred on the basis of chemical shift perturbation studies with a sulfated heparin tetrasaccharide. According to surface plasmon resonance measurements, Tyr(402) CCP6-8 binds significantly more tightly than His(402) CCP6-8 to immobilized C-reactive protein. The data support a causal link between H402Y and age-related macular degeneration in which variation at position 402 modulates the response of factor H to age-related changes in the glycosaminoglycan composition and apoptotic activity of the macula.
Ahmad Jafarnejad; Mehran Ebrahimi; Mohammad Ali Abbaszadeh; Seyed Mehdi Abtahi
Nowadays, supply chains are exposed to numerous risks. Thus, to success in risky business environment, it is imperative for firms to systematically manage supply chain risks. Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of supply chain risks. The purpose of this paper is to propose a comprehensive approach to risk management in supply chains. Thus, by an appropriate review of the literature, supply chain risk sources are identified in six areas. Then, a CFPR method is...
Visitors look at plane models of the Commercial Aircraft Corp. of China, developer of the count,s first homegrown large passenger jet C919, during the Singapore Airshow on February 16. The biennial event is the largest airshow in Asia and one of the most important aviation and defense shows worldwide. A number of Chinese companies took part in the event during which Okay Airways, the first privately owned aidine in China, signed a deal to acquire 12 Boeing 737 jets.
Rutter, D R; Quine, L; Albery, I P
In the first phase of a prospective investigation, a national sample of motorcyclists completed a postal questionnaire about their perceptions of risk, their behaviour on the roads and their history of accidents and spills. In the second phase a year later, they reported on their accident history and behaviour over the preceding 12 months. A total of 723 respondents completed both questionnaires. Four sets of findings are reported. First, the group as a whole showed unrealistic optimism: on average, respondents believed themselves to be less at risk than other motorcyclists of an accident needing hospital treatment in the next year. Second, optimism was tempered by 'relative realism', in that respondents who were young and inexperienced saw themselves as more at risk than other motorcyclists, as did riders who reported risky behaviours on the road. Third, there was some evidence of debiasing by personal history, in that having a friend or a relative who had been killed or injured on the roads was associated with perceptions of absolute risk of injury or death--though there were no effects on comparative risk and no effects on any of the judgments of a history of accidents of one's own. Finally, there was good evidence that perceptions of risk predicted subsequent behaviour, though generally in the direction not of precaution adoption but of precaution abandonment: the greater the perceived risk at time 1, the more frequent the risky behaviour at time 2. The implications of the findings are discussed, and possible interpretations are suggested.
Trick, Sarah; Jantzer, Vanessa; Haffner, Johann; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz
Parental Monitoring and its Relation to Behaviour Problems and Risk Behaviour in an Adolescent School Sample Numerous research studies emphasize parental monitoring as a protective factor for adolescent problem behaviour. The purpose of the study presented was to use Stattin and Kerr's (2000) monitoring subscales for the first time in a German-speaking area and to explore the relations to behaviour problems in an adolescent school sample. The two active monitoring strategies "parental control" and "parental solicitation" as well as "parental knowledge" and "child disclosure" relating to behaviour problems and risk behaviour were examined. A sample of 494 pupils, grades 5, 7 and 9, of German secondary schools and their parents answered questions on "parental knowledge", "control", "solicitation" and "child disclosure". Adolescents also answered the German version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and items about risk behaviour like frequency of violence, delinquency, substance abuse, self-injuring behaviour and school absenteeism. Behaviour problems in terms of the SDQ could be predicted sufficiently by "parental knowledge", but for the prediction of risk behaviour, the active parental monitoring strategies were of importance, too. More "parental knowledge", more "control" and less "solicitation" could predict less risk behaviour. Results confirm "parental knowledge" as a general protective factor for problem behaviour. However, they show the importance of "parental control" for adolescent risk behaviour.
Terrorism presents a significant risk that is often approached at public policy, infrastructure, or emergency management level. Public perceptions of the likelihood of terrorist events, and how this may relate to individual preparedness, are not always extensively examined. The tendency to think that negative events are less likely to happen to oneself than to the average person is known as optimism bias. Optimism bias is relevant to perceptions of terrorism, because it is thought to be related to a reduction in precaution use. Using an online survey of 164 participants, this study aimed to determine whether Sydney residents thought they had a lower likelihood of experiencing terrorist events than other Australians. Significant optimism bias was observed for witnessing terrorist events, but not for personally experiencing terrorist events. In addition, Sydney residents tended to think that terrorist attacks were more likely to occur in Sydney than another major Australian city in the next five years. At the same time, household and workplace preparedness for terrorism was quite low, as was awareness of emergency strategies in the central business district. Perceptions of high likelihood of terrorism happening in one's own city, yet low preparedness present a challenge for risk communication and emergency management strategies. The diversity of possible terrorist targets, and the simple plans that can moderate the effects of a disaster may need to be emphasized in future anti-terrorism initiatives. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.
Suzana Maria Della Lucia
Full Text Available The acceptance of the product is very complex and it involves not only its sensory attributes but also non-sensory characteristics, often presented in the packaging or related to concepts regarding the consumer. The relative risk test was applied in order to investigate the effect of the brand, a non-sensory characteristic, on consumers’ acceptance of beer. Eight commercial brands of Pilsen beer were evaluated by 101 consumers in two sessions of acceptance tests: the blind test and the test with brand information. As a general view, it could be concluded that three brands of beer showed a positive impact over the sensory acceptance of the product and four brands negatively impacted on consumers’ evaluation. One of the brands did not show any influence over the consumers’ response. The relative risk method was practical and useful as it was easily calculated and reproduced, and its application permitted easy interpretation of the results.
Maria Noel Marzano Rodrigues Petruzzi
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk factors in the occurrence of oral lesions in HIV-positive adults. METHODS: A retrospective analytical-descriptive survey was conducted using the medical/dental records of 534 patients with oral lesions associated with HIV. The data were collected from five referral centers for managing HIV and associated comorbidities in the city of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, between 1996 and 2011. Using a standardized form, socio-demographic and clinical data were recorded. Exclusively and definitively diagnosed oral pathologies were included and classified according to ECC criteria on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. For data analysis cross-tabulations, Chi-squared tests and logistic regression models were used where appropriate. RESULTS: CD4+ counts lower than 350 cells/mm³ (p < 0.001, alcohol consumption (p = 0.011 and female gender (p = 0.031 were predisposing factors for oral candidiasis. The occurrence of hairy leukoplakia was independently associated with CD4+ counts below 500 cells/mm³, (p = 0.029 a viral load above 5,000 copies/mm³ (p = 0.003 and smoking (p = 0.005. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate and severe degrees of immunodeficiency and detectable viral loads were risk factors for the onset of oral lesions. Smoking and alcohol consumption also increased susceptibility to the development of opportunistic infections in HIV-positive adults from Porto Alegre, irrespective of the use of antiretroviral therapy.
Frost, K; Frank, E; Maibach, E
OBJECTIVES: This study quantifies the representativeness with which the print news media depict mortality. METHODS: The proportion of mortality-related copy in samples of national print media was compared with the proportion of actual deaths attributable to the leading causes of US mortality over a 1-year period. RESULTS: For every tested cause of death, a significant disproportion was found between amount of text devoted to the cause and the actual number of attributable deaths. Underrepresented causes included tobacco use (23% of expected copy) and heart disease (33%); overrepresented causes included illicit use of drugs (1740%), motor vehicles (1280%), and toxic agents (1070%). CONCLUSIONS: The news media significantly misrepresent the prevalence of leading causes of death and their risk factors. This misrepresentation may contribute to the public's distorted perceptions of health threats. PMID:9184517
Full Text Available Almost every natural disaster is accompanied by some sort of technological one. A number of studies also show a correlation between technological disasters and various global processes such as solar disturbances, geophysical field variation etc. In this study we attempted to ascertain and codify the relationship between different types of technological disasters and natural hazards. Two types of natural hazards were found, based on their genesis, distribution in time, and impact pattern on the technosphere. Solar and geomagnetic disturbances generally affect technological risk through the failure of automatic machinery and the reduction of operator reliability. They increase the probability of transport accidents, fires, and catastrophic toxic emissions. These types of technological disasters are widely prevalent throughout Russia and in all federal regions. Geological, climatic, hydrological, and other natural hazardous processes increase technological risk through direct mechanical impacts. Their occurrence in space and time depends on the character of the natural process and the specific regional environment. The total number and proportion of technological disasters in federal regions results mainly from the concentration of industrial units and their type, as well as the local natural and social environment. Temporal changes in the number of technological disasters of different groups depend on the prevailing type of natural processes.
Public relations in risk communication: risk pr. The importance of public relations for risk communication; Public Relations in der Risikokommunikation: Risiko-PR. Die Bedeutung von Public Relations fuer die Risikokommunikation
Risks have become a central problem of our time, as is reflected in concepts like 'society at risk' and 'anti-technological attitude', in group protest against risks and against those who cause them, and last but not least in the critical attitude of the media. Against this background, organisations must needs enter the public discussion and be able to communicate professionally and convincingly in order to ensure their own success and further existence. The book describes the basic problems of risk research and risk communications and discusses inhowfar, and how, public relations strategies and instruments can help here. [German] Risiken werden verstaerkt zum Problem unserer Zeit. Das belegen nicht nur Begriffe wie 'Risikogesellschaft' und 'Technikfeindlichkeit', die in letzter Zeit an Bedeutung gewonnen haben, sondern auch und vor allem nachhaltige Proteste von engagierten Gruppierungen gegen Risiken und deren Verursacher oder auch die kritische Berichterstattung der Medien. Vor diesem Hintergrund ist es fuer Organisationen erforderlich, in die oeffentliche Auseinandersetzung um Risiken einzusteigen und hier professionell und ueberzeugend zu kommunizieren, um den Organisationserfolg und Organisationsbestand zu sichern. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt die Grundprobleme der Risikoforschung und Risikokommunikation und diskutiert, ob und inwieweit Public Relations bei der Loesung dieser Probleme helfen koennen, da insbesondere Public Relations gezielt Strategien und Instrumente nutzen, um beispielsweise den Wissensstand der Oeffentlichkeit zu verbessern und den Dialog mit relevanten Teiloeffentlichkeiten zu foerdern. (orig.)
Bostrom, Ann; Anselin, Luc; Farris, Jeremy
Government agencies and other authorities often communicate earthquake risks using maps derived from geographic information systems. Yet, little is known about the effects of these maps on risk perceptions. While mental models research and other approaches are available to inform risk communication text design, similar empirically derived guidance is lacking for visual risk communications, such as maps, which are likely to trump text in their impact and appeal. This paper reviews the empirical research that might inform such guidance. Research on graphs, spatial and visual perception, and map design suggests that graphics increase risk avoidance over numerical risk representations, and countable visuals, like dots, can increase the accuracy of perceived risks, but not always. Cartographic design features, such as color, animation, interactivity, and depth cues, are all candidates to represent risk and uncertainty and to influence risk perception. While there are robust known effects of color (e.g., red = danger), with some cultural variability, animation can increase the salience of otherwise obscure features but is not uniformly effective. Depth cues, dimensionality, and the extent to which a representation depicts versus symbolizes a scene will influence the viewer's perspective and perception, depending on the viewer's familiarity with the scene; their effects on risk perception remain unclear. The translation and representation of technical information about risk and uncertainty is critical to risk communication effectiveness. Our review suggests a handful of candidate criteria for evaluating the effects of risk visualizations, short of changes in behavior: accuracy, accessibility, retention, and perceived risk and usefulness.
Geng QIAN; Hong-bin LIU; Jin-wen WANG; Chen WU; Yun-dai CHEN
Although cardiac rupture (CR) is a fatal mechanical complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI),to date no predictive model for CR has been described.CR has common pathological characteristics with major bleeding.We aimed to investigate the relationship between the risk factors of major bleeding and CR.A total of 10202 consecutive AMI patients were recruited,and mechanical complications occurred in 72 patients.AMI patients without CR were chosen as control group.Clinical characteristics including bleeding-related factors were compared between the groups.The incidences of free wall rupture (FWR),ventricular septal rupture (VSR),and papillary muscle rupture (PMR) were 0.39％,0.21％,and 0.09％,respectively,and the hospital mortalities were 92.5％,45.5％,and 10.0％,respectively.Female proportion and average age were significantly higher in the groups of FWR and VSR than in the control group (P＜0.01); higher white blood cell count and lower hemoglobin were found in all CR groups (P＜0.01).Compared to the control group,patients with CR were more likely to receive an administration of thrombolysis [26.39％vs.13.19％,P＜0.05],and were less likely to be treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) [41.67％vs.81.60％,P＜0.05].The major bleeding scores (integer scores) of FWR,VSR,and PMR were (17.70±7.24),(21.91±8.33),and (18.60±7.88),respectively,and were significantly higher than that of the control group (11.72±7.71)(P＜0.05).A regression analysis identified age,increased heart rate,anemia,higher white blood cell count,and thrombolysis as independent risk factors of CR,most of which were major bleeding-related factors.The patients with CR have a significantly higher risk of hemorrhage compared to the group without CR.Risk of CR after AMI is related to the risk of hemorrhage.
Dato, Serena; Krabbe, Karen S; Thinggaard, Mikael;
, in nonagenarian men, the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory activity at IL18 and IL10 loci is protective against cognitive decline. In conclusion, in this large study with virtually complete follow-up, commonly studied polymorphisms in cytokine genes do not have a major impact on late-life survival...
Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified hundreds of associated loci across many common diseases. Most risk variants identified by GWAS will merely be tags for as-yet-unknown causal variants. It is therefore possible that identification of the causal variant, by fine mapping, will identify alleles with larger effects on genetic risk than those currently estimated from GWAS replication studies. We show that under plausible assumptions, whilst the majority of the per-allele relative risks (RR estimated from GWAS data will be close to the true risk at the causal variant, some could be considerable underestimates. For example, for an estimated RR in the range 1.2-1.3, there is approximately a 38% chance that it exceeds 1.4 and a 10% chance that it is over 2. We show how these probabilities can vary depending on the true effects associated with low-frequency variants and on the minor allele frequency (MAF of the most associated SNP. We investigate the consequences of the underestimation of effect sizes for predictions of an individual's disease risk and interpret our results for the design of fine mapping experiments. Although these effects mean that the amount of heritability explained by known GWAS loci is expected to be larger than current projections, this increase is likely to explain a relatively small amount of the so-called "missing" heritability.
Hakvoort, Britt; van der Leij, Aryan; Maurits, Natasha; Maassen, Ben; van Zuijen, Titia L
Less proficient basic auditory processing has been previously connected to dyslexia. However, it is unclear whether a low proficiency level is a correlate of having a familial risk for reading problems, or whether it causes dyslexia. In this study, children's processing of amplitude rise time (ART), intensity and frequency differences was measured with event-related potentials (ERPs). ERP components of interest are components reflective of auditory change detection; the mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). All groups had an MMN to changes in ART and frequency, but not to intensity. Our results indicate that fluent readers at risk for dyslexia, poor readers at risk for dyslexia and fluent reading controls have an LDN to changes in ART and frequency, though the scalp activation of frequency processing was different for familial risk children. On intensity, only controls showed an LDN. Contrary to previous findings, our results suggest that neither ART nor frequency processing is related to reading fluency. Furthermore, our results imply that diminished sensitivity to changes in intensity and differential lateralization of frequency processing should be regarded as correlates of being at familial risk for dyslexia, that do not directly relate to reading fluency.
... Risk Assessment, Genetic Counseling, and Genetic Testing for BRCA-related Cancer in Women The U.S. Preventive Services ... Risk Assessment, Genetic Counseling, and Genetic Testing for BRCA-related Cancer in Women. This final recommendation statement ...
Morabito, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Gioli, Beniamino; Gualtieri, Giovanni; Toscano, Piero; Di Stefano, Valentina; Orlandini, Simone; Gensini, Gian Franco
Background Short-term impacts of high temperatures on the elderly are well known. Even though Italy has the highest proportion of elderly citizens in Europe, there is a lack of information on spatial heat-related elderly risks. Objectives Development of high-resolution, heat-related urban risk maps regarding the elderly population (≥65). Methods A long time-series (2001–2013) of remote sensing MODIS data, averaged over the summer period for eleven major Italian cities, were downscaled to obtain high spatial resolution (100 m) daytime and night-time land surface temperatures (LST). LST was estimated pixel-wise by applying two statistical model approaches: 1) the Linear Regression Model (LRM); 2) the Generalized Additive Model (GAM). Total and elderly population density data were extracted from the Joint Research Centre population grid (100 m) from the 2001 census (Eurostat source), and processed together using “Crichton’s Risk Triangle” hazard-risk methodology for obtaining a Heat-related Elderly Risk Index (HERI). Results The GAM procedure allowed for improved daytime and night-time LST estimations compared to the LRM approach. High-resolution maps of daytime and night-time HERI levels were developed for inland and coastal cities. Urban areas with the hazardous HERI level (very high risk) were not necessarily characterized by the highest temperatures. The hazardous HERI level was generally localized to encompass the city-centre in inland cities and the inner area in coastal cities. The two most dangerous HERI levels were greater in the coastal rather than inland cities. Conclusions This study shows the great potential of combining geospatial technologies and spatial demographic characteristics within a simple and flexible framework in order to provide high-resolution urban mapping of daytime and night-time HERI. In this way, potential areas for intervention are immediately identified with up-to-street level details. This information could support public
Segurado Torres, Almudena; Agulló Tomás, Esteban; Rodríguez Suárez, Julio; Agulló Tomás, Ma Silveria; Boada i Grau, Joan; Medina Centeno, Raúl
Social relations in the workplace are one of the main sources of risk for the onset of mobbing. In this work, we analyzed, through the perceived social climate, the influence of interpersonal relations on the characterization of the processes of mobbing, in a sample of local police (N = 235). In particular, the policemen and women's opinions of the quality of the personal relations among the group members and the treatment they receive from the command posts were assessed. The results of the study show that the development of guidelines of social interaction based on discrimination and abuse of authority are predicting variables of mobbing in this group.
Full Text Available Background Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are one of the most occupational problems among nurses and often cause many physical and psychological complications for nurses, and are a financial burden for health-care systems. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence MSDs and their related risk factors among Iranian nurses. Patients and Methods This descriptive-correlational study included 240 hospital nurses, with a baccalaureate nursing degree, who worked at three public hospitals of the Ilam province of Iran. Data were collected through a validated self-administered questionnaire. Finally, 156 questionnaires were returned (response rate: 65% and 135 questionnaires qualified for subsequent analysis. The data were analyzed using the SPSS version 15.0 software. Descriptive and inferential statistics (logistic regression were used. Results Overall, 97 (71.9% hospital nurses experienced MSDs in at least one anatomical site within the last year. Low back pain was the most prevalent MSDs (40% and hip and thigh were the least (11.1% frequent sites. Most of the nurses with MSDs worked at surgery wards (17.8%, emergency (15.6% and intensive care units (12.6%. Pain (48.1% and cramps (31.9% were the most frequent symptoms of MSDs and loss of limbs control (5.9% was the least frequent symptom. Bend or twist at waist for performing nursing procedures, patient transfer from and to beds, working with the hands higher than shoulder height and changing position of patients in beds were the most frequent occupational factors that influenced MSDs. Increased age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI and gender had no significant association with MSDs. However, being single and involved in any kinds of physical activity were significantly associated with the prevalence of MSDs (P < 0.05. Conclusions The study findings indicated high prevalence of worked-related MSDs among Iranian hospital nurses. Accordingly, appropriate policies
Christiansen, Erik; Jakobsen, Ida Skytte
confounding variables including age and gender were controlled for by conditional logistic regression analyses. Results: The findings indicated that young people who had lost one biological parent showed a significantly increased risk of attempting suicide (relative risk = 1.71, 95% confidence interval = 1.......49–1.96). Losing the remaining parent nearly doubled the risk (relative risk = 2.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.48–5.06). Conclusion: Experiencing the death of one or both biological parents increased the risk of suicide attempts in young people. Relative risk was moderated by high income of the father.......Background: The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10–22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods: The study used a nested case...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1 has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD but its signalling has not been fully evaluated. There is good evidence that the cytoplasmic domain of LRP1 is involved in protein-protein interactions, important in the cell biology of LRP1. Results We carried out three yeast two-hybrid screens to identify proteins that interact with the cytoplasmic domain of LRP1. The screens included both conventional screens as well as a novel, split-ubiquitin-based screen in which an LRP1 construct was expressed and screened as a transmembrane protein. The split-ubiquitin screen was validated in a screen using full-length amyloid protein precursor (APP, which successfully identified FE65 and FE65L2, as well as novel interactors (Rab3a, Napg, and ubiquitin b. Using both a conventional screen as well as the split-ubiquitin screen, we identified NYGGF4 as a novel LRP1 interactor. The interaction between LRP1 and NYGGF4 was validated using two-hybrid assays, coprecipitation and colocalization in mammalian cells. Mutation analysis demonstrated a specific interaction of NYGGF4 with an NPXY motif that required an intact tyrosine residue. Interestingly, while we confirmed that other LRP1 interactors we identified, including JIP1B and EB-1, were also able to bind to APP, NYGGF4 was unique in that it showed specific binding with LRP1. Expression of NYGGF4 decreased significantly in patients with AD as compared to age-matched controls, and showed decreasing expression with AD disease progression. Examination of Nyggf4 expression in mice with different alleles of the human APOE4 gene showed significant differences in Nyggf4 expression. Conclusions These results implicate NYGGF4 as a novel and specific interactor of LRP1. Decreased expression of LRP1 and NYGGF4 over disease, evident with the presence of even moderate numbers of neuritic plaques, suggests that LRP1-NYGGF4 is a system altered
Easterly, C.E.; Glass, L.R.
In the 1970's, a variety of developments took place to heightened public and scientific interest in electromagnetic fields. During this time, biological studies of nonionizing electromagnetic fields were taking place, but no clear evidence of risks to public health was identified. Then came the surprising epidemiological finding suggesting that 60 Hz magnetic fields may be related to some childhood leukemias. Our particular interest at ORNL was how to interpret the available data with respect to human exposures to the nearly ubiquitous fields. A review of the available data showed that consistent biological effects were difficult to identify. Classical toxicological tests used in chemical risk assessment had not been performed with Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) fields but rather a wide range of mechanistic studies had been pursued. To evaluate the level of anticipated hazard or risk there was neither a mechanistic understanding nor a consistent phenomenological outcome. A risk evaluation normally requires one or the other of these two types of information. Two quite different approaches were pursued: meta-analysis and relative potency. The first of these is a method to combine data from similar experiments to enhance the relative statistical power of a collection of small sample size studies, and will not be discussed further. The second, relative potency, will be the focus of this paper. 20 refs., 2 figs.
Anton, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.; Grau, J. B.; Saa, A.; Diaz, M. C.
aggressive floods in 1500-1800 era, and actual added trends of "climate change" are towards higher temperatures, less water and higher perturbations. These long term risks are rather poorly predictable and will be handled mostly by improvements in agriculture and also by social and economic adaptations, but at shorter delays and specific areas active policies are possible and exist. An agribusiness can set his production plans lowering his global risk. Sometimes it might use prudently some financial instruments, such as "orange juice futures". When using decision making models, some utility functions may consider that severe losses have higher effects than good profits, letting ranges for business margins for insurers to be limited by concurrence at correct levels. Correct availability of credits is necessary for bad periods, and also state policies for rare bad situations, concerning agribusiness survival and also alimentary safety. Insurance products are effective aids for a growing variety of well definite natural risks, such as in cases of hailstorm, that have probabilities of occurrence measurable from previous events data, and a variety of adequate professional models are continuously made for them. Related to Universidad Politecnica de Madrid the CEIGRAM institute has started recently and is involved in agricultural insurance, being connected with insurers through ENESA and AGROMUTUA. That world is active, important, evolving, and is regulated by diverse laws.
Full Text Available Although a number of studies have investigated correlations of maternal age with birth outcomes, an extensive assessment using age as a continuous variable is lacking. In the current study, we estimated age-specific risks of adverse birth outcomes in childbearing women.National population-based data containing maternal and neonatal information were derived from the Health Promotion Administration, Taiwan. A composite adverse birth outcome was defined as at least anyone of stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and small for gestational age (SGA. Singletons were further analyzed for outcomes of live birth in relation to each year of maternal age. A log-binomial model was used to adjust for possible confounders of maternal and neonatal factors.In total, 2,123,751 births between 2001 and 2010 were utilized in the analysis. The risk of a composite adverse birth outcome was significantly higher at extreme maternal ages. In specific, risks of stillbirth, neonatal death, preterm birth, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight were higher at the extremes of maternal age. Furthermore, risk of macrosomia rose proportionally with an increasing maternal age. In contrast, risk of SGA declined proportionally with an increasing maternal age. The log-binomial model showed greater risks at the maternal ages of 30 years for a composite adverse birth outcome.Infants born to teenagers and women at advanced age possess greater risks for stillbirth, preterm birth, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight. Pregnancies at advanced age carry an additional risk for macrosomia, while teenage pregnancies carry an additional risk for SGA. The data suggest that the optimal maternal ages to minimize adverse birth outcomes are 26∼30 years.
Olefson, Sidney; Moss, Steven F
Over recent decades, the incidence of cancers of the gastroesophageal junction, including gastric cardia tumors, has increased markedly. This is a trend that has been well documented, especially in studies from the USA and northern Europe that have also demonstrated a concomitant rise in the ratio of cardia to distal gastric cancers. The rise in the prevalence of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma has been paralleled by the worldwide obesity epidemic, with almost all epidemiological studies reporting increased body mass index and obesity increase the risk of cardia cancer development. However, the strength of this association is less marked than the link between obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma, and the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Other possible confounders of the relationship between obesity and cardia cancer include the decline in Helicobacter pylori infection and the widespread use of proton pump inhibitors, although these have rarely been controlled for in case-control and cohort studies investigating associations between obesity and cardia cancer. We review these epidemiological trends and discuss proposed mechanisms for the association, drawing attention to controversies over the difficulty of defining cardia cancer. The relative paucity of high-quality epidemiological studies from other regions of the world should prompt further investigation of this issue, especially in populations undergoing rapid socioeconomic change.
Juan Rafael Zerquera Rodriguez
Full Text Available Background: the low birth weight still constitutes a complex a complex health problem. It is determined by some factors and it is the most important predictive index of infantile mortality. Objective: identifying the risk factors related to low birth weight. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted. There were analyzed the 77 birth of children with inferior weigh to 2500g, occurred in 2010 at the municipality of Cienfuegos, puerperas were included, mothers of those children. The pregnancy's follow-up cards, patient’s clinical records and municipal and provincial statistics were checked. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics, the nutritional state, numbers of pregnancies, heavy profit during pregnancy, age, toxic habits and diseases correlated to pregnancy were analyzed. Results: the index of low birth weigh oscillated between 3.6 and 6.7 per month. The 52% of low birth weight newborn’s mothers had school university level. The 74 % of mothers work. The 70.1 % were smokers and the 57, 1 % developed a gravidum hypertensive disease. Conclusions: the most associated factors to low birth weight were, the mother’s habit to smoke, as well as the diseases that affected them during pregnancy, fundamentally the hypertensive disease and the vaginal sepsis.
Smith, R.M.; Whelan, G.
All 20 U.S. Army Yakima Training Center (YTC) sites evaluated were given a `low` relative risk. At Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) 22, a `minimum` soils contaminant hazard factor was assigned even though 6,700 mg/kg TPH-diesel was found in surface soil. SWMU 22 is physically located on top of and with the fence surrounding Area of Concern (AOC) 4. Because the diesel is most likely associated with AOC 4, and plans are to clean up AOC 4, any further actions regarding these contaminated soils should be addressed as part of the planned actions for AOC 4. Contaminant hazard factors of `moderate` were assigned to the soil pathway for SWMUs 4 and 7 because dieldrin and arsenic, respectively, were found in surface soil samples at concentrations exceeding standards. A `moderate` contaminant hazard factor was also assigned to the sediment pathway for AOC 1 because arsenic detected in sediments in `Larry`s Swimming Pool` exceeded the standard. All other contaminant hazard factors were rated as minimal. The receptor factor for all sites and pathways was rated `limited,` except for SWMU 54 in which the groundwater receptor factor was rated `potential.` A `potential` rating was assigned to the groundwater pathway at this site to be conservative. The site is located on the south side of the syncline axis where the unconfined aquifer may be present and there are no monitoring wells at the site to confirm or deny the presence of groundwater contamination.
Austin, Jehannine C; Hippman, Catriona; Honer, William G
Studies show that individuals with psychotic illnesses and their families want information about psychosis risks for other relatives. However, deriving accurate numeric probabilities for psychosis risk is challenging, and people have difficulty interpreting probabilistic information; thus, some have suggested that clinicians should use risk descriptors, such as "moderate" or "quite high", rather than numbers. Little is known about how individuals with psychosis and their family members use quantitative and qualitative descriptors of risk in the specific context of chance for an individual to develop psychosis. We explored numeric and descriptive estimations of psychosis risk among individuals with psychotic disorders and unaffected first-degree relatives. In an online survey, respondents numerically and descriptively estimated risk for an individual to develop psychosis in scenarios where they had: A) no affected family members; and B) an affected sibling. Participants comprised 219 affected individuals and 211 first-degree relatives participated. Affected individuals estimated significantly higher risks than relatives. Participants attributed all descriptors between "very low" and "very high" to probabilities of 1%, 10%, 25% and 50%+. For a given numeric probability, different risk descriptors were attributed in different scenarios. Clinically, brief interventions around risk (using either probabilities or descriptors alone) are vulnerable to miscommunication and potentially negative consequences-interventions around risk are best suited to in-depth discussion.
Full Text Available Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured learning-independent risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS. We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify chronic cortisol exposure. We discovered a significant, positive correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations.
Rish, W.R.; Marnicio, R.J.
The Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) is responsible for regulating on a national level the risks associated with technological sources of ionizing radiation in the environment. A critical activity of the ORP is analyzing and evaluating risk. The ORP believes that the analysis of uncertainty should be an integral part of any risk assessment; therefore, the ORP has initiated a project to develop framework for the treatment of uncertainty in risk analysis. Summaries of recent studies done in five areas of study are presented.
Full Text Available In 17 hospitals, 13123 new births were born during 1989 in Tehran. Some well-trained personnel observed the events, filling the required questionnaires, interviewing, and collecting necessary information. Among them 730 newborns was low birth weight (less than 2500 grams which was considered as cases. Immediately after each case was born, two normal newborn were randomly selected as controls. So at the end of data collection, a total of 1460 births were considered controls. In a case-control study the effect of some risk factors during pregnancy of mothers on birth weight and death rate of newborn during first 4 weeks of their life were fully investigated. Some of the findings are as follows: The past history of miscarriages will decrease the birth weight of the newborn and thereby will increase the death rate in the first 28 days of their life. In this respect the difference between case and control was highly significant. Other variables like past history of premature birth, chronic diseases, hemorrhage and severe vomiting showed the same results.
Luiz Eduardo Moschini
Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the localization and mapping of gas stations in the urban area of São Carlos city, for an environmental diagnosis related to soil, surface water and underground water contamination resulting from likely leaking in fuel underground storage tanks. Considering that a provision of legal restriction makes it possible that most of public areas are not located in gas station areas of potential risk, these information are useful for the development of programs designed to reduce risks to public safety and health and of the soil, surface water and underground water contamination.Foram realizados a localização e o mapeamento dos postos de combustíveis da área urbana do município de São Carlos, SP, para um diagnóstico ambiental relacionado aos riscos de contaminação do solo e das águas superficial e subterrânea em decorrência de prováveis vazamentos dos tanques de armazenamento subterrâneo de combustível. A área urbana da cidade de São Carlos apresenta um total de 64 postos de combustíveis, 58 dos quais com fins exclusivamente comerciais; um volume potencial de combustível armazenado de 4.595.000 l associado a um total de 291 tanques de armazenamento subterrâneo, 40 % dos quais associados a postos que funcionam a mais de 15 anos; localizados em terrenos com características geológicas de risco potencial para a contaminação das águas subterrâneas, e concentradas em áreas urbanas com alta e média densidade populacional. Considerando que um dispostivo de restrição legal possibilita que a maioria das áreas de uso público (escolas, creches, postos de saúde e hospitais esteja localizada externa as áreas críticas de riscos potenciais aos usuários das mesmas, estas informações são extremamente úteis para o desenvolvimento de programas voltados à redução dos riscos à segurança e a saúde pública e à contaminação do solo e da água subterrânea.
Dijk, van H.; Kleef, van E.; Owen, H.; Frewer, L.J.
Purpose – The aim of this study is to identify and explore consumer preferences and information needs regarding the simultaneous communication of risks and benefits associated with food consumption. The focus is on the net health impact of risks and benefits on life expectancy, quality of life, and
Krentz, E M; Warschburger, P
Previous studies have indicated a higher risk of disordered eating in certain types of elite sports such as aesthetic sports (e.g., rhythmical gymnastics, figure skating). But even though some studies on risk factors for disordered eating in sports exist, most research on this topic is based on cross-sectional data with limitations on causal inferences. We examined sports-related risk factors for disordered eating in a 1-year longitudinal study with two assessment points. The participants were 65 adolescent athletes from aesthetic sports (mean age 14.0 ±.2.2 years) who completed measures of disordered eating, social pressure from the sports environment, sports-related body dissatisfaction, desire to be leaner to improve sports performance, and emotional distress resulting from missed exercise sessions. All variables were relatively stable in the mean. Individual changes in the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance were associated with individual changes in disordered eating. Furthermore, a cross-lagged partial correlation analysis showed that the desire to be leaner to improve sports performance was predictive of disordered eating and not vice versa. The results of our study indicate that athletes are more at risk for disordered eating if they believe it is possible to enhance their sports performance through weight regulation.
Hooftman, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van
Gender differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints might be explained by differences in the effect of exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to examine gender differences in the relations between these risk factors and muscu
... supply chain risk. This rule implements section 806's three supply-chain risk-management approaches as... to improve supply chain risk management (SCRM). In doing so, the DoDI requires, among other things... consider the impact of supply chain risk in specified types of procurements related to national...
Kim, Ji-in; Lawson, Andrew B; McDermott, Suzanne; Aelion, C Marjorie
The relationship between exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy and early childhood development is an important issue that has a spatial risk component. In this context, we have examined mental retardation and developmental delay (MRDD) outcome measures for children in a Medicaid population in South Carolina and sampled measures of soil chemistry (e.g. As, Hg, etc.) on a network of sites that are misaligned to the outcome residential addresses during pregnancy. The true chemical concentration at the residential addresses is not observed directly and must be interpolated from soil samples. In this study, we have developed a Bayesian joint model that interpolates soil chemical fields and estimates the associated MRDD risk simultaneously. Having multiple spatial fields to interpolate, we have considered a low-rank Kriging method for the interpolation that requires less computation than the Bayesian Kriging. We performed a sensitivity analysis for a bivariate smoothing, changing the number of knots and the smoothing parameter. These analyses show that a low-rank Kriging method can be used as an alternative to a full-rank Kriging, reducing the computational burden. However, the number of knots for the low-rank Kriging model needs to be selected with caution as a bivariate surface estimation can be sensitive to the choice of the number of knots.
Ananth Cande V
Full Text Available Abstract Background Migraine, a common chronic-intermittent disorder of idiopathic origin characterized by severe debilitating headaches and autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and placental abruption, the premature separation of the placenta, share many common pathophysiological characteristics. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, hypercoagulation, and inflammation are common to both disorders. We assessed risk of placental abruption in relation to maternal history of migraine before and during pregnancy in Peruvian women. Methods Cases were 375 women with pregnancies complicated by placental abruption, and controls were 368 women without an abruption. During in-person interviews conducted following delivery, women were asked if they had physician-diagnosed migraine, and they were asked questions that allowed headaches and migraine to be classified according to criteria established by the International Headache Society. Logistic regression procedures were used to calculate odds ratios (aOR and 95% confidence intervals (CI adjusted for confounders. Results Overall, a lifetime history of any headaches or migraine was associated with an increased odds of placental abruption (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI 1.16-2.20. A lifetime history of migraine was associated with a 2.14-fold increased odds of placental abruption (aOR = 2.14; 95% CI 1.22-3.75. The odds of placental abruption was 2.11 (95% CI 1.00-4.45 for migraineurs without aura; and 1.59 (95% 0.70-3.62 for migraineurs with aura. A lifetime history of tension-type headache was also increased with placental abruption (aOR = 1.61; 95% CI 1.01-2.57. Conclusions This study adds placental abruption to a growing list of pregnancy complications associated with maternal headache/migraine disorders. Nevertheless, prospective cohort studies are needed to more rigorously evaluate the extent to which migraines and/or its treatments are associated with the occurrence of placental abruption.
Abuelo, D; Barsel-Bowers, G; Busch, W; Pueschel, S; Pezzullo, J
This study was performed to determine if sibs and other relatives of individuals with trisomy 21 are themselves at increased risk for having offspring with trisomy 21. The results suggest that the reproductive risk to these relatives is not increased beyond the risk to the general population.
Wyman, P A; Cowen, E L; Work, W C; Hoyt-Meyers, L; Magnus, K B; Fagen, D B
This study tested hypotheses from an organizational-developmental model for childhood resilience. In this model resilience reflects a child's mastery of age-salient objectives, in the face of substantial adversity, by drawing on internal and external resources that enhance processes of adaptation specific to each developmental stage. Interviews were conducted with parents of 122 7- to 9-year-old urban children exposed to multiple risk factors, 69 classified as resilient and 53 as maladjusted. Consistent with predictions generated by the model: (1) characteristics of a child's caregiving system and early development differentiated children with resilient and stress-affected adaptations; and (2) variables reflecting emotionally responsive, competent parenting were direct, proximal predictors of resilient status and mediators of other caregiver resources such as education, mental health, and relational history. Identified predictors of resilient status, including competent parenting and caregiver psychosocial resources, largely replicated findings from a prior study with sociodemographically comparable 9- to 12-year-old children.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although work related risk factors associated with Cardiovascular Diseases (CD have been well researched, there is no detailed knowledge regarding disparate occupational groups each with a different risk exposition. Therefore, two occupational groups (chefs and office workers were compared with a focus on nutritional and psychosocial factors. Methods Two groups of subjects were tested for work and diet-related risks of CD (45 chefs and 48 office workers. The groups matched both for gender (male and age (30 to 45 years. The study included a medical check-up, bioelectrical impedance analysis as well as an evaluation of questionnaires on health, nutritional behaviour and coping capacity. In addition, volunteers were required to compile a 7-day-dietary-record and collect their urine 24 h prior to their check-up. Blood samples drawn were analysed for glucose and lipid metabolism, homocysteine, vitamin B12, folic acid; C-reactive protein, uric acid, red blood cell fatty acids, plant sterols, antioxidative capacity and oxidative stress. Results On average, the chefs showed one risk factor more compared to the office workers. The most frequent risk factors in both groups included overweight/obesity (chef group [CG]: 62.2%; office group [OG]: 58.3% and elevated TC (CG: 62.2%; OG: 43.8%]. Moreover, although the chefs often had higher CRP-concentrations (40.0%, more office workers suffered from hypertension (37.5%. Chefs showed significant higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids and oleic acid, whereas docosahexaenoic acid, Omega-6- and trans fatty acids were found more frequently in the red blood cell membranes of office workers. While there were no significant differences in analysed plant sterols between the two occupational groups, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine was significantly increased in office workers. Concerning the work-related psychosocial factors, the chefs were characterised by a stronger subjective importance
Wang, Chao; Zhang, Gang; Gu, Mingyong; Zhou, Zhenyu; Cao, Xuecheng
Several molecular epidemiological studies have been conducted to examine the association between low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins (LRP5) Ala1330Val polymorphism and fracture; however, the conclusions remained controversial. We therefore performed an extensive meta-analysis on 10 published studies with 184479 subjects. Electronic databases, including PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cochrane, Elsevier Science Direct and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using random-effects models. LRP5 Ala1330Val polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture (OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14; I(2) = 29%). We also found that this polymorphism increased fracture risk in Caucasians. In the subgroup analysis according to gender, women was significantly associated with risk of fracture. In the subgroup analysis by type of fracture, LRP5 Ala1330Val polymorphism showed increased osteoporotic fracture risk. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that an increased risk of fracture was associated with the LRP5 Ala1330Val polymorphism.
Full Text Available Land conversion to cropland is one of the major causes of severe soil erosion in Africa. This study assesses the current cropland extent and the related soil erosion risk in Rwanda, a country that experienced the most rapid population growth and cropland expansion in Africa over the last decade. The land cover land use (LCLU map of Rwanda in 2015 was developed using Landsat-8 imagery. Based on the obtained LCLU map and the spatial datasets of precipitation, soil properties and elevation, the soil erosion rate of Rwanda was assessed at 30-m spatial resolution, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model. According to the results, the mean soil erosion rate was 250 t·ha−1·a−1 over the entire country, with a total soil loss rate of approximately 595 million tons per year. The mean soil erosion rate over cropland, which occupied 56% of the national land area, was estimated at 421 t·ha−1·a−1 and was responsible for about 95% of the national soil loss. About 24% of the croplands in Rwanda had a soil erosion rate larger than 300 t·ha−1·a−1, indicating their unsuitability for cultivation. With a mean soil erosion rate of 1642 t·ha−1·a−1, these unsuitable croplands were responsible for 90% of the national soil loss. Most of the unsuitable croplands are distributed in the Congo Nile Ridge, Volcanic Range mountain areas in the west and the Buberuka highlands in the north, regions characterized by steep slopes (>30% and strong rainfall. Soil conservation practices, such as the terracing cultivation method, are paramount to preserve the soil. According to our assessment, terracing alone could reduce the mean cropland soil erosion rate and the national soil loss by 79% and 75%, respectively. After terracing, only a small proportion of 7.6% of the current croplands would still be exposed to extreme soil erosion with a rate >300 t·ha−1·a−1. These irremediable cropland areas should be returned to mountain forest to
Leino, Tuula; Selin, Risto; Summala, Heikki; Virtanen, Marianna
Studies on violence in the work of security guards are largely lacking. This study is unique in that it focuses on security guards (n=1,010) in Finland, and assesses the different forms, prevalence, and risk factors of the work-related violence they often face. Information to a survey instrument was obtained by first interviewing 30 volunteers. Then we made a cross-sectional mailed survey that was sent to a randomized group of 2,000 security guards. The response rate was 52. We found the prevalence of verbal aggression, threats of assault, and physical acts against security guards at least once a month to be 39%, 19%, and 15% respectively. As regards risk factors and who is most at risk, our results show that male gender, young age, low work experience, late working hours, and time pressure were associated with all three forms of work-related violence. Unlike other forms of violence, verbal aggression was highly prevalent outside the metropolitan area and directed towards both more and less experienced security guards. In prevention policies for violence, it is important to identify high-risk groups such as those who have less work experience.
For years, radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations have been applied in the modern world. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones called recent attention to the possible health risks of RF/MW exposures. In 2011, a group of international experts organized by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. Three meta-analyses of case-control studies have concluded that using cell phones for more than ten years was associated with an increase in the overall risk of developing a brain tumor. The Interphone Study, the largest health-related case-control international study of use of cell phones and head and neck tumors, showed no statistically significant increases in brain cancers related to higher amounts of cell phone use, but excess risk in a small subgroup of more heavily exposed users associated with latency and laterality was reported. So far, the published studies do not show that mobile phones could for sure increase the risk of cancer. This conclusion is based on the lack of a solid biological mechanism, and the fact that brain cancer rates are not going up significantly. However, all of the studies so far have weaknesses, which make it impossible to entirely rule out a risk. Mobile phones are still a new technology and there is little evidence about effects of long-term use. For this reason, bioelectromagnetic experts advise application of a precautionary resources. It suggests that if people want to use a cell phone, they can choose to minimize their exposure by keeping calls short and preferably using hand-held sets. It also advises discouraging children from making non essential calls as well as also keeping their calls short.
Full Text Available In December 2015, the World Health Organization (WHO published the first ever report on the estimates of the global burden of foodborne diseases, which included diseases related to chemical exposures in foods such as peanut allergy. In the report, the burden of disease related to peanut allergies was measured for the European, American and West Pacific Regions. The report showed that unlike other food-related chemical exposures, peanut allergies are far more common in the European and American Regions than in the West Pacific Region. In this commentary we tried to inform physicians and public health workers, and to raise awareness about peanut allergies to facilitate future discussions. Although the WHO report on the estimates of the global burden of foodborne diseases indicates a possible geographical difference in global peanut allergy prevalence, further studies need to compare the relative risk of peanut allergies among individuals of different racial backgrounds in one defined population.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a new approach for an assessment of the credit risk to corporate borrowers. There are different models for borrowers' risk assessment. These models are divided into two groups: statistical and theoretical. When assessing the credit risk for corporate borrowers, statistical model is unacceptable due to the lack of sufficiently large history of defaults. At the same time, we cannot use some theoretical models due to the lack of stock exchange. In those cases, when studying a particular borrower given that statistical base does not exist, the decision-making process is always of expert nature. The paper describes a new approach that may be used in group decision-making. An example of the application of the proposed approach is given.
Slagor, Rebekka Michaelsen; Dornonville de la Cour, Morten; Bonde, Jens Peter
Objectives: There are indications that solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) increases the risk of cataract, but there is only circumstantial evidence that metal welding, an important occupational source of UVR exposure, is a risk factor. The objective of this study is to unravel if metal welding......, information on welding was collected from questionnaires and, for both cohorts, information about cataract diagnosis and operation was gathered from Danish national registers. Using Cox regression analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) for cataract diagnosis and/or operation was calculated in the follow-up period...
Epidemiologists often use ratio-type indices (rate ratio, risk ratio and odds ratio) to quantify the association between exposure and disease. By comparison, less attention has been paid to effect measures on a difference scale (excess rate or excess risk). The excess relative risk (ERR) used primarily by radiation epidemiologists is of peculiar interest here, in that it involves both difference and ratio operations. The ERR index (but not the difference-type indices) is estimable in case-control studies. Using the theory of sufficient component cause model, the author shows that when there is no mechanistic interaction (no synergism in the sufficient cause sense) between the exposure under study and the stratifying variable, the ERR index (but not the ratio-type indices) in a rare-disease case-control setting should remain constant across strata and can therefore be regarded as a common effect parameter. By exploiting this homogeneity property, the related attributable fraction indices can also be estimated with greater precision. The author demonstrates the methodology (SAS codes provided) using a case-control dataset, and shows that ERR preserves the logical properties of the ratio-type indices. In light of the many desirable properties of the ERR index, the author advocates its use as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.
Full Text Available Epidemiologists often use ratio-type indices (rate ratio, risk ratio and odds ratio to quantify the association between exposure and disease. By comparison, less attention has been paid to effect measures on a difference scale (excess rate or excess risk. The excess relative risk (ERR used primarily by radiation epidemiologists is of peculiar interest here, in that it involves both difference and ratio operations. The ERR index (but not the difference-type indices is estimable in case-control studies. Using the theory of sufficient component cause model, the author shows that when there is no mechanistic interaction (no synergism in the sufficient cause sense between the exposure under study and the stratifying variable, the ERR index (but not the ratio-type indices in a rare-disease case-control setting should remain constant across strata and can therefore be regarded as a common effect parameter. By exploiting this homogeneity property, the related attributable fraction indices can also be estimated with greater precision. The author demonstrates the methodology (SAS codes provided using a case-control dataset, and shows that ERR preserves the logical properties of the ratio-type indices. In light of the many desirable properties of the ERR index, the author advocates its use as an effect measure in case-control studies of rare diseases.
Nicholson, D.S.; Lochmiller, R.L.; Stewart, M.D.; Masters, R.E.; Leslie, David M.
Capture-related mortality has been a notable risk in the handling of eastern wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris). Our objective was to evaluate how environmental factors influence risk and identify physiological correlates that could be used to identify susceptible birds. During winter (January-March) 1995-97, 130 eastern wild turkey hens were captured in southeastern Oklahoma and radiocollared. Of those, 20 hens died ??? 14 days of capture. Serum creatine kinase activity (CK; P < 0.01), body temperature (P < 0.01), processing time (P = 0.02), and ambient temperature (P < 0.01) showed a positive relationship with mortality that occurred within 14 days of capture. Plasma corticosterone concentration (P = 0.08) and relative humidity (P < 0.01) showed a negative relationship with mortalities that occurred within 14 days post-capture. Stepwise logistic regression selected CK activity, relative humidity, and ambient temperature as the best predictors of mortality within 14 days post-capture. Our data suggest that susceptible individuals may be identified from CK activity and that capture-related mortality may be minimized by establishing guidelines of when to curtail capture operations based on various weather conditions.
Full Text Available Aims: To identify the relatives of the intensive care unit (ICU patients at risk for developing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorders. Setting: A multidisciplinary hospital ICU. Design: Prospective single center observational study. Material and Methods: Relatives of patients admitted in the ICU (May06-Nov06 who consented to answer the questionnaire participated in the study. Anxiety was assessed by using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD and vulnerability to posttraumatic disorder (PTSD by using the Impact of Event Scale Revised (IES-R which was administered on the fifth day of admission and at two months following discharge or death. Results: During admission, 48% of the relatives had a HAD score >11 and 72% showed IES-R score >26. There was no association of HAD with gender, patient outcome, working status, age of the patient, or mode of payment of the bills. There was significant association of IES-R >26 with trauma admission, HAD score >11 and mode of payment with the relatives of insured being more stressed as compared to those who settled their bills personally. A total of 35% relatives showed symptoms of posttraumatic stress reaction consistent with a high risk of PTSD after two months. Death in the hospital resulted in elevated HAD and IES-R score during admission and at the two month follow-up. Persistence of stress symptoms was more in school drop outs, working relatives, parents and those with initial anxiety score >11. Conclusions: HAD score greater than 11 was the only factor at admission which could statistically predict a higher PTSD score on follow-up. Adequate counseling of this group of relatives may prevent lasting psychological sequelae of an ICU admission in the relatives of critically ill.
Full Text Available Smoking leads to the development of automatic tendencies that promote approach behavior toward smoking-related stimuli which in turn may maintain addictive behavior. The present study examined whether automatic approach tendencies toward smoking-related stimuli can be measured by using an adapted version of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT. Given that progression of addictive behavior has been associated with a decreased reactivity of the brain reward system for stimuli signaling natural rewards, we also used the AAT to measure approach behavior toward natural rewarding stimuli in smokers. During the AAT, 92 smokers and 51 non-smokers viewed smoking-related vs. non-smoking-related pictures and pictures of natural rewards (i.e. highly palatable food vs. neutral pictures. They were instructed to ignore image content and to respond to picture orientation by either pulling or pushing a joystick. Within-group comparisons revealed that smokers showed an automatic approach bias exclusively for smoking-related pictures. Contrary to our expectations, there was no difference in smokers' and non-smokers' approach bias for nicotine-related stimuli, indicating that non-smokers also showed approach tendencies for this picture category. Yet, in contrast to non-smokers, smokers did not show an approach bias for food-related pictures. Moreover, self-reported smoking attitude could not predict approach-avoidance behavior toward nicotine-related pictures in smokers or non-smokers. Our findings indicate that the AAT is suited for measuring smoking-related approach tendencies in smokers. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a diminished approach tendency toward food-related stimuli in smokers, suggesting a decreased sensitivity to natural rewards in the course of nicotine addiction. Our results indicate that in contrast to similar studies conducted in alcohol, cannabis and heroin users, the AAT might only be partially suited for measuring smoking-related approach
Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam
Disease mapping is a method to display the geographical distribution of disease occurrence, which generally involves the usage and interpretation of a map to show the incidence of certain diseases. Relative risk (RR) estimation is one of the most important issues in disease mapping. This paper begins by providing a brief overview of Chikungunya disease. This is followed by a review of the classical model used in disease mapping, based on the standardized morbidity ratio (SMR), which we then apply to our Chikungunya data. We then fit an extension of the classical model, which we refer to as a Poisson-Gamma model, when prior distributions for the relative risks are assumed known. Both results are displayed and compared using maps and we reveal a smoother map with fewer extremes values of estimated relative risk. The extensions of this paper will consider other methods that are relevant to overcome the drawbacks of the existing methods, in order to inform and direct government strategy for monitoring and controlling Chikungunya disease.
G.L. Tripepi (Giovanni)
textabstractThe replacement of renal function by dialysis is one of the major achievements of modern medicine. However, given the fact that renal failure shares common causes with cardiovascular diseases, dialysis patients are a population with a risk profile of almost unique severity. In fact, it w
Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Background : Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that is present in several heat-treated foods. In epidemiological studies, positive associations between dietary acrylamide intake and the risks of endometrial, ovarian, estrogen receptor-positive breast, and renal cell cancers have been observe
Geybels, M.S.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Schooten, F.J. van; Goldbohm, A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
BACKGROUND: Selenium may prevent advanced prostate cancer (PCa), but most studies on this topic were conducted in populations with moderate to high selenium status. We investigated the association of toenail selenium, reflecting long-term selenium exposure, and advanced PCa risk in a population from
Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den
Background : Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that is present in several heat-treated foods. In epidemiological studies, positive associations between dietary acrylamide intake and the risks of endometrial, ovarian, estrogen receptor-positive breast, and renal cell cancers have been
Coates, R J; Weiss, N S; Daling, J R; Rettmer, R L; Warnick, G R
A nested, matched case-control study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum levels of copper and the subsequent risk of cancer. One hundred thirty-three cases of cancer were identified during 1974-1984 among 5000 members of a northwest Washington State employee cohort from whom serum specimens had been previously obtained and stored. Two hundred forty-one controls were selected at random from the cohort and were matched to the cases on the basis of age, sex, race, and date of blood draw. Serum copper levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Risk of a subsequent diagnosis of cancer was positively associated with serum copper levels, but only among those cases diagnosed within 4 years of the time the serum specimens were collected. Among cases diagnosed more than 4 years after specimen collection, there was no consistent association between serum copper levels and risk. Adjustment for age, sex, race, occupational status, cigarette smoking, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, and, among females, use of exogenous hormones had no appreciable effect on these relationships. The findings suggest that the presence of cancer may increase serum copper levels several years prior to its diagnosis. They are less supportive of the hypothesis that serum copper levels affect cancer risk.
Sørensen, Rikke; Olesen, Jonas B; Charlot, Mette
a stent dual antiplatelet therapy with a P2Y12 receptor antagonist and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is recommended for 12 months, preferable with prasugrel or ticagrelor unless there is an additional indication of warfarin or increased risk of bleeding. In patients with AF, warfarin is recommended...
Collibee, Charlene; Furman, Wyndol
Dating aggression is a prevalent and costly public health concern. Using a relational risk framework, this study examined acute and chronic relational risk factors (negative interactions, jealousy, support, and relationship satisfaction) and their effects on physical and psychological dating aggression. The study also examined the interaction between chronic and acute risk, allowing us to assess how changes in acute risk have differing effects depending on whether the individual is typically at higher chronic risk. A sample of 200 youth (100 female) completed seven waves of data, which spanned 9 years from middle adolescence to young adulthood (M age at Wave 1 = 15.83). Using hierarchical linear modeling, analyses revealed both acute (within-person) and chronic (between-person) levels in jealousy, negative interactions, and relationship satisfaction, were associated with physical and psychological dating aggression. Significant interactions between chronic and acute risk emerged in predicting physical aggression for negative interactions, jealousy, and relationship satisfaction such that those with higher levels of chronic risk are more vulnerable to increases in acute risk. These interactions between chronic and acute risk indicate that risk is not static, and dating aggression is particularly likely to occur at certain times for youth at high risk for dating aggression. Such periods of increased risk may provide opportunities for interventions to be particularly effective in preventing dating aggression or its consequences. Taken together, these findings provide support for the role of relational risk factors for dating aggression. They also underscore the importance of considering risk dynamically.
Full Text Available This study employs fuzzy linguistic preference relation (Fuzzy LinPreRa approach to assess the relative degree of impact of risk factors in software development project for two expert groups working in technology enterprises and software development companies. For the identified risk dimensions, the results show the same rankings for these two groups. “Organization function risk” is considered the most important dimension influencing the software development project performance, with the others, in order, being “developing technology risk,” “resources integration risk,” “personnel system risk” and “system requirement risk.” The proposed approach not only facilitates the information collecting for making pairwise comparisons, but it also eliminates the inconsistencies in the collected information.
Sterk, Claire E; Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W
In this study, we describe the relationship between self-esteem and HIV-related risk behaviors, and explore what factors predict self-esteem levels of "at risk" women. Interviews were conducted with 250 (predominantly African American) women living in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area between August 1997 and August 2000. A community identification process was used to identify potential study participants, with further expansion of the sample via targeted and theoretical sampling and ethnographic mapping procedures. Self-esteem was related to the number of times having oral sex, the number of times having sex with paying partners, the frequency of sexual risk-taking (all during the 90 days prior to interview), the number of different HIV risk behaviors practiced during the previous year, and condom use attitudes and self-efficacy. Greater involvement HIV risk behaviors was associated with lower self-esteem. Multivariate analyses revealed five significant predictors of women's self-esteem levels: race, religiosity, childhood experiences with emotional neglect, the number of money-related problems experienced, and the number of drug-related problems experienced. The findings indicate that self-esteem is highly relevant to "at risk" women's HIV risk behavior practices, and this has important implications for HIV intervention programs.
Poveda, Alaitz; Ibáñez, María Eugenia; Rebato, Esther
The objective of this study is to investigate the association between previously GWAS identified genetic variants predisposing to obesity in Europeans and obesity-related phenotypes in Roma population. A total of 24 representative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 372 individuals belonging to 50 extended families of Roma population. SNPs were tested for association with seven quantitative obesity-related phenotypes in the PLINK program. Risk variants in NEGR1, FAIM2, FTO, and SH2B1 genes were associated with increased adiposity accumulation in Roma population with effect sizes between 0.21 and 0.34 Z-scores for each copy of the BMI increasing allele. Additionally, variants in BDNF and MC4R were significantly associated with adiposity distribution but not with overall fatness. No significant association was detected between obesity-related phenotypes and variants in the first intron of the FTO gene (e.g., rs9939609). The results of this study suggest that SNPs in or near six genes (BDNF, FAIM2, FTO, MC4R, NEGR1, and SH2B1) are significantly associated with body fat accumulation and distribution in Roma people. However, the association observed among variants in the first intron of FTO and obesity in European derived populations is not evident in the analyzed Roma sample. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The aim of this study was to determine if the individual physical characteristics of the extirpated transformation zone after large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) might predict the relative risk of adverse obstetric outcome, specifically preterm labour (PTL).
Spradling, Kyle; Youssef, Ramy F
In recent years, a growing number of case-control and cohort studies have suggested that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) may have a higher risk of developing bladder cancer (BC). However, the body of evidence linking DM and BC is controversial and largely composed of observational studies with significant heterogeneity in study design. In this review, we outline the current body of evidence associating DM with BC. We also highlight the evidence surrounding the relationship between BC and two antidiabetic medications, metformin and pioglitazone. Currently, not enough evidence is available to decisively conclude that DM is associated with an increased risk for development of BC. Similarly, the current body of evidence is inadequate to establish a causal relationship between pioglitazone and BC nor a protective relationship between metformin and BC.
Fauser, Patrik; Ketzel, Matthias; Becker, Thomas
no exceedances of the EU air quality values. The only exceedance of US-EPA 1:100,000 cancer risk concentrations occurs for the PAH BaP in Denmark. However, the EU target value threshold for BaP is not exceeded. No emission data for BaP are available for the other countries and important uncertainties are still......Seventeen pollutants (particles, heavy metals, inorganic gases and organic compounds) are for the first time analyzed in a screening of the carcinogenic risk at very high resolution and large scale in ambient air in the Nordic countries. Modelled 2010 annual mean air concentrations show...... related to the Danish emissions. Long-range transport is significant except for BaP that originates mostly from residential wood combustion. It is recommended to monitor the influence from residential wood combustion more extensively, and to analyze longer time trends for long-term human exposure....
Baum, R.; Characklis, G. W.
Financial hedging solutions have been examined as tools for effectively mitigating water scarcity related financial risks for water utilities, and have become more prevalent as conservation (resulting in reduced revenues) and water transfers (resulting in increased costs) play larger roles in drought management. Individualized financial contracts (i.e. designed for a single utility) provide evidence of the potential benefits of financial hedging. However, individualized contracts require substantial time and information to develop, limiting their widespread implementation. More generalized contracts have also shown promise, and would allow the benefits of risk pooling to be more effectively realized, resulting in less expensive contracts. Risk pooling reduces the probability of an insurer making payouts that deviate significantly from the mean, but given that the financial risks of drought are spatially correlated amongst utilities, these more extreme "fat tail" risks remain. Any group offering these hedging contracts, whether a third-party insurer or a "mutual" comprised of many utilities, will need to balance the costs (i.e. additional risk) and benefits (i.e. returns) of alternative approaches to managing the extreme risks (e.g. through insurance layers). The balance of these different approaches will vary depending on the risk pool being considered, including the number, size and exposure of the participating utilities. This work first establishes a baseline of the tradeoffs between risk and expected return in insuring against the financial risks of water scarcity without alternative hedging approaches for water utilities across all climate divisions of the United States. Then various scenarios are analyzed to provide insight into how to maximize returns for risk pooling portfolios at various risk levels through balancing different insurance layers and hedging approaches. This analysis will provide valuable information for designing optimal financial risk
In the first part of this work, the progress of Italian National Rules about dams design, construction and operation are presented to highlight the strong connection existing between the promulgation of new decrees, as a consequence of a dam accidents, and the necessity to prevent further loss of lives and goods downstream. Following the Gleno Dam failure (1923), a special Ministerial Committee wrote out the first Regulations and made the proposal to establish, within the High Council of Public Works, a special department that become soon the "Dam Service", with the tasks of control and supervision about construction and operation phases of the dams and their reservoirs. A different definition of tasks and the structure of Dam Service were provided in accordance with law n° 183/1989, which transferred all the technical services to the Office of the Prime Minister; the aim was to join the Dam Office with the Department for National Technical Services, with the objective of increasing the knowledge of the territory and promoting the study on flood propagation downstream in case of operations on bottom outlet or hypothetical dam-break. In fact, population living downstream is not ready to accept any amount of risk because has not a good knowledge of the efforts of experts involved in dam safety, both from the operators and from the safety Authority. So it's important to optimize all the activities usually performed in a dam safety program and improve the emergency planning as a response to people's primary needs and feeling about safety from Civil Protection Authority. In the second part of the work, a definition of risk is provided as the relationship existing between probability of occurrence and loss, setting out the range within to plan for prevention (risk mitigation), thanks to the qualitative assessment of the minimum safety level that is suited to assign funds to plan for Civil Protection (loss mitigation). The basic meaning of the reliability of a zoned
Schreijer, Anja J.M.; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria; Rosendaal, Frits R.
In a case–control study including 11 033 participants (The Multiple Environmental and Genetic Assessment of risk factors for venous thrombosis study) on risk factors of venous thrombosis, we studied the effect of flight-related behaviour on the risk of venous thrombosis after air travel. Patients
... Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment; Proposed Rule #0... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act... corridors, and risk adjustment consistent with title I of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act...
enhanced risk and thus accelerate the onset of illness. Low-risk individuals seem to experience fewer life events and may exhibit resilience to their adverse psychological effects. Overall, having a 1st-degree relative with affective disorder matters. This thesis demonstrates that high-risk studies...
Räsänen, Aleksi; Juhola, Sirkku; Monge Monge, Adrián; Käkönen, Mira; Kanninen, Markku; Nygren, Anja
Water-related risks and vulnerabilities are driven by variety of stressors, including climate and land use change, as well as changes in socio-economic positions and political landscapes. Hence, water governance, which addresses risks and vulnerabilities, should target multiple stressors. We analyze the institutional perceptions of the drivers and strategies for managing water-related risks and vulnerabilities in three regionally important river basin areas located in Finland, Mexico, and Laos. Our analysis is based on data gathered through participatory workshops and complemented by qualitative content analysis of relevant policy documents. The identified drivers and proposed risk reduction strategies showed the multidimensionality and context-specificity of water-related risks and vulnerabilities across study areas. Most of the identified drivers were seen to increase risks, but some of the drivers were positive trends, and drivers also included also policy instruments that can both increase or decrease risks. Nevertheless, all perceived drivers were not addressed with suggested risk reduction strategies. In particular, most of the risk reduction strategies were incremental adjustments, although many of the drivers classified as most important were large-scale trends, such as climate change, land use changes and increase in foreign investments. We argue that there is a scale mismatch between the identified drivers and suggested strategies, which questions the opportunity to manage the drivers by single-scale incremental adjustments. Our study suggests that for more sustainable risk and vulnerability reduction, the root causes of water-related risks and vulnerabilities should be addressed through adaptive multi-scale governance that carefully considers the context-specificity and the multidimensionality of the associated drivers and stressors.
Gassman-Pines, Anna; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
The authors examined the effects of antipoverty programs on children's cumulative poverty-related risk and the relationship between cumulative poverty-related risk and child outcomes among low-income families. Samples included 419 children ages 3-10 years in the New Hope program and 759 children ages 2-9 years in the Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP), which tested 2 program approaches. Nine poverty-related risks made up the measure of cumulative risk. Both MFIP program approaches reduced cumulative poverty-related risk. New Hope reduced cumulative poverty-related risk among long-term welfare recipients. In both New Hope and MFIP, significant linear relationships between cumulative poverty-related risk and parent-reported behavior problems and school achievement were found. Cumulative poverty-related risk partially mediated the impacts of the MFIP programs on children's behavior problems. Among long-term welfare recipients, cumulative poverty-related risk partially mediated New Hope's impact on parent-reported school achievement.
In epidemiologic studies, two forms of collinear relationships between the intake of major nutrients, high correlations, and the relative homogeneity of the diet, can yield unstable and not easily interpreted regression estimates for the effect of diet on disease risk. This paper presents tools for assessing the magnitude and source of the corresponding collinear relationships among the estimated coefficients for relative risk regression models. I show how to extend three tools (condition indices, variance decomposition proportions, and standard inflation factors) for diagnosing collinearity in standard regression models to likelihood and partial likelihood estimation for logistic and proportional hazards models. This extension is based on the analogue role of the information matrix in such analyses and the cross-product matrix in the standard linear model. I apply the methodology to relative risk models that relate crude intakes (on the log scale) and nutrient densities to breast cancer cases in the NHANES-I follow-up study. The three diagnostic tools provide complementary evidence of the existence of a strong collinearity in all models that is due largely to homogeneity of the population with respect to our risk scale for the crude intakes. The analysis suggests that the non-significant relative risks for the crude intakes in these models may be due to their involvement in collinear relationships, while the nonsignificant relative risks for the nutrient densities are far less affected by multicollinearity.
Erridge, Sara C; McCabe, Marie; Porter, Mandy K; Simpson, Patricia; Stillie, Alison L
This audit was conducted before and after introduction of a risk-based skincare policy with prophylactic steroids recommended for those at high risk. Comparison of the two cohorts confirmed results seen in trials with significant reduction in redness, itch, discomfort, sleep disturbance, and use of analgesia with the addition of steroids.
George Cristian Schin
Full Text Available This paper seeks to explore the early warning alerts that NORSE system proposes to e-commerce merchants. The real time visibility to cyber-attacks empowers this intelligence tool with high capabilities to detect the threats that companies confront with. The fight against cyber-criminality should be reinforced globally, in the attempt to mitigate the risks and losses determined by attackers. By analysing two case studies, the article proposes a framework which can guide e-commerce merchants to integrate intelligent systems for threat detection. The managerial implications are obvious, equipping the leaders with tools to prevent both financial and knowledge loss.
Gillian V. Pepper
Full Text Available Prior evidence from the public health literature suggests that both control beliefs and perceived threats to life are important for health behaviour. Our previously presented theoretical model generated the more specific hypothesis that uncontrollable, but not controllable, personal mortality risk should alter the payoff from investment in health protection behaviours. We carried out three experiments to test whether altering the perceived controllability of mortality risk would affect a health-related decision. Experiment 1 demonstrated that a mortality prime could be used to alter a health-related decision: the choice between a healthier food reward (fruit and an unhealthy alternative (chocolate. Experiment 2 demonstrated that it is the controllability of the mortality risk being primed that generates the effect, rather than mortality risk per se. Experiment 3 showed that the effect could be seen in a surreptitious experiment that was not explicitly health related. Our results suggest that perceptions about the controllability of mortality risk may be an important factor in people’s health-related decisions. Thus, techniques for adjusting perceptions about mortality risk could be important tools for use in health interventions. More importantly, tackling those sources of mortality that people perceive to be uncontrollable could have a dual purpose: making neighbourhoods and workplaces safer would have the primary benefit of reducing uncontrollable mortality risk, which could lead to a secondary benefit from improved health behaviours.
Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P
Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective.
Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille
Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors......) was measured by parental occupation. RESULTS: Among girls, exposures to school-related risk factors were more prevalent in lower socio-economic groups. Poor school satisfaction was associated with drunkenness among girls from high SEP, odds ratio (OR) = 2.98 (0.73-12.16). Among boys from high SEP autonomy...... to drunkenness differ between socio-economic groups. METHODS: The study population was a random sample of 1453 Danish 15-year-old students. The outcome measure was drunkenness 10 times or more, as a lifetime measure. Predictor variables comprised five aspects of well-being at school. Socio-economic position (SEP...
Sun Choon Song; Seong Ho Choi; Dong Wook Choi; Jin Seok Heo; Woo Seok Kim; Min Jung Kim
AIM: To identify risk factors for nonalcoholic steato-hepatitis following pancreaticoduodenectomy, with a focus on factors related to pancreatic secretions. METHODS: The medical records of 228 patients who had a pancreaticoduodenectomy over a 16-mo period were reviewed retrospectively. The 193 patients who did not have fatty liver disease preoperatively were included in the final analysis. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed using the differences between splenic and hepatic attenuation and liver-to-spleen attenuation as measured by non-enhanced computed tomography. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (7.8%) who showed post-operative hepatic fatty changes were assigned to Group A, and the remaining patients were assigned to Group B. Patient demographics, preoperative labora-tory findings (including levels of C-peptide, glucagon, insulin and glucose tolerance test results), operation types, and final pathological findings did not differ sig-nificantly between the two groups; however, the fre-quency of pancreatic fistula (P = 0.020) and the meth-od of pancreatic duct stenting (P = 0.005) showed significant differences between the groups. A multivari-ate analysis identified pancreatic fistula (HR = 3.332, P = 0.037) and external pancreatic duct stenting (HR = 4.530, P = 0.017) as independent risk factors for the development of postoperative steatohepatitis. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic fistula and external pancre-atic duct stenting were identified as independent risk factors for the development of steatohepatitis follow-ing pancreaticoduodenectomy.
Podobnik, B.; Horvatic, D.; Petersen, A. M.; Stanley, H. E.
We analyze —for a large set of stocks comprising four financial indices— the annual logarithmic growth rate R and the firm size, quantified by the market capitalization MC. For the Nasdaq Composite and the New York Stock Exchange Composite we find that the probability density functions of growth rates are Laplace ones in the broad central region, where the standard deviation σ(R), as a measure of risk, decreases with the MC as a power law σ(R)~(MC)- β. For both the Nasdaq Composite and the S&P 500, we find that the average growth rate langRrang decreases faster than σ(R) with MC, implying that the return-to-risk ratio langRrang/σ(R) also decreases with MC. For the S&P 500, langRrang and langRrang/σ(R) also follow power laws. For a 20-year time horizon, for the Nasdaq Composite we find that σ(R) vs. MC exhibits a functional form called a volatility smile, while for the NYSE Composite, we find power law stability between σ(r) and MC.
Sulistyowati Tuminah Darjoko
Women and stroke sufferers were at higher risk of fall-related injury among older persons. Prevention of fall-related injury should be done by older persons through periodic control of their health condition.
Typically, above 3 500 m, an increase in sleep- ing altitude of ... Everest. Fig. 1. Relative heights of well-known African and international peaks in comparison to Kilimanjaro, ... recent times, however, the importance of providing high-quality,.
Petruzzi, Maria Noel Marzano Rodrigues; Cherubini, Karen; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro De
.... Using a standardized form, socio-demographic and clinical data were recorded. Exclusively and definitively diagnosed oral pathologies were included and classified according to ECC criteria on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection...
Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver
Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These
Full Text Available Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account
Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver
Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These
Riri N. Kanam
Full Text Available Members of the Police Mobile Brigade (Brimob can suffer from hypertension which is related to work stressors and other risk factors. This study aimed to identify the relationship between work stressors and other hypertensive risk factors. The subjects of this cross-sectional study were members of the Brimob undergoing their periodic medical check-up during July-October 2007. A subject was hypertensive if systolic blood pressure (SBP was 140 mmHg or higher, or diastolic (DBD 90 mmHg, or higher or taking antihypertensive drugs. Normal subjects were those who had SBP less than 120 mmHg and DBP less than 80 mmHg, and have never been diagnosed with hypertension. A number of 336 Brimobs aged 21 to 51 years participated in this study, 111 had high blood pressure and 79 had normal blood pressure. Hypertension was found to be related to excessive body weight and qualitative work overload. Age, work, lifestyle, history of diabetes, hypertension in the family, and other work stressors were not found to increase the risk of hypertension. Medium to high level qualitative work overload had a two-fold risk for hypertension [relative risk adjusted (RRa = 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.97-4.14; p = 0.060]. Overweight subjects had 48% increased risk to hypertension (RRa = 1.48; 95% CI = 0.98-2.22. Obese subjects had a two-fold risk of being hypertensive (RRa = 2.21; 95%CI = 1.51 - 3.14. Qualitative work overload and obesity increased the risk of hypertension. These risk factors should therefore be controlled. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 188-96Keywords: hypertension, qualitative work overload, overweight, obese
Nilunger, Louise; Diderichsen, Finn; Burström, Bo; Ostlin, Piroska
The aim of this study is to contribute to the emerging field of quantification of Health Impact Assessment (HIA), by analysing how different relative risks affect the burden of disease for various socio-economic groups (SES). Risk analysis, utilising attributable and impact fraction, raises several methodological considerations. The present study illustrates this by measuring the impact of changed distribution levels of smoking on lung cancer, ischemic heart disease (IHD), chronic obstructive lung disorder (COLD) and stroke for the highest and lowest socio-economic groups measured in disability adjusted life years (DALY). The material is based on relative risks obtained from various international studies, smoking prevalence (SP) data and the number of DALY based on data available for Sweden. The results show that if smoking would have been eliminated (attributable fraction, AF), the inequality between the highest and lowest socio-economic groups may decrease by 75% or increase by 21% depending on the size of the relative risk. Assuming the same smoking prevalence for the lowest socio-economic group as for the highest (impact fraction), then the inequality may decrease by 7-26%. Consequently, the size of the relative risk used may have a significant impact, leading to substantial biases and therefore should be taken into serious consideration in HIA.
We consider the continuous time consumption-investment problem originally formalized and solved by Merton in case of constant relative risk aversion. We present a complete solution for the case where relative risk aversion with respect to consumption varies with time, having in mind an investor...
Full Text Available IgG4-related disease is a novel disease entity characterized by diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells and fibrosis into multiple organs. There is still controversy over whether some thyroid diseases are actually IgG4-related disease. The objective of this study was to elucidate the clinicopathological features of Graves' disease with diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the thyroid.Among 1,484 Graves' disease patients who underwent thyroidectomy, we examined their histopathological findings including the degree of lymphoplasmacytic and fibrotic infiltration and levels of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the thyroid. Their clinical pictures were defined by laboratory and ultrasonographic evaluation.A total of 11 patients (0.74% showed diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the stroma of the thyroid gland. Meanwhile, other patients showed variable lymphoid infiltration ranging from absent to focally dense but no aggregation of plasma cells in the thyroid gland. Based on the diagnostic criteria of IgG4-related disease, 5 of the 11 subjects had specifically increased levels of IgG4-positive plasma cells in the thyroid. Fibrotic infiltration was present in only 1 patient developing hypothyroidism after anti-thyroid drug treatment for 4 years, but not in the other 10 patients with persistent hyperthyroidism. Obliterative phlebitis was not identified in any of the 11 subjects. Thyroid ultrasound examination showed 1 patient developing hypothyroidism who had diffuse hypoechogenicity, but the other hyperthyroid patients had a coarse echo texture.In our study, Graves' disease patients with persistent hyperthyroidism who had diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells in the thyroid showed no concomitant fibrosis or obliterative phlebitis.
Walsh, L; Zhang, W; Shore, R E; Auvinen, A; Laurier, D; Wakeford, R; Jacob, P; Gent, N; Anspaugh, L R; Schüz, J; Kesminiene, A; van Deventer, E; Tritscher, A; del Rosarion Pérez, M
We present here a methodology for health risk assessment adopted by the World Health Organization that provides a framework for estimating risks from the Fukushima nuclear accident after the March 11, 2011 Japanese major earthquake and tsunami. Substantial attention has been given to the possible health risks associated with human exposure to radiation from damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. Cumulative doses were estimated and applied for each post-accident year of life, based on a reference level of exposure during the first year after the earthquake. A lifetime cumulative dose of twice the first year dose was estimated for the primary radionuclide contaminants ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) and are based on Chernobyl data, relative abundances of cesium isotopes, and cleanup efforts. Risks for particularly radiosensitive cancer sites (leukemia, thyroid and breast cancer), as well as the combined risk for all solid cancers were considered. The male and female cumulative risks of cancer incidence attributed to radiation doses from the accident, for those exposed at various ages, were estimated in terms of the lifetime attributable risk (LAR). Calculations of LAR were based on recent Japanese population statistics for cancer incidence and current radiation risk models from the Life Span Study of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Cancer risks over an initial period of 15 years after first exposure were also considered. LAR results were also given as a percentage of the lifetime baseline risk (i.e., the cancer risk in the absence of radiation exposure from the accident). The LAR results were based on either a reference first year dose (10 mGy) or a reference lifetime dose (20 mGy) so that risk assessment may be applied for relocated and non-relocated members of the public, as well as for adult male emergency workers. The results show that the major contribution to LAR from the reference lifetime dose comes from the first year dose. For a dose of 10 mGy in
Li, Jenny; Hart, Tae L; Aronson, Melyssa; Crangle, Cassandra; Govindarajan, Anand
Currently, there is a lack of evidence evaluating the psychological impact of cancer-related risk perception and worry in individuals at high risk for gastric cancer. We examined the relationships between perceived risk, cancer worry and screening behaviors among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with familial gastric cancer. FDRs of patients diagnosed with familial gastric cancer with a non-informative genetic analysis were identified and contacted. Participants completed a telephone interview that assessed socio-demographic information, cancer risk perception, cancer worry, impact of worry on daily functioning, and screening behaviors. Twenty-five FDRs completed the telephone interview. Participants reported high levels of comparative and absolute cancer risk perception, with an average perceived lifetime risk of 54 %. On the other hand, cancer-related worry scores were low, with a significant minority (12 %) experiencing high levels of worry. Study participants exhibited high levels of confidence (median = 70 %) in the effectiveness of screening at detecting a curable cancer. Participants that had undergone screening in the past showed significantly lower levels of cancer-related worry compared to those that had never undergone screening. In conclusion, individuals at high-risk for gastric cancer perceived a very high personal risk of cancer, but reported low levels of cancer worry. This paradoxical result may be attributed to participants' high levels of confidence in the effectiveness of screening. These findings highlight the importance for clinicians to discuss realistic risk appraisals and expectations towards screening with unaffected members of families at risk for gastric cancer, in an effort to help mitigate anxiety and help with coping.
Hudson, Angela L; Nyamathi, Adeline; Bhattacharya, Debika; Marlow, Elizabeth; Shoptaw, Steven; Marfisee, Mary; Leake, Barbara
Baseline data were collected to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions on completion of the hepatitis A and B vaccine series among 664 sheltered and street-based homeless adults who were: (a) homeless; (b) recently (prison; (c) discharged 1 year or more; and (d) never incarcerated. Group differences at baseline were assessed for socio-demographic characteristics, drug and alcohol use, sexual activity, mental health and public assistance. More than one-third of homeless persons (38%) reported prison time and 16% of the sample had been recently discharged from prison. Almost half of persons who were discharged from prison at least 1 year ago reported daily use of drugs and alcohol over the past 6 months compared to about 1 in 5 among those who were recently released from prison. As risk for HCV and HIV co-infection continues among homeless ex-offenders, HIV/HCV prevention efforts are needed for this population.
Full Text Available Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the lithosphere, constituting 8 % of the earth's crust. Aluminum enters the food from the various objects of environment such as water, food contact materials (packaging materials, cooking vessels, aluminum-containing food additives. In raw food products the content of aluminum is less than 5.7 mg/kg of the product. Normally, aluminum is not practically found in a human body. However, within the last decade various toxic effects of aluminum on human body have been revealed, and they are able to cause the risk of various diseases. The analysis of the available data has demonstrated that the excessive entry of aluminum in human body with food items is associated first of all with the content of aluminum-containing food additives, as well as with the use of materials and products made of aluminum and its alloys intended for contact with food. High level of aluminum consumption has been also detected among children of all ages. At the same time, today, theprovisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI of aluminum for children is not established. To reduce negative effect of aluminum on human body it is necessary to: * exclude from the list of Annex 2 of the Technical Regulations of the Customs Union "Requirements for Food Additives, Flavorings and Technological Aids” (TR TS 029/2012 the following food additives – potassium aluminum silicate (E555, bentonite (E558, sodium aluminum silicate (E554, potassium aluminum silicate (E555, calcium aluminum silicate (E556, aluminum silicate (kaolin (E559; * to develop requirements for the aluminum content in food products intended for children nutrition; * to obtain data on aluminum content in food items sold on the domestic market and to assess health risks to consumers.
Fischer, Mary E; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Pinto, Alex A; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Tweed, Ted S
To evaluate the associations between sensory impairments and 10-year risk of cognitive impairment. The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS), a longitudinal, population-based study of aging in the Beaver Dam, Wisconsin community. Baseline examinations were conducted in 1993 and follow-up examinations have been conducted every 5 years. General community. EHLS members without cognitive impairment at EHLS-2 (1998-2000). There were 1,884 participants (mean age 66.7) with complete EHLS-2 sensory data and follow-up information. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score of impairment was a pure-tone average of hearing thresholds (0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz) of >25 dB hearing level in either ear, visual impairment was a Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity of impairment was a San Diego Odor Identification Test score of visual, and olfactory impairment were independently associated with cognitive impairment risk (hearing: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-3.26; vision: HR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.24-3.38; olfaction: HR = 3.92, 95% CI = 2.45-6.26)). Nevertheless, 85% of participants with hearing impairment, 81% with visual impairment, and 76% with olfactory impairment did not develop cognitive impairment during follow-up. The relationship between sensory impairment and cognitive impairment was not unique to one sensory system, suggesting that sensorineural health may be a marker of brain aging. The development of a combined sensorineurocognitive measure may be useful in uncovering mechanisms of healthy brain aging. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.
Ma, Chun-na; Wu, Shuang-sheng; Yang, Peng; Li, Hai-yue; Zhang, Yi; Li, Xin-yu; Wang, Quan-yi
To study the risk behaviors on diarrhea among the adults of Beijing. 13 287 adults aged over 18 years in Dongcheng, Xicheng, Haidian, Changping, Huairou and Tongzhou districts in Beijing were selected with a multi-stage stratified sampling method. Information on the demographic characteristics, with or without symptoms on diarrhea in the last year, and behaviors related to diarrhea, were collected through a self-designed questionnaire. The reported total prevalence of diarrhea symptoms in the last year was 17.6% and, in urban areas as 16.8%, in rural areas as 18.2% respectively. The differences on the reported prevalence rates of diarrhea in different age groups, background of education and occupations groups among urban residents were statistically significant (P risk factors to diarrhea among adults from urban areas, with OR (95%CI) as 1.26 (1.07 - 1.48), 1.37 (1.16 - 1.63) and 1.38 (1.20 - 1.59), respectively. The reported diarrhea prevalence rates related to sex, age, education background and occupations among rural residents did not show significant differences (P > 0.05). Without hand-washing habit before eating or after toilet-using, eating raw seafood or freshwater products, using the same chopping block and knife at the time when processing raw and cooked food, not being used to regular physical exercise etc. seemed to be the risk factors on diarrhea among adults in the rural areas with the OR (95%CI) as 1.85 (1.51 - 2.25), 1.39 (1.17 - 1.67), 1.44 (1.24 - 1.67) and 1.46 (1.27 - 1.67), respectively. The prevalence reported on diarrhea symptoms among adults from the rural areas was higher than the urban adults. Diarrhea was related to health-related habits, eating habits and regularity of taking physical exercises.
Gola, Hannah; Engler, Harald; Schauer, Maggie; Adenauer, Hannah; Riether, Carsten; Kolassa, Stephan; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana
Studies investigating cortisol responses to trauma-related stressors in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have yielded inconsistent results, demonstrating that cortisol responses were enhanced or unaffected when confronted with trauma reminders. This study investigated the effect of the type of trauma experienced on both salivary and plasma cortisol responses during confrontation with trauma-related material. Participants were 30 survivors of war and torture, with and without rape among the traumatic events experienced. Participants of both groups (raped vs. non-raped) fulfilled DSM-IV criteria of PTSD. Plasma and salivary cortisol levels were measured at three time points during a standardized clinical interview: once before and twice after assessing individual traumatic experiences. Results show that groups did not differ in basal plasma and salivary cortisol levels. However, differential salivary cortisol responses were observed in PTSD patients who had been raped compared to those who had not been raped (prape (praped showed a significant cortisol increase when reminded of their traumatic events (p<.001). This effect was not found in plasma cortisol. Our results indicate that the type of traumatic stress experienced contributes to cortisol responses during the confrontation with trauma-related material. We hypothesize, that the nearness of the perpetrator during the traumatic event might shape later psychophysiological responding to trauma reminders.
Full Text Available Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic rats. Our results showed that fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, insulin resistance index and C-peptide level in the high dose group had a significant downward trend when compared with the model group, chromium picolinate group and chromium trichloride group. The hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, Glut4, phosphor-AMPKβ1 and Akt levels in the high dose group were significantly higher than those of the model, chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride groups. Chromium malate in a high dose group can significantly increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol level while decreasing the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels when compared with chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. The serum chromium content in chromium malate and chromium picolinate group is significantly higher than that of the chromium trichloride group. The results indicated that the curative effects of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes and lipid metabolism changes are better than those of chromium picolinate and chromium trichloride. Chromium malate contributes to glucose uptake and transport in order to improved glycometabolism and glycometabolism-related enzymes.
Carpin, S; Laffer, S; Schoentgen, F; Valenta, R; Chénieux, J C; Rideau, M; Hamdi, S
Cytokinin treatment of periwinkle callus cultures increased the accumulation of a protein, designated T1, in two-dimensional separated protein extracts. The first 30 NH2-terminal amino acids were determined by Edman degradation and showed significant sequence homology with intracellular pathogenesis-related (IPR) plant proteins and the Bet v 1 allergen family. The deduced amino acid sequence of cDNAs coding for T1, isolated by RT-PCR and 5' RACE-PCR, exhibited an average sequence identity of 40% with both IPR and Bet v 1-related allergens. T1 and all related proteins contained a p-loop motif typically found in nucleotide-binding proteins as the most conserved sequence feature. Northern blot analysis showed that cytokinin treatment of periwinkle callus induced T1 transcripts, whereas addition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid inhibited this accumulation. Hybridization of genomic periwinkle DNA with the T1 cDNA suggested that the protein is encoded by a single-copy gene. Immunoblot studies with a panel of Bet v 1-specific antibodies and sera from Bet v 1 allergic individuals identified T1 as a protein that is immunologically distinct from the Bet v 1 allergen family and has no allergenic properties.
John A. Heath
Full Text Available We determined the extent and distribution of cancers in relatives of 379 children newly diagnosed with cancer. Family history was collected from 1,337 first-degree and 3,399 second-degree relatives and incidence compared with national age- and gender-specific rates. Overall, 14 children (3.7% had a relative with a history of childhood cancer and 26 children (6.9% had a first-degree relative with a history of cancer, with only one of these having an identifiable familial cancer syndrome. There was a higher than expected incidence of childhood cancer among first-degree relatives (parents and siblings (standardized incidence ratio (SIR 1.43; 95% CI 0.54–5.08. There was also a higher than expected incidence of adult cancers among first-degree relatives (SIR 1.45; 95% CI 0.93–2.21, particularly in females (SIR 1.82; 95% CI 1.26–3.39. The increased family cancer history in first-degree females was largely attributable to an effect in mothers (SIR 1.78; 95% CI 1.27–3.33. The gender-specific association was reflected in higher than expected incidence rates of breast cancer in both mothers (SIR 1.92; 95% CI 0.72–6.83 and aunts (SIR 1.64; 95% CI 0.98–2.94. These findings support the hypothesis that previously undetected familial cancer syndromes contribute to childhood cancer.
Association of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with genetic variants showing differential allelic expression: identification of a modifier of breast cancer risk at locus 11q22.3.
Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Kuchenbaeker, Karoline B; Pastinen, Tomi; Droit, Arnaud; Lemaçon, Audrey; Adlard, Julian; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L; Arason, Adalgeir; Arnold, Norbert; Arun, Banu K; Azzollini, Jacopo; Bane, Anita; Barjhoux, Laure; Barrowdale, Daniel; Benitez, Javier; Berthet, Pascaline; Blok, Marinus J; Bobolis, Kristie; Bonadona, Valérie; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bradbury, Angela R; Brewer, Carole; Buecher, Bruno; Buys, Saundra S; Caligo, Maria A; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Chung, Wendy K; Claes, Kathleen B M; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; De la Hoya, Miguel; De Leeneer, Kim; Diez, Orland; Ding, Yuan Chun; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Domchek, Susan M; Dorfling, Cecilia M; Eccles, Diana; Eeles, Ros; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Ejlertsen, Bent; Engel, Christoph; Gareth Evans, D; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Foretova, Lenka; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Fountzilas, George; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Ganschow, Pamela; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; Gayther, Simon A; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Glendon, Gord; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldgar, David E; Greene, Mark H; Gronwald, Jacek; Hahnen, Eric; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V O; Hart, Steven; Hays, John L; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Hulick, Peter J; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Joseph, Vijai; Just, Walter; Kaczmarek, Katarzyna; Karlan, Beth Y; Kets, Carolien M; Kirk, Judy; Kriege, Mieke; Laitman, Yael; Laurent, Maïté; Lazaro, Conxi; Leslie, Goska; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Loman, Niklas; Loud, Jennifer T; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mariani, Milena; Mazoyer, Sylvie; McGuffog, Lesley; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E J; Meindl, Alfons; Miller, Austin; Montagna, Marco; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Nathanson, Katherine L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nussbaum, Robert L; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Ong, Kai-Ren; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Osorio, Ana; Papi, Laura; Park, Sue Kyung; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Segura, Pedro Perez; Peterlongo, Paolo; Phelan, Catherine M; Radice, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; Rappaport-Fuerhauser, Christine; Rennert, Gad; Richardson, Andrea; Robson, Mark; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Rookus, Matti A; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Sevenet, Nicolas; Shah, Payal D; Singer, Christian F; Slavin, Thomas P; Snape, Katie; Sokolowska, Johanna; Sønderstrup, Ida Marie Heeholm; Southey, Melissa; Spurdle, Amanda B; Stadler, Zsofia; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Tan, Yen; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teulé, Alex; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tihomirova, Laima; Tischkowitz, Marc; Tognazzo, Silvia; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Tung, Nadine; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Engelen, Klaartje; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Wijnen, Juul T; Rebbeck, Timothy; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Offit, Kenneth; Couch, Fergus J; Nord, Silje; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis C; Simard, Jacques
Cis-acting regulatory SNPs resulting in differential allelic expression (DAE) may, in part, explain the underlying phenotypic variation associated with many complex diseases. To investigate whether common variants associated with DAE were involved in breast cancer susceptibility among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, a list of 175 genes was developed based of their involvement in cancer-related pathways. Using data from a genome-wide map of SNPs associated with allelic expression, we assessed the association of ~320 SNPs located in the vicinity of these genes with breast and ovarian cancer risks in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 mutation carriers ascertained from 54 studies participating in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. We identified a region on 11q22.3 that is significantly associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (most significant SNP rs228595 p = 7 × 10(-6)). This association was absent in BRCA2 carriers (p = 0.57). The 11q22.3 region notably encompasses genes such as ACAT1, NPAT, and ATM. Expression quantitative trait loci associations were observed in both normal breast and tumors across this region, namely for ACAT1, ATM, and other genes. In silico analysis revealed some overlap between top risk-associated SNPs and relevant biological features in mammary cell data, which suggests potential functional significance. We identified 11q22.3 as a new modifier locus in BRCA1 carriers. Replication in larger studies using estrogen receptor (ER)-negative or triple-negative (i.e., ER-, progesterone receptor-, and HER2-negative) cases could therefore be helpful to confirm the association of this locus with breast cancer risk.
Rossini, Ana; de Almeida Simão, Tatiana; Albano, Rodolpho Mattos; Pinto, Luis Felipe Ribeiro
Tobacco consumption is the main identifiable risk to cancer, contributing to the majority of tumors in upper aerodigestive tissues. The psychoactive compound responsible for tobacco addiction, nicotine and the potent carcinogens present at high concentrations either in cigarette mainstream smoke or in smokeless tobacco products, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-butanone (NNK) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) can be metabolized by CYP2A6. CYP2A6 is expressed in many aerodigestive tissues with high interindividual variability. The CYP2A6 gene is highly polymorphic and CYP2A6 alleles coding for enzymes with altered expression or metabolic capacity produce alterations in nicotine metabolism in vivo and seem to influence smoking behavior. These polymorphisms may change the rate of NNK and NNN activation and, therefore, may influence cancer risk associated with tobacco consumption. However, to date only a few and inconclusive studies have addressed the risk that a given CYP2A6 polymorphism presents for the development of tobacco-related tumors. Most, but not all, show a reduced risk associated with alleles that result in decreased enzyme activity. The overlapping substrate specificity and tissue expression between CYP2A6 and the highly similar CYP2A13 may add to the conflicting results observed. The intricate regulation of CYP2A6 and the variation of structurally different chemical compounds capable of inhibiting CYP2A enzymes also add to the complexity. Finally, the interaction between polymorphisms of genes that code for CYP2A6, CYP2A13 and other potent carcinogen-metabolizing CYP enzymes may help to determine individuals that are at higher risk of developing tumors associated with tobacco consumption.
Full Text Available Aim : To establish the frequency, associations and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD in hospital population of South India. Materials and Methods : In this cross-sectional hospital based study, 3549 subjects (2090 men and 1459 women above 45 years of age were screened randomly for AMD. Participants underwent ocular evaluation and were interviewed for lifestyle variables and dietary intake of carotenoids by structured food frequency questionnaire. AMD was defined according to the international classifications and grading system. Results : Either form of AMD was detected in 77 (2.2% participants. Of which, early and late AMD was present in 63 (1.8% and 14 (0.4% subjects, respectively. Binary logistic analysis showed that the incidence of AMD was significantly higher with increasing age (Odds ratio [OR] 1.17; 95% CI 1.13-1.22 and diabetes (OR 3.97; 95% CI 2.11-7.46. However, AMD was significant among heavy cigarette smokers (OR 5.58; 95% CI 0.88-7.51 and alcoholics (OR 4.85; 95% CI 2.45-12.22. Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin (L/Z and β-carotene intake were associated (P < 0.001 with the reduction in risk for AMD, with an OR of 0.38 and 0.65, respectively. Conclusions : Higher dietary intake of carotenoids, especially L/Z, was associated with lower risk for AMD. Risk of AMD is higher with increasing age and was prevalent among subjects with diabetes. Cessation of smoking and alcohol may reduce the risk of AMD in this population.
Nidhi, Bhatiwada; Mamatha, Bangera Sheshappa; Padmaprabhu, Chamrajnagar Anantharajiah; Pallavi, Prabhu; Vallikannan, Baskaran
To establish the frequency, associations and risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in hospital population of South India. In this cross-sectional hospital based study, 3549 subjects (2090 men and 1459 women) above 45 years of age were screened randomly for AMD. Participants underwent ocular evaluation and were interviewed for lifestyle variables and dietary intake of carotenoids by structured food frequency questionnaire. AMD was defined according to the international classifications and grading system. Either form of AMD was detected in 77 (2.2%) participants. Of which, early and late AMD was present in 63 (1.8%) and 14 (0.4%) subjects, respectively. Binary logistic analysis showed that the incidence of AMD was significantly higher with increasing age (Odds ratio [OR] 1.17; 95% CI 1.13-1.22) and diabetes (OR 3.97; 95% CI 2.11-7.46). However, AMD was significant among heavy cigarette smokers (OR 5.58; 95% CI 0.88-7.51) and alcoholics (OR 4.85; 95% CI 2.45-12.22). Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin (L/Z) and β-carotene intake were associated (P < 0.001) with the reduction in risk for AMD, with an OR of 0.38 and 0.65, respectively. Higher dietary intake of carotenoids, especially L/Z, was associated with lower risk for AMD. Risk of AMD is higher with increasing age and was prevalent among subjects with diabetes. Cessation of smoking and alcohol may reduce the risk of AMD in this population.
Qin, Ping; Nordentoft, Merete
history increases suicide risk relatively more in women than in men; and suicide risk is substantial for substance disorders and for multiple admissions in women but not in men. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide risk peaks in periods immediately after admission and discharge. The risk is particularly high in persons...... with affective disorders and in persons with short hospital treatment. These findings should lead to systematic evaluation of suicide risk among inpatients before discharge and corresponding outpatient treatment, and family support should be initiated immediately after the discharge......BACKGROUND: Persons with a history of admission to a psychiatric hospital are at high risk for suicide, but little is known about how this is influenced by factors related to psychiatric hospitalization. OBJECTIVE: To explore suicide risk according to time since admission, diagnosis, length...
Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable diseases account for a significant disease burden in the South East Asia region. India is facing an increased incidence of lifestyle-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. Socioeconomic and lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD have been under investigated in India. This study was designed to explore risk factors contributing to the development of cardiovascular disease among Indian males.Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 2,235 males in the age group of 18-60 years across three states of India. A household survey was used to collect demographic and socioeconomic status information in addition to lifestyle-related attributes such as smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and physical activity. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed to identify the role of various factors that may be associated with the development of cardiovascular disease in this population.Results: The prevalence of cardiovascular disease among the male respondents contacted through a household survey was reported to be 9.8%. Logistic regression revealed that males with higher education and higher income were more likely to report CVD. With age as a strong predictor of CVD, the risk of CVD was found to be five times higher in the older age group. Current smokers were 1.3 times more likely to have CVD compared to those who never smoked. Those who were engaged in physical activity were less likely to have CVD; however, the adverse effects of smoking and excessive consumption of red meat showed a stronger association with CVD than the protective effects of physical activity.Conclusion: In developing countries, where the increase in earning capacity and change in lifestyle has been found to be accompanied by substantial risk of heart disease for males, public health measures like health promotion programs need to be implemented to decrease CVD burden.
Lund, M; Diaz, L J; Gørtz, S
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Myotonic dystrophies (DM) are autosomal dominantly inherited neuromuscular disorders caused by unstable nucleotide repeat expansions. DM and cancer have been associated, but the pathogenesis behind the association remains unclear. It could relate to derived effects of the DM...
A.L. Berends (Anne)
textabstractPreeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are common vascular related pregnancy syndromes of unknown cause. Both preeclampsia and IUGR are responsible for a significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Preeclampsia affects approximately 2.5-3.0% of
Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Bernabé, Eduardo
The aim of this study was to assess the individual and grouped influence of host-related factors on dental caries experience in permanent dentition of 7-9 year-old children. One hundred and twenty one children were recruited applying a stratified cluster sampling without replacement. Clinical examinations, Colorimetric Test and non-stimulated and stimulated saliva collection were performed; the samples obtained were later incubated using Snyder culture medium. Simple and multiple binary logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the individual and grouped influence of the host-related factors and establish a modelfor predicting dental caries in permanent dentition. 78.5% of the evaluated children presented dental caries in permanent dentition. Binary logistic regression analyses revealMd that only dental caries in deciduous dentition and stimulated salivary flow were significantly associated to dental caries in permanent dentition. The final multivariate model showed that the adjusted OR was 1.76 for an increase of 1 tooth in dmft and 2.29 for a decrease of 1 ml in stimulated salivary flow. Dental caries in deciduous dentition is a risk indicator for dental caries in permanent dentition, and stimulated salivary flow is a protective factor Variables like enamel resistance to acid dissolution and buffer capacity are not related to dental caries in permanent dentition, making them inappropriate for risk studies.
Castro Cuesta, Juana Yikenia; Abellán Huerta, José; Leal Hernández, Mariano; Gómez Jara, Purificación; Ortín Ortín, Enrique J; Abellán Alemán, José
To analyze the lifestyles associated with cardiovascular risk in a university population in university admission. A descriptive, observational, cross-sectional students of the Catholic University San Antonio of Murcia. Select a sample of 672 college students enrolled in the first year of the race. The instrument used to collect the data, is a self-completed questionnaire anonymous, with a total of 59 questions. With respect to smoking 242 are smokers (36%), 117 former smokers (17.4%), and 313 non-smokers (46.6%). When compared snuff consumption by sex, no differences are detected. By running the largest group of non-smokers often seen in students of physical sciences (59.1%) compared to the careers humanities (40.9%). 87.4% (587) of students surveyed report using alcohol, compared to 12.6% (85) no. According to the race group not detected association between race group and the fact consume alcohol or not. The 65.6% of students surveyed physical exercise commonly referred, being higher the frequency of exercise in men than in women (81.7% versus 49.4%) (P<.001). 54.3% of surveyed students follow a dietary pattern typical of the Mediterranean diet. The University does not exercise the role that could mean in terms of enhancing healthy lifestyles and abandonment of harmful health styles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.
Steele, Catriona M; Cichero, Julie A Y
Penetration-aspiration is considered the most serious component of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Clinicians regularly evaluate the pathophysiology of swallowing and postulate reasons or mechanisms behind penetration-aspiration. In this article we share the results of a two-stage literature review designed to elucidate the association between abnormalities in physiological measures of swallowing function and the occurrence of penetration-aspiration. In the first stage, a broad scoping review was undertaken using search terms for nine different structures involved in oropharyngeal swallowing. In the second stage, based on the results of the initial search, a more focused systematic review was undertaken which explored the association between aspiration and abnormalities in respiratory, tongue, hyoid, and laryngeal function in swallowing. A total of 37 articles underwent detailed quality review and data extraction in the systematic review. The results support measurement of tongue strength, anatomically normalized measures of hyoid movement, bolus dwell time in the pharynx while the larynx remains open, respiratory rate, and respiratory swallow phasing as parameters relevant to aspiration risk.
Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann
Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…
Full Text Available Almost everyone, including employees, may develop hypertension. Several risk factors, including stresses in the work environment, are related to hypertension. The aim of this study is to identify these work-related risk factors in hypertension. A nested case-control study was conducted among office employees in Jakarta during May 2004. Employees with stage 1 or stage 2 hypertension (based on the United States of America Joint National Committee on high blood pressure 2003, or those taking antihypertensive drugs were designated as cases. As controls were employees with no history of hypertension. One case was randomly matched by gender with two controls. All risk factors for cases and controls were counted as of the reference date of diagnosis for cases. There were 70 cases and 140 controls aged 25 to 65 years. Hypertension was found to be related to the qualitative and quantitative increase in the workload, career development, age, obesity, current and past smoking habits, and a family history of hypertension. However, it was noted that role of ambiguity, role of conflict, and personal responsibility did not increase the risk of hypertension. Compared to those with low qualitative job stressor, those who had moderate or high qualitative job stressor had a seven-fold risk to be hypertensive [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 7.47; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.40-39.76]. In addition, relative to those who had low quantitative job stressor, those with moderate or high stressors were four times at risk to be hypertensive (ORa = 4.10; 95% CI = 1.06-15.90. In conclusion moderate or high qualitative and quantitative job stressors as well as career development increased risk hypertension. Therefore these stressors need to be prevented. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:177-84 Keywords: hypertension, qualitative job stressor, quantitative job stressor, career development
Baynes, Re; Riviere, Je
Recent adulteration of milk products with melamine (ME) in several countries caused adverse health effects and even deaths in infants. Earlier, in 2007, contamination of pet food with ME and its related contaminants was associated with many clinical cases of canine and feline nephrotoxicity, and in some cases mortality. ME is a triazine compound that is often detected with other triazine analogs such as cyanuric acid. As is the custom in some livestock operations, the contaminated pet food was mixed with feed intended for the swine and poultry industry. This practice has raised several questions as to whether ME and its related triazines would adversely affect the health of these food animals, and whether meat products derived from swine and poultry could contain high-enough levels of these contaminants to warrant public health concern. Data for this review article were obtained from recent research efforts in our laboratory, peer-reviewed publications cited in PubMed, and information available at USDA, US FDA, and WHO websites. The primary issues discussed are related to (1) the chemistry and interactions between ME and its triazine analogs; (2) reported animal and human exposures with possible pathways through which ME can enter the human food chain; (3) mammalian toxicology; (4) comparative pharmacokinetics (PK) and modeling strategies used to predict residue levels; and (5) emerging issues and management strategies.
Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the causes, diagnostic and therapeutic principles, and prevention of the perforation related to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP. MethodsAll patients who developed perforation after ERCP in the Central Hospital of Shanghai Jiading District from January 2009 to December 2013 were recruited. The causes, types, and diagnosis and treatment of perforation were analyzed retrospectively. ResultsERCP was done in 459 cases during the 4 years, and 6 (1.3% of them developed perforation. The causes of perforation were as follows: endoscope insertion (3 cases, catheterization or sphincterotomy (2 cases, and guide wire or Dormia basket (1 case. Two cases received conservative management successfully and were discharged; four cases underwent surgical treatment, and one of them died. Conclusion Patients with ERCP-related perforation can achieve ideal prognosis through individualized treatment based on the causes and types of perforation. Careful and cautious operation, especially for the elderly or the patients with a history of upper abdominal operation, will reduce the incidence of ERCP-related perforation.
]; fasting plasma glucose [FPG], hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c], homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; creatinine, uric acid; and maximal aerobic capacity [VO2 max] were examined as indicators of obesity-related health risk.Results: Despite equivalent magnitudes of AF reduction (-29.5% versus -30.1% in subjects in the exercise and dietary restriction groups (objective 1, ten parameters (SBP, DBP, HDLC, HOMA-IR, uric acid, creatinine, hs-CRP, adiponectin, IL-6, and VO2 max showed significant differences. However, for large AF reduction differences (-30.1% versus -2.8% between groups of subjects in the same exercise program (objective 2, only creatinine and VO2 max were different.Conclusion: It is likely that AF reduction alone is not directly linked to improvement in obesity-related health risk factors, indicating the need for reexamination of the management for AF reduction (ie, lifestyle modification rather than simply targeting reduction of AF.Keywords: exercise, dietary restriction, intervention study, lifestyle modification, metabolic syndrome
Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete
admission. Most studies are based on low power, thus compromising quality and generalisability. The few studies with sufficient statistical power mainly identified non-modifiable risk predictors such as male gender, diagnosis, or recent deliberate self-harm. Also, the predictive value of these predictors...
Ozisik, Lale; Ozdemir, Fatma Nurhan; Tanriover, Mine Durusu
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) has become a treatment modality for end stage renal disease with a peak of its use in 1990 s. The aim of this study was to examine the peritonitis rates, causative organisms and the risk factors of peritonitis in a large group of patients in our center. The study was conducted in the Nephrology Department of a University Hospital in Turkey. Patients in the PD programme between January 2000 and January 2006 were included. Cohort-specific and subject specific peritonitis incidence, and peritonitis-free survival were calculated. Causative organisms and risk factors were evaluated. Totally 620 episodes of peritonitis occurred in 440 patients over the six years period. Peritonitis rates showed a decreasing trend through the years (0.79 episodes/patient-year 2000-2003 and 0.46 episodes/patient-year 2003-2006). Cohort-specific peritonitis incidence was 0.62 episodes/patient-years and median subject-specific peritonitis incidence was 0.44 episodes/patient-years. The median peritonitis-free survival was 15.25 months (%95 CI, 9.45-21.06 months). The proportion of gram-negative organisms has increased from 9.8% to 17.3%. There was a significant difference in the percentage of culture negative peritonitis between the first three and the last three years (53.1% vs. 43.2%, respectively). Peritonitis incidence was higher in patients who had been transferred from HD, who had catheter related infection and who had HCV infection without cirrhosis. Our study showed significant trends in the peritonitis rates, causative organisms and antibiotic resistance. Prior HD therapy, catheter related infections and HCV infection were found to be risk factors for peritonitis.
Earle, Timothy C; Siegrist, Michael
In this study, we empirically examine the relations between trust, fairness, and cooperation within two environmental risk management contexts, one in which the focal issue is of high personal moral importance and the other in which the focal issue is of low moral importance. Using an experimental design embedded in two parallel survey questionnaires, one mailed to residents of Washington State, the other to German-speaking residents of Switzerland, we either manipulated or constructed three factors, issue importance (high/low), procedural fairness (fair/unfair), and policy outcome (risk averse/risk accepting). This design enabled us to compare the predictions of the standard account of procedural fairness, that trust and cooperation are determined by judgments of fairness, with the predictions of an alternative account, that trust and cooperation will be determined by judgments of procedural fairness only when the issue involved is not morally important. Results for the American case showed that under conditions of high issue importance, policy outcome affected judged fairness, trust, and cooperation. Under conditions of low issue importance, policy outcome had no effect on judged fairness or trust but did have a moderate impact on cooperation. Analyses also showed that when issue importance was high, procedural fairness had no effects. When issue importance was low, procedural fairness had moderate effects on judged fairness and trust. Results for the Swiss case replicated the main findings for the American case. Together, these results support the alternative model of the relation between trust and fairness, suggesting that the efficacy of fair procedures is strictly limited.
Full Text Available Nowadays the use of photovoltaic (PV systems in buildings is not only related to the solar energy conversion into electrical one, but these PV modules or panels could also be used with aesthetic features or, even more, as thermal protection systems in building facades. Thanks to the technical development of the photovoltaic industry, PV system can easily be architectonically integrated into building construction elements such as roofs, vertical façade components, both with opaque or transparent surfaces. Furthermore, PV construction facades elements could also be provided by openings like doors or windows. Accident analysis show that the use of PV systems as construction elements could increase the risk of fire in buildings. In fact, international and National data report a growing number of fire caused by PV system applied or integrated in buildings. The Italian National Fire Service, that is the Authority having jurisdiction for fire safety in buildings (in Italy, in 2012 has released a Guideline in order to asses and mitigate the risk of fire when a PV system is put in place on a building as a façade or as a roof. The Guideline addresses not only the reduction of the PV fire ignitions causes and the aspects related to the fire spread due to the combustible parts that constitute PV modules or panels, but also take into account the safety of both the maintenance personnel and the rescue teams. This paper focuses on the fire safety aspects related to the use of fire PV panels and systems in building facades, showing some interesting experimental data related to the fire behaviour of these components and underlining the factors that promote the spread of fire, like the high operating temperature of the PV system itself.
Fortuny, Joan; Sima, Camelia; Bayuga, Sharon; Wilcox, Homer; Pulick, Katherine; Faulkner, Shameka; Zauber, Ann G.; Olson, Sara H.
We studied the relation of medical conditions related to obesity and medications used for these conditions with endometrial cancer. We also investigated the association of other medical conditions and medications with risk. This US population-based case-control study included 469 endometrial cancer cases and 467 controls. Information on putative risk factors for endometrial cancer was collected through personal interviews. We asked women about their medical history and medications used for six months or longer and the number of years each medication was taken. Risk was strongly associated with increasing obesity (p for trend <0.001). Among conditions related to obesity, and after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), and other risk factors and conditions, uterine fibroids were independently related to an increased cancer risk (adjusted OR= 1.8, 95%CI= 1.2–2.5). Although hypertension was not significantly related to endometrial cancer after adjustment for age and BMI, use of thiazide diuretics was independently associated with an increased risk (OR= 1.8, 95%CI= 1.1–3.0). Anemia was associated with decreased risk (OR= 0.6, 95%CI= 0.5–0.9). Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was related to a decreased risk (OR= 0.7, 95%CI= 0.5–0.97). To our knowledge, the observation about thiazide diuretics is novel and requires confirmation in other studies and populations. PMID:19383893
Hsieh, Nan-Hung; Chung, Shun-Hui; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Chen, Wei-Yu; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Lin, Yi-Jun; You, Su-Han; Liao, Chung-Min
Lead-exposed workers may suffer adverse health effects under the currently regulated blood lead (BPb) levels. However, a probabilistic assessment about lead exposure-associated anemia risk is lacking. The goal of this study was to examine the association between lead exposure and anemia risk among factory workers in Taiwan. We first collated BPb and indicators of hematopoietic function data via health examination records that included 533 male and 218 female lead-exposed workers between 2012 and 2014. We used benchmark dose (BMD) modeling to estimate the critical effect doses for detection of abnormal indicators. A risk-based probabilistic model was used to characterize the potential hazard of lead poisoning for job-specific workers by hazard index (HI). We applied Bayesian decision analysis to determine whether BMD could be implicated as a suitable BPb standard. Our results indicated that HI for total lead-exposed workers was 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.50-1.26) with risk occurrence probability of 11.1%. The abnormal risk of anemia indicators for male and female workers could be reduced, respectively, by 67-77% and 86-95% by adopting the suggested BPb standards of 25 and 15 μg/dL. We conclude that cumulative exposure to lead in the workplace was significantly associated with anemia risk. This study suggests that current BPb standard needs to be better understood for the application of lead-exposed population protection in different scenarios to provide a novel standard for health management. Low-level lead exposure risk is an occupational and public health problem that should be paid more attention.
Boles, Richard E; Halbower, Ann C; Daniels, Stephen; Gunnarsdottir, Thrudur; Whitesell, Nancy; Johnson, Susan L
This study evaluated the influence of child and family functioning on child sleep behaviors in low-income minority families who are at risk for obesity. A cross-sectional study was utilized to measure child and family functioning from 2013 to 2014. Participants were recruited from Head Start classrooms while data were collected during home visits. A convenience sample of 72 low-income Hispanic (65%) and African American (32%) families of preschool-aged children were recruited for this study. We assessed the association of child and family functioning with child sleep behaviors using a multivariate multiple linear regression model. Bootstrap mediation analyses examined the effects of family chaos between child functioning and child sleep problems. Poorer child emotional and behavioral functioning related to total sleep behavior problems. Chaos associated with bedtime resistance significantly mediated the relationship between Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS) and Bedtime Resistance. Families at high risk for obesity showed children with poorer emotional and behavioral functioning were at higher risk for problematic sleep behaviors, although we found no link between obesity and child sleep. Family chaos appears to play a significant role in understanding part of these relationships. Future longitudinal studies are necessary to establish causal relationships between child and family functioning and sleep problems to further guide obesity interventions aimed at improving child sleep routines and increasing sleep duration.
Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K
) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled by body mass (milliliters per minute per kilogram). Total body fat mass (TBF) and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total body fat was expressed as a percentage of total body mass (BF...... ventricular mass (LVM) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were calculated. Z scores (value for the individual - mean value for group)/SD were calculated by sex. The sum of z scores for DBP, SDP, PP, MAP, RHR, LVM, LA, RWT, BF%, AFM and AFM/TBF were calculated in boys and girls, separately, and used...
Stoet, Gijsbert; Bailey, Drew H; Moore, Alex M; Geary, David C
Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls' STEM participation.
Maria do Carmo Leal
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of preterm birth has been increasing worldwide, including in Brazil. This constitutes a significant public health challenge because of the higher levels of morbidity and mortality and long-term health effects associated with preterm birth. This study describes and quantifies factors affecting spontaneous and provider-initiated preterm birth in Brazil. Methods Data are from the 2011–2012 “Birth in Brazil” study, which used a national population-based sample of 23,940 women. We analyzed the variables following a three-level hierarchical methodology. For each level, we performed non-conditional multiple logistic regression for both spontaneous and provider-initiated preterm birth. Results The rate of preterm birth was 11.5 %, (95 % confidence 10.3 % to 12.9 % 60.7 % spontaneous - with spontaneous onset of labor or premature preterm rupture of membranes - and 39.3 % provider-initiated, with more than 90 % of the last group being pre-labor cesarean deliveries. Socio-demographic factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth were adolescent pregnancy, low total years of schooling, and inadequate prenatal care. Other risk factors were previous preterm birth (OR 3.74; 95 % CI 2.92–4.79, multiple pregnancy (OR 16.42; 95 % CI 10.56–25.53, abruptio placentae (OR 2.38; 95 % CI 1.27–4.47 and infections (OR 4.89; 95 % CI 1.72–13.88. In contrast, provider-initiated preterm birth was associated with private childbirth healthcare (OR 1.47; 95 % CI 1.09–1.97, advanced-age pregnancy (OR 1.27; 95 % CI 1.01–1.59, two or more prior cesarean deliveries (OR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.19–2.26, multiple pregnancy (OR 20.29; 95 % CI 12.58–32.72 and any maternal or fetal pathology (OR 6.84; 95 % CI 5.56–8.42. Conclusion The high proportion of provider-initiated preterm birth and its association with prior cesarean deliveries and all of the studied maternal/fetal pathologies suggest that a reduction of this type of
Pasi, Shivani; Singh, Piyoosh Kumar; Pandey, Rajeev Kumar; Dikshit, P C; Jiloha, R C; Rao, V R
Suicide as a public health problem is studied worldwide and association of psychiatric and genetic risk factors for suicidal behavior are the point of discussion in studies across different ethnic groups. The present study is aimed at evaluating psychiatric and genetic traits among primary relatives of suicide completer families in an urban Indian population. Bi-variate analysis shows significant increase in major depression (PHQ and Hamilton), stress, panic disorder, somatoform disorder and suicide attemptamong primary compared to other relatives. Sib pair correlations also reveal significant results for major depression (Hamilton), stress, suicide attempt, intensity of suicide ideation and other anxiety syndrome. 5-HTTLPR, 5-HTT (Stin2) and COMT risk alleles are higher among primary relatives, though statistically insignificant. Backward conditional logistic regression analysis show only independent variable, Depression (Hamilton) made a unique statistically significant contribution to the model in primary relatives.
Holmes, Michael V; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Melis, Daniela
BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence exists on whether smoking acts as an effect modifier of the association between APOE genotype and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched PubMed and EMBASE to June 11, 2013 for published studies reporting APOE genotype, smoking statu...
Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda de Araújo
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a vector-borne disease whose factors involved in transmission are poorly understood, especially in more urban and densely populated counties. In Brazil, the VL urbanization is a challenge for the control program. The goals were to identify the greater risk areas for human VL and the risk factors involved in transmission. METHODOLOGY: This is an ecological study on the relative risk of human VL. Spatial units of analysis were the coverage areas of the Basic Health Units (146 small-areas of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human VL cases, from 2007 to 2009 (n = 412, were obtained in the Brazilian Reportable Disease Information System. Bayesian approach was used to model the relative risk of VL including potential risk factors involved in transmission (canine infection, socioeconomic and environmental features and to identify the small-areas of greater risk to human VL. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The relative risk of VL was shown to be correlated with income, education, and the number of infected dogs per inhabitants. The estimates of relative risk of VL were higher than 1.0 in 54% of the areas (79/146. The spatial modeling highlighted 14 areas with the highest relative risk of VL and 12 of them are concentrated in the northern region of the city. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial analysis used in this study is useful for the identification of small-areas according to risk of human VL and presents operational applicability in control and surveillance program in an urban environment with an unequal spatial distribution of the disease. Thus the frequent monitoring of relative risk of human VL in small-areas is important to direct and prioritize the actions of the control program in urban environment, especially in big cities.
Kim, Ji-In; Lawson, Andrew B.; McDermott, Suzanne; Aelion, C. Marjorie
The relationship between exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy and early childhood development is an important issue which has a spatial risk component. In this context, we have examined mental retardation and developmental delay (MRDD) outcome measures for children in a Medicaid population in South Carolina and sampled measures of soil chemistry (e.g. As, Hg, etc.) on a network of sites which are misaligned to the outcome residential addresses during pregnancy. The true chemic...
Full Text Available A central theoretical goal of epidemiology is the construction of spatial models of disease prevalence and risk, including maps for the potential spread of infectious disease. We provide three continent-wide maps representing the relative risk of malaria in Africa based on ecological niche models of vector species and risk analysis at a spatial resolution of 1 arc-minute (9 185 275 cells of approximately 4 sq km. Using a maximum entropy method we construct niche models for 10 malaria vector species based on species occurrence records since 1980, 19 climatic variables, altitude, and land cover data (in 14 classes. For seven vectors (Anopheles coustani, A. funestus, A. melas, A. merus, A. moucheti, A. nili, and A. paludis these are the first published niche models. We predict that Central Africa has poor habitat for both A. arabiensis and A. gambiae, and that A. quadriannulatus and A. arabiensis have restricted habitats in Southern Africa as claimed by field experts in criticism of previous models. The results of the niche models are incorporated into three relative risk models which assume different ecological interactions between vector species. The "additive" model assumes no interaction; the "minimax" model assumes maximum relative risk due to any vector in a cell; and the "competitive exclusion" model assumes the relative risk that arises from the most suitable vector for a cell. All models include variable anthrophilicity of vectors and spatial variation in human population density. Relative risk maps are produced from these models. All models predict that human population density is the critical factor determining malaria risk. Our method of constructing relative risk maps is equally general. We discuss the limits of the relative risk maps reported here, and the additional data that are required for their improvement. The protocol developed here can be used for any other vector-borne disease.
Kjærgaard, Kasper Aalbæk; Christiansen, Morten Krogh; Schmidt, Morten
BACKGROUND: Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia increases the risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Whether affected relatives of probands are at increased risk remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the long-term cardiovascular risk in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia relatives...... with a low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mutation who were all recommended statin therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants were identified by cascade screening at Aarhus University Hospital during 1992-1994. A comparison cohort from the Danish general population was matched 10:1 to relatives by birth...... statins during their follow-up period. Despite frequent use of lipid-lowering medication, the adjusted hazard ratio of the primary end point was 1.65 (95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.33) in mutation-carrying relatives compared with the general population cohort. The risk in non-mutation-carrying relatives...
Liu, Long; Shuai, Ma; Wang, Zhu; Li, Ping
In order to effectively analyze and control use-related risk of medical devices, quantitative methodologies must be applied. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a proactive technique for error detection and risk reduction. In this article, an improved FMEA based on Fuzzy Mathematics and Grey Relational Theory is developed to better carry out user-related risk analysis for medical devices. As an example, the analysis process using this improved FMEA method for a certain medical device (C-arm X-ray machine) is described.
Johnson, Daniel P; Wilson, Jeffrey S; Luber, George C
Extreme heat events are the number one cause of weather-related fatalities in the United States. The current system of alert for extreme heat events does not take into account intra-urban spatial variation in risk. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with estimates of land surface temperature derived from thermal remote sensing data. Comparison of logistic regression models indicates that supplementing known sociodemographic risk factors with remote sensing estimates of land surface temperature improves the delineation of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat events. Thermal remote sensing data can be utilized to improve understanding of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat. The refinement of current risk assessment systems could increase the likelihood of survival during extreme heat events and assist emergency personnel in the delivery of vital resources during such disasters.
Ibrahim, Amany Ahmad; Abdel Aleem, Mostafa Hamed; Abdella, Heba Mohamed; Helmy, Amir
Chronic HCV infection causes hepatic cirrhosis and approximately 10%-20% of cirrhotic patients may develop hepatocellular carcinoma within 5 years. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a 2-4-fold increase in the risk of HCC. Insulin resistance (IR) emerged as a risk factor for a variety of cancers, including endometrial and breast and various gastrointestinal cancers The role of IR in the development of HCC associated with chronic HCV infection has not, been established. This study elucidated the role of insulin resistance assessed by the homeostasis model (HOMA-IR) in development of hepatocellular carcinoma associated with chronic hepatitis C infection. The study included 3 groups: GI: 100 newly diagnosed cases of HCV related hepatocellular carcinoma GII: 60 patients with HCV related chronic liver disease. Forty healthy persons as a control group (GIII). All groups were subjected to full history taking, physical examination, laboratory investigations abdominal ultrasonography and Triphasic C.T examination. In addition to Calculation of Body mass Index, Measurement of fasting blood insulin and glucose, Calculation of insulin resistance using HOMA-IR. The results showed that fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly higher among HCC group than HCV group & control group. Also, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in HCV group than control group. HOMA-IR above 3.7, insulin above 9μU/L & DM were considered independent predictors of HCC.
Broeder, Craig E
Androstenedione, 4-androstenediol, 5-androstenediol, 19-norandrostenediol and 19-norandrostenedione are commonly referred to as "Andro" prohormones. Over the last few years, supplementation using these prohormones has been aggressively marketed to the general public. Supplement manufacturers often claim that Andro use improves serum testosterone concentrations, increases muscular strength and muscle mass, helps to reduce body fatness, enhances mood, and improves sexual performance. However, to date, most studies contradict these claims. In contrast, several studies using oral Andro related prohormones show that Andro use can abnormally elevate estrogen related hormones as well as alterations in hormonal markers (i.e., abnormal elevations in serum estrogen) thought to increase a person's risk for developing prostate or pancreatic cancers. In addition, most studies also indicate that significant declines in high-density lipoproteins occur leading to an increased cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, to date, the current research base suggests that Andro prohormone use does not support manufacturer claims. But it does suggest there should be strong concerns regarding long-term oral Andro prohormone use, especially regarding its effects on blood lipids and estrogen hormone profiles.
M. G. Pereira
Full Text Available Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i a simulation model (R2-value = 87% based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63% with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.
Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gouveia, C.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Magalhães, M.
Due to its economic and nutritional value, the world production of chestnuts is increasing as new stands are being planted in various regions of the world. This work focuses on the relation between weather and annual chestnut production to model the role of weather, to assess the impacts of climate change and to identify appropriate locations for new groves. The exploratory analysis of chestnut production time series and the striking increase of production area have motivated the use for chestnut productivity. A large set of meteorological variables and remote sensing indices were computed and their role on chestnut productivity evaluated with composite and correlation analyses. These results allow for the identification of the variables cluster with a high correlation and impact on chestnut production. Then, different selection methods were used to develop multiple regression models able to explain a considerable fraction of productivity variance: (i) a simulation model (R2-value = 87%) based on the winter and summer temperature and on spring and summer precipitation variables; and, (ii) a model to predict yearly chestnut productivity (R2-value of 63%) with five months in advance, combining meteorological variables and NDVI. Goodness of fit statistic, cross validation and residual analysis demonstrate the model's quality, usefulness and consistency of obtained results.
Work is an important part of adult life. As such it is closely connected to health and mental health. Aspects of occupation, work and employment can represent risk factors for suicidal behaviour or protective factors against it. Aim of this article is to present the known work-related risk factors for suicidal behaviour, protective factors and possibilities for preventive activities in this context. An important risk factor for suicidal behaviour is unemployment. Connection between unemployme...
Marzo, E.; Busini, V.; Rota, R.
In this paper a qualitative methodology for the initial assessment of flood-related Na-Tech risk was developed as a screening tool to identify which situations require a much more expensive quantitative risk analysis (QRA). Through the definition of some suitable key hazard indicators (KHIs), the proposed methodology allows the identification of the Na-Tech risk level associated with a given situation; the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used as a multi-criteria decis...
Luber George C; Wilson Jeffrey S; Johnson Daniel P
Abstract Background Extreme heat events are the number one cause of weather-related fatalities in the United States. The current system of alert for extreme heat events does not take into account intra-urban spatial variation in risk. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with estimates of land surface temperature derived from thermal remote ...
Katainen, Anu; Lehto, Anna-Sofia; Maunu, Antti
The article explores how young people understand the risks of alcohol use and how these understandings are associated with differing drinking situations and social settings. By taking account of situational factors, the aim is to demonstrate how young people have highly nuanced notions of drinking styles that suit different drinking situations and of associated risks. The data for the research were gathered in 18 group interviews with Finnish ninth graders aged 14-15 years. Short film clips portraying young people in different drinking situations were used as stimulus material for the interviews. Data analysis focussed on the risk factors related to the social situations illustrated in the film clips. The results show that young people's risk assessments are not based on alcohol itself, but the magnitude of risk is estimated in relation to the social setting of the drinking situation. What is relevant for young people is whether the social situation allows them to make choices with which they feel comfortable. At the opposite pole of problem drinking was social drinking for the purpose of having fun together with other people in such a way that one remains in control of the drinking situation. From a prevention point of view, a key implication is that awareness of the risks is closely associated with situational and social factors. However, the awareness of those risks does not necessarily prevent young people from drinking because they may be accepted as part of the drinking experience. © The Author(s) 2014.
Turner, Cathy; McClure, Rod
This study was designed to quantify the increased risk of road crash-related injury, which can be attributed to risk-taking behaviour. A case-control study was conducted to compare motor vehicle drivers (car and bike) who had been hospitalised for injuries following crashes with population-based controls. Cases were recruited prospectively over 12 months and controls were randomly selected from license holders (car and bike) living in the same geographical location as cases. A self-administered questionnaire was used to ascertain participants' driving behaviour, general risk-taking behaviour and selected demographic characteristics. After adjusting for demographic variables, number of years of driving and total distance driven per week, logistic regression analysis showed that a high risk acceptance was associated with an eight-fold increased risk of having a crash that resulted in serious injury (OR 7.8, 95% CI 4.2-15.8). The findings of this study support the suggestion that certain host factors increase the risk of crash-related serious injury. There would appear to be a reasonable argument for persisting with injury prevention programmes, which concentrate on host as well as environment risk factor reduction.
Harris, Keith M; McLean, John P; Sheffield, Jeanie
The objective of this study was to better help those in suicidal crisis by examining the types of suicide-risk individuals who make use of the Internet in relation to their suicidal problems. An anonymous online survey examined suicide-risk individuals who went online for suicide-related purposes (n = 165) and a reference group of suicide-risk individuals with no such experience (n = 125). Suicide-risk individuals who went online for suicide-related purposes, compared with online users who did not, reported greater suicide-risk symptoms, were less likely to seek help, and perceived less social support. Online, many reported more support, felt less alienated, believed they reduced their suicidality, but also sought suicide methods and were likely to visit "pro suicide" sites. Implications include designing help sites that allow peer-to-peer communications and anonymous professional support.
Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Altenbach, T.J.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
This report describes a preliminary application of an analysis approach for assessing relative risks in the use of radiation- emitting medical devices. Results are presented on human-initiated actions and failure modes that are most likely to occur in the use of the Gamma Knife, a gamma irradiation therapy device. This effort represents an initial step in a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) plan to evaluate the potential role of risk analysis in regulating the use of nuclear medical devices. For this preliminary application of risk assessment, the focus was to develop a basic process using existing techniques for identifying the most likely risk contributors and their relative importance. The approach taken developed relative risk rankings and profiles that incorporated the type and quality of data available and could present results in an easily understood form. This work was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the NRC.
Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W; Frank, Ryan D; Vierkant, Robert A; Winham, Stacey; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Hoskin, Tanya L; Nassar, Aziza; Vachon, Celine M; Denison, Lori A; Hartmann, Lynn C; Frost, Marlene H; Degnim, Amy C
Age-related lobular involution (LI) is a physiological process in which the terminal duct lobular units of the breast regress as a woman ages. Analyses of breast biopsies from women with benign breast disease (BBD) have found that extent of LI is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer development. Here we assess the natural course of LI within individual women, and the impact of progressive LI on breast cancer risk. The Mayo Clinic BBD cohort consists of 13,455 women with BBD from 1967 to 2001. The BBD cohort includes 1115 women who had multiple benign biopsies, 106 of whom had developed breast cancer. Within this multiple biopsy cohort, the progression of the LI process was examined by age at initial biopsy and time between biopsies. The relationship between LI progression and breast cancer risk was assessed using standardized incidence ratios and by Cox proportional hazards analysis. Women who had multiple biopsies were younger age and had a slightly higher family history of breast cancer as compared with the overall BBD cohort. Extent of LI at subsequent biopsy was greater with increasing time between biopsies and for women age 55 + at initial biopsy. Among women with multiple biopsies, there was a significant association of higher breast cancer risk among those with involution stasis (lack of progression, HR 1.63) as compared with those with involution progression, p = 0.036. The multiple biopsy BBD cohort allows for a longitudinal study of the natural progression of LI. The majority of women in the multiple biopsy cohort showed progression of LI status between benign biopsies, and extent of progression was highest for women who were in the perimenopausal age range at initial biopsy. Progression of LI status between initial and subsequent biopsy was associated with decreased breast cancer risk.
Haziza, Simon; Mohan, Nitin; Loe-Mie, Yann; Lepagnol-Bestel, Aude-Marie; Massou, Sophie; Adam, Marie-Pierre; Le, Xuan Loc; Viard, Julia; Plancon, Christine; Daudin, Rachel; Koebel, Pascale; Dorard, Emilie; Rose, Christiane; Hsieh, Feng-Jen; Wu, Chih-Che; Potier, Brigitte; Herault, Yann; Sala, Carlo; Corvin, Aiden; Allinquant, Bernadette; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Treussart, François; Simonneau, Michel
Brain diseases such as autism and Alzheimer's disease (each inflicting >1% of the world population) involve a large network of genes displaying subtle changes in their expression. Abnormalities in intraneuronal transport have been linked to genetic risk factors found in patients, suggesting the relevance of measuring this key biological process. However, current techniques are not sensitive enough to detect minor abnormalities. Here we report a sensitive method to measure the changes in intraneuronal transport induced by brain-disease-related genetic risk factors using fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs). We show that the high brightness, photostability and absence of cytotoxicity allow FNDs to be tracked inside the branches of dissociated neurons with a spatial resolution of 12 nm and a temporal resolution of 50 ms. As proof of principle, we applied the FND tracking assay on two transgenic mouse lines that mimic the slight changes in protein concentration (∼30%) found in the brains of patients. In both cases, we show that the FND assay is sufficiently sensitive to detect these changes.
Ríos, Rafael; Lupiañez, Carmen Belén; Campa, Daniele;
and NOTCH2rs10923931T alleles had a significantly decreased risk of MM whereas an opposite but not significant effect was observed in women (ORM=0.71 and ORM=0.66 vs ORW=1.22 and ORW=1.15, respectively). These results suggest that TD2-related variants may influence the risk of developing MM...
... order prior to disclosure. For purposes of this regulation, “Information Provider” means any contractor... abides by them. Any disclosure of the Report, Risk Rating, or Confidential Information other than as... Confidentiality of Reports, Risk Ratings and related Confidential Information. (a) In general. Reports and other...
Miranda Sara, L.; Jameson, S.; Pfeffer, K.; Baud, I.
Lima's environmental sustainability is threatened by increasing water scarcity, heavy rain events and limited attention for water vulnerability and climate change scenarios. In this paper we examine how knowledge construction and risk perception on water-related disaster risks and vulnerabilities
Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens
It has been suggested that prenatal stress contributes to the risk of obesity later in life. In a population-based cohort study, we examined whether prenatal stress related to maternal bereavement during pregnancy was associated with the risk of overweight in offspring during school age....
Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.
This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…
S.M. Hammoudeh (Shawkat); T. Liu (Tengdong); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
textabstractThis paper examines risk transmission and migration among six US measures of credit and market risk during the full period 2004-2011 period and the 2009-2011 recovery subperiod, with a focus on four sectors related to the highly volatile oil price. There are more long-run equilibrium ris
Miranda Sara, L.; Jameson, S.; Pfeffer, K.; Baud, I.
Lima's environmental sustainability is threatened by increasing water scarcity, heavy rain events and limited attention for water vulnerability and climate change scenarios. In this paper we examine how knowledge construction and risk perception on water-related disaster risks and vulnerabilities af
de Valle, Maria Benito; Bjornsson, Einar; Lindkvist, Bjorn
Background: Population-based studies on the epidemiology of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are sparse. Aims: To investigate mortality and risk of cancer, and to identify risk factors for hepatobiliary cancer and the combined end-point liver related death or liver transplantation (OLT) in a pop
Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Bisgaard, Thue
Background. Several factors influence the risk of recurrence after inguinal hernia surgery; however, a systematic review and meta-analysis of patient-related risk factors for recurrence after inguinal hernia surgery has not been performed earlier. Methods. MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases ...
Introduction A summertime increased risk of Campylobacter is well-established in humans and broilers. Our objective was to identify temperature-related risk factors for the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter in Iceland, with an assumption that flies play a role in the epidemiology an...
Milczarek, M.; Brun, E.; Houtman, I.; Goudswaard, A.; Evers, M.; Bovenkamp, M. van de; Roskams, N.; Op de Beeck, R.; Pahkin, K.; Berthet, M.; Morvan, E.; Kuhn, K.; Kaluza, K.; Hupke, M.; Hauke, A.; Reinert, D.; Widerszal-Bazyl, M.; Perez, J.; Oncins de Frutos, M.
This report is in cooperation with TNO Work and Employment and the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. The expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks was carried out by means of the Delphi method. The main emerging psychosocial risks revealed were related to new forms of employment
Study aim: To assess the degree of acceptance of risk by experienced and inexperienced athletes. Material and methods: Two male teams participated in the study: juniors (football; n = 9) aged 16-18 years and seniors (volleyball; n = 13) aged 20-32 years. The subjects were requested to assess the doping-related risk of losing every of 6 values:…
Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.
This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…
Schaefer, Wolfgang M; Nowak, Bernd; Kaiser, Hans-Juergen; Koch, Karl-Christian; Block, Stephan; vom Dahl, Juergen; Buell, Udalrich
Myocardial perfusion imaging with (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin is based on the assumption of a linear correlation between myocardial blood flow (MBF) and tracer uptake. However, it is known that (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin uptake is directly related to energy-dependent transport processes, such as Na(+)/H(+) ion channel activity, as well as cellular and mitochondrial membrane potentials. Therefore, cellular alterations that affect these energy-dependent transport processes ought to influence (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin uptake independently of blood flow. Because metabolism ((18)F-FDG)-perfusion ((99m)Tc-tetrofosmin) mismatch myocardium (MPMM) reflects impaired but viable myocardium showing cellular alterations, MPMM was chosen to quantify the blood flow-independent effect of cellular alterations on (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin uptake. Therefore, we compared microsphere-equivalent MBF (MBF_micr; (15)O-water PET) and (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin uptake in MPMM and in "normal" myocardium. Forty-two patients with severe coronary artery disease, referred for myocardial viability diagnostics, were examined using (18)F-FDG PET and (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin perfusion SPECT. Relative (18)F-FDG and (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin uptake values were calculated using 18 segments per patient. Normal myocardium and MPMM myocardium were classified using a previously validated (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT/(18)F-FDG PET score. In addition, (15)O-water PET was performed to assess kinetic-modeled MBF (MBF_kin), the water-perfusable tissue fraction (PTF), and the resulting MBF_micr (MBF_kin x PTF), which is comparable to tracer uptake values. (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin uptake and MBF_micr values were calculated for all normal and MPMM segments and averaged within their respective classifications. Mean relative (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin uptake was 86% +/- 1% in normal myocardium and 56% +/- 1% in MPMM, showing a significant difference (P micr in MPMM myocardium was 0.60 +/- 0.03 mL x min(-1) x mL(-1), which did not significantly differ from normal myocardium (0
Little, Mark P
General reductions in cancer relative risk with increasing age at exposure are observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in other groups. However, there has been little evidence of heterogeneity in such trends by cancer type within the Japanese cohort, nor for cancer-type variations in other factors (sex, attained age) that modify relative risk. A recent report on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors published by Preston et al. in 2007 suggests that solid cancer relative risk exhibits a U-shaped relationship with age at exposure, and is initially decreasing and then increasing at older exposure ages. In this report, we reanalyse the latest Japanese atomic bomb survivor solid cancer mortality and incidence data analysed by Preston and co-workers, stratifying by cancer subtype where possible, the stratification being both in relation to the baseline and the radiation-associated excess. We find highly statistically significant (P 0.2) variation by cancer type in the adjustment of relative risk for attained age. Although, for all incident solid cancers, there is marginally statistically significant (P = 0.033) variation of relative risk with a quadratic log-linear function of age at exposure, there is much weaker variation in the relative risk of solid cancer mortality (P > 0.1). However, the manner in which relative risk varies with age at exposure is qualitatively similar for incidence and mortality, so one should not make too much of these differences between the two datasets. Stratification by solid cancer type slightly weakens the evidence for quadratic variation in relative risk by age at exposure (P = 0.060).
Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease causes severe impairments in cognitive function but there is evidence that aspects of aesthetic perception are somewhat spared, at least in early stages of the disease. People with early Alzheimer’s-related dementia have been found to show similar degrees of stability over time in aesthetic judgment of paintings compared to controls, despite poor explicit memory for the images. Here we expand on this line of inquiry to investigate the types of perceptual judgments involved, and to test whether people in later stages of the disease also show evidence of preserved aesthetic judgment. Our results confirm that, compared to healthy controls, there is similar aesthetic stability in early stage Alzheimer’s disease (AD in the absence of explicit memory, and we report here that people with later stages of the disease also show similar stability compared to controls. However, while we find that stability for portrait paintings, landscape paintings, and landscape photographs is not different compared to control group performance, stability for face photographs—which were matched for identity with the portrait paintings—was significantly impaired in the AD group. We suggest that partially spared face-processing systems interfere with aesthetic processing of natural faces in ways that are not found for artistic images and landscape photographs. Thus, our work provides a novel form of evidence regarding face processing in healthy and diseased ageing. Our work also gives insights into general theories of aesthetics, since people with Alzheimer’s disease are not encumbered by many of the semantic and emotional factors that otherwise color aesthetic judgment. We conclude that, for people with Alzheimer’s disease, basic aesthetic judgment of artistic images represents an island of stability in a condition that in most other respects causes profound cognitive disruption. As such, aesthetic response could be a promising route to
Inoue, Izumi; Kato, Jun; Tamai, Hideyuki; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Maekita, Takao; Yoshimura, Noriko; Ichinose, Masao
To summarize the current views and insights on associations between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related chronic gastritis and colorectal neoplasm, we reviewed recent studies to clarify whether H. pylori infection/H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is associated with an elevated risk of colorectal neoplasm. Recent studies based on large databases with careful control for confounding variables have clearly demonstrated an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm associated with H. pylori infection. The correlation between H. pylori-related chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) and colorectal neoplasm has only been examined in a limited number of studies. A recent large study using a national histopathological database, and our study based on the stage of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis as determined by serum levels of H. pylori antibody titer and pepsinogen, indicated that H. pylori-related CAG confers an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm, and more extensive atrophic gastritis will probably be associated with even higher risk of neoplasm. In addition, our study suggested that the activity of H. pylori-related chronic gastritis is correlated with colorectal neoplasm risk. H. pylori-related chronic gastritis could be involved in an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm that appears to be enhanced by the progression of gastric atrophy and the presence of active inflammation.
Full Text Available Given that victim’ risk perception could improve risk assessment in cases of intimate partner violence research is paying attention to it. However, it is not clear whether perceived risk relates to safety-related behaviors. This study is aimed to analyze how perceived risk by women who have left a violent partner relates to their safety-related behaviors and post-separation violence. Participants were 249 women (from protection services and the community who had concluded a violent relationship. A structural equation model describes the relationships between three groups of factors: (1 women’s risk perception; (2 three types of conditions that increase the opportunity for victim/abuser contact: (a women’s actions that make them easier to track, (b women’s reasons for not protecting themselves, and (c batterers’ strategies to gain access to their former intimate partners; and (3 post-separation violence. Results indicate that psychological violence is positively related to perceived risk and helplessness. Moreover, while women’s risk perception predicts less contact and self-deception, male strategies predict greater contact and routines. In turn, contact predicts intimacy, whose absence fully accounts for 93.3% of the prediction of no re-abuse, six months later. The results’ implications for intervention are discussed.
Chen, Kai; Agarwal, Arnav; Tassone, Maria Cristina; Shahjahan, Nadia; Walton, Mark; Chan, Anthony; Mondal, Tapas
Central venous catheter (CVC) placement is associated with increased risk of thrombosis in the paediatric population, particularly in relation to the type of catheter and the manner of its insertion. Here, we investigate risk factors associated with CVC-related thrombosis in children, with particular emphasis on positioning of the catheter tip. Patients aged 0-18 who underwent at least one CVC placement from 2008 to 2013 at a single centre with a subsequent follow-up echocardiogram were included for a total of 104 patients and 147 lines. Data on clinical and catheter-related risk factors were collected from patient charts. Statistical analysis using Pearson's χ tests, independent samples t-test, and odds ratios were used to assess potential risk factors for thrombosis. Neither insertion site (subclavian vein or otherwise), left- vs. right-sided insertion, nor catheter type were significant risk factors for thrombosis. There were no thrombotic events reported at the superior vena cava (SVC)-right atrium junction and no significant differences in thrombotic risk with initial tip placement in the SVC-right atrium junction vs. the SVC, right atrium, or inferior vena cava. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was a major clinical risk factor for thrombosis. Tip movement was common and may have been an important factor in the development of CVC-related thrombi. Prospective studies can yield insight into the role of follow-up imaging in the prevention of catheter-related thrombosis in children.
ZHENG Guo-shou; BAI Xiang-jun; ZHAN Cheng-ye
Objective: To investigate the high risk factors related to acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ) following serious thoracoabdominal injuries.Methods: The clinical data of 282 patients with serious thoracoabdominal injuries were retrospectively studied. Univariate and Cox multivariate regression analysis were used to determine the risk factors related to ARDS following serious thoracoabdominal injuries.Results: The incidence of ARDS was 31.9% (90/282) in patients with serious thoracoabdominal injuries.The mortality caused by ARDS was 37.8% (34/90). The univariate analysis and multivariate analysis demonstrated that the clinical conditions such as elder age, shock,dyspnea, abnormal arterial blood gas, hemopneumothorax,pulmonary contusion, flail chest, coexisting pulmonary diseases, multiple abdominal injury and high ISS score were the independent high risk factors related to ARDS.Conclusion: There are many high risk factors related to ARDS following severe thoracoabdominal injuries, which should be detected early and treated timely to decrease the incidence and mortality of ARDS.
Schumacher, Tracy L.; Burrows, Tracy L.; Cliff, Dylan P.; Jones, Rachel A.; Okely, Anthony D.; Baur, Louise A.; Morgan, Philip J.; Callister, Robin; Boggess, May M.; Collins, Clare E.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) originates in childhood and early identification of risk factors provides an early intervention opportunity. The aim was to identify children at higher risk using a CVD risk score, developed from factors known to cluster in childhood. Risk was scored as very high (≥97.5th centile), high (≥95th), moderate (≥90th) or threshold (<90th) using normal pediatric reference ranges for 10 common biomedical risk factors. These were summed in a multifactor CVD risk score and applied to a sample of 285 observations from 136 overweight Australian children (41% male, aged 7–12 years). Strength of associations between CVD risk score and individual biomedical and dietary variables were assessed using univariate logistic regression. High waist circumference (Odds Ratio: 5.48 [95% CI: 2.60–11.55]), body mass index (OR: 3.22 [1.98–5.26]), serum insulin (OR: 3.37 [2.56–4.42]) and triglycerides (OR: 3.02 [2.22–4.12]) were all significantly related to CVD risk score. High intakes of total fat (OR: 4.44 [1.19–16.60]), sugar (OR: 2.82 [1.54–5.15]) and carbohydrate (OR 1.75 [1.11–2.77]) were significantly related to CVD risk score in boys only. This multifactor CVD risk score could be a useful tool for researchers to identify elevated risk in children. Further research is warranted to examine sex-specific dietary factors related to CVD risk in children. PMID:27429277
Tracy L. Schumacher
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD originates in childhood and early identification of risk factors provides an early intervention opportunity. The aim was to identify children at higher risk using a CVD risk score, developed from factors known to cluster in childhood. Risk was scored as very high (≥97.5th centile, high (≥95th, moderate (≥90th or threshold (<90th using normal pediatric reference ranges for 10 common biomedical risk factors. These were summed in a multifactor CVD risk score and applied to a sample of 285 observations from 136 overweight Australian children (41% male, aged 7–12 years. Strength of associations between CVD risk score and individual biomedical and dietary variables were assessed using univariate logistic regression. High waist circumference (Odds Ratio: 5.48 [95% CI: 2.60–11.55], body mass index (OR: 3.22 [1.98–5.26], serum insulin (OR: 3.37 [2.56–4.42] and triglycerides (OR: 3.02 [2.22–4.12] were all significantly related to CVD risk score. High intakes of total fat (OR: 4.44 [1.19–16.60], sugar (OR: 2.82 [1.54–5.15] and carbohydrate (OR 1.75 [1.11–2.77] were significantly related to CVD risk score in boys only. This multifactor CVD risk score could be a useful tool for researchers to identify elevated risk in children. Further research is warranted to examine sex-specific dietary factors related to CVD risk in children.
Moore, Lynn L; Chadid, Susan; Singer, Martha R; Kreger, Bernard E; Denis, Gerald V
It is unknown whether the risk for obesity-related cancers differs between metabolically unhealthy and healthy overweight/obese adults. Data on body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and random blood glucose in Framingham Heart Study adults (n = 3,763) ages 55 to 69 years were used to estimate risks of obesity-related cancers (n = 385), including postmenopausal breast, female reproductive, colon, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and kidney cancers, as well as esophageal adenocarcinomas. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate risk for obesity-related cancers associated with body fat and metabolic health (as defined by glucose levels) among subjects in three risk groups (vs. referent group with normal weight/normal glucose): normal weight/elevated glucose, overweight/normal glucose, and overweight/elevated glucose. Overweight adults [BMI ≥ 25 or WHtR ≥ 0.51 (men) and ≥0.57 (women)] with elevated glucose (≥125 mg/dL) had a statistically significant 2-fold increased risk of developing obesity-related cancer, whereas overweight adults with normal glucose had a 50% increased risk. Normal-weight adults with elevated glucose had no excess cancer risk. The effects of BMI and WHtR were independent of one another. Finally, overweight women with elevated blood glucose had a 2.6-fold increased risk [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-4.9] of female reproductive (cervical, endometrial, uterine cancers) and postmenopausal breast cancers, whereas overweight women with normal glucose levels had only a 70% increased risk (95% CI, 1.1-2.5). These results suggest that cancer risk may be lower among metabolically healthy overweight/obese older adults than among overweight/obese adults with metabolic dysfunction. Metabolic dysfunction and obesity act synergistically to increase cancer risk. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Risk Assessments of Dams and Related Critical Infrastructure J. Darrell Morgeson Jason A. Dechant Yev Kirpichevsky Yazmin Seda -Sanabria, U.S...Kirpichevsky Yazmin Seda -Sanabria, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Enrique E. Matheu, U.S. Department of Homeland Security A Consistent Approach...for Security Risk Assessments of Dams and Related Critical Infrastructure James D. Morgeson1, Yazmin Seda -Sanabria2, Yevgeniy Kirpichevsky3, Jason A
Sullivan, Thomas R; Lee, Katherine J; Ryan, Philip; Salter, Amy B
Multiple imputation is a popular approach to handling missing data in medical research, yet little is known about its applicability for estimating the relative risk. Standard methods for imputing incomplete binary outcomes involve logistic regression or an assumption of multivariate normality, whereas relative risks are typically estimated using log binomial models. It is unclear whether misspecification of the imputation model in this setting could lead to biased parameter estimates. Using simulated data, we evaluated the performance of multiple imputation for handling missing data prior to estimating adjusted relative risks from a correctly specified multivariable log binomial model. We considered an arbitrary pattern of missing data in both outcome and exposure variables, with missing data induced under missing at random mechanisms. Focusing on standard model-based methods of multiple imputation, missing data were imputed using multivariate normal imputation or fully conditional specification with a logistic imputation model for the outcome. Multivariate normal imputation performed poorly in the simulation study, consistently producing estimates of the relative risk that were biased towards the null. Despite outperforming multivariate normal imputation, fully conditional specification also produced somewhat biased estimates, with greater bias observed for higher outcome prevalences and larger relative risks. Deleting imputed outcomes from analysis datasets did not improve the performance of fully conditional specification. Both multivariate normal imputation and fully conditional specification produced biased estimates of the relative risk, presumably since both use a misspecified imputation model. Based on simulation results, we recommend researchers use fully conditional specification rather than multivariate normal imputation and retain imputed outcomes in the analysis when estimating relative risks. However fully conditional specification is not without its
WANG Xin-wang; WANG Juan; FANG Ji-qian
@@ Medical insurance service, the important part of national healthcare supporting system with a history dating back more than 100 years ago,remains a global challenge because of its high rates of compensation and difficulty in risk control. When developing the diabetes related, hospitalization insurance, we found that the risk loss of the diabetic inpatients does not follow a symmetrical unimodal distribution: in fact, it is hard to describe its risk loses distribution with a single probability distribution model. Therefore, we put forward a risk measurement method based on a mixed normal distributions model for medical insurance of inpatients with diabetes.
Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom
Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The
Litt, Dana M; Stock, Michelle L
The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not. The results provided evidence that descriptive norms for alcohol use, as portrayed by Facebook profiles, significantly impact willingness to use, prototypes, attitudes toward use, and perceived vulnerability. A multiple mediation analysis indicated that prototypes, attitudes, and perceptions of use mediated the relationship between the content of the Facebook profile and willingness. These results indicate that adolescents who perceive that alcohol use is normative, as evidenced by Facebook profiles, are at higher risk for cognitions shown to predict alcohol use than adolescents who do not see alcohol use portrayed as frequently on Facebook.
Schou, Erik; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl
Future climate development and its effects on forest ecosystems are not easily predicted or described in terms of standard probability concepts. Nevertheless, forest managers continuously make long-term decisions that will be subject to climate change impacts. The manager's assessment of possible...... developments and impacts and the related uncertainty will affect the combined decision on timing of final harvest and the choice of species for regeneration. We analyse harvest of a Norway spruce stand with the option to regenerate with Norway spruce or oak. We use simulated variations in biophysical risks......) assigned to each outcome. Results show that the later a forest manager expects to obtain certainty about climate change or the more skewed their belief distribution, the more will decisions be based on ex ante assessments — suggesting that if forest managers believe that climate change uncertainty...
Du, Pang; Liang, Hua; 10.1214/09-AOS780
We study the Cox models with semiparametric relative risk, which can be partially linear with one nonparametric component, or multiple additive or nonadditive nonparametric components. A penalized partial likelihood procedure is proposed to simultaneously estimate the parameters and select variables for both the parametric and the nonparametric parts. Two penalties are applied sequentially. The first penalty, governing the smoothness of the multivariate nonlinear covariate effect function, provides a smoothing spline ANOVA framework that is exploited to derive an empirical model selection tool for the nonparametric part. The second penalty, either the smoothly-clipped-absolute-deviation (SCAD) penalty or the adaptive LASSO penalty, achieves variable selection in the parametric part. We show that the resulting estimator of the parametric part possesses the oracle property, and that the estimator of the nonparametric part achieves the optimal rate of convergence. The proposed procedures are shown to work well i...
C.E. van der Put; G.J.J.M. Stams; M. Hoeve; M. Deković; H.J.M. Spanjaard; P.H. van der Laan; R.P. Barnoski
This study examined which dynamic risk factors for recidivism play an important role during adolescence. The sample consisted of 13,613 American juveniles who had committed a criminal offense. The results showed that the importance of almost all dynamic risk factors, both in the social environment d
Muñoz, Maribel; Poo, Ana María; Baeza, Bernardita; Bustos, M Luis
Clinical evidence reveals the importance of mother-newborn bonding experience for health promoting and maintenance of human life. If the newborn lacks care and affection, she/he may develop an attachment disorder. A predictive scale regarding the risk of mothernewborn relationships is available, which makes possible an early intervention to prevent the development of relational disorders. The aim of this study is to apply the Kimelman measurement scale to determine the relational risk in mother-newborn pairs, as well as the prevalence and the associated biopsychosocial variables. A cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of 333 mother-infant pairs in postpartum maternity at Temuco hospital. The Kimelman mother-newborn attachment assessment guide was used. Biopsychosocial variables were obtained from the mothers studied. The association of biopsychosocial variables with relational risk was analyzed using OR and confidence intervals of 95%. The prevalence of high relational risk was 43.8%. The associated biopsychosocial variables included, women with no steady partner, single parent, teenage mothers, unwanted and unplanned pregnancy. Almost half of the mothers were in the high risk group. Early identification of relational risk and its related variables could help in the intervention in this vulnerable group. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Sayed Mohammad Taghavi
Full Text Available Background: Dairy farming work involves frequent use of poor postures. These postures may increase the risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders among dairy workers. Objective: To assess postural load during performance of various tasks related to dairy farming. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a dairy farm in Iran. In order to assess postural load, tasks related to dairy farming were divided into 3 categories: feeding, milking, and manure disposal. Each task was then divided into its constituent work subdivisions (tasks. Finally, the working posture for each work subdivision was evaluated using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA. Results: Based on the results from the REBA score, the poorest risk scores (risk level 4 were associated with the following tasks: (1 manure disposal, (2 filling feed bags, and (3 pouring milk into a bucket. Other tasks such as filling corn containers, pouring corn into the milling machine, preparing the feed, pouring food into mangers, attaching the milking machine, and pouring milk from a bucket into a tank imposed high risk (risk level 3. The risk for the tasks of washing and disinfecting the udders were assessed as medium risks. Conclusion: The risk levels associated with most of the tasks on the studied farm were unacceptably high. Therefore, it is essential to implement ergonomic interventions to reduce risk levels of the tasks.
Wilke, Thomas; Mueller, Sabrina; Groth, Antje
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyse which factors predict the real-world macro-/microvascular event, hospitalisation and death risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate whether there exists both an under- and over-treatment risk...... of these patients. METHODS: We used a German claims/clinical data set covering the years 2010-12. Diabetes-related events were defined as (1) macro-, (2) microvascular events leading to inpatient hospitalisation, (3) other hospitalisations with type 2 diabetes mellitus as main diagnosis, (4) all-cause death and (5......) a composite outcome including all event categories 1-4. Factors associated with event risk were analysed by a Kaplan-Meier curve analysis and by multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: 229,042 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (mean age 70.2 years; mean CCI 6.03) were included. Among factors...
Full Text Available The article is focused on a presentation and analysis of selected methods of credit risk management in relation with competitiveness increase of the banking sector. The article is defined credit risk approaches under the Basel III gradually. Aim of this contribution constitutes various methods of credit risk management and effects of their usage on regulatory capital amount in respect of corporate exposures. Optimal equity amount in relation to the risk portfolio presents an essential prerequisite of performance and competitiveness growth of commercial banks. Gradually capital requirements using Standardized Approach and Internal Based Approach in a case of used and unused techniques of credit risk reduce has been quantified. We presume that sophisticated approach means significant saving for bank’s equity which increases competitiveness of banking sector also. Within the article, quantification of capital savings in case of Standardized (with and without assigned external ratings and Foundation Internal Based Approach at the selected credit portfolio has been effected.
Full Text Available Individuals at high risk to develop alcoholism often manifest neurocognitive deficits as well as increased impulsivity. Event-related oscillations (EROs have been used to effectively measure brain (dysfunction during cognitive tasks in individuals with alcoholism and related disorders and in those at risk to develop these disorders. The current study examines ERO theta power during reward processing as well as impulsivity in adolescent and young adult subjects at high risk for alcoholism.EROs were recorded during a monetary gambling task (MGT in 12-25 years old participants (N = 1821; males = 48% from high risk alcoholic families (HR, N = 1534 and comparison low risk community families (LR, N = 287 from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA. Impulsivity scores and prevalence of externalizing diagnoses were also compared between LR and HR groups.HR offspring showed lower theta power and decreased current source density (CSD activity than LR offspring during loss and gain conditions. Younger males had higher theta power than younger females in both groups, while the older HR females showed more theta power than older HR males. Younger subjects showed higher theta power than older subjects in each comparison. Differences in topography (i.e., frontalization between groups were also observed. Further, HR subjects across gender had higher impulsivity scores and increased prevalence of externalizing disorders compared to LR subjects.As theta power during reward processing is found to be lower not only in alcoholics, but also in HR subjects, it is proposed that reduced reward-related theta power, in addition to impulsivity and externalizing features, may be related in a predisposition to develop alcoholism and related disorders.
James; X; Zhang; Jhee; U; Lee; David; O; Meltzer
AIM: To assess the risk factors for cost-related medication non-adherence(CRN) among older patients with diabetes in the United States. METHODS: We used data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study to assess risk factors for CRN including age, drug insurance coverage, nursing home residence, functional limitations, and frequency of hospitalization. CRN was self-reported. We conducted multivariate regression analysis to assess the effect of each risk factor. RESULTS: Eight hundred and seventy-five(18%) of 4880 diabetes patients reported CRN. Age less than 65 years, lack of drug insurance coverage, and frequent hospitalization significantly increased risk for CRN. Limitation in both activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living were also generally associated with increased risk of CRN. Residence in a nursing home and Medicaid coverage significantly reduced risk.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that expandingprescription coverage to uninsured, sicker, and community-dwelling individuals is likely to produce the largest decreases in CRN.
Full Text Available Aim Low physical activity causes poor physical fitness, which leads to low productivity. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of low work-related physical activity and other risk factors on physical fitness.Methods This study was done in February 2008. Subjects were workers from 15 departments in PT Semen Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia. Data on physical activities were collected using the questionnaire from the Student Field Work I Guidebook and Hypertension – Geriatric Integrated Program of the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia2003. Physical fitness was measured using the Harvard Step Test.Results A number of 937 male workers aged 18 – 56 years participated in this study. Poor physical fitness was found in 15.9% of the subjects. Low work-related physical activity, smoking, lack of exercise, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and asthma were dominant risk factors related to poor physical fi tness. Subjects with low compared to high work-related activity had a ten-fold risk of poor physical fitness [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 10.71; 95% confidence interval (CI = 4.71–24.33]. In term of physical exercise, subjects who had no compared to those who had physical exercise had a six-fold risk of poor physical fitness (ORa = 6.30; 95%CI = 3.69-10.75.Conclusion Low work-related physical activities, smoking, lack of exercise, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and sthma were correlated to poor physical fi tness. It is, among others, therefore necessary to implement exercises for workers with poor physical fitness. (Med J Indones. 2009;18:201-5Key words: exercise test, occupational healths, physical fitness
Full Text Available This synopsis provides a concise historical contextualisation of current risk disclosure issues, highlights major factors influencing contemporary risk reporting practices, and engages in a reflective overview of four recently published papers on aspects of corporate risk-related disclosures in a code law country, Portugal. The breadthand depth of our analysis is modest. Nonetheless we report findings indicating that risk-related disclosures are inadequate, lack transparency, and compound the difficulty of assessing the risk profile of a company. We contend that recent regulation initiatives have been of dubious effectiveness in improving the quality of riskinformation disclosed. In respect of the Portuguese context, we find that companies disclose risk-related information principally to reduce agency costs and to enhance corporate reputation. We contend that enhanced corporate accountability would be more likely to ensue if further disclosures of relevant risk-related information were mandated. One mechanism to do so would be through regulations recommended by the International Integrated Reporting Committee (IIRC.
Kiviniemi, Marc T; Ellis, Erin M
Preventive health behaviors are believed to be motivated in part by a person's perception of risk for a particular health problem. Risk contains a cognitive component, beliefs about the chances of a health problem occurring, and an affective component, fear or worry about the health problem. Although both have been shown to influence behavior, the nature of their interrelation as an influence on behavior has not been examined. Data from the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey, a US nationally-representative telephone survey was analyzed. Participants reported perceived absolute and comparative risk for skin cancer, feelings of worry about skin cancer, and sunscreen use behavior. Analyses examined main effects models for the relation between perceived risk, worry, and sunscreen use, as well as both moderated and mediated models. For both absolute and comparative risk, the relation between cognitively-based perceived risk for skin cancer and sunscreen use was fully mediated by feelings of worry, as evidenced by significant direct effects of worry (bs > 0.046, ps worry (bs > 0.19, ps worry was included in the models, direct effects of risk perceptions were non-significant (bs worry on the relation between risk and behavior. While cognitive risk appraisals do influence decision making and may be addressed by interventions, these findings demonstrate that affectively-based risk components play a key role in behavior regulation. Affectively-based risk might be an effective target for interventions and should be incorporated more fully in decision-making models.
Arbeev, Konstantin G; Cohen, Alan A; Arbeeva, Liubov S
While longitudinal changes in biomarker levels and their impact on health have been characterized for individual markers, little is known about how overall marker profiles may change during aging and affect mortality risk. We implemented the recently developed measure of physiological dysregulation...... dysregulation is related to different aging-related characteristics such as decline in stress resistance and adaptive capacity (which typically are not observed in the data and thus can be analyzed only indirectly), and, ultimately, to estimate how such dynamic relationships increase mortality risk with age. We...... substantial sex differences in these processes, with women becoming dysregulated more quickly but with men showing a much greater sensitivity to dysregulation in terms of mortality risk....
Gutteling, Jan M; de Vries, Peter W
This research is designed to provide insight into the psychological (e.g., threat appraisal or coping appraisal) and other determinants (e.g., information quality judgments or demographics) of risk information seeking or avoidance in times of an acute risk, as part of the process of increasing public resilience through adherence to risk mitigating advice. Data were collected via telephone interviews. A specialized agency interviewed 1,000 Dutch citizens, randomly confronted with one of eight fictitious, but realistic, acute risk and emergency situations. Results indicate that information seeking in an acute situation is anticipated by a less elaborate set of predictors (age and risk perception) than information seeking in a nonacute situation (age and risk perception, as well as educational level and social norm). Although risk perception is a predictor for risk information seeking, its predictive value for acute-risk-related behavior, as one might have assumed based on theories such as protection motivation theory (PMT) or the extended parallel process model (EPPM), appears to be limited. Implications for risk communication are discussed.
Rondinone, Bruna Maria; Persechino, Benedetta; Castaldi, Tiziana; Valenti, Antonio; Ferrante, Pierpaolo; Ronchetti, Matteo; Iavicoli, Sergio
In compliance with the Italian occupational health and safety regulatory framework, as provided by the Lgs. Decree 81/2008, the "work-related stress" risk assessment should follow the same principles as other risk assessments, in accordance with the European Agreement of 8 October 2004; therefore, validated and scientifically proven methodological tools are needed to conduct an adequate work-related stress risk assessment. The UK's Health Safety and Executive (HSE) Indicator Tool (IT) is used for assessing the risk of work-related stress. The aim of this study is to test the factor structure of IT as a measure of work-related stress in a sample of Italian workers. Data collected from 65 Italian organizations (6378 workers) was used for a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) on the 35-item seven-factor model. The results showed acceptable fit to the data (CFI .90; TLI .89, RMSEA .045). A second CFA was done to test a 35-item six-factor model (CFI .89, TLI .87, RMSEA .047). Both models were tested after removing six items (factor loadings less than .50.), resulting in a 29-item model. Here again, there was an acceptable fit to the data (29-item seven-factor model: CFI .93, TLI .91, RMSEA .044; 29-item six-factor model: CFI .92, TLI .90, RMSEA .046). These findings show that the HSE model satisfactorily adapts to use in a sample of Italian workers. One of the most important innovations introduced in the assessment of work-related stress with the HSE IT is the global approach for identifying work-related stress risk factors, aimed at establishing the best strategy from the viewpoints of prevention officers and also of workers.
van der Peijl, Jorien; Klein, Jan; Grass, Christian; Freudenthal, Adinda
The majority of medical device incident reports can primarily be attributed to use error. Greater attention to human factors and usability during development of a medical device could improve this situation. However, recent studies have shown that companies do not find the application of a sound usability engineering process according to international standards a simple task. The purpose of this collaborative research project between a medical device company, two universities and a university hospital was to study the practical application of the International Standard for Application of Usability Engineering to Medical Devices, IEC 62366, by means of a case study in industrial practice. This paper describes the user studies in the case and reveals the factors important to success. Also, the paper demonstrates how to apply an iterative usability engineering process within a linear product development process in industry. Management support and careful planning of resources and activities proved essential. To control use-related risks, the usability engineer should 'design for risk control' in a structured manner, while the risk manager should remain responsible for acceptable levels of residual risk. The paper concludes with recommendations for the improvement of IEC 62366 and ISO 14971, the standard for the risk management of medical devices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kirrilly Thompson; Paul McGreevy; Phil McManus
While the importance of improving horse-related safety seems self-evident, no comprehensive study into understanding or reducing horse-related risk has been undertaken. In this paper, we discuss four dimensions of horse-related risk: the risk itself, the horse, the rider and the culture in which equestrian activities takes place. We identify how the ways in which risk is constructed in each dimension affects the applicability of four basic risk management options of avoidance, transference, m...
Lahut, Suna; Gispert, Suzana; Ömür, Özgür; Depboylu, Candan; Seidel, Kay; Domínguez-Bautista, Jorge Antolio; Brehm, Nadine; Tireli, Hülya; Hackmann, Karl; Pirkevi, Caroline; Leube, Barbara; Ries, Vincent; Reim, Kerstin; Brose, Nils; den Dunnen, Wilfred F; Johnson, Madrid; Wolf, Zsuzsanna; Schindewolf, Marc; Schrempf, Wiebke; Reetz, Kathrin; Young, Peter; Vadasz, David; Frangakis, Achilleas S; Schröck, Evelin; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Jendrach, Marina; Rüb, Udo; Başak, Ayşe Nazlı; Oertel, Wolfgang; Auburger, Georg
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a frequent neurodegenerative process at old age. Accumulation and aggregation of the lipid-binding SNARE complex component alpha-synuclein (SNCA) underlies this vulnerability and defines stages of disease progression. Determinants of SNCA levels and mechanisms of SNCA neurotoxicity are intensely investigated. In view of physiological SNCA roles in blood to modulate vesicle release, we studied blood samples from a new large pedigree with SNCA gene duplication (PARK4 mutation), to identify effects of SNCA gain-of-function as potential disease biomarkers. The expression of other Parkinson's disease gene was not, but complexin-1 (CPLX1) mRNA downregulation was correlated with genotype. In global RNAseq profiling of blood from presymptomatic PARK4, bioinformatics detected significant upregulations for platelet activation, hemostasis, lipoproteins, endocytosis, lysosome, cytokine, toll like receptor signalling and extracellular pathways. In PARK4 platelets, stimulus-triggered degranulation was impaired. Strong SPP1, GZMH, and PLTP mRNA upregulations were validated in PARK4. When analysing cases with REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), the most specific known prodromal stage of general PD, only blood CPLX1 levels were altered. Validation experiments confirmed an inverse mutual regulation of SNCA and CPLX1 mRNA levels. In the 3'-UTR of the CPLX1 gene we identified a SNP that is significantly associated with PD risk. In summary, our data define CPLX1 as PD risk factor and provide functional insights into the role and regulation of blood alpha-synuclein levels. The novel blood biomarkers of PARK4 in this Turkish family may become useful for PD prediction.
Yang, Ke; Wang, Feng-Hua; Liang, Yuan-Bo; Wong, Tien-Yin; Wang, Jie-Jin; Zhan, Si-Yan; Wang, Ning-Li
There have been a limited number of population-based studies investigating the associations between cardiovascular disease risk factors and early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A total of 7,557 eligible people aged 30 or older were recruited from 2006 to 2007. Cardiovascular risk factors and serum lipids including total cholesterol, total triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose, and urines were assessed. Digital photographs of the optic disk and macula fields (Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study) were taken and graded after the modified Wisconsin Age-related Maculopathy Grading System. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Cases of late AMD were excluded. Of 6,577 subjects included in the analysis, there were 200 (3.04%) cases with early AMD. Multivariate analysis showed that higher age, untreated hypertension, coronary heart disease, and smoking were associated with an increased risk of early AMD. After adjusting for other variables in the final model, no variable was significantly associated with hyperpigmentation while smoking was significantly associated with an increased risk of hypopigmentation; higher age and any cardiovascular disease were associated with an increased risk of large drusen, and higher age, smoking, untreated hypertension, and coronary heart disease were associated with an increased risk of soft drusen. Our findings support the associations between smoking, coronary heart disease, and early AMD.
Borges, Álvaro H; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Babiker, Abdel G;
BACKGROUND: In the Strategic Timing of Antiretroviral Treatment (START) study, immediate combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation reduced cancer risk by 64%. We hypothesized that risk reduction was higher for infection-related cancer and determined by differences in CD4 cell counts...... and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA between the study arms. METHODS: Incident malignancies in START were categorized into infection-related and infection-unrelated cancer. We used Cox models to assess factors associated with both cancer categories. We used sequential adjustment for baseline...... covariates, cancer risk factors, and HIV-specific variables to investigate potential mediators of cancer risk reduction with immediate cART. RESULTS: There were 14 cancers among persons randomized to immediate cART (6 infection-related and 8 infection-unrelated) and 39 cancers in the deferred arm (23...
Lucidi, Fabio; Mallia, Luca; Violani, Cristiano; Giustiniani, Gabriele; Persia, Luca
This study was intended to estimate the presence and number of individual sleep-related risk factors in a sample of diurnal car accidents and to analyze the extent to which these risk factors tended to be more represented in diurnal accidents involving only one vehicle, involving young drivers or occurring on non-urban roads. Two hundred fifty-three drivers involved in diurnal accidents were interviewed immediately after the accidents to assess their sleepiness-related personal conditions and the circumstances prior to the accident (i.e., individual sleep-related risk factors), such as poor sleep, changes in habitual sleeping patterns, prolonged wakefulness, self-reported acute sleepiness and daytime sleepiness, night-shift jobs and insomnia. A total of 12.3% of the drivers were classified as having at least one of the seven risk factors assessed in the study, supporting the general notion that drivers' sleepiness conditions are crucial, even in diurnal driving circumstances in which they are less likely to depend on chrono-biological processes. Furthermore, consistent with the guiding hypotheses, specific sleep-related risk factors were more evident in single (vs. multiple) car accidents, among young drivers and in car accidents occurring on non-urban roads. In summary, sleep-related risk factors seemed to have a negative impact on drivers' safety in circumstances of diurnal driving, especially when the accidents involved young individuals and occurred on non-urban roads. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nilunger, Louise; Diderichsen, Finn; Burström, Bo;
the highest and lowest socio-economic groups may decrease by 75% or increase by 21% depending on the size of the relative risk. Assuming the same smoking prevalence for the lowest socio-economic group as for the highest (impact fraction), then the inequality may decrease by 7-26%. Consequently, the size...... methodological considerations. The present study illustrates this by measuring the impact of changed distribution levels of smoking on lung cancer, ischemic heart disease (IHD), chronic obstructive lung disorder (COLD) and stroke for the highest and lowest socio-economic groups measured in disability adjusted...... life years (DALY). The material is based on relative risks obtained from various international studies, smoking prevalence (SP) data and the number of DALY based on data available for Sweden. The results show that if smoking would have been eliminated (attributable fraction, AF), the inequality between...
Shang, Qian; Pei, Guanxiong; Jin, Jia
Social risk refers to the potential disapproval from significant others (especially family or friends), and it is crucial in dissuading consumers from making decisions to purchase. The current study explored the neural process underlying how social risk influenced people's purchase intention. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were employed to investigate the electrophysiological process when subjects evaluated their purchase intention for products with social risk factors. The behavioral data showed that the social risk condition inhibited people's purchase intention compared to the control condition. Neurophysiologically, larger anterior N2 amplitude was induced by the social risk condition in contrast with the control condition. We suggest that this anterior N2 may reflect the cognitive control or conflict monitoring. It may be that the participant has to regulate the conflict between an internal desire to purchase the item and the discordant information obtained from the social risk sentence, which would pressure the participant to not purchase the item in accord with social norms. These findings will be helpful in understanding the neural basis of social risk perception during purchase decisions.
Kaufmann, Carole P; Stämpfli, Dominik; Hersberger, Kurt E; Lampert, Markus L
Drug-related problems (DRPs) constitute a frequent safety issue among hospitalised patients leading to patient harm and increased healthcare costs. Because many DRPs are preventable, the specific risk factors that facilitate their occurrence are of considerable interest. The objective of our study was to assess risk factors for the occurrence of DRPs with the intention to identify patients at risk for DRPs to guide and target preventive measures where they are needed most in patients. Triangulation process using a mixed methods approach. We conducted an expert panel, using the nominal group technique (NGT) and a qualitative analysis, to gather risk factors for DRPs. The expert panel consisted of two consultant hospital physicians (internal medicine and geriatrics), one emergency physician, one independent general practitioner, one clinical pharmacologist, one clinical pharmacist, one registered nurse, one home care nurse and two independent community pharmacists. The literature was searched for additional risk factors. Gathered factors from the literature search and the NGT were assembled and validated in a two-round Delphi questionnaire. The NGT resulted in the identification of 33 items with 13 additional risk factors from the qualitative analysis of the discussion. The literature search delivered another 39 risk factors. The 85 risk factors were refined to produce 42 statements for the Delphi online questionnaire. Of these, 27 risk factors were judged to be 'important' or 'rather important'. The gathered risk factors may help to characterise and identify patients at risk for DRPs and may enable clinical pharmacists to guide and target preventive measures in order to limit the occurrence of DRPs. As a further step, these risk factors will serve as the basis for a screening tool to identify patients at risk for DRPs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Full Text Available Solveig T Tomstad1, Ulrika Söderhamn2, Geir Arild Espnes3, Olle Söderhamn21Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway and Centre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 2Centre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 3Research Centre for Health Promotion and Resources HiST-NTNU, Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Being at risk of undernutrition is a global problem among older people. Undernutrition can be considered inadequate nutritional status, characterized by insufficient food intake and weight loss. There is a lack of Norwegian studies focusing on being at risk of undernutrition and self-care ability, sense of coherence, and health-related issues among older home-dwelling people.Aim: To describe the prevalence of being at risk of undernutrition among a group of older home-dwelling individuals in Norway, and to relate the results to reported self-care ability, sense of coherence, perceived health and other health-related issues.Methods: A cross-sectional design was applied. A questionnaire with instruments for nutritional screening, self-care ability, and sense of coherence, and health-related questions was sent to a randomized sample of 450 persons (aged 65+ years in southern Norway. The study group included 158 (35.1% participants. Data were analysed using statistical methods.Results: The results showed that 19% of the participants were at medium risk of undernutrition and 1.3% at high risk. Due to the low response rate it can be expected that the nonparticipants can be at risk of undernutrition. The nutritional at-risk group had lower self-care ability and weaker sense of coherence. Living alone, receiving help
Pavel A. Kislyakov
Full Text Available Background. Throughout the ontogenic development period and life journey, everyone faces numerous threats and challenges. Certain of these challenges are beyond the individual’s control and are caused by social and environmental factors, but others, conversely, are provoked by the individual’s own lifestyle and mental and/or physical health condition. This paper considers how the social adaptation of children with intellectual developmental disorders affects the development of various forms of socially dangerous behavior. Objective. The primary goal of the study described in the article is to identify and analyze the potential risk factors related to antisocial behavior among teenagers with intellectual disabilities (mental retardation based on a survey of teachers in special (correctional schools. The methodological basis of our research uses the provisions of Lev Vygotsky’s theory of socialization among children with intellectual disabilities. This article shows the importance of implementing Lev Vygotsky’s doctrine of correction and compensation of disturbed psychological, emotional and social development of schoolchildren with intellectual disabilities. Design. To achieve this purpose, the following methods were used: interviews, questionnaires, and factor analysis. In the first stage of the study, interviews were conducted with teachers working in special (correctional schools (teachers, child and youth counselors, school psychologists, developmental pediatricians — of 108 teachers from 10 schools. Analysis of the interviews revealed a list of risk factors related to antisocial behavior among teenagers with intellectual disabilities (only 35 points. The collected data formed the basis for a questionnaire, “Social Safety for Children with Intellectual Disabilities”. In the second stage, 83 teachers working in the special (correctional schools were surveyed. The survey was completed by teachers of children (12-13 years old who
Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L; Cerling, Thure E; Uno, Kevin T; Ferguson, Kurt M; Flynn, Lawrence J; Patnaik, Rajeev
Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ(13)C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible.
Zhao, J P; Zhang, Q; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Jiang, M J; Luo, H; Lin, H
Three trials were performed to evaluate the association of ovalbumin (OVA) abundance in the oviduct magnum with egg production and the underlying regulatory mechanism by glucocorticoids. In trial 1, twenty Hy-Line Brown layers (56-60 weeks of age) with different combinations (n = 5/combination) of laying rate (high or low) and egg weight (high or low) were selected from an initial group of 300. An upregulated expression of magnum OVA was observed (p hens with higher laying rate, regardless of egg weight. In trial 2, eighty Hy-Line Brown layers (80-90 weeks of age) were subjected to the forced moulting (n = 8). The abundance of OVA transcript and protein in the magnum was significantly decreased during moulting (p old Hy-Line Brown layers were kept individually (n = 15) in the following conditions for 10 days: constant optimal ambient temperature at 23 °C and ad libitum feeding, high ambient temperature at 32 °C for 6 h/day (10:00-16:00) and ad libitum feeding (32AL), and constant optimal ambient temperature at 23 °C and pair-fed to the 32AL hens. In spite of elevated corticosterone in circulation, OVA synthesis, blood oestrogen and laying rate were not affected by heat exposure (p > 0.05). These results allow concluding that OVA expression in the oviduct magnum of hens is related to the rate of egg laying and shows distinct stress-type-specific responses.
Full Text Available Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ(13C with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ(13C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible.
Roberts, Sparkle M; Grattan, Lynn M; Toben, Alexandra C; Ausherman, Christina; Trainer, Vera; Tracy, Kate; Morris, J Glenn
Risk perception is a complex process that refers to the way people approach, think about and interpret risks in their environment. An important element of risk perception is that it is culturally situated. Since HAB's can present a health risk in many places around the world, looking at cultural parameters for understanding and interpreting risks are important. This study examined how two different groups of people perceive the potential health risks of low level exposure to domoic acid (DA) through razor clam consumption. The risk perceptions of Washington State, USA coastal dwelling Native American nations (NA) were compared to that of a community sample of recreational razor clam harvesters (CRH). Overall, the findings support the hypothesis that cultural and community specific contexts impact the perception of risk of a DA related illness. Specifically, the NA sample was distinguished by worrying more about ocean pollution, attributing DA risks to climate change, expressing concerns about the potential impact of DA on future generations, and feeling better informed than the CRH group. The CRH group were more likely to attribute the DA problem to anthropogenic or industrial causes; and view the risk of health problems as lower than that associated with smoking, high cholesterol, anxiety or depression, alcoholism, high blood pressure or obesity. The CRH group was also more likely to turn to the media for DA related information. Both groups trust the decisions of state and tribe health and natural resources officials and demonstrated a complex pattern of findings that involved gender. It was recommended that risk communication and outreach activities are designed to take into consideration factors that specifically apply to each cultural community.
Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the risk factors for HBV-related liver cirrhosis complicated by acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB. MethodsA total of 58 patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis complicated by AUGIB who were hospitalized in our hospital from January to December, 2011 were enrolled as study group, and 100 patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis who did not experience upper gastrointestinal bleeding during the same period of time were enrolled as control group. Their general clinical data were collected. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, the multivariate Cox regression model was used to analyze the risk factors, and the life table method was used to analyze 1-, 2-, and 3-year cumulative survival rates and plot survival curves. ResultsThe 1-, 2-, and 3-year cumulative survival rates in the patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis complicated by AUGIB were 72.2%, 51.9%, and 35.2%, respectively, with a median survival time of 24.7 months. The univariate analysis showed that AUGIB was associated with bleeding history (χ2=7.128, P=0008, course of disease (t=8.283, P＜0.001, bad eating habits (χ2=7.612, P=0.006, Child-Pugh class (χ2=6.045, P=0049, degree of esophageal varices (χ2=46.241, P＜0.001, gastric varices (χ2=14.211, P＜0.001, and portal hypertension (χ2=6.846, P=0009. The multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that course of disease (RR=0.745, 95%CI： 0.824-0967, P=0.026, bad eating habits (RR=1.426, 95%CI： 1.033-2.582, P=0.032, Child-Pugh class (RR=2.032, 95%CI： 1.05-2.34, P=0036, degree of esophageal varices (RR=0.796, 95%CI： 1.23-3.37, P=0.015, degree of gastric varices (RR=0825, 95%CI： 2.46-392, P=0.043, and portal hypertension (RR=0.983, 95%CI： 1.26-3.75, P=0.007 were independent risk factors for the prognosis of patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis
Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; D’Angelo, Eugene; Seidman B, Larry J.; Gumlak, Sarah; Kim, April; Woodberry, Kristen A.; Rober, Ashley; Tembulkar, Sahil; Graber, Kelsey; O’Donnell, Kyle; Hamoda, Hesham M.; Kimball, Kara; Rotenberg, Alexander; Oberman, Lindsay M.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Duffy, Frank H.
Background The N100 is a negative deflection in the surface EEG approximately 100ms after an auditory signal. It has been shown to be reduced in individuals with schizophrenia and those at clinical high risk (CHR). N100 blunting may index neural network dysfunction underlying psychotic symptoms. This phenomenon has received little attention in pediatric populations. Method This cross-sectional study compared the N100 response measured via the average EEG response at the left medial frontal position FC1 to 150 sinusoidal tones in participants ages 5 to 17 years with a CHR syndrome (n = 29), a psychotic disorder (n = 22), or healthy controls (n=17). Results Linear regression analyses that considered potential covariates (age, gender, handedness, family mental health history, medication usage) revealed decreasing N100 amplitude with increasing severity of psychotic symptomatology from healthy to CHR to psychotic level. Conclusions Longitudinal assessment of the N100 in CHR children who do and do not develop psychosis will inform whether it predicts transition to psychosis and if its response to treatment predicts symptom change. PMID:26549629
Full Text Available Objective: The current study was conducted to investigate the pattern of structural relations between deviant personality traits, risk perception and treatment motivation in people with substance dependency. Method: A descriptive- correlational method was used in this study. All the drug addicts referring to Ardabil centers of addiction treatment in second half of 2014 constituted the statistical population of this study. The number of 140 individuals from this population was selected via cluster sampling and responded to stages of change readiness and treatment eagerness scale, personality deviance scale, and cognitive appraisal of risky events (CARE questionnaire. Results: The results showed that risk perception and three components of treatment motivation are negatively correlated with hostile thoughts, denigration of others, low self-confidence, dependency, submissiveness; however, risk perception was positively associated with the three components of treatment motivation. The results of regression analyses also revealed that 53% variance of recognition, 44 % variance of ambivalence, and 47 % of variance of step taking were explained by deviant personality traits. Model fitness indexed confirmed the path of deviant personality traits to treatment motivation via the mediating role of risk perception. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that low risk perception is one of the explanatory pathways for the relationship between deviant personality traits and treatment motivation.
Christoffersen, Mette; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Schnohr, Peter
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is 1 of the most common age-related diseases, and also 1 of the most common causes of death in the general population. We tested the hypothesis that visible age-related signs associate with risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial infarction (MI), and de...
Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas; Maier, Wolfgang; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; Pentzek, Michael; Weyerer, Siegfried; Bickel, Horst; Tebarth, Franziska; Luppa, Melanie; Wollny, Anja; Wiese, Birgitt; Wagner, Michael
Midlife motivational abilities, that is, skills to initiate and persevere in the implementation of goals, have been related to mental and physical health, but their association with risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not yet been directly investigated. This relation was examined with data from the German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe). A total of 3,327 nondemented participants (50.3% of a randomly selected sample) aged 75-89 years were recruited in primary care and followed up twice (after 1.5 and 3 years). Motivation-related occupational abilities were estimated on the basis of the main occupation (assessed at follow-up II) using the Occupational Information Network (O* NET) database, which provides detailed information on worker characteristics and abilities. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relative risk of developing MCI and AD in relation to motivation-related occupational abilities, adjusting for various covariates. Over the 3 years of follow-up, 15.2% participants developed MCI and 3.0% developed AD. In a fully adjusted model, motivation-related occupational abilities were found to be associated with a reduced risk of MCI (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.64-0.92). Motivation-related occupational abilities were associated with reduced risk of AD in ApoE ε4 carriers (HR: 0.48; CI: 0.25-0.91), but not in noncarriers (HR: 0.99; CI: 0.65-1.53). These results suggest that midlife motivational abilities are associated with reduced risk of MCI in general and with reduced risk of AD in ApoE ε4 carriers. Revealing the mechanisms underlying this association may inform novel prevention strategies for decelerating cognitive decline in old age.
Høiberg, M. P.; Rubin, K. H.; Gram, J.
UNLABELLED: To evaluate the case-finding strategy for osteoporosis in Norway, a questionnaire concerning risk factors for osteoporosis and history of osteodensitometry was mailed to a population-based cohort of 6000 men and 6000 women. Suboptimal examination rates among high risk and reallocation...... of scanning capacity to seemingly low-risk individuals was found. PURPOSE: In Norway, a case-finding strategy for osteoporosis has been used. No data exist regarding the efficacy of this approach. The aim was to examine the prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis and factors related to the use of dual X......-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in Norway. METHODS: Questionnaires regarding previous history of DXA, risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture were sent to an age-stratified, nationwide cross-sectional sample of 6000 men and 6000 women aged 40-90 years, drawn from the Norwegian Civil Registration System. RESULTS: Valid...
Morales, Blanca Nivia; Plazas, Merideidy; Sanchez, Rafael; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena
This study aims to identify the frequency of risk and protection factors related to drug consumption among undergraduate nursing students. It is a cross-sectional study in which authors applied the instrument Risk and Protection Factors for the Consumption of Psychoactive Substances, validated for use with undergraduate nursing students. Data were analyzed through STATA 10. Three hundred and ninety students participated in the study. The domain "prejudice and appraisal", "social permissiveness and access to psychoactive substances", "social skills and self-control" are risk factors for drugs use in 100% of participants. "Spirituality" and "satisfaction with interpersonal relations" were predominant protective domains. Based on data, authors can conclude that the students did not consider the risks in alcohol and tobacco consumption, as they think it is normal and socially acceptable.
Grasl, M C; Neuwirth-Riedl, K; Vutuc, C; Horak, F; Vorbeck, F; Banyai, M
The significance of tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and occupation as risk factors for the development of vocal chord dysplasia was evaluated in a case-control study. Twenty-seven male patients with dysplasia of the vocal chords were chosen from the I. ENT-University Clinic in Vienna (1985-1988) and compared with 54 controls. The main results are: The relative risk (RR) of a smoker compared to that of a non-smoker for vocal chord dysplasia is 7.27 (6.81-7.73); the RR adjusted for occupation is 3.58 (2.31-4.84). The most important risk factor, however, is occupational exposure. The relative risk of a blue collar worker compared to that of a white collar worker is 11.04 (10.61-11.46), which is reduced only to 10.02 (10.61-11.46) after stratification according to smoking habits.
Full Text Available Sex hormones play a key role in the development of breast cancer. Certain polymorphic variants (SNPs and repeat polymorphisms in hormone-related genes are associated with sex hormone levels. However, the relationship observed between these genetic variants and breast cancer risk has been inconsistent. We conducted a case-control study nested within two prospective cohorts to assess the relationship between specific genetic variants in hormone-related genes and breast cancer risk. In total, 1164 cases and 2111 individually-matched controls were included in the study. We did not observe an association between potential functional genetic polymorphisms in the estrogen pathway, SHBG rs6259, ESR1 rs2234693, CYP19 rs10046 and rs4775936, and UGT1A1 rs8175347, or the progesterone pathway, PGR rs1042838, with the risk of breast cancer. Our results suggest that these genetic variants do not have a strong effect on breast cancer risk.
West, Bethany A
Full Text Available Purpose: The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts, and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors that are associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. Methods: Data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9-12 were used to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Results: Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys. Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89. Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48, dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60, forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72, and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66, forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60, huffing glue (OR=1.63, hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18, and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in terms of the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide prevention strategies that are directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention
Peters, Sebastian; Grunwald, Nicole; Rümmele, Petra; Endlicher, Esther; Lechner, Anja; Neumann, Inga D; Obermeier, Florian; Reber, Stefan O
Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) have a higher risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) than the general population. Furthermore, chronic psychosocial stress increases the likelihood of developing IBD and multiple types of malignant neoplasms, including CRC. Here, for the first time, we investigate the effects of chronic psychosocial stress in male mice on an artificially induced CRC, by employing the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) housing paradigm in combination with the reliable azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) CRC model. Colonoscopy revealed that CSC mice showed accelerated macroscopic suspect lesions. In addition, more CSC mice developed low-grade dysplasia (LGD) and/or high-grade dysplasia (HGD) in the colonic tissue compared to the single-housed control mice (SHC). CSC mice showed an increased number of Ki67+ and a decreased number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling epithelial cells in colonic tissue. Colonic liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1), cyclooxygenase II (COXII), tumor necrosis factor, forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) mRNA as well as colonic ß-catenin, COXII, and LRH-1 protein expression were also increased in CSC compared with SHC mice. Although the number of CD4+ Th cells was increased, a tendency toward a decreased colonic interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA expression was observed. Furthermore, despite an increased percentage of CD3+ cells and CD3+/FoxP3+ double-positive cells within mesenteric lymph node cells of CSC mice, IFN-γ secretion from these cells was unaffected. Altogether, our results suggest that chronic psychosocial stress increases the risk for AOM/DSS-induced and, thus, inflammation-related CRC. Finally, assessment of additional time points may test whether the shift from tumor-protective Th1 cell to regulatory T-cell immunity represents a consequence of increased carcinogenesis or a causal factor involved in its development.
Mazighi, Ahmed El Hachemi
Traditionally guided by long-term contracts, the international natural gas trade is experiencing new methods of operating, based on the short term and more flexibility. Today, indeed, the existence of uncommitted quantities of natural gas, combined with gas price discrepancies among different regions of the world, gives room for the expansion of the spot-trading of gas. The main objective of this paper is to discuss three fundamental risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas: volume risk, price risk and infrastructure risk. The defenders of globalisation argue that the transition from the long-term to the short-term trading of natural gas is mainly a question of access to gas reserves, decreasing costs of gas liquefaction, the building of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fleets and regasification facilities and third-party access to the infrastructure. This process needs to be as short as possible, so that the risks related to the transition process will disappear rapidly. On the other hand, the detractors of globalisation put the emphasis on the complexity of the gas value chain and on the fact that eliminating long-term contracts increases the risks inherent to the international natural gas business. In this paper, we try to untangle and assess the risks related to the short-term trading of natural gas. Our main conclusions are: the short-term trading of gas is far from riskless; volume risk requires stock-building in both consuming and producing countries; price risk, through the high volatility for gas, induces an increase in options prices; there is no evidence to suggest that money-lenders' appetite for financing gas infrastructure projects will continue in a short-term trading system. This would be a threat to consumers' security of supply. (Author)
The distribution and behavior of foraging animals usually imply a balance between resource availability and predation risk. In some predators such as scorpions, cannibalism constitutes an important mortality factor determining their ecology and behavior. Climbing on vegetation by scorpions has been related both to prey availability and to predation (cannibalism) risk. We tested different hypotheses proposed to explain climbing on vegetation by scorpions. We analyzed shrub climbing in Buthus cf. occitanus with regard to the following: a) better suitability of prey size for scorpions foraging on shrubs than on the ground, b) selection of shrub species with higher prey load, c) seasonal variations in prey availability on shrubs, and d) whether or not cannibalism risk on the ground increases the frequency of shrub climbing. Prey availability on shrubs was compared by estimating prey abundance in sticky traps placed in shrubs. A prey sample from shrubs was measured to compare prey size. Scorpions were sampled in six plots (50 m x 10 m) to estimate the proportion of individuals climbing on shrubs. Size difference and distance between individuals and their closest scorpion neighbor were measured to assess cannibalism risk. The results showed that mean prey size was two-fold larger on the ground. Selection of particular shrub species was not related to prey availability. Seasonal variations in the number of scorpions on shrubs were related to the number of active scorpions, but not with fluctuations in prey availability. Size differences between a scorpion and its nearest neighbor were positively related with a higher probability for a scorpion to climb onto a shrub when at a disadvantage, but distance was not significantly related. These results do not support hypotheses explaining shrub climbing based on resource availability. By contrast, our results provide evidence that shrub climbing is related to cannibalism risk. PMID:27655347
Machiela, Mitchell J; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Brown, Kevin M; Johansson, Mattias; Wang, Zhaoming; Foll, Matthieu; Li, Peng; Rothman, Nathaniel; Savage, Sharon A; Gaborieau, Valerie; McKay, James D; Ye, Yuanqing; Henrion, Marc; Bruinsma, Fiona; Jordan, Susan; Severi, Gianluca; Hveem, Kristian; Vatten, Lars J; Fletcher, Tony; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Larsson, Susanna C; Wolk, Alicja; Banks, Rosamonde E; Selby, Peter J; Easton, Douglas F; Pharoah, Paul; Andreotti, Gabriella; Freeman, Laura E Beane; Koutros, Stella; Albanes, Demetrius; Mannisto, Satu; Weinstein, Stephanie; Clark, Peter E; Edwards, Todd E; Lipworth, Loren; Gapstur, Susan M; Stevens, Victoria L; Carol, Hallie; Freedman, Matthew L; Pomerantz, Mark M; Cho, Eunyoung; Kraft, Peter; Preston, Mark A; Wilson, Kathryn M; Gaziano, J Michael; Sesso, Howard S; Black, Amanda; Freedman, Neal D; Huang, Wen-Yi; Anema, John G; Kahnoski, Richard J; Lane, Brian R; Noyes, Sabrina L; Petillo, David; Colli, Leandro M; Sampson, Joshua N; Besse, Celine; Blanche, Helene; Boland, Anne; Burdette, Laurie; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Skryabin, Konstantin G; Yeager, Meredith; Mijuskovic, Mirjana; Ognjanovic, Miodrag; Foretova, Lenka; Holcatova, Ivana; Janout, Vladimir; Mates, Dana; Mukeriya, Anush; Rascu, Stefan; Zaridze, David; Bencko, Vladimir; Cybulski, Cezary; Fabianova, Eleonora; Jinga, Viorel; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lubinski, Jan; Navratilova, Marie; Rudnai, Peter; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Benhamou, Simone; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Cussenot, Olivier; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Canzian, Federico; Duell, Eric J; Ljungberg, Börje; Sitaram, Raviprakash T; Peters, Ulrike; White, Emily; Anderson, Garnet L; Johnson, Lisa; Luo, Juhua; Buring, Julie; Lee, I-Min; Chow, Wong-Ho; Moore, Lee E; Wood, Christopher; Eisen, Timothy; Larkin, James; Choueiri, Toni K; Lathrop, G Mark; Teh, Bin Tean; Deleuze, Jean-Francois; Wu, Xifeng; Houlston, Richard S; Brennan, Paul; Chanock, Stephen J; Scelo, Ghislaine; Purdue, Mark P
Relative telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been evaluated as a potential biomarker for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk in several studies, with conflicting findings. We performed an analysis of genetic variants associated with leukocyte telomere length to assess the relationship between telomere length and RCC risk using Mendelian randomization, an approach unaffected by biases from temporal variability and reverse causation that might have affected earlier investigations. Genotypes from nine telomere length-associated variants for 10 784 cases and 20 406 cancer-free controls from six genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of RCC were aggregated into a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) predictive of leukocyte telomere length. Odds ratios (ORs) relating the GRS and RCC risk were computed in individual GWAS datasets and combined by meta-analysis. Longer genetically inferred telomere length was associated with an increased risk of RCC (OR=2.07 per predicted kilobase increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]:=1.70-2.53, p0.5) with GWAS-identified RCC risk variants (rs10936599 and rs9420907) from the telomere length GRS; despite this exclusion, a statistically significant association between the GRS and RCC risk persisted (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.36-2.21, pbody of evidence indicating some aspect of longer telomere length is important for RCC risk. Telomeres are segments of DNA at chromosome ends that maintain chromosomal stability. Our study investigated the relationship between genetic variants associated with telomere length and renal cell carcinoma risk. We found evidence suggesting individuals with inherited predisposition to longer telomere length are at increased risk of developing renal cell carcinoma. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Allan, Nicholas P; Oglesby, Mary E; Uhl, Aubree; Schmidt, Norman B
The hierarchical model of vulnerabilities to emotional distress contextualizes the relation between neuroticism and social anxiety as occurring indirectly through cognitive risk factors. In particular, inhibitory intolerance of uncertainty (IU; difficulty in uncertain circumstances), fear of negative evaluation (FNE; fear of being judged negatively), and anxiety sensitivity (AS) social concerns (fear of outwardly observable anxiety) are related to social anxiety. It is unclear whether these risk factors uniquely relate to social anxiety, and whether they account for the relations between neuroticism and social anxiety. The indirect relations between neuroticism and social anxiety through these and other risk factors were examined using structural equation modeling in a sample of 462 individuals (M age = 36.56, SD = 12.93; 64.3% female). Results indicated that the relations between neuroticism and social anxiety could be explained through inhibitory IU, FNE, and AS social concerns. No gender differences were found. These findings provide support for the hierarchical model of vulnerabilities to emotional distress disorders, although the cognitive risk factors accounted for variance beyond their contribution to the relation between neuroticism and social anxiety, suggesting a more complex model than that expressed in the hierarchical model of vulnerabilities.
Jessica N. Cooke Bailey
Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD, a highly prevalent and impactful disease of aging, is inarguably influenced by complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Various risk scores have been tested that assess measurable genetic and environmental contributions to disease. We herein summarize and review the ability and utility of these numerous models for prediction of AMD and suggest additional risk factors to be incorporated into clinically useful predictive models of AMD.
Tao, Xiao Tong
This study examined the prospective effects of multiple risks on the internalizing and externalizing problems of 258 1st and 2nd generation Chinese American school-aged children, as well as the mediating and moderating roles of parenting styles. When examining the relations between risk domains and children's behavioral adjustment, children's low self-regulation and negative emotionality, single-parent family structure, and gaps in parent-child cultural orientations were found to be unique pr...
Tao, Xiao Tong
This study examined the prospective effects of multiple risks on the internalizing and externalizing problems of 258 1st and 2nd generation Chinese American school-aged children, as well as the mediating and moderating roles of parenting styles. When examining the relations between risk domains and children's behavioral adjustment, children's low self-regulation and negative emotionality, single-parent family structure, and gaps in parent-child cultural orientations were found to be unique pr...
Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Leung, Man-Tak; Cheung, Him
The present study examined some early performance difficulties of Chinese preschoolers at familial risk for dyslexia. Seventy-six high-risk (40 good and 36 poor readers) and 25 low-risk Chinese children were tested on oral language, reading-related cognitive skills (e.g. phonological processing skills, rapid naming, and morphological awareness), and Chinese word reading and spelling over a 3-year period. The parents were also given a behaviour checklist for identifying child at-risk behaviours. Results showed that the High Risk (Poor Reading) group performed significantly worse than the Low Risk and the High Risk (Good Reading) group on most of the measures and domains. More children in the High Risk (Poor Reading) group displayed at-risk behaviours than in the other two groups. These results suggest that Chinese at-risk children with early difficulties in reading and spelling do show a wide range of language-, phonology-, and print-related deficits, similar to their alphabetic counterparts. An understanding of these early difficulties may help prevent dyslexia from developing in at-risk children. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction. Metabolic conditions, including type 2 diabetes, have been related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC risk. We have further analyzed the role of diabetes and antidiabetic treatments on HCC. Methods. Data derived from a hospital-based case-control study (Italy, 2005–2012 on 224 HCC patients and 389 controls. Odds ratios (ORs were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Results. Sixty-nine (30.9% cases versus 52 (13.5% controls reported a diabetes diagnosis, corresponding to a multivariate OR of 2.25 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.42–3.56. A stronger excess risk emerged for a longer time since diabetes diagnosis (OR = 2.96 for <10 years and 5.33 for ≥10 years. Oral therapies were inversely, though not significantly, related to HCC risk, OR being 0.44 for metformin and 0.88 for sulfonylureas; conversely, insulin was nonsignificantly directly associated (OR = 1.90. Compared to nondiabetic subjects who were never smokers, those who were diabetics and ever smokers had an OR of 6.61 (95% CI 3.31–13.25. Conclusion. Our study confirms an over 2-fold excess HCC risk in diabetics, with a stronger excess risk in diabetic subjects who are also tobacco smokers. Metformin may decrease the risk of HCC, whereas insulin may increase the risk.
Alfredo, Katherine A; Seidel, Chad; Ghosh, Amlan; Roberson, J Alan
When a new drinking water regulation is being developed, the USEPA conducts a health risk reduction and cost analysis to, in part, estimate quantifiable and non-quantifiable cost and benefits of the various regulatory alternatives. Numerous methodologies are available for cumulative risk assessment ranging from primarily qualitative to primarily quantitative. This research developed a summary metric of relative cumulative health impacts resulting from drinking water, the relative health indicator (RHI). An intermediate level of quantification and modeling was chosen, one which retains the concept of an aggregated metric of public health impact and hence allows for comparisons to be made across "cups of water," but avoids the need for development and use of complex models that are beyond the existing state of the science. Using the USEPA Six-Year Review data and available national occurrence surveys of drinking water contaminants, the metric is used to test risk reduction as it pertains to the implementation of the arsenic and uranium maximum contaminant levels and quantify "meaningful" risk reduction. Uranium represented the threshold risk reduction against which national non-compliance risk reduction was compared for arsenic, nitrate, and radium. Arsenic non-compliance is most significant and efforts focused on bringing those non-compliant utilities into compliance with the 10 μg/L maximum contaminant level would meet the threshold for meaningful risk reduction.
Warner, K E; Courant, P N; Mendez, D
The U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) does not consider the effects of normal patterns of residential mobility in estimating individual radon-related lung cancer risks. As a consequence, the EPA's population risk estimates may have little bearing on individual risks, and remediation of high-radon homes may have only small health benefits for the individual who remediate their homes. Through a stimulation analysis, we examine the effects of residential mobility on random exposure and lung cancer risk. Given normal mobility, only 7% of eventual radon-related mortality among current 30 year old will occur in the 5% currently living in homes above pCi/l (the EPA's action level for remediation) in contrast with you estimate of 31% of deaths when mobility's ignored. About 10 pCi/l the no-mobility assumption implies 10.3% of deaths, compared to only 0.4% when mobility taken into account. We conclude that knowledge of one's current random exposure not necessarily a useful guide to one's risk, especially for residents of the high-radon homes targeted for remediation by the EPA. The risk of such individuals is like to be substantially lower than that implied in the EPA's risk charts. If people currently living in high radon homes remediate their houses, the majority of the resulting health benefits will accrue to future occupants of their homes.
Vinberg, Maj; Mellerup, Erling; Andersen, Per Kragh
these variations interact with life events in relation to depressive symptoms, neuroticism and salivary cortisol. METHOD: In a high-risk population study, healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with (high-risk twins) and without (low-risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through...... and the experience of SLE was associated with a higher neuroticism score, but not with depressive symptoms nor awakening or evening salivary cortisol. CONCLUSION: A combination of variants in 5-HTTLPR and environmental stress seems to increase neuroticism in healthy individuals....
Dodson, Thomas B
This article provides the best current frequency estimate of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ), and identifies factors associated with the risk of developing osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) among patients exposed to relevant medications (ie, antiresorptive or antiangiogenic agents). MRONJ is a rare but serious complication of cancer treatment or osteoporosis management. This review confirms that antiresorptive medications such as oral or intravenous bisphosphonates and denosumab are the most common risk factors for developing ONJ. The risk of MRONJ is greater in patients with cancer than in those receiving antiresorptive treatments for osteoporosis by a factor of 10.
Namkung, Eun Ha; Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R; Floyd, Frank J
We prospectively examined the risk of divorce in 190 parents of children with developmental disabilities compared to 7,251 parents of children without disabilities based on a random sample drawn from the community and followed longitudinally for over 50 years. A significant interaction between the parental group status and number of children was found: In the comparison group, having a larger number of children was related to an increased risk of divorce, whereas the number of children did not increase divorce risk among parents of children with developmental disabilities.
Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomais; Daskalou, Efstratia; Lampoudis, Dimitrios; Apostolou, Aggeliki; Agakidis, Charalampos
The study aimed to test the hypothesis that computer-based calculation of malnutrition risk may enhance the ability to identify pediatric patients at malnutrition-related risk for an unfavorable outcome. The Pediatric Digital Scaled MAlnutrition Risk screening Tool (PeDiSMART), incorporating the World Health Organization (WHO) growth reference data and malnutrition-related parameters, was used. This was a prospective cohort study of 500 pediatric patients aged 1 month to 17 years. Upon admission, the PeDiSMART score was calculated and anthropometry was performed. Pediatric Yorkhill Malnutrition Score (PYMS), Screening Tool Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGkids), and Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Pediatrics (STAMP) malnutrition screening tools were also applied. PeDiSMART's association with the clinical outcome measures (weight loss/nutrition support and hospitalization duration) was assessed and compared with the other screening tools. The PeDiSMART score was inversely correlated with anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance phase angle (BIA PhA). The score's grading scale was based on BIA Pha quartiles. Weight loss/nutrition support during hospitalization was significantly independently associated with the malnutrition risk group allocation on admission, after controlling for anthropometric parameters and age. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 75% and a significant area under the curve, which differed significantly from that of STRONGkids and STAMP. In the subgroups of patients with PeDiSMART-based risk allocation different from that based on the other tools, PeDiSMART allocation was more closely related to outcome measures. PeDiSMART, applicable to the full age range of patients hospitalized in pediatric departments, graded according to BIA PhA, and embeddable in medical electronic records, enhances efficacy and reproducibility in identifying pediatric patients at
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the prospect of increasing prevalence of cancer, the issue of multiple primary cancers becomes more relevant. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of developing a tobacco-related subsequent primary cancer (TRSPC in persons with a tobacco-related first primary cancer (TRFPC compared with the general population in Bavaria, Germany. Methods Using data from the Population-Based Cancer Registry Bavaria, we analyzed TRFPC and TRSPC diagnosed in Bavaria between 2002 and 2008 to estimate the relative and absolute risk of developing TRSPC using standardized incidence ratios (SIR and excess absolute risks (EAR. Results 121,631 TRFPC in men and 75,886 respective cancers in women were registered, which in 2.5% of male and 1.2% of female cancer patients were followed by at least one TRSPC. In both males and females, the highest increased risks compared to the general population were found within the group of cancer in the mouth/pharynx, oesophagus, larynx, and lung/bronchus. Conclusions With respect to cancer in the mouth/pharynx, oesophagus, larynx, lung/bronchus, kidney, urinary bladder and urinary tract, smoking was confirmed as a shared risk factor based on our finding of mutually significantly increased risks of TRSPC. The results of this study illustrate the importance of smoking cessation and of continued follow-up care especially of smokers with the aforementioned TRFPC to detect TRSPC at an early stage.
Full Text Available Human activities, especially over the last two centuries, have had a huge impact on the environment and the landscape. Mankind is able to control and induce landscape changes but is subject to natural processes and hazards due to severe and extreme events (particularly earthquakes but also landslides and flooding and related risks. Risks are the result of hazards, exposed elements and vulnerability and they are consequently not only an expression of the natural environment, but also related to human interaction with nature. Risks need to be addressed regularly by means of a high level of knowledge in order to provide most uptodate information for any decision which needs to be taken by any party involved. A high level of knowledge concerning natural hazards and related risks stems from the geological and geomorphological history and from the historical records of the natural processes and grows with multiscale, multitemporal and multidisciplinary studies and investigations, which include land management, economic and social issues. A strong effort has to be made in this way to improve risk assessment and the enforcement of existing laws and if necessary new laws, really stem from recent disasters. This will help to achieve improved and effective land management, based on an interdisciplinary approach in which expert geologists and land managers will play a role, because of the importance of natural processes in inducing risks.
Jennifer L. Hay
Full Text Available Little is known about how individuals might interpret brief genetic risk feedback. We examined interpretation and behavioral intentions (sun protection, skin screening in melanoma first-degree relatives (FDRs after exposure to brief prototypic melanoma risk feedback. Using a 3 by 2 experimental pre-post design where feedback type (high-risk mutation, gene environment, and nongenetic and risk level (positive versus negative findings were systematically varied, 139 melanoma FDRs were randomized to receive one of the six scenarios. All scenarios included an explicit reminder that melanoma family history increased their risk regardless of their feedback. The findings indicate main effects by risk level but not feedback type; positive findings led to heightened anticipated melanoma risk perceptions and anticipated behavioral intentions. Yet those who received negative findings often discounted their family melanoma history. As such, 25%, 30%, and 32% of those who received negative mutation, gene-environment, and nongenetic feedback, respectively, reported that their risk was similar to the general population. Given the frequency with which those who pursue genetic testing may receive negative feedback, attention is needed to identify ideal strategies to present negative genetic findings in contexts such as direct to consumer channels where extensive genetic counseling is not required.
Gola, Hannah; Engler, Harald; Schauer, Maggie; Adenauer, Hannah; Riether, Carsten; Kolassa, Stephan; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris
Studies investigating cortisol responses to trauma-related stressors in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have yielded inconsistent results, demonstrating that cortisol responses were enhanced or unaffected when confronted with trauma reminders. This study investigated the effect of the type of trauma experienced on both salivary and plasma cortisol responses during confrontation with trauma-related material. Participants were 30 survivors of war and torture, with and without...
Cortese, C G; Gerbaudo, Laura; Manconi, Maria Paola; Violante, B
Italian legislation establishes the obligation for the employer to assess any risks to the safety and health of workers, including those relating to work-related stress (WRS). Several studies have proved the existence of a link between WRS and both individual diseases and organizational results. The research aimed at detecting WRS risk factors in a hospital consisting of 53 departments employing 2334 workers. A qualitative and quantitative approach was adopted divided into six steps: 1) analysis of the hospital indicators; 2) semistructured interviews of the 53 department heads; 3) preparation of a checklist including 42 WRS risk indicators; 4) observation by shadowing of the 53 departments; 5) setting up of 53 focus groups with staff from each department; 6) distribution of the check-list to a representative sample of 747 employees. Data analysis showed a "low" level of WRS risk regarding the hospital as a whole, a "medium" level regarding six transversal indicators and eight departments. Three indicators considered particularly significant were examined in detail: "workplace and ergonomic conditions", "shift work", "interruptions in work flow". The results helped to identifj a series of best practices aimed at reducing WRS risk that are applicable to other health care settings. The qualitative and quantitative approach produced a keen involvement of the employees of the hospital which will positively encourage the real efficacy of the measures taken.
Daniel H Fine
Full Text Available Improved diagnostics remains a fundamental goal of biomedical research. This study was designed to assess cytokine biomarkers that could predict bone loss (BL in localized aggressive periodontitis. 2,058 adolescents were screened. Two groups of 50 periodontally healthy adolescents were enrolled in the longitudinal study. One group had Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, the putative pathogen, while the matched cohort did not. Cytokine levels were assessed in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF. Participants were sampled, examined, and radiographed every 6 months for 2-3 years. Disease was defined as radiographic evidence of BL. Saliva and GCF was collected at each visit, frozen, and then tested retrospectively after detection of BL. Sixteen subjects with Aa developed BL. Saliva from Aa-positive and Aa-negative healthy subjects was compared to subjects who developed BL. GCF was collected from 16 subjects with BL and from another 38 subjects who remained healthy. GCF from BL sites in the 16 subjects was compared to healthy sites in these same subjects and to healthy sites in subjects who remained healthy. Results showed that cytokines in saliva associated with acute inflammation were elevated in subjects who developed BL (i.e., MIP-1α MIP-1β IL-α, IL-1β and IL-8; p<0.01. MIP-1α was elevated 13-fold, 6 months prior to BL. When MIP-1α levels were set at 40 pg/ml, 98% of healthy sites were below that level (Specificity; whereas, 93% of sites with BL were higher (Sensitivity, with comparable Predictive Values of 98%; p<0.0001; 95% C.I. = 42.5-52.7. MIP-1α consistently showed elevated levels as a biomarker for BL in both saliva and GCF, 6 months prior to BL. MIP-1α continues to demonstrate its strong candidacy as a diagnostic biomarker for both subject and site vulnerability to BL.
Vyncke, Bart; Perko, Tanja; Van Gorp, Baldwin
The media play an important role in risk communication, providing information about accidents, both nearby and far away. Each media source has its own presentation style, which could influence how the audience perceives the presented risk. This study investigates the explanatory power of 12 information sources (traditional media, new media, social media, and interpersonal communication) for the perceived risk posed by radiation released from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant on respondents' own health and that of the population in general. The analysis controlled for attitude toward nuclear energy, gender, education, satisfaction with the media coverage, and duration of attention paid to the coverage. The study uses a large empirical data set from a public opinion survey, which is representative for the Belgian population with respect to six sociodemographic variables. Results show that three information sources are significant regressors of perceived health-related risk of the nuclear accident: television, interpersonal communication, and the category of miscellaneous online sources. More favorable attitudes toward nuclear power, longer attention to the coverage, and higher satisfaction with the provided information lead to lower risk perception. Taken together, the results suggest that the media can indeed have a modest influence on how the audience perceives a risk.
Lebourg, T.; Llop, R.; Provitolo, D.; Allignol, F.; Zerathe, S.
The objective of this paper is to show the impact of the instrumentation on an urban area on the principle of prevention of the landslides risk and thus to contribute to decrease the vulnerability for an urban long-term future development. We show that the analyze by instrumentation of triggered factors which characterize the risk (by the quantification of the evolution in time of the mechanical properties versus weathered processes) suggest that it exists a relation between "susceptibility of landslides" and urban development The evolution of the stakes during time is at the same time, factor of evolution of the susceptibility and triggered factor of the vulnerability evolution of urban areas. The scientific goal relates to the urban systems vulnerability and resilience modelling versus landslides processes for the assistance to the risks prevention. Indeed, the installation of an effective risks prevention policy is based on a good evaluation of the intensity, the period of return of the phenomena and their zone of expansion, but also on an identification of the sectors exposed to the risks, their vulnerability and their resilience. The strategy of prevention of the risks generally relates to the construction of fortifications to protect the society but it can also be founded on the resilience concept. This other approach is not opposed to the risk, but proposes to reduce the impacts. The anthroposysteme concept of makes it possible to take into accounts the determining role played by the human society in the space system evolution; natural and social systems associated on a given territory. The study of a space system passes then by the identification of components of the physical world (natural) and the living world (social), these two components forming integral part of the Society. To be concluded, this paper and study applies to the Mediterranean coastline anthroposystemes (northern bank) where urban growth, saturation of the littorals, constructions in
Luis Manuel Padrón Velázquez
Full Text Available Background: The worldwide epidemic outburst cause by the HIV and lack of effective vaccines against it make of human sexual behavior the most important element to fight this disease. Objective: To identify knowledge level and risk behaviors associated with the infection with this virus in students of second year of Community General Medicine. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive, epidemiological, observational study was developed from July to December 2006 including 44 Venezuelan Medicine students, from Giradot municipality, Aragua state, who referred having had sexual intercourse in the last semester of 2006. Results: Most of the students (77,3 % were females. More that half of them was between 20 and 29 years of age and 61, 4% admitting having knowledge about the different ways of infection. 255 recognized that every sexual orientation could be risky, with less percentage for females. All the surveyed persons agreed to through the test to identify the virus and only 2 of them (4, 5% referred not confidentiality. young males showed higher percentage of unprotected intercourse and couple stability. Conclusions: Results show that it is important to stress preventive activities to avoid HIV infection in male students and to raise their responsibility regarding safe sexual relations.
Rocca, Walter A; Bower, James H; Ahlskog, J Eric; Elbaz, Alexis; Grossardt, Brandon R; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Maraganore, Demetrius M
The evidence for increased risk of dementia in relatives of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) remains conflicting. To study the risk of cognitive impairment or dementia in first-degree relatives of patients with PD. We conducted a historical cohort study of 1019 first-degree relatives of 162 patients with PD and of 858 relatives of 147 matched controls representative of the population of Olmsted County, Minnesota. In addition, we studied 2716 first-degree relatives of 411 patients with PD referred to Mayo Clinic. We administered via telephone a cognitive test directly to relatives or a dementia questionnaire to proxies. For relatives reported by proxies to have dementia, we obtained copies of their medical records to confirm the diagnosis. We also obtained dementia information from a medical records-linkage system. In the overall population-based sample, the risk of cognitive impairment or dementia was increased in relatives of patients with PD compared with relatives of controls (hazard ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.81; P = .03) and was particularly increased in relatives of patients with onset of PD at age 66 years or younger (youngest tertile; hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.46; P = .003). The findings were consistent in several sensitivity analyses. In the referral-based sample, the risk of cognitive impairment or dementia in relatives increased with younger age at onset of PD but did not vary by other clinical characteristics. Cognitive impairment or dementia may share familial susceptibility factors with PD (genetic or nongenetic).
Xu, Yan-Wen; Cheng, Andy S K
This article is a case presentation of an onsite ergonomic assessment of the risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among three cooks working at a medium-sized Chinese restaurant in Hong Kong. The weight of workload was measured during the onsite assessment and the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System (OWAS), Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), and National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation used to assess the risk of WMSDs. The results showed that these cooks usually had to hold utensils for extended periods of time, toss woks, and barbecue meat, all of which demanded a lot of repetitive movements of the upper limbs. Future research is needed on the implementation of effective prevention measures, including administrative and ergonomic controls, to reduce the problems within this industry associated with such high-risk tasks.
Full Text Available Many epidemiology studies report that atopic conditions such as allergies are associated with reduced pancreas cancer risk. The reason for this relationship is not yet understood. This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate the association between variants in atopy-related candidate genes and pancreatic cancer risk.A population-based case-control study of pancreas cancer cases diagnosed during 2011-2012 (via Ontario Cancer Registry, and controls recruited using random digit dialing utilized DNA from 179 cases and 566 controls. Following an exhaustive literature review, SNPs in 180 candidate genes were pre-screened using dbGaP pancreas cancer GWAS data; 147 SNPs in 56 allergy-related immunologic genes were retained and genotyped. Logistic regression was used to estimate age-adjusted odd ratio (AOR for each variant and false discovery rate was used to adjust Wald p-values for multiple testing. Subsequently, a risk allele score was derived based on statistically significant variants.18 SNPs in 14 candidate genes (CSF2, DENND1B, DPP10, FLG, IL13, IL13RA2, LRP1B, NOD1, NPSR1, ORMDL3, RORA, STAT4, TLR6, TRA were significantly associated with pancreas cancer risk. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, two LRP1B SNPs remained statistically significant; for example, LRP1B rs1449477 (AA vs. CC: AOR=0.37, 95% CI: 0.22-0.62; p (adjusted=0.04. Furthermore, the risk allele score was associated with a significant reduction in pancreas cancer risk (p=0.0007.Preliminary findings suggest certain atopy-related variants may be associated with pancreas cancer risk. Further studies are needed to replicate this, and to elucidate the biology behind the growing body of epidemiologic evidence suggesting allergies may reduce pancreatic cancer risk.
Scher, Christine D; Ellwanger, Joel
This study builds upon current understanding of risk and protective factors for post-disaster adjustment by examining relationships between disaster-related cognitions, three empirically supported risk factors for poorer adjustment (i.e., greater disaster impact, female gender, and racial/ethnic minority status), and three common post-disaster outcomes (i.e., depression, anxiety, and somatic complaints). Participants were 200 students exposed to wildfire disaster. Simultaneous hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, during the acute stress period: (1) disaster-related cognitions in interaction with fire impact and minority status, as well as gender, were related to anxiety symptoms, (2) cognitions were related to depression symptoms, and (3) cognitions in interaction with minority status, as well as fire impact, were related to somatic symptoms. No examined variables predicted symptom change.
Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Brassard, Didier; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Côté, Julie Anne; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Desroches, Sophie; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît
The objective of this systematic review was to determine if dairy product consumption is detrimental, neutral, or beneficial to cardiovascular health and if the recommendation to consume reduced-fat as opposed to regular-fat dairy is evidence-based. A systematic review of meta-analyses of prospective population studies associating dairy consumption with cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes (T2D) was conducted on the basis of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Quality of evidence was rated by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation scale. High-quality evidence supports favorable associations between total dairy intake and hypertension risk and between low-fat dairy and yogurt intake and the risk of T2D. Moderate-quality evidence suggests favorable associations between intakes of total dairy, low-fat dairy, cheese, and fermented dairy and the risk of stroke; intakes of low-fat dairy and milk and the risk of hypertension; total dairy and milk consumption and the risk of MetS; and total dairy and cheese and the risk of T2D. High- to moderate-quality evidence supports neutral associations between the consumption of total dairy, cheese, and yogurt and CVD risk; the consumption of any form of dairy, except for fermented, and CAD risk; the consumption of regular- and high-fat dairy, milk, and yogurt and stroke risk; the consumption of regular- and high-fat dairy, cheese, yogurt, and fermented dairy and hypertension risk; and the consumption of regular- and high-fat dairy, milk, and fermented dairy and T2D risk. Data from this systematic review indicate that the consumption of various forms of dairy products shows either favorable or neutral associations with cardiovascular-related clinical outcomes. The review also emphasizes that further research is urgently needed to compare the impact of
José L Tella
Full Text Available Illegal trade constitutes a major threat for a variety of wildlife. A criminology framework has been recently applied to parrot poaching in Mexico, suggesting an opportunistic crime in which the most abundant and accessible species, and not the rare or highly priced species, were poached more often. We analyzed this information, together with additional long-term data (1981-2005 on both the legal and illegal trade of the 22 Mexican parrot species (n = 31,019 individuals, using multivariate statistics and hypothesis-testing approaches. Our results showed a selective capture of parrot species attending to their attractiveness. Parrot species widely differed in attractiveness to people (as reflected by their combined measures of body size, coloration, and ability to imitate human speech, and their attractiveness strongly correlated with their prices both in the Mexican and US markets. The most attractive and valuable species (amazons and macaws were disproportionally caught attending to the number of years they were legally trapped. Similar patterns were found for parrots poached for the domestic Mexican market, for those smuggled to the USA, and for those legally exported before or after 1992, when the USA ban led parrot exports to be mostly directed to European countries. Finally, the long-term cross-cultural preference for the most attractive species has led them to be among the most threatened species today. Since current parrot poaching mostly responds to local demand, socio-ecological work is needed to reverse the long-standing pet-keeping tradition that may decimate the most desired species in Neotropical countries.
Webster, Jennifer; Reiman, Eric M; Zismann, Victoria L; Joshipura, Keta D; Pearson, John V; Hu-Lince, Diane; Huentelman, Matthew J; Craig, David W; Coon, Keith D; Beach, Thomas; Rohrer, Kristen C; Zhao, Alice S; Leung, Doris; Bryden, Leslie; Marlowe, Lauren; Kaleem, Mona; Mastroeni, Diego; Grover, Andrew; Rogers, Joseph; Heun, Reinhard; Jessen, Frank; Kölsch, Heike; Heward, Christopher B; Ravid, Rivka; Hutton, Michael L; Melquist, Stacey; Petersen, Ron C; Caselli, Richard J; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stephan, Dietrich A; Hardy, John; Myers, Amanda
For late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), the only confirmed, genetic association is with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) locus on chromosome 19. Meta-analysis is often employed to sort the true associations from the false positives. LOAD research has the advantage of a continuously updated meta-analysis of candidate gene association studies in the web-based AlzGene database. The top 30 AlzGene loci on May 1(st), 2007 were investigated in our whole genome association data set consisting of 1411 LOAD cases and neuropathoiogicaiiy verified controls genotyped at 312,316 SNPs using the Affymetrix 500K Mapping Platform. Of the 30 "top AlzGenes", 32 SNPs in 24 genes had odds ratios (OR) whose 95% confidence intervals that did not include 1. Of these 32 SNPs, six were part of the Affymetrix 500K Mapping panel and another ten had proxies on the Affymetrix array that had >80% power to detect an association with α=0.001. Two of these 16 SNPs showed significant association with LOAD in our sample series. One was rs4420638 at the APOE locus (uncorrected p-value=4.58E-37) and the other was rs4293, located in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) locus (uncorrected p-value=0.014). Since this result was nominally significant, but did not survive multiple testing correction for 16 independent tests, this association at rs4293 was verified in a geographically distinct German cohort (p-value=0.03). We present the results of our ACE replication aiongwith a discussion of the statistical limitations of multiple test corrections in whole genome studies.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin K has been related to glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and diabetes. Because inflammation underlies all these metabolic conditions, it is plausible that the potential role of vitamin K in glucose metabolism occurs through the modulation of cytokines and related molecules. The purpose of the study was to assess the associations between dietary intake of vitamin K and peripheral adipokines and other metabolic risk markers related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments of these associations in 510 elderly participants recruited in the PREDIMED centers of Reus and Barcelona (Spain. We determined 1-year changes in dietary phylloquinone intake estimated by food frequency questionnaires, serum inflammatory cytokines and other metabolic risk markers. Results In the cross-sectional analysis at baseline no significant associations were found between dietary phylloquinone intake and the rest of metabolic risk markers evaluated, with exception of a negative association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. After 1-year of follow-up, subjects in the upper tertile of changes in dietary phylloquinone intake showed a greater reduction in ghrelin (−15.0%, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (−12.9%, glucagon-like peptide-1 (−17.6%, IL-6 (−27.9%, leptin (−10.3%, TNF (−26.9% and visfatin (−24.9% plasma concentrations than those in the lowest tertile (all p Conclusion These results show that dietary phylloquinone intake is associated with an improvement of cytokines and other markers related to insulin resistance and diabetes, thus extending the potential protection by dietary phylloquinone on chronic inflammatory diseases. Trial registration http://www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN35739639
Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, Boulder, CO.
The relation of veterinarian manpower of the WICHE (Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education) states to the veterinary medicine graduates of the WICHE student exchange programs (SEP) is presented. The states included in the WICHE program are Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. Tables…
Shaw Gary M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Folic acid taken in early pregnancy reduces risks for delivering offspring with several congenital anomalies. The mechanism by which folic acid reduces risk is unknown. Investigations into genetic variation that influences transport and metabolism of folate will help fill this data gap. We focused on 118 SNPs involved in folate transport and metabolism. Methods Using data from a California population-based registry, we investigated whether risks of spina bifida or conotruncal heart defects were influenced by 118 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with the complex folate pathway. This case-control study included 259 infants with spina bifida and a random sample of 359 nonmalformed control infants born during 1983–86 or 1994–95. It also included 214 infants with conotruncal heart defects born during 1983–86. Infant genotyping was performed blinded to case or control status using a designed SNPlex assay. We examined single SNP effects for each of the 118 SNPs, as well as haplotypes, for each of the two outcomes. Results Few odds ratios (ORs revealed sizable departures from 1.0. With respect to spina bifida, we observed ORs with 95% confidence intervals that did not include 1.0 for the following SNPs (heterozygous or homozygous relative to the reference genotype: BHMT (rs3733890 OR = 1.8 (1.1–3.1, CBS (rs2851391 OR = 2.0 (1.2–3.1; CBS (rs234713 OR = 2.9 (1.3–6.7; MTHFD1 (rs2236224 OR = 1.7 (1.1–2.7; MTHFD1 (hcv11462908 OR = 0.2 (0–0.9; MTHFD2 (rs702465 OR = 0.6 (0.4–0.9; MTHFD2 (rs7571842 OR = 0.6 (0.4–0.9; MTHFR (rs1801133 OR = 2.0 (1.2–3.1; MTRR (rs162036 OR = 3.0 (1.5–5.9; MTRR (rs10380 OR = 3.4 (1.6–7.1; MTRR (rs1801394 OR = 0.7 (0.5–0.9; MTRR (rs9332 OR = 2.7 (1.3–5.3; TYMS (rs2847149 OR = 2.2 (1.4–3.5; TYMS (rs1001761 OR = 2.4 (1.5–3.8; and TYMS (rs502396 OR = 2.1 (1.3–3.3. However, multiple SNPs observed for a given gene showed evidence of linkage disequilibrium indicating
Swartjes, F A
Exposure of humans to contaminants from contaminated land may result in many types of health damage ranging from relatively innocent symptoms such as skin eruption or nausea, on up to cancer or even death. Human health protection is generally considered as a major protection target. State-of-the-art possibilities and limitations of human health risk assessment tools are described in this paper. Human health risk assessment includes two different activities, i.e. the exposure assessment and the hazard assessment. The combination of these is called the risk characterization, which results in an appraisal of the contaminated land. Exposure assessment covers a smart combination of calculations, using exposure models, and measurements in contact media and body liquids and tissue (biomonitoring). Regarding the time frame represented by exposure estimates, biomonitoring generally relates to exposure history, measurements in contact media to actual exposures, while exposure calculations enable a focus on exposure in future situations. The hazard assessment, which is different for contaminants with or without a threshold for effects, results in a critical exposure value. Good human health risk assessment practice accounts for tiered approaches and multiple lines of evidence. Specific attention is given here to phenomena such as the time factor in human health risk assessment, suitability for the local situation, background exposure, combined exposure and harmonization of human health risk assessment tools.
Full Text Available Understanding the implications of different management strategies is necessary to identify best conservation trajectories for ecosystems exposed to anthropogenic stressors. For example, science-based risk assessments at large scales are needed to understand efficacy of different vector management approaches aimed at preventing biological invasions associated with commercial shipping. We conducted a landscape-scale analysis to examine the relative invasion risk of ballast water discharges among different shipping pathways (e.g., Transoceanic, Coastal or Domestic, ecosystems (e.g., freshwater, brackish and marine, and timescales (annual and per discharge event under current and future management regimes. The arrival and survival potential of nonindigenous species (NIS was estimated based on directional shipping networks and their associated propagule pressure, environmental similarity between donor-recipient ecosystems (based on salinity and temperature, and effects of current and future management strategies (i.e., ballast water exchange and treatment to meet proposed international biological discharge standards. Our findings show that current requirements for ballast water exchange effectively reduce invasion risk to freshwater ecosystems but are less protective of marine ecosystems because of greater environmental mismatch between source (oceanic and recipient (freshwater ecoregions. Future requirements for ballast water treatment are expected to reduce risk of zooplankton NIS introductions across ecosystem types but are expected to be less effective in reducing risk of phytoplankton NIS. This large-scale risk assessment across heterogeneous ecosystems represents a major step towards understanding the likelihood of invasion in relation to shipping networks, the relative efficacy of different invasion management regimes and seizing opportunities to reduce the ecological and economic implications of biological invasions.
Jefferson, Angela L.; Hohman, Timothy J.; Liu, Dandan; Haj-Hassan, Shereen; Gifford, Katherine A.; Benson, Elleena M.; Skinner, Jeannine S.; Lu, Zengqi; Sparling, Jamie; Sumner, Emily C.; Bell, Susan; Ruberg, Frederick L.
Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors are associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This association is less well-defined in normal cognition (NC) or prodromal AD (mild cognitive impairment (MCI)). Objective Cross-sectionally and longitudinally relate a vascular risk index to cognitive outcomes among elders free of clinical dementia. Methods 3117 MCI (74±8 years, 56% female) and 6603 NC participants (72±8 years, 68% female) were drawn from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center. A composite measure of vascular risk was defined using the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) score (i.e., age, systolic blood pressure, anti-hypertensive medication, diabetes, cigarette smoking, CVD history, atrial fibrillation). Ordinary linear regressions and generalized linear mixed models related baseline FSRP to cross-sectional and longitudinal cognitive outcomes, separately for NC and MCI, adjusting for age, sex, race, education, and follow-up time (in longitudinal models). Results In NC participants, increasing FSRP was related to worse baseline global cognition, information processing speed, and sequencing abilities (p-values<0.0001) and a worse longitudinal trajectory on all cognitive measures (p-values<0.0001). In MCI, increasing FSRP correlated with worse longitudinal delayed memory (p=0.004). In secondary models using an age-excluded FSRP score, associations persisted in NC participants for global cognition, naming, information processing speed, and sequencing abilities. Conclusions An adverse vascular risk profile is associated with worse cognitive trajectory, especially global cognition, naming, and information processing speed, among NC elders. Future studies are needed to understand how effective management of CVD and related risk factors can modify cognitive decline to identify the ideal timeframe for primary prevention implementation. PMID:25471188
Jacobs, Michelle M; Murray, Jacinta; Byrd, Desiree A; Hurd, Yasmin L; Morgello, Susan
It has been postulated that drugs of abuse act synergistically with HIV, leading to increased neurotoxicity and neurocognitive impairment. The CNS impacts of HIV and drug use converge on the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system, which contains two main receptor subtypes: dopamine receptors 1 (DRD1) and 2 (DRD2). DRD1 and DRD2 have been linked to substance dependence; whether they predict HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is unclear. Using an advanced-stage HIV+ population, we sought to determine if drug dependence impacts the contribution of DA receptor polymorphisms on neurocognition. We observed that both DRD1 and DRD2 polymorphisms were associated with opiate and cocaine dependence (P opiate and cocaine dependency. In the Motor domain, we observed an association for two DRD2 polymorphisms (P < 0.05) in Caucasian subjects. The effects differed for substance dependence groups as the direction of the correlations with DRD2 were opposite to what was seen in subjects without these dependencies. In African-American subjects, associations were observed in nearly every domain, and again, the direction of the correlation differed between substance-dependent and substance-independent groups. We conclude that studies to examine genetic risk for HAND must carefully account for substance dependence patterns when assaying dopaminergic systems, as the neurobiological substrates of cognition in HIV populations may vary with tonic alterations secondary to chronic substance exposures.
Shashaj, Blegina; Graziani, Maria P; Contoli, Benedetta; Ciuffo, Cristina; Cives, Claudia; Facciolini, Sandra; Rigoni, Maria L; Spaterna, Stefania; Taucci, Mauro; Raponi, Massimiliano; Manco, Melania
The obesity epidemic stems from the complex interplay between genetics and environmental factors. Identifying age-specific risk factors in preschoolers may allow implementing more effective intervention strategies. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the association of overweight/obesity with several perinatal, parental, socioeconomic status (SES), and lifestyle-related risk factors in a large sample of Italian preschoolers. One thousand eleven children (age 2.0 to 5.7 years) were included in the study. Family pediatricians measured weight and height and collected information on obesity risk factors by means of questionnaires. Perinatal risk factors were recalled from electronic medical records. Weight status was defined according to cutoffs of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Seven hundred sixty-four children (75.6%) were normal weight, and 247 (24.4%) were overweight/obese. Multivariate analysis showed that skipping breakfast (odds ratio [OR] = 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-10.51), daily drinking of sugar-sweetened beverages (OR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.02-4.03), meat consumption risk of obesity. Though exclusive formula or mixed feeding represents an age-specific risk factor for overweight/obesity, lifestyle factors associated with increased risk in Italian preschoolers include habits that are common to school-age children, such as skipping breakfast and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. The reduced consumption of meat emerged as a risk factor for overweight/obesity, but future research is required to better understand this relationship. Our data suggest, on the whole, that prevention of such unhealthy behaviors must be pursued in preschoolers by means of age-specific interventions.
de Luis, Daniel A; Ballesteros, María; Ruiz, Enrique; Muñoz, Carmen; Penacho, Angeles; Iglesias, Pedro; Guzmán, Antonio López; Abreu, Cristina; Maldonado, Alfonso; Delgado, Manuel; Martín, Lucía San; Puigdevall, Victor; Romero, Enrique; Sagrado, Manuel González; Izaola, Olatz; Conde, Rosa
Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the present study was to explore the relation of visfatin with insulin resistance, cardiovascular risk factors and anthropometry in obese patients without comorbidities. A population of 270 obese patients was analyzed in a prospective way. In all patients we performed a biochemical analysis (lipid profile, insulin, HOMA and visfatina), and a nutritional evaluation (dietary intake, conventional anthropometry and bioimpedance). Patients were divided in two groups by median visfatin value (8,32 ng/ml), group I (patients with the low values, average value 7,11 (0,7) ng/ml) and group II (patients with the high values, average value 13,5 (10,1) ng/ml). Patients in the group I had higher weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio than patients in group II. Patients in group I had lower LDL-cholesterol and C reactive protein than patients in group II. Correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between visfatin levels and LDL cholesterol (r=0.194; p<0.05) and C reactive protein (r=0.266; p<0.05) and a negative corelation with weight (r=-0.162; p<0.05). In the logistic analysis with age-, sex- and dietary intake- adjusted basal visfatin concentration as a dependent variable, the next variables remained in the model; weight with an odds ratio (OR) 0,97 (IC95% 0,95-0,99), LDL cholesterol 1,012(1,010-1.023) and C reactive protein 1,15 (1.03-1.3). LDL cholesterol and c reactive protein levels are positively correlated with visfatin levels. Weight is negatively correlated with visfatin levels, in an independent way and adjusted by age, sex and dietary intake. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Machado, Ísis Eloah; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier de; Ishitani, Lenice Harumi; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Carneiro, Mariangela; Mooney, Meghan; Naghavi, Mohsen
To analyze the global burden of disease related to disability adjusted life years (DALYs) attributed to selected risk factors in Brazil and its 27 Federated Units. Databases from the Global Burden of Disease study in Brazil and its Federated Units were used, estimating the summary exposure value (SEV) for selected environmental, behavioral, and metabolic risk factors (RFs), and their combinations. The DALYs were used as the main metric. The ranking of major RFs between 1990 and 2015 was compiled, comparing data by sex and states. The analyzed RFs account for 38.8% of the loss of DALYs in the country. Dietary risks was the main cause of DALYs in 2015. In men, dietary risks contributed to 12.2% of DALYs and in women, to 11.1%. Other RFs were high systolic blood pressure, high body mass index, smoking, high fasting plasma glucose and, among men, alcohol and drug use. The main RFs were metabolic and behavioral. In most states, dietary risks was the main RF, followed by high blood pressure. Dietary risks leads the RF ranking for Brazil and its Federated Units. Men are more exposed to behavioral risk factors, and women are more exposed to metabolic ones.
Luber George C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Extreme heat events are the number one cause of weather-related fatalities in the United States. The current system of alert for extreme heat events does not take into account intra-urban spatial variation in risk. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with estimates of land surface temperature derived from thermal remote sensing data. Results Comparison of logistic regression models indicates that supplementing known sociodemographic risk factors with remote sensing estimates of land surface temperature improves the delineation of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat events. Conclusion Thermal remote sensing data can be utilized to improve understanding of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat. The refinement of current risk assessment systems could increase the likelihood of survival during extreme heat events and assist emergency personnel in the delivery of vital resources during such disasters.
Full Text Available The nowadays accounting information user profile became more sophisticated and the financial reports face new challenges in accomplishing process to meet users’ needs. The purpose of financial reports is to provide useful information to users. According to International Accounting Standards Board, the utility of information is defined through the qualitative characteristics (fundamental and enhancing. The financial crisis emphasized the limits of financial reporting who has been unable to prevent investors about the risks they were facing. Some managers expressed reservations about the quality and relevance of corporate reporting, stating that the annual report is no longer a useful tool. Due to the current changes in business environment, managers have been highly motivated to rethink and improve the risk governance philosophy, processes and methodologies. The lack of quality, timely data and adequate systems to capture, report and measure the right information across the organization is a fundamental challenge to implementing and sustaining all aspects of effective risk management. Starting from 80s, the investors became more interested in narratives (Notes to financial statements, than in primary reports (financial position and performance. Our research suggests a framework for risk reporting with the main goal of improving the good practice in risk management field. Also, we will debate the relation between the qualitative characteristics of accounting information, transparency and risk, and explore the possibility of developing some good practices in risk reporting.
Full Text Available In this paper a qualitative methodology for the initial assessment of flood-related Na-Tech risk was developed as a screening tool to identify which situations require a much more expensive quantitative risk analysis (QRA. Through the definition of some suitable key hazard indicators (KHIs, the proposed methodology allows the identification of the Na-Tech risk level associated with a given situation; the analytical hierarchy process (AHP was used as a multi-criteria decision tool for the evaluation of such qualitative KHIs. The developed methodology was validated through two case studies by comparing the predicted risk levels with the results of much more detailed QRAs previously presented in literature and then applied to the real flood happened at Spolana a.s., Neratovice, Czech Republic in August 2002.
Michaels, Matthew S; Chu, Carol; Silva, Caroline; Schulman, Brittany E; Joiner, Thomas
Frequent advances in technology provide new and exciting opportunities for conducting suicide research and suicide risk assessments. However, to the authors' knowledge, best practices for using technology, specifically the Internet, to conduct research protocols involving suicide risk assessments have not been examined. In research contexts, the use of technology for research on suicidal behavior and suicide risk assessment can offer benefits relative to other forms of data collection. These advantages, which include increased validity, feasibility, and efficiency, as well as improvements in data collection and management, are presented. Considerations regarding the implementation of an online system for suicide risk assessment as well as limitations and future directions are discussed. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.
Perrodin, Yves; Babut, Marc; Bedell, Jean-Philippe; Bray, Marc; Clement, Bernard; Delolme, Cécile; Devaux, Alain; Durrieu, Claude; Garric, Jeanne; Montuelle, Bernard
The implementation of an ecological risk assessment framework is presented for dredged material deposits on soil close to a canal and groundwater, and tested with sediment samples from canals in northern France. This framework includes two steps: a simplified risk assessment based on contaminant concentrations and a detailed risk assessment based on toxicity bioassays and column leaching tests. The tested framework includes three related assumptions: (a) effects on plants (Lolium perenne L.), (b) effects on aquatic organisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Xenopus laevis) and (c) effects on groundwater contamination. Several exposure conditions were tested using standardised bioassays. According to the specific dredged material tested, the three assumptions were more or less discriminatory, soil and groundwater pollution being the most sensitive. Several aspects of the assessment procedure must now be improved, in particular assessment endpoint design for risks to ecosystems (e.g., integration of pollutant bioaccumulation), bioassay protocols and column leaching test design.
Egenvall, A; Tranquille, C A; Lönnell, A C; Bitschnau, C; Oomen, A; Hernlund, E; Montavon, S; Franko, M A; Murray, R C; Weishaupt, M A; Weeren, van R; Roepstorff, L; van Weeren, René
Orthopaedic, or other, injuries in sports medicine can be quantified using the 'days-lost to training' concept. Both the training regimen and the surface used in training and racing can affect the health of racehorses. Our aim was to associate 'days-lost to training' in elite-level show-jumpers to h
Ducro, B.J.; Koenen, E.P.C.; Tartwijk, van J.M.F.M.; Bovenhuis, H.
Genetic parameters for traits evaluated at the studbook entry inspection and genetic correlations with dressage and show-jumping performance in competition were estimated. Data comprised 36,649 Warmblood horses that entered the studbook between 1992 and 2002. The genetic analyses were performed usin
Plener, Paul L; Bubalo, Nikola; Fladung, Anne K; Ludolph, Andrea G; Lulé, Dorothée
Emotion-regulation difficulties have been identified as one of the core components in Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), a behaviour often beginning in adolescence. This pilot study evaluated differences in emotion processing between 18 female adolescents with and without NSSI by using verbal responses and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Responses to pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System and slides with reference to NSSI were recorded both by verbal rating of valence and arousal and by fMRI. The NSSI group rated pictures with self-injurious reference as significantly more arousing than controls. For emotional pictures, the NSSI group showed a significantly stronger brain response in the amygdala, hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally. Depression explained differences between groups in the limbic area. Furthermore, the NSSI group also showed increased activity in the middle orbitofrontal cortex, and inferior and middle frontal cortex when viewing NSSI picture material. Participants with NSSI showed decreased activity in correlation to arousal in the occipital cortex and to valence in inferior frontal cortex when watching emotional pictures. The fMRI data support the notion that individuals with NSSI show an altered neural pattern for emotional and NSSI pictures. Behavioural data highlight proneness to excitement regarding NSSI topics. This fMRI study provides evidence for emotion-regulation deficits in the developing brain of adolescents with NSSI.
Egenvall, A; Tranquille, C A; Lönnell, A C; Bitschnau, C; Oomen, A; Hernlund, E; Montavon, S; Franko, M A; Murray, R C; Weishaupt, M A; Weeren, van R; Roepstorff, L; van Weeren, René
Orthopaedic, or other, injuries in sports medicine can be quantified using the 'days-lost to training' concept. Both the training regimen and the surface used in training and racing can affect the health of racehorses. Our aim was to associate 'days-lost to training' in elite-level show-jumpers to
Michael B Walker
Full Text Available Arrangements of genes along chromosomes are a product of evolutionary processes, and we can expect that preferable arrangements will prevail over the span of evolutionary time, often being reflected in the non-random clustering of structurally and/or functionally related genes. Such non-random arrangements can arise by two distinct evolutionary processes: duplications of DNA sequences that give rise to clusters of genes sharing both sequence similarity and common sequence features and the migration together of genes related by function, but not by common descent. To provide a background for distinguishing between the two, which is important for future efforts to unravel the evolutionary processes involved, we here provide a description of the extent to which ancestrally related genes are found in proximity.Towards this purpose, we combined information from five genomic datasets, InterPro, SCOP, PANTHER, Ensembl protein families, and Ensembl gene paralogs. The results are provided in publicly available datasets (http://cgd.jax.org/datasets/clustering/paraclustering.shtml describing the extent to which ancestrally related genes are in proximity beyond what is expected by chance (i.e. form paraclusters in the human and nine other vertebrate genomes, as well as the D. melanogaster, C. elegans, A. thaliana, and S. cerevisiae genomes. With the exception of Saccharomyces, paraclusters are a common feature of the genomes we examined. In the human genome they are estimated to include at least 22% of all protein coding genes. Paraclusters are far more prevalent among some gene families than others, are highly species or clade specific and can evolve rapidly, sometimes in response to environmental cues. Altogether, they account for a large portion of the functional clustering previously reported in several genomes.
Rylander, Ragnar; Axelsson, Gösta
In a case-control study on lung cancer, risk was analysed in relation to smoking habits and frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption. Lung cancer cases in West Sweden and population controls were interviewed using a questionnaire where the frequency of consumption of dietary items and smoking habits were assessed. The material presented comprises 177 female and 359 male confirmed cases of lung cancer and 916 population controls. There was a dose-response relationship in regard to the number of cigarettes smoked and the number of years smoked, the latter factor being more important. After adjustment for number of cigarettes smoked/day and number of years smoked, the risk for those who seldom consumed vegetables was about twice of that among those who consumed vegetables frequently, both among nonsmokers, smokers and former smokers. This risk increase in relation to vegetable consumption also was present for different smoking categories. A similar tendency, although less pronounced, was found for fruit consumption. The results demonstrate that dietary factors are related to the risk for lung cancer, although smoking is the dominant risk factor.
Ozasa, K; Takahashi, I; Grant, E J
Risks of non-cancer outcomes after exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation have been evaluated among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort and its subcohort, the Adult Health Study (AHS). Information regarding non-cancer outcomes in the LSS is obtained from death certificates. In the AHS, members undergo clinical examinations biennially to determine their health status. Many AHS studies have been limited to participants attending the clinic over a limited period, and therefore have varying degrees of inferential utility; as such, care is required for comparison with the LSS results. Disease structure of non-cancer diseases in Japan has changed over the long follow-up period since the end of World War II. The health status of the A-bomb survivors may be associated with the hardships of living in a devastated city and impoverished country following the prolonged war effort, in addition to the direct effects of radiation exposure. Radiation-related risk of cardiovascular disease may have increased due to radiation-related increased risk of hypertension and other secondary associations, and the risk of atherosclerotic disorders has also been reported recently. These results should be interpreted with caution because of changes in disease definitions over the follow-up period. The radiation-related risk of non-cancer respiratory diseases also appears to have increased over the follow-up period, but the shapes of the dose-response curves have shown little consistency. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics.
Czapla, Marta; Baeuchl, Christian; Simon, Joe J; Richter, Barbara; Kluge, Matthias; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Mann, Karl; Herpertz, Sabine C; Loeber, Sabine
Alcohol dependence is associated with impaired response inhibition and heightened cue reactivity towards alcohol-related stimuli. Several brain areas, but mainly prefrontal structures, have been linked to response inhibition in addiction. This study aimed at combining both aspects: salience of drug-associated cues and response inhibition using a go/no-go task with alcohol-associated stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen abstinent alcohol-dependent patients (ADP) and 21 healthy control subjects (HC) were compared on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses during successful inhibition of no-go stimuli and successful reactions to go stimuli. ADP and HC did not significantly differ in their behavioural performance in the task. However, both groups performed worse during the inhibition of alcoholic-associated stimuli compared to neutral stimuli. On the neural level, ADP displayed enhanced BOLD activity relative to HC during successful response inhibition in several areas involved in visual processing, cognitive and impulse control, including occipital structures, anterior cingulate gyrus, medial frontal gyrus and medial orbitofrontal cortex. We interpret these findings as a possible compensation strategy for impaired cognitive processing. Furthermore, the results underline the impact of salience of alcohol-related stimuli on response inhibition, which seems to affect both ADP and HC.
Lee, James Chun-I; Tsai, Li-Chin; Chu, Pao-Ching; Lin, Yen-Yang; Lin, Chun-Yen; Huang, Tsun-Ying; Yu, Yu-Jen; Linacre, Adrian; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei
To investigate the potential of false inclusion of a close genetic relative in paternity testing by using computer generated families. 10000 computer-simulated families over three generations were generated based on genotypes using 15 short tandem repeat loci. These data were used in assessing the probability of inclusion or exclusion of paternity when the father is actually a sibling, grandparent, uncle, half sibling, cousin, or a random male. Further, we considered a duo case where the mother's DNA type was not available and a trio case including the mother's profile. The data showed that the duo scenario had the highest and lowest false inclusion rates when considering a sibling (19.03 ± 0.77%) and a cousin (0.51 ± 0.14%) as the father, respectively; and the rate when considering a random male was much lower (0.04 ± 0.04%). The situation altered slightly with a trio case where the highest rate (0.56 ± 0.15%) occurred when a paternal uncle was considered as the father, and the lowest rate (0.03 ± 0.03%) occurred when a cousin was considered as the father. We also report on the distribution of the numbers for non-conformity (non-matching loci) where the father is a close genetic relative. The results highlight the risk of false inclusion in parentage testing. These data provide a valuable reference when incorporating either a mutation in the father's DNA type or if a close relative is included as being the father; particularly when there are varying numbers of non-matching loci.
In most episodes of health complaints reported in office buildings in the last-twenty years, causal factors have not been identified. In order to assess risk factors for work-related symptoms in office workers, a reanalysis was performed of previous studies, and an epidemiologic study was conducted. The reanalysis of data, showed remarkable agreement among studies. Air-conditioned buildings were consistently associated with higher prevalence of headache, lethargy, and eye, nose, or throat problems. Humidification was not a necessary factor for this higher prevalence. Mechanical ventilation without air-conditioning was not associated with higher symptom prevalence. A study was conducted among 880 office workers, within 12 office buildings selected without regard to worker complaints, in northern California. A number of factors were found associated with prevalence of work-related symptoms, after adjustment in a logistic regression model for personal, psychosocial, job, workspace, and building factors. Two different ventilation types were associated with increases Ln symptom prevalence, relative to workers in naturally ventilated buildings: mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation, without air conditioning and with operable windows; and air-conditioning with sealed windows. No study buildings were humidified. In both these ventilation types, the highest odds ratios (ORs) found were for skin symptoms (ORs-5.0, 5.6) and for tight chest or difficulty breathing (ORs-3.6, 4.3). Use of carbonless copies or photocopiers, sharing a workspace, carpets, new carpets, new walls, and distance from a window were associated with symptom increases. Cloth partitions and new paint were associated with symptom decreases.
da Cunha, Patrícia Amorim; de Carlos Back, Lia Kubelka; Sereia, Aline Fernanda Rodrigues; Kubelka, Clara; Ribeiro, Maria Cecíia Menks; Fernandes, Bráulio Leal; de Souza, Ilíada Rainha
Breast cancer (BC) is a complex disease and obesity is a well-known risk factor for its development, especially after menopause. Several studies have shown Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) linked to overweight and obesity, such as: rs1121980 (T/C) and rs9939609 (A/T) in Fat Mass and Obesity Associated gene (FTO) and rs17782313 (T/C) in Melanocortin 4 Receptor gene (MC4R). Thus, we aimed to investigate the association between these obesity-related SNPs and BC risk. One hundred BC patients and 148 healthy women from Santa Catarina, Brazil entered the study. SNPs were genotyped using Taqman assays. For statistical analyses SNPStats and SPSS softwares were used. Association analyses were performed by logistic regression and were adjusted for age and Body mass index (BMI). Multiple SNPs inheritance models (log-additive, dominant, recessive, codominant) were performed to determine odds ratios (ORs), assuming 95 % confidence interval (CI) and P value = 0.05 as the significance limit. When analyzed alone, FTO rs1121980 and rs9939609 did not show significant associations with BC development, however MC4R rs17782313 showed increased risk for BC even after adjustments (P-value = 0.032). Interestingly, the interaction of FTO and MC4R polymorphisms showed a powerful association with BC. We observed a 4.59-fold increased risk for woman who have the allele combination C/T/C (FTO rs1121980/FTO rs9939609/MC4R rs17782313) (P-value = 0.0011, adjusted for age and BMI). We found important and unpublished associations between these obesity-related genes and BC risk. These associations seem to be independent of their effect on BMI, indicating a direct role of the interaction between FTO and MC4R polymorphisms in BC development.
Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Brzyski, Piotr; Brzyska, Monika
Violence against older people remains a taboo topic in Poland, and is still an under-recognized phenomenon. The aim of this study was to examine the risk of different types of domestic violence in older people in relation to their health-related quality of life as measured by chronic conditions, functional limitations, psychological well-being, depressive symptoms and feelings of social isolation. A cross-sectional study using a standardized questionnaire in a simple random sample of 518 older citizens of Krakow was carried out. A multidimensional logistic regression of data showed that such factors as poor assessment of psychological health, number of chronic conditions, suffering from emotional and social loneliness and lack of social support in everyday life significantly increased the risk of being a victim of domestic violence in older citizens of Krakow.
Tong, Yongsheng; Phillips, Michael R; Duberstein, Paul; Zhan, Weihai
The prevalence and odds ratios of different suicide risk factors were compared in three pairs of decedents: 80 suicides and 25 injury decedents with blood relatives with suicidal behavior history (biologically exposed); 259 suicides and 126 injury decedents with unrelated acquaintances with suicidal behavior history (socially exposed); and 471 suicides and 523 injury decedents with neither relatives nor acquaintances with suicidal behavior history (unexposed). Negative life events and high psychological stress were more common in socially exposed suicides than in other suicides. The adjusted odds ratios of most established suicide risk factors were higher in unexposed decedents than in biologically or socially exposed decedents, suggesting that the predictive value of established risk factors wanes in individuals who have been exposed to suicidal behavior in family or friends.
... SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Causes of Infant Death Page Content Research shows that there are several ... SIDS and other sleep-related causes of infant death: The actions listed here and in Safe to ...
Li, Yulin; Ambrosone, Christine B; McCullough, Marjorie J; Ahn, Jiyoung; Stevens, Victoria L; Thun, Michael J; Hong, Chi-Chen
Dietary antioxidants may interact with endogenous sources of pro- and antioxidants to impact breast cancer risk. A nested case-control study of postmenopausal women (505 cases and 502 controls) from the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort was conducted to examine the interaction between oxidative stress-related genes and level of vegetable and fruit intake on breast cancer risk. Genetic variations in catalase (CAT) (C-262T), myeloperoxidase (MPO) (G-463A), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) (G894T) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) [(GT)(n) dinucleotide length polymorphism] were not associated with breast cancer risk. Women carrying the low-risk CAT CC [odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-1.11], NOS3 TT (OR = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.26-1.12, P-trend = 0.10) or HO-1 S allele and MM genotype (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.37-0.55), however, were found to be at non-significantly reduced breast cancer risk among those with high vegetable and fruit intake (> or = median; P-interactions = 0.04 for CAT, P = 0.005 for NOS3 and P = 0.07 for HO-1). Furthermore, those with > or = 4 putative low-risk alleles in total had significantly reduced risk (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32-0.88, P-interaction = 0.006) compared with those with fruit intake ( or = 4 low-risk alleles compared with participants with < or = 2 low-risk alleles (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.05-2.99, P-interaction = 0.006). Our results support the hypothesis that there are joint effects of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants.
Kabat, Geoffrey C; Kim, Mimi Y; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Rohan, Thomas E
Few cohort studies have examined smoking and alcohol consumption in relation to risk of thyroid cancer, and their findings are conflicting. We therefore assessed the association of smoking and alcohol intake with risk of thyroid cancer in a cohort of 159,340 women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative. Over 12.7 years of follow-up 331 cases of thyroid cancer, of which 276 were papillary thyroid cancer, were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared to never smokers, ever smokers did not have altered risk. Current smokers had reduced risk for all thyroid cancer (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.29-1.00) and for papillary thyroid cancer (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.78); however, the number of current smokers among cases was small. No associations or trends were seen for amount smoked, age of starting smoking, or age at quitting. Smokers of ≥40 pack-years had a significantly reduced risk of papillary thyroid cancer (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21-0.89). In contrast, women who had smoked for < 20 years had increased risk of thyroid cancer (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.05-1.74) and papillary cancer (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.09-1.89). Alcohol intake was not associated with risk. Our findings suggest that current smoking and having higher pack-years of exposure are associated with a modestly reduced risk of thyroid cancer, whereas alcohol consumption does not appear to affect risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bartlett, Linda A; Berg, Cynthia J; Shulman, Holly B; Zane, Suzanne B; Green, Clarice A; Whitehead, Sara; Atrash, Hani K
To assess risk factors for legal induced abortion-related deaths. This is a descriptive epidemiologic study of women dying of complications of induced abortions. Numerator data are from the Abortion Mortality Surveillance System. Denominator data are from the Abortion Surveillance System, which monitors the number and characteristics of women who have legal induced abortions in the United States. Risk factors examined include age of the woman, gestational length of pregnancy at the time of termination, race, and procedure. Main outcome measures include crude, adjusted, and risk factor-specific mortality rates. During 1988-1997, the overall death rate for women obtaining legally induced abortions was 0.7 per 100000 legal induced abortions. The risk of death increased exponentially by 38% for each additional week of gestation. Compared with women whose abortions were performed at or before 8 weeks of gestation, women whose abortions were performed in the second trimester were significantly more likely to die of abortion-related causes. The relative risk (unadjusted) of abortion-related mortality was 14.7 at 13-15 weeks of gestation (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.2, 34.7), 29.5 at 16-20 weeks (95% CI 12.9, 67.4), and 76.6 at or after 21 weeks (95% CI 32.5, 180.8). Up to 87% of deaths in women who chose to terminate their pregnancies after 8 weeks of gestation may have been avoidable if these women had accessed abortion services before 8 weeks of gestation. Although primary prevention of unintended pregnancy is optimal, among women who choose to terminate their pregnancies, increased access to surgical and nonsurgical abortion services may increase the proportion of abortions performed at lower-risk, early gestational ages and help further decrease deaths. II-2
Frisina, Robert D; Singh, Ameet; Bak, Matthew; Bozorg, Sara; Seth, Rahul; Zhu, Xiaoxia
Age-related hearing loss - presbycusis - is the most common communication problem and third most prevalent chronic medical disorder of the aged. The CBA and C57BL/6 mouse strains are useful for studying features of presbycusis. The CBA loses its hearing slowly, like most humans. Because the C57 develops a rapid, high frequency hearing loss by middle age, it has an "old" ear but a relatively young brain, a model that helps separate peripheral (cochlear) from central (brain) etiologies. This field of sensory neuroscience lacks a good mouse model for the 5-10% of aged humans with normal cochlear sensitivity, but who have trouble perceiving speech in background noise. We hypothesized that F1 (CBA×C57) hybrids would have better hearing than either parental strain. Measurements of peripheral auditory sensitivity supported this hypothesis, however, a rapid decline in the auditory efferent feedback system, did not. Therefore, F1s might be an optimal model for studying cases where the peripheral hearing is quite good in old age; thereby allowing isolation of central auditory changes due to brain neurodegeneration.
The aim of this thesis is to determine which work related physical and psychosocial risk factors exist which cause neck pain and absenteeism because of neck pain. There is some evidence for a positive relationship between he duration of sedentary posture at work and neck pain, and between twisting o
Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene
Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…
van Doormaal, J.E.; Rommers, M.K.; Kosterink, J.G.; Teepe-Twiss, I.M.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.; Mol, P.G.
Background With the introduction of Computerised Physician Order Entry (CPOE) in routine hospital care, a great deal of effort has been put into refining Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) to identify patients at risk of preventable medication-related harm. Objectives This study compared a CPO
... individuals and small businesses the same purchasing power as big businesses. The Departments of Health and... part of letter campaigns related to women's and mental health services, or were general comments on the... make fair enrollee risk comparison between excepted benefit plans and major medical plans difficult. We...
Afzal, Shoaib; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G
Tobacco smoke chemicals may influence vitamin D metabolism and function, and conversely vitamin D may modify the carcinogenicity of tobacco smoke chemicals. We tested the hypothesis that lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is associated with a higher risk of tobacco-related cancer...
This study the author aims to explore the perceptions of doulas on single mothers' risk and protective factors, and aspirations relative to child-birth in the postpartum care. The current study was conducted by semi-structured questions, case file reviews, field notes, and twelve home visits via utilizing Grounded Theory. These mothers receive…
Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene
Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…
Breitenbecher, Kimberly Hanson
The primary purpose of this investigation was to assess the convergent validities of two measures of dating behaviors related to risk for sexual victimization, the Dating Self-Protection Against Rape Scale (DSPARS) and the Dating Behavior Survey (DBS). Three hundred seventy-seven women responded to measures assessing self-protective dating…
... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards... ] entitled, ``Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors... section 553(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). However, we can waive...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Central venous catheters (CVC are used in the treatment of critically ill patients. Indications for placement of CVCs include hemodynamic monitoring, administration of intravenous fluids, medications and total parenteral nutrition. MATERIAL AND METHODS We investigated risk factors and effects of glycopeptide antibiotics on the development of central venous catheter-related infections in 300 patients treated in intensive care units. A semiquntitative culture technique was used. The investigation included: age, diagnosis on admission, catheter insertion site, catheter duration, the first or next catheter and using of glycopeptide drugs. RESULTS 91 catheters (30.3% were colonised, catheter-related infection was found in 50 catheters (16.7%. Infections were more frequent in catheters inserted through the internal jugular vein than in subclavian venous catheters; they were also more frequent if duration of catheterization was longer than seven days, but less frequent in patients who received glycopeptide antibiotics. The isolated microorganism was Staphylococcus aureus. DISCUSSION According to the literature, a number of catheter-related risk factors for infections include: insertion site, type of catheter, the number of manipulations, inadequat asepsis, lumen number, type of antiseptic. The relative importance of one risk factor over another is difficult to assess, given that studies have no priority report. CONCLUSION The duration of catheterization and the insertion site were the most frequent risk factors for infection. The use of glycopeptide antibiotics during catheterization has protective effects.
Struijk, E.A.; Heraclides, A.; Witte, D.R.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Toft, U.; Lau, C.J.
Background and aim A high intake of dairy has been linked to lower risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The relationship between dairy intake and glucose metabolism is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the intake of total dairy and dairy subgroups and