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Sample records for relative reproductive rate

  1. Survival and reproductive rate of mites in relation to resistance of their barn swallow hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P

    2000-08-01

    Parasite resistance may act via a number of different mechanisms that regulate or control the survival and the reproductive rate of parasites. Observations and experiments were used to test for effects of host resistance on parasite survival and rate of reproduction. Natural levels of infestation of barn swallow Hirundo rustica nests by the tropical fowl mite Ornithonyssus bursa were positively related to brood size, inversely related to the length of the outermost tail feathers of male nest owners (a secondary sexual character) and affected by time of reproduction by the host. A mite inoculation experiment, in which 50 adult mites were introduced into nests during the laying period of the host, was used to test for differential survival and reproduction of mites as a function of host resistance. The relationship between survival and reproduction of parasites, male tail length and host resistance was investigated. There was a negative relationship between mite numbers per nest after fledging of nestlings and male tail length. This relationship was mainly caused by a reduction in the number of mites in the first and second nymph stage with increasing tail length of male hosts, implying a reduction in rate of reproduction of mites. The proportion of mites that had recently fed was inversely related to tail length of male hosts. The proportion of nymph stages was positively related to the proportion of mites that had recently had a blood meal. Parasite resistance of barn swallows to the tropical fowl mite thus appeared to act through increased mortality rate of adult and nymph stages of mites, and through reduced reproductive rates of mites on resistant hosts. This is the first study demonstating a direct relationship between fitness components of a parasite and the expression of a secondary sexual character of a host.

  2. Female song rates in response to simulated intruder are positively related to reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E Cain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is well studied in males as a sexually selected behavior. However, although song is also common among females, it is infrequently examined and poorly understood. Research suggests that song is often used as a resource defense behavior and is important in female-female competition for limited resources, e.g. mates and territories. If so, song should be positively related to fitness and related to other resource defense behaviors, but this possibility has rarely been explored. Here we examine fitness estimates in relation to spontaneous song rates and song rates in response to a simulated intruder (playback, in the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus, a cooperatively breeding songbird. We also determine how song rates relate to other territorial defense behaviors. Song rate in response to playback, but not spontaneous song rate, was positively related to nest success and the number of fledglings produced by successful females. Further, response song rate was also correlated with other territorial defense behaviors (latency to respond and flights. This evidence supports the hypothesis that female song may be used in the context of female-female competition to improve access to limited reproductive resources, and suggests that song may provide direct fitness benefits.

  3. Genetic parameters for reproduction rate in the Tygerhoek Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1986-02-13

    Feb 13, 1986 ... Keywords: Paternal halfslb heritability, reproduction rate, Merino sheep. Part of an M.Sc.(Agric.) thesis submitted to the University of Stellenbosch. Introduction. Reproduction rate markedly affect selection intensity and therefore also the genetic progress and the number of surplus lambs available in sheep ...

  4. The repeatability of reproduction rate in the Tygerboek Merino Dock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The repeatability of reproduction rate at 2 years or up to 3 years of age was investigated by regression methods considering subsequent reproduction ... would not improve Lb/Em in the current flock sUbstantially, whereas the proportion of ewes bearing multiples at 2 years was too low to supply replacement requirements.

  5. Allocation to reproduction and relative reproductive costs in two species of dioecious Anacardiaceae with contrasting phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Shuhei; Sakimoto, Michinori

    2008-06-01

    The cost of reproduction in dioecious plants is often female-biased. However, several studies have reported no difference in costs of reproduction between the sexes. In this study, the relative reproductive allocation and costs at the shoot and whole-plant levels were examined in woody dioecious Rhus javanica and R. trichocarpa, in order to examine differences between types of phenophase (i.e. physiological stage of development). Male and female Rhus javanica and R. trichocarpa were sampled and the reproductive and vegetative allocation of the shoot were estimated by harvesting reproductive current-year shoots during flowering and fruiting. Measurements were made of the number of reproductive and total current-year shoots per whole plant, and of the basal area increment (BAI). The numbers of reproductive and total current-year shoots per 1-year-old shoot were counted in order to examine the costs in the following year at the shoot level. A female-biased annual reproductive allocation was found; however, the ratio of reproductive current-year shoots per tree and the BAI did not differ between sexes in Rhus javanica and R. trichocarpa. The percentage of 1-year-old shoots with at least one reproductive current-year shoot was significantly male-biased in R. trichocarpa, but not in R. javanica, indicating that there was a relative cost at the shoot level only in R. trichocarpa. The female-biased leaf mass per shoot, an indicator of compensation for costs, was only found in R. javanica. Relative reproductive costs at the shoot level were detected in Rhus trichocarpa, which has simultaneous leafing and flowering, but not in R. javanica, which has leafing followed by flowering. However, the costs for the whole-plant level were diminished in both species. The results suggest that the phenophase type may produce the different costs for R. javanica and R. trichocarpa through the development of a compensation mechanism.

  6. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in women with schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Ninna H; Assens, Maria; Hougaard, Charlotte O

    2014-01-01

    To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders.......To determine the prevalence rate of women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or related psychotic disorder in assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and to study these women's fertility treatment outcome in comparison to women with no psychotic disorders....

  7. Gender relations and women's reproductive health in South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kane, Sumit; Rial, Matilda; Matere, Anthony; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Kok, Maryse

    2016-01-01

    Background: In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design: A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among

  8. Variability in ejaculation rate and libido of boars during reproductive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    You

    2015-08-29

    Aug 29, 2015 ... knowledge of the impact of sexual behaviour on the reproductive performance ... (bad microclimate, fattening conditions, exposure to stress, .... effect of the interval between two successful collections squared; β2(xijklm - xˉ):.

  9. A highly infective plant-associated bacterium influences reproductive rates in pea aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Tory A; Clark, Kelley J; Baltrus, David A

    2016-02-01

    Pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, have the potential to increase reproduction as a defence against pathogens, though how frequently this occurs or how infection with live pathogens influences this response is not well understood. Here we determine the minimum infective dose of an environmentally common bacterium and possible aphid pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, to determine the likelihood of pathogenic effects to pea aphids. Additionally, we used P. syringae infection to investigate how live pathogens may alter reproductive rates. We found that oral bacterial exposure decreased subsequent survival of aphids in a dose-dependent manner and we estimate that ingestion of less than 10 bacterial cells is sufficient to increase aphid mortality. Pathogen dose was positively related to aphid reproduction. Aphids exposed to low bacterial doses showed decreased, although statistically indistinguishable, fecundity compared to controls. Aphids exposed to high doses reproduced significantly more than low dose treatments and also more, but not significantly so, than controls. These results are consistent with previous studies suggesting that pea aphids may use fecundity compensation as a response to pathogens. Consequently, even low levels of exposure to a common plant-associated bacterium may therefore have significant effects on pea aphid survival and reproduction.

  10. A highly infective plant-associated bacterium influences reproductive rates in pea aphids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Tory A.; Clark, Kelley J.; Baltrus, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, have the potential to increase reproduction as a defence against pathogens, though how frequently this occurs or how infection with live pathogens influences this response is not well understood. Here we determine the minimum infective dose of an environmentally common bacterium and possible aphid pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, to determine the likelihood of pathogenic effects to pea aphids. Additionally, we used P. syringae infection to investigate how live pathogens may alter reproductive rates. We found that oral bacterial exposure decreased subsequent survival of aphids in a dose-dependent manner and we estimate that ingestion of less than 10 bacterial cells is sufficient to increase aphid mortality. Pathogen dose was positively related to aphid reproduction. Aphids exposed to low bacterial doses showed decreased, although statistically indistinguishable, fecundity compared to controls. Aphids exposed to high doses reproduced significantly more than low dose treatments and also more, but not significantly so, than controls. These results are consistent with previous studies suggesting that pea aphids may use fecundity compensation as a response to pathogens. Consequently, even low levels of exposure to a common plant-associated bacterium may therefore have significant effects on pea aphid survival and reproduction. PMID:26998321

  11. Gender relations and women's reproductive health in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kane

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design: A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among the Fertit people affect women's ability to exercise control over their reproductive lives and thereby their sexual and reproductive health. Transcripts of 5 focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel were analyzed using Connell's relational theory of gender. Results: Women across all age groups report that they have little choice but to meet the childbearing demands of husbands and their families. Women, both young and old, and also elders, are frustrated about how men and society are letting them down and how they are left to bear the reproductive burden. The poverty and chronic insecurity in South Sudan mean that many men have few sources of pride and achievement; conformity and complicity with the hegemonic practices accord both security and a sense of belonging and privilege to men, often at the expense of women's reproductive health. Conclusions: Inequalities in the domestic, social, and economic spheres intersect to create social situations wherein Fertit women's agency in the reproductive realm is constrained. In South Sudan, as long as economic and social opportunities for women remain restricted, and as long as insecurity and uncertainty remain, many women will have little choice but to resort to having many children to safeguard their fragile present and future. Unless structural measures are taken to address these inequalities, there is a risk of both a widening of existing health inequalities and the emergence of new inequalities.

  12. Gender relations and women's reproductive health in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Sumit; Rial, Matilda; Matere, Anthony; Dieleman, Marjolein; Broerse, Jacqueline E.W.; Kok, Maryse

    2016-01-01

    Background In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among the Fertit people affect women's ability to exercise control over their reproductive lives and thereby their sexual and reproductive health. Transcripts of 5 focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel were analyzed using Connell's relational theory of gender. Results Women across all age groups report that they have little choice but to meet the childbearing demands of husbands and their families. Women, both young and old, and also elders, are frustrated about how men and society are letting them down and how they are left to bear the reproductive burden. The poverty and chronic insecurity in South Sudan mean that many men have few sources of pride and achievement; conformity and complicity with the hegemonic practices accord both security and a sense of belonging and privilege to men, often at the expense of women's reproductive health. Conclusions Inequalities in the domestic, social, and economic spheres intersect to create social situations wherein Fertit women's agency in the reproductive realm is constrained. In South Sudan, as long as economic and social opportunities for women remain restricted, and as long as insecurity and uncertainty remain, many women will have little choice but to resort to having many children to safeguard their fragile present and future. Unless structural measures are taken to address these inequalities, there is a risk of both a widening of existing health inequalities and the emergence of new inequalities. PMID:27900934

  13. Generation time, net reproductive rate, and growth in stage-age-structured populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2014-01-01

    examples to show how reproductive timing Tc and level R0 are shaped by stage dynamics (individual trait changes), selection on the trait, and parent-offspring phenotypic correlation. We also show how population structure can affect dispersion in reproduction among ages and stages. These macroscopic...... to age-structured populations. Here we generalize this result to populations structured by stage and age by providing a new, unique measure of reproductive timing (Tc) that, along with net reproductive rate (R0), has a direct mathematical relationship to and approximates growth rate (r). We use simple...

  14. Age-related changes in somatic condition and reproduction in the Eurasian beaver: Resource history influences onset of reproductive senescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruairidh D Campbell

    Full Text Available Using 15 years of data from a stable population of wild Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber, we examine how annual and lifetime access to food resources affect individual age-related changes in reproduction and somatic condition. We found an age-related decline in annual maternal reproductive output, after a peak at age 5-6. Rainfall, an established negative proxy of annual resource availability for beavers, was consistently associated with lower reproductive output for females of all ages. In contrast, breeding territory quality, as a measure of local resource history over reproductive lifetimes, caused differences in individual patterns of reproductive senescence; animals from lower quality territories senesced when younger. Litter size was unrelated to maternal age, although adult body weight increased with age. In terms of resource effects, in poorer years but not in better years, older mothers produced larger offspring than did younger mothers, giving support to the constraint theory. Overall, our findings exemplify state-dependent life-history strategies, supporting an effect of resources on reproductive senescence, where cumulative differences in resource access, and not just reproductive strategy, mediate long-term reproductive trade-offs, consistent with the disposable soma and reproductive restraint theories. We propose that flexible life-history schedules could play a role in the dynamics of populations exhibiting reproductive skew, with earlier breeding opportunities leading to an earlier senescence schedule through resource dependent mechanisms.

  15. Surrogate obesity negatively impacts pregnancy rates in third-party reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeUgarte, Daniel A; DeUgarte, Catherine M; Sahakian, Vicken

    2010-02-01

    In a retrospective cohort review of third-party reproduction, we observed that surrogate body mass index (BMI) negatively impacts implantation rates in oocyte-donor in vitro fertilization cycles. A BMI > or =35 kg/m(2) cutoff is associated with a statistically significant decrease in pregnancy rates but not miscarriage rates. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of reproductive disorders on productivity and reproductive efficiency of dromedary she-camels in relation to cytokine concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Malky, O M; Mostafa, T H; Abd El-Salaam, A M; Ayyat, M S

    2018-06-01

    between both groups. Reproductive traits, including length of estrous cycle, duration of estrous period, number of services/conception, gestation period, days open, and conception rate, were higher (P < 0.05) in G 1 than in G 2 . From the present study can be concluded that pro-inflammatory cytokines may be a necessary test for the early diagnosis to prevent related disease in dromedary camels suffering from reproductive disorders. This study indicated strong relationship between hematological parameters and concentration of blood biochemicals and cytokines with reproductive efficiency in camels, which may be helpful in elucidating the adverse effects associated with reproductive disorders.

  17. Relative effects of survival and reproduction on the population dynamics of emperor geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Joel A.; Rockwell, Robert F.; Petersen, Margaret R.

    1997-01-01

    Populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska declined sometime between the mid-1960s and the mid-1980s and have increased little since. To promote recovery of this species to former levels, managers need to know how much their perturbations of survival and/or reproduction would affect population growth rate (λ). We constructed an individual-based population model to evaluate the relative effect of altering mean values of various survival and reproductive parameters on λ and fall age structure (AS, defined as the proportion of juv), assuming additive rather than compensatory relations among parameters. Altering survival of adults had markedly greater relative effects on λ than did equally proportionate changes in either juvenile survival or reproductive parameters. We found the opposite pattern for relative effects on AS. Due to concerns about bias in the initial parameter estimates used in our model, we used 5 additional sets of parameter estimates with this model structure. We found that estimates of survival based on aerial survey data gathered each fall resulted in models that corresponded more closely to independent estimates of λ than did models that used mark-recapture estimates of survival. This disparity suggests that mark-recapture estimates of survival are biased low. To further explore how parameter estimates affected estimates of λ, we used values of survival and reproduction found in other goose species, and we examined the effect of an hypothesized correlation between an individual's clutch size and the subsequent survival of her young. The rank order of parameters in their relative effects on λ was consistent for all 6 parameter sets we examined. The observed variation in relative effects on λ among the 6 parameter sets is indicative of how relative effects on λ may vary among goose populations. With this knowledge of the relative effects of survival and reproductive parameters on λ, managers can make more informed decisions about

  18. Diet composition and provisioning rates of nestlings determine reproductive success in a subtropical seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Juliet S.; Jodice, Patrick G. R.; Satgé, Yvan G.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how both quality and quantity of prey affect the population dynamics of marine predators is a crucial step toward predicting the effects of environmental perturbations on population-level processes. The Junk Food Hypothesis, which posits that energetic content of prey species may influence reproductive capacity of marine top predators regardless of prey availability, has been proposed as a mechanism by which changes in prey populations could affect predator populations in high latitude systems; however, support for this hypothesis has been inconsistent across studies, and further data are needed to elucidate variation in the relative importance of prey quantity and quality, both among predator species and across ecological systems. We tested the relative importance of prey quantity and quality to nestling survival in the eastern brown pelican Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis across 9 breeding colonies in the northern Gulf of Mexico that varied in underlying availability of a key prey resource, the Gulf menhaden Brevoortia patronus. Both feeding frequency and meal mass were significantly correlated to energy provisioning rates and nestling survival, while energy density of meals had little effect on either metric. Compared to previous results from cold-water systems, we found lower and less variable energy densities (4.4 kJ g-1, vs. 5.2 to 6.5 kJ g-1 in other studies) and lipid content (9% dry mass, vs. 16 to 23% in other studies) of common prey items. While Gulf menhaden was the most common prey species at all colonies, the proportion of menhaden fed to nestlings varied and was not strongly correlated to fledging success. We conclude that quantity rather than quality of prey, particularly small schooling fish, is the main driver of brown pelican reproductive success in this system, and that environmental perturbations affecting biomass, distribution, and abundance of forage fish could substantially affect brown pelican reproductive success.

  19. Wenatchee River steelhead reproductive success - Estimate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and wild steelhead in the Wenatchee River, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project uses genetic parentage analysis to estimate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and wild steelhead spawning in the Wenatchee River, WA. The...

  20. High basal metabolic rate does not elevate oxidative stress during reproduction in laboratory mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzęk, Paweł; Książek, Aneta; Ołdakowski, Łukasz; Konarzewski, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Increased oxidative stress (OS) has been suggested as a physiological cost of reproduction. However, previous studies reported ambiguous results, with some even showing a reduction of oxidative damage during reproduction. We tested whether the link between reproduction and OS is mediated by basal metabolic rate (BMR), which has been hypothesized to affect both the rate of radical oxygen species production and antioxidative capacity. We studied the effect of reproduction on OS in females of laboratory mice divergently selected for high (H-BMR) and low (L-BMR) BMR, previously shown to differ with respect to parental investment. Non-reproducing L-BMR females showed higher oxidative damage to lipids (quantified as the level of malondialdehyde in internal organ tissues) and DNA (quantified as the level of 8-oxodG in blood serum) than H-BMR females. Reproduction did not affect oxidative damage to lipids in either line; however, it reduced damage to DNA in L-BMR females. Reproduction increased catalase activity in liver (significantly stronger in L-BMR females) and decreased it in kidneys. We conclude that the effect of reproduction on OS depends on the initial variation in BMR and varies between studied internal organs and markers of OS.

  1. Analysis of the serum reproductive system related autoantibodies of infertility patients in Tianjin region of China

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Yan; Xu, Yanying; Wang, Jianmei; Wang, Fang; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yujuan; Zhang, Bumei

    2015-01-01

    Object: Reproductive system related autoantibodies have been proposed to be associated with natural infertility. However, large scale systematic analysis of these of antibodies has not been conducted. The aim of this study is to analyze the positive rate of antisperm antibody (ASAb), anti-endometrium antibody (EMAb), anti-ovary antibody (AOAb), anti-zona pellucida antibody (AZP) and anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) in infertility patients in Tianjin region of China. Methods: 1305 male and 1711 ...

  2. Demographic aspects of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera, Calliphoridae) adults maintained under experimental conditions: reproductive rate estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Marcelo Henrique de; Von Zuben, Claudio José

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate some aspects of the populational ecology of Chrysomya megacephala, analyzing demographic aspects of adults kept under experimental conditions. Cages of C. megacephala adults were prepared with four different larval densities (100, 200, 400 and 800). For each cage, two tables were made: one with demographic parameters for the life expectancy estimate at the initial age (e0), and another with the reproductive rate and average reproduction age estimates...

  3. A hybrid computational method for the discovery of novel reproduction-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Chu, Chen; Kong, Xiangyin; Huang, Guohua; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Uncovering the molecular mechanisms underlying reproduction is of great importance to infertility treatment and to the generation of healthy offspring. In this study, we discovered novel reproduction-related genes with a hybrid computational method, integrating three different types of method, which offered new clues for further reproduction research. This method was first executed on a weighted graph, constructed based on known protein-protein interactions, to search the shortest paths connecting any two known reproduction-related genes. Genes occurring in these paths were deemed to have a special relationship with reproduction. These newly discovered genes were filtered with a randomization test. Then, the remaining genes were further selected according to their associations with known reproduction-related genes measured by protein-protein interaction score and alignment score obtained by BLAST. The in-depth analysis of the high confidence novel reproduction genes revealed hidden mechanisms of reproduction and provided guidelines for further experimental validations.

  4. Adverse trends in male reproductive health and decreasing fertility rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, Lærke; Holmboe, Stine; Jørgensen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Healthy men produce an enormous number of sperms, far more than necessary for conception. However, several studies suggest that semen samples where the concentration of sperms is below 40 mill/mL may be associated with longer time to pregnancy or even subfertility, and specimens where the concent...... are now so low that we may be close to the crucial tipping point of 40 mill/mL spermatozoa. Consequently, we must face the possibility of more infertile couples and lower fertility rates in the future....... that the first decline in average sperm number of 20-40 mill/mL might not have had much effect on pregnancy rates, as the majority of men would still have had counts far above the threshold value. However, due to the assumed decline in semen quality, the sperm counts of the majority of 20 year old European men...

  5. Sexual versus Asexual Reproduction: Distinct Outcomes in Relative Abundance of Parthenogenetic Mealybugs following Recent Colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Jun; Ichiki, Ryoko T; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Kageyama, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Asexual reproduction, including parthenogenesis in which embryos develop within a female without fertilization, is assumed to confer advantages over sexual reproduction, which includes a "cost of males." Sexual reproduction largely predominates in animals, however, indicating that this cost is outweighed by the genetic and/or ecological benefits of sexuality, including the acquisition of advantageous mutations occurring in different individuals and the elimination of deleterious mutations. But the evolution of sexual reproduction remains unclear, because we have limited examples that demonstrate the relative success of sexual lineages in the face of competition from asexual lineages in the same environment. Here we investigated a sympatric occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction in the pineapple mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes. This pest invaded southwestern Japan, including Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands, in the 1930s in association with imported pineapple plants. Our recent censuses demonstrated that on Okinawa sexually reproducing individuals can coexist with and even dominate asexual individuals in the presence of habitat and resource competition, which is considered to be severe for this nearly immobile insect. Molecular phylogeny based on partial DNA sequences in the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, as well as the endosymbiotic bacterial genome, revealed that the asexual lineage diverged from a common sexual ancestor in the relatively recent past. In contrast, only the asexual lineage exhibiting obligate apomictic thelytoky was discovered on Ishigaki. Co-existence of the two lineages cannot be explained by the results of laboratory experiments, which showed that the intrinsic rate of increase in the sexual lineage was not obviously superior to that of the asexual lineage. Differences in biotic and/or abiotic selective forces operating on the two islands might be the cause of this discrepancy. This biological system offers a unique opportunity to assess

  6. Knowledge and practices related to reproductive health amongst adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayashree S Gothankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess knowledge and practices related to menstruation and reproductive health amongst college going adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study done on 323 adolescent girls admitted in the year 2012 to professional colleges belonging to the health sciences faculty of a private university in Pune, India, using self-administered proforma. Results: Mean age of onset of menarche was 13.35 years. Many girls (86.65% had knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche. For 68% of girls, mother was a source of menstrual information. Half of the girls reported some form of restriction in activities during menstruation due to religious reasons. 11% girls suffered from some form of reproductive tract infections (RTIs. Practices related to menstruation revealed that cloth piece is used for menstrual protection by 3% of girls. Soaked sanitary pads were disposed sanitarily by 96% of girls. Adolescent of medical faculty had significantly more knowledge than nursing faculty adolescents regarding emergency contraceptives (P < 0.05. Only four girls reported a history of sexual contact, of these, three were aware of emergency contraceptives, while one used them to prevent pregnancy. Conclusions: Adolescent girls received knowledge of menstruation prior to menarche from their mothers. Restriction in activity during menstruation due to religious reasons is practiced by many girls. Sanitary pad was used by almost all girls, and all disposed the same in a sanitary manner. More than half of the girls were aware about emergency contraceptives. Prevalence of RTI was found to be low and very few girls reported history of sexual exposure.

  7. Growth, chamber building rate and reproduction time of Palaeonummulites venosus under natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Wöger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino

    2017-04-01

    Investigations on Palaeonummulites venosus using the natural laboratory approach for determining chamber building rate, test diameter increase rate, reproduction time and longevity is based on the decomposition of monthly obtained frequency distributions based on chamber number and test diameter into normal-distributed components. The shift of the component parameters 'mean' and 'standard deviation' during the investigation period of 15 months was used to calculate Michaelis-Menten functions applied to estimate the averaged chamber building rate and diameter increase rate under natural conditions. The individual dates of birth were estimated using the inverse averaged chamber building rate and the inverse diameter increase rate fitted by the individual chamber number or the individual test diameter at the sampling date. Distributions of frequencies and densities (i.e. frequency divided by sediment weight) based on chamber building rate and diameter increase rate resulted both in a continuous reproduction through the year with two peaks, the stronger in May /June determined as the beginning of the summer generation (generation1) and the weaker in November determined as the beginning of the winter generation (generation 2). This reproduction scheme explains the existence of small and large specimens in the same sample. Longevity, calculated as the maximum difference in days between the individual's birth date and the sampling date seems to be round about one year, obtained by both estimations based on the chamber building rate and the diameter increase rate.

  8. Probing the effect of human normal sperm morphology rate on cycle outcomes and assisted reproductive methods selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    Full Text Available Sperm morphology is the best predictor of fertilization potential, and the critical predictive information for supporting assisted reproductive methods selection. Given its important predictive value and the declining reality of semen quality in recent years, the threshold of normal sperm morphology rate (NSMR is being constantly corrected and controversial, from the 4th edition (14% to the 5th version (4%. We retrospectively analyzed 4756 cases of infertility patients treated with conventional-IVF(c-IVF or ICSI, which were divided into three groups according to NSMR: ≥14%, 4%-14% and <4%. Here, we demonstrate that, with decrease in NSMR(≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, in the c-IVF group, the rate of fertilization, normal fertilization, high-quality embryo, multi-pregnancy and birth weight of twins gradually decreased significantly (P<0.05, while the miscarriage rate was significantly increased (p<0.01 and implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, preterm birth rate, live birth rate, sex ratio, and birth weight(Singleton showed no significant change. In the ICSI group, with decrease in NSMR (≥14%, 4%-14%, <4%, high-quality embryo rate, multi-pregnancy rate and birth weight of twins were gradually decreased significantly (p<0.05, while other parameters had no significant difference. Considering the clinical assisted methods selection, in the NFMR ≥14% group, normal fertilization rate of c-IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group (P<0.05, in the 4%-14% group, birth weight (twins of c-IVF were significantly higher than the ICSI group, in the <4% group, miscarriage of IVF was significantly higher than the ICSI group. Therefore, we conclude that NSMR is positively related to embryo reproductive potential, and when NSMR<4% (5th edition, ICSI should be considered first, while the NSMR≥4%, c-IVF assisted reproduction might be preferred.

  9. High incidence of monozygotic twinning after assisted reproduction is related to genetic information, but not to assisted reproduction technology itself.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, Aleš; Zbořilová, Blažena; Procházka, Martin; Šilhánová, Eva; Koutná, Olga; Klásková, Eva; Tkadlec, Emil; Sobek, Aleš

    2015-03-01

    To study the incidence of monozygotic twinning (MZT) in patients using in vitro fertilization, relative to their age, genetic background, ovarian function, and assisted reproductive techniques used. Analysis of a collected database. Infertility treatment center. A total of 1,876 patients receiving infertility treatment between 2000 and 2012. Pregnancies with monozygotic twins (A: 23) were compared with deliveries of dizygotic twins (B: 423), singleton pregnancies (C: 880), and aborted pregnancies (D: 389). None. A genetic survey on multiple pregnancies in the extended family. Measures were micromanipulation technique, the length of embryo cultivation, type of cultivation media, basal follicle-stimulating hormone level, estradiol level on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration, number of oocytes, total consumption of gonadotropins, and consumption of gonadotropins needed for recovery of 1 oocyte. No differences were found between the incidence of MZT in cycles that did vs. did not use micromanipulation techniques. In addition, the length of embryo cultivation or type of cultivation media used did not affect the results. Estradiol levels and implantation rates were significantly higher in group A. The incidence of MZT in families in group A was significantly higher than that in groups B and C. We propose that the high incidence of MZT in infertility-clinic patients is conditioned by hereditary factors, and good ovarian function only facilitates the expression. The resulting recommendation is that young women with a positive family history and good ovarian function undergo elective single-embryo transfer, and proper counseling is advisable. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Human disturbance influences reproductive success and growth rate in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah S French

    Full Text Available The environment is currently undergoing changes at both global (e.g., climate change and local (e.g., tourism, pollution, habitat modification scales that have the capacity to affect the viability of animal and plant populations. Many of these changes, such as human disturbance, have an anthropogenic origin and therefore may be mitigated by management action. To do so requires an understanding of the impact of human activities and changing environmental conditions on population dynamics. We investigated the influence of human activity on important life history parameters (reproductive rate, and body condition, and growth rate of neonate pups for California sea lions (Zalophus californianus in the Gulf of California, Mexico. Increased human presence was associated with lower reproductive rates, which translated into reduced long-term population growth rates and suggested that human activities are a disturbance that could lead to population declines. We also observed higher body growth rates in pups with increased exposure to humans. Increased growth rates in pups may reflect a density dependent response to declining reproductive rates (e.g., decreased competition for resources. Our results highlight the potentially complex changes in life history parameters that may result from human disturbance, and their implication for population dynamics. We recommend careful monitoring of human activities in the Gulf of California and emphasize the importance of management strategies that explicitly consider the potential impact of human activities such as ecotourism on vertebrate populations.

  11. Morph-specific metabolic rate and the timing of reproductive senescence in a color polymorphic dragon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Christopher R; Johansson, Rasmus; Olsson, Mats

    2017-08-01

    Polymorphism has fascinated biologists for over a century because morphs persist within populations through evolutionary time in spite of showing disparate behavioral and physiological phenotypes; any one morph should go to fixation with the slightest fitness advantage over the others. Surely there must be trade-offs that balance selection on them. The polychromatic morphs of the Australian painted dragon lizard, Ctenophorus pictus, are one such system. The male color morphs of painted dragons have different physiological and behavioral traits including reproductive tactics, hormone levels, and the rate of body condition loss through the reproductive season. Due to their differences in physiology and reproductive tactics, we tested the hypotheses that male morphs would differ in resting metabolic rates (RMRs) and that the morphs' RMR would decline at different rates through the mating season. We found that bib-morphs (yellow gular patch) differ in RMR with bibbed (more aggressive) males having consistently higher RMR than non-bibbed males. Furthermore, we show that male dragons experience a decline in RMR as they age from reproductively active to inactive. We also found that the RMR of bibbed males has higher repeatability than non-bibbed males. Our results reinforce previous hypotheses about the morph-specific costs of bearing a gular patch in painted dragons. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. CDC-reported assisted reproductive technology live-birth rates may mislead the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vitaly A; Choi, Jennifer; Darmon, Sarah K; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H; Gleicher, Norbert

    2017-08-01

    The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publicly reports assisted reproductive technology live-birth rates (LBR) for each US fertility clinic under legal mandate. The 2014 CDC report excluded 35,406 of 184,527 (19.2%) autologous assisted reproductive technology cycles that involved embryo or oocyte banking from LBR calculations. This study calculated 2014 total clinic LBR for all patients utilizing autologous oocytes two ways: including all initiated assisted reproductive technology cycles or excluding banking cycles, as done by the CDC. The main limitation of this analysis is the CDC report did not differentiate between cycles involving long-term banking of embryos or oocytes for fertility preservation from cycles involving short-term embryo banking. Twenty-seven of 458 (6%) clinics reported over 40% of autologous cycles involved banking, collectively performing 12% of all US assisted reproductive technology cycles. LBR in these outlier clinics calculated by the CDC method, was higher than the other 94% of clinics (33.1% versus 31.1%). However, recalculated LBR including banking cycles in the outlier clinics was lower than the other 94% of clinics (15.5% versus 26.6%). LBR calculated by the two methods increasingly diverged based on proportion of banking cycles performed by each clinic reaching 4.5-fold, thereby, potentially misleading the public. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Low participation rates amongst Asian women: implications for research in reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaulikar, V S; Hussain, S; Perera, A; Manyonda, I T

    2014-03-01

    The last two decades have witnessed tremendous advances in the field of reproductive medicine, especially assisted reproductive technology and stem cell research. As research continues in future, it is vital to ensure that individuals from all ethnic backgrounds are represented in the study populations so that the findings of the research can be generalised for the benefit of all. Many studies, however, have noted a trend of low participation rates amongst Asian women in reproductive research. Inequalities in the ethnicity of research participants can be a source of substantial bias, and have major ethical and scientific ramifications. Several factors such as educational status, fear of wrong-doing, communication barriers, and socio-cultural beliefs have been suggested to play a role. There is a need for further exploration of the factors influencing Asian women's decision to accept or decline participation in reproductive research and for development of effective targeted strategies for research recruitment with the aim of encouraging research participation as well as donation of cryopreserved embryos or other reproductive tissues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of high dose rate gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Nakano, Eliana; Silva, Luanna R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Ionizing radiations are known as mutagenic agents, causing lethality and infertility. This characteristic has motivated its application on animal biological control. In this context, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata can be considered an excellent experimental model to study effects of ionizing radiations on lethality and reproduction. This work was designed to evaluate effects of 60 Co gamma radiation at high dose rate (10.04 kGy/h) on B. glabrata. For this purpose, adult snails were selected and exposed to doses ranging from 20 to 100 Gy, with 10 Gy intervals; one group was kept as control. There was not effect of dose rate in the lethality of gamma radiation; the value of 64,3 Gy of LD 50 obtained in our study was similar to that obtained by other authors with low dose rates. Nevertheless, our data suggest that there was a dose rate effect in the reproduction. On all dose levels, radiation improved the production of embryos for all exposed individuals. However, viability indexes were below 6% and, even 65 days after irradiation, fertility was not recovered. These results are not in agreement with other studies using low dose rates. Lethality was obtained in all groups irradiated, and the highest doses presented percentiles of dead animals above 50%. The results demonstrated that doses of 20 and 30 Gy were ideal for population control of B. glabrata. Further studies are needed; nevertheless, this research evidenced great potential of high dose rate gamma radiation on B. glabrata reproductive control. (author)

  15. Effects of high dose rate gamma radiation on survival and reproduction of Biomphalaria glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantinha, Rebeca S.; Nakano, Eliana [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Parasitologia], e-mail: rebecanuclear@gmail.com, e-mail: eliananakano@butantan.gov.br; Borrely, Sueli I. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes], e-mail: sborrely@ipen.br; Amaral, Ademir; Melo, Ana M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR)], e-mail: amaral@ufpe.br; Silva, Luanna R.S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia], e-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, e-mail: luannaribeiro_lua@hotmail.com

    2009-07-01

    Ionizing radiations are known as mutagenic agents, causing lethality and infertility. This characteristic has motivated its application on animal biological control. In this context, the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata can be considered an excellent experimental model to study effects of ionizing radiations on lethality and reproduction. This work was designed to evaluate effects of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation at high dose rate (10.04 kGy/h) on B. glabrata. For this purpose, adult snails were selected and exposed to doses ranging from 20 to 100 Gy, with 10 Gy intervals; one group was kept as control. There was not effect of dose rate in the lethality of gamma radiation; the value of 64,3 Gy of LD{sub 50} obtained in our study was similar to that obtained by other authors with low dose rates. Nevertheless, our data suggest that there was a dose rate effect in the reproduction. On all dose levels, radiation improved the production of embryos for all exposed individuals. However, viability indexes were below 6% and, even 65 days after irradiation, fertility was not recovered. These results are not in agreement with other studies using low dose rates. Lethality was obtained in all groups irradiated, and the highest doses presented percentiles of dead animals above 50%. The results demonstrated that doses of 20 and 30 Gy were ideal for population control of B. glabrata. Further studies are needed; nevertheless, this research evidenced great potential of high dose rate gamma radiation on B. glabrata reproductive control. (author)

  16. Culture and religious beliefs in relation to reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arousell, Jonna; Carlbom, Aje

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of contemporary research publications acknowledge the influence of religion and culture on sexual and reproductive behavior and health-care utilization. It is currently hypothesized that religious influences can partly explain disparities in sexual and reproductive health outcomes. In this paper, we will pay particular attention to Muslims in sexual and reproductive health care. This review reveals that knowledge about devout Muslims' own experience of sexual and reproductive health-care matters is limited, thus providing weak evidence for modeling of efficient practical guidelines for sexual and reproductive health care directed at Muslim patients. Successful outcomes in sexual and reproductive health of Muslims require both researchers and practitioners to acknowledge religious heterogeneity and variability, and individuals' possibilities to negotiate Islamic edicts. Failure to do so could lead to inadequate health-care provision and, in the worst case, to suboptimal encounters between migrants with Muslim background and the health-care providers in the receiving country. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Does the silver moss Bryum argenteum exhibit sex-specific patterns in vegetative growth rate, asexual fitness or prezygotic reproductive investment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Kimberly; Stark, Lloyd R; McLetchie, D Nicholas

    2011-05-01

    Expected life history trade-offs associated with sex differences in reproductive investment are often undetected in seed plants, with the difficulty arising from logistical issues of conducting controlled experiments. By controlling genotype, age and resource status of individuals, a bryophyte was assessed for sex-specific and location-specific patterns of vegetative, asexual and sexual growth/reproduction across a regional scale. Twelve genotypes (six male, six female) of the dioecious bryophyte Bryum argenteum were subcultured to remove environmental effects, regenerated asexually to replicate each genotype 16 times, and grown over a period of 92 d. Plants were assessed for growth rates, asexual and sexual reproductive traits, and allocation to above- and below-ground regenerative biomass. The degree of sexual versus asexual reproductive investment appears to be under genetic control, with three distinct ecotypes found in this study. Protonemal growth rate was positively correlated with asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction, whereas asexual reproduction was negatively correlated (appeared to trade-off) with vegetative growth (shoot production). No sex-specific trade-offs were detected. Female sex-expressing shoots were longer than males, but the sexes did not differ in growth traits, asexual traits, sexual induction times, or above- and below-ground biomass. Males, however, had much higher rates of inflorescence production than females, which translated into a significantly higher (24x) prezygotic investment for males relative to females. Evidence for three distinct ecotypes is presented for a bryophyte based on regeneration traits. Prior to zygote production, the sexes of this bryophyte did not differ in vegetative growth traits but significantly differed in reproductive investment, with the latter differences potentially implicated in the strongly biased female sex ratio. The disparity between males and females for prezygotic reproductive investment is

  18. Estimating the basic reproduction rate of HFMD using the time series SIR model in Guangdong, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicheng Du

    Full Text Available Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD has caused a substantial burden of disease in China, especially in Guangdong Province. Based on notifiable cases, we use the time series Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model to estimate the basic reproduction rate (R0 and the herd immunity threshold, understanding the transmission and persistence of HFMD more completely for efficient intervention in this province. The standardized difference between the reported and fitted time series of HFMD was 0.009 (<0.2. The median basic reproduction rate of total, enterovirus 71, and coxsackievirus 16 cases in Guangdong were 4.621 (IQR: 3.907-5.823, 3.023 (IQR: 2.289-4.292 and 7.767 (IQR: 6.903-10.353, respectively. The heatmap of R0 showed semiannual peaks of activity, including a major peak in spring and early summer (about the 12th week followed by a smaller peak in autumn (about the 36th week. The county-level model showed that Longchuan (R0 = 33, Gaozhou (R0 = 24, Huazhou (R0 = 23 and Qingxin (R0 = 19 counties have higher basic reproduction rate than other counties in the province. The epidemic of HFMD in Guangdong Province is still grim, and strategies like the World Health Organization's expanded program on immunization need to be implemented. An elimination of HFMD in Guangdong might need a Herd Immunity Threshold of 78%.

  19. Periodic matrix population models: growth rate, basic reproduction number, and entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacaër, Nicolas

    2009-10-01

    This article considers three different aspects of periodic matrix population models. First, a formula for the sensitivity analysis of the growth rate lambda is obtained that is simpler than the one obtained by Caswell and Trevisan. Secondly, the formula for the basic reproduction number R0 in a constant environment is generalized to the case of a periodic environment. Some inequalities between lambda and R0 proved by Cushing and Zhou are also generalized to the periodic case. Finally, we add some remarks on Demetrius' notion of evolutionary entropy H and its relationship to the growth rate lambda in the periodic case.

  20. Growth, chamber building rate and reproduction time of Palaeonummulites venosus (Foraminifera) under natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Wöger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifer Palaeonummulites venosus to determine the chamber building rate (CBR), test diameter increase rate (DIR), reproduction time and longevity using the `natural laboratory' approach. This is based on the decomposition of monthly obtained frequency distributions of chamber number and test diameter into normally distributed components. Test measurements were taken using MicroCT. The shift of the mean and standard deviation of component parameters during the 15-month investigation period was used to calculate Michaelis-Menten functions applied to estimate the averaged CBR and DIR under natural conditions. The individual dates of birth were estimated using the inverse averaged CBR and the inverse DIR fitted by the individual chamber number or the individual test diameter at the sampling date. Distributions of frequencies and densities (i.e., frequency divided by sediment weight) based on both CBR and DIR revealed continuous reproduction throughout the year with two peaks, a stronger one in June determined as the onset of the summer generation (generation 1) and a weaker one in November determined as the onset of the winter generation (generation 2). This reproduction scheme explains the presence of small and large specimens in the same sample. Longevity, calculated as the maximum difference in days between the individual's birth date and the sampling date, is approximately 1.5 yr, an estimation obtained by using both CBR and DIR.

  1. Knockout of the Gnrh genes in zebrafish: effects on reproduction and potential compensation by reproductive and feeding-related neuropeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Miranda; Spicer, Olivia Smith; Wong, Ten-Tsao; Zmora, Nilli; Zohar, Yonathan

    2018-04-04

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is known as a pivotal upstream regulator of reproduction in vertebrates. However, reproduction is not compromised in the hypophysiotropic Gnrh3 knockout line in zebrafish (gnrh3-/-). In order to determine if Gnrh2, the only other Gnrh isoform in zebrafish brains, is compensating for the loss of Gnrh3, we generated a double Gnrh knockout zebrafish line. Surprisingly, the loss of both Gnrh isoforms resulted in no major impact on reproduction, indicating that a compensatory response, outside of the Gnrh system, was evoked. A plethora of factors acting along the reproductive hypothalamus-pituitary axis were evaluated as possible compensators based on neuroanatomical and differential gene expression studies. In addition, we also examined the involvement of feeding factors in the brain as potential compensators for Gnrh2, which has known anorexigenic effects. We found that the double knockout fish exhibited upregulation of several genes in the brain, specifically gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (gnih), secretogranin 2 (scg2), tachykinin 3a (tac3a), and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide 1 (pacap1), and downregulation of agouti-related peptide 1 (agrp1), indicating the compensation occurs outside of Gnrh cells and therefore is a non-cell autonomous response to the loss of Gnrh. While the differential expression of gnih and agrp1 in the double knockout line was confined to the periventricular nucleus and hypothalamus, respectively, the upregulation of scg2 corresponded with a broader neuronal redistribution in the lateral hypothalamus and hindbrain. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the existence of a redundant reproductive regulatory system that comes into play when Gnrh2 and Gnrh3 are lost.

  2. Gender relations and reproductive decision making in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Whittle, Lisa; Carter, Marion

    2005-09-01

    Gender differences influence decision making about reproductive health. Most information on reproductive health decision making in Latin America has come from women's reports of men's involvement. Data were collected in Honduras in 2001 through two national surveys that used independent samples of men aged 15-59 years and women aged 15-49. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with male-centered decision-making attitudes and behaviors regarding family size and family planning use. Overall, 25% of women and 28% of men said that men alone should be responsible for at least one of these reproductive decisions, and 27% of women and 21% of men said that the man in their household made one or both decisions. For women, having no children and being in a consensual union were each associated with holding male-centered decision-making attitudes; having less than a secondary education, being of medium or low socioeconomic status and living in a rural area were each associated with male-centered decision making. Among men, having less than secondary education and being in a consensual union were each associated with male-centered decision-making attitudes and behavior. Women who had ever used or were currently using modern methods were significantly less likely to hold attitudes supporting male-centered decision-making than were those who relied on traditional methods and those who had never used a modern method. Programs should recognize power imbalances between genders that affect women's ability to meet their stated fertility desires. In rural areas, programs should target men, encouraging them to communicate with their wives on reproductive decisions.

  3. Effect of Embryo Banking on U.S. National Assisted Reproductive Technology Live Birth Rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly A Kushnir

    Full Text Available Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART reports generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC exclude embryo banking cycles from outcome calculations.We examined data reported to the CDC in 2013 for the impact of embryo banking exclusion on national ART outcomes by recalculating autologous oocyte ART live birth rates. Inflation of reported fresh ART cycle live birth rates was assessed for all age groups of infertile women as the difference between fresh cycle live births with reference to number of initiated fresh cycles (excluding embryo banking cycles, as typically reported by the CDC, and fresh cycle live births with reference to total initiated fresh ART cycles (including embryo banking cycles.During 2013, out of 121,351 fresh non-donor ART cycles 27,564 (22.7% involved embryo banking. The proportion of banking cycles increased with female age from 15.5% in women 44 years. Concomitantly, the proportion of thawed cycles decreased with advancing female age (P 44. The inflation of live birth rates in thawed cycles could not be calculated from the publically available CDC data but appears to be even greater.Utilization of embryo banking increased during 2013 with advancing female age, suggesting a potential age selection bias. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from national ART outcome reports significantly inflated national ART success rates, especially among older women.Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from US National Assisted Reproductive Technology outcome reports significantly inflates reported success rates especially in older women.

  4. Effect of Embryo Banking on U.S. National Assisted Reproductive Technology Live Birth Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vitaly A; Barad, David H; Albertini, David F; Darmon, Sarah K; Gleicher, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) reports generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) exclude embryo banking cycles from outcome calculations. We examined data reported to the CDC in 2013 for the impact of embryo banking exclusion on national ART outcomes by recalculating autologous oocyte ART live birth rates. Inflation of reported fresh ART cycle live birth rates was assessed for all age groups of infertile women as the difference between fresh cycle live births with reference to number of initiated fresh cycles (excluding embryo banking cycles), as typically reported by the CDC, and fresh cycle live births with reference to total initiated fresh ART cycles (including embryo banking cycles). During 2013, out of 121,351 fresh non-donor ART cycles 27,564 (22.7%) involved embryo banking. The proportion of banking cycles increased with female age from 15.5% in women women >44 years. Concomitantly, the proportion of thawed cycles decreased with advancing female age (P women age >44. The inflation of live birth rates in thawed cycles could not be calculated from the publically available CDC data but appears to be even greater. Utilization of embryo banking increased during 2013 with advancing female age, suggesting a potential age selection bias. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from national ART outcome reports significantly inflated national ART success rates, especially among older women. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from US National Assisted Reproductive Technology outcome reports significantly inflates reported success rates especially in older women.

  5. Reproductive concessions between related and unrelated members promote eusociality in bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Aline C R; Miranda, Elder A; Del Lama, Marco A; Nascimento, Fábio S

    2016-05-23

    Animal societies exhibit remarkable variation in their breeding strategies. Individuals can maximize their fitness by either reproducing or by helping relatives. Social hymenopterans have been key taxa for the study of Hamilton's inclusive fitness theory because the haplodiploid sex-determination system results in asymmetric relatedness among breeders producing conflict over the partitioning of reproduction. In small cooperative groups of insects, totipotent individuals may maximize their inclusive fitness by controlling reproduction despotically rather than helping their relatives. Here, we demonstrate that the dominant females of the primitively eusocial bee Euglossa melanotricha (Apidae: Euglossini) control reproduction, but concede part of the reproductive output with their related and unrelated subordinates. As expected, a dominant female capitalizes on the direct reproduction of related subordinates, according to her interests. We found that reproductive skew was positively correlated with relatedness. The concessions were highly reduced in mother-daughter and sibling nests (relatedness r ± s.d. = 0.54 ± 0.02 and 0.79 ± 0.02, respectively) but much more egalitarian in unrelated associations (r = -0.10 ± 0.01). We concluded that reproductive skew in these primitively eusocial bees is strongly related to the genetic structure of associations, and also that females are able to assess pairwise relatedness, either directly or indirectly, and use this information to mediate social contracts.

  6. The rate test of speciation: estimating the likelihood of non-allopatric speciation from reproductive isolation rates in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukilevich, Roman

    2014-04-01

    Among the most debated subjects in speciation is the question of its mode. Although allopatric (geographical) speciation is assumed the null model, the importance of parapatric and sympatric speciation is extremely difficult to assess and remains controversial. Here I develop a novel approach to distinguish these modes of speciation by studying the evolution of reproductive isolation (RI) among taxa. I focus on the Drosophila genus, for which measures of RI are known. First, I incorporate RI into age-range correlations. Plots show that almost all cases of weak RI are between allopatric taxa whereas sympatric taxa have strong RI. This either implies that most reproductive isolation (RI) was initiated in allopatry or that RI evolves too rapidly in sympatry to be captured at incipient stages. To distinguish between these explanations, I develop a new "rate test of speciation" that estimates the likelihood of non-allopatric speciation given the distribution of RI rates in allopatry versus sympatry. Most sympatric taxa were found to have likely initiated RI in allopatry. However, two putative candidate species pairs for non-allopatric speciation were identified (5% of known Drosophila). In total, this study shows how using RI measures can greatly inform us about the geographical mode of speciation in nature. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Reproductive success of Horned Lark and McCown's Longspur in relation to wind energy infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Anika; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2016-01-01

    Wind energy is a rapidly expanding industry with potential indirect effects to wildlife populations that are largely unexplored. In 2011 and 2012, we monitored 211 nests of 2 grassland songbirds, Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris) and McCown's Longspur (Rhynchophanes mccownii), at 3 wind farms and 2 undeveloped reference sites in Wyoming, USA. We evaluated several indices of reproductive investment and success: clutch size, size-adjusted nestling mass, daily nest survival rate, and number of fledglings. We compared reproductive success between wind farms and undeveloped sites and modeled reproductive success within wind farms as a function of wind energy infrastructure and habitat. Size-adjusted nestling mass of Horned Lark was weakly negatively related to turbine density. In 2011, nest survival of Horned Lark decreased 55% as turbine density increased from 10 to 39 within 2 km of the nest. In 2012, however, nest survival of Horned Lark was best predicted by the combination of vegetation height, distance to shrub edge, and turbine density, with survival increasing weakly with increasing vegetation height. McCown's Longspur nest survival was weakly positively related to vegetation density at the nest site when considered with the amount of grassland habitat in the neighborhood and turbine density within 1 km of the nest. Habitat and distance to infrastructure did not explain clutch size or number of fledglings for either species, or size-adjusted nestling mass for McCown's Longspur. Our results suggest that the influence of wind energy infrastructure varies temporally and by species, even among species using similar habitats. Turbine density was repeatedly the most informative measure of wind energy development. Turbine density could influence wildlife responses to wind energy production and may become increasingly important to consider as development continues in areas with high-quality wind resources.

  8. Connecting Related Rates and Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Keith

    2012-01-01

    This article points out a simple connection between related rates and differential equations. The connection can be used for in-class examples or homework exercises, and it is accessible to students who are familiar with separation of variables.

  9. Potential rate of reproduction for some geographically separate populations of Pseudocalanus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Dzierzbicka-Głowacka, Andrzej Zieliński

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative expressions are presented describing the potential reproductive rate per individual female of Pseudocalanus spp. in several different waters (not reduced by food limitation as a function of both temperature and cephalothorax length of females (one equation for each studied region. The calculations were made for some geographically separate populations of Pseudocalanus spp. from southwest Baffin Island, Nova Scotia, Long Island Sound, Scotland, as well as the southern North Sea and its adjacent waters (e.g. the English Channel. On the basis of the findings presented in this work and from other studies, the reproductive rate was computed as the mean number of eggs per sac divided by 1.25 times the embryonic duration at the given temperature. Also computed was the amount of egg matter produced per day as a percentage of body carbon (and dry weight of female weight for all localities. The relationships for females from the southern North Sea were obtained for "viable eggs", but they should be treated with reserve. A more suitable expression describing egg production in the southern North Sea is the equation for females from the English Channel obtained here. Our assumptions and approximations appear to predict quite well the temperature-length of female dependent daily rates of egg production of well-fed females of Pseudocalanus spp. for the above waters, and we suggest that they can be used to test the hypothesis more thoroughly.

  10. INES rating of radiation protection related events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hort, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, based on the draft Manual, a short review of the use of the INES rating of events concerning radiation protection is given, based on a new INES User's Manual edition. The presentation comprises a brief history of the scale development, general description of the scale and the main principles of the INES rating. Several examples of the use of the scale for radiation protection related events are mentioned. In the presentation, the term 'radiation protection related events' is used for radiation source and transport related events outside the nuclear installations. (authors)

  11. Twinning rate in a sample from a Brazilian hospital with a high standard of reproductive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Maria Duccini Dal Colletto

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Epidemiological studies on twin births have been motivated mostly by the positive correlation between twinning rate and human fertility, prematurity, low birth weight, increased risk of infant death and long term risk for morbidity. OBJECTIVE: This paper intends to estimate the incidence of multiple births in a private hospital in Brazil with a high standard of reproductive care, and to evaluate the effects of maternal age, gestation order and assisted fertilization on twinning rate. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: First-class tertiary private hospital, São Paulo, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: The multiple birth rate was investigated among 7,997 deliveries from 1995 to 1998, including 7,786 singletons, 193 twins, 17 triplets and one quadruplet. RESULTS: The rates per 1,000 dizygotic and monozygotic pairs and for triplets were estimated as 19.51, 4.50 and 2.13, respectively. The dizygotic and triplet rates were the highest observed in Brazil up to the present day. The twinning rate among primigravidae older than 30 years was very high (45.02 per 1,000 and was due to a disproportionately high frequency of dizygotic pairs. The triplet rate was also very high among the mothers of this age group (5.71 per 1,000. These facts are strong indicators that these women were the ones most frequently submitted to assisted reproductive techniques. The mean maternal age of the studied population was about six years higher than that estimated for mothers in the general population of southeastern Brazil. Primigravidae aged under 30 years as well as multigravidae showed similar twinning rates, which were almost 20 per 1,000. Among the deliveries of multigravidae older than 30 years, an unusually high frequency of monozygotic twins was observed (7.04 per 1,000, probably as a consequence of the residual effect of long-term use of oral contraceptives. CONCLUSIONS: The dizygotic twinning rate increased from 13.51 to 28.98 per 1,000 over the four years

  12. Female song rate and structure predict reproductive success in a socially monogamous bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Heather Brunton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is commonly regarded as a male trait that has evolved through sexual selection. However, recent research has prompted a re-evaluation of this view by demonstrating that female song is an ancestral and phylogenetically widespread trait. Species with female song provide opportunities to study selective pressures and mechanisms specific to females within the wider context of social competition. We investigated the relationship between reproductive success and female song performance in the New Zealand bellbird (Anthornis melanura, a passerine resident year round in New Zealand temperate forests. We monitored breeding behavior and song over three years on Tiritiri Matangi Island. Female bellbirds contributed significantly more towards parental care than males (solely incubating young and provisioning chicks at more than twice the rate of males. Female song rate in the vicinity of the nest was higher than that of males during incubation and chick-rearing stages but similar during early-nesting and post-breeding stages. Using GLMs, we found that female song rates during both incubation and chick-rearing stages strongly predicted the number of fledged chicks. However, male song rate and male and female chick provisioning rates had no effect on fledging success. Two measures of female song complexity (number of syllable types and the number of transitions between different syllable types were also good predictors of breeding success (GLM on PC scores. In contrast, song duration, the total number of syllables, and the number of ‘stutter’ syllables per song were not correlated with fledging success. It is unclear why male song rate was not associated with reproductive success and we speculate that extra-pair paternity might play a role. While we have previously demonstrated that female bellbird song is important in intrasexual interactions, we clearly demonstrate here that female song predicts reproductive success. These results, with others

  13. Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, reduces post-peak age-related regression of rooster reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Emad Abdulgabbar; Zhandi, Mahdi; Towhidi, Armin; Zaghari, Mojtaba; Ansari, Mahdi; Najafi, Mojtaba; Deldar, Hamid

    2017-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate orally administrated Letrozole (Lz) on reproductive performance, plasma testosterone and estradiol concentrations and relative abundance of mRNA of GnRH, FSH and LH in roosters. Ross 308 roosters (n=32) that were 40-weeks of age were individually housed and received a basal standard diet supplemented different amounts of capsulated Lz [0 (Lz-0), 0.5 (Lz-0.5), 1 (Lz-1) or 1.5 (Lz-1.5), mg Lz/bird/day] for 12 weeks. Sperm quality variables and plasma testosterone and estradiol concentrations were assessed from the first to the tenth week of the treatment period. Semen samples from the 11th to 12th week were used for artificial insemination and eggs were collected and allotted to assess fertility and hatchability rates. Relative abundance of hypothalamic and pituitary GnRH, LH and FSH mRNA was evaluated at the end of 12th week. The results indicated that total and forward sperm motility as well as egg hatchability rate were greater in the Lz-0.5 group. Greater sperm concentrations, ejaculate volume, sperm plasma membrane integrity, testis index and fertility rates were recorded for both Lz-0.5 and Lz-1 groups compared with the Lz-0 group (Proosters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Related Rates and the Speed of Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoen, S. C.; Weidner, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Standard calculus textbooks often include a related rates problem involving light cast onto a straight line by a revolving light source. Mathematical aspects to these problems (both in the solution and in the method by which that solution is obtained) are examined. (JN)

  15. Sex-role reversal of a monogamous pipefish without higher potential reproductive rate in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogabe, Atsushi; Yanagisawa, Yasunobu

    2007-12-07

    In monogamous animals, males are usually the predominant competitors for mates. However, a strictly monogamous pipefish Corythoichthys haematopterus exceptionally exhibits a reversed sex role. To understand why its sex role is reversed, we measured the adult sex ratio and the potential reproductive rate (PRR), two principal factors influencing the operational sex ratio (OSR), in a natural population of southern Japan. The adult sex ratio was biased towards females throughout the breeding season, but the PRR, which increased with water temperature, did not show sexual difference. We found that an alternative index of the OSR (Sf/Sm: sex ratio of 'time in') calculated from the monthly data was consistently biased towards females. The female-biased OSR associated with sex-role reversal has been reported in some polyandrous or promiscuous pipefish, but factors biasing the OSR differed between these pipefish and C. haematopterus. We concluded that the similar PRR between the sexes in C. haematopterus does not confer reproductive benefit of polygamous mating on either sex, resulting in strict monogamous mating, and its female-biased adult sex ratio promotes female-female competition for a mate, resulting in sex-role reversal.

  16. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on semen quality, reproductive hormones and live birth rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; Petersen, Jørgen Holm

    2018-01-01

    Context: Animal models and cross-sectional cohort studies have suggested a beneficial role for vitamin D in male reproduction. Objective: Determine the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on semen quality in infertile men with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25OHD)≤ 50 nmol/l. Design: A si...... of vitamin D supplementation on live birth rate and serum inhibin B in oligozoospermic and vitamin D deficient men may be of clinical importance and warrant verification by others. Trial ID: NCT01304927.......Context: Animal models and cross-sectional cohort studies have suggested a beneficial role for vitamin D in male reproduction. Objective: Determine the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on semen quality in infertile men with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25OHD)≤ 50 nmol/l. Design...... calcium daily for 150 days, while the other group received placebo. Results: Serum concentrations of 25-OHD and 1,25OH2D3 were significantly higher in men treated with vitamin D + calcium for 150 days compared with placebo. Vitamin D supplementation was not associated with changes in semen parameters...

  17. The Effect of Intercourse around Embryo Transfer on Pregnancy Rate in Assisted Reproductive Technology Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Tabibnejad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Implantation failure is the most important cause of recurrent in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI failure. Several reports suggest that intercourse during theperitransfer period might improve pregnancy rates. This study is designed to determine whetherintercourse during the peritransfer period will improve pregnancy and implantation rates in patientsundergoing IVF or ICSI.Materials and Methods: In a randomized control trial study, 390 women with at least five yearsinfertility were evaluated. In the study group, 195 patients had intercourse at least once 12 hours afterembryo transfer. Implantation and clinical pregnancy rates were compared with 195 patients in thecontrol group who had no intercourse for the entire assisted reproductive technology (ART cycle.Results: Implantation rate in the study group was 6.5% in comparison with 5.5% for the controlgroup. Clinical pregnancy rates were not significantly higher in study patients when compared tothe control group (14.2% and 11.7% respectively.Conclusion: The results showed that intercourse during the peritransfer period can not increasepregnancy outcome.

  18. Effects of mine acid on the longevity and reproductive rate of the Gastrotricha Lepidodermella squammata (Dujardin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faucon, A.S.; Hummon, W.D.

    1976-09-30

    Effects of mine acid on longevity and reproductive rate of the parthenogenic gastrotrich Lepidodermella squammata were studied under laboratory culture conditions. Water from unpolluted and polluted streams was used, directly or mixed, to establish a series of test conditions at pH 8.1, 7.1, 6.4, 5.2, 4.6, and 3.3. Eggs, cultured individually under each test condition, were observed at 12 h intervals for hatching, daughter egg laying and death. Data representing 50 animals under each test condition were used in the construction of a series of life tables. From these were calculated maximal life expectancy (e/sub x/), net reproductive rate per individual lifetime (R/sub 0/) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (r/sub max/). Values of e, R/sub 0/ and r/sub max/ were maximal at pH 7.1 and were reduced slightly at the higher pH: e/sub x/ was greatly reduced and R/sub 0/ zero at pH 6.4 and 5.2; and e/sub x/ was zero at pH 4.6 and 3.3. Analysis of variance tests indicate significant differences between e/sub x/ values of L. squammata cultured at pH 8.1 and those cultured at pH 7.1, but no differences between R/sub 0/ or r/sub max/. Associated with the decrease in pH was an increase in total conductivity and a decrease in carbonate alkalinity and hence in carbonate conductivity. It appears that L. squammata is capable of living and reproducing at pH 6.0 to 6.5 under field conditions low in carbonates, providing non-carbonate ions are not abundant, or under field conditions high in non-carbonate ions, providing sufficient carbonates are present.

  19. Demographic aspects of Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera, Calliphoridae adults maintained under experimental conditions: reproductive rate estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Henrique de Carvalho

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate some aspects of the populational ecology of Chrysomya megacephala, analyzing demographic aspects of adults kept under experimental conditions. Cages of C. megacephala adults were prepared with four different larval densities (100, 200, 400 and 800. For each cage, two tables were made: one with demographic parameters for the life expectancy estimate at the initial age (e0, and another with the reproductive rate and average reproduction age estimates. Populational parameters such as the intrinsic growth rate (r and the finite growth rate (lambda were calculated as well.Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius (Diptera, Calliphoridae é uma espécie de mosca-varejeira de considerável importância médico-sanitária que foi introduzida acidentalmente no Brasil nos anos 70. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar alguns aspectos da ecologia populacional desta espécie, analisando aspectos demográficos de adultos mantidos sob condições experimentais. Gaiolas de C. megacephala foram montadas com quatro diferentes densidades larvais (100, 200, 400 e 800. Para cada gaiola, foram confeccionadas duas tabelas: uma com parâmetros demográficos para a estimativa da expectativa de vida na idade inicial (e0, e outra com as estimativas de taxa reprodutiva e idade média de reprodução. Parâmetros populacionais tais como a taxa intrínseca de crescimento (r e a taxa finita de crescimento (lambda foram também calculados.

  20. Is the fertile window extended in women with polycystic ovary syndrome? Utilizing the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology registry to assess the impact of reproductive aging on live-birth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Suleena Kansal; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Dokras, Anuja

    2013-07-01

    To assess whether women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) follow the same age-related decline in IVF outcomes as women with tubal factor infertility over the reproductive life span. PCOS is characterized by increased ovarian reserve as assessed by antral follicle counts and anti-Müllerian hormone levels. It is unclear whether these surrogate markers of ovarian reserve reflect a true lengthening of the reproductive window. Retrospective cohort. Not applicable. Women with PCOS and tubal factor infertility (42,286 cycles). IVF. Pregnancy and live-birth rates. The mean number of oocytes retrieved was higher in women with PCOS compared with in women with tubal factor (16.4 vs. 12.8; odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-1.29). The clinical pregnancy (42.5% vs. 35.8%; OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.27-1.38) and live-birth rates were also increased in women with PCOS (34.8% vs. 29.1%; OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.24-1.35). A similar rate of decline in clinical pregnancy and live-birth rates was noted in both groups (20-44 years). The implantation, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and live-birth rates were not significantly different for each year after age 40 in the two groups. Despite a higher oocyte yield in all age groups, women with PCOS over age 40 had similar clinical pregnancy and live-birth rates compared with women with tubal factor infertility. These findings suggest that the reproductive window may not be extended in PCOS and that patients with infertility should be treated in a timely manner despite indicators of high ovarian reserve. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reproductive performance of gilts according to growth rate and backfat thickness at mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral Filha, W S; Bernardi, M L; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2010-08-01

    The study evaluated the influence of growth rate (GR) and backfat thickness (BF), at first mating of gilts, on the reproductive performance until the first farrowing and on the variation in birth weight of piglets. Gilts were categorized into three groups according to GR from birth until the first mating: GRI (600-700 g/d; n = 345), GRII (701-770 g/d; n = 710) and GRIII (771-870 g/d; n = 366). Analyses were also performed considering three groups formed according to BF (mm) at mating: BFI (10-15 mm; n = 405); BFII (16-17 mm; n = 649)and BFIII (18-23 mm; n = 367). There were no differences in farrowing rate and return to estrus rate among BF or GR groups (P > 0.05). GRII and GRIII females had larger litter size compared to GRI gilts (P GRI and GRII females. Moreover GRIII females had more piglets (P GRI females. More total born and born alive piglets were observed in BFII compared with BFI females (P 0.05). These results show that there is no advantage, in terms of farrowing rate and number of born alive, in performing the first mating of gilts with GR> 770 g/d and BF > 17 mm.

  2. Effect of anthelmintics on reproductive performance and first-lactation culling rate in Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, M E; Perri, A F; Miglierina, M M; Formía, N; Becú-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2009-12-26

    Female Holstein calves were treated with ivermectin from birth to first oestrus to study the effect of parasitic burden and anthelmintic treatment on reproductive and productive performance. First oestrus, age at first service and age at calving were advanced by 30, 70 and 110 days, respectively (P<0.05), in ivermectin-treated animals compared with controls. No significant differences were observed in the conception rate, the number of services and the characteristics of the newborn calves and any problems at calving between the two groups. Daily milk yield, fat content in milk during first lactation, and the concentrations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor type 1, insulin and prolactin in serum were similar in both groups of cows. Culling during the first lactation was more common in untreated (47 per cent) than in treated (11 per cent) cows (P<0.05).

  3. Reproduction-related sound production of grasshoppers regulated by internal state and actual sensory environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eHeinrich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The interplay of neural and hormonal mechanisms activated by entero- and exteroreceptors biases the selection of actions by decision making neuronal circuits. The reproductive behaviour of acoustically communicating grasshoppers, which is regulated by short-term neural and longer-term hormonal mechanisms, has frequently been used to study the cellular and physiological processes that select particular actions from the species-specific repertoire of behaviours. Various grasshoppers communicate with species- and situation-specific songs in order to attract and court mating partners, to signal reproductive readiness or to fend off competitors. Selection and coordination of type, intensity and timing of sound signals is mediated by the central complex, a highly structured brain neuropil known to integrate multimodal pre-processed sensory information by a large number of chemical messengers. In addition, reproductive activity including sound production critically depends on maturation, previous mating experience and oviposition cycles. In this regard, juvenile hormone released from the corpora allata has been identified as a decisive hormonal signal necessary to establish reproductive motivation in grasshopper females. Both regulatory systems, the central complex mediating short-term regulation and the corpora allata mediating longer-term regulation of reproduction related sound production mutually influence each other’s activity in order to generate a coherent state of excitation that promotes or suppresses reproductive behaviour in respective appropriate or inappropriate situations.This review summarizes our current knowledge about extrinsic and intrinsic factors that influence grasshopper reproductive motivation, their representation in the nervous system and their integrative processing that mediates the initiation or suppression of reproductive behaviors.

  4. Reproduction-Related Sound Production of Grasshoppers Regulated by Internal State and Actual Sensory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ralf; Kunst, Michael; Wirmer, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The interplay of neural and hormonal mechanisms activated by entero- and extero-receptors biases the selection of actions by decision making neuronal circuits. The reproductive behavior of acoustically communicating grasshoppers, which is regulated by short-term neural and longer-term hormonal mechanisms, has frequently been used to study the cellular and physiological processes that select particular actions from the species-specific repertoire of behaviors. Various grasshoppers communicate with species- and situation-specific songs in order to attract and court mating partners, to signal reproductive readiness, or to fend off competitors. Selection and coordination of type, intensity, and timing of sound signals is mediated by the central complex, a highly structured brain neuropil known to integrate multimodal pre-processed sensory information by a large number of chemical messengers. In addition, reproductive activity including sound production critically depends on maturation, previous mating experience, and oviposition cycles. In this regard, juvenile hormone released from the corpora allata has been identified as a decisive hormonal signal necessary to establish reproductive motivation in grasshopper females. Both regulatory systems, the central complex mediating short-term regulation and the corpora allata mediating longer-term regulation of reproduction-related sound production mutually influence each other’s activity in order to generate a coherent state of excitation that promotes or suppresses reproductive behavior in respective appropriate or inappropriate situations. This review summarizes our current knowledge about extrinsic and intrinsic factors that influence grasshopper reproductive motivation, their representation in the nervous system and their integrative processing that mediates the initiation or suppression of reproductive behaviors. PMID:22737107

  5. The microbiota continuum along the female reproductive tract and its relation to uterine-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Song, Xiaolei; Wei, Weixia; Zhong, Huanzi; Dai, Juanjuan; Lan, Zhou; Li, Fei; Yu, Xinlei; Feng, Qiang; Wang, Zirong; Xie, Hailiang; Chen, Xiaomin; Zeng, Chunwei; Wen, Bo; Zeng, Liping; Du, Hui; Tang, Huiru; Xu, Changlu; Xia, Yan; Xia, Huihua; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; Madsen, Lise; Brix, Susanne; Kristiansen, Karsten; Xu, Xun; Li, Junhua; Wu, Ruifang; Jia, Huijue

    2017-10-17

    Reports on bacteria detected in maternal fluids during pregnancy are typically associated with adverse consequences, and whether the female reproductive tract harbours distinct microbial communities beyond the vagina has been a matter of debate. Here we systematically sample the microbiota within the female reproductive tract in 110 women of reproductive age, and examine the nature of colonisation by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and cultivation. We find distinct microbial communities in cervical canal, uterus, fallopian tubes and peritoneal fluid, differing from that of the vagina. The results reflect a microbiota continuum along the female reproductive tract, indicative of a non-sterile environment. We also identify microbial taxa and potential functions that correlate with the menstrual cycle or are over-represented in subjects with adenomyosis or infertility due to endometriosis. The study provides insight into the nature of the vagino-uterine microbiome, and suggests that surveying the vaginal or cervical microbiota might be useful for detection of common diseases in the upper reproductive tract.Whether the female reproductive tract harbours distinct microbiomes beyond the vagina has been a matter of debate. Here, the authors show a subject-specific continuity in microbial communities at six sites along the female reproductive tract, indicative of a non-sterile environment.

  6. The microbiota continuum along the female reproductive tract and its relation to uterine-related diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen; Song, Xiaolei; Wei, Weixia

    2017-01-01

    Reports on bacteria detected in maternal fluids during pregnancy are typically associated with adverse consequences, and whether the female reproductive tract harbours distinct microbial communities beyond the vagina has been a matter of debate. Here we systematically sample the microbiota within...... the female reproductive tract in 110 women of reproductive age, and examine the nature of colonisation by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and cultivation. We find distinct microbial communities in cervical canal, uterus, fallopian tubes and peritoneal fluid, differing from that of the vagina. The results...

  7. Diet density in rearing and reproductive phases influences carcass composition, pregnancy rate and litter performance of primiparous rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio dos Santos Teixeira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of the interaction of diet density in the rearing phase×diet density in the reproductive phase on carcass composition, pregnancy rate, and litter performance of primiparous rabbit does. The experiment followed a 2×2×2 factorial (2 seasons, 2 diet densities in the rearing phase and 2 diet densities in reproductive phase, that is, from mating to weaning of the first litter. The reference diet (RD contained 184 g/kg of crude protein (CP, 165 g/kg of acid detergent fibre (ADF and 10.5 MJ/kg of digestible energy (DE. The low-density diet (LD had 147 g/kg of CP, 24 g/kg of ADF and 8.4 MJ/kg of DE. The treatments were applied from 70 d of age until weaning of the first litter at 35 d of age. Ninety-six females from the Botucatu Genetic Group (24 females/experimental group were mated at 142 d of age. On day 12 of gestation, 23 does were slaughtered to evaluate weights of carcass, organs and dissectible fat, and embryo implantation rate. No effects of diet density in the rearing or in the reproductive phases were detected on feed intake of does during the reproductive phase. Does fed LD during the rearing phase showed lower body weight at mating (3574±47 vs. 3866±43 g, P=0.0001 and during most of the reproductive phase, but they lost less weight in the peripartum. Perirenal fat was lighter in these does (72.8±10.0 vs. 102.1±9.6 g, P=0.048 and they showed a lower pregnancy rate (76.1 vs. 91.7%, P=0.045. The does fed RD in the reproductive phase were heavier during this phase (4055±40 g vs. 3887±41 g, P=0.0044. The does fed LD in rearing phase and RD in the reproductive phase showed larger litters at weaning, due to decreased kit mortality, than those fed RD in both phases (6.16±0.47 vs. 3.93±0.71, P=0.0361. Litters were lighter at weaning when LD was fed in the reproductive phase (3582±201 vs. 4733±187, P<0.0001. Feeding a low-density diet during the rearing phase and a reference diet during the

  8. Reproductive traits and evolutionary divergence between Mediterranean crops and their wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriondo, J M; Milla, R; Volis, S; Rubio de Casas, R

    2018-01-01

    Changes in reproductive traits associated with domestication critically determine the evolutionary divergence between crops and their wild relatives, as well as the potential of crop plants to become feral. In this review, we examine the genetic mechanisms of plant domestication and the different types of selection involved, and describe the particularities of domestication of Mediterranean field crops with regard to their reproductive traits, showing illustrative examples. We also explore gene flow patterns between Mediterranean field crops and their wild relatives, along with their ecological, evolutionary and economic implications. Domestication entails multiple selective processes, including direct selection, environmental adaptation and developmental constraints. In contrast to clonal propagation in perennials, sexual reproduction and seed propagation in annuals and biennials have led to a distinct pathway of evolution of reproductive traits. Thus, the initial domestication and further breeding of Mediterranean field crops has brought about changes in reproductive traits, such as higher mean values and variance of seed and fruit sizes, reduced fruit and seed toxicity, non-shattering seeds and loss of seed dormancy. Evolution under domestication is not a linear process, and bi-directional gene flow between wild and crop taxa is a frequent phenomenon. Thus, hybridisation and introgression have played a very important role in determining the genetics of current cultivars. In turn, gene flow from crops to wild relatives can lead to introgression of crop genes into wild populations and potentially alter the characteristics of natural communities. In conclusion, plant evolution under domestication has not only changed the reproductive biology of cultivated taxa, its effects are multifaceted and have implications beyond agriculture. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. Reproductive performance and mortality rate in Menz and Horro sheep following controlled breeding in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhan, A.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The reproductive and lamb mortality data (n = 4890) of Horro and Menz ewes following controlled breeding in Ethiopia were analyzed. Sheep were treated with flugestone acetate (FGA) intravaginal sponges during the wet and dry seasons to compare the reproductive performance of the two indigenous

  10. Temperature modulates dengue virus epidemic growth rates through its effects on reproduction numbers and generation intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siraj, A. S.; Oidtman, R. J.; Huber, J. H.; Kraemer, M. U.; Brady, O. J.; Johansson, M. A.; Perkins, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Epidemic growth rate, r, provides a more complete description of the potential for epidemics than the more commonly studied basic reproduction number, R0, yet the former has never been described as a function of temperature for dengue virus or other pathogens with temperature-sensitive transmission. The need to understand the drivers of epidemics of these pathogens is acute, with arthropod-borne virus epidemics becoming increasingly problematic. We addressed this need by developing temperature-dependent descriptions of the two components of r—R0 and the generation interval—to obtain a temperature-dependent description of r. Our results show that the generation interval is highly sensitive to temperature, decreasing twofold between 25 and 35 °C and suggesting that dengue virus epidemics may accelerate as temperatures increase, not only because of more infections per generation but also because of faster generations. Under the empirical temperature relationships that we considered, we found that r peaked at a temperature threshold that was robust to uncertainty in model parameters that do not depend on temperature. Although the precise value of this temperature threshold could be refined following future studies of empirical temperature relationships, the framework we present for identifying such temperature thresholds offers a new way to classify regions in which dengue virus epidemic intensity could either increase or decrease under future climate change.

  11. The dynamics of reproductive rate, offspring survivorship and growth in the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qiang; Li, Gang; Qin, Geng; Lin, Junda; Huang, Liangmin; Sun, Hushan; Feng, Peiyong

    2012-01-01

    Summary Seahorses are the vertebrate group with the embryonic development occurring within a special pouch in males. To understand the reproductive efficiency of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 under controlled breeding experiments, we investigated the dynamics of reproductive rate, offspring survivorship and growth over births by the same male seahorses. The mean brood size of the 1-year old pairs in the 1st birth was 85.4±56.9 per brood, which was significantly smaller than that in the 6th birth (465.9±136.4 per brood) (Pseahorses H. erectus increased with the brood pouch development. PMID:23213429

  12. Environmental and Life Style Factors in Relation to Male Reproductive Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krysiak-Baltyn, Konrad

    on the environmental aspects of TDS, generating further support for the hypothesis that environmental factors may play a critical role in the observed trends. This thesis is divided into four parts. In the first part I introduce male reproductive disorders and the current state of affairs. In the second part, I focus......During the past four decades, the incidence rates of testicular cancer and other male reproductive disorders have been increasing at a rapid rate, predominantly in developed and industrialized countries. This increase is considered too great to be explained by genetic factors alone, and thus...... environmental factors have strongly been suspected to play a major role. There is a large amount of clinical research which has tried to pinpoint the mechanism of action for this trend. Although the exact mechanism of action has not been elucidated, a number of genetic factors as well as environmental chemicals...

  13. Influence of radiation exposure rate on somatic mutation frequency and loss of reproductive integrity in tradescantia stamen hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, S.; Nauman, C.H.; Sparrow, A.H.; Takahashi, C.S.

    1978-01-01

    Inflorescences of Tradescantia clone 02 (2n=12), hetero- or hemi-zygous for flower color, were exposed to a series of γ-ray exposures at two different exposure rates, 29.3 R/min and 0.026-0.52 R/min. Pink mutation-response curves, and survival curves based on reproductive integrity, were constructed for each of the exposure rates. Loss of reproductive integrity was also assessed at high (256 R/min) and low (0.52-4.17 R/min) γ-ray exposure rates in T. blossfeldiana (2n=72). All observations were made on stamen hairs. The higher exposure rate was 1.3-1.7 times more effective in inducing pink mutations in clone 02. A greater efficiency of the higher exposure rate was also found for both taxa at the loss of reproductive integrity endpoint. The D 0 values obtained at the higher exposure rates, 154 R for clone 02 and 720 R for T. blossfeldiana, were significantly lower than the corresponding values of 270 R and 1880 R obtained at the lower exposure rates. These D 0 's differ by factors of 1.75 and 2.61 for clone 02 and T. blossfeldiana, respectively. D 0 's for the two taxa were found to be inversely correlated with their interphase chromosome volumes. (Auth.)

  14. Father absence and reproduction-related outcomes in Malaysia, a transitional fertility population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Paula; Snopkowski, Kristin; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Father absence is consistently associated with children's reproductive outcomes in industrialized countries. It has been suggested that father absence acts as a cue to particular environmental conditions that influence life history strategies. Much less is known, however, about the effects of father absence on such outcomes in lower-income countries. Using data from the 1988 Malaysian Family Life Survey (n = 567), we tested the effect of father absence on daughters' age at menarche, first marriage, and first birth; parity progression rates; and desired completed family size in Malaysia, a country undergoing an economic and fertility transition. Father absence during later childhood (ages 8 to 15), although not during earlier childhood, was associated with earlier progressions to first marriage and first birth, after controlling for other confounders. Father absence does not affect age at menarche, desired family size, or progression from first to second birth. The patterns found in this transitional population partly mirror those in developed societies, where father absence accelerates reproductive events. There is, however, a notable contrast between the acceleration in menarche for father-absent girls consistently found in developed societies and the lack of any association in our findings. The mechanisms through which father absence affects reproduction may differ in different ecological contexts. In lower-income contexts, direct paternal investment or influence may be of more importance in determining reproductive behavior than whether fathers act as a cue to environmental conditions.

  15. High incidence of monozygotic twinning after assisted reproduction is related to genetic information, but not to assisted reproduction technology itself

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sobek Jr., A.; Zbořilová, B.; Procházka, M.; Šilhánová, E.; Koutná, O.; Klásková, E.; Tkadlec, Emil; Sobek, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 3 (2015), s. 756-760 ISSN 0015-0282 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : monozygotic twins * genetics * assisted reproduction techniques * infertility Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.426, year: 2015

  16. Survival rates and lifetime reproduction of breeding male Cooper’s Hawks in Wisconsin, 1980-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Rosenfield, Laura J.; Booms, Travis L.; Bozek, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    There are few published data on annual survival and no reports of lifetime reproduction for breeding Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Breeding males (n  =  105) in central and southeastern Wisconsin had an annual mortality rate of 19%, or a survival rate of 81% for birds ≤10 years of age. We did not detect significant differences in mortality rates between urban and rural habitats, nor between the earlier 13 years and later 13 years of this study. Male Cooper's Hawks produced from zero to 32 nestlings during their lifetimes. Body mass or size appeared unrelated to annual survivorship and lifetime reproduction, although lifetime reproduction was correlated strongly with longevity of breeding males. Fifteen of 66 males (23%) produced most (53%) of the nestlings. Our studies occurred in an area where breeding populations may be increasing with some of the highest reported productivity indices and nesting densities for this species. Habitat used for nesting on our Wisconsin study areas may be less important for survivorship and lifetime reproduction than acquisition of a nesting area in which a male will breed throughout his life.

  17. The microbiota continuum along the female reproductive tract and its relation to uterine-related diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chen; Song, Xiaolei; Wei, Weixia

    2017-01-01

    Reports on bacteria detected in maternal fluids during pregnancy are typically associated with adverse consequences, and whether the female reproductive tract harbours distinct microbial communities beyond the vagina has been a matter of debate. Here we systematically sample the microbiota within...

  18. Declining trends in conception rates in recent birth cohorts of native Danish women: a possible role of deteriorating male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Sobotka, Thomás; Hansen, Martin A.

    2008-01-01

    lower TNCR and that in terms of their total fertility rate, the declining TNCR is compensated by an increasing use of ART. Our hypothesis of an ongoing birth cohort-related decline in fecundity was also supported by our finding of increasing and substantial use of ART in the management of infertility......Recent findings of poor semen quality among at least 20% of normal young men in Denmark prompted us to use unique Danish registers on births and induced abortions to evaluate a possible effect of the poor male fecundity on pregnancy rates among their presumed partners - the younger cohorts of women....... We have analysed data from the Danish birth and abortion registries as well as the Danish registry for assisted reproduction (ART) and defined a total natural conception rate (TNCR), which is equal to fertility rate plus induced abortion rate minus ART conception rate. A unique personal...

  19. Declining trends in conception rates in recent birth cohorts of native Danish women: a possible role of deteriorating male reproductive health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.K.; Sobotka, T.; Hansen, Marc Allan

    2008-01-01

    lower TNCR and that in terms of their total fertility rate, the declining TNCR is compensated by an increasing use of ART. Our hypothesis of an ongoing birth cohort-related decline in fecundity was also supported by our finding of increasing and substantial use of ART in the management of infertility......Recent findings of poor semen quality among at least 20% of normal young men in Denmark prompted us to use unique Danish registers on births and induced abortions to evaluate a possible effect of the poor male fecundity on pregnancy rates among their presumed partners--the younger cohorts of women....... We have analysed data from the Danish birth and abortion registries as well as the Danish registry for assisted reproduction (ART) and defined a total natural conception rate (TNCR), which is equal to fertility rate plus induced abortion rate minus ART conception rate. A unique personal...

  20. High rates of hybridisation reveal fragile reproductive barriers between endangered Australian sea snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Kate L; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Guinea, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    designations, but revealed high frequencies of hybrids on all four reefs and individuals of pure A. fuscus ancestry only at Scott and (historically) Ashmore. Most unexpectedly, 95% of snakes sampled at Hibernia were hybrids that resembled A. laevis in phenotype, revealing a collapse of reproductive barriers...... (‘reverse speciation’) at this reef. These results have dire implications for the conservation status of A. fuscus, and highlight the fragility of reproductive barriers in a recent marine radiation....

  1. Reproductive Performance of a Declining Forest Passerine in Relation to Environmental and Social Factors: Implications for Species Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Grendelmeier

    Full Text Available Identifying factors influencing a species' ecological niche and demography is a prerequisite for species conservation. However, our understanding of the interplay between demographic rates and biotic/abiotic factors is still poor for most species of conservation concern. We evaluated relevance of eight hypotheses relating to timing of breeding, temporal nest exposure, nest concealment, topography, tree structure, predation risk and disturbance, density dependence and weather for explaining variation in reproductive performance of the declining wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in northern Switzerland. Reproductive performance was monitored with cameras at 136 nests from 2010 to 2012 and was associated to temporal exposure, timing of breeding and concealment of nests. Daily nest survival was positively related to the number of grass and sedge tussocks, nest concealment and nest age. Clutch size and number of fledglings decreased, the later in the season a nest was initiated. Nest survival over an average nesting period of 31 days was 46.9 ± 0.07% (mean ± SE, daily nest survival rate was 0.976 ± 0.002. As for many ground-breeding birds, nest predation was the principal cause of nest failure, accounting for 79% of all nest losses. Conservation measures should aim at increasing the area of relatively homogenous forest stands featuring suitable habitats characterized by abundant and accessible grass and sedge tussocks. In managed forests, such conditions can be found in stands of middle age (i.e. pole wood with little to no shrub layer.

  2. Reproductive Performance of a Declining Forest Passerine in Relation to Environmental and Social Factors: Implications for Species Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grendelmeier, Alex; Arlettaz, Raphaël; Gerber, Michael; Pasinelli, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Identifying factors influencing a species' ecological niche and demography is a prerequisite for species conservation. However, our understanding of the interplay between demographic rates and biotic/abiotic factors is still poor for most species of conservation concern. We evaluated relevance of eight hypotheses relating to timing of breeding, temporal nest exposure, nest concealment, topography, tree structure, predation risk and disturbance, density dependence and weather for explaining variation in reproductive performance of the declining wood warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix in northern Switzerland. Reproductive performance was monitored with cameras at 136 nests from 2010 to 2012 and was associated to temporal exposure, timing of breeding and concealment of nests. Daily nest survival was positively related to the number of grass and sedge tussocks, nest concealment and nest age. Clutch size and number of fledglings decreased, the later in the season a nest was initiated. Nest survival over an average nesting period of 31 days was 46.9 ± 0.07% (mean ± SE), daily nest survival rate was 0.976 ± 0.002. As for many ground-breeding birds, nest predation was the principal cause of nest failure, accounting for 79% of all nest losses. Conservation measures should aim at increasing the area of relatively homogenous forest stands featuring suitable habitats characterized by abundant and accessible grass and sedge tussocks. In managed forests, such conditions can be found in stands of middle age (i.e. pole wood) with little to no shrub layer.

  3. Lifestyle-Related Factors Associated with Reproductive Health in Couples Seeking Fertility Treatments: Results of A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Lou Piché

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a larger prospective cohort study, which will aim at determining the independent contribution of male and female lifestyle-related factors to assisted reproductive technology (ART success. The study also examined whether couples seeking fertility treatments present lifestyle-related factors that may interfere with their reproductive health. Materials and Methods This prospective pilot study was conducted in a fertility clinic between May 2015 and February 2016. Feasibility factors evaluated were recruitment rates, compliance with the protocol, retention rate and ART outcomes at six-month follow-up. Anthropometric profile and lifestyle habits of both partners were evaluated before the beginning of infertility treatments. Results We approached 130 eligible infertile couples. Among them, 32 (25% agreed to participate and 28 (88% complied with the protocol. At six-month follow-up, seven couples (25% did not start, or stop, infertility treatments and 13 couples (62% achieved a clinical pregnancy. Among the 28 couples included in the analyses, 16% of the partners were obese and 23% had abdominal obesity. The majority of the subjects were still drinking alcohol (84%. Sixty-eight percent of women needed improvement in their diet (vs. 95% of men, P=0.05 and none of them achieved the Canadian recommendations for physical activity (vs. 33% of men, P=0.001. Moreover, 35% of the partners had a poor sleep quality. Overall, women presented a worse reproductive health profile than men, with 3.1 and 2.4 out of seven adverse factors, respectively (P=0.04. Conclusion Conducting a large prospective cohort study in our fertility clinic will be feasible but recruitment and compliance with the protocol need to be improved. Many women and men seeking fertility treatments present unfavourable lifestyle-related factors that may explain, at least partially, their difficulties in

  4. Prenatal and postnatal maternal contributions to reproductive, maternal, and size-related traits of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Maurer, R R

    1991-03-01

    Brown Swiss-Hereford (BS-H) reciprocal cross embryos were transferred to BS and H recipient cows and Red Poll-Angus (RP-A) reciprocal cross embryos were transferred to RP and A recipient cows to estimate the relative contributions of ovum cytoplasm and uterine influences to prenatal maternal effects. Calves resulting from embryo transfers (ET) were weaned early (3 to 5 d). Reciprocal cross mating also were made by natural service (NS) between BS and H and between RP and A breeds; part of the offspring were weaned at 3 to 5 d, and the remainder nursed their dams to an age of 150 to 180 d. This was done to estimate breed differences in prenatal and postnatal effects combined and to separate the effects of prenatal maternal influences from postnatal maternal influences of these breeds. Females produced in both ET and NS parts of the experiment were retained to produce three calf crops to an age of about 4.5 yr. The following traits were analyzed: percentage of conception rate; percentage of calf survival; percentage of calves produced per cow exposed; birth and weaning weights of calves produced; and periodic weights, heights, and condition scores of females to an age of 4.5 yr. Neither breed of donor (cytoplasmic influence) nor breed of recipient (uterine influence) had consistently important effects on the traits evaluated. In NS matings, differences between reciprocal crosses were small for most of the traits evaluated. Method of rearing (nursed vs weaned at 3 to 5 d) had no effect on reproductive and maternal traits for RP-A reciprocal cross females, but females that nursed generally were heavier, were taller, and had higher condition scores at most ages than early-weaned females. For the BS-H reciprocal cross, early-weaned females were favored over females reared by their dams in percentage of calves produced per cow exposed, but the method of rearing did not affect other reproductive or maternal traits. BS-H reciprocal cross females that nursed their dams were

  5. Association between SNPs within candidate genes and compounds related to boar taint and reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moe, Maren; Lien, Sigbjørn; Aasmundstad, Torunn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Boar taint is an unpleasant odour and flavour of the meat from some uncastrated male pigs primarily caused by elevated levels of androstenone and skatole in adipose tissue. Androstenone is produced in the same biochemical pathway as testosterone and estrogens, which represents...... of this study was to detect SNPs in boar taint candidate genes and to perform association studies for both single SNPs and haplotypes with levels of boar taint compounds and phenotypes related to reproduction. RESULTS: An association study involving 275 SNPs in 121 genes and compounds related to boar taint...... and reproduction were carried out in Duroc and Norwegian Landrace boars. Phenotypes investigated were levels of androstenone, skatole and indole in adipose tissue, levels of androstenone, testosterone, estrone sulphate and 17beta-estradiol in plasma, and length of bulbo urethralis gland. The SNPs were genotyped...

  6. Spawning Dynamics and Size Related Trends in Reproductive Parameters of Southern Bluefin Tuna, Thunnus maccoyii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica H Farley

    Full Text Available Knowledge of spawning behaviour and fecundity of fish is important for estimating the reproductive potential of a stock and for constructing appropriate statistical models for assessing sustainable catch levels. Estimates of length-based reproductive parameters are particularly important for determining potential annual fecundity as a function of fish size, but they are often difficult to estimate reliably. Here we provide new information on the reproductive dynamics of southern bluefin tuna (SBT Thunnus maccoyii through the analysis of fish size and ovary histology collected on the spawning ground in 1993-1995 and 1999-2002. These are used to refine previous parameter estimates of spawning dynamics and investigate size related trends in these parameters. Our results suggest that the small SBT tend to arrive on the spawning ground slightly later and depart earlier in the spawning season relative to large fish. All females were mature and the majority were classed as spawning capable (actively spawning or non-spawning with a very small proportion classed as regressing. The fraction of females spawning per day decreased with fish size, but once females start a spawning episode, they spawned daily irrespective of size. Mean batch fecundity was estimated directly at 6.5 million oocytes. Analysis of ovary histology and ovary weight data indicated that relative batch fecundity, and the duration of spawning and non-spawning episodes, increased with fish size. These reproductive parameter estimates could be used with estimates of residency time on the spawning ground as a function of fish size (if known and demographic data for the spawning population to provide a time series of relative annual fecundity for SBT.

  7. Effect of restricted feeding under rearing on reproduction, body condition and blood metabolites of rabbit does selected for growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Naturil-Alfonso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Young rabbit females selected for growth rate can have nutritional needs which may not be met by the common practice of feed restriction during rearing in commercial rabbit production. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of two different feeding programmes: restricted and ad libitum feeding, applied in young rabbit females for one month at the end of rearing, on reproductive performance, body condition and circulating metabolic hormones and metabolites in a rabbit line selected by growth rate in 3 consecutive reproductive cycles. Thus, twenty-four 16-week-old does were randomly assigned to a group in which the daily recommended nutrient intakes were satisfied (fed restricted: 130 g/day, n=13 or a group fed to satiety (ad libitum: 235.5 g/day, n=11 during one month. Then, all does were inseminated in 3 consecutive cycles using a 42-day reproductive cycle. Measurements of does’ body weight, perirenal fat thickness and plasma leptin, non-esterified-fatty-acids (NEFA, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB and fructosamine were performed at artificial insemination (AI, parturition and weaning time in 3 consecutive cycles. Reproductive performance of does was evaluated based on fertility, litter size at parturition, prolificacy and productivity. Differences in body weight were found only in the 1st cycle, ad libitum fed females being heavier than restricted ones. Nevertheless, body weight variances disappeared in later cycles. No differences were found in perirenal fat thickness. Finally, in ad libitum fed females slight differences were found in plasma levels of NEFAs (452 vs. 258 μekv/L and 527 vs. 306 μekv/L for 1st and 2nd cycles and BOHB (0.26 vs. 0.03 mM for 2nd cycle, but disappeared in the 3rd reproductive cycle. Fertility, prolificacy and productivity was not significantly affected by the feeding programme. Nevertheless, total litter size showed to be higher in ad libitum fed females at second parturition (8.7 vs. 5.9 kits. Therefore

  8. The dynamics of reproductive rate, offspring survivorship and growth in the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lin

    2012-02-01

    Seahorses are the vertebrate group with the embryonic development occurring within a special pouch in males. To understand the reproductive efficiency of the lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 under controlled breeding experiments, we investigated the dynamics of reproductive rate, offspring survivorship and growth over births by the same male seahorses. The mean brood size of the 1-year old pairs in the 1st birth was 85.4±56.9 per brood, which was significantly smaller than that in the 6th birth (465.9±136.4 per brood (P<0.001. The offspring survivorship and growth rate increased with the births. The fecundity was positively correlated with the length of brood pouches of males and trunk of females. The fecundity of 1-year old male and 2-year old female pairs was significantly higher than that from 1-year old couples (P<0.001. The brood size (552.7±150.4 of the males who mated with females that were isolated for the gamete-preparation, was larger than those (467.8±141.2 from the long-term pairs (P<0.05. Moreover, the offspring from the isolated females had higher survival and growth rates. Our results showed that the potential reproductive rate of seahorses H. erectus increased with the brood pouch development.

  9. Undergoing varicocele repair before assisted reproduction improves pregnancy rate and live birth rate in azoospermic and oligospermic men with a varicocele: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, E Will; Wiener, Laura Elizabeth; Rajanahally, Saneal; Crowell, Karen; Coward, Robert M

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate how varicocele repair (VR) impacts pregnancy (PRs) and live birth rates in infertile couples undergoing assisted reproduction wherein the male partner has oligospermia or azoospermia and a history of varicocele. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Not applicable. Azoospermic and oligospermic males with varicoceles and in couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) with IUI, IVF, or testicular sperm extraction (TESE) with IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Measurement of PRs, live birth, and sperm extraction rates. Odds ratios for the impact of VR on PRs, live birth, and sperm extraction rates for couples undergoing ART. Seven articles involving a total of 1,241 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that VR improved live birth rates for the oligospermic (odds ratio [OR] = 1.699) and combined oligospermic/azoospermic groups (OR = 1.761). Pregnancy rates were higher in the azoospermic group (OR = 2.336) and combined oligospermic/azoospermic groups (OR = 1.760). Live birth rates were higher for patients undergoing IUI after VR (OR = 8.360). Sperm retrieval rates were higher in persistently azoospermic men after VR (OR = 2.509). Oligospermic and azoospermic patients with clinical varicocele who undergo VR experience improved live birth rates and PRs with IVF or IVF/ICSI. For persistently azoospermic men after VR requiring TESE for IVF/ICSI, VR improves sperm retrieval rates. Therefore, VR should be considered to have substantial benefits for couples with a clinical varicocele even if oligospermia or azoospermia persists after repair and ART is required. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexual and reproductive health status and related knowledge among female migrant workers in Guangzhou, China: a cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, C.; Xu, L.; Wu, J.; Wang, Z.; Decat, P.; Zhang, W.-H.; Cheng, Y.; Moyer, E.; Wu, S.; Minkauskiene, M.; van Braeckel, D.; Temmerman, M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the current sexual and reproductive health (SRH) status including SRH-related knowledge and associated factors, self-reported symptoms of reproductive tract infection (RTI), medical assistance seeking behavior, sexual experience and contraceptive use,

  11. Estimating differential reproductive success from nests of related individuals, with application to a study of the Mottled Sculpin, Cottus bairdi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatrix Jones; Gary D. Grossman; Daniel C.I. Walsh; Brady A. Porter; John C. Avise; Anthony C. Flumera

    2007-01-01

    Understanding how variation in reproductive success is related to demography is a critical component in understanding the life history of an organism. Parentage analysis using molecular markers can be used to estimate the reproductive success of different groups of individuals in natural populations. Previous models have been developed for cases where offspring are...

  12. Rectal temperatures, respiratory rates, production, and reproduction performances of crossbred Girolando cows under heat stress in northeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Antônio Nélson Lima; Feitosa, José Valmir; Montezuma, Péricles Afonso; de Souza, Priscila Teixeira; de Araújo, Airton Alencar

    2015-11-01

    This study compared the two breed groups of Girolando (½ Holstein ½ Gyr vs. ¾ Holstein ¼ Gyr) through analysis of the percentages (stressed or non-stressed cows) of rectal temperature (RT), respiratory rate (RR) and pregnancy rate (PR), and means of production and reproduction parameters to determine the group best suited to rearing in semiarid tropical climate. The experiment was conducted at the farm, in the municipality of Umirim, State of Ceará, Brazil. Two hundred and forty cows were used in a 2 × 2 factorial study; 120 of each group were kept under an intensive system during wet and dry seasons. The environmental parameters obtained were relative humidity (RH), air temperature (AT), and the temperature and humidity index (THI). Pregnancy diagnosis (PD) was determined by ultrasonography 30 days after artificial insemination (AI). The milk production of each cow was recorded with automated milkings in the farm. The variables were expressed as mean and standard error, evaluated by ANOVA at 5 % probability using the GLM procedure of SAS. Chi-square test at 5 % probability was applied to data of RT, RR, pregnancy rate (PR), and the number of AIs to obtain pregnancy. The majority of ½ Holstein cows showed mean values of RT and RR within the normal range in both periods and shifts. Most animals of the ¾ Holstein group exhibited the RR means above normal during the afternoon in the rainy and dry periods and RT means above normal during the afternoon in the dry period. After analyses, ½ Holstein crossbred cows are more capable of thermoregulating than ¾ Holstein cows under conditions of thermal stress, and the dry period was more impacting for bovine physiology with significant changes in physiological parameters, even for the first breed group. Knowledge of breed groups adapted to climatic conditions of northeastern Brazil can directly assist cattle farmers in selecting animals best adapted for forming herds.

  13. External and internal controls of lunar-related reproductive rhythms in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, A; Rahman, M S; Park, Y J

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive activities of many fish species are, to some extent, entrained to cues from the moon. During the spawning season, synchronous spawning is repeated at intervals of c. 1 month (lunar spawning cycle) and 2 weeks (semi-lunar spawning cycle) or daily according to tidal changes (tidal spawning cycle). In species showing lunar-related spawning cycles, oocytes in the ovary develop towards and mature around a specific moon phase for lunar spawners, around spring tides for semi-lunar spawners and at daytime high tides for tidal spawners. The production of sex steroid hormones also changes in accordance with synchronous oocyte development. Since the production of the steroid hormones with lunar-related reproductive periodicity is regulated by gonadotropins, it is considered that the higher parts of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis play important roles in the perception and regulation of lunar-related periodicity. It is likely that fishes perceive cues from the moon by sensory organs; however, it is still unknown how lunar cues are transduced as an endogenous rhythm exerting lunar-related spawning rhythmicity. Recent research has revealed that melatonin fluctuated according to the brightness at night, magnetic fields and the tidal cycle. In addition, cyclic changes in hydrostatic pressure had an effect on monoamine contents in the brain. These factors may be indirectly related to the exertion of lunar-related periodicity. Molecular approaches have revealed that mRNA expressions of light-sensitive clock genes change with moonlight, suggesting that brightness at night plays a role in phase-shifting or resetting of biological clocks. Some species may have evolved biological clocks in relation to lunar cycles, although it is still not known how lunar periodicities are endogenously regulated in fishes. This review demonstrates that lunar-related periodicity is utilized and incorporated by ecological and physiological mechanisms governing the reproductive success

  14. Transcriptomics Analysis of Crassostrea hongkongensis for the Discovery of Reproduction-Related Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Jiaomei; Xiao, Shu; Zhang, Yuehuan; Li, Jun; Chen, Jinhui; Yu, Ziniu

    2015-01-01

    Background The reproductive mechanisms of mollusk species have been interesting targets in biological research because of the diverse reproductive strategies observed in this phylum. These species have also been studied for the development of fishery technologies in molluscan aquaculture. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the reproductive process have been well studied in animal models, the relevant information from mollusks remains limited, particularly in species of great commercial interest. Crassostrea hongkongensis is the dominant oyster species that is distributed along the coast of the South China Sea and little genomic information on this species is available. Currently, high-throughput sequencing techniques have been widely used for investigating the basis of physiological processes and facilitating the establishment of adequate genetic selection programs. Results The C.hongkongensis transcriptome included a total of 1,595,855 reads, which were generated by 454 sequencing and were assembled into 41,472 contigs using de novo methods. Contigs were clustered into 33,920 isotigs and further grouped into 22,829 isogroups. Approximately 77.6% of the isogroups were successfully annotated by the Nr database. More than 1,910 genes were identified as being related to reproduction. Some key genes involved in germline development, sex determination and differentiation were identified for the first time in C.hongkongensis (nanos, piwi, ATRX, FoxL2, β-catenin, etc.). Gene expression analysis indicated that vasa, nanos, piwi, ATRX, FoxL2, β-catenin and SRD5A1 were highly or specifically expressed in C.hongkongensis gonads. Additionally, 94,056 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 1,699 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were compiled. Conclusions Our study significantly increased C.hongkongensis genomic information based on transcriptomics analysis. The group of reproduction-related genes identified in the present study constitutes a new tool for research

  15. Transcriptomics Analysis of Crassostrea hongkongensis for the Discovery of Reproduction-Related Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Tong

    Full Text Available The reproductive mechanisms of mollusk species have been interesting targets in biological research because of the diverse reproductive strategies observed in this phylum. These species have also been studied for the development of fishery technologies in molluscan aquaculture. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the reproductive process have been well studied in animal models, the relevant information from mollusks remains limited, particularly in species of great commercial interest. Crassostrea hongkongensis is the dominant oyster species that is distributed along the coast of the South China Sea and little genomic information on this species is available. Currently, high-throughput sequencing techniques have been widely used for investigating the basis of physiological processes and facilitating the establishment of adequate genetic selection programs.The C.hongkongensis transcriptome included a total of 1,595,855 reads, which were generated by 454 sequencing and were assembled into 41,472 contigs using de novo methods. Contigs were clustered into 33,920 isotigs and further grouped into 22,829 isogroups. Approximately 77.6% of the isogroups were successfully annotated by the Nr database. More than 1,910 genes were identified as being related to reproduction. Some key genes involved in germline development, sex determination and differentiation were identified for the first time in C.hongkongensis (nanos, piwi, ATRX, FoxL2, β-catenin, etc.. Gene expression analysis indicated that vasa, nanos, piwi, ATRX, FoxL2, β-catenin and SRD5A1 were highly or specifically expressed in C.hongkongensis gonads. Additionally, 94,056 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 1,699 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were compiled.Our study significantly increased C.hongkongensis genomic information based on transcriptomics analysis. The group of reproduction-related genes identified in the present study constitutes a new tool for research on bivalve

  16. Reproductive status following artificial insemination and factors affecting conception rate in dairy cows in smallholder production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, Y.; Zaini, N.; Wan Zahari, W.M.

    2007-01-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate the reproductive status following artificial insemination (AI) and factors affecting conception rate (CR) in dairy cows under the smallholder production system, using the concentration of progesterone (P4) in milk samples taken on the day of AI (Sample 1), day 10-12 after AI (Sample 2) and day 22-24 after AI (Sample 3). The survey involved 115 cows in 33 farms. A follow-up study was carried out on four farms with interventions to improve record keeping, feed supplementation, heat detection and timely pregnancy diagnosis. Based on Sample 1 (n = 115), 93% of the cows had low P4 and were likely to have been in or close to oestrus at AI. Based on Samples 1 and 2 (n = 107), 85% of the cows had ovulatory oestrus. Based on all three samples (n = 59), 54.2% of the cows appeared to have conceived, 18.6% had either non-fertilization or early embryonic mortality and 18.6% had late embryonic mortality, luteal cyst or a persistent corpus luteum. The incidence of AI on pregnant animals was 1.7% and on those in doubtful reproductive status was 6.8%. The overall CR was 35.5% from 121 inseminations done on 115 cows. Mean intervals from calving to first AI (n = 77) and to conception (n = 43) were 90.7 and 113.6 days, respectively. The effects of level of milk production, lactation state and site of semen deposition on CR were significant (p 0.05) but CR tended to be lower in first parity cows and in cows with excessive body condition. The CR was also lower in farms that practice AI only in the afternoon, in farms where relatively less time was spent on dairy activities and in those farms practicing grazing and supplementation with concentrate only, as compared to those providing additional roughage supplementation. CR tended to be higher when AI was carried out by technicians with longer formal training. The survey showed that there was a high occurrence of ovulatory oestrus in cows under the smallholder production system but the CR obtained was

  17. Reproductive performance and gestational effort in relation to dietary fatty acids in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Matthias; Millesi, Eva; Siutz, Carina; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Quint, Ruth; Wallner, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Dietary saturated (SFAs) and polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids can highly affect reproductive functions by providing additional energy, modulating the biochemical properties of tissues, and hormone secretions. In precocial mammals such as domestic guinea pigs the offspring is born highly developed. Gestation might be the most critical reproductive period in this species and dietary fatty acids may profoundly influence the gestational effort. We therefore determined the hormonal status at conception, the reproductive success, and body mass changes during gestation in guinea pigs maintained on diets high in PUFAs or SFAs, or a control diet. The diets significantly affected the females' plasma fatty acid status at conception, while cortisol and estrogen levels did not differ among groups. SFA females exhibited a significantly lower body mass and litter size, while the individual birth mass of pups did not differ among groups and a general higher pup mortality rate in larger litters was diminished by PUFAs and SFAs. The gestational effort, determined by a mother's body mass gain during gestation, increased with total litter mass, whereas this increase was lowest in SFA and highest in PUFA individuals. The mother's body mass after parturition did not differ among groups and was positively affected by the total litter mass in PUFA females. While SFAs reduce the litter size, but also the gestational effort as a consequence, PUFA supplementation may contribute to an adjustment of energy accumulations to the total litter mass, which may both favor a mother's body condition at parturition and perhaps increase the offspring survival at birth.

  18. Transgenerational plasticity of reproduction depends on rate of warming across generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelson, Jennifer M; Wong, Marian; Booth, David J; Munday, Philip L

    2016-10-01

    Predicting the impacts of climate change to biological systems requires an understanding of the ability for species to acclimate to the projected environmental change through phenotypic plasticity. Determining the effects of higher temperatures on individual performance is made more complex by the potential for environmental conditions experienced in previous and current generations to independently affect phenotypic responses to high temperatures. We used a model coral reef fish ( Acanthochromis polyacanthus ) to investigate the influence of thermal conditions experienced by two generations on reproductive output and the quality of offspring produced by adults. We found that more gradual warming over two generations, +1.5°C in the first generation and then +3.0°C in the second generation, resulted in greater plasticity of reproductive attributes, compared to fish that experienced the same increase in one generation. Reproduction ceased at the projected future summer temperature (31.5°C) when fish experienced +3.0°C for two generations. Additionally, we found that transgenerational plasticity to +1.5°C induced full restoration of thermally affected reproductive and offspring attributes, which was not possible with developmental plasticity alone. Our results suggest that transgenerational effects differ depending on the absolute thermal change and in which life stage the thermal change is experienced.

  19. Low birth weight: Is it related to assisted reproductive technology or underlying infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondapalli, Laxmi A.; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Since 1978, we have witnessed a successful evolution of assisted reproductive technology (ART), with improvement of the pregnancy rates and a growing demand. However, in recent years, there has been increasing concern regarding its safety due to the potential health impact on its infants. The raise of the developmental origins of adult disease has positioned low birth weight (LBW) as a significant health issue. Despite multiple studies have associated ART with LBW, the etiology of this association remains largely unknown. This paper reviews the potential association between different components of ART and infertility with LBW, while acknowledging the limitations to interpretation of the existing literature. PMID:23375144

  20. Relative growth rate of rich fen bryophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus; Riis, Tenna

    Rigkær er blandt den nordlige halvkugles mest artsrige naturtyper, og en lang række sjældne og truede plantearter er knyttet til netop disse områder. I dette forsøg undersøges den relative vækstrate hos to almindelige og to sjældne rigkærsmosser i relation til forskellige niveauer af næringsstoff...

  1. Population dynamics of Salpa thompsoni near the Antarctic Peninsula: Growth rates and interannual variations in reproductive activity (1993-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, V. J.; Santora, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    The salp Salpa thompsoni has exhibited increased abundance in high latitude portions of the Southern Ocean in recent decades and is now frequently the numerically dominant zooplankton taxon in the Antarctic Peninsula region. The abundance increase of this species in high latitude waters is believed related to ocean warming. Due to its continuous filter feeding and production of dense rapidly sinking fecal pellets S. thompsoni is considered to be an important link in the export of particulate carbon from the surface waters. Hence basic information on the life history of this component of the Antarctic marine ecosystem is essential for assessing its impact given continued climate warming. Here we cover various aspects of the life history of S. thompsoni collected in the north Antarctic Peninsula during annual austral summer surveys of the US Antarctic Marine Living Resources (AMLR) Program between 1993 and 2009. We focus on seasonal and interannual variations in the size composition and abundance of the aggregate (sexual) and solitary (asexual) stages. This information is valuable for refining components of Southern Ocean food web models that explicitly deal with size-structured and life history information on zooplankton. Intraseasonal changes in length-frequency distribution of both stages are used to estimate their growth rates. These average 0.40 mm day-1 for aggregates and 0.23 mm day-1 for solitaries; together these represent ∼7 week and ∼7.5 month generation times, respectively, and a 9 month life cycle (i.e., onset of aggregate production year 1 to aggregate production year 2). Based on the maximum lengths typically found during January-March, the life spans of the aggregate and solitary stages can reach at least ∼5 and ∼15 months, respectively. Length-frequency distributions each year reflect interannual differences in timing of the initiation and peak reproductive output. Interannual differences in the abundance of total salps and proportions of the

  2. Improved reproductive success in otters (Lutra lutra), grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Sweden in relation to concentrations of organochlorine contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Anna M.; Bäcklin, Britt-Marie V.M.; Helander, Björn O.; Rigét, Frank F.; Eriksson, Ulla C.

    2012-01-01

    We studied indices of reproductive outcome in three aquatic species in relation to organochlorine concentrations during four decades. In female otters, the frequency of signs of reproduction increased after 1990. In grey seals, pregnancy rate increased 1990–2010 and uterine obstructions ceased after 1993. The frequency of uterine tumours was highest 1980–2000. The number of sea eagle nestlings per checked nest increased 1985–2000, while the frequency of desiccated eggs decreased. Organochlorine concentrations decreased at annual rates between 3.5 and 10.2%. The estimated mean concentration (mg/kg lw) for total-PCB decreased from 70 to 8 (otters), from 110 to 15 (seals) and from 955 to 275 (eagles). The corresponding concentrations for ΣDDT decreased from 3.4 to 0.2 (otters), from 192 to 2.8 (seals) and from 865 to 65 (eagles). This study adds evidence to support the hypothesis that PCBs and DDTs have had strong negative effects on the reproduction and population levels of these species. - Highlights: ► We compared trends of reproductive success in three aquatic top predators in Sweden. ► The study period covers four decades. ► Similar, increasing trends are seen from the end of the 1980s for otters, grey seals and sea eagles. ► Concentrations of total-PCB and DDTs have decreased in these species at similar rates. ► PCBs and DDTs have severely affected reproductive success in these species. - The reproductive success in otters, grey seals and white-tailed sea eagles has increased as the concentrations of PCBs and ΣDDT have decreased supporting a causative relationship.

  3. DDE, DDT + dieldrin: Residues in American kestrels and relations to reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Porter, Ron; Hensler, G.L.; Maestrelli, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) given long-term dietary dosages of DDT and dieldrin in combination, at low and high rates, were compared with controls to determine the effects of the toxicants on reproductive success and eggshell thickness. Additional kestrels were dosed with DDE to determine its effect on shell thickness. Tissues of birds that died or were sacrificed, and eggs, were analyzed for DDE, DDD, DDT, and dieldrin. Eight paired birds, mostly males, given a high dosage of DDT + dieldrin died of dieldrin poisoning. Three periods of heavy mortality involving only dosed birds, which occurred in summer 1966, fall 1967, and spring 1968, followed temperature declines and other stress factors. Organochlorine concentrations in tissues of sacrificed birds and eggs in all units of the DDT + dieldrin study were significantly different among treatments. Residue concentrations in tissues of birds on high dosage of DDT + dieldrin were about 3 times higher than those on low dosage, a difference similar to the relative magnitude of the dose rates. Concentrations of some toxicants, especially DDE, were significantly higher in tissues of males than females, although these differences were difficult to interpret because males generally were sacrificed later than females. Concentrations in tissues and eggs of dosed yearlings, placed on clean food 7 to 9 weeks before pairing, were often significantly lower than in those yearlings that remained on dosage. Concentrations of each toxicant were usually highly correlated (r > 0.85) among tissues, especially for DDE and dieldrin. Organochlorine concentrations in brains and eggs could be predicted from concentrations in carcasses. DDE and dieldrin concentrations in eggs were about one-half those in carcasses, DDD about one-seventh, and DDT 1.5 to 2 times higher in eggs than carcasses. Eggshells of DDT + dieldrin-dosed kestrels were 6-23% thinner than eggshells of corresponding controls in different groups and years

  4. Toward the definition of a carbon budget model: seasonal variation and temperature effect on respiration rate of vegetative and reproductive organs of pistachio trees (Pistacia vera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Francesco P; Barone, Ettore; La Mantia, Michele; Caruso, Tiziano

    2009-09-01

    This study, as a preliminary step toward the definition of a carbon budget model for pistachio trees (Pistacia vera L.), aimed at estimating and evaluating the dynamics of respiration of vegetative and reproductive organs of pistachio tree. Trials were performed in 2005 in a commercial orchard located in Sicily (370 m a.s.l.) on five bearing 20-year-old pistachio trees of cv. Bianca grafted onto Pistachio terebinthus L. Growth analyses and respiration measurements were done on vegetative (leaf) and reproductive (infructescence) organs during the entire growing season (April-September) at biweekly intervals. Results suggested that the respiration rates of pistachio reproductive and vegetative organs were related to their developmental stage. Both for leaf and for infructescence, the highest values were observed during the earlier stages of growth corresponding to the phases of most intense organ growth. The sensitivity of respiration activity to temperature changes, measured by Q(10), showed an increase throughout the transition from immature to mature leaves, as well as during fruit development. The data collected were also used to estimate the seasonal carbon loss by respiration activity for a single leaf and a single infructescence. The amount of carbon lost by respiration was affected by short-term temperature patterns, organ developmental stage and tissue function.

  5. [Rate of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among women at reproductive age in China in 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z Q; Zhao, Y F; Yang, J; Wang, L M; Zhao, Z P; Zeng, X Y; Wang, L H

    2017-12-06

    Objective: To analyze the rate of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among women at reproductive age (18-49 years old) in China in 2013. Methods: The analysis used data obtained from the China Chronic and non-communicable disease surveillance in 2013.The surveillance included 176 534 adults aging ≥18 years old, who were selected from 302 surveillance points by multi-stage cluster random sampling method. A total of 46 674 women at reproductive age (18-49 years old) were investigated. Blood pressures were measured by electronic blood pressure monitor. After being weighted according to complex sampling scheme and post-stratification, the rate of prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension were compared by different characteristics such as age, education, urban and rural areas, and geographic locations. Results: The prevalence of hypertension among women at reproductive age (18-49 years old) in China in 2013 was 13.5%. The rate in the rural areas was higher than that in urban areas (χ(2)=46.23, P 0.05). The hypertension prevalence in all age groups (18-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49 years old) were 6.6%, 9.2%, 9.6%, 12.0%, 17.9% and 28.3%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension showed a rising trend with age increasing ( t= 12.32, Pareas; and 21.3%, 18.5% and 5.9%, respectively in rural areas. The rates in urban areas were all higher than those in rural areas (chi square were separately 18.98, 21.31, and 6.80, P values areas.

  6. Reproductive success of Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida in eastern Spain in relation to water level variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Lledó, Álvaro; Vidal Mateo, Javier; Urios Moliner, Vicente

    2018-01-01

    A study on the Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida was carried out between 2002 and 2009 in wetlands of eastern Spain to evaluate how water level fluctuation affects its reproductive success (hatching, fledgling and breeding success). This species is catalogued as Vulnerable in Spain and has an unfavorable conservation status in Europe. Our study includes 18 sampling areas from five wetlands, covering a total of 663 nests, 1,618 eggs, 777 nestlings and 225 fledglings. The colonies were visited at least twice per week in breeding period. The number of eggs and/or nestlings present in each nest were annotated each time the colonies were visited with the aim to compare the evolution of these parameters with time. Hatching success was calculated as the proportion of egg that hatched successfully. Fledgling success and breeding success were calculated as the proportion of chicks that fledged successfully and the proportion of eggs that produced fledglings. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test to analyze the differences in the dependent variables hatching, fledgling and breeding success among the wetlands and the sampling areas. We explored the relationship between the different reproductive success with the average fluctuation rate and the anchoring depth of nests, using statistics of the linear regression. It was observed that the reproductive success varied significantly in the interaction among the different categories of water level fluctuation and the different areas (using the Kruskal-Wallis test). Our records showed that pronounced variations in water level destroyed several nests, which affected the Whiskered Tern reproductive success. Considering all events that occurred in 18 areas, the mean (±SD) of nests, eggs and nestlings that were lost after water level fluctuations were of 25.60 ± 21.79%, 32.06 ± 27.58% and 31.91 ± 21.28% respectively, also including the effects of rain and predation. Unfavorable climatic events, such as strong wind, rain or hail, also

  7. Reproductive success of Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida in eastern Spain in relation to water level variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Ortiz Lledó

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background A study on the Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida was carried out between 2002 and 2009 in wetlands of eastern Spain to evaluate how water level fluctuation affects its reproductive success (hatching, fledgling and breeding success. This species is catalogued as Vulnerable in Spain and has an unfavorable conservation status in Europe. Methods Our study includes 18 sampling areas from five wetlands, covering a total of 663 nests, 1,618 eggs, 777 nestlings and 225 fledglings. The colonies were visited at least twice per week in breeding period. The number of eggs and/or nestlings present in each nest were annotated each time the colonies were visited with the aim to compare the evolution of these parameters with time. Hatching success was calculated as the proportion of egg that hatched successfully. Fledgling success and breeding success were calculated as the proportion of chicks that fledged successfully and the proportion of eggs that produced fledglings. We used the Kruskal–Wallis test to analyze the differences in the dependent variables hatching, fledgling and breeding success among the wetlands and the sampling areas. We explored the relationship between the different reproductive success with the average fluctuation rate and the anchoring depth of nests, using statistics of the linear regression. Results It was observed that the reproductive success varied significantly in the interaction among the different categories of water level fluctuation and the different areas (using the Kruskal–Wallis test. Our records showed that pronounced variations in water level destroyed several nests, which affected the Whiskered Tern reproductive success. Considering all events that occurred in 18 areas, the mean (±SD of nests, eggs and nestlings that were lost after water level fluctuations were of 25.60 ± 21.79%, 32.06 ± 27.58% and 31.91 ± 21.28% respectively, also including the effects of rain and predation. Discussion Unfavorable

  8. Awareness of legal and social issues related to reproductive health among adolescent girls in rural Varanasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2017-01-01

    Data on awareness of adolescent's on the legal and social issues/acts related to reproductive health, especially in rural areas, are scarce. The aim of the present cross-sectional study is to assess the awareness level of legal and social issues related to reproductive health and its association with the various individual and family/household level characteristics. 650 adolescent girls in the age group of 15-19 years were interviewed with the help of pretested and semistructured questionnaire and focus group discussions were also conducted for qualitative findings in Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi. It was observed that 42.9% of the respondents were aware of legal age of marriage, 14.9% knew about the right age of childbearing. Dowry prohibition act and domestic violence act were known to 46% and 27% respondents, respectively, and only 2.6% were aware of medical termination of pregnancy act. Logistic regression analysis shows the significant effect of education on awareness of legal age of marriage, right age of childbearing, domestic violence, and dowry prohibition acts, which is also supported by qualitative findings. All the important legal issues/acts should be included in high school curriculum and female teachers should be involved in training program for adolescents. Role of mass media in creating awareness about these issues in their routine programs should be ascertained. Accredited Social Health Activist and Anganwadi workers should be aware of and include these issues/acts in adolescent meetings.

  9. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón; Jorge E Chavarro; Jaime Mendiola; Manuela Roca; Cigdem Tanrikut; Jesús Vioque; Niels Jørgensen; Alberto M Torres-Cantero

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may inlfuence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this ifeld has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross‑sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega‑6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (Ptrend=0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The intake of omega‑3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega‑6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may inlfuence testicular function.

  10. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively. The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may influence testicular function.

  11. Cervical Cancer Literacy in Women of Reproductive Age and Its Related Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazaz, Maryam; Shahry, Parvin; Latifi, Sayed Mahmood; Araban, Marzieh

    2017-08-10

    Cancer health literacy, which is the ability to search, understand, and use health information to make appropriate health decisions, plays an important role in the use of preventative and screening information. The present study aims to evaluate cervical cancer health literacy in women of reproductive age and its related factors. In this cross-sectional study, 231 women of reproductive age who referred to health centers of Khuzestan Province, Iran, were selected via convenience sampling. A valid and reliable measure was employed to collect information about various dimensions of cervical cancer health literacy, including having access to, reading, understanding, appraising, using, and communicating it. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS 16. Data analysis was conducted by independent sample t test, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's correlation, chi-square, and linear regression. The participants' average health literacy score was 97.88 ± 12.7 (from 135 points), and 47.2% of the participants had limited health literacy. Health literacy was associated with education, employment, income, searching, mothers' and young friends' counseling, and duration of the study time (p literacy scores. In this study, no significant association was observed between age and health literacy. This study indicated that the cervical cancer literacy in women of reproductive age was not at good levels. Health workers should pay more attention to groups who are at greater risk of having low health literacy. Moreover, targeting and tailoring educational interventions with respect to different levels of cervical cancer literacy might increase cervical cancer screening.

  12. HOLSTEIN CATTLE REPRODUCTION IN RELATION ON MILK YIELD AND BODY CONDITION SCORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav MARŠÁLEK

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic conditions of the economical success in milk production is the high and periodic reproduction of the cows. That means the parturition of a healthy calf from every cow per a year. The development and level of reproduction functions is very susceptible to the quantity and mainly quality of nutrition. The insuffi ciency in nutrition is strongly related to the fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproduction indicators depending upon the level of the milk yield and body condition of the Holstein cows at the family-owned farm. The basic dataset was obtained during the years 2004 – 2007. The milk yield and fertility data were gained from the herd records. The extreme values were removed from the basic set. Body condition score was evaluated every month. The groups according to the milk yield level and body condition score were evaluated. The basic statistical characteristics were determined in the groups of cows and in the evaluated sets. The effect of particular factors was proved by the one-factorial analysis of variance ANOVA. Increasing milk yield in the groups with milk yield up to 7000 kg of milk, 7000-8000 kg and more than 8000 kg had negative impact on the reproduction indicators. The differences in the length of calving to fififi rst service interval among particular groups were statistically signifififi cant (P ≥ 0.01. The average length of this interval was 96, 111 and 122 days for 1st, 2nd and 3rd group, respectively. In addition, the average length of calving to conception (service period interval was 154, 165 and 171 days. There were found no signifi cant differences in numbers of services per conception. The average BCS at calving was 3.59 points. After calving BCS level decreased till the 6th month of lactation, where its level 2.43 points, then the BCS level increased. Average BCS level at conception was under 2.5 points. The variation of BCS during the lactation was 2 points.

  13. Investigations on the metabolism of metals in decapod crustaceas in relation with moulting cycles and reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.-L.M.

    1975-07-01

    A study of the metabolism of metals was carried out in decapod crustaceas; it showed that it was subject to cyclic variations during the life of the animals, closely correlated with growth moults. The metabolism of metals was also considered in its relations with reproduction, especially oogenesis and spermatogenesis, and embryonic development. In relation with moult, various factors playing a role on metal metabolism were investigated: role of metals in the organism, fasting and nutrition cycles and biochemical reserves, physico-chemical form of the metal and ultrastructure of uptake surfaces. The histological and histochemical aspects of the uptake of a number of metals were studied as well as inter-metallic and inter-organic relationships [fr

  14. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mínguez-alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorgee; Mendiola, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    , and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone......, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free...... testosterone concentrations (P trend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest...

  15. NATURE OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RELATIONS AND ITS ROLE IN A PUBLIC REPRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Virchenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to theoretical analysis of nature and structure of intellectual property relations. Types of intellectual property relations and its role in public reproduction are investigated. Peculiarities of intellectual property relations are considered. Two groups of approaches to classification of intellectual property objects are analysed: classification of objects depending on its characteristics which is based on the analysis of their most essential features, specificity of their protection, features of realisation of the property and non-property rights; classification on the basis of various minor criterions which do not reveal nature and character of objects but at the same time allow to divide them into groups according to concrete tasks of research. Necessity of defining of incorporeal objects of intellectual property which cannot be labelled as objects of copyright, industrial property or branding tools is proved. Criteria of classification of party’s to intellectual property relations are investigated. The subject structure of intellectual property relations according to the legislation of Ukraine is defined. New approaches to classification of party’s to intellectual property relations depending on their role in relations of intellectual property and their economic functions are offered, which allow to embrace as much as possible all participants of intellectual property relations, consider their role in the process of commercialisation, and draw attention to subjects which carry out regulating and mediatorial functions on the intellectual property market.

  16. Growth and reproductive attributes of radionuclide phytoremediators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reveals that growth attributes including relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf are index and specific leaf area, dry matter allocated to stem and leaves and number of reproductive organs decreased with the increase of radionuclide content of the plant, while the dry matter allocated to root and reproductive ...

  17. Embryo transfer simulation improves pregnancy rates and decreases time to proficiency in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility fellow embryo transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; Csokmay, John M; Pilgrim, Justin; DeCherney, Alan H; Deering, Shad

    2017-05-01

    To design and evaluate an ET simulator to train Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility (REI) fellows' techniques of ET. Simulation model development and retrospective cohort analysis. Not applicable. Patients undergoing IVF. Simulation model evaluation and implementation of ET simulation training. Pregnancy rates. The REI fellow and faculty evaluation responses (n = 19/21 [90%]) of the model demonstrated realistic characteristics, with evaluators concluding the model was suitable for training in almost all evaluated areas. A total of 12 REI fellows who performed ET were analyzed: 6 before ET trainer and 6 after ET trainer. Pregnancy rates were 31% in the initial 10 ETs per fellow before simulator vs. 46% after simulator. One of six pre-ET trainer fellows (17%) had pregnancy rates ≥40% in their first 10 ETs; whereas four of six post-ET trainer fellows had pregnancy rates ≥40% in their first 10 ETs. The average number of ETs to obtain >40% pregnancy efficiency was 27 ETs before trainer vs. 15 ETs after trainer. Pregnancy rates were similar in the two groups after 20 ETs, and collective terminal pregnancy rates were >50% after 40 ETs. Embryo transfer simulation improved REI fellow pregnancy rates in their first 10 transfers and led to a more rapid ET proficiency. These data suggest potential value in adopting ET simulation, even in programs with a robust history of live ET in fellowship training. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The effect of intrauterine infusion of dextrose on clinical endometritis cure rate and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Ganda, E K; Stephens, L; Milhomem, M; Freitas, G L; Zinicola, M; Pearson, J; Wieland, M; Guard, C; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2015-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the intrauterine administration use of 200 mL of 50% dextrose solution as a treatment against clinical endometritis (CE); CE cure rate and reproductive performance were evaluated. Additionally, the association of several relevant risk factors, such as retained placenta (RP), metritis, CE, anovulation, hyperketonemia, and body condition score with reproductive performance, early embryonic mortality, and CE were evaluated. A total of 1,313 Holstein cows housed on 4 commercial dairy farms were enrolled in the study. At 7±3 DIM cows were examined for metritis and had blood collected to determine serum β-hydroxybutyrate concentration. To determine if cows had ovulated at least once before 44±3 DIM, the presence of a corpus luteum was evaluated by ovarian ultrasonography at 30±3 DIM and at 44±3 DIM. At 30±3 DIM, CE was diagnosed using the Metricheck device (SimcroTech, Hamilton, New Zealand); cows with purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were diagnosed as having CE. Cows diagnosed with CE (n=175) were randomly allocated into 2 treatment groups: treatment (intrauterine infusion of 200 mL of 50% dextrose) or control (no infusion). Clinical endometritis cows were re-evaluated as described above at 44±3 DIM, and cows that were free of purulent or mucopurulent vaginal discharge were considered cured. Intrauterine infusion of dextrose tended to have a detrimental effect on CE cure rate, and treatment did not have an effect on first-service conception rate and early embryonic mortality. A multivariable Cox's proportional hazard model was performed to evaluate the effect of several variables on reproductive performance; the variables RP, CE, parity, anovulation, and the interaction term between parity and anovulation were associated with hazard of pregnancy. Cows that did not have RP or CE were more likely to conceive than cows that were diagnosed with RP or CE. Cows that had RP were at 3.36 times higher odds of

  19. Impact of polystyrene microplastics on Daphnia magna mortality and reproduction in relation to food availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljaibachi, Rana

    2018-01-01

    Microplastics (MPs) in the environment continue to be a growing area of concern in terms of acute and chronic impacts on aquatic life. Whilst increasing numbers of studies are providing important insights into microparticle behaviour and impacts in the marine environment, a paucity of information exists regarding the freshwater environment. This study focusses on the uptake, retention and the impact of 2 µm polystyrene MPs in the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna in relation to food intake (algae Chlorella vulgaris), with MP size chosen to approximately match the cell size of the algae. Daphnia were exposed to varied concentrations of MPs and algae. When exposed to a single concentration of MPs Daphnia almost immediately ate them in large quantities. However, the presence of algae, even at low concentrations, had a significant negative impact on MP uptake that was not in proportion to relative availability. As MP concentrations increased, intake did not if algae were present, even at higher concentrations of MPs. This suggests that Daphnia are selectively avoiding eating plastics. Adult Daphnia exposed to MPs for 21 days showed mortality after seven days of exposure in all treatments compared to the control. However significant differences were all related to algal concentration rather than to MP concentration. This suggests that where ample food is present, MPs have little effect on adults. There was also no impact on their reproduction. The neonate toxicity test confirmed previous results that mortality and reproduction was linked to availability of food rather than MP concentrations. This would make sense in light of our suggestion that Daphnia are selectively avoiding eating microplastics. PMID:29686944

  20. Impact of polystyrene microplastics on Daphnia magna mortality and reproduction in relation to food availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Aljaibachi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Microplastics (MPs in the environment continue to be a growing area of concern in terms of acute and chronic impacts on aquatic life. Whilst increasing numbers of studies are providing important insights into microparticle behaviour and impacts in the marine environment, a paucity of information exists regarding the freshwater environment. This study focusses on the uptake, retention and the impact of 2 µm polystyrene MPs in the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia magna in relation to food intake (algae Chlorella vulgaris, with MP size chosen to approximately match the cell size of the algae. Daphnia were exposed to varied concentrations of MPs and algae. When exposed to a single concentration of MPs Daphnia almost immediately ate them in large quantities. However, the presence of algae, even at low concentrations, had a significant negative impact on MP uptake that was not in proportion to relative availability. As MP concentrations increased, intake did not if algae were present, even at higher concentrations of MPs. This suggests that Daphnia are selectively avoiding eating plastics. Adult Daphnia exposed to MPs for 21 days showed mortality after seven days of exposure in all treatments compared to the control. However significant differences were all related to algal concentration rather than to MP concentration. This suggests that where ample food is present, MPs have little effect on adults. There was also no impact on their reproduction. The neonate toxicity test confirmed previous results that mortality and reproduction was linked to availability of food rather than MP concentrations. This would make sense in light of our suggestion that Daphnia are selectively avoiding eating microplastics.

  1. Effects of functionalized fullerenes on bifenthrin and tribufos toxicity to Daphnia magna: Survival, reproduction, and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Kathryn A; Anderson, Todd A; Smith, Philip N; Maul, Jonathan D

    2010-11-01

    Incorporation of carbon nanomaterials into industrial and consumer products is increasing, yet their impact on aquatic ecosystems alone and in chemical mixtures is largely unknown. Carbon nanomaterials may be found in the aquatic environment as mixtures with pesticides because of their proposed use in agriculture as smart delivery systems and nanosensors. The interaction effects of a functionalized fullerene ([1,2-methanofullerene C₆₀]-61-carboxylic acid) (fC₆₀) at 52.8 µg/L and the hydrophobic pesticides bifenthrin and tribufos were examined. The test organism was Daphnia magna, and response variables included 48-h survival, reproduction (bifenthrin, 70-d; tribufos, 21-d), and 10-d growth. Both pesticides reduced D. magna survival and reproduction (p bifenthrin acute toxicity but did not significantly affect chronic endpoints or growth (p > 0.05). Median lethal concentrations (LC50s), median inhibition concentrations (IC50s) for days surviving, and IC50s for reproduction were 0.86, 0.55, and 0.49 µg/L for bifenthrin; 0.22, 0.39, and 0.77 µg/L for fC₆₀-bifenthrin mix; 6.63, 9.89, and 5.79 µg/L for tribufos; and 9.17, 8.17, and 6.59 µg/L for fC₆₀-tribufos mix. Mixtures did not affect instantaneous growth rate (p > 0.05). These results suggest that fC₆₀ had little effect on pesticide chronic toxicity but influenced acute toxicity. Given the widespread application of nanotechnology, the influence of nanomaterials on environmental contaminants is an important consideration. Thus, our results may be useful in the development and use of nanotechnology in agricultural practices. © 2010 SETAC.

  2. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive disrupti......To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  3. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  4. Scale Dependence of Female Ungulate Reproductive Success in Relation to Nutritional Condition, Resource Selection and Multi-Predator Avoidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared F Duquette

    Full Text Available Female ungulate reproductive success is dependent on the survival of their young, and affected by maternal resource selection, predator avoidance, and nutritional condition. However, potential hierarchical effects of these factors on reproductive success are largely unknown, especially in multi-predator landscapes. We expanded on previous research of neonatal white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus daily survival within home ranges to assess if resource use, integrated risk of 4 mammalian predators, maternal nutrition, winter severity, hiding cover, or interactions among these variables best explained landscape scale variation in daily or seasonal survival during the post-partum period. We hypothesized that reproductive success would be limited greater by predation risk at coarser spatiotemporal scales, but habitat use at finer scales. An additive model of daily non-ideal resource use and maternal nutrition explained the most (69% variation in survival; though 65% of this variation was related to maternal nutrition. Strong support of maternal nutrition across spatiotemporal scales did not fully support our hypothesis, but suggested reproductive success was related to dam behaviors directed at increasing nutritional condition. These behaviors were especially important following severe winters, when dams produced smaller fawns with less probability of survival. To increase nutritional condition and decrease wolf (Canis lupus predation risk, dams appeared to place fawns in isolated deciduous forest patches near roads. However, this resource selection represented non-ideal resources for fawns, which had greater predation risk that led to additive mortalities beyond those related to resources alone. Although the reproductive strategy of dams resulted in greater predation of fawns from alternative predators, it likely improved the life-long reproductive success of dams, as many were late-aged (>10 years old and could have produced multiple litters

  5. Lapse in embryo transfer training does not negatively affect clinical pregnancy rates for reproductive endocrinology and infertility fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresowik, Jessica; Sparks, Amy; Duran, Eyup H; Shah, Divya K

    2015-03-01

    To compare rates of clinical pregnancy (CPR) and live birth (LBR) following embryo transfer (ET) performed by reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) fellows before and after a prolonged lapse in clinical training due to an 18-month research rotation. Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. All women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and IVF-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with ET performed by REI fellows from August 2003 to July 2012. Eighteen-month lapse in clinical training of REI fellows. CPR and LBR before and after the lapse in clinical training were calculated and compared per fellow and as a composite group. Alternating logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds of clinical pregnancy and live birth following transfers performed before and after the lapse in training. Unadjusted odds of clinical pregnancy and live birth were similar between the two time periods both for individual fellows and for the composite group. Alternate logistic regression analysis revealed no significant difference in CPR (odds ratio [OR] 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-1.07) or LBR (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.94-1.18) after the lapse in training compared with before. A research rotation is common in REI fellowship training programs. This prolonged departure from clinical training does not appear to negatively affect pregnancy outcome following fellow ET. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Smoking rates for men from infertile couples and men with reproductive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Andreeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of lifestyle factors (such as smoking, alcohol abuse, etc. are known to impact negatively overall health and wellbeing. Tobacco use is a risk factor for serious disease development. Still in the view of many scientists smoking is the easy preventable risk factor for some diseases. It is necessary to study the prevalence and influence of tobacco smoking on people who are planning to conceive a child in order to prevent the effects of damaging factors on future generations. In 2012–2013 years we questioned 255 men from infertile couples and men with proven reproductive disorders about their smoking experience, number of cigarettes smoked per day, type of cigarettes, etc. The majority of respondents were Moscow dwellers. Our survey found out that 35 % of the respondents have never smoked, 27 % quitted smoking; 38 % of the respondents smoked and 70 % of them do it regularly. The 58 % of regular smokers reported more than 10 years of smoking experience. A half of non-regular smokers have 6 or more years of smoking experience. Most of daily smokers consume more than half a pack cigarettes per day. Both regular and non-regular smokers preferred “light” and “medium” cigarettes. Among former smokers 63 % reported six or more years experience of smoking. It is typical that 54 % of quitters gave up smoking less than a year ago. The prevalence of smoking among men surveyed is more than 20 % lower than indicated for the whole country male population by most authors. We assume that it may be due to the care of men who plan to become fathers of their health and health of future children. Also long waiting time to pregnancy is likely to give rise to lifestyle habits reevaluation. On the other hand, a lot of respondents don,t give up the habit and continue to smoke more than ten cigarettes a day despite pregnancy planning. 

  7. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majtánová, Zuzana; Choleva, Lukáš; Symonová, Radka; Ráb, Petr; Kotusz, Jan; Pekárik, Ladislav; Janko, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis). We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA). Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  8. Asexual Reproduction Does Not Apparently Increase the Rate of Chromosomal Evolution: Karyotype Stability in Diploid and Triploid Clonal Hybrid Fish (Cobitis, Cypriniformes, Teleostei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Majtánová

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization and transitions from sexuality to asexuality considerably affect organismal genomes. Especially the last mentioned process has been assumed to play a significant role in the initiation of chromosomal rearrangements, causing increased rates of karyotype evolution. We used cytogenetic analysis and molecular dating of cladogenetic events to compare the rate of changes of chromosome morphology and karyotype in asexually and sexually reproducing counterparts in European spined loach fish (Cobitis. We studied metaphases of three sexually reproducing species and their diploid and polyploid hybrid clones of different age of origin. The material includes artificial F1 hybrid strains, representatives of lineage originated in Holocene epoch, and also individuals of an oldest known age to date (roughly 0.37 MYA. Thereafter we applied GISH technique as a marker to differentiate parental chromosomal sets in hybrids. Although the sexual species accumulated remarkable chromosomal rearrangements after their speciation, we observed no differences in chromosome numbers and/or morphology among karyotypes of asexual hybrids. These hybrids possess chromosome sets originating from respective parental species with no cytogenetically detectable recombinations, suggesting their integrity even in a long term. The switch to asexual reproduction thus did not provoke any significant acceleration of the rate of chromosomal evolution in Cobitis. Asexual animals described in other case studies reproduce ameiotically, while Cobitis hybrids described here produce eggs likely through modified meiosis. Therefore, our findings indicate that the effect of asexuality on the rate of chromosomal change may be context-dependent rather than universal and related to particular type of asexual reproduction.

  9. RFamide-related Peptide-3 and the Trade-off between Reproductive and Ingestive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jill E; Benton, Noah A; Russo, Kim A; Klingerman, Candice M; Williams, Wilbur P; Simberlund, Jessica; Abdulhay, Amir; Brozek, Jeremy M; Kriegsfeld, Lance J

    2017-12-01

    Ingestive and sex behaviors are important for individual survival and reproductive success, but when environmental energy availability is limited, individuals of many different species make a trade-off, forfeiting sex for ingestive behavior. For example, food-deprived female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) forego vaginal scent marking and lordosis (sex behaviors) in favor of foraging, hoarding, and eating food (ingestive behavior). Reproductive processes tend to be energetically costly, and individual survival requires homeostasis in metabolic energy. Thus, during energetic challenges, the chances of survival are enhanced by decreasing the energy expended on reproductive processes. The entire hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) system is inhibited by severe energetic challenges, but comparatively little is known about the effects of mild energetic challenges. We hypothesized that (1) a trade-off is made between sex and ingestive behavior even when the level of food restriction is insufficient to inhibit the HPG system; (2) mild energetic challenges force a trade-off between appetitive ingestive and sex behaviors, but not consummatory versions of the same behaviors; and (3) the trade-off is orchestrated by ovarian steroid modulation of RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP-3). In other species, RFRP-3, an ortholog of avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, is implicated in control of behavior in response to energetic challenges and stressful stimuli. In support of our three hypotheses, there is a "dose-response" effect of food restriction and re-feeding on the activation of RFRP-3-immunoreactive cells in the dorsomedial hypothalamus and on appetitive behaviors (food hoarding and sexual motivation), but not on consummatory behaviors (food intake and lordosis), with no significant effect on circulating levels of estradiol or progesterone. The effect of food restriction on the activation of RFRP-3 cells is modulated at the time of estrus in gonadally-intact females

  10. Hard times in the city - attractive nest sites but insufficient food supply lead to low reproduction rates in a bird of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumasgutner, Petra; Nemeth, Erwin; Tebb, Graham; Krenn, Harald W; Gamauf, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is a global phenomenon that is encroaching on natural habitats and decreasing biodiversity, although it is creating new habitats for some species. The Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is frequently associated with urbanized landscapes but it is unclear what lies behind the high densities of kestrels in the urban environment. Occupied nest sites in the city of Vienna, Austria were investigated along a gradient of urbanization (percentage of land covered by buildings or used by traffic). Field surveys determined the abundance of potential prey (birds and rodents) and the results were compared to the birds' diets. A number of breeding parameters were recorded over the course of three years. The majority of kestrels breed in semi-natural cavities in historic buildings. Nearest neighbour distances (NND) were smallest and reproductive success lowest in the city centre. Abundance of potential prey was not found to relate to the degree of urbanization but there was a significant shift in the birds' diets from a heavy reliance on rodents in the outskirts of the city to feeding more on small birds in the centre. The use of urban habitats was associated with higher nest failure, partly associated with predation and nest desertion, and with significantly lower hatching rates and smaller fledged broods. High breeding densities in urban habitats do not necessarily correlate with high habitat quality. The high density of kestrel nests in the city centre is probably due to the ready availability of breeding cavities. Highly urbanized areas in Vienna are associated with unexpected costs for the city dwelling-raptor, in terms both of prey availability and of reproductive success. The kestrel appears to be exploiting the urban environment but given the poor reproductive performance of urban kestrels it is likely that the species is falling into an ecological trap.

  11. Hard times in the city – attractive nest sites but insufficient food supply lead to low reproduction rates in a bird of prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Urbanization is a global phenomenon that is encroaching on natural habitats and decreasing biodiversity, although it is creating new habitats for some species. The Eurasian kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is frequently associated with urbanized landscapes but it is unclear what lies behind the high densities of kestrels in the urban environment. Results Occupied nest sites in the city of Vienna, Austria were investigated along a gradient of urbanization (percentage of land covered by buildings or used by traffic). Field surveys determined the abundance of potential prey (birds and rodents) and the results were compared to the birds’ diets. A number of breeding parameters were recorded over the course of three years. The majority of kestrels breed in semi-natural cavities in historic buildings. Nearest neighbour distances (NND) were smallest and reproductive success lowest in the city centre. Abundance of potential prey was not found to relate to the degree of urbanization but there was a significant shift in the birds’ diets from a heavy reliance on rodents in the outskirts of the city to feeding more on small birds in the centre. The use of urban habitats was associated with higher nest failure, partly associated with predation and nest desertion, and with significantly lower hatching rates and smaller fledged broods. Conclusions High breeding densities in urban habitats do not necessarily correlate with high habitat quality. The high density of kestrel nests in the city centre is probably due to the ready availability of breeding cavities. Highly urbanized areas in Vienna are associated with unexpected costs for the city dwelling-raptor, in terms both of prey availability and of reproductive success. The kestrel appears to be exploiting the urban environment but given the poor reproductive performance of urban kestrels it is likely that the species is falling into an ecological trap. PMID:24872836

  12. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in relation to history of infertility and use of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alur, Snigdha; Wang, Hongyue; Hoeger, Kathy; Swan, Shanna H; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Redmon, Bruce J; Nguyen, Ruby; Barrett, Emily S

    2015-11-01

    To examine urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in pregnant women with planned pregnancies in relation to history of infertility and use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Phthalate metabolite concentrations were measured in first-trimester urine samples collected from women participating in a prospective pregnancy cohort study. Prenatal clinics. A total of 750 women, of whom 86 had a history of infertility. Forty-one women used ART to conceive. None. Primary outcomes were concentrations of four metabolites of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and their molar sum (∑DEHP). Multivariable analyses compared phthalate metabolite levels in [1] women reporting a history of infertility vs. those who did not (comparison group); and [2] those who used ART to conceive the index pregnancy vs. women with a history of infertility who did not use ART. Among women with a history of infertility, ∑DEHP was significantly lower in women who conceived after ART compared with those who did not (geometric mean ratio: 0.83; 95% confidence interval 0.71-0.98). Similar significant associations were observed for all of the individual DEHP metabolites. There were no differences in DEHP metabolite concentrations between women with a history of infertility and the comparison group. Women who used ART to conceive had lower first-trimester phthalate metabolite concentrations than women with a history of infertility who did not use ART. Further research is needed to explore whether those pursuing fertility treatments take precautions to avoid exposure to environmental toxins, to improve treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Comparison of the Reproductive Output Among the Relatives of Samoan Androphilic Fa'afafine and Gynephilic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenyna, Scott W; Petterson, Lanna J; VanderLaan, Doug P; Vasey, Paul L

    2017-01-01

    The sexually antagonistic gene hypothesis (SAGH) for male androphilia posits that genes associated with androphilia (i.e., sexual attraction to adult males) will result in lowered reproduction when present in males, but increased reproduction when present in females. Findings derived from some Western European samples furnish support for the SAGH; however, results from studies conducted in other regions of the world have been more equivocal. Our previous research in Samoa indicated that the mothers as well as the maternal and paternal grandmothers of androphilic males (known locally as fa'afafine) exhibit elevated reproductive output when compared to the relatives of gynephilic men (i.e., males that are sexually attracted to adult females). The present replication study tested the SAGH in Samoa using a sample that was 122 % larger than the one previously studied by our group (VanderLaan, Forrester, Petterson, & Vasey, 2012). In line with the predictions of the SAGH, we hypothesized that the grandmothers, aunts, and mothers of fa'afafine would show elevated reproductive output compared to those of Samoan gynephilic men. Data were collected from 191 fa'afafine and 191 gynephilic men on the reproductive output of their paternal and maternal biological relatives (i.e., mothers, grandmothers, aunts, uncles). The mothers and maternal grandmothers of fa'afafine showed elevated reproductive output compared to those of gynephilic men. The paternal grandmother effect was not replicated. Although these results are consistent with the SAGH, a lack of difference in the reproductive output of aunts renders support for the SAGH in Samoa equivocal.

  14. Nutrition- and sex-dependent utilization of body resources in relation to reproduction in a scorpionfly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engqvist, Leif; Sauer, Klaus Peter; Engels, Sierk

    Reproduction often comes at a cost of a reduction in body functions. In order to enhance their reproductive output, some insect species degenerate their thoracic muscles, typically resulting in reduced flight ability. From a life-history trade-off perspective, we expect the importance of body

  15. Antral follicle counts are strongly associated with live-birth rates after assisted reproduction, with superior treatment outcome in women with polycystic ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holte, Jan; Brodin, Thomas; Berglund, Lars; Hadziosmanovic, Nermin; Olovsson, Matts; Bergh, Torbjörn

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the association of antral follicle count (AFC) with in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) outcome in a large unselected cohort of patients covering the entire range of AFC. Prospective observational study. University-affiliated private infertility center. 2,092 women undergoing 4,308 IVF-ICSI cycles. AFC analyzed for associations with treatment outcome and statistically adjusted for repeated treatments and age. Pregnancy rate, live-birth rate, and stimulation outcome parameters. The AFC was log-normally distributed. Pregnancy rates and live-birth rates were positively associated with AFC in a log-linear way, leveling out above AFC ∼30. Treatment outcome was superior among women with polycystic ovaries, independent from ovulatory status. The findings were significant also after adjustment for age and number of oocytes retrieved. Pregnancy and live-birth rates are log-linearly related to AFC. Polycystic ovaries, most often excluded from studies on ovarian reserve, fit as one extreme in the spectrum of AFC; a low count constitutes the other extreme, with the lowest ovarian reserve and poor treatment outcome. The findings remained statistically significant also after adjustment for the number of oocytes retrieved, suggesting this measure of ovarian reserve comprises information on oocyte quality and not only quantity. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of transfer of embryos independently cultured in essential and sequential culture media on pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Bossi, Renata; Guimarães, Fernando; Valle, Marcello; Sampaio, Marcos

    2012-10-01

    Several culture media are available to be used in ART. However it is uncertain whether embryos would preferably benefit from one type of medium or the association of different media. We performed this study to evaluate the impact of simultaneous transfer of embryos independently cultured in two distinct culture media, on pregnancy outcome. A total of 722 couples who underwent infertility treatment were sequentially allocated into three groups: those who had half of the embryos individually cultured in MEM and the other half cultured in sequential media (MEM + Seq Group) (n = 243); those who had all embryos cultured only in sequential medium (Seq Group) (n = 239); and those who had all embryos cultured only in MEM (MEM Group) (n = 240). The pregnancy rate was higher in the MEM + Seq group (51.8 %) than the Seq group (36.7 %) (p < 0.001). However the pregnancy rate observed in the MEM group was similar to the others (44.2 %). When a logistic regression test was applied it demonstrated that the number of transferred embryos did not interfere in the pregnancy rates. Our results suggests that offering different culture conditions for sibling embryos with subsequent transfer of embryos that were kept in distinct culture media, might increase pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction cycles.

  17. The Vietnamese lending rate, policy-related rate, and monetary policy post-1997 Asian financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu V. Nguyen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetries in the Vietnamese lending central bank’s policy-related rate spread were documented. Empirical results revealed that the spread adjusts to the threshold faster when the central bank’s policy-related rates decrease relative to the lending rates than when the central bank’s policy-related rates move in the opposite direction. Additionally, the empirical findings indicate that Vietnamese commercial banks exhibit competitive rate setting behavior which may be attributable to graft maximization by bank’s management. The results also show bidirectional Granger causality between the Vietnamese lending rate and the central bank’s policy-related rate, indicating that the lending rate and the central bank’s policy-related rate affect each other’s movements. These results suggest that monetary authority can use its countercyclical monetary policy instruments to achieve its macroeconomics objectives. However, the estimation results of the GARCH (2, 3-in-Mean model suggest that they should intervene more frequently and by small policy measures to minimize the conditional variance of the spread to minimize the magnitude of the cycle of the lending rate.

  18. A selfish gene governing pollen-pistil compatibility confers reproductive isolation between maize relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermicle, Jerry L

    2006-01-01

    Some populations of maize's closest relatives, the annual teosintes of Mexico, are unreceptive to maize pollen. When present in the pistil (silk and ovary) a number of maize genes discriminate against or exclude pollen not carrying the same allele. An analogous gene Tcb1-s was found in some teosinte populations but not in sympatric or parapatric maize. It was polymorphic among populations of teosinte growing wild, but regularly present in populations growing in intimate association with maize as a weed. Introduction of Tcb1-s into maize substantially to fully restored compatibility with Tcb1-s carrying teosintes. Although Tcb1-s pollen can fertilize tcb1 tcb1 maize, it is at a competitive disadvantage relative to tcb1 pollen. Hence, the influence of Tcb1-s on crossability is bidirectional. In the absence of maize, Tcb1-s can increase in teosinte populations without improving their fitness. In the presence of maize, Tcb1-s appears to have been co-opted to provide reproductive isolation for adaptation to a cultivated habitat.

  19. The fat cover in gilts in relation to body condition and reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Matoušek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in a set of hybrid gilts of F1 generation of Czech Large White x Czech Landrace breeds coming from a multiplication herd. The objective of the study was to test a possibility of using the measured traits, i.e. backfat thickness (BT and lean meat content (LM, for objective determination of changes in the body condition score of gilts during rearing and in relation to their subsequent fertility in parities 1. At the ultrasonic measurement in the multiplication herd the purchased gilts showed the average daily gain (ADG from birth 612.5 g, average backfat thickness (ABT 8.34 mm, loin muscle depth (LMD 48.83 mm and LM 62.26%. At the first determination of own performance traits in a production herd the values of ABT, LMD and LM were 13.26 mm, D 59.29 mm and 58.83%, respectively. In a subsequent measurement (at the onset of standing heat the respective values of ABT, LMD and LM were 15.15 mm, 62.31 mm and 57.42%. Correlation coefficients for the measured traits of own performance in relation to reproductive traits in parities 1 were mostly low, statistically insignificant.

  20. Quality of information about success rates provided on assisted reproductive technology clinic websites in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Karin; Prentice, Tess; Purcell, Isabelle; Johnson, Louise

    2018-06-01

    Many factors influence the chance of having a baby with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A 2016 Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) investigation concluded that ART clinics needed to improve the quality of information they provide about chance of ART success. To evaluate changes in the quality of information about success rates provided on the websites of ART clinics in Australia and New Zealand before and after the ACCC investigation. Desktop audits of websites of ART clinics in Australia and New Zealand were conducted in 2016 and 2017 and available information about success rates was scored using a matrix with eight variables and a possible range of scores of 0-9. Of the 54 clinic websites identified in 2016, 32 had unique information and were eligible to be audited. Of these, 29 were also eligible to be audited in 2017. While there was a slight improvement in the mean score from 2016 to 2017 (4.93-5.28), this was not statistically significantly different. Of the 29 clinics, 14 had the same score on both occasions, 10 had a higher and five a lower information quality score in 2017. To allow people who consider ART to make informed decisions about treatment they need comprehensive and accurate information about what treatment entails and what the likely outcomes are. As measured by a scoring matrix, most ART clinics had not improved the quality of the information about success rates following the ACCC investigation. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Prevalence of factors related to active reproductive health behavior: a cross-sectional study Indonesian adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantut Susanto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Complex and diverse factors are related to reproductive health (RH behavior among adolescents according to the social and cultural context of each countries. This study examined the prevalence of active RH and factors related to active RH behavior among Indonesian adolescents. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,040 of students who were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was developed, including the World Health Organization Illustrative Questionnaire for Interview-Surveys with Young People, pubertal development scale, and sexual activity scale, modified in accordance to the Indonesian context. The data were analyzed using descriptive and comparative statistics, as well as logistic regression analyses. RESULTS The prevalence of active RH behavior were more higher in boys (56.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 50.6% to 62.6% than in girls (43.7%; 95% CI, 37.6% to 49.8%. Negative attitudes towards RH were a factor related to active RH behavior in both boys and girls. Smoking and kind relationship envisioned before marriage (pacaran [courtship] and nikah siri [non-registered marriage] were factors related to active RH behavior in boys; whereas the absence of access to information on substance abuse was an additional factor in girls. Moreover, an interaction was found between access to information on development and smoking (boys and attitudes on RH (girls as independent variables associated with active RH behavior. CONCLUSIONS Sex education for adolescents in Indonesia, particularly in the context of a health promotion program, should be developed based on prevalent social, cultural, and religious values to prevent active RH behavior. Such programs should focus on the kind of relationship envisioned before marriage and smoking for boys and access to information on subtance abuse for girls.

  2. Utilization and success rates of unstimulated in vitro fertilization in the United States: an analysis of the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John David; DiMattina, Michael; Reh, Andrea; Botes, Awie; Celia, Gerard; Payson, Mark

    2013-08-01

    To examine the utilization and outcomes of natural cycle (unstimulated) IVF as reported to the Society of Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) in 2006 and 2007. Retrospective analysis. Dataset analysis from the SART Clinical Outcome Reporting System national database. All patients undergoing IVF as reported to SART in 2006 and 2007. None. Utilization of unstimulated IVF; description of patient demographics; and comparison of implantation and pregnancy rates between unstimulated and stimulated IVF cycles. During 2006 and 2007 a total of 795 unstimulated IVF cycles were initiated. Success rates were age dependent, with patients Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Russian Landing Rate, Central Bank’s Policy Related Rate and Intermediation Premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu V. Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates asymmetries in the Russian intermediation premium as measured by the spread between the commercial lending rate and the Central Bank’s policy related rate. Empirical results have shown that the Russian intermediation premium adjusts to the threshold faster when the Central Bank’s policy related rates increase relative to lending rates as opposed to when the Central Bank’s policy related rates move in the opposite direction. The findings of this paper suggest that during the period when the Russian Federation faced formidable challenges from a sharp decline in oil prices and reduced access to international capital markets due to Western sanctions, the Central Bank of Russia was not effective in utilizing countercyclical monetary policy to achieve macroeconomic objectives and commercial banks exhibited predatory pricing behavior.

  4. High rates of hybridisation reveal fragile reproductive barriers between endangered Australian sea snakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Kate L; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Guinea, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    species have disappeared from Ashmore, the largest of these reefs, over the last 15 years, including two critically endangered Aipysurus species that have also disappeared from neighbouring Hibernia Reef. A third Timor Sea endemic, Aipysurusfuscus, is now known only from Scott and Hibernia reefs, where......The viviparous sea snakes include 62 ecologically diverse species, many of which are of very recent evolutionary origin and have overlapping distributions. Peak sea snake diversity and endemism is recorded from the isolated emergent reefs of the Timor Sea in Northwest Australia. However, nine...... significant and asymmetrical levels of gene flow following species divergence, and highest rates of introgression from the large A. laevis population into the much smaller A. fuscus population. Population assignment analyses recovered two ancestral clusters that broadly corresponded to morphological species...

  5. The genetic basis of male fertility in relation to haplodiploid reproduction in Leptopilina clavipes (Hymenoptera : Figitidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, BA; Beukeboom, LW; van Alphen, JJM; Brakefield, PM; Zwaan, BJ

    Traits under relaxed selection are expected to become reduced or disappear completely, a process called vestigialization. In parthenogenetic populations, traits historically involved in sexual reproduction are no longer under selection and potentially subject to such reduction. In Leptopilina

  6. Patient and cycle characteristics predicting high pregnancy rates with single-embryo transfer: an analysis of the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology outcomes between 2004 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersereau, Jennifer; Stanhiser, Jamie; Coddington, Charles; Jones, Tiffany; Luke, Barbara; Brown, Morton B

    2017-11-01

    To analyze factors associated with high live birth rate and low multiple birth rate in fresh and frozen-thawed assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Retrospective cohort analysis. Not applicable. The study population included 181,523 women undergoing in vitro fertilization with autologous fresh first cycles, 27,033 with fresh first oocyte donor cycles, 37,658 with fresh second cycles, and 35,446 with frozen-thawed second cycles. None. Live birth rate and multiple birth rate after single-embryo transfer (SET) and double embryo transfer (DET) were measured, in addition to cycle characteristics. In patients with favorable prognostic factors, including younger maternal age, transfer of a blastocyst, and additional embryos cryopreserved, the gain in the live birth rate from SET to DET was approximately 10%-15%; however, the multiple birth rate increased from approximately 2% to greater than 49% in both autologous and donor fresh and frozen-thawed transfer cycles. This study reports a 10%-15% reduction in live birth rate and a 47% decrement in multiple birth rate with SET compared with DET in the setting of favorable patient prognostic factors. Our findings present an opportunity to increase the rate of SET across the United States and thereby reduce the multiple birth rate and its associated poor perinatal outcomes with assisted reproductive technology pregnancies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex ratio at birth and mortality rates are negatively related in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar Shivajirao Dama

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory posits that resource availability and parental investment ability could signal offspring sex selection, in order to maximize reproductive returns. Non-human studies have provided evidence for this phenomenon, and maternal condition around the time of conception has been identified as most important factor that influence offspring sex selection. However, studies on humans have reported inconsistent results, mostly due to use of disparate measures as indicators of maternal condition. In the present study, the cross-cultural differences in human natal sex ratio were analyzed with respect to indirect measures of condition namely, life expectancy and mortality rate. Multiple regression modeling suggested that mortality rates have distinct predictive power independent of cross-cultural differences in fertility, wealth and latitude that were earlier shown to predict sex ratio at birth. These findings suggest that sex ratio variation in humans may relate to differences in parental and environmental conditions.

  8. Direct-to-consumer advertising of success rates for medically assisted reproduction: a review of national clinic websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jack; Vail, Andy; Roberts, Stephen A

    2017-01-12

    To establish how medically assisted reproduction (MAR) clinics report success rates on their websites. Websites of private and NHS clinics offering in vitro fertilisation (IVF) in the UK. We identified clinics offering IVF using the Choose a Fertility Clinic facility on the website of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA). Of 81 clinics identified, a website could not be found for 2, leaving 79 for inclusion in the analysis. Outcome measures reported by clinic websites. The numerator and denominator included in the outcome measure were of interest. 53 (67%) websites reported their performance using 51 different outcome measures. It was most common to report pregnancy (83% of these clinics) or live birth rates (51%). 31 different ways of reporting pregnancy and 9 different ways of reporting live birth were identified. 11 (21%) reported multiple birth or pregnancy rates. 1 clinic provided information on adverse events. It was usual for clinics to present results without relevant contextual information such as sample size, reporting period, the characteristics of patients and particular details of treatments. Many combinations of numerator and denominator are available for the purpose of reporting success rates for MAR. The range of reporting options available to clinics is further increased by the possibility of presenting results for subgroups of patients and for different time periods. Given the status of these websites as advertisements to patients, the risk of selective reporting is considerable. Binding guidance is required to ensure consistent, informative reporting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Omics in Reproductive Medicine: Application of Novel Technologies to Improve the IVF Success Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerenz, R D

    Treatment for many infertile couples often consists of in vitro fertilization (IVF) but an estimated 70% of IVF cycles fail to produce a live birth. In an attempt to improve the live birth rate, the vast majority of IVF cycles performed in the United States involve the transfer of multiple embryos, a practice that increases the risk of multiple gestation pregnancy. This is a concern because multiple gestation pregnancies are associated with an increased incidence of maternal and fetal complications and significant cost associated with the care of preterm infants. As the ideal outcome of each IVF cycle is the birth of a single healthy baby, significant effort has focused on identifying embryos with the greatest developmental potential. To date, selection of euploid embryos using comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) is the most promising approach while metabolomic and proteomic assessment of spent culture medium have the potential to noninvasively assess embryo viability. Endometrial gene expression profiling may help determine the optimal time to perform embryo transfer. While CCS has been implemented in some clinics, further development and optimization will be required before analysis of spent culture medium and endometrial gene expression profiling make the transition to clinical use. This review will describe efforts to identify embryos with the greatest potential to result in a healthy, live birth, with a particular emphasis on detection of embryo aneuploidy and metabolic profiling of spent embryo culture medium. Assessment of endometrial receptivity to identify the optimal time to perform embryo transfer will also be discussed. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence and related factors for anorgasmia among reproductive aged women in Hesarak, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Tadayon Najafabady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Orgasmic dysfunction in women is characterized by persistent or recurrent delay in or absence of orgasm following a normal sexual excitement phase. Research has shown that almost two thirds of women have concerns about their sexual relationship. Sexual dysfunction has many problems for couples; some researchers found that up to 67% of divorces related to sexual disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and related factors of anorgasmia among reproductive age Iranian women. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2006-7 in Hesarak, Karaj, Iran. A total of 1200 women were randomly recruited to the study. Sexual satisfaction questions were prepared according to the Enrich Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire. Orgasms were assessed according to the relevant questions in the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 11; Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and independent t-test were used for statistical purposes. RESULTS: This study showed that the prevalence of anorgasmia among Iranian women in Hesarak, Karaj, was 26.3%. There was a significant difference between the anorgasmic and normal orgasm groups regarding the women's age, age at marriage, duration of marriage and education during puberty (p<0.05. Some psychological factors, e.g. anxiety, fatigue, pain, feeling of guilt, anti-masculine feelings and embarrassment in sexual relationships were higher in the anorgasmic group (p<0.001. DISCUSSION: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of anorgasmia in Hesarak is high and most of the anorgasmic women were highly unsatisfied with their sexual relationship compared to the normal orgasm group. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anorgasmia among Iranian women in Hesarak, Karaj, is high and some socio-demographic and psychological factors have a strong relationship with anorgasmia.

  11. Temperature affects brain and pituitary gene expression related to reproduction and growth in the male blue gouramis, Trichogaster trichopterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Dalia; Degani, Gad

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the effect of temperature on reproduction and growth-related factors in blue gourami males under nonreproductive and reproductive conditions. Males that were maintained under nonreproductive conditions did not build nest and the gonado-somatic index (% GSI) was significantly higher in fish maintained at 27°C compared with fish maintained at 23°C. The relative mRNA levels of brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone 3 (GnRH3), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1), pituitary β-luteinizing hormone (βLH), and prolactin were significantly higher when the fish were maintained at 27°C than at 23°C or 31°C. β-Follicle-stimulating hormone (βFSH) mRNA levels were significantly lower when maintained at 31°C than at the other temperatures. Nests were observed only in males under reproductive conditions. In these fish, higher mRNA levels of GnRH3, PACAP, βFSH, βLH and prolactin were detected at 27°C, and higher mRNA levels of IGF-1 were detected at 23°C, when compared with other temperature of maintenance or with fish that did not build nest. In conclusion, we propose that temperature has more effect on the transcription of genes, associated with reproduction, than on those pertaining to growth. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  12. Effects of three PBDEs on development, reproduction and population growth rate of the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitholtz, Magnus; Wollenberger, Leah

    2003-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on aquatic organisms is very limited. A full life-cycle (≤26 days exposure) ecotoxicity test with the particle-feeding copepod Nitocra spinipes was therefore used to study effects of BDE-47, -99 and -100 on larval development rate (LDR) and population growth rate (r m ). LDR significantly decreased in copepods exposed for 6 days to nominal concentrations ≥0.013 mg/l BDE-47 and ≥0.03 mg/l BDE-99. Large concentration ratios (≤338) between adult acute and juvenile subchronic endpoints were observed. Exposure over the full life cycle (≤26 days) showed that r m in general was a less sensitive endpoint than LDR. Still, the r m in copepods exposed to 0.04 mg/l BDE-47 was significantly reduced compared to the controls (***P 14 C-BDE-47 and 14 C-BDE-99 in the test system showed that the major fractions (∼50-80%) were associated to particulate material. Our findings indicate that development and reproduction in N. spinipes are sensitive to the tested PBDEs and that ingestion of particle-adsorbed PBDEs most likely is the predominant route of exposure in N. spinipes. However, to further improve the usefulness of laboratory effect levels of PBDEs and other lipophilic substances for environmental risk assessment, it is important to develop ecotoxicological tools, which can evaluate and rate the toxic contribution from different matrices, such as suspended particles, sediment, food, water etc

  13. The association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akira; Nakada, Ken; Katamoto, Hiromu

    2016-05-03

    The incidence of peripartum disorders in dairy herds negatively influences productivity and reproductive performance. Concrete data from local areas are helpful for explaining the importance of peripartum management to dairy farmers. This study was conducted to clarify the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with productivity or reproductive performance in 179 dairy herds in Fukuoka, Southern Japan. A database was compiled from the records of the Livestock Improvement Association of Japan, the Dairy Cooperative Association and the Federation of Agricultural Mutual Relief Association. In this study, we created a comprehensive database of dairy farm production data for epidemiological analysis and used a general linear mixed model to analyze the association of culling and death rate within 30 days after calving with milk production or reproductive performance. The database can be used to describe, analyze and predict the risk of production. A cross-sectional analysis with contrasts was applied to investigate the association of cows served by AI/all cows, pregnant cows/cows served by AI, days open, milk yield and somatic cell counts with culling and death rate within 30 days after calving. The days open value significantly increased with increasing rate of culling and death within 30 days after calving (P for trend <0.001). No significant differences were found for the other comparisons. Our data suggest that proper feeding and management in the dry period may lead to improved postpartum reproductive performance in this dairy cow cohort.

  14. Genetic analysis of male reproductive success in relation to density in the zebrafish, Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan William C

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We used behavioural and genetic data to investigate the effects of density on male reproductive success in the zebrafish, Danio rerio. Based on previous measurements of aggression and courtship behaviour by territorial males, we predicted that they would sire more offspring than non-territorial males. Results Microsatellite analysis of paternity showed that at low densities territorial males had higher reproductive success than non-territorial males. However, at high density territorial males were no more successful than non-territorials and the sex difference in the opportunity for sexual selection, based on the parameter Imates, was low. Conclusion Male zebrafish exhibit two distinct mating tactics; territoriality and active pursuit of females. Male reproductive success is density dependent and the opportunity for sexual selection appears to be weak in this species.

  15. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  16. Estimating the reproductive number, total outbreak size, and reporting rates for Zika epidemics in South and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah P. Shutt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As South and Central American countries prepare for increased birth defects from Zika virus outbreaks and plan for mitigation strategies to minimize ongoing and future outbreaks, understanding important characteristics of Zika outbreaks and how they vary across regions is a challenging and important problem. We developed a mathematical model for the 2015/2016 Zika virus outbreak dynamics in Colombia, El Salvador, and Suriname. We fit the model to publicly available data provided by the Pan American Health Organization, using Approximate Bayesian Computation to estimate parameter distributions and provide uncertainty quantification. The model indicated that a country-level analysis was not appropriate for Colombia. We then estimated the basic reproduction number to range between 4 and 6 for El Salvador and Suriname with a median of 4.3 and 5.3, respectively. We estimated the reporting rate to be around 16% in El Salvador and 18% in Suriname with estimated total outbreak sizes of 73,395 and 21,647 people, respectively. The uncertainty in parameter estimates highlights a need for research and data collection that will better constrain parameter ranges.

  17. Estimating the reproductive number, total outbreak size, and reporting rates for Zika epidemics in South and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutt, Deborah P; Manore, Carrie A; Pankavich, Stephen; Porter, Aaron T; Del Valle, Sara Y

    2017-12-01

    As South and Central American countries prepare for increased birth defects from Zika virus outbreaks and plan for mitigation strategies to minimize ongoing and future outbreaks, understanding important characteristics of Zika outbreaks and how they vary across regions is a challenging and important problem. We developed a mathematical model for the 2015/2016 Zika virus outbreak dynamics in Colombia, El Salvador, and Suriname. We fit the model to publicly available data provided by the Pan American Health Organization, using Approximate Bayesian Computation to estimate parameter distributions and provide uncertainty quantification. The model indicated that a country-level analysis was not appropriate for Colombia. We then estimated the basic reproduction number to range between 4 and 6 for El Salvador and Suriname with a median of 4.3 and 5.3, respectively. We estimated the reporting rate to be around 16% in El Salvador and 18% in Suriname with estimated total outbreak sizes of 73,395 and 21,647 people, respectively. The uncertainty in parameter estimates highlights a need for research and data collection that will better constrain parameter ranges. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The stress of being contaminated? Adrenocortical function and reproduction in relation to persistent organic pollutants in female black legged kittiwakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartu, Sabrina; Angelier, Frédéric; Herzke, Dorte; Moe, Børge; Bech, Claus; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Chastel, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    High levels of environmental pollutants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including PCB and DDT have been found in the Arctic and many of those pollutants may impair reproduction through endocrine disruption. Nevertheless, their effects on stress hormones remain poorly understood, especially in free-ranging birds. Corticosterone, the principal glucocorticoid in birds, can indirectly impair reproduction. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between POPs and reproduction through their potential consequences on different reproductive traits (breeding decision, egg-laying date, breeding success) and corticosterone secretion (baseline and stress-induced levels). We addressed those questions in an Arctic population of female black-legged kittiwakes during the pre-breeding stage and measured several legacy POPs (PCBs and pesticides: HCB, p,p'-DDE, CHL) in whole blood. POP levels were not related to breeding decision neither to breeding success, whereas females with high levels of pesticides laid their eggs earlier in the season. We found a negative relationship between POP levels and body condition index in non-breeding females. Black-legged kittiwakes with higher levels of PCB showed stronger adrenocortical response when subjected to a capture-handling stress protocol. We suggest that PCBs may disrupt corticosterone secretion whereas the positive relationship between pesticides and egg-laying date could either originate from a direct effect of pesticides or may be related to other confounding factors such as age or individual's quality. Although no direct negative reproduction output of POPs was found in this study, it is possible that the most contaminated individuals would be more sensitive to environmental stress and would be less able to maintain parental investment than less polluted individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fertility-related knowledge and information-seeking behaviour among people of reproductive age: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarberg, Karin; Zosel, Rebecca; Comoy, Caroline; Robertson, Sarah; Holden, Carol; Deeks, Mandy; Johnson, Louise

    2017-06-01

    Some potentially modifiable factors adversely affect fertility and pregnancy health. To inform a fertility health promotion programme, this study investigated fertility knowledge and information-seeking behaviour among people of reproductive age. This was a qualitative study involving six focus group discussions with women and men who intended to have children in the future and eight paired interviews with couples who were actively trying to conceive. Participants (n = 74) themselves generally claimed 'low' to 'average' levels of knowledge about fertility. Most of them overestimated women's reproductive lifespan and had limited knowledge about the 'fertile window' of the menstrual cycle. The Internet was a common source of fertility-related information and social media was viewed as a potential effective avenue for dissemination of messages about fertility and how to protect it. Most participants agreed that primary health care providers, such as general practitioners (GPs), are well placed to provide information regarding fertility and pregnancy health. This study identified several gaps in knowledge among people of reproductive age about factors that influence fertility and pregnancy health negatively. Addressing these knowledge gaps in school curricula, primary care and health promotion would assist people to realize their reproductive goals and reduce the risk of infertility and adverse obstetric outcomes.

  20. Productivity of Indonesian swamp buffaloes in relation to nutrition, reproduction and draught use in the wet tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamualim, A.; Liem, C.; Ffoulkes, D.

    1990-01-01

    Buffaloes in Indonesian villages fulfil a valuable function in providing the major source of draught power for cultivation. However, in wet irrigated areas, the continuous work of buffaloes and the low to medium quality of the available feed result in low growth rates and low reproductive performance. Results from buffalo feeding trials using similar feeds to those given in the villages indicated that high usage for draught would ultimately reduce body weight gains and might reduce the ovarian activity of buffalo cows. Use of supplements is recommended to improve the growth rates and fertility of swamp buffalo cows subjected to high work loads. (author). 14 refs, 7 tabs

  1. The association between homocysteine in the follicular fluid with embryo quality and pregnancy rate in assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, Pelin; Ersoylu, Bilge; Cepni, Ismail; Guralp, Onur; Atakul, Nil; Irez, Tulay; Idil, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the association between follicular fluid homocysteine levels and embryo quality and pregnancy rates in patients undergoing assisted reproduction. Fifty infertile women who were admitted to our clinic were enrolled in the study. Ovulation induction was performed by using GnRH agonist and gonadotropins. For each patient, homocysteine level in the follicular fluid was measured by using nephelometric method after the oocyte pick-up. The association between the homocysteine concentration in the follicular fluid and the oocyte-embryo quality, pregnancy rates and hormone levels were investigated. Mean ± SD Hcy was 9.6 ± 2.02 μmol/L and 14.9 ± 2.93 μmol/L in pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively (p Homocystein did not have any correlation with M2, late M2, and total number of oocytes, number of fertilized oocytes and transferred embryos, and embryo quality grade. Area under curve (AUC) of hcy for prediction of pregnancy failure was 0.922 (p = 0.0001, 95% Confidence interval 0.85-0.99). A threshold of 11.9 μmol/L of hcy had a sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 91.6% for prediction of pregnancy failure. The subgroup analysis in male factor infertility group (n = 28), showed that mean homocystein was 9.9 ± 2.44 μmol/L and 14.1 ± 2.72 μmol/L in pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively (p = 0.002). Low follicular fluid homocysteine level is associated with a better chance of clinical pregnancy.

  2. How does health-promoting lifestyle relate to sexual function among women of reproductive age in Iran?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Parvin; Jorfi, Maryam; Afshari, Poorandokht; Fakhri, Ahmad

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relation between health-promoting lifestyle and sexual function among women of reproductive age. In this cross-sectional study, 1200 women were recruited randomly from 10 public health centers in Ahvaz, Iran. A demographic questionnaire, Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile 2 (HPLP2), and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) were used for data collection. The inclusion criteria were as follows: women aged 15-45 years, married, monogamous, and having basic literacy. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, and logistic regression. All aspects of sexual function showed a significant relationship with different dimensions of HPLP2, except for pain and physical activity ( p function than other women (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.06-1.14, p relations and stress management also showed a significant correlation with sexual function. Results of this study showed that health-promoting lifestyle dimensions are significantly related to all aspects of sexual function in women of reproductive age. Health policy makers should take lifestyle-related factors of reproductive-aged women into account when seeking to improve the sexual wellbeing of this population. Further attention should also be given to assessing the direction of causality.

  3. The Relation between Recombination Rate and Patterns of Molecular Evolution and Variation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, José L.; Halligan, Daniel L.; Haddrill, Penelope R.; Charlesworth, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Genetic recombination associated with sexual reproduction increases the efficiency of natural selection by reducing the strength of Hill–Robertson interference. Such interference can be caused either by selective sweeps of positively selected alleles or by background selection (BGS) against deleterious mutations. Its consequences can be studied by comparing patterns of molecular evolution and variation in genomic regions with different rates of crossing over. We carried out a comprehensive study of the benefits of recombination in Drosophila melanogaster, both by contrasting five independent genomic regions that lack crossing over with the rest of the genome and by comparing regions with different rates of crossing over, using data on DNA sequence polymorphisms from an African population that is geographically close to the putatively ancestral population for the species, and on sequence divergence from a related species. We observed reductions in sequence diversity in noncrossover (NC) regions that are inconsistent with the effects of hard selective sweeps in the absence of recombination. Overall, the observed patterns suggest that the recombination rate experienced by a gene is positively related to an increase in the efficiency of both positive and purifying selection. The results are consistent with a BGS model with interference among selected sites in NC regions, and joint effects of BGS, selective sweeps, and a past population expansion on variability in regions of the genome that experience crossing over. In such crossover regions, the X chromosome exhibits a higher rate of adaptive protein sequence evolution than the autosomes, implying a Faster-X effect. PMID:24489114

  4. Poor knowledge of age-related fertility decline and assisted reproduction among healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Désirée; Vassena, Rita; Prat, Andrés; Vernaeve, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Reproduction is a matter of concern for individuals and society due to the postponement of childbearing, and healthcare professionals are the main source of information and counselling. This study aims to evaluate how knowledgeable healthcare professionals are about fertility and assisted reproduction, and to explore attitudes towards social oocyte freezing. A cross-sectional study was performed with 201 professionals (gynaecologists, physicians and nurses) from four public centres in Spain. Participants completed a survey about fertility, IVF, oocyte donation (OD) and social oocyte freezing, between May 2013 and March 2014. Reported mean age limits for pregnancy were 39.5 ± 4.5 (spontaneously), 43.7 ± 5.2 (IVF) and 49.0 ± 6.5 (OD). Gynaecologists reported a younger limit for spontaneous and IVF pregnancies (P 39, compared with 77.3% of other physicians and 72.9% of nurses. Regarding social oocyte freezing, 41.8% of gynaecologists thought it should be offered to every young woman, versus 62.7% of other physicians and 48.9% of nurses (P = 0.041). In conclusion, gynaecologists are more knowledgeable about fertility and assisted reproduction, while more restrictive towards social oocyte freezing. Knowledge and attitudes could influence the quality of information and counselling given to patients. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MInguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone leve...

  6. 233 Efficacité de la reproduction en relation avec les anomalies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP COMPAQ

    victimes d'un disfonctionnement de reproduction et l'autre des vaches sans .... été utilisée en croisement d'absorption pour la création en Russie d'un type de race pie ... hepariné en 3 gouttes pour éviter la coagulation du sang, stimulés par la ...

  7. Towards Transnational Feminisms. Some reflections and concerns in relation to the globalization of reproductive technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the emergence of the concept of ‘transnational feminisms’ as a differentiated notion from ‘global sisterhood’ within feminist postcolonial criticism. This is done in order to examine its usefulness for interrogating the globalization of reproductive technologies and women’s

  8. Lower alert rates by clustering of related drug interaction alerts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, M.; Siderius, Hidde; Schreudering, A.; De Smet, Peter Agm; Bouvy, M.L.

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate to what extent clustering of related drug interaction alerts (drug-drug and drug-disease interaction alerts) would decrease the alert rate in clinical decision support systems (CDSSs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of drug interaction alerts

  9. Variation in male reproductive longevity across traditional societies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Vinicius

    Full Text Available Most accounts of human life history propose that women have short reproductive spans relative to their adult lifespans, while men not only remain fertile but carry on reproducing until late life. Here we argue that studies have overlooked evidence for variation in male reproductive ageing across human populations. We apply a Bayesian approach to census data from Agta hunter-gatherers and Gambian farmers to show that long post-reproductive lifespans characterise not only women but also males in some traditional human populations. We calculate three indices of reproductive ageing in men (oldest age at reproduction, male late-life reproduction, and post-reproductive representation and identify a continuum of male reproductive longevity across eight traditional societies ranging from !Kung, Hadza and Agta hunter-gatherers exhibiting low levels of polygyny, early age at last reproduction and long post-reproductive lifespans, to male Gambian agriculturalists and Turkana pastoralists showing higher levels of polygyny, late-life reproduction and shorter post-reproductive lifespans. We conclude that the uniquely human detachment between rates of somatic senescence and reproductive decline, and the existence of post-reproductive lifespans, are features of both male and female life histories, and therefore not exclusive consequences of menopause.

  10. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes previously related to genetic variation in fertility with phenotypic measurements of reproductive function in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M Sofia; Denicol, Anna C; Cole, John B; Null, Daniel J; Taylor, Jeremy F; Schnabel, Robert D; Hansen, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    Many genetic markers related to health or production traits are not evaluated in populations independent of the discovery population or related to phenotype. Here we evaluated 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in candidate genes previously associated with genetic merit for fertility and production traits for association with phenotypic measurements of fertility in a population of Holstein cows that was selected based on predicted transmitting ability (PTA) for daughter pregnancy rate (DPR; high, ≥1, n = 989; low, ≤ -1.0, n = 1,285). Cows with a high PTA for DPR had higher pregnancy rate at first service, fewer services per conception, and fewer days open than cows with a low PTA for DPR. Of the 68 SNP, 11 were associated with pregnancy rate at first service, 16 with services per conception, and 19 with days open. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in 12 genes (BDH2, BSP3, CAST, CD2, CD14, FUT1, FYB, GCNT3, HSD17B7, IBSP, OCLN, and PCCB) had significant associations with 2 fertility traits, and SNP in 4 genes (CSPP1, FCER1G, PMM2, and TBC1D24) had significant associations with each of the 3 traits. Results from this experiment were compared with results from 2 earlier studies in which the SNP were associated with genetic estimates of fertility. One study involved the same animals as used here, and the other study was of an independent population of bulls. A total of 13 SNP associated with 1 or more phenotypic estimates of fertility were directionally associated with genetic estimates of fertility in the same cow population. Moreover, 14 SNP associated with reproductive phenotype were directionally associated with genetic estimates of fertility in the bull population. Nine SNP (located in BCAS, BSP3, CAST, FUT1, HSD17B7, OCLN, PCCB, PMM2, and TBC1D24) had a directional association with fertility in all 3 studies. Examination of the function of the genes with SNP associated with reproduction in more than one study indicates the importance of steroid hormones

  11. Fertility-related knowledge and reproductive goals in childhood cancer survivors: short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, V; Keim, M C; Nahata, L; Shultz, E L; Klosky, J L; Tuinman, M A; Gerhardt, C A

    2017-11-01

    Do young adult survivors of childhood cancer know their fertility status, in the context of their parenthood goals and screening for gonadal functioning? While 80% of survivors (who were without children) wanted children in the future, most did not know their fertility status, and screening for gonadal functioning was underutilized. Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for infertility, but fertility counseling and assessment are underutilized. Separate studies indicated that survivors' fertility-related knowledge is poor and that they often wanted to have children. Yet, studies have not investigated the intersection of both issues, as well as potential distress if parenthood goals are not met. Young adult male and female survivors of childhood cancer (N = 149) completed cross-sectional surveys, and data for those without children (n = 105, 70.5%) are presented here. Participants were 20-40 years old (M = 26.5), diagnosed 5-33 years prior to study participation, and completed questionnaires online. Knowledge of fertility status, parenthood goals, and potential distress if survivors were unable to have children were assessed. Medical records were reviewed for hormone levels as indicators of screening for gonadal functioning. Most survivors (n = 81; 77.1%) did not know their fertility status, while over 80% (n = 89) wanted children (neither aspect varied by socio-demographic/cancer-specific factors). Two-thirds of survivors indicated they would be distressed if parenthood goals remained unfulfilled; especially female (versus male, t = 2.64; P = 0.01) or partnered (versus single, t = -3.45; P fertility status. Relevant risk factors may have not been identified owing to limited sample size and missing treatment information. The underutilization of screening for gonadal functioning needs further exploration in other pediatric centers. Most adult childhood cancer survivors want to become parents, but do not know their fertility status, which could cause significant

  12. Foraging effort in relation to the constraints of reproduction in free-ranging albatrosses

    OpenAIRE

    Shaffer, Scott A; Costa, D P; Weimerskirch, H

    2003-01-01

    1. Theoretical models predict that animals will vary their effort to maximize different currencies such as time and energy when the constraints of reproduction change during breeding, but this has been poorly studied in free-ranging animals. 2. Foraging effort (energy per unit time) was examined by comparing mass changes, foraging costs and activity-specific behaviours of Wandering Albatrosses (Diomedea exulans Linnaeus) during the incubation and chick-brooding stages. In 1998, 38 albatrosses...

  13. [Genotype-related changes in the reproductive function under social hierarchy in laboratory male mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchuk, L V; Salomacheva, I N; Osadchuk, A V

    2010-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate genetic differences in reproductive consequences of social hierarchy using inbred mice strains BALB/cLac, PT and CBA/Lac. Two adult males of different genotypes were housed together for 5 days. Hierarchical status of both partners was determined by asymmetry in agonistic behavior. The number of epididymal sperm and a proportion of abnormal sperm, weights of reproductive organs, serum concentration and testicular content of testosterone, and the testosterone response to introduction of a receptive female were determined. The testosterone measures were significantly decreased in the PT strain, the epididymal sperm number was significantly decreased in the BALB/cLac strain and a proportion of abnormal sperm heads was significantly increase in the CBA/Lac (in both dominants and subordinates) as compared to control mice. The testicular testosterone response to a receptive female and precopulatory behavior was unchanged in dominants and suppressed in subordinates of the BALB/cLac strain. The results indicate that in laboratory mice the pattern of reproductive response to social hierarchy is determined by genetic background.

  14. Simple relations between mean passage times and Kramers' stationary rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boilley, David; Jurado, Beatriz; Schmitt, Christelle

    2004-01-01

    The classical problem of the escape time of a metastable potential well in a thermal environment is generally studied by various quantities like Kramers' stationary escape rate, mean first passage time, nonlinear relaxation time, or mean last passage time. In addition, numerical simulations lead to the definition of other quantities as the long-time limit escape rate and the transient time. In this paper, we propose some simple analytical relations between all these quantities. In particular, we point out the hypothesis used to evaluate these various times in order to clarify their comparison and applicability, and show how average times include the transient time and the long-time limit of the escape rate

  15. Engineering aspects of rate-related processes in food manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Many rate-related phenomena occur in food manufacturing processes. This review addresses four of them, all of which are topics that the author has studied in order to design food manufacturing processes that are favorable from the standpoint of food engineering. They include chromatographic separation through continuous separation with a simulated moving adsorber, lipid oxidation kinetics in emulsions and microencapsulated systems, kinetic analysis and extraction in subcritical water, and water migration in pasta.

  16. Exchange RateRelative Price Nonlinear Cointegration Relationship in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Venus Khim-Sen Liew; Chee-Keong Choong; Evan Lau; Kian-Ping Lim

    2005-01-01

    The finding of exchange rate–relative price nonlinear cointegration relationship in Malaysia, among others, suggests that nonlinear Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) equilibrium may be regarded as reference point in judging the short run misalignment of the Ringgit currency and thereby deducing effective policy actions. Moreover, economists who wish to extend the simple PPP exchange rate model into the more complicated monetary exchange models may do so comfortably, at least in the text of Malays...

  17. Reduced ovulation rate, failure to be mated and fertilization failure/embryo loss are the underlying causes of poor reproductive performance in juvenile ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sara J; Smaill, Bronwyn; O'Connell, Anne R; Johnstone, Peter D; Stevens, David R; Quirke, Laurel D; Farquhar, Philip A; Juengel, Jennifer L

    2016-04-01

    A ewe that is mated as a juvenile (producing a lamb at 1 year of age) will produce an average of only 0.6 lambs to weaning, compared to an average of 1.2 lambs in adult ewes. Understanding the underlying causes of this low reproductive efficiency and designing methods to improve or mitigate these effects could potentially increase adoption of mating juvenile ewes. In Experiment 1, 2 Cohorts of ewes, born a year apart, were mated in order to lamb at 1 and 2 years of age and the performance of the ewes at each age was compared. Onset of puberty, mating by the fertile ram, ovulation rate, early pregnancy (day 30-35) litter size, number of lambs born and number of lambs weaned were measured. In juvenile ewes, by day 35 of pregnancy, 43% of ova had failed to become a viable embryo and this early loss was the largest contributor to the poor reproductive performance observed. Compared with young adult ewes, ovulation rate was lower (pewes with a greater ovulation rate (pewes, failure to mate with the ram, lower ovulation rate and increased fertilisation failure/embryo loss underlie their poor reproductive performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fertility and reproductive rate of Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, in native and exotic honeybee, Apis mellifera L., colonies under Saudi Arabia conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehya Alattal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Varroa mite is the most destructive pest to bee colonies worldwide. In Saudi Arabia, preliminary data indicated high infestation levels in the exotic honeybee colonies; such as Apis mellifera carnica and Apis mellifera ligustica, compared to native honeybee subspecies Apis mellifera jemenitica, which may imply higher tolerance to Varroasis. In this study, fertility and reproductive rate of Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, in capped brood cells of the native honeybee subspecies were investigated and compared with an exotic honeybee subspecies, A. m. carnica. Mite fertility was almost alike (87.5% and 89.4% in the native and craniolan colonies respectively. Similarly, results did not show significant differences in reproduction rate between both subspecies (F = 0.66, Pr > F = 0.42. Number of adult Varroa daughters per fertile mother mite was 2.0 and 2.1 for native and craniolan honeybee subspecies respectively. This may indicate that mechanisms of keeping low infestation rates in the native honeybee colonies are not associated with Varroa reproduction. Therefore, potential factors of keeping lower Varroa infestation rates in native honey bee subspecies should be further investigated.

  19. Does oocyte banking for anticipated gamete exhaustion influence future relational and reproductive choices? A follow-up of bankers and non-bankers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, D; Maes, E; Polyzos, N P; Verheyen, G; Tournaye, H; Nekkebroeck, J

    2015-02-01

    What is the nature of the relational status, reproductive choices and possible regret of a pioneer cohort of women that either considered or actually performed oocyte banking for anticipated gamete exhaustion (AGE)? Only half of the women who banked oocytes anticipate using them in the future but the experience with oocyte banking is overwhelmingly positive, with the majority of AGE bankers preferring to have it performed at a younger age. Most women who choose to cryopreserve oocytes for the prevention of age-related fertility decline are single and are hoping to buy time in their search for a suitable partner. The question of why some candidates actually embark on such treatment while others eventually prefer not to freeze remains unclear. There are no follow-up data available either on post-freezing changes in relational status, or on attitude towards the undergone treatment and the reproductive outcome. A retrospective cohort study was performed with 140 women who visited the outpatient clinic between 2009 and 2011. All women (mean age 36.7 ± SD 2.62) considered oocyte preservation for age-related infertility. At least 1 year after their initial visit (range 12-45 months), women were contacted by phone to participate in a standardized questionnaire developed to evaluate their actual relational and reproductive situation, their attitude towards banking and future reproductive plan. Eighty-six women (61.4%) completed at least one cryopreservation cycle. The non-bankers included 54 women who either preferred no treatment (n = 51) or attempted stimulation but cancelled because of poor response (n = 3). The response rate among bankers was 75.4% (65/86) while 55.8% (29/52) of the non-bankers were reached for interview. Among bankers, 50.8% of women think they will use the oocytes at some point, while 29.2% indicated that they currently consider the use of frozen oocytes less likely than anticipated at time of oocyte retrieval. However, although 95.4% would decide to

  20. Reduced reproductive function in wild baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) related to natural consumption of the African black plum (Vitex doniana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, James P; Ross, Caroline; Warren, Ymke; Heistermann, Michael; MacLarnon, Ann M

    2007-09-01

    Several authors have suggested that the consumption of plant compounds may have direct effects on wild primate reproductive biology, but no studies have presented physiological evidence of such effects. Here, for two troops of olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) at Gashaka-Gumti National Park, Nigeria, we show major seasonal increases in levels of fecal progesterone metabolites in females, and provide evidence that this is linked to the consumption of natural plant compounds. Increases in fecal progestogen excretion occurred seasonally in all females, in all reproductive states, including lactation. Detailed feeding data on the study animals showed that only one food species is consumed by both troops at the time of observed progestogen peaks, and at no other times of the year: the African black plum, Vitex doniana. Laboratory tests demonstrated the presence of high concentrations of progestogen-like compounds in V. doniana. Together with published findings linking the consumption of a related Vitex species (Vitex agnus castus) to increased progestogen levels in humans, our data suggest that natural consumption of V. doniana was a likely cause of the observed increases in progestogens. Levels of progestogen excretion in the study baboons during periods of V. doniana consumption are higher than those found during pregnancy, and prevent the expression of the sexual swelling, which is associated with ovulatory activity. As consortship and copulatory activity in baboons occur almost exclusively in the presence of a sexual swelling, V. doniana appears to act on cycling females as both a physiological contraceptive (simulating pregnancy in a similar way to some forms of the human contraceptive pill) and a social contraceptive (preventing sexual swelling, thus reducing association and copulation with males). The negative effects of V. doniana on reproduction may be counter-balanced by the wide-range of medicinal properties attributed to plants in this genus. This is

  1. Cumulus cell mitochondrial activity in relation to body mass index in women undergoing assisted reproductive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria K. Gorshinova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Most studies have considered the negative influence of obesity on fertility in both genders. In the present study, we assessed mitochondrial activity expressed as the mitochondrial potential index (MPI in cumulus cells from obese women and women with a normal body mass index (BMI during assisted reproductive therapy. The results revealed a significant reduction of MPI with increased body mass. The lower MPI levels in cumulus cells from obese women may reflect mitochondrial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress, which can affect the cumulus-oocyte complex and have an impact on oocyte development.

  2. Sovereign ratings in the post-crisis world : an analysis of actual, shadow and relative risk ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Kaushik; De, Supriyo; Ratha, Dilip; Timmer, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of sovereign credit ratings in the wake of the global financial crisis by studying changes in actual, shadow, and relative ratings between 2008 and 2012. For countries that do not have a rating from the major rating agencies, shadow ratings are estimated as a function of macroeconomic, structural, and governance variables. The shadow rating exercise confir...

  3. Heart rate variability in sleep-related migraine without aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollono, Catello; Gnoni, Valentina; Testani, Elisa; Dittoni, Serena; Losurdo, Anna; Colicchio, Salvatore; Di Blasi, Chiara; Mazza, Salvatore; Farina, Benedetto; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2013-07-15

    This is an observational study aimed to investigate the activity of autonomic nervous system during sleep in patients with sleep-related migraine. Eight consecutive migraineurs without aura were enrolled (6 women and 2 men), aged 30 to 62 years (mean 48.1 ± 9.3 years). Inclusion criteria were: high frequency of attacks (> 5 per month) and occurrence of more than 75% of the attacks during sleep causing an awakening. Patients were compared with a control group of 55 healthy subjects (23 men and 32 women, mean age 54.2 ± 13.0 years), and with a further control group of 8 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patient and controls underwent polysomnography and heart rate variability analysis. A significant reduction of the LF/HF ratio during N2 and N3 sleep stages was observed in migraineurs compared with controls. No differences in sleep macrostructure were observed; cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) time and CAP rate were lower in migraineurs than in controls. These findings indicate a peculiar modification of the autonomic balance during sleep in sleep-related migraine. The reduction of LF/HF ratio in NREM sleep was observed in controls, but it was quantitatively much more evident in migraineurs. Changes in LF/HF could be consequent to an autonomic unbalance which could manifest selectively (or alternatively become more evident) during sleep. These findings, together with the reduction in CAP rate, could be an expression of reduced arousability during sleep in patients with sleep-related migraine. The simultaneous involvement of the autonomic, arousal, and pain systems might suggest involvement of the hypothalamic pathways.

  4. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y H; Afeiche, M C; Gaskins, A J; Williams, P L; Mendiola, J; Jørgensen, N; Swan, S H; Chavarro, J E

    2014-07-01

    Is consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) associated with semen quality? Higher consumption of SSB was associated with lower sperm motility among healthy, young men. The existing literature on the potential role of SSBs on male reproductive function is scarce and primarily focused on the relation between caffeinated beverages and semen quality. However, a rodent model suggests that SSBs may hamper male fertility. The Rochester Young Men's Study; a cross-sectional study of 189 healthy young men carried out at the University of Rochester during 2009-2010. Men aged 18-22 years provided semen and blood samples, underwent a physical examination and completed a previously validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Linear regression was used to analyze the association of SSBs with sperm parameters and reproductive hormone levels while adjusting for potential confounders. SSB intake was inversely related to progressive sperm motility. Men in the highest quartile of SSB intake (≥1.3 serving/day) had 9.8 (95% CI: 1.9,17.8) percentage units lower progressive sperm motility than men in the lowest quartile of intake (beverages. While our findings are in agreement with recent experimental data in rodents, more studies are required to draw conclusions on the relation of SSB with semen quality or male infertility. Supported by the European Union Seventh Framework Program (Environment), 'Developmental Effects of Environment on Reproductive Health' (DEER) grant 212844. Grant P30 DK046200 and Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award T32 DK007703-16 and T32HD060454 from the National Institutes of Health. None of the authors has any conflicts of interest to declare.

  5. Vaginal douching by women with vulvovaginitis and relation to reproductive health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Omar M; Youssef, Alaa Eldin A; Khodry, Mostafa M; Mostafa, Sayed A

    2013-05-14

    Vaginal douching (VD) is a common practice among married women all over the world specially those in the Middle East. It is used for personal hygiene or for other aesthetic reasons in many countries. The current study investigates the prevalence of VD among patients with vulvovaginitis in Egypt. It also compares the reproductive health hazards among women performing routine VD with those using external hygiene. It also investigates why, and how women practice this douching. A cross sectional observational study was conducted in a tertiary university affiliated hospital in Assiut, Egypt. An interview administered questionnaire was administered to 620 women by two trained clinic nurses. Women presented to the outpatient clinic and diagnosed to have any type of vaginal infections were approached for participation. The principle outcome was the history of preterm labor in women who routinely performed VD versus those who did not (upon which sample size was estimated). Other outcome measures were the types of vaginal infections, and reproductive implications comprising, ectopic pregnancy, abortion and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). The participants were predominantly multiparas from semi-urban background and middle socioeconomic level. Considering VD as a religious duty and a kind of personal cleanliness were the most common reasons for performing VD in 88.9% and 80.6% of the studied population, respectively. History of preterm labor was reported in 19.2% versus 11.9% (p=0.048), while history of PID in 13.2% versus 6.0% (p=0.008) in women performing VD compared to those not performing this habit, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups as regard the history of ectopic pregnancy or the number of previous abortions. Vaginal douching is a prevalent practice in Egypt and has traditional and religious roots within the community. There are many misbeliefs around this habit in Egypt. Vaginal douching increases certain reproductive health

  6. Effects of intraspecific variation in reproductive traits, pectoral fin use and burst swimming on metabolic rates and swimming performance in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Banet, Amanda I.; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2013-01-01

    by the total body mass. Results showed that the metabolic rate increased curvilinearly with swimming speed. The slope of the relationship was used as an index of swimming cost. There was no evidence that reproductive traits correlated with swimming cost, MO2std or Ucrit. In contrast, data revealed strong...... swimming and pectoral fin movement over a wide speed range, presumably to support swimming stability and control, is an inefficient swimming behaviour. Finally, transition to burst-assisted swimming was associated with an increase in aerobic metabolic rate. Our study highlights factors other than swimming...

  7. Do resident's leadership skills relate to ratings of technical skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Samantha J; Law, Katherine E; Ray, Rebecca D; Nathwani, Jay N; DiMarco, Shannon M; D'Angelo, Anne-Lise D; Pugh, Carla M

    2016-12-01

    This study sought to compare general surgery research residents' survey information regarding self-efficacy ratings to their observed performance during a simulated small bowel repair. Their observed performance ratings were based on their leadership skills in directing their assistant. Participants were given 15 min to perform a bowel repair using bovine intestines with standardized injuries. Operative assistants were assigned to help assist with the repair. Before the procedure, participants were asked to rate their expected skills decay, task difficulty, and confidence in addressing the small bowel injury. Interactions were coded to identify the number of instructions given by the participants to the assistant during the repair. Statistical analyses assessed the relationship between the number of directional instructions and participants' perceptions self-efficacy measures. Directional instructions were defined as any dialog by the participant who guided the assistant to perform an action. Thirty-six residents (58.3% female) participated in the study. Participants who rated lower levels of decay in their intraoperative decision-making and small bowel repair skills were noted to use their assistant more by giving more instructions. Similarly, a higher number of instructions correlated with lower perceived difficulty in selecting the correct suture, suture pattern, and completing the entire surgical task. General surgery research residents' intraoperative leadership skills showed significant correlations to their perceptions of skill decay and task difficulty during a bowel repair. Evaluating resident's directional instructions may provide an additional individualized intraoperative assessment metric. Further evaluation relating to operative performance outcomes is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Testing ‘cultural reproduction theory’ against relative risk aversion theory – some remarks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin David; Jakobsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    of the concept of habitus. Our point is that blinding out the important concept of habitus amputates the theory, and that a test built upon this limitation is not a test of Bourdieu’s theory as a whole, but rather a straw man construction ignoring important parts of the theory. This has strong implications when......The aim of this research note is to discuss inherent limitations in certain established, but problematic, conventions for operationalizing and testing Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction. These conventions entail a selective focus on the concept of capital at the expense...... seeking to test statistically the viability of Bourdieu’s theory, particularly vis-a-vis rational choice alternatives, and especially where these limitations are not adequately reflected in the interpretation of results and in conclusions....

  9. Reproduction rates under variable food conditions and starvation in Mnemiopsis leidyi: significance for the invasion success of a ctenophore

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia; Møller, Lene Friis; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Europe. Furthermore, starved animals continue to produce eggs for up to 12 days after cessation of feeding with high overall hatching success of 65–90%. These life history traits allow M. leidyi to thrive and reproduce in environments with varying food conditions and give it a competitive advantage under...... on the reproduction of laboratory-reared and field-caught animals during starvation. Our results show that the half-saturation zooplankton prey concentration for egg production is reached at food levels of 12–23 µgC L−1, which is below the average summer food concentration encountered in invaded areas of northern...... unfavourable conditions. This may explain why recurrent population blooms are observed and sustained in localized areas in invaded northern Europe, where water exchange is limited and zooplankton food resources are quickly depleted by M. leidyi. We suggest that these reproductive life history traits are key...

  10. Relations among Individual Differences in Reproductive Strategies, Sexual Attractiveness, Affective and Punitive Intentions, and Imagined Sexual or Emotional Infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N. Jones

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined relations among Mating Effort, Mate Value, Sex and individuals' self-reported responses to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We asked participants to describe the (1 upset or bother (2 aversive emotional reactions (3 punitive impulses, and (4 punitive intentions they experienced in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. The results replicated previously documented sex differences in jealousy. In addition, imagined sexual infidelity upset individuals higher in Mating Effort more than those lower in Mating Effort. Higher Mating Effort also predicted greater temptation, intention, and likelihood to engage in punitive behaviors in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We discuss these data in light of individual differences in relations between reproductive strategy and romantic jealousy. Additionally, we point to the importance of controlling for co-linearity between reactions to sexual and emotional infidelity, and the need for addressing related methodological problems within jealousy research.

  11. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiu, Y H; Afeiche, M C; Gaskins, A J

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) associated with semen quality? SUMMARY ANSWER: Higher consumption of SSB was associated with lower sperm motility among healthy, young men. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The existing literature on the potential role of SSBs on male...... reproductive function is scarce and primarily focused on the relation between caffeinated beverages and semen quality. However, a rodent model suggests that SSBs may hamper male fertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The Rochester Young Men's Study; a cross-sectional study of 189 healthy young men carried...... on the relation between SSB intake and low semen quality beyond the contribution of caffeinated beverages. While our findings are in agreement with recent experimental data in rodents, more studies are required to draw conclusions on the relation of SSB with semen quality or male infertility. STUDY FUNDING...

  12. Differences in the genetic control of early egg development and reproduction between C. elegans and its parthenogenetic relative D. coronatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Christopher; Schiffer, Philipp H; Kagoshima, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Hideaki; Vogt, Theresa; Kroiher, Michael; Kohara, Yuji; Schierenberg, Einhard

    2017-01-01

    The free-living nematode Diploscapter coronatus is the closest known relative of Caenorhabditis elegans with parthenogenetic reproduction. It shows several developmental idiosyncracies, for example concerning the mode of reproduction, embryonic axis formation and early cleavage pattern (Lahl et al. in Int J Dev Biol 50:393-397, 2006). Our recent genome analysis (Hiraki et al. in BMC Genomics 18:478, 2017) provides a solid foundation to better understand the molecular basis of developmental idiosyncrasies in this species in an evolutionary context by comparison with selected other nematodes. Our genomic data also yielded indications for the view that D. coronatus is a product of interspecies hybridization. In a genomic comparison between D. coronatus , C. elegans , other representatives of the genus Caenorhabditis and the more distantly related Pristionchus pacificus and Panagrellus redivivus , certain genes required for central developmental processes in C. elegans like control of meiosis and establishment of embryonic polarity were found to be restricted to the genus Caenorhabditis . The mRNA content of early D. coronatus embryos was sequenced and compared with similar stages in C. elegans and Ascaris suum . We identified 350 gene families transcribed in the early embryo of D. coronatus but not in the other two nematodes. Looking at individual genes transcribed early in D. coronatus but not in C. elegans and A. suum , we found that orthologs of most of these are present in the genomes of the latter species as well, suggesting heterochronic shifts with respect to expression behavior. Considerable genomic heterozygosity and allelic divergence lend further support to the view that D. coronatus may be the result of an interspecies hybridization. Expression analysis of early acting single-copy genes yields no indication for silencing of one parental genome. Our comparative cellular and molecular studies support the view that the genus Caenorhabditis differs

  13. Differences in the genetic control of early egg development and reproduction between C. elegans and its parthenogenetic relative D. coronatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kraus

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The free-living nematode Diploscapter coronatus is the closest known relative of Caenorhabditis elegans with parthenogenetic reproduction. It shows several developmental idiosyncracies, for example concerning the mode of reproduction, embryonic axis formation and early cleavage pattern (Lahl et al. in Int J Dev Biol 50:393–397, 2006. Our recent genome analysis (Hiraki et al. in BMC Genomics 18:478, 2017 provides a solid foundation to better understand the molecular basis of developmental idiosyncrasies in this species in an evolutionary context by comparison with selected other nematodes. Our genomic data also yielded indications for the view that D. coronatus is a product of interspecies hybridization. Results In a genomic comparison between D. coronatus, C. elegans, other representatives of the genus Caenorhabditis and the more distantly related Pristionchus pacificus and Panagrellus redivivus, certain genes required for central developmental processes in C. elegans like control of meiosis and establishment of embryonic polarity were found to be restricted to the genus Caenorhabditis. The mRNA content of early D. coronatus embryos was sequenced and compared with similar stages in C. elegans and Ascaris suum. We identified 350 gene families transcribed in the early embryo of D. coronatus but not in the other two nematodes. Looking at individual genes transcribed early in D. coronatus but not in C. elegans and A. suum, we found that orthologs of most of these are present in the genomes of the latter species as well, suggesting heterochronic shifts with respect to expression behavior. Considerable genomic heterozygosity and allelic divergence lend further support to the view that D. coronatus may be the result of an interspecies hybridization. Expression analysis of early acting single-copy genes yields no indication for silencing of one parental genome. Conclusions Our comparative cellular and molecular studies support the

  14. Season- and age-related reproductive changes based on fecal androgen concentrations in male koalas, Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuda, Satoshi; Hashikawa, Hisashi; Takeda, Masato; Ito, Hideki; Goto, Atsushi; Oguchi, Jun; Doi, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to clarify age- and season- related androgen patterns, and to compare the reproductive physiology between Japanese captive koala populations and Australian populations. To measure fecal androgens, feces were collected from male koalas (4.2 to 13.8 years of age) kept in Japanese zoos. Fecal androgens were extracted with methanol from the lyophilized samples and determined by enzyme immunoassay using 4-androstene-3,17-dione antibody. Fecal androgen concentration in male koalas increased after sexual maturation and remained relatively high until old age. In the survey with the Japanese zoo studbook of koalas, copulation (conception) month showed a pyramid shape with a peak in March to June (60.7%) in koalas born and reared in Japanese zoos and from July to April with the highest concentration in September to January (69.7%) in Australian institutes. Japanese zoo koala populations have a characteristic physiological cycle adapted to Japan's seasonal changes. The suitable month of year for copulation or conception in Japan is diametrically opposed to that in Australia. Mean fecal androgen concentrations by month in the males born and reared in Japan indicated annual changes with the highest concentration in May and the lowest value in November. Fecal androgen analysis may be a noninvasive alternative tool to monitor circulating testosterone and may be helpful in understanding reproductive activity and physiology in male koalas.

  15. Reproductive and relational trajectories leading to pregnancy: Differences between adolescents and adult women who had an abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joana I F; Pires, Raquel S A; Araújo-Pedrosa, Anabela F; Canavarro, Maria Cristina C S P

    2018-05-01

    The literature has been conceptualizing pregnancy occurrence as a multiphase event. However, the different combinations of decisions and behaviors leading to pregnancy that end in abortion remain unexplored in the literature. The aims of the study were to describe the reproductive and relational trajectories leading to pregnancy in women who decide to abort and to explore the differences in this process according to women's age [adolescents (leading to pregnancy were identified. The most frequent trajectory (30.8%) included women who 1) were involved in a long-term romantic relationship, 2) did not plan the pregnancy, 3) were using contraception, and 4) did not identify the contraceptive failure that led to pregnancy. Although this was the most frequent trajectory for both age groups, the remaining trajectories showed a different distribution. Compared to adolescents, adult women's trajectories more frequently included casual relationships with non-use of contraception, or contraceptive use with no contraceptive failure identification. Our study highlights the need to recognize the multiplicity of reproductive and relational trajectories leading to pregnancies that end in abortion and their specificities according to women's age. These findings have important implications for abortion counselling and for the development of age-appropriate guidelines for preventive interventions, by drawing attention to prioritization of different contexts of intervention according women's age. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nest establishment, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success of Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in relation to resource availability in field enclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Bosch, Jordi

    2010-02-01

    The alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata (Fabricius), is used to pollinate alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., for seed production in the United States and Canada. It is difficult to reliably sustain commercial M. rotundata populations in the United States because of problems with disease, parasites, predators, and unexplained mortality. One possible explanation for early immature mortality is that, relative to floral availability, superfluous numbers of bees are released in alfalfa fields where resources quickly become limited. Our objective was to determine how M. rotundata density affects bee nesting, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success. Various numbers of bees were released into enclosures on an alfalfa field, but only 10-90% of released female bees established nests. Therefore, a "bee density index" was derived for each enclosure from the number of established females and number of open flowers over time. As the density index increased, significant reductions occurred in the number of pollinated flowers, number of nests, and number of cells produced per bee, as well as the percentage of cells that produced viable prepupae by summer's end and the percentage that produced adult bees. The percentage of cells resulting in early brood mortality (i.e., pollen balls) significantly increased as the density index increased. We conclude that bee nest establishment, pollination efficiency, and reproductive success are compromised when bee densities are high relative to floral resource availability. Open field studies are needed to determine commercial bee densities that result in sustainable bee populations and adequate pollination for profitable alfalfa seed production.

  17. Reproductive success and failure: the role of winter body mass in reproductive allocation in Norwegian moose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Jos M; van Beest, Floris M; Solberg, Erling J; Storaas, Torstein

    2013-08-01

    A life history strategy that favours somatic growth over reproduction is well known for long-lived iteroparous species, especially in unpredictable environments. Risk-sensitive female reproductive allocation can be achieved by a reduced reproductive effort at conception, or the subsequent adjustment of investment during gestation or lactation in response to unexpected environmental conditions or resource availability. We investigated the relative importance of reduced investment at conception compared with later in the reproductive cycle (i.e. prenatal, perinatal or neonatal mortality) in explaining reproductive failure in two high-density moose (Alces alces) populations in southern Norway. We followed 65 multiparous, global positioning system (GPS)-collared females throughout the reproductive cycle and focused on the role of maternal nutrition during gestation in determining reproductive success using a quasi-experimental approach to manipulate winter forage availability. Pregnancy rates in early winter were normal (≥0.8) in all years while spring calving rates ranged from 0.4 to 0.83, with prenatal mortality accounting for most of the difference. Further losses over summer reduced autumn recruitment rates to 0.23-0.69, despite negligible predation. Over-winter mass loss explained variation in both spring calving and autumn recruitment success better than absolute body mass in early or late winter. Although pregnancy was related to body mass in early winter, overall reproductive success was unrelated to pre-winter body condition. We therefore concluded that reproductive success was limited by winter nutritional conditions. However, we could not determine whether the observed reproductive allocation adjustment was a bet-hedging strategy to maximise reproduction without compromising survival or whether females were simply unable to invest more resources in their offspring.

  18. Reproductive health of male radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhatreh, Farouk M.

    2001-01-01

    To compare certain reproductive health problems reported in 2 groups of males, one of which was exposed to x-ray radiation (radiographers) and the other group that was not exposed to x-ray radiation. The reproductive health problems were miscarriage, congenital anomalies, still births and infertility. Two groups of men were selected (90 in each group). The first group consisted of radiographers and the other groups consisted of men not exposed to x-ray radiation. The 2 groups were matched for age and source. Relative risk, attributable risk percentage and level of significance were calculated. Incidence rate of reproductive health problems was increasing with the increase in duration of exposure to x-ray radiation ranging between 17% (for those exposed for 1-5 years) to 91% (for those exposed for more than 15 years). There were significant associations between exposure to radiation and miscarriage (relative risk = 1.67, attributable risk percentage = 40%), congenital anomalies (relative risk = 10, attributable risk percentage 90%), still birth (relative risk = 7, attributable risk percentage = 86%), and infertility (relative risk = 4.5, attributable risk = 78%). The incidence rates of reproductive health problems reported by male radiographers were significantly higher than that reported by the non exposed group and higher than the incidence rates reported in community-based studies in Jordan. The incidence rates of fetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth together) and infertility reported by our radiographers were higher than had been reported by the British radiographers. An immediate plan of action is needed to protect our radiographers. Further studies are needed in this field taking into account all extraneous variables that may affect the reproductive health of radiographers. (author)

  19. Proteogenomic Analysis Greatly Expands the Identification of Proteins Related to Reproduction in the Apogamous Fern Dryopteris affinis ssp. affinis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Jonas; Fernández, Helena; Chaubey, Pururawa M; Valdés, Ana E; Gagliardini, Valeria; Cañal, María J; Russo, Giancarlo; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2017-01-01

    Performing proteomic studies on non-model organisms with little or no genomic information is still difficult. However, many specific processes and biochemical pathways occur only in species that are poorly characterized at the genomic level. For example, many plants can reproduce both sexually and asexually, the first one allowing the generation of new genotypes and the latter their fixation. Thus, both modes of reproduction are of great agronomic value. However, the molecular basis of asexual reproduction is not well understood in any plant. In ferns, it combines the production of unreduced spores (diplospory) and the formation of sporophytes from somatic cells (apogamy). To set the basis to study these processes, we performed transcriptomics by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and shotgun proteomics by tandem mass spectrometry in the apogamous fern D. affinis ssp. affinis . For protein identification we used the public viridiplantae database (VPDB) to identify orthologous proteins from other plant species and new transcriptomics data to generate a "species-specific transcriptome database" (SSTDB). In total 1,397 protein clusters with 5,865 unique peptide sequences were identified (13 decoy proteins out of 1,410, protFDR 0.93% on protein cluster level). We show that using the SSTDB for protein identification increases the number of identified peptides almost four times compared to using only the publically available VPDB. We identified homologs of proteins involved in reproduction of higher plants, including proteins with a potential role in apogamy. With the increasing availability of genomic data from non-model species, similar proteogenomics approaches will improve the sensitivity in protein identification for species only distantly related to models.

  20. An exploration of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young multiethnic Muslim-majority society in Malaysia in relation to reproductive and premarital sexual practices

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Li Ping

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practi...

  1. Calculating length of gestation from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS) database versus vital records may alter reported rates of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judy E; Kotelchuck, Milton; Luke, Barbara; Declercq, Eugene; Cabral, Howard; Diop, Hafsatou

    2014-05-01

    To compare length of gestation after assisted reproductive technology (ART) as calculated by three methods from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SART CORS) and vital records (birth and fetal death) in the Massachusetts Pregnancy to Early Life Longitudinal Data System (PELL). Historical cohort study. Database linkage analysis. Live or stillborn deliveries. None. ART deliveries were linked to live birth or fetal death certificates. Length of gestation in 7,171 deliveries from fresh autologous ART cycles (2004-2008) was calculated and compared with that of SART CORS with the use of methods: M1 = outcome date - cycle start date; M2 = outcome date - transfer date + 17 days; and M3 = outcome date - transfer date + 14 days + day of transfer. Generalized estimating equation models were used to compare methods. Singleton and multiple deliveries were included. Overall prematurity (delivery 45% of deliveries and by more than 1 week in >22% of deliveries. Each method differed from each other. Estimates of preterm birth in ART vary depending on source of data and method of calculation. Some estimates may overestimate preterm birth rates for ART conceptions. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark A; Derocher, Andrew E; Nagy, John A

    2013-01-01

    The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family.

  3. Home range size variation in female arctic grizzly bears relative to reproductive status and resource availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Edwards

    Full Text Available The area traversed in pursuit of resources defines the size of an animal's home range. For females, the home range is presumed to be a function of forage availability. However, the presence of offspring may also influence home range size due to reduced mobility, increased nutritional need, and behavioral adaptations of mothers to increase offspring survival. Here, we examine the relationship between resource use and variation in home range size for female barren-ground grizzly bears (Ursus arctos of the Mackenzie Delta region in Arctic Canada. We develop methods to test hypotheses of home range size that address selection of cover where cover heterogeneity is low, using generalized linear mixed-effects models and an information-theoretic approach. We found that the reproductive status of female grizzlies affected home range size but individually-based spatial availability of highly selected cover in spring and early summer was a stronger correlate. If these preferred covers in spring and early summer, a period of low resource availability for grizzly bears following den-emergence, were patchy and highly dispersed, females travelled farther regardless of the presence or absence of offspring. Increased movement to preferred covers, however, may result in greater risk to the individual or family.

  4. Are warbles and bots related to reproductive status in West Greenland caribou?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In March-April 2008-09, using CARMA protocols, 81 cows and 16 calves were collected in West Greenland from two caribou populations; Akia-Maniitsoq (AM and Kangerlussuaq-Sisimiut (KS. In both populations, warble larvae numbers were highest in calves and higher in non-pregnant than pregnant cows. Nose bots showed no relationship with pregnancy or lactation; KS calves had higher nose bot loads than cows, a pattern not observed in AM. Pregnant cows had more rump fat than non-pregnant cows. KS cows lacking rump fat entirely had the highest warble burdens. We observed lactating pregnant cows with moderate larval burdens. Projected energy cost of the heaviest observed combined larvae burdens was equivalent to 2-5 days basal metabolic rate (BMR for a cow, and 7-12 days BMR for a calf. Foregone fattening in adult cows with average burdens was 0.2 to 0.5 kg, but almost doubled with the heaviest infestations to 0.4 and 0.8 kg. Average burdens in calves resulted in forgone fattening of about 0.5 kg, with peak costs equivalent to 0.7 and 1.1 kg fat for AM and KS calves respectively. Although modest, these projected energy costs of hosting larvae for cows support the negative relationship between rump fat and larvae burden. For calves, hosting high burdens of warble larvae could affect winter survival, specifically those weaned normally in October or in early winter. Harmful effects of oestrid larvae burdens may remain subtle but clearly cumulative in relation to seasonal forage availability and incidence of other parasites.

  5. [Deaths due to motorcycle accidents and their association with variables related to social reproduction in a northeastern Brazilian state].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Paul Hindenburg Nobre de Vasconcelos; Lima, Maria Luiza Carvalho; Souza, Wayner Vieira; Moreira, Rafael da Silveira; Oliveira, Fernando José Moreira

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this article was to identify the association between motorcycle deaths and variables related to Samaja's theory of social reproduction in the period 2000-2005 in the state of Pernambuco. An ecological, case-control study was carried out, with municipalities as the unit of analysis. Cases were defined as the 20% of municipalities with the highest local empirical Bayesian coefficients for mortality due to motorcycle accidents, and controls as the 40% with the lowest coefficients. The municipalities with the greatest chances of high coefficients for mortality due to motorcycle accidents showed high population growth factors and increases in the total fleet of motorcycles, with low population densities, low GDP per capita, and more than 20 motorcycles per thousand inhabitants. We conclude that the variables related to macro-policies proved to have greater force in explaining higher chances of motorcycle death.

  6. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) female tubular reproductive organs in relation to ovarian structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axnér, E; Holm, D; Gavier-Widén, D; Söderberg, A; Bergqvist, A S

    2015-09-15

    Although monitoring wild animals in the field is essential for estimations of population size and development, there are pitfalls associated with field monitoring. In addition, some detailed data about reproductive physiology can be difficult to obtain in wild live animals. Studying reproductive organs from the Eurasian lynx killed at hunting or found dead could be used as a valuable addition to other field data. We evaluated reproductive organs from 39 Eurasian lynx females (Lynx lynx) killed in Sweden during the hunting seasons in 2009, 2010, and 2011. According to notes on ovarian structures, the animals were categorized as being in one of four different reproductive stages: juvenile (n = 10), follicular stage (n = 8), luteal stage (n = 11), and anestrus (n = 10). Corpora lutea were classified as fresh CL from the present season or as luteal bodies from previous cycles. Microscopic evaluations were blindly coded while the outer measurements of the vagina and uterus were taken at the time of organ retrieval. The width of the endometrium, myometrium, outer width of the uterine horns, and the diameter of the vagina differed significantly with the reproductive stage (P number of endometrial glands evaluated blindly coded on a subjective scale was significantly associated with the reproductive stage (P reproductive stages (P reproductive stage when evaluating reproductive organs in the Eurasian lynx killed during the hunting season. Routine evaluation of reproductive organs has a potential to be a useful additional tool to field studies of live lynx to monitor their reproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reproductive biology, steroid and biochemical profiles of Dentex dentex ovaries in the Eastern Mediterranean in relation to histological structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Ismail

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on reproductive biology in female Dentex dentex, which is a summer multiple spawner with the spawning period extending from late April to June. Females with body length over 35 cm were mature. The GSI value had peak values during May and June. The ova diameter ranged over nine groups (50–700 μm. The relative fecundity ranged from 510 to 1276 eggs per g gutted weight and from 20,409 to 22,595 eggs per 1 cm total length. The histological appearance of the ovarian cycle was divided into five periods. The histological structure of the maturing and ripe oocyte wall shows the presence of five different layers. Baseline of testosterone and estradiol levels was found during the immature and spent, whereas the peak value was found in prespawning and ripe-spawning period. While the maximum total lipid content was in the maturing ovary, the minimum was in muscles of prespawning female. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 (PUFA for ovary, liver and muscles were docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6 n-3 and eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3 acids, whereas n-6 (PUFA were linoleic (18:2 n-6 and arachidonic (20:4 n-6. All together, the present observations gave basic data of the reproductive cycle of female D. dentex required for its successful spawning.

  8. Associated fauna and effects of epibiotic barnacles on the relative growth and reproductive indices of Stramonita haemastoma (Gastropoda: Muricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahani El Ayari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the impacts of biofouling on the biological processes of the basibiont, the effects of epibiotic barnacles on the relative growth and reproductive indices of Stramonita haemastoma (Linnaeus, 1767 were assessed. A total of 1035 specimens were collected monthly for one year from Bizerta Channel (northern Tunisia. Endobiotic species comprised the lithophagous bivalves Lithophaga aristata and Rocellaria dubia of different sizes, communicating with the outside through tiny perforations. Intra-shell tunnels and galleries also sheltered annelids and sipunculids. Epibiotic species comprised algae and highly diversified invertebrates represented by crustaceans, polychaetes, molluscs, echinoderms, ascidians, sponges, bryozoans and sipunculids, with barnacles being the most common group. Comparison of growth features between non-fouled and fouled S. haemastoma revealed higher growth in non-fouled specimens. Differences in reproductive condition indices were detected in few months, being mostly higher in non-fouled snails, but showed no asynchrony in the spawning period for either fouled or non-fouled gastropods hosts.

  9. A review of morphological characteristics relating to the production and reproduction of fat-tailed sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourlis, Aris F

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to survey the literature pertinent to some morphological traits which are related with the production and reproduction of fat-tailed sheep breeds. The fat-tailed breeds were identified according to Food and Agriculture Organization databases. Articles referring to all these sheep breeds were evaluated. The morphology of udders and their measurable variables were collected and described. The particularities of pelt and fleece features which are important from an economic point of view were summarized. Linear, planar, and spatial parameters of body, slaughter, and carcass factors were compared at various ages of breeding. Testicular dimensions and semen characteristics were recorded. Their relationships with productive and reproductive performance were discussed. The pattern of ovarian follicle development and the involution of the genital tract were assessed from the anatomical point of view in normal and untreated animals. The data presented here provide useful baseline information on the normal morphological aspects which are important in the animal production of these breeds.

  10. Cessation of reproduction-related spine elongation after multiple breeding cycles in female naked mole-rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler-Crish, Christine M; Catania, Kenneth C

    2009-01-01

    The breeding female or "queen" naked mole-rat has a uniquely elongated body morphology attributed to the lengthening of the lumbar vertebral column that occurs during pregnancy. It is unknown whether this vertebral growth is a continuous process, or associated only with early reproductive experience. We compared pregnancy-related bone elongation in nascent primiparous queens and established queens to determine if this vertebral expansion was a lifelong process in these females. We also investigated the impact of lactation on vertebral elongation in these mole-rats because it is known to be a time of significant bone loss in other mammals. Our data show that after eight or more pregnancies, established queens no longer experienced a net gain in lumbar spine length over the reproductive cycle, whereas the nascent breeders demonstrated significant spine lengthening over this time. Despite the lack of net spine lengthening in established breeders, our results indicated that these queens still experienced some pregnancy-specific vertebral elongation. In naked mole-rats, pregnancy-induced bone elongation may serve the dual purposes of first lengthening the spine, and then once optimal spine size is achieved, serving as a homeostatic mechanism that prepares the spine for the mineral demands of lactation. Anat Rec, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Work-related reproductive, musculoskeletal and mental disorders among working women--history, current issues and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Reiko; Kitahara, Teruyo; Masuchi, Ayumi; Kasai, Setsuko

    2002-04-01

    According to the recent changes of working environments and socio-economical conditions, the proportion of working women are increasing in Japan. Characteristics of occupational workload and stress of Japanese working women are consistent with those in many industrialized countries except man-dominant culture. In this review we describe the history, current issues, and future research directions on occupational health of working women, especially focused on reproductive health, work-related musculo-skeletal disorders (WMSDs), and mental disorders. In the reproductive health survey, traditionally main concern was about pregnancy outcomes, then fecundity studies, such as time to pregnancy, became topics recently. Future research will be shifted to outcomes not only during pregnancy but also disorders of hormonal balance and climacterium or health conditions after menopause. WMSDs are reviewed on mainly gender difference and its causative factors. Historically, mental health of working women in Japan has focused on the job stress of nurses. We compare results with a lot of recent researches in Europe and U.S.A., where interaction between occupational stress and family roles were studied. It is not easy to predict the prospective status of female workers in Japan, but social, workplace and familial supports will enhance their health promotion.

  12. A study on reproductive performance and related factors of zebu cows in pastoral herds in a semi-arid area of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuya, N L; Matiko, M K; Kessy, B M; Mgongo, F O; Ropstad, E; Reksen, O

    2006-06-01

    A prospective longitudinal study was carried out from September 2001 to June 2004 in three adjacent villages in a semi-arid area of Tanzania. The objectives of this study were to measure the intervals between calving and either resumption of cyclical activity or confirmation of pregnancy, to estimate calving intervals, and to investigate the effect of factors assumed to be related to postpartum reproductive performance. A total of 275 lactation periods from 177 Tanzanian Shorthorn Zebu cows managed in a traditional pastoral system in 46 households were initially included. Animals were initially screened for brucelosis and thereafter examined by palpation per rectum at 2-week intervals. Body condition score (scale 1 to 5) was assessed and girth measurement (cm) taken. Occurrence of other reproductive events such as calving, abortion, death of calf, culling and reason for culling were recorded. In a subset of 98 lactation periods from 91 cows milk samples for progesterone (P4) determination were collected twice per week from day 7 after calving to the time of confirmed pregnancy or until milk production ceased before pregnancy. The data were analysed both univariately and in multivariable Cox proportional hazard (frailty) models. The mean (+/-S.E.M.) calving interval was 500+/-13.6 days. Positive reactors in the brucellosis test were 15.6% of the tested animals. Milk P4 analysis showed the rate of abortion/late embryo loss to be 14.3%. Calf mortality rates varied between 14.6 and 17.4%. A positive relationship was found between the outcome variables likelihood of cyclical activity and likelihood of pregnancy in the Cox model, and the explanatory variables: parity and body condition score (BCS) at calving. A negative relationship was found between the outcome variables, and the explanatory variables: maximum BCS loss and calf survival/mortality. Calving in the rainy season was associated with an increased likelihood of pregnancy.

  13. Reproductive performance and oviductal expression of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 in young and old broiler breeder hens orally exposed to supplementary biotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryabari, H; Akhlaghi, A; Zamiri, M J; Mianji, G Rahimi; Pirsaraei, Z Ansari; Deldar, H; Eghbalian, A N

    2014-09-01

    Published data on the probable involvement of avidin and avidin-related protein-2 (AVR2) in sustaining sperm viability in sperm storage tubules in 38-wk-old turkeys, and the high affinity of avidin or its analogs to biotin suggest that supplementary biotin may increase oviductal avidin and AVR2 expression, thereby attenuating the adverse effect of aging on hen reproductive performance. Broiler breeder hens (n = 120) were randomly assigned to receive 0 (T0), 0.30 (T1), or 0.45 (T2) mg of biotin/L of drinking water from 30 to 33 (young) and 53 to 56 (old) wk of age, and artificially inseminated to determine their reproductive performance. At the end of each period of biotin administration, 8 hens from each treatment group were killed for RNA extraction from the uterovaginal junction. Egg production was lower in the old hens (44%) compared with the young ones (82%), and biotin supplementation increased egg production only in the latter. Administering supplementary biotin to young hens increased their oviductal expression of AVR2, which was much higher in the old hens (1.0 and 4.6 for young and old groups, respectively). Fertility rate was not different between young and old hens, and was increased (4.4%) at the higher level of biotin supplementation. Hatchability and hatchling quality were not affected by biotin supplementation. Embryonic mortality between 17 to 21 d of incubation was higher in young (5.2%) compared with old (1.4%) birds. Egg fertility rate showed a moderate correlation (P biotin supplementation on AVR2 expression, and the relationship between biotin administration and oviductal expression of avidin and AVR2 was dependent on the hen's age, being higher in the young hens. © 2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Effect of low frequency magnetic field at reproductive system state and peroxidation processes in liver of male rates after low dose chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.; Vereshchako, G.T.; Popov, E.G.; Khodosovskaya, A.M.; Artemenko, A.M.; Bulovatskaya, I.V.; Rybakov, V.N.

    2002-01-01

    Low frequency magnetic field (power 3.5 wt, tension 8v, amplitude 15 Tl, frequency of followed impulses 10 Hz, frequency of exposure 70-90 Hz) significantly modified the morphofunctional state of the reproductive system and peroxidation processes in liver of male rates. It concluded in a partial restoration of testicular weight, a recovery of the blood serum testosterone levels and of the molecular characteristics of the androgen receptor system in liver and testes, a normalization of peroxidation processes in liver and a stimulation of some biochemical and bioenergetic processes in testes (authors)

  15. JH III production, titers and degradation in relation to reproduction in male and female Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub-Montemayor, Tina E; Min, Kyung-Jin; Chen, Zhaorigetu; Bartlett, Terri; Rankin, Mary Ann

    2005-04-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is necessary for the production of vitellogenin (Vg) in the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis. Occurrence of Vg in this species is typically restricted to reproductively competent females, and is not detected in untreated males. However, the JH analog, methoprene stimulates Vg production in intact males and in the isolated abdomens of both male and female boll weevils (where in each case no Vg is detected without treatment), suggesting that males are competent to produce Vg but are normally not stimulated to do so. Preliminary work indicating that male boll weevil corpora allata (CA) produced little or no JH in vitro suggested that failure of males to produce Vg might be due to very low JH levels compared to females. This study re-examines the question of JH in male boll weevils by determining in vitro production of JH III by male CA during the first 10 days after adult emergence, determining hemolymph JH esterase activity during this same time period and hemolymph JH III titers in adults of both sexes. We also re-examine the ability of isolated male abdomens to produce Vg in response to hormonal stimulation, analyzing the effect of a wide range of methoprene and JH III dosages. Results indicate that male A. grandis have circulating JH titers and JH production similar to females. JH esterase activity is slightly but significantly higher in males than females. Vg production by isolated abdomens of both sexes after stimulation with methoprene or JH III was confirmed. Dose response studies indicated that high levels of methoprene were less effective than intermediate doses in stimulating Vg synthesis in both sexes. We conclude that the sexually dimorphic effect of JH on Vg synthesis is not due to differences in JH production or differences in JH titer between the sexes.

  16. Provider-Initiated Patient Satisfaction Reporting Yields Improved Physician Ratings Relative to Online Rating Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Benjamin F; Waddell, Brad S; Nodzo, Scott R; Lange, Jeffrey; Nocon, Allina A; Amundsen, Spencer; Tarity, T David; McLawhorn, Alexander S

    2017-09-01

    Recently, providers have begun to publicly report the results of patient satisfaction surveys from their practices. However, these outcomes have never been compared with the findings of commercial online physician rating websites. The goals of the current study were to (1) compare overall patient satisfaction ratings for orthopedic surgeons derived from provider-based third-party surveys with existing commercial physician rating websites and (2) determine the association between patient ratings and provider characteristics. The authors identified 12 institutions that provided publicly available patient satisfaction outcomes derived from third-party surveys for their orthopedic surgeons as of August 2016. Orthopedic surgeons at these institutions were eligible for inclusion (N=340 surgeons). Provider characteristics were recorded from publicly available data. Four high-traffic commercial online physician rating websites were identified: Healthgrades.com, UCompareHealthCare.com, Vitals.com, and RateMDs.com. For each surgeon, overall ratings (on a scale of 1-5), total number of ratings, and percentage of negative ratings were compared between provider-initiated internal ratings and each commercial online website. Associations between baseline factors and overall physician ratings and negative ratings were assessed. Provider-initiated internal patient satisfaction ratings showed a greater number of overall patient ratings, higher overall patient satisfaction ratings, and a lower percentage of negative comments compared with commercial online physician rating websites. A greater number of years in practice had a weak association with lower internal ratings, and an academic practice setting and a location in the Northeast were protective factors for negative physician ratings. Compared with commercial online physician rating websites, provider-initiated patient satisfaction ratings of orthopedic surgeons appear to be more favorable, with greater numbers of responses

  17. Demographic consequences of greater clonal than sexual reproduction in Dicentra canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hua; Miriti, Maria N; Goodell, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Clonality is a widespread life history trait in flowering plants that may be essential for population persistence, especially in environments where sexual reproduction is unpredictable. Frequent clonal reproduction, however, could hinder sexual reproduction by spatially aggregating ramets that compete with seedlings and reduce inter-genet pollination. Nevertheless, the role of clonality in relation to variable sexual reproduction in population dynamics is often overlooked. We combined population matrix models and pollination experiments to compare the demographic contributions of clonal and sexual reproduction in three Dicentra canadensis populations, one in a well-forested landscape and two in isolated forest remnants. We constructed stage-based transition matrices from 3 years of census data to evaluate annual population growth rates, λ. We used loop analysis to evaluate the relative contribution of different reproductive pathways to λ. Despite strong temporal and spatial variation in seed set, populations generally showed stable growth rates. Although we detected some pollen limitation of seed set, manipulative pollination treatments did not affect population growth rates. Clonal reproduction contributed significantly more than sexual reproduction to population growth in the forest remnants. Only at the well-forested site did sexual reproduction contribute as much as clonal reproduction to population growth. Flowering plants were more likely to transition to a smaller size class with reduced reproductive potential in the following year than similarly sized nonflowering plants, suggesting energy trade-offs between sexual and clonal reproduction at the individual level. Seed production had negligible effects on growth and tuber production of individual plants. Our results demonstrate that clonal reproduction is vital for population persistence in a system where sexual reproduction is unpredictable. The bias toward clonality may be driven by low fitness returns

  18. Sequencing, de novo assembly and characterization of the spotted scat Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus 1766) transcriptome for discovery of reproduction related genes and SSRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Chen, Huapu; Cui, Xuefan; Zhang, Kewei; Jiang, Dongneng; Deng, Siping; Zhu, Chunhua; Li, Guangli

    2017-09-01

    Spotted scat (Scatophagus argus) is an economically important farmed fish, particularly in East and Southeast Asia. Because there has been little research on reproductive development and regulation in this species, the lack of a mature artificial reproduction technology remains a barrier for the sustainable development of the aquaculture industry. More genetic and genomic background knowledge is urgently needed for an in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanism of reproductive process and identification of functional genes related to sexual differentiation, gonad maturation and gametogenesis. For these reasons, we performed transcriptomic analysis on spotted scat using a multiple tissue sample mixing strategy. The Illumina RNA sequencing generated 118 510 486 raw reads. After trimming, de novo assembly was performed and yielded 99 888 unigenes with an average length of 905.75 bp. A total of 45 015 unigenes were successfully annotated to the Nr, Swiss-Prot, KOG and KEGG databases. Additionally, 23 783 and 27 183 annotated unigenes were assigned to 56 Gene Ontology (GO) functional groups and 228 KEGG pathways, respectively. Subsequently, 2 474 transcripts associated with reproduction were selected using GO term and KEGG pathway assignments, and a number of reproduction-related genes involved in sex differentiation, gonad development and gametogenesis were identified. Furthermore, 22 279 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci were discovered and characterized. The comprehensive transcript dataset described here greatly increases the genetic information available for spotted scat and contributes valuable sequence resources for functional gene mining and analysis. Candidate transcripts involved in reproduction would make good starting points for future studies on reproductive mechanisms, and the putative sex differentiation-related genes will be helpful for sex-determining gene identification and sex-specific marker isolation. Lastly, the SSRs can serve as marker

  19. Are international fund flows related to exchange rate dynamics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Suxiao; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Employing monthly data for 53 countries between 1996 and 2015, we investigate the relationship between international fund flows and exchange rate dynamics. We find strong co-movement between funds flows (as measured with the EPFR Global data base) and bilateral real exchange rates vis-à-vis the USD.

  20. The Ewe’s Reproductive Performance, Growth Rate and Carcass Quality of Lambs Kept in a Barn vs Those Kept under an Overhead Shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kuźnicka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A herd of polish lowland local sheep was divided into two equal groups: the first group was kept under an overhead shelter, and the second group was kept in a warm barn. The effect of maintenance on ewe’s reproductive performance, survival as well as the growth rate of lambs, and their carcasses quality was investigated. The lack of differences in fertility and prolificacy of ewes as well as in the survival and growth rate between the groups confirmed a good adaptation of Żelaźnieńska sheep to low temperature. Harsh environmental conditions did not cause a significant decrease of the body weight growth; however, they brought in an (insignificant reduction of subcutaneous fat thickness and meatiness of the loin part of a lamb’s body. The fat content of carcasses obtained from lambs reared under the overhead shelter was significantly lower, with no differences of meat and bones contribution between the groups.

  1. Not that neglected! Base rates influence related and unrelated judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Michał

    2017-06-01

    It is claimed that people are unable (or unwilling) to incorporate prior probabilities into posterior assessments, such as their estimation of the likelihood of a person with characteristics typical of an engineer actually being an engineer given that they are drawn from a sample including a very small number of engineers. This paper shows that base rates are incorporated in classifications (Experiment 1) and, moreover, that base rates also affect unrelated judgments, such as how well a provided description of a person fits a stereotypical engineer (Experiment 2). Finally, Experiment 3 shows that individuals who make both types of assessments - though using base rates to the same extent in the former judgments - are able to decrease the extent to which they incorporate base rates in the latter judgments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Unemployment Rate, Smoking in China: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Shen, Jay J; Cochran, Chris

    2016-01-08

    Studies on the relationship between unemployment rate and smoking have yielded mixed results. The issue in China has not been studied. This study aims to examine the influence of unemployment rate on smoking in China. Logit model and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation were used to estimate the effects. Estimations were done for 4585 individual over 45 using data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study conducted in Zhejiang and Gansu provinces in 2008 and 2012. A percent increase in the unemployment rate resulted in the increase in the likelihood of smoking by a combined 9.1 percent for those who smoked including a 2.9% increase for those who smoked 1-10 cigarettes per day; a 2.8% increase for those who smoked 11-20 cigarettes per day; and a 3.4% increase for those who smoked 20 cigarettes or more per day. The effects were stronger for those who were employed. Non-drinkers were more likely to engage in smoking with increased unemployment rate. 2SLS estimation revealed the same association. The unemployment rate was positively associated with smoking behavior. Smoking control and intervention strategies should focus on both the individual's characteristics and the physical environment in which unemployment rate tend to rise.

  3. Conformists or Rebels? Relative Risk Aversion, Educational Decisions, and Social Class Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier

    2012-01-01

    This paper tests the theory of Relative Risk Aversion (RRA), which argues that educational decisions are intended to minimize the risk of downward social class mobility. We propose a structural model which distinguishes the instantaneous utility of educational decisions from the future utility...

  4. Nitrogen and energy metabolism of sows during several reproductive cycles in relation to nitrogen intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, H.

    1994-01-01

    By feeding the same diet during pregnancy and lactation sows are fed above the nitrogen requirement during pregnancy due to the relatively high nitrogen requirement during lactation. For feeding closer to the requirements at least two diets are needed: one diet with a low nitrogen content

  5. Interpersonal relations between health care workers and young clients: barriers to accessing sexual and reproductive health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alli, Farzana; Maharaj, Pranitha; Vawda, Mohammed Yacoob

    2013-02-01

    Interpersonal relations between health care providers and young clients have long being cited as an important element for improving client up take of services, satisfaction and overall health outcomes. In an era of HIV and AIDS this forms a critical determinant to young people accessing sexual and reproductive health care. This study explores to what extent interpersonal relations form a barrier to young peoples access to and satisfaction of health services. The study draws on data from 200 client exit interviews and four in-depth interviews conducted with university students and university health care staff in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. While young people are aware of the importance of utilising STI, HIV and family planning services they experienced barriers in their relationship with providers. This served as a deterrent to their use of the health facility. Adequate training in interpersonal relations for youth-friendly service provision is essential in helping overcome communication problems and enabling providers to interact with young clients at a more personal level.

  6. Age-Related Differences in Speech Rate Perception Do Not Necessarily Entail Age-Related Differences in Speech Rate Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Christopher C.; Newman, Rochelle S.; Dilley, Laura C.; Idsardi, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A new literature has suggested that speech rate can influence the parsing of words quite strongly in speech. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between younger adults and older adults in the use of context speech rate in word segmentation, given that older adults perceive timing information differently from younger…

  7. An exploration of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young multiethnic Muslim-majority society in Malaysia in relation to reproductive and premarital sexual practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping

    2012-10-11

    The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practices. A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire carried out among 1695 female university students in a public university in Malaysia. Respondents had low scores for knowledge of reproduction and pregnancy (median=4, of maximum score 10), contraceptive uses (median=6, of maximum score 16) and contraceptive availability (median=3, of maximum score 13). The majority of women surveyed do not have liberal values in relation to premarital sexual behaviour (median=37, of maximum 40); higher scores on this scale corresponded to opposing premarital sex. The multivariate analyses showed that ethnic group was the strongest correlate of knowledge and attitude scores; being of Malay Muslim ethnicity was associated significantly with lower knowledge scores and premarital sex permissiveness. Other significant correlates were year of study, maternal occupational groups, level of religious faith, dating status and urban-rural localities. Level of premarital sex permissiveness was inversely correlated with reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score, and contraceptive knowledge scores. Reproductive health knowledge and attitudes were intricately linked to religious values and cultural norms differences surrounding sexual issues.

  8. An exploration of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young multiethnic Muslim-majority society in Malaysia in relation to reproductive and premarital sexual practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Li

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practices. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire carried out among 1695 female university students in a public university in Malaysia. Results Respondents had low scores for knowledge of reproduction and pregnancy (median=4, of maximum score 10, contraceptive uses (median=6, of maximum score 16 and contraceptive availability (median=3, of maximum score 13. The majority of women surveyed do not have liberal values in relation to premarital sexual behaviour (median=37, of maximum 40; higher scores on this scale corresponded to opposing premarital sex. The multivariate analyses showed that ethnic group was the strongest correlate of knowledge and attitude scores; being of Malay Muslim ethnicity was associated significantly with lower knowledge scores and premarital sex permissiveness. Other significant correlates were year of study, maternal occupational groups, level of religious faith, dating status and urban–rural localities. Level of premarital sex permissiveness was inversely correlated with reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score, and contraceptive knowledge scores. Conclusion Reproductive health knowledge and attitudes were intricately linked to religious values and cultural norms differences surrounding sexual issues.

  9. Effects of three PBDEs on development, reproduction and population growth rate of the harpacticoid copepod Nitocra spinipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitholtz, M.; Wollenberger, Leah

    2003-01-01

    and -100 on larval development rate (LDR) and population growth rate (r(m)). LDR significantly decreased in copepods exposed for 6 days to nominal concentrations greater than or equal to 0.013 mg/l BDE-47 and greater than or equal to 0.03 mg/l BDE-99. Large concentration ratios ( less than or equal to 338...

  10. The reproductive biology of Calligonum L. in relation to ex situ conservation in a botanical garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshan Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we observed the flowering phenology, breeding system, pollination and seed germination of four species of Calligonum (C. calliphysa, C. rubicundum, C. densum and C. ebinuricum in the Turpan Eremophytes Botanic Garden, China. Our results showed that the species had overlapping flowering phenologies and were pollinated by similar pollination agents. Their breeding systems were self-compatible, and with signs of outbreeding, but not of hybridization with each other; the main isolation mechanism was post-zygotic isolation and they also had high seed germination rates. Therefore, they are suited to ex situ conservation in the Turpan Eremophytes Botanic Garden, and can supply sufficient seeds for renewal populations and the conservation of germplasm resources. Furthermore, these results provide theoretical support for the construction of a national germplasm resource garden of Calligonum, and for the introduction to the garden of other eremophyteplants and their conservation.

  11. CREME96 and Related Error Rate Prediction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the rate of occurrence of single event effects (SEEs) in space requires knowledge of the radiation environment and the response of electronic devices to that environment. Several analytical models have been developed over the past 36 years to predict SEE rates. The first error rate calculations were performed by Binder, Smith and Holman. Bradford and Pickel and Blandford, in their CRIER (Cosmic-Ray-Induced-Error-Rate) analysis code introduced the basic Rectangular ParallelePiped (RPP) method for error rate calculations. For the radiation environment at the part, both made use of the Cosmic Ray LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectra calculated by Heinrich for various absorber Depths. A more detailed model for the space radiation environment within spacecraft was developed by Adams and co-workers. This model, together with a reformulation of the RPP method published by Pickel and Blandford, was used to create the CR ME (Cosmic Ray Effects on Micro-Electronics) code. About the same time Shapiro wrote the CRUP (Cosmic Ray Upset Program) based on the RPP method published by Bradford. It was the first code to specifically take into account charge collection from outside the depletion region due to deformation of the electric field caused by the incident cosmic ray. Other early rate prediction methods and codes include the Single Event Figure of Merit, NOVICE, the Space Radiation code and the effective flux method of Binder which is the basis of the SEFA (Scott Effective Flux Approximation) model. By the early 1990s it was becoming clear that CREME and the other early models needed Revision. This revision, CREME96, was completed and released as a WWW-based tool, one of the first of its kind. The revisions in CREME96 included improved environmental models and improved models for calculating single event effects. The need for a revision of CREME also stimulated the development of the CHIME (CRRES/SPACERAD Heavy Ion Model of the Environment) and MACREE (Modeling and

  12. Floral nectary, nectar production dynamics, and floral reproductive isolation among closely related species of Pedicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Nan; Li, Yan; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-02-01

    Floral nectar is thought to be one of the most important rewards that attract pollinators in Pedicularis; however, few studies have examined variation of nectary structure and/or nectar secretion in the genus, particularly among closely related species. Here we investigated nectary morphology, nectar quality, and nectar production dynamics in flowers of Pedicularis section Cyathophora. We found a conical floral nectary at the base of the ovary in species of the rex-thamnophila clade. Stomata were found on the surface of the nectary, and copious starch grains were detected in the nectary tissues. In contrast, a semi-annular nectary was found in flowers of the species of the superba clade. Only a few starch grains were observed in tissues of the semi-annular nectary, and the nectar sugar concentration in these flowers was much lower than that in the flowers of the rex-thamnophila clade. Our results indicate that the floral nectary has experienced considerable morphological, structural, and functional differentiation among closely related species of Pedicularis. This could have affected nectar production, leading to a shift of the pollination mode. Our results also imply that variation of the nectary morphology and nectar production may have played an important role in the speciation of sect. Cyathophora. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Integrated plumage colour variation in relation to body condition, reproductive investment and laying date in the collared flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laczi, Miklós; Hegyi, Gergely; Herényi, Márton; Kiss, Dorottya; Markó, Gábor; Nagy, Gergely; Rosivall, Balázs; Szöllősi, Eszter; Török, János

    2013-10-01

    The possible integration of different sexual ornaments into a composite system, and especially the information content of such ornament complexes, is poorly investigated. Many bird species display complex plumage coloration, but whether this represents one integrated or several independent sexual traits can be unclear. Collared flycatchers ( Ficedula albicollis) display melanised and depigmented plumage areas, and the spectral features (brightness and UV chroma) of these are correlated with each other across the plumage. In a 5-year dataset of male and female plumage reflectance, we examined some of the potential information content of integrated, plumage-level colour attributes by estimating their relationships to previous and current year body condition, laying date and clutch size. Females were in better condition the year before they became darker pigmented, and males in better current year condition were also darker pigmented. Female pigment-based brightness was positively, while male structurally based brightness was negatively related to current laying date. Finally, the overall UV chroma of white plumage areas in males was positively associated with current clutch size. Our results show that higher degree of pigmentation is related to better condition, while the structural colour component is associated with some aspects of reproductive investment. These results highlight the possibility that correlated aspects of a multiple plumage ornamentation system may reflect together some aspects of individual quality, thereby functioning as a composite signal.

  14. An experimental test for age-related improvements in reproductive performance in a frog that cares for its young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Matthew B.; Moore, Michael P.; Wamelink, Caitlin N.; Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L.; Martin, Ryan A.

    2015-10-01

    Reproductive performance often increases with age in long-lived iteroparous organisms, a pattern that can result from within-individual increases in effort and/or competence. In free-living populations, it is typically difficult to distinguish these mechanisms or to isolate particular features of reproduction-influencing outcomes. In captive Oophaga pumilio, a frog in which mothers provide extended offspring provisioning via trophic eggs, we experimentally manipulated the age at which females started breeding and then monitored them across repeated reproductive events. This experiment allowed us to decouple age and experience and isolate maternal care as the proximate source of any differences in performance. Younger first-time mothers produced larger broods than older first-time mothers, but did not rear more offspring to independence. Across repeated reproductive events, maternal age was unassociated with any metric of performance. At later reproductive events, however, mothers produced fewer metamorphs, and a lower proportion of individuals in their broods reached independence. These patterns suggest that performance does not improve with age or breeding experience in this frog, and that eventual declines in performance are driven by reproductive activity, not age per se. Broadly, age-specific patterns of reproductive performance may depend on the proximate mechanism by which parents influence offspring fitness and how sensitive these are to effort and competence.

  15. Diversity and relative abundance of the bacterial pathogen, Flavobacterium spp., infecting reproductive ecotypes of kokanee salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Matthew A; Russello, Michael A

    2014-11-04

    Understanding the distribution and abundance of pathogens can provide insight into the evolution and ecology of their host species. Previous research in kokanee, the freshwater form of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), found evidence that populations spawning in streams may experience a greater pathogen load compared with populations that spawn on beaches. In this study we tested for differences in the abundance and diversity of the gram-negative bacteria, Flavobacterium spp., infecting tissues of kokanee in both of these spawning habitats (streams and beaches). Molecular assays were carried out using primers designed to amplify a ~200 nucleotide region of the gene encoding the ATP synthase alpha subunit (AtpA) within the genus Flavobacterium. Using a combination of DNA sequencing and quantitative PCR (qPCR) we compared the diversity and relative abundance of Flavobacterium AtpA amplicons present in DNA extracted from tissue samples of kokanee collected from each spawning habitat. We identified 10 Flavobacterium AtpA haplotypes among the tissues of stream-spawning kokanee and seven haplotypes among the tissues of beach-spawning kokanee, with only two haplotypes shared between spawning habitats. Haplotypes occurring in the same clade as F. psychrophilum were the most prevalent (92% of all reads, 60% of all haplotypes), and occurred in kokanee from both spawning habitats (streams and beaches). Subsequent qPCR assays did not find any significant difference in the relative abundance of Flavobacterium AtpA amplicons between samples from the different spawning habitats. We confirmed the presence of Flavobacterium spp. in both spawning habitats and found weak evidence for increased Flavobacterium diversity in kokanee sampled from stream-spawning sites. However, the quantity of Flavobacterium DNA did not differ between spawning habitats. We recommend further study aimed at quantifying pathogen diversity and abundance in population-level samples of kokanee combined with

  16. A relation to describe rate-dependent material failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voight, B

    1989-01-13

    The simple relation OmegaOmega-alpha = 0, where Omega is a measurable quantity such as strain and A and alpha are empirical constants, describes the behavior of materials in terminal stages of failure under conditions of approximately constant stress and temperature. Applicable to metals and alloys, ice, concrete, polymers, rock, and soil, the relation may be extended to conditions of variable and multiaxial stress and may be used to predict time to failure.

  17. Relation between reproduction performance and indicators of feed intake, fear and social stress in commercial herds with group-housed non-lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2006-01-01

    Group-housing of non-lactating sows is becomming increasingly widespread in commercial sow herds in European countries as a result of changed legislation. Group-housing may lead to individual variation in feed intake, stress and fear, which may impair the reproduction ferformance. However, whether...... the individual variation in feed intake and the level of stress and fear under commercial conditions is severe enough to impair the reproduction performance is not known. In a detailed farm study including 14 herds with different layouts the relations between various indicators of feed intake, stress and fear...

  18. Photosynthetic, morphological, and reproductive variations in Cypripedium tibeticum in relation to different light regimes in a subalpine forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Qiang Zheng

    Full Text Available Cypripedium tibeticum, a subalpine orchid species, inhabits various habitats of subalpine forests, mainly including the forest edge (FE, forest gap (FG, and understory (UST, which have significantly different light intensities (FE > FG > UST. However, the ecological and physiological influences caused by different light regimes in this species are still poorly understood. In the present study, photosynthetic, morphological, and reproductive characteristics were comprehensively studied in plants of C. tibeticum grown in three types of habitats. The photosynthetic capacities, such as the net photosynthetic rate, light-saturated photosynthesis (Pmax, and dry mass per unit leaf area (LMA, were higher in FE and FG than in UST according to light availability. Compared with FG, the populations in FE and UST suffer from excessively strong and inadequate radiation, respectively, which was further corroborated by the low Fv/Fm in FE and high apparent quantum yield (AQY in FG. The leaves of the orchids had various proportions of constituents, such as the leaf area, thickness and (or epidermal hair, to reduce damage from high radiation (including ultraviolet-b radiation in FE and capture more light in FG and UST. Although the flower rate (FR was positively correlated to both Pmax and the daily mean PAR, fruit-set only occurred in the populations in FG. The failures in FE and UST might be ascribed to changes in the floral functional structure and low biomass accumulation, respectively. Moreover, analysis of the demographic statistics showed that FG was an advantageous habitat for the orchid. Thus, C. tibeticum reacted to photosynthetic and morphological changes to adapt to different subalpine forest habitats, and neither full (under FE nor low (UST illumination was favorable for population expansion. These findings could serve as a guide for the protection and reintroduction of C. tibeticum and emphasize the importance of specific habitats for Cypripedium

  19. Photosynthetic, morphological, and reproductive variations in Cypripedium tibeticum in relation to different light regimes in a subalpine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bao-Qiang; Zou, Long-Hai; Li, Kui; Wan, Xiao; Wang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Cypripedium tibeticum, a subalpine orchid species, inhabits various habitats of subalpine forests, mainly including the forest edge (FE), forest gap (FG), and understory (UST), which have significantly different light intensities (FE > FG > UST). However, the ecological and physiological influences caused by different light regimes in this species are still poorly understood. In the present study, photosynthetic, morphological, and reproductive characteristics were comprehensively studied in plants of C. tibeticum grown in three types of habitats. The photosynthetic capacities, such as the net photosynthetic rate, light-saturated photosynthesis (Pmax), and dry mass per unit leaf area (LMA), were higher in FE and FG than in UST according to light availability. Compared with FG, the populations in FE and UST suffer from excessively strong and inadequate radiation, respectively, which was further corroborated by the low Fv/Fm in FE and high apparent quantum yield (AQY) in FG. The leaves of the orchids had various proportions of constituents, such as the leaf area, thickness and (or) epidermal hair, to reduce damage from high radiation (including ultraviolet-b radiation) in FE and capture more light in FG and UST. Although the flower rate (FR) was positively correlated to both Pmax and the daily mean PAR, fruit-set only occurred in the populations in FG. The failures in FE and UST might be ascribed to changes in the floral functional structure and low biomass accumulation, respectively. Moreover, analysis of the demographic statistics showed that FG was an advantageous habitat for the orchid. Thus, C. tibeticum reacted to photosynthetic and morphological changes to adapt to different subalpine forest habitats, and neither full (under FE) nor low (UST) illumination was favorable for population expansion. These findings could serve as a guide for the protection and reintroduction of C. tibeticum and emphasize the importance of specific habitats for Cypripedium spp.

  20. The relation between handedness indices and reproductive success in a non-industrial society.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Schaafsma

    Full Text Available The evolution of handedness in human populations has intrigued scientists for decades. However, whether handedness really affects Darwinian fitness is unclear and not yet studied in a non-industrial society where selection pressures on health and handedness are likely to be similar to the situation in which handedness has evolved. We measured both hand preference and asymmetry of hand skill (speed of fine motor control, measured by a pegboard task, and accuracy of throwing, as they measure different aspects of handedness. We investigated the associations between both the direction (left versus right and strength (the degree to which a certain preference or asymmetry in skill is manifested, independent of the direction of handedness. We analyzed to what extent these measures predict the number of offspring and self-reported illness in a non-industrial society in Papua, Indonesia. As it is known that body height and fitness are correlated, data on body height was also collected. Due to low numbers of left-handers we could not investigate the associations between direction of hand preference and measures of Darwinian fitness. We found a positive association between strength of asymmetry of hand skill (pegboard and the number of children men sired. We also found a positive association for men between strength of hand preference and number of children who died within the first three years of life. For women we found no such effects. Our results may indicate that strength of handedness, independent of direction, has fitness implications and that the persistence of the polymorphism in handedness may be ascribed to either balancing selection on strength of asymmetry of hand skill versus strength of hand preference, or sexual antagonistic selection. No relationships between health and handedness were found, perhaps due to disease related selective disappearance of subjects with a specific handedness.

  1. Cedar River Chinook genotypes - Estimate relative reproductive success of hatchery and wild fall Chinook salmon in the Cedar River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using genetic pedigree information to estimate the reproductive success of hatchery and wild fall-run Chinook salmon spawning in the Cedar River, Washington....

  2. Effects of melanocortin-4 receptor agonists and antagonists on expression of genes related to reproduction in spotted scat, Scatophagus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong-Neng; Li, Jian-Tao; Tao, Ya-Xiong; Chen, Hua-Pu; Deng, Si-Ping; Zhu, Chun-Hua; Li, Guang-Li

    2017-05-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r) function related to reproduction in fish has not been extensively investigated. Here, we report on gene expression changes by real-time PCR following treatment with Mc4r agonists and antagonists in the spotted scat (Scatophagus argus). Using in vitro incubated hypothalamus, the Mc4r nonselective agonist NDP-MSH ([Nle 4 , D-Phe 7 ]-α-melanocyte stimulating hormone; 10 -6 M) and selective agonist THIQ (N-[(3R)-1, 2, 3, 4-Tetrahydroisoquinolinium-3-ylcarbonyl]- (1R)-1-(4-chlorobenzyl)-2-[4-cyclohexyl-4-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl) piperidin-1-yl]-2-oxoethylamine; 10 -7 M) significantly increased the expression of gnrh (Gonadotropin releasing hormone), while the Mc4r nonselective antagonist SHU9119 (Ac-Nle-[Asp-His-DPhe/DNal(2')-Arg-Trp-Lys]-NH2; 10 -6 M) and selective antagonist Ipsen 5i (compound 5i synthesized in Ipsen Research Laboratories; 10 -6 M) significantly inhibited gnrh expression after 3 h of incubation. In incubated pituitary tissue, NDP-MSH and THIQ significantly increased the expression of fshb (Follicle-stimulating hormone beta subunit) and lhb (Luteinizing hormone beta subunit), while SHU9119 and Ipsen 5i significantly decreased fshb and lhb expression after 3 h of incubation. During the in vivo experiment, THIQ (1 mg/kg bw) significantly increased gnrh expression in hypothalamic tissue, as well as the fshb and lhb expression in pituitary tissue 12 h after abdominal injection. Furthermore, Ipsen 5i (1 mg/kg bw) significantly inhibited gnrh expression in hypothalamic tissue, as well as fshb and lhb gene expression in pituitary tissue 12 h after abdominal injection. In summary, Mc4r singling appears to stimulate gnrh expression in the hypothalamus, thereby modulating the synthesis of Fsh and Lh in the pituitary. In addition, Mc4r also appears to directly regulate fshb and lhb levels in the pituitary in spotted scat. Our study suggests that Mc4r, through the hypothalamus and pituitary, participates in reproductive

  3. Breeding site selection by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to large wood additions and factors that influence reproductive success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason B.; McEnroe, Jeffery R.; Lightcap, Scott W.

    2014-01-01

    The fitness of female Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) with respect to breeding behavior can be partitioned into at least four fitness components: survival to reproduction, competition for breeding sites, success of egg incubation, and suitability of the local environment near breeding sites for early rearing of juveniles. We evaluated the relative influences of habitat features linked to these fitness components with respect to selection of breeding sites by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). We also evaluated associations between breeding site selection and additions of large wood, as the latter were introduced into the study system as a means of restoring habitat conditions to benefit coho salmon. We used a model selection approach to organize specific habitat features into groupings reflecting fitness components and influences of large wood. Results of this work suggest that female coho salmon likely select breeding sites based on a wide range of habitat features linked to all four hypothesized fitness components. More specifically, model parameter estimates indicated that breeding site selection was most strongly influenced by proximity to pool-tail crests and deeper water (mean and maximum depths). Linkages between large wood and breeding site selection were less clear. Overall, our findings suggest that breeding site selection by coho salmon is influenced by a suite of fitness components in addition to the egg incubation environment, which has been the emphasis of much work in the past.

  4. Changing reproductive effort within a semelparous reproductive episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, P William; Simons, Andrew M

    2014-08-01

    • Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between current and future reproduction for iteroparous organisms-as individuals age, the expected value of future reproduction declines, and thus reproductive effort is expected to be higher in later clutches than in earlier. In contrast, models explaining the evolution of semelparity treat semelparous reproduction as instantaneous, with no scope for intraindividual variation. However, semelparous reproduction is also extended, but over shorter time scales; whether there are similar age- or stage-specific changes in reproductive effort within a semelparous episode is unclear. In this study, we assessed whether semelparous individuals increase reproductive effort as residual reproductive value declines by comparing the reproductive phenotype of flowers at five different floral positions along a main inflorescence.• Using the herbaceous monocarp Lobelia inflata, we conducted a longitudinal study of 409 individuals including both laboratory and field populations over three seasons. We recorded six reproductive traits-including the length of three phenological intervals as well as fruit size, seed size, and seed number-for all plants across floral positions produced throughout the reproductive episode.• We found that while the rate of flower initiation did not change, flowers at distal (late) floral positions developed more quickly and contained larger seed than flowers at basal (early) floral positions did.• Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that, like iteroparous organisms, L. inflata increases reproductive effort in response to low residual reproductive value. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  5. Age-Related Racial Disparity in Suicide Rates Among U.S. Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ... May 30, 2018 Age-Related Racial Disparity in Youth Suicide Rates May 21, 2018 News by Year 2018 ...

  6. Relative measurement of the excitation rate coefficients of the FeXI ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marotta, A.

    1982-01-01

    The collision rate coefficients for the iron atoms are measured through the hot plasma obtainment. The physical model used in this determination is the crown stationary model which consider that the excitation by electronic collisions is balanced by the spontaneous emission. This work was realized in a 15Kj theta pinch device, of high pulse reproductibility. The iron-pentacarbonyl [Fe(Co) 5 ] was used as the impurity source of a hydrogen gas. The temperature and density were determined by the scattering light analysis of a rubi laser using the Thomson scattering. (L.C.) [pt

  7. Relative effects of exophytic predation, endophytic predation, and intraspecific competition on a subcortical herbivore: consequences to the reproduction of Ips pini and Thanasimus dubius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aukema, Brian H; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2002-12-01

    We used a laboratory assay to partition the effects of predation and intraspecific competition on the establishment, mating success, and brood development of an endophytic herbivore. We selected a system in which the same predator feeds both exophytically and endophytically on the same prey, to evaluate the role of herbivore feeding guild on predator numerical and functional responses. The bark beetle, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) reproduces within the stems of conifers. Males establish mating chambers under the bark, produce aggregation pheromones, and are subsequently joined by females that construct ovipositional galleries. Thanasimus dubius (Coleoptera: Cleridae) adults prey on adults alighting on the bark surface. T. dubius females then oviposit at the bark beetles' entrance sites, and their larvae prey on developing bark beetle larvae within the tree. We imposed a controlled 3×3 factorial design of prey and predator adult densities on red pine logs. Both predation and competition decreased I. pini reproduction. However, the per capita effect of predation was greater than competition, with one adult T. dubius reducing herbivore reproduction by an equivalent amount as four to five competing males and their harems. Increased densities of adult T. dubius on the plant surface reduced the number of prey captured per predator. Total predation on adults and larvae was similar. However, adult T. dubius on the plant surface ate approximately 18-35 times more I. pini per day than did their endophytic larvae. Within the plant, cannibalism among T. dubius, low herbivore densities, limited feeding times, and presumably the complex gallery architecture of I. pini reduced the number of predator progeny. The progeny of I. pini showed even sex ratios in the absence of predators, but were female biased when predators were present. We quantified a relatively narrow set of predator and prey densities that can generate replacement rates greater than one for this predator

  8. Dimensions of gender relations and reproductive health inequity perceived by female undergraduate students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: a qualitative exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Thanh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Increasing evidence indicates that gender equity has a significant influence on women’s health; yet few culturally specific indicators of gender relations exist which are applicable to health. This study explores dimensions of gender relations perceived by female undergraduate students in southern Vietnamese culture, and qualitatively examines how this perceived gender inequity may influence females’ sexual or reproductive health. Methods Sixty-two female undergraduate students from two universities participated in eight focus group discussions to talk about their perspectives regarding national and local gender equity issues. Results Although overall gender gaps in the Mekong Delta were perceived to have decreased in comparison to previous times, several specific dimensions of gender relations were emergent in students’ discussions. Perceived dimensions of gender relations were comparable to theoretical structures of the Theory of Gender and Power, and to findings from several reports describing the actual inferiority of women. Allocation of housework and social paid work represented salient dimensions of labor. The most salient dimension of power related to women in positions of authority. Salient dimensions of cathexis related to son preference, women’s vulnerability to blame or criticism, and double standards or expectations. Findings also suggested that gender inequity potentially influenced women’s sexual and reproductive health as regards to health information seeking, gynecological care access, contraceptive use responsibility, and child bearing. Conclusion Further investigations of the associations between gender relations and different women’s sexual and reproductive health outcomes in this region are needed. It may be important to address gender relations as a distal determinant in health interventions in order to promote gender-based equity in sexual and reproductive health.

  9. Dimensions of gender relations and reproductive health inequity perceived by female undergraduate students in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael W; Williams, Mark L; Beasley, R Palmer; Tran, Ly T H; Nguyen, Huong T H; Le, Thach Ngoc

    2012-10-24

    Increasing evidence indicates that gender equity has a significant influence on women's health; yet few culturally specific indicators of gender relations exist which are applicable to health. This study explores dimensions of gender relations perceived by female undergraduate students in southern Vietnamese culture, and qualitatively examines how this perceived gender inequity may influence females' sexual or reproductive health. Sixty-two female undergraduate students from two universities participated in eight focus group discussions to talk about their perspectives regarding national and local gender equity issues. Although overall gender gaps in the Mekong Delta were perceived to have decreased in comparison to previous times, several specific dimensions of gender relations were emergent in students' discussions. Perceived dimensions of gender relations were comparable to theoretical structures of the Theory of Gender and Power, and to findings from several reports describing the actual inferiority of women. Allocation of housework and social paid work represented salient dimensions of labor. The most salient dimension of power related to women in positions of authority. Salient dimensions of cathexis related to son preference, women's vulnerability to blame or criticism, and double standards or expectations. Findings also suggested that gender inequity potentially influenced women's sexual and reproductive health as regards to health information seeking, gynecological care access, contraceptive use responsibility, and child bearing. Further investigations of the associations between gender relations and different women's sexual and reproductive health outcomes in this region are needed. It may be important to address gender relations as a distal determinant in health interventions in order to promote gender-based equity in sexual and reproductive health.

  10. The goitre rate, its association with reproductive failure, and the knowledge of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD among women in Ethiopia: Cross-section community based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhane Yemane

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iodine deficiency is severe public health problem in Ethiopia. Although urinary iodine excretion level (UIE is a better indicator for IDD the goitre rate is commonly used to mark the public health significance. The range of ill effect of IDD is however beyond goitre in Ethiopia. In this study the prevalence of goitre and its association with reproductive failure, and the knowledge of women on Iodine Deficiency were investigated. Methods A cross-section community based study was conducted during February to May 2005 in 10998 women in child bearing age of 15 to 49 years. To assess the state of iodine deficiency in Ethiopia, a multistage "Proportional to Population Size" (PPS sampling methods was used, and WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommended method for goitre classification. Results Total goitre prevalence (weighted was 35.8% (95% CI 34.5–37.1, 24.3% palpable and 11.5% visible goitre. This demonstrates that more than 6 million women were affected by goitre. Goitre prevalence in four regional states namely Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP, Oromia, Bebshandul-Gumuz and Tigray was greater than 30%, an indication of severe iodine deficiency. In the rest of the regions except Gambella, the IDD situation was mild to moderate. According to WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD this is a lucid indication that IDD is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Women with goitre experience more pregnancy failure (X2 = 16.5, p 2 = 67.52; p Conclusion Ethiopia is at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. The findings presented in this report emphasis on a sustainable iodine intervention program targeted at population particularly reproductive age women. Nutrition education along with Universal Salt Iodization program and iodized oil capsule distribution in some peripheries where iodine deficiency is severe is urgently required.

  11. Effect of bis(tributyltin) oxide on reproduction and population growth rate of calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Zhu, Liyan; Qiu, Xuchun; Zhang, Tianwen

    2010-03-01

    A full life-cycle toxicity test, combined with histology, on calanoid copepod Schmackeria poplesia was used to study the effect of bis(tributyltin) oxide (TBTO). The results indicate no sex-specific differences in TBTO toxicity. Long-term mortalities of the copepods exposed to concentrations higher than 20 ng TBTO L-1 were significantly elevated compared with that of control, and larval development was inhibited when they were exposed to 40 and 60 ng TBTO L-1. The percentages of ovigerous females were reduced compared with the control ( P<0.01) after 24 days exposure to concentrations higher than 10 ng TBTO L-1. Histological examinations suggest that exposure to TBTO might block the posterior end of the diverticula and inhibits the production of egg sacs. A modified Euler-Lotka equation was used to calculate a population-level endpoint, the intrinsic rate of natural increase ( r m), from individual life-table endpoints, i.e. mortality rate, time of release of first brood, sex ratio, the fraction of ovigerous females among all females as well as the number of nauplii per ovigerous female. Apart from the highest TBTO concentration (60 ng L-1), where all females aborted their egg sacs, 20 ng TBTO L-1 was the only concentration that significantly decreased r m compared with that of control (an effect associated with decreased sex ratio). The results show that the S. poplesia is affected by prolonged exposure to low concentrations of TBTO. The full life-cycle toxicity test combined with histology experiments provides more integral understanding of the toxicity of endocrine disrupters.

  12. Response of insect relative growth rate to temperature and host-plant phenology: estimation and validation from field data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamadou Ciss

    Full Text Available Between 1975 to 2011, aphid Relative Growth Rates (RGR were modelled as a function of mean outdoor temperature and host plant phenology. The model was applied to the grain aphid Sitobion avenae using data on aphid counts in winter wheat at two different climate regions in France (oceanic climate, Rennes (western France; continental climate, Paris. Mean observed aphid RGR was higher in Paris compared to the Rennes region. RGR increased with mean temperature, which is explained by aphid reproduction, growth and development being dependent on ambient temperature. From the stem extension to the heading stage in wheat, there was either a plateau in RGR values (Rennes or an increase with a maximum at heading (Paris due to high intrinsic rates of increase in aphids and also to aphid immigration. From the wheat flowering to the ripening stage, RGR decreased in both regions due to the low intrinsic rate of increase in aphids and high emigration rate linked to reduced nutrient quality in maturing wheat. The model validation process showed that the fitted models have more predictive power in the Paris region than in the Rennes region.

  13. Wild jackdaws' reproductive success and their offspring's stress hormones are connected to provisioning rate and brood size, not to parental neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greggor, Alison L; Spencer, Karen A; Clayton, Nicola S; Thornton, Alex

    2017-03-01

    Many species show individual variation in neophobia and stress hormones, but the causes and consequences of this variation in the wild are unclear. Variation in neophobia levels could affect the number of offspring animals produce, and more subtly influence the rearing environment and offspring development. Nutritional deficits during development can elevate levels of stress hormones that trigger long-term effects on learning, memory, and survival. Therefore measuring offspring stress hormone levels, such as corticosterone (CORT), helps determine if parental neophobia influences the condition and developmental trajectory of young. As a highly neophobic species, jackdaws (Corvus monedula) are excellent for exploring the potential effects of parental neophobia on developing offspring. We investigated if neophobic responses, alongside known drivers of fitness, influence nest success and offspring hormone responses in wild breeding jackdaws. Despite its consistency across the breeding season, and suggestions in the literature that it should have importance for reproductive fitness, parental neophobia did not predict nest success, provisioning rates or offspring hormone levels. Instead, sibling competition and poor parental care contributed to natural variation in stress responses. Parents with lower provisioning rates fledged fewer chicks, chicks from larger broods had elevated baseline CORT levels, and chicks with later hatching dates showed higher stress-induced CORT levels. Since CORT levels may influence the expression of adult neophobia, variation in juvenile stress responses could explain the development and maintenance of neophobic variation within the adult population. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological processes in the North Sea: vertical distribution and reproduction of neritic copepods in relation to environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Bagøien, Espen

    2011-01-01

    for reproduction compared with surface waters and (iii) if the secondary production is thus higher in the frontal areas with a subsurface chlorophyll maximum. In addition, we wanted to (iv) identify the most important environmental factors determining the reproduction of neritic copepods in the North Sea. We......We studied the vertical distribution and reproduction of dominant neritic copepod species in the Dogger Bank area and surrounding North Sea to reveal (i) if these species are concentrated in the subsurface chlorophyll maximum layer, (ii) if the chlorophyll maximum offers superior food conditions...... observed a higher egg production of cultured Acartia tonsa when fed with the seston from chlorophyll maximum, but no evidence of a higher copepod abundance in this layer. Secondary production was highest at the station closest to the upwelling of new nutrients, although seasonal differences...

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of endangered Chinese salamander: identification of immune, sex and reproduction-related genes and genetic markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongbo Che

    Full Text Available The Chinese salamander (Hynobius chinensis, an endangered amphibian species of salamander endemic to China, has attracted much attention because of its value of studying paleontology evolutionary history and decreasing population size. Despite increasing interest in the Hynobius chinensis genome, genomic resources for the species are still very limited. A comprehensive transcriptome of Hynobius chinensis, which will provide a resource for genome annotation, candidate genes identification and molecular marker development should be generated to supplement it.We performed a de novo assembly of Hynobius chinensis transcriptome by Illumina sequencing. A total of 148,510 nonredundant unigenes with an average length of approximately 580 bp were obtained. In all, 60,388 (40.66% unigenes showed homologous matches in at least one database and 33,537 (22.58% unigenes were annotated by all four databases. In total, 41,553 unigenes were categorized into 62 sub-categories by BLAST2GO search, and 19,468 transcripts were assigned to 140 KEGG pathways. A large number of unigenes involved in immune system, local adaptation, reproduction and sex determination were identified, as well as 31,982 simple sequence repeats (SSRs and 460,923 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs.This dataset represents the first transcriptome analysis of the Chinese salamander (Hynobius chinensis, an endangered species, to be also the first time of hynobiidae. The transcriptome will provide valuable resource for further research in discovery of new genes, protection of population, adaptive evolution and survey of various pathways, as well as development of molecule markers in Chinese salamander; and reference information for closely related species.

  16. Effects of thyroid status on NEI concentration in specific brain areas related to reproduction during the estrous cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Carolina; Pennacchio, Gisela Erika; Soaje, Marta; Carreño, Norma Beatriz; Bittencourt, Jakson Cioni; Jahn, Graciela Alma; Celis, María Ester; Valdez, Susana Ruth

    2013-11-01

    We previously showed that short-term hypo- and hyperthyroidism induce changes in neuropeptide glutamic-acid-isoleucine-amide (NEI) concentrations in discrete brain areas in male rats. To investigate the possible effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on NEI concentrations mainly in hypothalamic areas related to reproduction and behavior, female rats were sacrificed at different days of the estrous cycle. Circulating luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured in control, hypothyroid (hypoT, treated with PTU during 7-9 days) and hyperthyroid (hyperT, l-T4 during 4-7 days) animals. Both treatments blunted the LH surge. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism increased estradiol concentrations during proestrus afternoon (P-PM), although hypoT rats showed lower values compared to control during proestrus morning (P-AM). Progesterone levels were higher in all groups at P-PM and in the hyperT during diestrus morning (D2). NEI concentrations were lower in hypoT rats during the estrous cycle except in estrus (E) in the peduncular part of the lateral hypothalamus (PLH). They were also reduced by both treatments in the perifornical part of the lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) during P-PM. Hypothyroidism led to higher NEI concentrations during P-PM in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis and anteroventral periventricular nucleus (OVLT+AVPV). The present results indicate that NEI concentration is regulated in a complex manner by hypo- and hyperthyroidism in the different areas studied, suggesting a correlation between NEI values and the variations of gonadal steroid levels during estrous cycle. These changes could be, in part, responsible for the alterations observed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in these pathologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reproductive immunology: a focus on the role of female sex hormones and other gender-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeva, Elena

    2011-02-01

    Reproductive immunology has attracted the attention of researchers interested in fertility and pregnancy as well as those interested in immunity and autoimmunity. Over the past couple of decades, a wealth of data on the immune-reproductive interactions has been generated. This issue of the Journal will examine several topics including the role of immune factors in the induction of anti-Ro antibody-mediated autoimmunity in neonates and the immunological effects of gender and sex hormones. The possible implications of the research reviewed here for the development of novel therapeutic approaches are also addressed.

  18. Variation in male reproductive traits among three bitterling fishes (Acheilognathinae: Cyprinidae) in relation to the mating system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pateman-Jones, C.; Rasotto, M. B.; Reichard, Martin; Liao, C.; Liu, H.; Zieba, G.; Smith, C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 3 (2011), s. 622-632 ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : reproduction * sperm competition * sperm depletion * sperm economy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.193, year: 2011

  19. The use of phenological data to calculate chilling units in Olea europaea L. in relation to the onset of reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, F.; Fornaciari, M.; Romano, B.

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a practical method to evaluate the effective relationship between the amount of winter chilling and the response expressed as the spring reproductive re-starting dates in the olive ( Olea europaea L.). Two olive cultivars growing in a special olive orchard in Umbria (central Italy) were studied over a 3-year period (1998-2000): the cultivar Ascolana, typical of central Italy, and the cultivar Giarraffa, typical of southern Italy. The spring reproductive re-starts were assessed using data from detailed phenological observations made on 60 trees of each cultivar in an effort to establish the exact date of reproductive bud swelling. The chilling phenomenon was evaluated by using 341 functions derived from a formula developed by researchers at Utah State University to calculate chilling units. The mathematical functions are defined, and show the very close relationship between the amount of winter chilling and the spring reproductive response in the two cultivars in the orchard studied. The results can be used to define the relationship between local climate and plant development, and the mathematical approach can be used to draw maps that can show the suitability of different cultivars on the basis of local climatic conditions.

  20. Effects of competition on great and blue tit reproduction: intensity and importance in relation to habitat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, André A

    2010-01-01

    1. In studies on the effect of competition in plant communities two terms are used to describe its effects: the absolute reduction in growth of an individual as a consequence of the presence of another one is called intensity, while the relative impact of competition on an individual as a proportion of the impact of the whole environment is called importance. One school of thought is that the role of competition remains constant across productivity gradients, while the other is that it decreases with increasing severity. J.B. Grace (1991. A clarification of the debate between grime and tilman. Functional Ecology, 5, 583-587.) suggested that the apparent contradiction might be solved if we acknowledge that the two schools are discussing different aspects of competition: the intensity of competition might remain constant while its importance declines with increasing severity. 2. There are no studies that compare intensity and importance of competition in bird populations between areas that differ in quality or productivity and hence it is not possible to make predictions how intensity or importance of competition would vary between them. 3. I compared variation in intensity and importance of competition of three demographic variables between five plots that differ strongly in quality for great Parus major L. and blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (L.). 4. Both intensity and importance of competition are larger in great than in blue tit populations meaning that the effect of competition on demographic variables is stronger in great than in blue tits and that the contribution of competition to variation in these variables is relatively higher in great than in blue tits. 5. Intensity of competition is higher in low quality than in high quality plots for both species, a result not expected from studies in plant communities. 6. Importance of competition varies strongly between plots. It is larger in oak-dominated plots than in mixed deciduous plots. 7. In birds breeding density

  1. Resource allocation to reproduction in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Sebastiaan A L M; Lika, Konstadia

    2014-11-01

    The standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model assumes that a fraction κ of mobilised reserve is allocated to somatic maintenance plus growth, while the rest is allocated to maturity maintenance plus maturation (in embryos and juveniles) or reproduction (in adults). All DEB parameters have been estimated for 276 animal species from most large phyla and all chordate classes. The goodness of fit is generally excellent. We compared the estimated values of κ with those that would maximise reproduction in fully grown adults with abundant food. Only 13% of these species show a reproduction rate close to the maximum possible (assuming that κ can be controlled), another 4% have κ lower than the optimal value, and 83% have κ higher than the optimal value. Strong empirical support hence exists for the conclusion that reproduction is generally not maximised. We also compared the parameters of the wild chicken with those of races selected for meat and egg production and found that the latter indeed maximise reproduction in terms of κ, while surface-specific assimilation was not affected by selection. We suggest that small values of κ relate to the down-regulation of maximum body size, and large values to the down-regulation of reproduction. We briefly discuss the ecological context for these findings. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. Fish reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocha, Maria João; Arukwe, Augustine; Kapoor, B. G

    2008-01-01

    ... of reproductive systems is essential for such studies. Fishes comprise over 28,000 species, with a remarkable variability in morphology, physiology and environmental adaptation. Knowledge on fish reproduction is scattered across numerous sources that shows a dynamic research field. The Editors believe it to be an opportune moment for a...

  3. Identification of reproduction-related genes and SSR-markers through expressed sequence tags analysis of a monsoon breeding carp rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Dinesh K; Panda, Soumya P; Panda, Sujata; Das, Paramananda; Meher, Prem K; Hazra, Rupenangshu K; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Zhanjiang J; Eknath, Ambekar E; Nandi, Samiran

    2013-07-15

    Labeo rohita (Ham.) also called rohu is the most important freshwater aquaculture species on the Indian sub continent. Monsoon dependent breeding restricts its seed production beyond season indicating a strong genetic control about which very limited information is available. Additionally, few genomic resources are publicly available for this species. Here we sought to identify reproduction-relevant genes from normalized cDNA libraries of the brain-pituitary-gonad-liver (BPGL-axis) tissues of adult L. rohita collected during post preparatory phase. 6161 random clones sequenced (Sanger-based) from these libraries produced 4642 (75.34%) high-quality sequences. They were assembled into 3631 (78.22%) unique sequences composed of 709 contigs and 2922 singletons. A total of 182 unique sequences were found to be associated with reproduction-related genes, mainly under the GO term categories of reproduction, neuro-peptide hormone activity, hormone and receptor binding, receptor activity, signal transduction, embryonic development, cell-cell signaling, cell death and anti-apoptosis process. Several important reproduction-related genes reported here for the first time in L. rohita are zona pellucida sperm-binding protein 3, aquaporin-12, spermine oxidase, sperm associated antigen 7, testis expressed 261, progesterone receptor membrane component, Neuropeptide Y and Pro-opiomelanocortin. Quantitative RT-PCR-based analyses of 8 known and 8 unknown transcripts during preparatory and post-spawning phase showed increased expression level of most of the transcripts during preparatory phase (except Neuropeptide Y) in comparison to post-spawning phase indicating possible roles in initiation of gonad maturation. Expression of unknown transcripts was also found in prolific breeder common carp and tilapia, but levels of expression were much higher in seasonal breeder rohu. 3631 unique sequences contained 236 (6.49%) putative microsatellites with the AG (28.16%) repeat as the most

  4. Female reproductive disorders: the roles of endocrine-disrupting compounds and developmental timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D.A.; Janssen, S.J.; Edwards, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproducti...... reproductive dysfunction together with tools to assess the specific exposures and methods to block their effects. This review of the EDC literature as it relates to female health provides an important platform on which women's health can be improved Udgivelsesdato: 2008/10...

  5. What's Religion Got to Do with It? Exploring College Students' Sexual and Reproductive Health Knowledge and Awareness of Sexual and Reproductive Health Services in Relation to Their Gender and Religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nancy; Baralt, Lori; Garrido-Ortega, Claire

    2017-06-26

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between religiosity and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) knowledge and awareness of campus SRH services among college students on a racially and ethnically diverse college campus. The sample included 996 undergraduate students at a large public university in California. For women, there was a consistent pattern across religious affiliations of more frequent attenders reporting lower SRH knowledge than less frequent attenders. These findings suggest that higher rates of religious attendance among Catholic, Protestant, and Evangelical women pose a risk for lower SRH knowledge. The results suggest the need for SRH outreach and educational materials targeting men in general, who had lower levels of SRH knowledge and awareness of SRH services overall, and taking religiosity into account, particularly with regard to women.

  6. Effect of selection for relative growth rate and bodyweight of mice on rate, composition and efficiency of growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, H.

    1974-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of selection for parameters of a growth curve, four selection lines and a control line were started from one base population. In the selection lines is selected for a large and a small relative growth rate between 21 and 29 days (RGH and RGL) and for a large and

  7. Population density shapes patterns of survival and reproduction in Eleutheria dichotoma (Hydrozoa: Anthoathecata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dańko, Aleksandra; Schaible, Ralf; Pijanowska, Joanna; Dańko, Maciej J

    2018-01-01

    Budding hydromedusae have high reproductive rates due to asexual reproduction and can occur in high population densities along the coasts, specifically in tidal pools. In laboratory experiments, we investigated the effects of population density on the survival and reproductive strategies of a single clone of Eleutheria dichotoma . We found that sexual reproduction occurs with the highest rate at medium population densities. Increased sexual reproduction was associated with lower budding (asexual reproduction) and survival probability. Sexual reproduction results in the production of motile larvae that can, in contrast to medusae, seek to escape unfavorable conditions by actively looking for better environments. The successful settlement of a larva results in starting the polyp stage, which is probably more resistant to environmental conditions. This is the first study that has examined the life-history strategies of the budding hydromedusa E. dichotoma by conducting a long-term experiment with a relatively large sample size that allowed for the examination of age-specific mortality and reproductive rates. We found that most sexual and asexual reproduction occurred at the beginning of life following a very rapid process of maturation. The parametric models fitted to the mortality data showed that population density was associated with an increase in the rate of aging, an increase in the level of late-life mortality plateau, and a decrease in the hidden heterogeneity in individual mortality rates. The effects of population density on life-history traits are discussed in the context of resource allocation and the r/K-strategies' continuum concept.

  8. Changes in oxidative stress parameters in relation to age, growth and reproduction in the short-lived catarina scallop Argopecten ventricosus reared in its natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, C; Zenteno-Savín, T; Maeda-Martínez, A N; Philipp, E E R; Abele, D

    2012-08-01

    Increase in oxidative damage and decrease in cellular maintenance is often associated with aging, but, in marine ectotherms, both processes are also strongly influenced by somatic growth, maturation and reproduction. In this study, we used a single cohort of the short-lived catarina scallop Argopecten ventricosus, to investigate the effects of somatic growth, reproduction and aging on oxidative damage parameters (protein carbonyls, TBARS and lipofuscin) and cellular maintenance mechanisms (antioxidant activity and apoptosis) in scallops, caged in their natural environment. The concentrations of protein carbonyls and TBARS increased steeply during the early period of fast growth and during reproduction in one-year-old scallops. However, oxidative damage was transient, and apoptotic cell death played a pivotal role in eliminating damage in gill, mantle and muscle tissues of young scallops. Animals were able to reproduce again in the second year, but the reduced intensity of apoptosis impaired subsequent removal of damaged cells. In late survivors low antioxidant capacity and apoptotic activity together with a fast accumulation of the age pigment lipofuscin was observed. Rates of oxygen consumption and oxidative stress markers were strongly dependent on somatic growth and reproductive state but not on temperature. Compared to longer-lived bivalves, A. ventricosus seems more susceptible to oxidative stress with higher tissue-specific protein carbonyl levels and fast accumulation of lipofuscin in animals surviving the second spawning. Superoxide dismutase activity and apoptotic cell death intensity were however higher in this short-lived scallop than in longer-lived bivalves. The life strategy of this short-lived and intensely predated scallop supports rapid somatic growth and fitness as well as early maturation at young age at the cost of fast cellular degradation in second year scallops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  10. A test of bone mobilization relative to reproductive demand: skeletal quality is improved in cannibalistic females with large litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Wendy R

    2012-01-01

    In species with repeated bouts of reproduction, a female's ability to retain sufficient tissue for self-maintenance is essential to her survival and capacity for future reproduction. Loss of bone mineral content results in bone fragility and the possibility of reduced survival, so females should guard against the overuse of their bone mineral during reproduction. Given these constraints, I predicted that bone mobilization would increase with litter size in mice but plateau before maximum litter size was reached. To test this idea, I manipulated the litter sizes of house mice on the day of parturition to 3, 8, 13, and 18 offspring. At weaning, I euthanized the females and calculated whole-body and bone mineral composition. The total mineral content of females' femurs dropped as litter size increased to the average litter size for this strain of mouse (13) but surprisingly, femoral mineral content was higher for females assigned the largest litter sizes (18). Seven of the nine females assigned 18 young cannibalized some of their offspring. For females assigned to these larger litters, femoral ash content was not correlated with number of young consumed, suggesting that mineral recycling had little effect on final bone mineral content. However, nursing effort (accounting for young lost to cannibalism) was correlated with maternal femoral ash at weaning. These finding suggest that the high bone mineral content of females assigned the largest litters was associated with a reduction in endogenous mineral allocated to the litter.

  11. Rates of TBI-related Deaths by Age Group - United States, 2001 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Changes in the rates of TBI-related deaths vary depending on age. For persons 44 years of age and younger, TBI-related deaths decreased between the periods of...

  12. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability

    OpenAIRE

    E.R. Migliaro; P. Contreras; S. Bech; A. Etxagibel; M. Castro; R. Ricca; K. Vicente

    2001-01-01

    In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR) and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG) consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S) and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS) also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG) consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min). R-R variability was calculated in the time-...

  13. Calculus in Your Career: Putting the "Relate" Back in Related Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommatsch, Christina W.

    2017-01-01

    "Find the extreme values of the function." "At what rate is the distance between A and B increasing after 12 seconds?" Prompts like these can be heard in most first-semester calculus courses. Unfortunately, these cues also tend to prompt students' eyes to glaze over with thoughts of "When will I ever use this?" This…

  14. Molecular characterization of kiss2 and differential regulation of reproduction-related genes by sex steroids in the hypothalamus of half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, Quan; Liu, Xuezhou; Xu, Yongjiang; Song, Xuesong; Shi, Bao

    2017-11-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss) plays a critical role in mediating gonadal steroid feedback to the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons in mammals. However, little information regarding the regulation of kisspeptin gene by sex steroids is available in teleosts. In this study, we examined the direct actions of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) on hypothalamic expression of kisspeptin and other key factors involved in reproductive function of half-smooth tongue sole. As a first step, a partial-length cDNA of kiss2 was identified from the brain of tongue sole and kiss2 transcript levels were shown to be widely expressed in various tissues, notably in the ovary. Then, the actions of sex steroids on kiss2 and other reproduction-related genes were evaluated using a primary hypothalamus culture system. Our results showed that neither kiss2 nor its receptor kiss2r mRNA levels were significantly altered by sex steroids. Moreover, sex steroids did not modify hypothalamic expression of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (gnih) and its receptor gnihr mRNAs, either. However, E2 markedly stimulated both gnrh2 and gnrh3 mRNAs levels. Overall, this study provides insights into the role of sex steroids in the reproductive function of Pleuronectiform teleosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Incidence and progression rates of age-related maculopathy: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.M. Willemse-Assink (Jacqueline); R. van Leeuwen (Redmer); R.C.W. Wolfs (Roger); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); Th. Stijnen (Theo); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To describe the incidence rate of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the progression rates of early stages of age-related maculopathy (ARM), and to study the hierarchy of fundus features that determine progression. METHODS: A group of 4953 subjects

  16. Self-rated health and sickness-related absence: the modifying role of civic participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, B.; ter Hoeven, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined civic participation as an effect modifier between self-rated health and absence from work. Building on the theoretical framework of social exchange, we use German data to test a conceptual model relating self-rated health to sickness-related absence, as well as the

  17. Phthalate and bisphenol A exposure during in utero windows of susceptibility in relation to reproductive hormones and pubertal development in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Deborah J; Sánchez, Brisa N; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Lee, Joyce M; Mercado-García, Adriana; Blank-Goldenberg, Clara; Peterson, Karen E; Meeker, John D

    2017-11-01

    Over the past several decades, the age of pubertal onset in girls has shifted downward worldwide. As early pubertal onset is associated with increased risky behavior and psychological issues during adolescence and cardiometabolic disease and cancer in adulthood, this is an important public health concern. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals during critical windows of in utero development may play a role in this trend. Our objective was to investigate trimester-specific phthalate and BPA exposure in relation to pubertal development among girls in the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohort. We measured maternal urinary phthalate metabolites and BPA in samples collected during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy. To assess reproductive development among their female children, we measured serum testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), inhibin B, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and assessed sexual maturation, including Tanner staging for breast and pubic hair development and menarche status, at age 8-13 years (n = 120). We used linear and logistic regression to examine measures of trimester-specific in utero exposure as predictors of peripubertal hormone levels and pubertal onset, respectively. In secondary analyses, we evaluated estimated exposure at the midpoint of the first trimester and rates of change in exposure across pregnancy in relation to outcomes. Several phthalate metabolites measured throughout in utero development were associated with higher serum testosterone concentrations, while a number of metabolites measured in the third trimester were associated with higher DHEA-S. For example, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in mean monoethyl phthalate (MEP) levels across pregnancy was associated with 44% higher peripubertal testosterone (95% CI: 13-83%), while an IQR increase in di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate metabolites (ΣDEHP) specifically in the third trimester

  18. Autonomic responses to heat pain: Heart rate, skin conductance, and their relation to verbal ratings and stimulus intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loggia, Marco L; Juneau, Mylène; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2011-03-01

    In human pain experiments, as well as in clinical settings, subjects are often asked to assess pain using scales (eg, numeric rating scales). Although most subjects have little difficulty in using these tools, some lack the necessary basic cognitive or motor skills (eg, paralyzed patients). Thus, the identification of appropriate nonverbal measures of pain has significant clinical relevance. In this study, we assessed heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and verbal ratings in 39 healthy male subjects during the application of twelve 6-s heat stimuli of different intensities on the subjects' left forearm. Both HR and SC increased with more intense painful stimulation. However, HR but not SC, significantly correlated with pain ratings at the group level, suggesting that HR may be a better predictor of between-subject differences in pain than is SC. Conversely, changes in SC better predicted variations in ratings within a given individual, suggesting that it is more sensitive to relative changes in perception. The differences in findings derived from between- and within-subject analyses may result from greater within-subject variability in HR. We conclude that at least for male subjects, HR provides a better predictor of pain perception than SC, but that data should be averaged over several stimulus presentations to achieve consistent results. Nevertheless, variability among studies, and the indication that gender of both the subject and experimenter could influence autonomic results, lead us to advise caution in using autonomic or any other surrogate measures to infer pain in individuals who cannot adequately report their perception. Skin conductance is more sensitive to detect within-subject perceptual changes, but heart rate appears to better predict pain ratings at the group level. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex-related effects of reproduction on biomarkers of oxidative damage in free-living barn swallows (Hirundo rustica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rubolini

    Full Text Available According to life-history theory, the allocation of limiting resources to one trait has negative consequences for other traits requiring the same resource, resulting in trade-offs among life-history traits, such as reproduction and survival. In vertebrates, oxidative stress is increasingly being considered among the physiological mechanisms forming the currency of life-history trade-offs. In this study of the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica, we focus on the oxidative costs of reproduction, especially egg laying, by investigating the effects of breeding stage (pre- vs. post-laying and progression of the season on three biomarkers of oxidative damage (OD to plasma proteins, namely the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA-protein adducts and of protein thiol groups (PSH, and the protein carbonyl (PCO content. Moreover, we investigated whether males and females differed in plasma OD levels, because the inherent sex differences in reproductive roles and physiology may originate sex-specific patterns of OD during breeding. We found that MDA-protein adduct levels were higher in the pre-laying than in the post-laying phase, that males had lower levels of MDA-modified proteins than females, and that the decline of MDA-protein adduct concentration between the pre- and the post-laying phase was more marked for females than males. In addition, MDA-protein adduct levels declined with sampling date, but only during the pre-laying phase. On the other hand, plasma PCO levels increased from the pre- to the post-laying phase in both sexes, and females had higher levels of PCO than males. PSH concentration was unaffected by breeding stage, sex or sampling date. On the whole, our findings indicate that biomarkers of protein oxidation closely track the short-term variation in breeding stage of both male and female barn swallows. Moreover, the higher protein OD levels observed among females compared to males suggest that egg laying entails oxidative costs, which might

  20. Seasonal Variations of Indoor Microbial Exposures and Their Relation to Temperature, Relative Humidity, and Air Exchange Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael

    2012-01-01

    with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors, n = 127; outdoors, n = 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total...... inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m3) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m3). Indoor...... of inhalable dust and number of particles. Temperature and air exchange rates were positively associated with fungi and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and negatively with bacteria and the total inflammatory potential. Although temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates were significantly...

  1. Judges' perception of candidates' organization and communication, in relation to oral certification examination ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, James E; Myford, Carol M

    2009-11-01

    To determine (1) whether judges differed in the levels of severity they exercised when rating candidates' performance in an oral certification exam, (2) to what extent candidates' clinical competence ratings were related to their organization/communication ratings, and (3) to what extent clinical competence ratings could predict organization/communication ratings. Six hundred eighty-four physicians participated in a medical specialty board's 2002 oral examination. Ninety-nine senior members of the medical specialty served as judges, rating candidates' performances. Candidates' clinical competence ratings were analyzed using multifaceted Rasch measurement to investigate judge severity. A Pearson correlation was calculated to examine the relationship between ratings of clinical competence and organization/communication. Logistic regression was used to determine to what extent clinical competence ratings predicted organization/communication ratings. There were about three statistically distinct strata of judge severity; judges were not interchangeable. There was a moderately strong relationship between the two sets of candidate ratings. Higher clinical competence ratings were associated with an organization/communication rating of acceptable, whereas lower clinical competence ratings were associated with an organization/communication rating of unacceptable. The judges' clinical competence ratings correctly predicted 61.9% of the acceptable and 88.3% of the unacceptable organization/communication ratings. Overall, the clinical competence ratings correctly predicted 80% of the organization/communication ratings. The close association between the two sets of ratings was possibly due to a "halo" effect. Several explanations for this relationship were explored, and the authors considered the implications for their understanding of how judges carry out this complex rating task.

  2. The Relation of Diabetes Type 2 with Sexual Function among Reproductive Age Women in Iran, a Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorandokht Afshari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diabetic patients are at the greater risk of retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and sexual dysfunction compared to the general population. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sexual dysfunction in type 2 diabetes reproductive age women in Iran. Method. This was a case-control study carried out on 130 women with type 2 diabetes and 130 healthy women. The type 2 diabetes diagnosis was confirmed with abnormal fasting blood sugar, abnormal random blood sugar test, and abnormal level of HbA1C. Eligible women were requested to complete a demographic questionnaire and female sexual function index (FSFI. The chi-square test, independent t-test, and Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA were used for analyzing data. Results. Results of this study showed that diabetic women had significantly lower sexual desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm and more pain compared to the healthy women (p<0.05. Also diabetic women had lower sexual satisfaction compared to the healthy women (p=0.002. The total score of sexual function was significantly lower in the diabetic women compared to the healthy women (21.25±7.04 versus 22.43±7.6, p=0.004. Conclusion. Results of this study showed that the score of all dimensions of sexual function in diabetic patients was lower than that in healthy women. Education and counseling about controlling diabetes and sexual function among diabetic women in reproductive age are recommended.

  3. Knowledge and practices related to sexually transmitted infections among women of reproductive age living in Katanga slum, Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawagi, Faith; Mpimbaza, Arthur; Mukisa, John; Serwadda, Patrick; Kyalema, Samuel; Kizza, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) still stand as one of the commonest health problems affecting women of reproductive age. The knowledge and practices of STIs, among susceptible populations such as women of reproductive age, living in slums like Katanga in Kampala Uganda need to be established. This was a cross-sectional study with 339 participants in Katanga slum. Data was collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire, entered and analysed using SPSS version 17.0. Data was summarized using frequencies for categorical data and medians for continuous data. Majority of the participants (71.9%) were ≥25years with a mean age of 28.0(SD ±7.0) years. The commonest symptoms known to the participants were genital itching (60%) and genital rash (14.5%). Most mentioned multiple partners (63.7%) and unprotected sex (50.7%) as predisposing factors to STIs. Knowledge on methods of prevention was high (92.3%) however, 18.8% were found positive for STIs using the syndromic approach and 82% mentioned having suffered from STIs in the past 6 months more than once. Most participants did not know about the systemic effects of STIs to their health and didnot follow the appropriate behavior patterns despite being knowledgeable about the various methods of prevention of STIs.

  4. The potential for adaptation in a natural Daphnia magna population: broad and narrow-sense heritability of net reproductive rate under Cd stress at two temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiaen, M; Janssen, C R; Thas, O; De Schamphelaere, K A C

    2012-10-01

    The existence of genetic variability is a key element of the adaptive potential of a natural population to stress. In this study we estimated the additive and non-additive components of the genetic variability of net reproductive rate (R(0)) in a natural Daphnia magna population exposed to Cd stress at two different temperatures. To this end, life-table experiments were conducted with 20 parental and 39 offspring clonal lineages following a 2 × 2 design with Cd concentration (control vs. 3.7 μg Cd/L) and temperature (20 vs. 24 °C) as factors. Offspring lineages were obtained through inter-clonal crossing of the different parental lineages. The population mean, additive and non-additive genetic components of variation in each treatment were estimated by fitting an Animal Model to the observed R(0) values using restricted maximum likelihood estimation. From those estimates broad-sense heritabilities (H(2)), narrow-sense heritabilities (h(2)), total (CV(G)) and additive genetic coefficients of variation (CV(A)) of R(0) were calculated. The exposure to Cd imposed a considerable level of stress to the population, as shown by the fact that the population mean of R(0) exposed to Cd was significantly lower than in the control at the corresponding temperature, i.e. by 23 % at 20 °C and by 88 % at 24 °C. The latter difference indicates that increasing temperature increased the stress level imposed by Cd. The H² and CV(G) were significantly greater than 0 in all treatments, suggesting that there is a considerable degree of genetic determination of R(0) in this population and that clonal selection could rapidly lead to increasing population mean fitness under all investigated conditions. More specifically, the H² was 0.392 at 20 °C+Cd and 0.563 at 24 °C+Cd; the CV(G) was 30.0 % at 20 °C+Cd and was significantly higher (147.6 %) in the 24 °C+Cd treatment. Significant values of h(2) (= 0.23) and CV(A) (= 89.7 %) were only found in the 24 °C+Cd treatment, suggesting

  5. Transmission rates of the bacterial endosymbiont, Neorickettsia risticii, during the asexual reproduction phase of its digenean host, Plagiorchis elegans, within naturally infected lymnaeid snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiman, Stephen E; Tkach, Vasyl V; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2013-10-22

    Neorickettsia are obligate intracellular bacterial endosymbionts of digenean parasites present in all lifestages of digeneans. Quantitative information on the transmission of neorickettsial endosymbionts throughout the complex life cycles of digeneans is lacking. This study quantified the transmission of Neorickettsia during the asexual reproductive phase of a digenean parasite, Plagiorchis elegans, developing within naturally parasitized lymnaeid pond snails. Lymnaea stagnalis snails were collected from 3 ponds in Nelson County, North Dakota and screened for the presence of digenean cercariae. Cercariae were identified to species by PCR and sequencing of the 28S rRNA gene. Neorickettsia infections were initially detected using nested PCR and sequencing of a partial 16S rRNA gene of pooled cercariae shed from each parasitized snail. Fifty to 100 single cercariae or sporocysts were isolated from each of six parasitized snails and tested for the presence of Neorickettsia using nested PCR to estimate the efficiency at which Neorickettsia were transmitted to cercariae during asexual development of the digenean. A total of 616 L. stagnalis were collected and 240 (39%) shed digenean cercariae. Of these, 18 (8%) were Neorickettsia-positive. Six Neorickettsia infections were selected to determine the transmission efficiency of Neorickettsia from mother to daughter sporocyst and from daughter sporocyst to cercaria. The prevalence of neorickettsiae in cercariae varied from 11 to 91%. The prevalence of neorickettsiae in sporocysts from one snail was 100%. Prevalence of Neorickettsia infection in cercariae of Plagiorchis elegans was variable and never reached 100%. Reasons for this are speculative, however, the low prevalence of Neorickettsia observed in some of our samples (11 to 52%) differs from the high prevalence of other, related bacterial endosymbionts, e.g. Wolbachia in Wolbachia-dependent filariid nematodes, where the prevalence among progeny is universally 100

  6. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Bharti; Baruah, Manash P.; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. W...

  7. A novel biological 'twin-father' temporal paradox of General Relativity in a Gödel universe - Where reproductive biology meets theoretical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan

    2018-03-01

    Several temporal paradoxes exist in physics. These include General Relativity's grandfather and ontological paradoxes and Special Relativity's Langevin-Einstein twin-paradox. General relativity paradoxes can exist due to a Gödel universe that follows Gödel's closed timelike curves solution to Einstein's field equations. A novel biological temporal paradox of General Relativity is proposed based on reproductive biology's phenomenon of heteropaternal fecundation. Herein, dizygotic twins from two different fathers are the result of concomitant fertilization during one menstrual cycle. In this case an Oedipus-like individual exposed to a Gödel closed timelike curve would sire a child during his maternal fertilization cycle. As a consequence of heteropaternal superfecundation, he would father his own dizygotic twin and would therefore generate a new class of autofraternal superfecundation, and by doing so creating a 'twin-father' temporal paradox. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Linear rate-equilibrium relations arising from ion channel-bilayer energetic coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Per Junior; Lum, Kevin; Ashrafuzzaman, Md

    2011-01-01

    Linear rate-equilibrium (RE) relations, also known as linear free energy relations, are widely observed in chemical reactions, including protein folding, enzymatic catalysis, and channel gating. Despite the widespread occurrence of linear RE relations, the principles underlying the linear relatio...

  9. Relative viscosity of emulsions in simple shear flow: Temperature, shear rate, and interfacial tension dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Se Bin; Lee, Joon Sang [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei Unversity, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    We simulate an emulsion system under simple shear rates to analyze its rheological characteristics using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). We calculate the relative viscosity of an emulsion under a simple shear flow along with changes in temperature, shear rate, and surfactant concentration. The relative viscosity of emulsions decreased with an increase in temperature. We observed the shear-thinning phenomena, which is responsible for the inverse proportion between the shear rate and viscosity. An increase in the interfacial tension caused a decrease in the relative viscosity of the decane-in-water emulsion because the increased deformation caused by the decreased interfacial tension significantly influenced the wall shear stress.

  10. Physiological integration of parents and ramets of Agave deserti: Carbon relations during vegetative and sexually reproductive growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    Agave deserti is a semelparous perennial occurring in the northwestern Sonoran Desert that flowers after 50-55 years, but propagates primarily vegetatively by ramets. Shading ramets in the field to light compensation for two years did not decrease their relative growth rate compared with unshaded ramets. However, parents experienced a 30% decrease in total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) level, indicating that carbohydrates were translocated from parents to ramets. Parents were also shaded in the field for two years and about 10% of the growth of the shaded parents was attributed to TNC received from their attached, unshaded ramets indicating bidirectional translocation of carbohydrates between parents and ramets. The amount of carbon imported by a ramet from its parent, measured using 14 CO 2 techniques, was related to its photosynthetically active radiation environment, shaded ramets received 2.1 times more carbon than unshaded ramets, and was inversely related to the mass of the ramet, small ramets received up to 4.5 times more carbon than large ramets. The physiological integration of parents and ramets allows ramets to draw upon the reserves of the parent, thereby facilitating ramet growth and establishment in a resource-limited environment. Rosettes of Agave deserti must attain a minimum size (> 1,000 g dry mass) to initiate flowering, unless they are connected to a large flowering parent. Ramets that flower precociously can not complete formation of their inflorescence unless partially supported by carbon supplied by their attached parent. TNC reserves of the parent provided 70% of the carbon required to produce its own inflorescence, typically 4 m tall and 1.5 kg in dry mass, and CO 2 uptake by the leaves and the inflorescence provided the remaining 30%

  11. The close relation between birth, abortion and employment rates in Sweden from 1980 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmqvist, Mikael

    2006-09-01

    Birth and abortion rates in Sweden have fluctuated since 1980 while the proportion between the rates are the same at the beginning and end of the period. An increase in birth rates in the late 1980s resulted in a peak in 1991 and 1992, with 124,000 live births each year. Thereafter followed a steady decline in the rate until 2000, when the number of live births was about 90,000. At that point, the trend changed to an increase. The aim of this analysis was to investigate any relation between employment rates and the number of live births among women aged 20-34, and at the same time to explore the trend for abortion rates compared to the trend for live births. The relation between employment status and live birth rate is statistically more significant for women than men, and the rates have a higher correlation for the period after 1986. Young adults in this age group are vulnerable to economic cycles that can explain this covariation but the decline in birth rates in economically developed societies has multidimensional aspects and many other possible explanations. Much has been done in recent years in Sweden to decrease household inequality for families with children to avoid the risk of relative poverty, but the fact that there is no explicit health policy to reduce the abortion level that remain unchanged since the early 1980s may appear as a notable lack of strategy in a country with many other health-related goals.

  12. Progeny reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashneva, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on clarification of importance of different harmful factors of radiation and chemical nature on the function of progeny reproduction, growth and development are presented. Intake of radionuclides to organism, of white mices and rats in concentrations corresponding to 10 6 PCsub(s) ( 90 Sr, 210 Po, 210 Pb and other) is shown to result in 100% sterility of females, 10 5 -10 4 PCsub(s) concentrations cause damaging effect of different degrees of expression at later stages of effect. Smaller contents of radionuclides (10 3 -10 2 PCsub(s)) did not result in noticeable changes in reproductivity of animals. Similar regularities were observed under effect of different concentrations of chemical agent. Some peculiarities of animal physiology should be taken into account to obtain data of estimation of damaging effect of harmful factors on reproduction function

  13. Management, Resources and Reproductive Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Wallner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a relationship between environmental conditions and reproductive performance in modern humans. Birth rates and sex ratio (SRB at birth were analyzed from large data scales. The results include data from people working or living under different job respectively socio-economic conditions, such as employees working in the academic field, employees under supervisory or hire and fire conditions, and people who have better access to resources. The results show that employees who have better jobs and earn more money do have more children and females under better socio-economic conditions do give birth to more sons. In conclusion, it is suggested that different socio-economic environmental conditions may have an impact on female and male birth rates and SRBs, which may be related to stress perception rates.

  14. Ultrasound features of polycystic ovaries relate to degree of reproductive and metabolic disturbance in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Jacob P; Vanden Brink, Heidi; Brooks, Eric D; Pierson, Roger A; Chizen, Donna R; Lujan, Marla E

    2015-03-01

    To reexamine associations between polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) and degree of symptomatology in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) using a well-defined PCOS population, newer ultrasound technology, and reliable offline assessments of sonographic parameters. Cross-sectional observational study. Academic hospital and clinical research unit. Forty-nine women with PCOS as defined by hyperandrogenism and oligoamenorrhea. None. Number of follicles per follicle size category, antral follicle count (AFC), ovarian volume (OV), follicle distribution pattern, stromal area, ovarian area, stromal to ovarian area ratio (S/A) and stromal echogenicity index (SI), total (TT), androstenedione, LH, FSH, cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A1C, menstrual cycle length, hirsutism score, body mass index (BMI), waist:hip ratio, and blood pressure. AFC, but not OV, was positively associated with TT (ρ = .610), androstenedione (ρ = .490), and LH:FSH (ρ = .402). SI was positively associated with androgen markers and LH:FSH, while S/A was negatively associated with these variables. Follicles ≤4 mm were negatively associated with various metabolic markers, whereas larger follicles (5-8 mm) showed positive associations. Stromal markers were not associated with cardiometabolic measures. LH:FSH best predicted follicles ≤4 mm, and BMI predicted 5- to 9-mm follicles. Dominant follicles ≥10 mm were best predicted by age. AFC, and not OV, reflected the severity of reproductive dysfunction in PCOS. Associations among different sized follicles were consistent with recruitable sized follicles, which reflects the severity of metabolic dysfunction in PCOS. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Age at puberty, ovulation rate, and reproductive tract traits of developing gilts fed two lysine levels and three metabolizable energy levels from 100 to 260 d of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding different lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) levels to developing gilts on age at puberty and reproductive tract measurements. Crossbred Large White × Landrace gilts (n = 1221) housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (ap...

  16. Rates of TBI-related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths - United States, 2001 – 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In general, total combined rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations and deaths have increased over the past...

  17. Stigma, attitudes and help-seeking intentions for psychological problems in relation to regional suicide rates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynders, A.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Molenberghs, G.; Van Audenhove, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this ecological study, we investigated whether help-seeking related to stigma, intentions, and attitudes toward suicide are associated with the suicide rates of 20 regions within the Netherlands and Belgium. Significant associations were found between regional suicide rates and the intention to

  18. THE EVOLUTION OF CURRENCY RELATIONS IN THE LIGHT OF MAJOR EXCHANGE RATE ADJUSTMENT THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy TKACH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of major exchange rate adjustment theories on the global monetary system. The reasons of the previous organization forms of monetary relations collapse at the global level are defined. The main achievements and failures of major exchange rate theories are described.

  19. Gonadossomatic relation and reproductive strategy of Brycon opalinus (Cuvier, 1819 in the Serra do Mar State Park - Núcleo Santa Virgínia, Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM Gomiero

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the gonadossomatic relation of males and females of Brycon opalinus (the Pirapitinga do Sul in the Serra do Mar State Park-Núcleo Santa Virgínia. The study area included three rivers: Paraibuna, Ipiranga, and Grande. From the gonadossomatic relation, it was possible to determine the reproductive season and strategy of this species. The gonadossomatic relation was high throughout the year for both males and females. Sperm competition and dilution of the ejaculate in the spawning locations favored substantial development of the testicles. The sex ratio of Brycon opalinus was always in favor of females. The existence of sexual dimorphism in this species was confirmed from the larger size of the females.

  20. Are Competitive Materialism and Female Employment Related to International Homicide Rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Don Soo

    2017-04-01

    The institutional anomie theory is a proposal that states competitive materialism, an intense cultural pressure for economic success at any costs, and increased female employment may be related to a high homicide rate. The current work tested this proposition by utilizing homicide data collected from 45 developed and developing countries. Regression results did not support the proposition. Competitive materialism and female employment were not significantly related to the cross-national variation of homicide rates.

  1. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Migliaro

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min. R-R variability was calculated in the time-domain by means of the root mean square successive differences. Frequency-domain HRV was evaluated by power spectrum analysis considering high frequency and low frequency bands. In the YG the effort tolerance was ranked in a bicycle stress test. HR was similar for both groups while ESG showed a reduced HRV compared with YG. Within each group, HRV displayed a negative correlation with HR. Although YG-NS had better effort tolerance than YG-S, their HR and HRV were not significantly different. We conclude that HRV is reduced with increasing HR or age, regardless of life style. The results obtained in our short-term study agree with others of longer duration by showing that age and HR are the main determinants of HRV. Our results do not support the idea that changes in HRV are related to regular physical activity.

  2. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaro, E R; Contreras, P; Bech, S; Etxagibel, A; Castro, M; Ricca, R; Vicente, K

    2001-04-01

    In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR) and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG) consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S) and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS) also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG) consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min). R-R variability was calculated in the time-domain by means of the root mean square successive differences. Frequency-domain HRV was evaluated by power spectrum analysis considering high frequency and low frequency bands. In the YG the effort tolerance was ranked in a bicycle stress test. HR was similar for both groups while ESG showed a reduced HRV compared with YG. Within each group, HRV displayed a negative correlation with HR. Although YG-NS had better effort tolerance than YG-S, their HR and HRV were not significantly different. We conclude that HRV is reduced with increasing HR or age, regardless of life style. The results obtained in our short-term study agree with others of longer duration by showing that age and HR are the main determinants of HRV. Our results do not support the idea that changes in HRV are related to regular physical activity.

  3. Coinfections of Sudanese dairy cattle with bovine herpes virus 1, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bluetongue virus and bovine herpes virus 4 and their relation to reproductive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Elhassan

    2016-12-01

    Reults: The meta-analysis of the data indicated high seroprevalence of coinfections with various combinations of these agents; only few animals were singly infected. An infection with BHV-1 was observed to be higher than the prevalence of associations between BHV-1 and the other three viral agents. Prevalence of seropositivities to coinfection with BHV-1/BTV; BHV-1/BVD; BHV-1/BTV/BVD were the highest while seropositivities prevalences that involved BHV-4 were much lower. The highest abortion rates were encountered in coinfections with BHV-1/BVD/BTV (31% and BHV-1/BVD/BTV/BHV-4 (30% while most infertility cases were noticed in coinfection with BHV-1/BVD/BTV (44% and BHV-1/BVD/BTV/BHV-4 (21%, and coinfections with the four viruses were encountered in most of the death after birth cases (25%. Overall mixed infections with BHV-1/BVD/BTV (34% and BHV-1/BVD/BTV/BHV-4 (22.5% were involved in the majority of reproductive problems studied. Conclusion: Mixed infections constitutes the vast majority of cases and are involved in the majority of reproductive disorders investigated. The high prevalence of seropositivity to all of the four viruses should call for an intervention strategy to reduce the impact of these viruses. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(4.000: 332-337

  4. Dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser: Finite axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheiri, Golshad; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for dispersion relation and growth rate in a Cherenkov free electron laser with finite axial magnetic field. It is shown that the growth rate and the resonance frequency of Cherenkov free electron laser increase with increasing axial magnetic field for low axial magnetic fields, while for high axial magnetic fields, they go to a saturation value. The growth rate and resonance frequency saturation values are exactly the same as those for infinite axial magnetic field approximation. The effects of electron beam self-fields on growth rate are investigated, and it is shown that the growth rate decreases in the presence of self-fields. It is found that there is an optimum value for electron beam density and Lorentz relativistic factor at which the maximum growth rate can take place. Also, the effects of velocity spread of electron beam are studied and it is found that the growth rate decreases due to the electron velocity spread

  5. Bodies of Knowledge in Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Tsingou, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    -economic concerns about fulfilling desired fertility rates, maintaining high levels of human capital, and supporting fiscal and pension systems. This article investigates professionals addressing declining fertility through assisted reproductive technologies (ART), including doctors, demographers and economists...

  6. Reproductive epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    Reproductive health covers a broad category of health and disease conditions, according to the Cairo Statement. This chapter focuses on subfecundity fertility, fetal death, malformations, pregnancy complications, sexual health, and diseases that may have their origin in fetal life, but which will...

  7. Natalidad y riesgo reproductivo en adolescentes de Chile, 1990­1999 Birth rates and reproductive risk in adolescents in Chile, 1990­1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Donoso Siña

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Evaluar en madres adolescentes chilenas menores de 15 años y de 15 a 19 años las tendencias de la natalidad y del riesgo reproductivo en el período de 1990­1999. MÉTODOS: Sobre la base de datos extraídos de los Anuarios de demografía publicados por el Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile para 1990­1999, se calcularon las tendencias mostradas por el número de nacidos vivos y las tasas de mortalidad materna, fetal tardía, neonatal e infantil entre madres adolescentes menores de 15 años y de 15 a 19 años de edad. Se calculó el riesgo (razón de posibilidades, RP de ambos grupos en comparación con el de mujeres de 20 a 34 años de edad. La comparación entre grupos se efectuó mediante la prueba de Fisher o de ji2, según el caso, y el análisis de tendencias en el período estudiado se realizó mediante la correlación de Pearson con un nivel alfa de 0,05. RESULTADOS: En el período estudiado, las tasas de mortalidad materna, fetal tardía, neonatal e infantil en madres adolescentes menores de 15 años fueron, respectivamente, de 41,9 (por 100 000 nacidos vivos [NV], 5,1 (por 1 000 NV, 15,2 (por 1 000 NV y 27,4 (por 1 000 NV; en adolescentes de 15 a 19 años, de 19,3, 4,1, 8,1 por 1 000 y 16,6, respectivamente, mientras que en adultas de 20 a 34 años dichas tasas fueron de 26,8, 5,0, 6,7 y 12,1, respectivamente. En las adolescentes menores de 15 años el mayor riesgo de muerte materna (RP = 1,56; IC95%: 0,50 a 4,31; P = 0,372 y de muerte fetal (RP = 1,02; IC95%: 0,76 a 1,36; P = 0,890 no fue estadísticamente significativo; en cambio, sí se detectó un riesgo significativamente mayor de muerte neonatal (RP = 2,27; IC95%: 1,92 a 2,68; P OBJECTIVE: For Chilean teenage mothers under 15 years old and from 15 to 19 years old, to evaluate the trends in birth rates and reproductive risk for the period of 1990­1999. METHODS: A database was constructed using data from the Demography Yearbook (Anuario de demograf

  8. Serum uric acid in relation to endogenous reproductive hormones during the menstrual cycle: findings from the BioCycle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Dasharathy, Sonya S.; Pollack, Anna Z.; Perkins, Neil J.; Mattison, Donald R.; Cole, Stephen R.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Schisterman, Enrique F.

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Do uric acid levels across the menstrual cycle show associations with endogenous estradiol (E2) and reproductive hormone concentrations in regularly menstruating women? SUMMARY ANSWER Mean uric acid concentrations were highest during the follicular phase, and were inversely associated with E2 and progesterone, and positively associated with FSH. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY E2 may decrease serum levels of uric acid in post-menopausal women; however, the interplay between endogenous reproductive hormones and uric acid levels among regularly menstruating women has not been elucidated. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The BioCycle study was a prospective cohort study conducted at the University at Buffalo research centre from 2005 to 2007, which followed healthy women for one (n = 9) or 2 (n = 250) menstrual cycle(s). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Participants were healthy women aged 18–44 years. Hormones and uric acid were measured in serum eight times each cycle for up to two cycles. Marginal structural models with inverse probability of exposure weights were used to evaluate the associations between endogenous hormones and uric acid concentrations. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Uric acid levels were observed to vary across the menstrual cycle, with the lowest levels observed during the luteal phase. Every log-unit increase in E2 was associated with a decrease in uric acid of 1.1% (β = −0.011; 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.019, −0.004; persistent-effects model), and for every log-unit increase in progesterone, uric acid decreased by ∼0.8% (β = −0.008; 95% CI: −0.012, −0.004; persistent-effects model). FSH was positively associated with uric acid concentrations, such that each log-unit increase was associated with a 1.6% increase in uric acid (β = 0.016; 95% CI: 0.005, 0.026; persistent-effects model). Progesterone and FSH were also associated with uric acid levels in acute-effects models. Of 509 cycles, 42 were anovulatory

  9. Toxic effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on mortality, growth, reproduction and stress-related gene expression in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Ji-Yeon; Jung, In-Ho; Lee, Jai-Young; Choi, Jinhee

    2007-07-31

    In this study, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) toxicities to Caenorhabditis elegans were investigated using multiple toxic endpoints, such as mortality, growth, reproduction and stress-related gene expression, focusing on the identification of chemical-induced gene expression as a sensitive biomarker for DEHP monitoring. The possible use of C. elegans as a sentinel organism in the monitoring of soil ecosystem health was also tested by conducting the experiment on the exposure of nematode to field soil. Twenty-four-hour median lethal concentration (LC50) data suggest that DEHP has a relatively high potential of acute toxicity to C. elegans. Decreases in body length and egg number per worm observed after 24h of DEHP exposure may induce long-term alteration in the growth and reproduction of the nematode population. Based on the result from the C. elegans genome array and indicated in the literatures, stress proteins, metallothionein, vitellogenin, xenobiotic metabolism enzymes, apoptosis-related proteins, and antioxidant enzyme genes were selected as stress-related genes and their expression in C. elegans by DEHP exposure was analyzed semi-quantitatively. Expression of heat shock protein (hsp)-16.1 and hsp-16.2 genes was decreased by DEHP exposure. Expression of cytochrome P450 (cyp) 35a2 and glutathione-S-transferease (gst)-4, phase I and phase II of xenobiotic metabolism enzymes, was increased by DEHP exposure in a concentration-dependent manner. An increase in stress-related gene expressions occurred concomitantly with the deterioration on the physiological level, which suggests an increase in expression of those genes may not be considered as a homeostatic response but as a toxicity that might have physiological consequences. The experiment with the soil from the landfill site suggests that the potential of the C. elegans biomarker identified in laboratory conditions should be calibrated and validated for its use in situ.

  10. Seasonal variations of indoor microbial exposures and their relation to temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Mika; Bekö, Gabriel; Timm, Michael; Gustavsen, Sine; Hansen, Erik Wind; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2012-12-01

    Indoor microbial exposure has been related to adverse pulmonary health effects. Exposure assessment is not standardized, and various factors may affect the measured exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of selected microbial exposures and their associations with temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates in Danish homes. Airborne inhalable dust was sampled in five Danish homes throughout the four seasons of 1 year (indoors, n = 127; outdoors, n = 37). Measurements included culturable fungi and bacteria, endotoxin, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, total inflammatory potential, particles (0.75 to 15 μm), temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates. Significant seasonal variation was found for all indoor microbial exposures, excluding endotoxin. Indoor fungi peaked in summer (median, 235 CFU/m(3)) and were lowest in winter (median, 26 CFU/m(3)). Indoor bacteria peaked in spring (median, 2,165 CFU/m(3)) and were lowest in summer (median, 240 CFU/m(3)). Concentrations of fungi were predominately higher outdoors than indoors, whereas bacteria, endotoxin, and inhalable dust concentrations were highest indoors. Bacteria and endotoxin correlated with the mass of inhalable dust and number of particles. Temperature and air exchange rates were positively associated with fungi and N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and negatively with bacteria and the total inflammatory potential. Although temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates were significantly associated with several indoor microbial exposures, they could not fully explain the observed seasonal variations when tested in a mixed statistical model. In conclusion, the season significantly affects indoor microbial exposures, which are influenced by temperature, relative humidity, and air exchange rates.

  11. Reproductive traits of Holsteins and Jerseys. Effects of age, milk yield, and clinical abnormalities on involution of cervix and uterus, ovulation, estrous cycles, detection of estrus, conception rate, and days open.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, F A; Britt, J H; McDaniel, B T; Wilk, J C; Rakes, A H

    1983-05-01

    Two hundred and twelve Holstein and Jersey cows were in a study to determine factors that affected reproductive traits. First ovulation occurred about 3 wk postpartum, and interval to first ovulation was greater in cows that had clinical abnormalities postpartum than in normal cows. Jerseys producing more milk ovulated sooner postpartum than lower producing herdmates. Involution of cervix and uterus occurred later postpartum in cows that had clinical problems postpartum. Involution of genital tract occurred later postpartum in older cows and sooner postpartum in cows that had higher milk yields. Duration of first postpartum estrous cycle was 4 days less than for second postpartum cycle. Percentages of estrous cycles detected by standing estrus were 43 and 73% for Holsteins and Jerseys. Estrous detection rates were highest for cows that produced slightly above the mean milk yield and did not differ between cows in highest and lowest milk production quartiles. First detected estrus and days to first insemination occurred later postpartum in Holsteins as milk yield deviation from herdmates increased, regardless of sign. In Jerseys, days to first insemination and days open increased linearly as milk yield increased. Days to first insemination and conception were greater in cows with postpartum clinical problems. Conception rate at first insemination postpartum increased in proportion to concentration of progesterone in blood samples collected during 12 days before first insemination. Overall, clinical problems at parturition and postpartum lowered reproductive performance in both breeds. There was a slight antagonism between milk yield and reproductive performance (days open) in Jerseys but not in Holsteins.

  12. Variation in reproductive outcomes of women with histories of bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, or eating disorder not otherwise specified relative to the general population and closest-aged sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabler, Jennifer; Utz, Rebecca L; Smith, Ken R; Hanson, Heidi A; Geist, Claudia

    2018-02-01

    This study seeks to examine the long-term reproductive consequences of eating disorders (ED), to assess variation in reproductive outcomes by ED type, and to examine reproductive differences between women with previous ED diagnosis and their discordant sisters. Using a sample of women with previous ED diagnosis generated by the Utah Population Database, this study compares the fecundity (parity) and age at first birth of women by ED subtype (bulimia nervosa [BN], anorexia nervosa [AN], and ED not otherwise specified [EDNOS]) (n = 1,579). We also employed general population match case-control, and discordant sibling pair analyses, to estimate the magnitude of association between EDs and reproductive outcomes. Women previously diagnosed with AN or EDNOS experienced delayed first birth (HRR = 0.33, HRR = 0.34, respectively) and lower parity (IRR = 0.19, IRR = 0.22, respectively) relative to BN (p < .05), the general population (p < .05), and closest-aged sisters (p < .05). Women previously diagnosed with BN experienced more moderate reductions and delays to their reproduction, and had similar reproductive outcomes as their discordant sisters. Clinicians should consider ED type and family fertility histories when addressing the long-term reproductive health needs of women with prior AN, BN, or EDNOS diagnosis. Women previously diagnosed with AN or EDNOS likely experience the greatest reductions and delays in reproduction across their lifespan. Reproductive health screenings may be especially critical for the wellbeing of women with a history of AN or EDNOS. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Impact of Health-Promoting Educational Intervention on Lifestyle (Nutrition Behaviors, Physical Activity and Mental Health) Related to Vaginal Health Among Reproductive-Aged Women With Vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsapure, Roxana; Rahimiforushani, Abbas; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Sadeghi, Roya; Garmarudi, Gholamreza

    2016-10-01

    Vaginitis is one of the most common diseases in reproductive-aged women (15 - 49 years of age). Side effects of vaginitis can affect other aspects of health, which could be prevented by promoting a healthy lifestyle related to vaginal health. This study aimed at determining the impact of health-promoting educational intervention on lifestyle (nutrition behaviors, physical activities, and mental health) related to vaginal health among reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. The data set was collected as part of an experimental study conducted on 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Participants were selected through a stratified two-stage clustered sampling and simple randomization from 10 attending health centers affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in five regions (North, South, East, West, and Center) of Kermanshah (a city in western Iran) in 2015. Two clinics in each region were selected; patients from the first center were chosen as the intervention group and patients from the second center made up the control group. To collect data, a questionnaire including socio-demographic and lifestyle questions was used. The questionnaire was designed and validated via the psychometric process. Educational intervention was performed over twenty sessions of 25 to 35 minutes. The intervention group was followed up with face-to-face education, a pamphlet, phone contact, and by social media. The control group continued the routine treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were collected from both groups before the intervention and six months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the SPSS-20 package, using the independent t-test, paired t-test, chi-square test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test. The confidence interval was 95% and P lifestyle related to vaginal health in the intervention group (28.48 ± 0.38) and control group (23.65 ± 1.23) was significant (P lifestyle in the intervention group (P lifestyle scores

  14. Fish Oil Ameliorates High-Fat Diet Induced Male Mouse Reproductive Dysfunction via Modifying the Rhythmic Expression of Testosterone Synthesis Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFAs against high-fat diet induced male mouse reproductive dysfunction and to explore circadian regulation mechanisms. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups and fed a normal chow diet (control group, CON, a high-fat diet (HFD group or a HFD supplemented with fish oil (FO group for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of feeding, the body weight and the ratio of perinephric and epididymal fat weight to body weight were significantly higher in the HFD group compared with the CON group. The supplement of fish oil rich in ω-3PUFAs only slightly reduced the HFD-induced obesity but remarkably ameliorated HFD-induced dyslipidemia, sexual hormones disorder, testicle lesions and germ cell apoptosis. Fish oil supplementation restored the expression of steroid synthesis associated genes in HFD fed mouse and flattened the HFD-induced oscillations in circadian genes’ expression. Fish oil supplementation prevented HFD-induced male mouse reproductive dysfunction and modified the rhythmic expression of testosterone synthesis related genes.

  15. Effects of a social accountability approach, CARE's Community Score Card, on reproductive health-related outcomes in Malawi: A cluster-randomized controlled evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Sara; Galavotti, Christine; Sebert Kuhlmann, Anne; Msiska, Thumbiko; Hastings, Phil; Marti, C Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Social accountability approaches, which emphasize mutual responsibility and accountability by community members, health care workers, and local health officials for improving health outcomes in the community, are increasingly being employed in low-resource settings. We evaluated the effects of a social accountability approach, CARE's Community Score Card (CSC), on reproductive health outcomes in Ntcheu district, Malawi using a cluster-randomized control design. We matched 10 pairs of communities, randomly assigning one from each pair to intervention and control arms. We conducted two independent cross-sectional surveys of women who had given birth in the last 12 months, at baseline and at two years post-baseline. Using difference-in-difference (DiD) and local average treatment effect (LATE) estimates, we evaluated the effects on outcomes including modern contraceptive use, antenatal and postnatal care service utilization, and service satisfaction. We also evaluated changes in indicators developed by community members and service providers in the intervention areas. DiD analyses showed significantly greater improvements in the proportion of women receiving a home visit during pregnancy (B = 0.20, P reproductive health-related outcomes. Further, the CSC builds mutual accountability, and ensures that solutions to problems are locally-relevant, locally-supported and feasible to implement.

  16. Healthcare-seeking behaviour in relation to sexual and reproductive health among Thai-born women in Sweden: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerman, Eva; Essén, Birgitta; Westerling, Ragnar; Larsson, Elin

    2017-02-01

    Thailand is one of the most common countries of origin among immigrants in Sweden and Thai immigrants comprise the immigrant group most frequently diagnosed with HIV. Little is known about their healthcare-seeking behaviour and views on HIV prevention. This study explored Thai women's healthcare-seeking behaviour in relation to sexual and reproductive health and their views on HIV prevention. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with Thai-born women in the Stockholm area. Three themes were identified: (1) poor access to healthcare in Sweden, preferring to seek care in Thailand; (2) partners playing a key role in women's access to healthcare; (3) no perceived risk of HIV, but a positive attitude towards prevention. Despite expressing sexual and reproductive healthcare needs, most women had not sought this type of care, except for the cervical cancer screening programme to which they had been invited. Identified barriers for poor access to healthcare were lack of knowledge about the healthcare system and language difficulties. To achieve 'healthcare on equal terms', programmes and interventions must meet Thai women's healthcare needs and consider what factors influence their care-seeking behaviour. Integrating HIV prevention and contraceptive counselling into the cervical screening programme might be one way to improve access.

  17. Circadian rhythms and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Michael J; Kennaway, David J

    2006-09-01

    There is a growing recognition that the circadian timing system, in particular recently discovered clock genes, plays a major role in a wide range of physiological systems. Microarray studies, for example, have shown that the expression of hundreds of genes changes many fold in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, liver heart and kidney. In this review, we discuss the role of circadian rhythmicity in the control of reproductive function in animals and humans. Circadian rhythms and clock genes appear to be involved in optimal reproductive performance, but there are sufficient redundancies in their function that many of the knockout mice produced do not show overt reproductive failure. Furthermore, important strain differences have emerged from the studies especially between the various Clock (Circadian Locomotor Output Cycle Kaput) mutant strains. Nevertheless, there is emerging evidence that the primary clock genes, Clock and Bmal1 (Brain and Muscle ARNT-like protein 1, also known as Mop3), strongly influence reproductive competency. The extent to which the circadian timing system affects human reproductive performance is not known, in part, because many of the appropriate studies have not been done. With the role of Clock and Bmal1 in fertility becoming clearer, it may be time to pursue the effect of polymorphisms in these genes in relation to the various types of infertility in humans.

  18. Introduction: Communicating Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Nick; Jones, Peter Murray; Kassell, Lauren; Secord, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Communication should be central to histories of reproduction, because it has structured how people do and do not reproduce. Yet communication has been so pervasive, and so various, that it is often taken for granted and the historical specificities overlooked. Making communication a frame for histories of reproduction can draw a fragmented field together, including by putting the promotion of esoteric ideas on a par with other practical activities. Paying communication close attention can revitalize the history of reproduction over the long term by highlighting continuities as well as the complex connections between new technologies and new approaches. Themes such as the power of storytelling, the claiming and challenging of expertise, and relations between knowledge and ignorance, secrecy and propriety also invite further study.

  19. Dinosaur Reproduction and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.

    Non-avian dinosaur reproductive and parenting behaviors were mostly similar to those of extant archosaurs. Non-avian dinosaurs were probably sexually dimorphic and some may have engaged in hierarchical rituals. Non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodontidae, Oviraptorosauria) had two active oviducts, each of which produced single eggs on a daily or greater time scale. The eggs of non-coelurosaurian dinosaurs (e.g. Ornithischia, Sauropoda) were incubated in soils, whereas the eggs of non-avian coelurosaurs (e.g. Troodon, Oviraptor) were incubated with a combination of soil and direct parental contact. Parental attention to the young was variable, ranging from protection from predators to possible parental feeding of nest-bound hatchlings. Semi-altricial hadrosaur hatchlings exited their respective nests near the time of their first linear doubling. Some reproductive behaviors, once thought exclusive to Aves, arose first in non-avian dinosaurs. The success of the Dinosauria may be related to reproductive strategies.

  20. Work-related ill health in doctors working in Great Britain: incidence rates and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Anli Yue; Carder, Melanie; Gittins, Matthew; Agius, Raymond

    2017-11-01

    Background Doctors have a higher prevalence of mental ill health compared with other professional occupations but incidence rates are poorly studied. Aims To determine incidence rates and trends of work-related ill health (WRIH) and work-related mental ill health (WRMIH) in doctors compared with other professions in Great Britain. Method Incidence rates were calculated using an occupational physician reporting scheme from 2005-2010. Multilevel regression was use to study incidence rates from 2001 to 2014. Results Annual incidence rates for WRIH and WRIMH in doctors were 515 and 431 per 100 000 people employed, respectively. Higher incidence rates for WRIH and WRMIH were observed for ambulance staff and nurses, respectively. Doctors demonstrated an annual average incidence rates increase for WRIH and WRMIH, especially in women, whereas the other occupations demonstrated a decreasing or static trend. The difference in trends between the occupations was statistically significant. Conclusions WRIH and WRMIH incidence rate are increasing in doctors, especially in women, warranting further research. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  1. Relating fish health and reproductive metrics to contaminant bioaccumulation at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston coal ash spill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracheil, Brenda M; Marshall Adams, S; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Fortner, Allison M; Greeley, Mark S; Murphy, Cheryl A; Mathews, Teresa J; Peterson, Mark J

    2016-08-01

    A 4.1 million m(3) coal ash release into the Emory and Clinch rivers in December 2008 at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Kingston Fossil Plant in east Tennessee, USA, prompted a long-term, large-scale biological monitoring effort to determine if there are chronic effects of this spill on resident biota. Because of the magnitude of the ash spill and the potential for exposure to coal ash-associated contaminants [e.g., selenium (Se), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg)] which are bioaccumulative and may present human and ecological risks, an integrative, bioindicator approach was used. Three species of fish were monitored-bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), redear sunfish (L. microlophus), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)-at ash-affected and reference sites annually for 5 years following the spill. On the same individual fish, contaminant burdens were measured in various tissues, blood chemistry parameters as metrics of fish health, and various condition and reproduction indices. A multivariate statistical approach was then used to evaluate relationships between contaminant bioaccumulation and fish metrics to assess the chronic, sub-lethal effects of exposure to the complex mixture of coal ash-associated contaminants at and around the ash spill site. This study suggests that while fish tissue concentrations of some ash-associated contaminants are elevated at the spill site, there was no consistent evidence of compromised fish health linked with the spill. Further, although relationships between elevated fillet burdens of ash-associated contaminants and some fish metrics were found, these relationships were not indicative of exposure to coal ash or spill sites. The present study adds to the weight of evidence from prior studies suggesting that fish populations have not incurred significant biological effects from spilled ash at this site: findings that are relevant to the current national discussions on the safe disposal of coal ash waste.

  2. Impact of Health-Promoting Educational Intervention on Lifestyle (Nutrition Behaviors, Physical Activity and Mental Health) Related to Vaginal Health Among Reproductive-Aged Women With Vaginitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsapure, Roxana; Rahimiforushani, Abbas; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Montazeri, Ali; Sadeghi, Roya; Garmarudi, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Vaginitis is one of the most common diseases in reproductive-aged women (15 - 49 years of age). Side effects of vaginitis can affect other aspects of health, which could be prevented by promoting a healthy lifestyle related to vaginal health. Objectives This study aimed at determining the impact of health-promoting educational intervention on lifestyle (nutrition behaviors, physical activities, and mental health) related to vaginal health among reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Methods The data set was collected as part of an experimental study conducted on 350 reproductive-aged women with vaginitis. Participants were selected through a stratified two-stage clustered sampling and simple randomization from 10 attending health centers affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in five regions (North, South, East, West, and Center) of Kermanshah (a city in western Iran) in 2015. Two clinics in each region were selected; patients from the first center were chosen as the intervention group and patients from the second center made up the control group. To collect data, a questionnaire including socio-demographic and lifestyle questions was used. The questionnaire was designed and validated via the psychometric process. Educational intervention was performed over twenty sessions of 25 to 35 minutes. The intervention group was followed up with face-to-face education, a pamphlet, phone contact, and by social media. The control group continued the routine treatment without contacting the intervention group. Data were collected from both groups before the intervention and six months after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the SPSS-20 package, using the independent t-test, paired t-test, chi-square test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test. The confidence interval was 95% and P health in the intervention group (28.48 ± 0.38) and control group (23.65 ± 1.23) was significant (P 0.05). The independent t-test did not show significant

  3. Relative tropospheric photolysis rates of acetaldehyde and formaldehyde measured at the European Photoreactor Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Bache-Andreassen, Lihn; Johnson, Matthew Stanley

    2009-01-01

    The photolysis rates of HCHO, DCDO, CH3CHO, and CH3CDO are studied by long-path FTIR spectroscopy in natural tropospheric conditions at the European Photoreactor Facility (EUPHORE) in Valencia, Spain. Average relative photolysis rates jHCHO/jDCDO ) 3.15 ( 0.08 and jCH3CHO/jCH3CDO ) 1.26 ( 0.03 ar.......03 are obtained from three days of experiments for each reaction in the period June 17 to July 7, 2006.......The photolysis rates of HCHO, DCDO, CH3CHO, and CH3CDO are studied by long-path FTIR spectroscopy in natural tropospheric conditions at the European Photoreactor Facility (EUPHORE) in Valencia, Spain. Average relative photolysis rates jHCHO/jDCDO ) 3.15 ( 0.08 and jCH3CHO/jCH3CDO ) 1.26 ( 0...

  4. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Iwamatsu, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal...... sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation....... Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy...

  5. Exchange Rate – Relative Price Nonlinear Cointegration Relationship in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Venus Khim-Sen Liew; Chee-Keong Choong; Evan Lau; Kian-Ping Lim

    2005-01-01

    The finding of exchange rate–relative price nonlinear cointegration relationship in Malaysia, among others, suggests that nonlinear Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) equilibrium may be regarded as reference point in judging the short run misalignment of the Ringgit currency and thereby deducing effective policy actions. Moreover, economists who wish to extend the simple PPP exchange rate model into the more complicated monetary exchange models may do so comfortably, at least in the text of Mala...

  6. A relation between calculated human body exergy consumption rate and subjectively assessed thermal sensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Angela; Kolarik, Jakub; Olesen, Bjarne W. [ICIEE/BYG, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Iwamatsu, Toshiya [Faculty of Urban Environmental Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Asada, Hideo [Architech Consulting Co., Tokyo (Japan); Dovjak, Mateja [Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Schellen, Lisje [Eindhoven University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning (Netherlands); Shukuya, Masanori [Laboratory of Building Environment, Tokyo City University, Yokohama (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Application of the exergy concept to research on the built environment is a relatively new approach. It helps to optimize climate conditioning systems so that they meet the requirements of sustainable building design. As the building should provide a healthy and comfortable environment for its occupants, it is reasonable to consider both the exergy flows in building and those within the human body. Until now, no data have been available on the relation between human-body exergy consumption rates and subjectively assessed thermal sensation. The objective of the present work was to relate thermal sensation data, from earlier thermal comfort studies, to calculated human-body exergy consumption rates. The results show that the minimum human body exergy consumption rate is associated with thermal sensation votes close to thermal neutrality, tending to the slightly cool side of thermal sensation. Generally, the relationship between air temperature and the exergy consumption rate, as a first approximation, shows an increasing trend. Taking account of both convective and radiative heat exchange between the human body and the surrounding environment by using the calculated operative temperature, exergy consumption rates increase as the operative temperature increases above 24 C or decreases below 22 C. With the data available so far, a second-order polynomial relationship between thermal sensation and the exergy consumption rate was established. (author)

  7. Flow rate-pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Cognet, Vincent; Shidhore, Tanmay C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2018-04-01

    Laminar flow in devices fabricated from soft materials causes deformation of the passage geometry, which affects the flow rate--pressure drop relation. For a given pressure drop, in channels with narrow rectangular cross-section, the flow rate varies as the cube of the channel height, so deformation can produce significant quantitative effects, including nonlinear dependence on the pressure drop [{Gervais, T., El-Ali, J., G\\"unther, A. \\& Jensen, K.\\ F.}\\ 2006 Flow-induced deformation of shallow microfluidic channels.\\ \\textit{Lab Chip} \\textbf{6}, 500--507]. Gervais et. al. proposed a successful model of the deformation-induced change in the flow rate by heuristically coupling a Hookean elastic response with the lubrication approximation for Stokes flow. However, their model contains a fitting parameter that must be found for each channel shape by performing an experiment. We present a perturbation approach for the flow rate--pressure drop relation in a shallow deformable microchannel using the theory of isotropic quasi-static plate bending and the Stokes equations under a lubrication approximation (specifically, the ratio of the channel's height to its width and of the channel's height to its length are both assumed small). Our result contains no free parameters and confirms Gervais et. al.'s observation that the flow rate is a quartic polynomial of the pressure drop. The derived flow rate--pressure drop relation compares favorably with experimental measurements.

  8. Life-history constraints on the success of the many small eggs reproductive strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ken Haste; Beyer, Jan; Pedersen, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The reproductive strategy of most fishes is to produce a large number of tiny eggs, leading to a huge difference between egg size and asymptotic body size. The viability of this strategy is examined by calculating the life-time reproductive success R0 as a function of the asymptotic body size....... A simple criterion for the optimality of producing small eggs is found, depending on the rate of predation relative to the specific rate of consumption. Secondly it is shown that the success of the reproductive strategy is increasing with asymptotic body size. Finally the existence of both upper and lower...

  9. Effect of feeder space during the growing and laying periods and the rate of feed increase at the onset of lay on broiler breeder female reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, N; Romero-Sanchez, H; Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Brake, J

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine how 2 feeder space allocations during the rearing period followed by 2 feeder space allocations after photostimulation and 2 female feeding to peak programs (fast or slow) affected female broiler breeder reproductive performance and mortality. Sixteen pens of 76 breeder females each were equipped with either 4 tube feeders with a 132 cm circumference pan (7.0 cm/female) or 6 feeders (10.4 cm/female) to 21 wk of age. Thereafter, 64 females were moved to breeding pens, photostimulated, and fed sex-separate from either 3 (6.2 cm/female) or 5 (10.3 cm/female) feeders with either fast or slow feeding to peak feeding programs applied to complete a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. Seven males that were separately reared in a similar manner were added per pen. Individual female BW was determined at 6, 20, and 32 wk of age and BW uniformity assessed. Greater feeder space during rearing increased BW at 32 wk of age, whereas greater feeder space during lay or slow feeding to peak decreased BW at 32 wk. There were no differences in BW uniformity. Hens from the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination produced a significantly greater number of eggs as compared with the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female and 10.4 to 6.2 cm/female combinations with the 7.0 to 6.2 cm/female combination intermediate. Percentage hen-day egg production of the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination hens was significantly greater than all other combinations. Livability was improved in the 10.4 to 10.3 cm/female combination relative to the 7.0 to 10.3 cm/female combination with the others intermediate. The fast feeding to peak program increased yolk weight as well as yolk:albumen ratio at 28 and 30 wk of age, but egg weight did not differ. These data indicated that increased or decreased feeder space between the growing and laying periods did not affect broiler breeder female BW, uniformity, egg weight, fertility, or hatchability. The 10.3 cm/female laying feeder space exhibited the best hen

  10. Rethinking reproductive "tourism" as reproductive "exile".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-09-01

    Whereas reproductive "tourism" implies leisure travel, reproductive "exile" bespeaks the numerous difficulties and constraints faced by infertile patients who are "forced" to travel globally for assisted reproduction. Given this reality, it is time to rethink the language of "reproductive tourism," replacing it with more accurate and patient-centered terms.

  11. Development in self-rated health among older people as determinant of social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Modvig, Jens Simon; Due, Pernille

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men.......The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men....

  12. National collection of embryo morphology data into Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System: associations among day 3 cell number, fragmentation and blastomere asymmetry, and live birth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racowsky, Catherine; Stern, Judy E; Gibbons, William E; Behr, Barry; Pomeroy, Kimball O; Biggers, John D

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the validity of collecting day 3 embryo morphology variables into the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System (SART CORS). Retrospective. National database-SART CORS. Fresh autologous assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles from 2006-2007 in which embryos were transferred singly (n=1,020) or in pairs (n=6,508) and embryo morphology was collected. None. Relationship between live birth, maternal age, and morphology of transferred day 3 embryos as defined by cell number, fragmentation, and blastomere symmetry. Logistic multiple regressions and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were applied to determine specificity and sensitivity for correctly classifying embryos as either failures or successes. Live birth rate was positively associated with increasing cell number up to eight cells (8 cells: 16.2%), but was negatively associated with maternal age, increasing fragmentation, and asymmetry scores. An area under the receiver operating curve of 0.753 (95% confidence interval 0.740-0.766) was derived, with a sensitivity of 45.0%, a specificity of 83.2%, and 76.4% of embryos being correctly classified with a cutoff probability of 0.3. This analysis provides support for the validity of collecting morphology fields for day 3 embryos into SART CORS. Standardization of morphology collections will assist in controlling for embryo quality in future database analyses. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relative biological effectiveness of 125I seeds for low-dose-rate irradiation of PANC-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jidong; Wang Junjie; Zhuang Hongqing; Liao Anyan; Zhao Yong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relative biological effectiveness(RBE) of National Model 6711 125 I seeds and the response patterns of PANC-1 exposed to 125 I seeds irradiation. Methods: PANC-1 cells in exponential growth were irradiated at initial dose rate of 2.59 cGy/h in vitro and exposed to 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy. Meanwhile, the other part of cells were exposed to the same doses by 60 Co at dose rate of 2.21 Gy/min. After irradiation, the cells were stained by trypan blue to measure the cellular mortality rate and to compare the changes along with plating times of 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after 4 Gy. The colonies were counted to obtain the plating efficiencies by colony-forming assay and the cell surviving faction was calculated to plot cell survival curves, and RBE of 125 I seeds relative to 60 Co was determined. Results: The cell death rate for continuous low- dose-rate (LDR) irradiation by 125 I seeds was greater than 60 Co at the same doses above or equal to 4 Gy. After 4 Gy irradiation, the cellular mortality rates were increased with times. The difference was significant between 125 I seeds and 60 Co. The survival fractions of 125 I were lower than those of 60 Co, and the RBE of 125 I relative to 60 Co was determined to be 1.45. Conclusion: The cell-killing effects for continuous low-dose-rate (LDR) irradiation by 125 I seeds are greater than acute high-dose-rate of 60 Co. (authors)

  14. Ionizing radiation promotes protozoan reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    This experiment was performed to determine whether ionizing radiation is essential for maximum growth rate in a ciliated protozoan. When extraneous ionizing radiation was reduced to 0.15 mrad/day, the reproduction rate of Tetrahymena pyriformis was significantly less (P less than 0.01) than it was at near ambient levels, 0.5 or 1.8 mrad/day. Significantly higher growth rates (P less than 0.01) were obtained when chronic radiation was increased. The data suggest that ionizing radiation is essential for optimum reproduction rate in this organism

  15. Oral health-related quality of life in youth receiving cleft-related surgery: self-report and proxy ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Hillary L; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Sischo, Lacey

    2017-04-01

    This paper evaluated the impact of cleft-related surgery on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of youth with cleft over time. Data were derived from a 5-year, multi-center, prospective, longitudinal study of 1196 youth with cleft lip and/or palate and their caregivers. Eligible youth were between 7.5 and 18.5 years old, spoke English or Spanish, and were non-syndromic. During each observational period, which included baseline, and 1- and 2-year post-baseline follow-up visits, youths and their caregivers completed the Child Oral Health Impact Profile, a validated measure of OHRQoL. Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to analyze the effects of receipt of craniofacial surgery on OHRQoL over time. During the course of this study a total of 516 patients (43 %) received at least one surgery. Youth in the surgery recommendation group had lower self- (β = -2.18, p self- and proxy-rated OHRQoL at baseline. Both surgical and non-surgical youth (β = 3.73, p self-reported OHRQoL for youth postsurgery (β = 1.04, p self- and caregiver-rated OHRQoL when compared to non-surgical youth. Youth who underwent cleft-related surgery had significant incremental improvements in self-rated but not caregiver (proxy)-rated OHRQoL after surgery.

  16. The Common Factor of Bilateral U.S. Exchange Rates: What is it Related to?

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomareva, Natalia; Sheen, Jeffrey; Wang, Ben

    2015-01-01

    We identify a common factor driving a panel of fifteen monthly bilateral exchange rates against the U.S. dollar. We find this factor is closely related to U.S. nominal and real macroeconomic variables, financial market variables and commodity prices. Our results suggest this common factor is broadly related to the macroeconomic fundamentals in the Taylor rule and uncovered interest parity models. However, the set of fundamentals relevant to these models changes over time.

  17. Reproductive cycles of deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, G W

    2011-04-01

    The cervids are a complex assemblage of taxa showing extreme diversity in morphology, physiology, ecology and geographical distribution. Reproductive strategies adopted by various species are also diverse, and include a range from highly seasonal to completely aseasonal birth patterns. The recent growth in knowledge on cervid reproduction is strongly biased towards the larger-bodied, gregarious mixed grazer-browser species that have adapted well to human management and commercialisation. These species tend to represent 'K-selected' climax species characterised by very productive annual breeding success, singleton births and long breeding life (10+ years). Conversely, we know relatively little about the reproductive patterns of the 'r-selected' smaller-bodied, solitary (and often highly territorial), forest-dwelling browser species, often characterised by great fecundity (twinning) and shorter breeding life (<10 years). This group includes many of the endangered cervid taxa. This review extends earlier reviews to include more recent work on cervid reproductive cycles, particularly in relation to environmental factors influencing gestation length. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [The effect of assertiveness training on communication related factors and personnel turnover rate among hospital nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung Ja; Lee, Haejung

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of assertiveness training on nurses' assertive behaviors, interpersonal relations, communication conflicts, conflict management style and personnel turnover rate. A non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used in this study. Nurses were assigned into the experimental or control groups, each consisting of 39 nurses. Data was collected between January to March 2004. An 'Assertiveness Training Program' for Nurses developed by Park was used for the study. To emphasize assertiveness practice, 5 practice sessions utilizing ABCDE principles were added to Park's program. To examine the effects of the program, differences between the two groups in assertive behaviors, interpersonal relations, communication conflicts, conflict management style and personnel turnover rate were analyzed using ANCOVA. The assertiveness training was effective in improving the nurses' assertiveness behaviors, but was not effective in improving interpersonal relations, reducing the subjects' communication conflicts, changing the conflict management style or reducing their personnel turnover rate. There have been many studies about factors affecting nurses' personnel turnover rates, but few have been done about methods of intervention to reduce the personnel turnover rate. Thus, this study provides a significant contribution in attempting such an intervention from nursing management perspectives.

  19. Using field feedback to estimate failure rates of safety-related systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brissaud, Florent

    2017-01-01

    The IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 functional safety standards encourage the use of field feedback to estimate the failure rates of safety-related systems, which is preferred than generic data. In some cases (if “Route 2_H” is adopted for the 'hardware safety integrity constraints”), this is even a requirement. This paper presents how to estimate the failure rates from field feedback with confidence intervals, depending if the failures are detected on-line (called 'detected failures', e.g. by automatic diagnostic tests) or only revealed by proof tests (called 'undetected failures'). Examples show that for the same duration and number of failures observed, the estimated failure rates are basically higher for “undetected failures” because, in this case, the duration observed includes intervals of time where it is unknown that the elements have failed. This points out the need of using a proper approach for failure rates estimation, especially for failures that are not detected on-line. Then, this paper proposes an approach to use the estimated failure rates, with their uncertainties, for PFDavg and PFH assessment with upper confidence bounds, in accordance with IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 requirements. Examples finally show that the highest SIL that can be claimed for a safety function can be limited by the 90% upper confidence bound of PFDavg or PFH. The requirements of the IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 relating to the data collection and analysis should therefore be properly considered for the study of all safety-related systems. - Highlights: • This paper deals with requirements of the IEC 61508 and IEC 61511 for using field feedback to estimate failure rates of safety-related systems. • This paper presents how to estimate the failure rates from field feedback with confidence intervals for failures that are detected on-line. • This paper presents how to estimate the failure rates from field feedback with confidence intervals for failures that are only revealed by

  20. Development in self-rated health among older people as determinant of social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Modvig, Jens Simon; Due, Pernille

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men....

  1. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  2. State-related differences in heart rate variability in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a validated measure of sympato-vagal balance in the autonomic nervous system. HRV appears decreased in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy individuals, but the extent of state-related alterations has been sparingly investigated. The present...... bipolar disorder and could...

  3. Job performance ratings : The relative importance of mental ability, conscientiousness, and career adaptability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohme, Melanie; Zacher, Hannes

    According to career construction theory, continuous adaptation to the work environment is crucial to achieve work and career success. In this study, we examined the relative importance of career adaptability for job performance ratings using an experimental policy-capturing design. Employees (N =

  4. Citation Rate of Highly-Cited Papers in 100 Kinesiology-Related Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Duane

    2015-01-01

    This study extended previous research on several citation-based bibliometric variables for highly cited articles in a large (N = 100) number of journals related to Kinesiology. Total citations and citation rate of the 30 most highly cited articles in each journal were identified by searchers of "Google Scholar (GS)". Other major…

  5. The relations between personality traits and psychopathy as measured by ratings and self-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujačić Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relations between psychopathy - as assessed by ratings (PCL-R and by self-report (SRP3 - on one side, and The Five-Factor personality Model - expanded to include the traits Amorality and Disintegration - on the other. Both methods examined four traits of psychopathy: interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial characteristics. Data were collected on a sample of 112 male convicts. The results show the absence of congruence between the two methods - self-report and rating - in case of interpersonal and affective psychopathic dispositions. This incongruence is also reflected in their relations with personality traits. The self-report measures and the ratings of Lifestyle and Antisocial tendencies are related to amorality, aggressiveness, schizotypy, Neuroticism and impulsivity. However, the ratings of affective and interpersonal style are related to the integrated, organized, and emotionally stable aspects of personality. The results are interpreted in the light of differences between the methods of assessment and in the light of the essential characteristics of the psychopathic phenomena.

  6. An estimator for the relative entropy rate of path measures for stochastic differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opper, Manfred, E-mail: manfred.opper@tu-berlin.de

    2017-02-01

    We address the problem of estimating the relative entropy rate (RER) for two stochastic processes described by stochastic differential equations. For the case where the drift of one process is known analytically, but one has only observations from the second process, we use a variational bound on the RER to construct an estimator.

  7. Selective Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.

    2015-01-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as...... as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge....

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life and Primi-Gravid: A Comparative Study of Natural Conception and Conception by Assisted Reproduction Technologies (ARTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Kazemi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI, total calorie intake and physical activity (PA as energy expenditure related factors on oxidative stress (OS in follicular fluid (FF. Materials and Methods: This prospective study conducted on 219 infertile women. We evaluated patients’ BMI, total calorie intake and PA in their assisted reproduction treatment cycles. Malondialdehyde (MDA and total antioxidant capacity (TAC in pooled FF at oocyte retrieval were additionally assessed. Results: There was no relation between OS biomarkers to total calorie intake and PA. The TAC levels in FF adjusted for age, duration of infertility, etiology of infertility, number of used gonadotrophin and PA showed a positive relation to BMI (p=0.001. The number of used gonadotrophin and PA had a negative relation to duration of infertility (p=0.03 and anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility. The MDA level in FF had a positive association with anovulation disorder as the etiology of infertility (p=0.02. MDA in FF was unaffected by BMI. Conclusion: Increasing age, BMI and PA do not affect OS in FF. In women with longtime infertility and those with anovulation disorder as an etiology of infertility, decreased potent antioxidant defense in the follicular microenvironment may contribute to ovarian function. Therefore antioxidant supplements may be beneficial for these groups of women.

  9. Diversification rates are more strongly related to microhabitat than climate in squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars-Closel, Melissa; Kohlsdorf, Tiana; Moen, Daniel S; Wiens, John J

    2017-09-01

    Patterns of species richness among clades can be directly explained by the ages of clades or their rates of diversification. The factors that most strongly influence diversification rates remain highly uncertain, since most studies typically consider only a single predictor variable. Here, we explore the relative impacts of macroclimate (i.e., occurring in tropical vs. temperate regions) and microhabitat use (i.e., terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal, aquatic) on diversification rates of squamate reptile clades (lizards and snakes). We obtained data on microhabitat, macroclimatic distribution, and phylogeny for >4000 species. We estimated diversification rates of squamate clades (mostly families) from a time-calibrated tree, and used phylogenetic methods to test relationships between diversification rates and microhabitat and macroclimate. Across 72 squamate clades, the best-fitting model included microhabitat but not climatic distribution. Microhabitat explained ∼37% of the variation in diversification rates among clades, with a generally positive impact of arboreal microhabitat use on diversification, and negative impacts of fossorial and aquatic microhabitat use. Overall, our results show that the impacts of microhabitat on diversification rates can be more important than those of climate, despite much greater emphasis on climate in previous studies. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Magnet-related injury rates in children: a single hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, Chioma; Lee, Lois; Chiang, Vincent; Landscahft, Assaf; Kimia, Tomer; Monuteaux, Michael C; Kimia, Amir A

    2013-07-01

    The ingestion of multiple magnets simultaneously or the placement of magnets in both nares can lead to serious injury resulting from the attraction of the magnets across the tissues. The impact of mandatory standards for toys containing magnets has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of the present study was to describe the emergency department (ED) visit rate for magnet-related injuries. We performed a retrospective study of children evaluated for magnet-related injuries from 1995 to 2012 in an urban tertiary care pediatric ED. We identified cases using a computerized text-search methodology followed by manual chart review. We included children evaluated for magnet ingestion or impaction in the ears, nose, vagina, or rectum. We assessed the type and number of magnets as well as management and required interventions. A Poisson regression model was used to analyze rates of injury over time. We identified 112 cases of magnet injuries. The median patient age was 6 years (IQR 3.5, 10), and 54% were male. Compared to before 2006, the rate for all magnet-related injuries in 2007-2012 (incidence rate ratio 3.44; 95% confidence interval 2.3-5.11) as well as multiple magnet-related injuries (incidence rate ratio 7.54; 95% confidence interval 3.51-16.19) increased. Swallowed magnets accounted for 86% of the injuries. Thirteen patients had endoscopy performed for magnet removal (12%), and 4 (4%) had a surgical intervention. Magnets from toys account for the majority of the injuries. The number of ED visits for magnet-related injuries in children may be rising and are underreported, with an increase in the proportion of multiple magnets involvement. In our case series, mandatory standard for toys had no mitigating effect.

  11. Situation of Linkage between Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV-Related Policies in Islamic Republic of Iran – A Rapid Assessment in 2011–2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghobad Moradi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of sexual transmission of HIV is increasing globally. Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH issues and HIV/AIDS related problems are rooted in common grounds such as poverty, gender inequality, and social exclusion. As a result, international health organizations have suggested the integration of SRH services with HIV/AIDS services as a strategy to control HIV and to improve people’s access to SRH services. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between reproductive health and HIV/AIDS services at policy-making level in Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI. This study was conducted in 2011–2 and was a rapid assessment based on guidelines provided by the World Health Organization (WHO, United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS, Family Health International Association, and some other international organizations. In this rapid assessment we used different methods such as a review of literature and documents, visiting and interviewing professionals and experts in family health and HIV/AIDS programs, and experts working in some NonGovernmental Organizations (NGOs. Overall, based on the results obtained in this study, in most cases there was not much linkage between HIV/AIDS policies and SRH policies in Iran. Since integration of HIV/AIDS services and SRH services is recommended as a model and an appropriate response to HIV epidemics worldwide, likewise to control the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Iran it is required to integrate HIV/AIDS and SRH services at all levels, particularly at the policy-making level.

  12. Behavioral Senescence and Aging-Related Changes in Motor Neurons and Brain Neuromodulator Levels Are Ameliorated by Lifespan-Extending Reproductive Dormancy in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick R. Nässel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The lifespan of Drosophilamelanogaster can be extended substantially by inducing reproductive dormancy (also known as diapause by lowered temperature and short days. This increase of longevity is accompanied by lowered metabolism and increased stress tolerance. We ask here whether behavioral senescence is ameliorated during adult dormancy. To study this we kept flies for seven or more weeks in normal rearing conditions or in diapause conditions and compared to 1-week-old flies in different behavioral assays of sleep, negative geotaxis and exploratory walking. We found that the senescence of geotaxis and locomotor behavior seen under normal rearing conditions was negligible in flies kept in dormancy. The normal senescence of rhythmic activity and sleep patterns during the daytime was also reduced by adult dormancy. Investigating the morphology of specific neuromuscular junctions (NMJs, we found that changes normally seen with aging do not take place in dormant flies. To monitor age-associated changes in neuronal circuits regulating activity rhythms, sleep and walking behavior we applied antisera to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, serotonin and several neuropeptides to examine changes in expression levels and neuron morphology. In most neuron types the levels of stored neuromodulators decreased during normal aging, but not in diapause treated flies. No signs of neurodegeneration were seen in either condition. Our data suggest that age-related changes in motor neurons could be the cause of part of the behavioral senescence and that this is ameliorated by reproductive diapause. Earlier studies established a link between age-associated decreases in neuromodulator levels and behavioral decline that could be rescued by overexpression of neuromodulator. Thus, it is likely that the retained levels of neuromodulators in dormant flies alleviate behavioral senescence.

  13. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Bonneau, Kara; Vandellen, Michelle; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time-that is, between one year's achievement and the subsequent year's dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved performance saw decreased dropout rates following these successes. However, we find

  14. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    GLENNIE, ELIZABETH; BONNEAU, KARA; VANDELLEN, MICHELLE; DODGE, KENNETH A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. Purpose/Objective/Focus This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Research Design Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time—that is, between one year’s achievement and the subsequent year’s dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. Findings/Results This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved

  15. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones.

  16. Melatonin and female reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Temporal discounting rates and their relation to exercise behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Linda M; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Landes, Reid D; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Lefler, Leanne L

    2015-12-01

    As our nation's population ages, the rates of chronic illness and disability are expected to increase significantly. Despite the knowledge that exercise may prevent chronic disease and promote health among older adults, many still are inactive. Factors related to exercise behaviors have been explored in recent years. However, temporal discounting is a motivational concept that has not been explored in regard to exercise in older adults. Temporal discounting is a decision making process by which an individual chooses a smaller more immediate reward over a larger delayed reward. The aim of this study was to determine if temporal discounting rates vary between exercising and non-exercising older adults. This study used cross-sectional survey of 137 older adults living in the community. Older adults were recruited from 11 rural Arkansas churches. The Kirby delay-discounting Monetary Choice Questionnaire was used to collect discounting rates and then bivariate analysis was performed to compare temporal discounting rate between the exercisers and non-exercisers. Finally, multivariate analysis was used to compare discounting rate controlling for other covariates. The results indicated that exercising older adults display lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercising older adults. After controlling for education, exercisers still have lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercisers (phealth conditions relate to lack of exercise especially in older adults. This research suggests that if we can find appropriate incentives for discounting individuals, some type of immediate reward, then potentially we can design programs to engage and retain older adults in exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacterial growth on surfaces: Automated image analysis for quantification of growth rate-related parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S.; Sternberg, Claus; Poulsen, L. K.

    1995-01-01

    species-specific hybridizations with fluorescence-labelled ribosomal probes to estimate the single-cell concentration of RNA. By automated analysis of digitized images of stained cells, we determined four independent growth rate-related parameters: cellular RNA and DNA contents, cell volume......, and the frequency of dividing cells in a cell population. These parameters were used to compare physiological states of liquid-suspended and surfacegrowing Pseudomonas putida KT2442 in chemostat cultures. The major finding is that the correlation between substrate availability and cellular growth rate found...

  19. On the Relation between Tax Rates and Evasion in a Multi-period Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Jordi Caball?Author-Email:; Judith Panad?

    2001-01-01

    We extend the basic tax evasion model to a multi-period economy exhibiting sustained growth. When individuals conceal part of their true income from the tax authority, they face the risk of being audited and hence of paying the corresponding fine. Both taxes and fines determine individual saving and the rate of capital accumulation. In this context we show that the sign of the relation between the level of the tax rate and the amount of evaded income is the same as that obtained in static set...

  20. On the relation between tax rates and evasion in a multi-period economy

    OpenAIRE

    Caballé, Jordi

    2006-01-01

    We extend the basic tax evasion model to a multi-period economy exhibiting sustained growth. When individuals conceal part of their true income from the tax authority, they face the risk of being audited and hence of paying the corresponding fine. Both taxes and fines determine individual saving and the rate of capital accumulation. In this context we show that the sign of the relation between the level of the tax rate and the amount of evaded income is the same as that obtained in static set...

  1. Associations of parity-related reproductive histories with ER± and HER2± receptor-specific breast cancer aetiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, William F; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2017-01-01

    ± expression. Methods: We linked a cancer registry covering nearly 95% of the primary breast cancer diagnoses in Denmark with a research parity database to assess associations for parity, number of live births and age at first live birth (AFLB) with receptor-specific risk. Relative risks (RRs) for associations...

  2. Evolution of cultural traits occurs at similar relative rates in different world regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Thomas E; Mace, Ruth

    2014-11-22

    A fundamental issue in understanding human diversity is whether or not there are regular patterns and processes involved in cultural change. Theoretical and mathematical models of cultural evolution have been developed and are increasingly being used and assessed in empirical analyses. Here, we test the hypothesis that the rates of change of features of human socio-cultural organization are governed by general rules. One prediction of this hypothesis is that different cultural traits will tend to evolve at similar relative rates in different world regions, despite the unique historical backgrounds of groups inhabiting these regions. We used phylogenetic comparative methods and systematic cross-cultural data to assess how different socio-cultural traits changed in (i) island southeast Asia and the Pacific, and (ii) sub-Saharan Africa. The relative rates of change in these two regions are significantly correlated. Furthermore, cultural traits that are more directly related to external environmental conditions evolve more slowly than traits related to social structures. This is consistent with the idea that a form of purifying selection is acting with greater strength on these more environmentally linked traits. These results suggest that despite contingent historical events and the role of humans as active agents in the historical process, culture does indeed evolve in ways that can be predicted from general principles.

  3. Relation Between Rates of Geriatric Suicide and Consumption of Alcohol Beverages in European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Among older adults, suicide is a significant and persistent health problem. The highest suicide rate is found among white men aged 65 years and older. The causes of elder suicide are multifaceted. Although no predominate factor precipitates or explains geriatric suicide, alcohol is strongly linked to suicide attempts and completions. This study examined the relationship between rates of suicide in 65- to 74-year-olds and per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages in European countries. Data on suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-olds and per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages were obtained from the World Health Organization databases. Correlations were computed to examine relationships between suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-old males and females and per capita consumption of beer, wine, and spirits in the general population in 34 European countries. There was a positive correlation between suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-old males and per capita consumption of spirits. No correlations between suicide rates in 65- to 74-year-old males and per capita consumption of beer or wine were found. We also found no correlations between rates of suicide in 65- to 74-year-old females and per capita consumption of beer, wine, or spirits. The results of this study are consistent with reports that consumption of spirits is associated with suicide events. It is to be hoped that this paper will stimulate further studies that are necessary to clarify the relation between suicide rates in different age groups and consumption of alcoholic beverages, and attract more attention to the problem of geriatric suicide.

  4. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2006-02-15

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution.

  5. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2006-02-01

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution

  6. Relations among Individual Differences in Reproductive Strategies, Sexual Attractiveness, Affective and Punitive Intentions, and Imagined Sexual or Emotional Infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel N. Jones; Aurelio José Figueredo; Erin Denise Dickey; W. Jake Jacobs

    2007-01-01

    We examined relations among Mating Effort, Mate Value, Sex and individuals' self-reported responses to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. We asked participants to describe the (1) upset or bother (2) aversive emotional reactions (3) punitive impulses, and (4) punitive intentions they experienced in response to imagined sexual or emotional infidelity. The results replicated previously documented sex differences in jealousy. In addition, imagined sexual infidelity upset individuals higher...

  7. Stigma, Attitudes, and Help-Seeking Intentions for Psychological Problems in Relation to Regional Suicide Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynders, Alexandre; Kerkhof, Ad J F M; Molenberghs, Geert; Van Audenhove, Chantal

    2016-02-01

    In this ecological study, we investigated whether help-seeking related to stigma, intentions, and attitudes toward suicide are associated with the suicide rates of 20 regions within the Netherlands and Belgium. Significant associations were found between regional suicide rates and the intention to seek informal help (β = -1.47, p = .001), self-stigma (β = 1.33, p = .038), and shame (β = .71, p = .030). The association between self-stigma and suicide rate was mediated by intentions to seek informal help. These results suggest that to promote suicide prevention at the level of the regional population, stigma, shame, and intentions to seek help should be targeted in the public domain. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.

  8. The impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates: global data review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Maki; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Ferronato, Angela Esposito; Ragazzi, Selma Lopes Betta

    2016-09-01

    to describe the impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates in countries that implemented universal vaccination against the disease. we identified countries that implemented universal vaccination against varicella at the http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/schedules site of the World Health Organization and selected articles in Pubmed describing the changes (pre/post-vaccination) in the varicella-related hospitalization rates in these countries, using the Keywords "varicella", "vaccination/vaccine" and "children" (or) "hospitalization". Publications in English published between January 1995 and May 2015 were included. 24 countries with universal vaccination against varicella and 28 articles describing the impact of the vaccine on varicella-associated hospitalizations rates in seven countries were identified. The US had 81.4% -99.2% reduction in hospitalization rates in children younger than four years after 6-14 years after the onset of universal vaccination (1995), with vaccination coverage of 90%; Uruguay: 94% decrease (children aged 1-4 years) in six years, vaccination coverage of 90%; Canada: 93% decrease (age 1-4 years) in 10 years, coverage of 93%; Germany: 62.4% decrease (age 1-4 years) in 8 years, coverage of 78.2%; Australia: 76.8% decrease (age 1-4 years) in 5 years, coverage of 90%; Spain: 83.5% decrease (age <5 years) in four years, coverage of 77.2% and Italy 69.7% -73.8% decrease (general population), coverage of 60%-95%. The publications showed variations in the percentage of decrease in varicella-related hospitalization rates after universal vaccination in the assessed countries; the results probably depend on the time since the implementation of universal vaccination, differences in the studied age group, hospital admission criteria, vaccination coverage and strategy, which does not allow direct comparison between data. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por

  9. The impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates: global data review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Hirose

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the impact of varicella vaccination on varicella-related hospitalization rates in countries that implemented universal vaccination against the disease. Data source: We identified countries that implemented universal vaccination against varicella at the http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/schedules site of the World Health Organization and selected articles in Pubmed describing the changes (pre/post-vaccination in the varicella-related hospitalization rates in these countries, using the Keywords "varicella", "vaccination/vaccine" and "children" (or "hospitalization". Publications in English published between January 1995 and May 2015 were included. Data synthesis: 24 countries with universal vaccination against varicella and 28 articles describing the impact of the vaccine on varicella-associated hospitalizations rates in seven countries were identified. The US had 81.4%–99.2% reduction in hospitalization rates in children younger than four years, 6–14 years after the onset of universal vaccination (1995, with vaccination coverage of 90%; Uruguay: 94% decrease (children aged 1–4 years in six years, vaccination coverage of 90%; Canada: 93% decrease (age 1–4 years in 10 years, coverage of 93%; Germany: 62.4% decrease (age 1–4 years in 8 years, coverage of 78.2%; Australia: 76.8% decrease (age 1–4 years in 5 years, coverage of 90%; Spain: 83.5% decrease (age <5 years in four years, coverage of 77.2% and Italy 69.7%–73.8% decrease (general population, coverage of 60%–95%. Conclusions: The publications showed variations in the percentage of decrease in varicella-related hospitalization rates after universal vaccination in the assessed countries; the results probably depend on the time since the implementation of universal vaccination, differences in the studied age group, hospital admission criteria, vaccination coverage and strategy, which does not allow direct comparison between

  10. Self-rated health, psychosocial functioning, and health-related behavior among Thai adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn

    2009-02-01

    Despite the popularity of self-rated health (SRH) in Western countries as a useful public health tool, it has only rarely been used in Asian countries. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether measures of psychosocial functioning and health-related factors differ according to SRH in a school-based sample of Thai adolescents. The survey was given to 2519 adolescents attending 10 coeducational secondary high schools in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and included measures of psychosocial functioning (loneliness, hopelessness, shyness, perceptions of social status, self-rated happiness, and perception of physical attractiveness) and certain health-related factors (height/weight, physical activity, eating breakfast, sleep). The proportion of boys (5.1%) reporting that they were not healthy was similar to the proportion of girls (4.6%) making the same rating. These adolescents showed a pattern of overall poor health risk. Compared to adolescent peers who rated their health as healthy or very healthy, they were less physically active, got less sleep, were more likely to be overweight, and scored lower on loneliness, shyness, hopelessness, and self-rated happiness. The present pattern of poor health risk warrants attention and supports the merit of using SRH in adolescent health assessment. SRH is easy to obtain and simple to assess and single-item assessments of SRH appear to be valid measures of health status in adults and adolescent. Interventions, such as health counseling, mental health counseling, and health education, can target adolescents who rate themselves as 'not healthy' or report poor health status.

  11. Effects of Context and Relative Rank on Mate Choice and Affiliation Ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lynne Honey

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Female dominance has not often been studied as a factor in mate choice and other social interactions. When it has been examined, there have been a number of conflicting findings. The present study was designed to clarify interpretations of a study conducted by Brown and Lewis (2004 that found that men prefer subordinate women in a workplace context. We presented participants with information about the relative rank of physically attractive targets, in two very different contexts (work-related and recreational. We found that the context in which rank cues are presented has an impact on affiliation ratings, but that cues of rank do not affect mate choice ratings. Future studies of effects of dominance must take into account the context in which they are presented, and recognize that rank may not be a sufficient indicator of dominance for the purpose of mate choice by both men and women.

  12. Influence of the relative deformation rate on tube processing by ultrasonic vibration drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susan, M.; Bujoreanu, L. G.; Galusca, D. G.; Munteanu, C.; Lliescu, V.

    2004-01-01

    After a brief review of the friction reversion mechanism during ultrasonic vibration drawing of tubes (UVD), the paper introduces a method to determine the drawing force based on the theorem of total consumed power, in the case of tube processing. The experiments performed on tubes made from 10TiNiCr180 (AISI321) austenitic stainless steel confirm the superiority of UVD technology regarding the diminution of the drawing force, the increase of the plasticity and the improvement of the safety coefficient, tendencies that are enhanced with the decrease of the relative drawing rate. The best results were obtained for the relative drawing rate of 0.12 for which the drawing force decreased with 33%, plasticity increased with 9% and safety coefficient with 22%, as compared to CT. (Author) 10 refs

  13. Novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate

    KAUST Repository

    Yilmaz, Ferkan

    2011-11-01

    Ergodic capacity and average bit error rate have been widely used to compare the performance of different wireless communication systems. As such recent scientific research and studies revealed strong impact of designing and implementing wireless technologies based on these two performance indicators. However and to the best of our knowledge, the direct links between these two performance indicators have not been explicitly proposed in the literature so far. In this paper, we propose novel relations between the ergodic capacity and the average bit error rate of an overall communication system using binary modulation schemes for signaling with a limited bandwidth and operating over generalized fading channels. More specifically, we show that these two performance measures can be represented in terms of each other, without the need to know the exact end-to-end statistical characterization of the communication channel. We validate the correctness and accuracy of our newly proposed relations and illustrated their usefulness by considering some classical examples. © 2011 IEEE.

  14. The Mahabharata and reproductive endocrinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Kalra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication approaches the Mahabharata through the prism of reproductive endocrinology. Descriptions of episodes related to reproduction are listed here, to provide fodder for the endocrinologically minded brain. The cases described here are perhaps, the first documented observations of fetal orgasm, pseudocyesis and assisted reproductive technology, including assisted insemination by donor, induction of ovulation, and in vitro fertilization as well as precocious growth and intersex. We do not presume to offer a definite explanation for these interesting episodes from the Mahabharata. We do, however, hope to stimulate interest in ancient Indian literature, and encourage a literary “forensic endocrine” analysis of events relevant to our specialty.

  15. Serum levels of oestrogen and some biochemical parameters in relation to reproductive activities and level of production in fowl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El - Abiad, N.M.F.

    1982-01-01

    This work was carried out at the poultry experiment station department of animal production, faculty of agriculture zagazig university, benha branch. radioimmunological and biochemical assays were performed in the laboratories of radioimmunology and biochemistry unit of atomic energy establishment . It was intended to study: 1. The effect of oestrogen level along the time of egg formation on some parameters in blood serum related to metabolic efficiency. 2. The variations in oestrogen level and blood serum parameters due to clutch size of hens. 3.Changes in oestrogen levels and some blood constituents along the time of egg formation

  16. Optimizing equine assisted reproductive technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onstein, W.K.

    2018-01-01

    Application of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) is more common in the horse breeding industries, but there is still room for improvement. Embryo recovery rate after embryo flushing, embryo production rate after ovum pick-up (OPU) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), cryopreservation

  17. Development in self-rated health among older people as determinant of social relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten; Modvig, Jens

    2004-01-01

    .3-5.2) in the two-point analyses. Furthermore, a deterioration in SRH predicted poor contact satisfaction OR=2.8 (1.7-4.5). All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, mental health, functional ability, cohabitation status, and a measure of social relations at baseline. Results for the three-point analyses were......AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyse whether development in self-rated health (SRH) over four years was associated with the structure of and satisfaction with social relations, at four and eight years follow-up, among elderly women and men. METHODS: A longitudinal questionnaire-based study...

  18. THE OBSERVED RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, DUST EXTINCTION, AND STAR FORMATION RATE IN LOCAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahid, H. J.; Kewley, L. J.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Yates, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and star formation rate (SFR) using ∼150,000 star-forming galaxies from SDSS DR7. We show that the relation between dust extinction and SFR changes with stellar mass. For galaxies at the same stellar mass, dust extinction is anti-correlated with the SFR at stellar masses 10 M ☉ . There is a sharp transition in the relation at a stellar mass of 10 10 M ☉ . At larger stellar masses, dust extinction is positively correlated with the SFR for galaxies at the same stellar mass. The observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR presented in this study helps to confirm similar trends observed in the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR. The relation reported in this study provides important new constraints on the physical processes governing the chemical evolution of galaxies. The correlation between SFR and dust extinction for galaxies with stellar masses >10 10 M ☉ is shown to extend to the population of quiescent galaxies suggesting that the physical processes responsible for the observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR may be related to the processes leading to the shutdown of star formation in galaxies.

  19. THE OBSERVED RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, DUST EXTINCTION, AND STAR FORMATION RATE IN LOCAL GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahid, H. J.; Kewley, L. J.; Kudritzki, R. P. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Yates, R. M. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    In this study, we investigate the relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and star formation rate (SFR) using {approx}150,000 star-forming galaxies from SDSS DR7. We show that the relation between dust extinction and SFR changes with stellar mass. For galaxies at the same stellar mass, dust extinction is anti-correlated with the SFR at stellar masses <10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }. There is a sharp transition in the relation at a stellar mass of 10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }. At larger stellar masses, dust extinction is positively correlated with the SFR for galaxies at the same stellar mass. The observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR presented in this study helps to confirm similar trends observed in the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR. The relation reported in this study provides important new constraints on the physical processes governing the chemical evolution of galaxies. The correlation between SFR and dust extinction for galaxies with stellar masses >10{sup 10} M {sub Sun} is shown to extend to the population of quiescent galaxies suggesting that the physical processes responsible for the observed relation between stellar mass, dust extinction, and SFR may be related to the processes leading to the shutdown of star formation in galaxies.

  20. Relative rate study of the kinetic isotope effect in the 13CH3D + Cl reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joelsson, Lars Magnus Torvald; Forecast, Roslyn; Schmidt, Johan Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    The 13CH3D/12CH4kinetic isotope effect, α13CH3D, of CH4 + Cl is determined for the first time, using the relative rate technique and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. α13CH3D is found to be 1.60 ± 0.04. In addition, a quantum chemistry/transition state theory model with tunneling...

  1. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  2. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  3. Impact of myxomatosis in relation to local persistence in wild rabbit populations: the role of waning immunity and the reproductive period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouchet, David; Guitton, Jean-Sébastien; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Pontier, Dominique

    2008-02-21

    Many diseases are less severe when they are contracted in early life. For highly lethal diseases, such as myxomatosis in rabbits, getting infected early in life can represent the best chance for an individual to survive the disease. For myxomatosis, early infections are attenuated by maternal antibodies. This may lead to the immunisation of the host, preventing the subsequent development of the lethal form of the disease. But early infection of young individuals requires specific demographic and epidemiological contexts, such as a high transmission rate of the pathogen agent. To investigate other factors involved in the impact of such diseases, we have built a stochastic model of a rabbit metapopulation infected by myxomatosis. We show that the impact of the pathogen agent can be reduced by early infections only when the agent has a long local persistence time and/or when the host subpopulations are highly connected. The length of the reproductive period and the duration of acquired immunity are also important factors influencing the persistence of the pathogen and thus, the impact of the disease. Besides confirming the role of classical factors in the persistence of a pathogen agent, such as the size of the subpopulation or the degree of connectivity, our results highlight novel factors that can modulate the impact of diseases whose severity increase with age.

  4. [Adapting and validating the generic instrument CollaboRATE™ to measure women's participation in health related decision-making during the reproductive process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Paulina; Contreras, Aixa; Dois, Angelina; Villarroel, Luis

    2018-05-01

    There is a worldwide interest in involving patients in health related decisions, so patients can actively search for therapeutic options and choose course of action that allows them to have better quality of life and wellbeing. The majority of the instruments available to capture the degree of participation in medical decision-making are in English and have been developed in high income countries. To adapt and validate for the Chilean context the instrument CollaboRATE™, to measure women's participation in medical decisions during the reproductive process. Cross-sectional study to adapt and validate the instrument CollaboRATE™. Maternity units in Santiago, Chile. Puerperal women in maternity units of three public hospitals. Translation and back-translation, cultural and linguistic relevance with service users and final revision by experts. Study for validation with 90 puerperal women. The Chilean version of CollaboRATE™ demonstrated to be a reliable instrument to capture the degree of patients' participation in medical decision-making. Cronbach alpha was above 0.89. This study provides the first instrument to capture the prevalence of SDM in a Latin American country. This instrument will be critical in future research efforts that seek to explore to what extent people are being involved in the decisions related to their healthcare. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  5. Calcitonin gene-related peptide alters the firing rates of hypothalamic temperature sensitive and insensitive neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimm Eleanor R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transient hyperthermic shifts in body temperature have been linked to the endogenous hormone calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, which can increase sympathetic activation and metabolic heat production. Recent studies have demonstrated that these centrally mediated responses may result from CGRP dependent changes in the activity of thermoregulatory neurons in the preoptic and anterior regions of the hypothalamus (POAH. Results Using a tissue slice preparation, we recorded the single-unit activity of POAH neurons from the adult male rat, in response to temperature and CGRP (10 μM. Based on the slope of firing rate as a function of temperature, neurons were classified as either warm sensitive or temperature insensitive. All warm sensitive neurons responded to CGRP with a significant decrease in firing rate. While CGRP did not alter the firing rates of some temperature insensitive neurons, responsive neurons showed an increase in firing rate. Conclusion With respect to current models of thermoregulatory control, these CGRP dependent changes in firing rate would result in hyperthermia. This suggests that both warm sensitive and temperature insensitive neurons in the POAH may play a role in producing this hyperthermic shift in temperature.

  6. Development of Copper Corrosion Products and Relation between Surface Appearance and Corrosion Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Tran Thi Ngoc; Binh, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Tru, Nguyen Nhi; Yoshino, Tsujino; Yasuki, Maeda

    2008-01-01

    Copper was exposed unsheltered and sheltered in four humid tropical sites, representing urban, urban-industrial, urban-marine and rural environments. The corrosion rates and the sequence of corrosion product formation are presented and discussed in relation with climatic and atmospheric pollution parameters. Chemical compositions of corrosion products were found to depend on environments and duration of exposure. In all environments, cuprite was the predominating corrosion product that formed first and continuously increased during the exposure. Among the sulphur-containing corrosion products, posnjakite and brochantite were more frequently found and the first formed earlier. Nantokite was the most common chlorine-containing products for most cases, except the high-chloride environment, where atacamite was detected instead. The corrosion rate of copper was well indicated by the colour of patina. The red-purple colour corresponded to the high corrosion rate and the greenish grey colour corresponded to the low corrosion rate. Corrosion rate of sheltered copper in urban-marine environment increased with the exposure time

  7. An examination of black/white differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fenelon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The rate of mortality increase with age among adults is typically used as a measure of the rate of functional decline associated with aging or senescence. While black and white populations differ in the level of mortality, mortality also rises less rapidly with age for blacks than for whites, leading to the well-known black/white mortality "crossover". OBJECTIVE This paper investigates black/white differences in the rate of mortality increase with age for major causes of death in order to examine the factors responsible for the black/white crossover. METHODS The analysis considers two explanations for the crossover: selective survival and age misreporting. Mortality is modeled using a Gompertz model for 11 causes of death from ages 50-84 among blacks and whites by sex. RESULTS Mortality increases more rapidly with age for whites than for blacks for nearly all causes of death considered. The all-cause mortality rate of mortality increase is nearly two percentage points higher for whites. The analysis finds evidence for both selective survival and age misreporting, although age misreporting is a more prominent explanation among women. CONCLUSIONS The black/white mortality crossover reflects large differences in the rate of age-related mortality increase. Instead of reflecting the impact of specific causes of death, this pattern exists across many disparate disease conditions, indicating the need for a broad explanation.

  8. Glycolysis Is Dynamic and Relates Closely to Respiration Rate in Stored Sugarbeet Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice A. Megguer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although respiration is the principal cause of the loss of sucrose in postharvest sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L., the internal mechanisms that control root respiration rate are unknown. Available evidence, however, indicates that respiration rate is likely to be controlled by the availability of respiratory substrates, and glycolysis has a central role in generating these substrates. To determine glycolytic changes that occur in sugarbeet roots after harvest and to elucidate relationships between glycolysis and respiration, sugarbeet roots were stored for up to 60 days, during which activities of glycolytic enzymes and concentrations of glycolytic substrates, intermediates, cofactors, and products were determined. Respiration rate was also determined, and relationships between respiration rate and glycolytic enzymes and metabolites were evaluated. Glycolysis was highly variable during storage, with 10 of 14 glycolytic activities and 14 of 17 glycolytic metabolites significantly altered during storage. Changes in glycolytic enzyme activities and metabolites occurred throughout the 60 day storage period, but were greatest in the first 4 days after harvest. Positive relationships between changes in glycolytic enzyme activities and root respiration rate were abundant, with 10 of 14 enzyme activities elevated when root respiration was elevated and 9 glycolytic activities static during periods of unchanging respiration rate. Major roles for pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase in the regulation of postharvest sugarbeet root glycolysis were indicated based on changes in enzymatic activities and concentrations of their substrates and products. Additionally, a strong positive relationship between respiration rate and pyruvate kinase activity was found indicating that downstream TCA cycle enzymes were unlikely to regulate or restrict root respiration in a major way. Overall, these results establish that glycolysis is not static during sugarbeet root

  9. Statistical study of the reproductive hormones in relation to age and PCOS for patients undergoing in vitro investigation in Khartoum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgadir, O. M.

    2002-09-01

    In this study 587 Sudanese woman were studied those women were referred to gynecological clinics a infertile cases. Hormonal investigations were done for them, prolactin, (PRL). Female stimulating hormones (FSH) luotulizing hormones (LH) level were analyzed at Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC), (RIA ) lab, with the radioimmunoassay (RIA) method. The objective of this study was to find the relation between age versus hyperprolicinemia and (PCOS) polycystic ovary syndrome. Statistical analysis was done with the (SPSS) computer program. The result was 39.2% of the total patient 587 were high prolactin level hyper prolactin >370 mu/I which 10% of them were in the age between 25-30 years old. Age between 30-35 years old was found to be high frequency complain high FSH levels (>8 mu/ I) 29.1% of the patients. Found to be of high LH/FSH. Ratio which clear indication of polycystic ovary syndrome. (PCOS). (Author)

  10. Effects of developmental bisphenol A exposure on reproductive-related behaviors in California mice (Peromyscus californicus: a monogamous animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Williams

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, a pervasive, endocrine disrupting compound (EDC, acts as a mixed agonist-antagonist with respect to estrogens and other steroid hormones. We hypothesized that sexually selected traits would be particularly sensitive to EDC. Consistent with this concept, developmental exposure of males from the polygynous deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, to BPA resulted in compromised spatial navigational ability and exploratory behaviors, while there was little effect on females. Here, we have examined a related, monogamous species, the California mouse (Peromyscus californicus, where we predicted that males would be less sensitive to BPA in terms of navigational and exploratory behaviors, while displaying other traits related to interactions with females and territorial marking that might be vulnerable to disruption. As in the deer mouse experiments, females were fed either a phytoestrogen-free CTL diet through pregnancy and lactation or the same diet supplemented with BPA (50 mg/kg feed weight or ethinyl estradiol (EE (0.1 part per billion to provide a "pure" estrogen control. After weaning, pups were maintained on CTL diet until they had reached sexual maturity, at which time behaviors were evaluated. In addition, territorial marking was assessed in BPA-exposed males housed alone and when a control male was visible in the testing arena. In contrast to deer mice, BPA and EE exposure had no effect on spatial navigational skills in either male or female California mice. While CTL females exhibited greater exploratory behavior than CTL males, BPA exposure abolished this sex difference. BPA-exposed males, however, engaged in less territorial marking when CTL males were present. These studies demonstrate that developmental BPA exposure can disrupt adult behaviors in a sex- and species-dependent manner and are consistent with the hypothesis that sexually selected traits are particularly vulnerable to endocrine disruption and should be a

  11. Folate and human reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Tsunenobu; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2006-05-01

    The influence of folate nutritional status on various pregnancy outcomes has long been recognized. Studies conducted in the 1950s and 1960s led to the recognition of prenatal folic acid supplementation as a means to prevent pregnancy-induced megaloblastic anemia. In the 1990s, the utility of periconceptional folic acid supplementation and folic acid food fortification emerged when they were proven to prevent the occurrence of neural tube defects. These distinctively different uses of folic acid may well be ranked among the most significant public health measures for the prevention of pregnancy-related disorders. Folate is now viewed not only as a nutrient needed to prevent megaloblastic anemia in pregnancy but also as a vitamin essential for reproductive health. This review focuses on the relation between various outcomes of human reproduction (ie, pregnancy, lactation, and male reproduction) and folate nutrition and metabolism, homocysteine metabolism, and polymorphisms of genes that encode folate-related enzymes or proteins, and we identify issues for future research.

  12. Antidiabetic therapies and male reproductive function: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, R S; Escada-Rebelo, S; Silva, A F; Sousa, M I; Ramalho-Santos, J; Amaral, S

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been increasing at alarming rates in recent years, thus jeopardizing human health worldwide. Several antidiabetic drugs have been introduced in the market to manage glycemic levels, and proven effective in avoiding, minimizing or preventing the appearance or development of diabetes mellitus-related complications. However, and despite the established association between such pathology and male reproductive dysfunction, the influence of these therapeutic interventions on such topics have been scarcely explored. Importantly, this pathology may contribute toward the global decline in male fertility, giving the increasing preponderance of diabetes mellitus in young men at their reproductive age. Therefore, it is mandatory that the reproductive health of diabetic individuals is maintained during the antidiabetic treatment. With this in mind, we have gathered the available information and made a critical analysis regarding the effects of several antidiabetic drugs on male reproductive function. Unlike insulin, which has a clear and fundamental role on male reproductive function, the other antidiabetic therapies' effects at this level seem incoherent. In fact, studies are highly controversial possibly due to the different experimental study approaches, which, in our opinion, suggests caution when it comes to prescribing such drugs to young diabetic patients. Overall, much is still to be determined and further studies are needed to clarify the safety of these antidiabetic strategies on male reproductive system. Aspects such as the effects of insulin levels variations, consequent of insulin therapy, as well as what will be the impact of the side effect hypoglycemia, common to several therapeutic strategies discussed, on the male reproductive system are still to be addressed. © 2018 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  13. Subway-Related Trauma: An Urban Public Health Issue with a High Case-Fatality Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodier, Simon G; DiMaggio, Charles J; Wall, Stephen; Sim, Vasiliy; Frangos, Spiros G; Ayoung-Chee, Patricia; Bukur, Marko; Tandon, Manish; Todd, S Rob; Marshall, Gary T

    2018-05-09

    Between 1990 and 2003, there were 668 subway-related fatalities in New York City. However, subway-related trauma remains an understudied area of injury-related morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to characterize the injuries and events leading up to the injuries of all patients admitted after subway-related trauma. We conducted a retrospective case series of subway-related trauma at a Level I trauma center from 2001 to 2016. Descriptive epidemiology of patient demographics, incident details, injuries, and outcomes were analyzed. Over 15 years, 254 patients were admitted for subway-related trauma. The mean (standard error of the mean) age was 41 (1.0) years, 80% were male (95% confidence interval [CI] 74-84%) and median Injury Severity Score was 14 (interquartile range [IQR] 5-24). The overall case-fatality rate was 10% (95% CI 7-15%). The most common injuries were long-bone fractures, intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic amputations. Median length of stay was 6 days (IQR 1-18 days). Thirty-seven percent of patients required surgical intervention. At the time of injury, 55% of patients (95% CI 49-61%) had a positive urine drug or alcohol screen, 16% (95% CI 12-21%) were attempting suicide, and 39% (95% CI 33-45%) had a history of psychiatric illness. Subway-related trauma is associated with a high case-fatality rate. Alcohol or drug intoxication and psychiatric illness can increase the risk of this type of injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of the shrunken-2 (sh2) mutant to study source-sink relations in maize during reproductive development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    Leaf metabolism, 14 C-assimilate distribution, and kernel (sink) metabolism were compared in a normal wild-type (homozygous sh2) inbred (Oh43) of maize (Zea mays L.) and a genetically related shrunken-2 (homozygous sh2) inbred of Oh43. In comparison to normal starchy kernels, kernels from the shrunken-2 (sh2) mutant showed highly decreased starch contents and subsequently decreased total kernel dry matter. As measured by dry matter accumulation and 14 C-assimilate distribution patterns, sh2 kernel assimilate demand did not differ from normal kernel assimilate demand throughout most of the early linear grain-fill period. However, sh2 kernel demand began to decrease toward the end of early grain-fill and was highly decreased during all of the middle grain-fill period. During the late grain-fill period, sh2 kernel assimilate demand was non-existent. The initial evidence for decreased sh2 kernel assimilate demand was a change in 14 C label distribution in the sh2 ear tissues (husks, shank, cob, and kernels) toward the end of early grain-fill

  15. Sexual and Reproductive Health Services and Related Health Information on Pregnancy Resource Center Websites: A Statewide Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzendruber, Andrea; Newton-Levinson, Anna; Feuchs, Ashley E; Phillips, Ashley L; Hickey, Jennifer; Steiner, Riley J

    Pregnancy resource centers (PRCs) are nonprofit organizations with a primary mission of promoting childbirth among pregnant women. Given a new state grant program to publicly fund PRCs, we analyzed Georgia PRC websites to describe advertised services and related health information. We systematically identified all accessible Georgia PRC websites available from April to June 2016. Entire websites were obtained and coded using defined protocols. Of 64 reviewed websites, pregnancy tests and testing (98%) and options counseling (84%) were most frequently advertised. However, 58% of sites did not provide notice that PRCs do not provide or refer for abortion, and 53% included false or misleading statements regarding the need to make a decision about abortion or links between abortion and mental health problems or breast cancer. Advertised contraceptive services were limited to counseling about natural family planning (3%) and emergency contraception (14%). Most sites (89%) did not provide notice that PRCs do not provide or refer for contraceptives. Two sites (3%) advertised unproven "abortion reversal" services. Approximately 63% advertised ultrasound examinations, 22% sexually transmitted infection testing, and 5% sexually transmitted infection treatment. None promoted consistent and correct condom use; 78% with content about condoms included statements that seemed to be designed to undermine confidence in condom effectiveness. Approximately 84% advertised educational programs, and 61% material resources. Georgia PRC websites contain high levels of false and misleading health information; the advertised services do not seem to align with prevailing medical guidelines. Public funding for PRCs, an increasing national trend, should be rigorously examined. Increased regulation may be warranted to ensure quality health information and services. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors influencing the detection rate of drug-related problems in community pharmacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerlund, T; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Melander, A

    1999-01-01

    This study analyzes relationships between the number of drug-related problems detected in community pharmacy practice and the educational level and other characteristics of pharmacy personnel and their work sites. Random samples of pharmacists, prescriptionists and pharmacy technicians were drawn...... by each professional. The regression analysis showed the educational level of the professional to have a statistically significant effect on the detection rate, with pharmacists finding on average 2.5 more drug-related problems per 100 patients than prescriptionists and about 3.6 more than technicians....... The results of this study indicate the importance of education and training of pharmacy personnel in detection of drug-related problems. This findings speaks in favor of increasing the pharmacist to other personnel ratio, provided the higher costs will be offset by societal benefits....

  17. EXPLORING SYSTEMATIC EFFECTS IN THE RELATION BETWEEN STELLAR MASS, GAS PHASE METALLICITY, AND STAR FORMATION RATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telford, O. Grace; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Conroy, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that the well-established mass–metallicity relation in galaxies is correlated with a third parameter: star formation rate (SFR). The strength of this correlation may be used to disentangle the relative importance of different physical processes (e.g., infall of pristine gas, metal-enriched outflows) in governing chemical evolution. However, all three parameters are susceptible to biases that might affect the observed strength of the relation between them. We analyze possible sources of systematic error, including sample bias, application of signal-to-noise ratio cuts on emission lines, choice of metallicity calibration, uncertainty in stellar mass determination, aperture effects, and dust. We present the first analysis of the relation between stellar mass, gas phase metallicity, and SFR using strong line abundance diagnostics from Dopita et al. for ∼130,000 star-forming galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and provide a detailed comparison of these diagnostics in an appendix. Using these new abundance diagnostics yields a 30%–55% weaker anti-correlation between metallicity and SFR at fixed stellar mass than that reported by Mannucci et al. We find that, for all abundance diagnostics, the anti-correlation with SFR is stronger for the relatively few galaxies whose current SFRs are elevated above their past average SFRs. This is also true for the new abundance diagnostic of Dopita et al., which gives anti-correlation between Z and SFR only in the high specific star formation rate (sSFR) regime, in contrast to the recent results of Kashino et al. The poorly constrained strength of the relation between stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR must be carefully accounted for in theoretical studies of chemical evolution.

  18. Leaching of radionuclides from decaying blueberry leaves: Relative rate independent of concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    Leaching of radionuclides from decaying vegetation has not been extensively investigated, especially for radionuclides other than 137 Cs. The authors obtained leaves of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium x V. corymbosum) that contained over 25-fold ranges in Se, Cs, and I concentrations, as well as a small quantity of leaves containing detectable U. All were contaminated by way of root uptake. Leaching took place for a period of 1 yr in the laboratory, using leach water from forest litter. Monthly, measurements were made of the radionuclide contents and decaying leaf dry weights. The data conformed to an exponential decay model with two first-order components. In no case did the relative loss rates vary systematically with the initial tissue radionuclide concentrations. Loss rates decreased in the order Cs > I > U > dry wt. > Se. Because of the low leaching rate of Se relative to the loss of dry weight, decaying litter may actually accumulate elements such as Se. Accumulation of radionuclides in litter could have important implications for lateral transport, recycling, and direct incorporation into edible mushrooms

  19. Leaching of radionuclides from decaying blueberry leaves: Relative rate independent of concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, S.C.; Evenden, W.G. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada))

    Leaching of radionuclides from decaying vegetation has not been extensively investigated, especially for radionuclides other than {sup 137}Cs. The authors obtained leaves of blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium {times} V. corymbosum) that contained over 25-fold ranges in Se, Cs, and I concentrations, as well as a small quantity of leaves containing detectable U. All were contaminated by way of root uptake. Leaching took place for a period of 1 yr in the laboratory, using leach water from forest litter. Monthly, measurements were made of the radionuclide contents and decaying leaf dry weights. The data conformed to an exponential decay model with two first-order components. In no case did the relative loss rates vary systematically with the initial tissue radionuclide concentrations. Loss rates decreased in the order Cs > I > U > dry wt. > Se. Because of the low leaching rate of Se relative to the loss of dry weight, decaying litter may actually accumulate elements such as Se. Accumulation of radionuclides in litter could have important implications for lateral transport, recycling, and direct incorporation into edible mushrooms.

  20. Age-related differences in features associated with polycystic ovary syndrome in normogonadotrophic oligo-amenorrhoeic infertile women of reproductive years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bili; B. Imani (Babak); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart); J.S.E. Laven (Joop)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of age on clinical, endocrine and sonographic features associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertile women of reproductive years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Four hundred and

  1. Reproductive performances of Boe, Kacang and Boerka does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Elieser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Does reproduction performance could be expressed by her ability to give birth and to give milk to their kids during the pre-weaning period. This study was aimed to evaluate the reproductive performance of Boer, Kacang and Boerka does; and was carried out for two years at Research Institute for Goat Production, Sungei Putih. The materials used were goats owned by the institute. The parameters observed were: litter size, parity of does, preweaning mortality, kidding interval and sex ratio of kids. The rate of reproduction of the does was estimated using Amir and Knipscheer methods and were statistically analyzed using General linear model. Results showed that litter size and kidding interval of Boer goats were higher (P < 0.05 then that of Kacang goats, while the Boerka goats was in between. The mortality at preweaning of Boer goats was lower (P < 0.05 then that of Kacang goats, while the Boerka goats was in between. The percentage of kid sex ratio of three breeds were fluctuated. Parity of does had significant effect on all reproduction traits (P < 0.05 except for sex ratio of kids. The does reproduction was smallest at the first parity, and increased with the increase of parity from one to four, and then decreased in subsequent parities. The highest does reproduction rate was found in the Boerka (1.82, followed by Boer (1.80 and Kacang (1.80. It is concluded that the reproductive performance of the three breed female goat was relatively the same.

  2. High rate of adaptation of mammalian proteins that interact with Plasmodium and related parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telis, Natalie; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium parasites, along with their Piroplasm relatives, have caused malaria-like illnesses in terrestrial mammals for millions of years. Several Plasmodium-protective alleles have recently evolved in human populations, but little is known about host adaptation to blood parasites over deeper evolutionary timescales. In this work, we analyze mammalian adaptation in ~500 Plasmodium- or Piroplasm- interacting proteins (PPIPs) manually curated from the scientific literature. We show that (i) PPIPs are enriched for both immune functions and pleiotropy with other pathogens, and (ii) the rate of adaptation across mammals is significantly elevated in PPIPs, compared to carefully matched control proteins. PPIPs with high pathogen pleiotropy show the strongest signatures of adaptation, but this pattern is fully explained by their immune enrichment. Several pieces of evidence suggest that blood parasites specifically have imposed selection on PPIPs. First, even non-immune PPIPs that lack interactions with other pathogens have adapted at twice the rate of matched controls. Second, PPIP adaptation is linked to high expression in the liver, a critical organ in the parasite life cycle. Finally, our detailed investigation of alpha-spectrin, a major red blood cell membrane protein, shows that domains with particularly high rates of adaptation are those known to interact specifically with P. falciparum. Overall, we show that host proteins that interact with Plasmodium and Piroplasm parasites have experienced elevated rates of adaptation across mammals, and provide evidence that some of this adaptation has likely been driven by blood parasites. PMID:28957326

  3. Heparin for assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad A; Sur, Shyamaly; Raine-Fenning, Nick; Jayaprakasan, Kannamannadiar; Thornton, Jim G; Quenby, Siobhan

    2013-08-17

    Heparin as an adjunct in assisted reproduction (peri-implantation heparin) is given at or after egg collection or at embryo transfer during assisted reproduction. Heparin has been advocated to improve embryo implantation and clinical outcomes.  It has been proposed that heparin enhances the intra-uterine environment by improving decidualisation with an associated activation of growth factors and a cytokine expression profile in the endometrium that is favourable to pregnancy. To investigate whether the administration of heparin around the time of implantation (peri-implantation heparin) improves clinical outcomes in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. A comprehensive and exhaustive search strategy was developed in consultation with the Trials Search Co-ordinator of the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG). The strategy was used in an attempt to identify all relevant studies regardless of language or publication status (published, unpublished, in press, and in progress). Relevant trials were identified from both electronic databases and other resources (last search 6 May 2013). All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included where peri-implantation heparin was given during assisted reproduction. Peri-implantation low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) during IVF/ICSI was given at or after egg collection or at embryo transfer in the included studies. Live birth rate was the primary outcome. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials and extracted relevant data. The quality of the evidence was evaluated using GRADE methods. Three RCTs (involving 386 women) were included in the review.Peri-implantation LMWH administration during assisted reproduction was associated with a significant improvement in live birth rate compared with placebo or no LMWH (odds ratio (OR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07 to 2.90, three studies, 386 women, I(2) = 51%, very low quality evidence with high

  4. Exercise and reproductive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E C; Brzyski, R G

    1999-01-01

    To provide an overview of our current understanding of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and an approach to its evaluation and management. A MEDLINE search was performed to review all articles with title words related to menstrual dysfunction, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, exercise, and athletic activities from 1966 to 1998. The pathophysiology, proposed mechanisms, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and management of exercise-associated reproductive dysfunction were compiled. Exercise-induced menstrual irregularity appears to be multifactorial in origin and remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The underlying mechanisms are mainly speculative. Clinical manifestations range from luteal phase deficiency to anovulation, amenorrhea, and even delayed menarche. Evaluation should include a thorough history and a complete physical plus pelvic examination. Most cases are reversible with dietary and exercise modifications. Hormonal replacement in cases of a prolonged hypoestrogenic state with evidence of increased bone loss is recommended, although the long-term consequences of prolonged hormonal deficiency are ill-defined.

  5. Depression among women in rural Ethiopia as related to socioeconomic factors: a community-based study on women in reproductive age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyessa, N; Berhane, Y; Alem, A; Hogberg, U; Kullgren, G

    2008-08-01

    Several previous studies have reported on socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors associated with depression among women, but knowledge in this area remains scarce regarding women living in extreme poverty in developing countries. The study was aimed at examining the 12-month prevalence of depressive episodes as related to socioeconomic and sociocultural conditions of women in the reproductive age group in rural Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken among 3016 randomly selected women in the age group 15-49 years. Cases of depression were identified using the Amharic version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. A standardized World Health Organization questionnaire was used to measure the socioeconomic status of the women and their spouses. Data were analysed among all women and then separately among currently married women. The 12-month prevalence of depression among all women was 4.4%. After adjusting for common sociodemographic characteristics, only marital status showed a significant association with depressive episode in terms of higher odds ratios (ORs) for divorced/separated women and widowed women than for not-married women (4.05 and 4.24, respectively). Among currently married women, after adjusting for common sociodemographic characteristics, living in rural villages (OR=3.78), a frequent khat-chewing habit (OR=1.61), having a seasonal job (OR=2.94) and being relatively better off in terms of poverty (OR=0.48) were independently associated with depression. The prevalence of depression among women was in the lower range as compared to studies from high-income countries, but very poor economic conditions were associated with a higher prevalence of depression in this overall very poor setting. This further supports the notion that the relative level of poverty rather than the absolute level of poverty contributes to depression among women. Whether the association with khat chewing and depression is a causative

  6. Estimating Parameters Related to the Lifespan of Passively Transferred and Vaccine-Induced Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Type I Antibodies by Modeling Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Andraud

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outputs of epidemiological models are strongly related to the structure of the model and input parameters. The latter are defined by fitting theoretical concepts to actual data derived from field or experimental studies. However, some parameters may remain difficult to estimate and are subject to uncertainty or sensitivity analyses to determine their variation range and their global impact on model outcomes. As such, the evaluation of immunity duration is often a puzzling issue requiring long-term follow-up data that are, most of time, not available. The present analysis aims at characterizing the kinetics of antibodies against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv from longitudinal data sets. The first data set consisted in the serological follow-up of 22 vaccinated gilts during 21 weeks post-vaccination (PV. The second one gathered the maternally derived antibodies (MDAs kinetics in piglets from three different farms up to 14 weeks of age. The peak of the PV serological response against PRRSv was reached 6.9 weeks PV on average with an average duration of antibodies persistence of 26.5 weeks. In the monitored cohort of piglets, the duration of passive immunity was found relatively short, with an average duration of 4.8 weeks. The level of PRRSv-MDAs was found correlated with the dams’ antibody titer at birth, and the antibody persistence was strongly related to the initial MDAs titers in piglets. These results evidenced the importance of PRRSv vaccination schedule in sows, to optimize the delivery of antibodies to suckling piglets. These estimates of the duration of active and passive immunity could be further used as input parameters of epidemiological models to analyze their impact on the persistence of PRRSv within farms.

  7. Dating of Pregnancy in First versus Second Trimester in Relation to Post-Term Birth Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thagaard, Ida Näslund; Krebs, Lone; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in a national standardised setting whether the performance of ultrasound dating during the first rather than the second trimester of pregnancy had consequences regarding the definition of pre- and post-term birth rates. METHODS: A cohort study of 8,551 singleton pregnancies...... with spontaneous delivery was performed from 2006 to 2012 at Copenhagen University Hospital, Holbæk, Denmark. We determined the duration of pregnancy calculated by last menstrual period, crown rump length (CRL), biparietal diameter (1st trimester), BPD (2nd trimester), and head circumference and compared mean...... and median durations, the mean differences, the systematic discrepancies, and the percentages of pre-term and post-term pregnancies in relation to each method. The primary outcomes were post-term and pre-term birth rates defined by different dating methods. RESULTS: The change from use of second to first...

  8. Temperature and rainfall are related to fertility rate after spring artificial insemination in small ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, J. A.; Arrébola, F.; Macías, A.; Laviña, A.; González-Casquet, O.; Benítez, F.; Palacios, C.

    2016-10-01

    A total number of 1092 artificial inseminations (AIs) performed from March to May were documented over four consecutive years on 10 Payoya goat farms (36° N) and 19,392 AIs on 102 Rasa Aragonesa sheep farms (41° N) over 10 years. Mean, maximum, and minimum ambient temperatures, mean relative humidity, mean solar radiation, and total rainfall on each insemination day were recorded. Overall, fertility rates were 58 % in goats and 45 % in sheep. The fertility rates of the highest and lowest deciles of each of the meteorological variables indicated that temperature and rainfall had a significant effect on fertility in goats. Specifically, inseminations that were performed when mean (68 %), maximum (68 %), and minimum (66 %) temperatures were in the highest decile, and rainfall was in the lowest decile (59 %), had a significantly ( P goats and sheep.

  9. Intenciones reproductivas y factores asociados con los nacimientos no planeados, Paraguay, 1995-2008 Reproductive intentions and factors related to unplanned births, Paraguay, 1995-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Melian

    2013-04-01

    surveys from 1995, 2004, and 2008. The study examined the socio-demographic characteristics of the women, the use of contraceptive methods, and fertility, as well as the proportion of wanted, mistimed, and unwanted births. Using two multifactorial logistic regression models, the characteristics associated with unwanted or mistimed pregnancies were determined. RESULTS: In 2008, one-third (33.3% of the births were unplanned (25.6% mistimed and 7.7% unwanted. Age was directly and significantly associated with the woman having wanted to postpone her most recent birth; level of schooling was inversely related to the possibility of having mistimed births; and living in urban areas was associated with unwanted births. Not being married or in a stable relationship was associated with regarding the most recent birth as unwanted or mistimed, not only among single women, but also among those separated, divorced, and widowed. CONCLUSIONS: Despite improvements in women's levels of schooling, their increasing access to paid employment, the growing use of contraceptive methods, and reductions in fertility, there are still groups of women who are unable to fulfill their reproductive intentions and are at risk of having unwanted or mistimed pregnancies.

  10. The success of assisted reproduction technologies in relation to composition of the total regulatory T cell (Treg) pool and different Treg subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlossberger, V; Schober, L; Rehnitz, J; Schaier, M; Zeier, M; Meuer, S; Schmitt, E; Toth, B; Strowitzki, T; Steinborn, A

    2013-11-01

    Are there differences in composition of the total regulatory T cell (Treg) pool and distinct Treg subsets (naïve CD45RA(+)-Tregs, HLA-DR(-)- and HLA-DR(+)-memory Tregs) between successfully and non-successfully IVF/ICSI-treated women? Non-successfully IVF/ICSI-treated women have a decreased percentage of naïve CD45RA(+)-Tregs and an increased percentage of HLA-DR(-)-memory Tregs within the total Treg pool. Immunosuppressive Tregs play a significant role in human reproduction and studies have shown that their number and function are reduced in reproductive failure and complications of pregnancy such as pre-eclampsia and preterm labor. However, no data exist concerning the importance of Tregs for a successful outcome following assisted reproduction technologies. Blood samples were obtained from 210 women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment, where 14 patients were excluded due to biochemical pregnancy or missed abortion. Age control blood samples were collected from 20 neonates and 176 healthy female volunteers. The study was performed between October 2010 and March 2012. In this study, we determined prospectively the quantity and composition of the total CD4(+)CD127(low+/-)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)-Treg pool and three different Treg subsets (naïve CD45RA(+)-Tregs, HLA-DR(-)- and HLA-DR(+)-memory Tregs) in all women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment. We examined whether there were differences between those who became pregnant (n = 36) and those who did not (n = 160). The blood samples were collected within 1 h before the embryo transfer and analyzed by six-color flow cytometry. In order to evaluate these results with regard to the normal age-related changes in composition of the total Treg pool, the same analysis was performed using samples of umbilical cord blood and from healthy female volunteers aged between 17 and 76 years. The composition of the total Treg pool was documented for successfully IVF/ICSI-treated women (n = 5) throughout their pregnancy and we assessed the

  11. Heart rate during conflicts predicts post-conflict stress-related behavior in greylag geese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A F Wascher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social stressors are known to be among the most potent stressors in group-living animals. This is not only manifested in individual physiology (heart rate, glucocorticoids, but also in how individuals behave directly after a conflict. Certain 'stress-related behaviors' such as autopreening, body shaking, scratching and vigilance have been suggested to indicate an individual's emotional state. Such behaviors may also alleviate stress, but the behavioral context and physiological basis of those behaviors is still poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded beat-to-beat heart rates (HR of 22 greylag geese in response to agonistic encounters using fully implanted sensor-transmitter packages. Additionally, for 143 major events we analyzed the behavior shown by our focal animals in the first two minutes after an interaction. Our results show that the HR during encounters and characteristics of the interaction predicted the frequency and duration of behaviors shown after a conflict. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge this is the first study to quantify the physiological and behavioral responses to single agonistic encounters and to link this to post conflict behavior. Our results demonstrate that 'stress-related behaviors' are flexibly modulated by the characteristics of the preceding aggressive interaction and reflect the individual's emotional strain, which is linked to autonomic arousal. We found no support for the stress-alleviating hypothesis, but we propose that stress-related behaviors may play a role in communication with other group members, particularly with pair-partners.

  12. Hybridization rates between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative (L. serriola) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Luigi; Felber, François; Guadagnuolo, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Hybridization and introgression between crops and wild relatives may have important evolutionary and ecological consequences such as gene swamping or increased invasiveness. In the present study, we investigated hybridization under field conditions between crop lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and its wild relative prickly lettuce (L. serriola), two cross-compatible, predominantly autogamous and insect pollinated species. In 2003 and 2004, we estimated the rates of hybridization between L. sativa and L. serriola in close-to-reality field experiments carried out in two locations of Northern Switzerland. Seeds set by the experimental wild plants were collected and sown (44 352 in 2003 and 252 345 in 2004). Progeny was screened morphologically for detecting natural hybrids. Prior to the experiment, specific RAPD markers were used to confirm that morphological characters were reliable for hybrid identification. Hybridization occurred up to the maximal distance tested (40 m), and hybridization rates varied between 0 to 26%, decreasing with distance. More than 80% of the wild plants produced at least one hybrid (incidence of hybridization, IH) at 0 m and 1 m. It equaled 4 to 5% at 40 m. In sympatric crop-wild populations, cross-pollination between cultivated lettuce and its wild relative has to be seen as the rule rather than the exception for short distances.

  13. The Relation Between Plate Spreading Rate, Crustal Thickness and Axial Relief at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Buck, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Variations in axial valley relief and in faulting at plate spreading centers are clearly related to magma supply and axial lithospheric structure. Previous models that consider the interaction of magmatic dikes with lithospheric stretching do not successfully reproduce both of these trends. We present the first model that reproduces these trends by making simple assumptions about the partitioning of magma between dikes, gabbros and extrusives. A key concept is that dikes open not only in the brittle axial lithosphere but also into the underlying ductile crust, where they cool to form gabbro. The amount of gabbro so intruded depends on magma pressure that is related to axial relief. The deeper the valley the less magma goes into gabbros and the more magma is available for dikes to accommodate plate separation. We define the fraction of plate separation rate accommodated by dikes as M. If Mreasonable. Finally, we describe themo-mechanical models that allow us to relate plate spreading rate and crustal thickness and to axial valley depth.

  14. Dependence of the firearm-related homicide rate on gun availability: a mathematical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Komarova, Natalia L

    2013-01-01

    In the USA, the relationship between the legal availability of guns and the firearm-related homicide rate has been debated. It has been argued that unrestricted gun availability promotes the occurrence of firearm-induced homicides. It has also been pointed out that gun possession can protect potential victims when attacked. This paper provides a first mathematical analysis of this tradeoff, with the goal to steer the debate towards arguing about assumptions, statistics, and scientific methods. The model is based on a set of clearly defined assumptions, which are supported by available statistical data, and is formulated axiomatically such that results do not depend on arbitrary mathematical expressions. According to this framework, two alternative scenarios can minimize the gun-related homicide rate: a ban of private firearms possession, or a policy allowing the general population to carry guns. Importantly, the model identifies the crucial parameters that determine which policy minimizes the death rate, and thus serves as a guide for the design of future epidemiological studies. The parameters that need to be measured include the fraction of offenders that illegally possess a gun, the degree of protection provided by gun ownership, and the fraction of the population who take up their right to own a gun and carry it when attacked. Limited data available in the literature were used to demonstrate how the model can be parameterized, and this preliminary analysis suggests that a ban of private firearm possession, or possibly a partial reduction in gun availability, might lower the rate of firearm-induced homicides. This, however, should not be seen as a policy recommendation, due to the limited data available to inform and parameterize the model. However, the model clearly defines what needs to be measured, and provides a basis for a scientific discussion about assumptions and data.

  15. Dependence of the firearm-related homicide rate on gun availability: a mathematical analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Wodarz

    Full Text Available In the USA, the relationship between the legal availability of guns and the firearm-related homicide rate has been debated. It has been argued that unrestricted gun availability promotes the occurrence of firearm-induced homicides. It has also been pointed out that gun possession can protect potential victims when attacked. This paper provides a first mathematical analysis of this tradeoff, with the goal to steer the debate towards arguing about assumptions, statistics, and scientific methods. The model is based on a set of clearly defined assumptions, which are supported by available statistical data, and is formulated axiomatically such that results do not depend on arbitrary mathematical expressions. According to this framework, two alternative scenarios can minimize the gun-related homicide rate: a ban of private firearms possession, or a policy allowing the general population to carry guns. Importantly, the model identifies the crucial parameters that determine which policy minimizes the death rate, and thus serves as a guide for the design of future epidemiological studies. The parameters that need to be measured include the fraction of offenders that illegally possess a gun, the degree of protection provided by gun ownership, and the fraction of the population who take up their right to own a gun and carry it when attacked. Limited data available in the literature were used to demonstrate how the model can be parameterized, and this preliminary analysis suggests that a ban of private firearm possession, or possibly a partial reduction in gun availability, might lower the rate of firearm-induced homicides. This, however, should not be seen as a policy recommendation, due to the limited data available to inform and parameterize the model. However, the model clearly defines what needs to be measured, and provides a basis for a scientific discussion about assumptions and data.

  16. Interspecific correlates of plasticity in relative growth rate following a decrease in nitrogen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Antonio; Shipley, Bill

    2010-02-01

    Nitrogen availability varies greatly over short time scales. This requires that a well-adapted plant modify its phenotype by an appropriate amount and at a certain speed in order to maximize growth and fitness. To determine how plastic ontogenetic changes in each trait interact and whether or not these changes are likely to maximize growth, ontogenetic changes in relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), specific leaf area (SLA) and root weight ratio (RWR), before and after a decrease in nitrogen supply, were studied in 14 herbaceous species. Forty-four plants of each species were grown in hydroponic culture under controlled conditions in a control treatment where the supply of nitrogen remained constant at 1 mm, and in a stress treatment where the nitrogen supply was abruptly decreased from 1 to 0.01 mm during the growth period. In the treatment series, and in comparison with the control, NAR and RGR decreased, RWR increased, and SLA did not change except for the timing of ontogenetic change. Species having greater increases in the maximum rate of change in RWR also had smaller reductions in RGR; plasticity in RWR is therefore adaptive. In contrast, species which showed a greater decrease in NAR showed stronger reductions in RGR; plasticity in NAR is therefore not adaptive. Plasticity in RGR was not related to plasticity in SLA. There were no significant relationships among the plasticities in NAR, RWR or SLA. Potentially fast-growing species experienced larger reductions in RGR following the nitrogen reduction. These results suggest that competitive responses to interspecific competition for nitrogen might be positively correlated with the plasticity in the maximum rate of change in RWR in response to a reduction in nitrogen supply.

  17. Consanguinity and reproductive health among Arabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ali Mahmoud T

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consanguineous marriages have been practiced since the early existence of modern humans. Until now consanguinity is widely practiced in several global communities with variable rates depending on religion, culture, and geography. Arab populations have a long tradition of consanguinity due to socio-cultural factors. Many Arab countries display some of the highest rates of consanguineous marriages in the world, and specifically first cousin marriages which may reach 25-30% of all marriages. In some countries like Qatar, Yemen, and UAE, consanguinity rates are increasing in the current generation. Research among Arabs and worldwide has indicated that consanguinity could have an effect on some reproductive health parameters such as postnatal mortality and rates of congenital malformations. The association of consanguinity with other reproductive health parameters, such as fertility and fetal wastage, is controversial. The main impact of consanguinity, however, is an increase in the rate of homozygotes for autosomal recessive genetic disorders. Worldwide, known dominant disorders are more numerous than known recessive disorders. However, data on genetic disorders in Arab populations as extracted from the Catalogue of Transmission Genetics in Arabs (CTGA database indicate a relative abundance of recessive disorders in the region that is clearly associated with the practice of consanguinity.

  18. Significance of experts' overall ratings for medical student competence in relation to history-taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ernesto de Almeida Troncon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Overall ratings (ORs of competence, given by expert physicians, are increasingly used in clinical skills assessments. Nevertheless, the influence of specific components of competence on ORs is incompletely understood. The aim here was to investigate whether ORs for medical student history-taking competence are influenced by performance relating to communication skills, completeness of questioning and asking contentdriven key questions. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive, quantitative study at Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Thirty-six medical students were examined in a 15-station high-stake objective structured clinical examination (OSCE. At four stations devoted to history-taking, examiners filled out checklists covering the components investigated and independently rated students’ overall performance using a five-point scale from 1 (poor to 5 (excellent. Physician ratings were aggregated for each student. Nonparametric correlations were made between ORs. RESULTS: ORs presented significant correlations with checklist scores (Spearman’s rs = 0.38; p = 0.02 and OSCE general results (rs = 0.52; p < 0.001. Scores for "communication skills" tended to correlate with ORs (rs = 0.31, but without reaching significance (p = 0.06. Neither the scores for "completeness" (rs = 0.26; p = 0.11 nor those for "asking key questions" (rs = 0.07; p = 0.60 correlated with ORs. CONCLUSIONS: Experts’ overall ratings for medical student competence regarding history-taking is likely to encompass a particular dimension, since ratings were only weakly influenced by specific components of performance.

  19. Relative Impacts of Low Permeability Subsurface Deposits on Recharge Basin Infiltration Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oconnell, P.; Becker, M.; Pham, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Hutchinson, A.; Plumlee, M.

    2017-12-01

    Artificial recharge of aquifers through spreading basins has become an important component of water management in semi-arid climates. The rate at which water can be recharged in these basins is limited by the natural vertical permeability of the underlying deposits which may be highly variable both laterally and vertically. To help understand hydrostratigraphic controls on recharge, a newly constructed basin was surveyed and instrumented. Prior to flooding the basin, lithology was characterized by shallow hand coring, direct push coring, ground penetrating radar, and electrical resistivity. After flooding, recharge was monitored through piezometers, electrical resistivity, and a network of fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS). The DTS network used temperature as a tracer to measure infiltration rate on 25 cm intervals both laterally and vertically. Several hundred paired DTS time series datasets (from fiber optic cables located at 0 and 0.5 meters below ground surface) were processed with the cross-wavelet transform (XWT) to calculate spatially and temporally continuous infiltration rates, which can be interpolated and animated to visualize heterogeneity. Time series data from 8-meter deep, vertically oriented DTS cables reveal depth intervals where infiltration rates vary. Inverted resistivity sections from repeated dipole-dipole surveys along the sidewall of a spreading basin exhibit a positive correlation with the distribution of relatively high and low infiltration rates, indicating zones of preferential downward (efficient) and lateral (inefficient) flow, respectively. In contrast to other monitored basins, no perching was observed in the vertically oriented DTS cables. The variation in recharge across the basin and the appearance of subsurface lateral flow can be explained in context of the alluvial depositional environment.

  20. The mass-metallicity-star formation rate relation under the STARLIGHT microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlickmann, M.; Vale Asari, N.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Stasińska, G.

    2014-10-01

    The correlation between stellar mass and gas-phase oxygen abundance (M-Z relation) has been known for decades. The slope and scatter of this trend is strongly dependent on galaxy evolution: Chemical enrichment in a galaxy is driven by its star formation history, which in turn depends on its secular evolution and interaction with other galaxies and intergalactic gas. In last couple of years, the M-Z relation has been studied as a function of a third parameter: the recent star formation rate (SFR) as calibrated by the Hα luminosity, which traces stars formed in the last 10 Myr. This mass-metallicity-SFR relation has been reported to be very tight. This result puts strong constraints on galaxy evolution models in low and high redshifts, informing which models of infall and outflow of gas are acceptable. We explore the mass-metallicity-SFR relation in light of the SDSS-STARLIGHT database put together by our group. We find that we recover similar results as the ones reported by authors who use the MPA/JHU catalogue. We also present some preliminary results exploring the mass-metallicity-SFR relation in a more detailed fashion: starlight recovers a galaxy's full star formation history, and not only its recent SFR.

  1. Relation between climate and diesel fuel rate consumption for sugar cane agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte Hernandez, Aramis; Rivero Vega, Roger

    2005-01-01

    In the present work, some results are shown of a study carried out within the ENERCLIMA project. The principal objective was to establish the relationship between diesel fuel rate consumption by agricultural equipment in activities related to sugar cane production and simple climatic variables. Through a statistical analysis, we show the possibility of obtaining statistical models of an acceptable confidence level, as applied to some of these activities, which could be used in order to plan more rationally the level of fuel consumption of the agricultural companies with access to meteorological stations located nearby

  2. The impact of child welfare legislation on domestic violence-related homicide rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Kabir; Pacheco, Gail

    2018-05-01

    State-specific statutes providing legal consequences for perpetrating domestic violence in the presence of a child have been enacted across the United States between 1996 and 2012. This paper examines the impact of this child welfare legislation, using a difference-in-differences approach. We find a significant drop in domestic violence-related homicide rates, when considering a wide range of victim-offender relationships. However, this result does not hold for marital homicides, suggesting that for this subpopulation, the risk of reprisal and consequent reduction in reporting may be counterbalancing the hypothesized deterrent impacts of the legislation. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Growth Rate and Relocation Movements of Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) Nestlings in Relation to Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gunnar R.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2012-01-01

    Relocation by dependent young is a survival strategy that occurs among a wide range of taxa. The Common Nighthawk (Chordeiles minor) lays its eggs on bare substrate and, once hatched, nestlings may relocate to new sites daily. We located and monitored eight Common Nighthawk nests in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, quantified inter-use-site distances in relation to nestling age, and calculated a nestling growth rate curve. Common Nighthawk nestlings grow in a nearly linear fashion. Nestlings moved up to 48 m in a single day and larger, older nestlings tended to move greater distances between daily use-sites.

  4. Age-related decreases in motor unit discharge rate and force control during isometric plantar flexion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, J; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, J

    2012-01-01

    Aging is related to multiple changes in muscle physiology and function. Previous findings concerning the effects of aging on motor unit discharge rate (DR) and fluctuations in DR and force are somewhat contradictory. Eight YOUNG and nine OLD physically active males performed isometric ramp (RECR......) and isotonic (ISO) plantar flexions at 10 and 20% of surface EMG at MVC. Motor unit (MU) action potentials were recorded with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes and decomposed with custom build software "Daisy". DR was lower in OLD in RECR-10% (17.9%, p...

  5. Advanced reproductive age and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kimberly; Case, Allison

    2011-11-01

    To improve awareness of the natural age-related decline in female and male fertility with respect to natural fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and provide recommendations for their management, and to review investigations in the assessment of ovarian aging. This guideline reviews options for the assessment of ovarian reserve and fertility treatments using ART with women of advanced reproductive age presenting with infertility. The outcomes measured are the predictive value of ovarian reserve testing and pregnancy rates with natural and assisted fertility. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed or Medline, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in June 2010, using appropriate key words (ovarian aging, ovarian reserve, advanced maternal age, advanced paternal age, ART). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated into the guideline to December 2010. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table). Primary and specialist health care providers and women will be better informed about ovarian aging and the age-related decline in natural fertility and about options for assisted reproductive technology. 1. Women in their 20s and 30s should be counselled about the age-related risk of infertility when other reproductive health issues, such as sexual health or contraception, are addressed as part of their primary well-woman care. Reproductive-age women should be aware that natural fertility and assisted reproductive technology success (except with egg donation) is significantly lower for women in their late 30s and 40s. (II-2A) 2. Because of the decline in fertility and the

  6. Caregiver awareness of reproductive health issues for women with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited attention has been paid to the issue of reproductive health as it affects women with intellectual disabilities, despite reproductive health being a vital issue in public health policy for women in the general population. This paper describes caregiver awareness of reproductive health issues relative to women with intellectual disabilities who are being cared for in welfare institutions in Taiwan. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study which recruited 1,152 caregivers (response rate = 71.87% from 32 registered disability welfare institutions in Taiwan. We classified their understanding/awareness of reproductive health issues into four domains: menstrual (1 and menopause (2 issues, sex education (3, and reproductive health services (4. Each domain had five associated yes/no questions and the total score for the four domains was out of a maximum of 20. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software. Results We found that most of the caregivers were familiar with matters concerning sex education, menopause, and reproductive health services, but they lacked adequate understanding of issues associated with menstruation in women with ID. Many aspects of reproductive health such as "menstrual pain", "age at menarche", "masturbation", "diet during perimenopause", and "publicly available reproductive health services" were issues in which caregivers lacked adequate knowledge and required further instruction. Logistic regression analysis revealed that female caregivers with a university degree, and those who had experience assisting with reproductive health care were more inclined to have higher reproductive health awareness scores than their counterparts. Conclusions This study highlights that service providers should offer appropriate reproductive health education to institutional caregivers, and that more attention be focused on the personal experiences and concerns of intellectually disabled

  7. Investigation of anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations in relation to natural conception rate and time to pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsholm, Anne-Sofie; Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Bentzen, Janne Gasseholm; Hilsted, Linda Maria; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Hvidman, Helene Westring

    2018-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate whether anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations can predict pregnancy rates and time to pregnancy (TTP) in women attempting to conceive naturally/having an unplanned conception, and whether there is a lower AMH threshold compatible with natural conception. This prospective cohort study included 260 women aged 25-42 years in two subcohorts: (A) healthcare workers at Rigshospitalet (2008-2010), and (B) women consulting the Fertility Assessment and Counselling Clinic (2011-2014), Rigshospitalet, Denmark. Pregnancy rates and TTP at 2-year follow-up were stratified into AMH groups: low: 33 pmol/l. Pregnancy rates increased with increasing AMH: 60.1% (low) versus 70.0% (intermediate) versus 78.3% (high) (P = 0.03). The highest pregnancy rate (84.1%) was seen in regular cycling women with high AMH. TTP was reduced in women with high AMH compared with intermediate or low AMH (stepwise trend test P = 0.01). Natural conceptions were observed with AMH concentrations down to 1.2 pmol/l. In conclusion, high AMH, especially in ovulatory women, was associated with higher pregnancy rates. Nonetheless, TTP reflected a large variation in fecundity within similar AMH concentrations and natural conceptions occurred with AMH down to 1.2 pmol/l. Copyright © 2018 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Persistent smoking rate after coronary revascularization and factors related to smoking cessation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Kudret; Sezai Yildiz, Süleyman; Çetinkal, Gökhan; Çetin, Sükrü; Sigirci, Serhat; Kilci, Hakan; Aksan, Gökhan; Helvaci, Füsun; Gürdal, Ahmet; Balaban Kocas, Betül; Arslan, Sükrü; Orta Kiliçkesmez, Kadriye

    2017-11-22

    Although smoking is an established risk factor for coronary artery disease, smoking cessation efforts, as part of a lifestyle change, have been disappointing so far. Therefore, assessing current smoking trends and identifying patients who are at risk of smoking continuation is of paramount importance. In this study, our aim was to assess current smoking rates after coronary revascularization as of 2017, and to define factors that potentially affect smoking cessation. Overall, 350 patients who had undergone coronary revascularization, either by percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery were included in this cross-sectional, observational study. Patients were queried for various sociodemographic characteristics and smoking habits. Disease related data were obtained from the hospital archives. The overall smoking rate was 57% after coronary revascularization. Age, bypass surgery and the occurrence of in-hospital adverse events were found to be independent predictors of smoking cessation in multivariate analysis. Despite efforts, smoking rates after coronary intervention remain substantially high. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach to smoking cessation that incorporates cardiac rehabilitation programs and medications should be implemented in clinical practice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Evolution of mitochondrial DNA and its relation to basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Zhao, Huabin; Lu, Xin

    2015-08-01

    Energy metabolism is essential for the survival of animals, which can be characterized by maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and basal metabolic rate (BMR). Because of the crucial roles of mitochondria in energy metabolism, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been subjected to stronger purifying selection in strongly locomotive than weakly locomotive birds and mammals. Although maximum locomotive speed (an indicator of MMR) showed a negative correlation with the evolutionary rate of mtDNA, it is unclear whether BMR has driven the evolution of mtDNA. Here, we take advantage of the large amount of mtDNA and BMR data in 106 mammals to test whether BMR has influenced the mtDNA evolution. Our results showed that, in addition to the locomotive speed, mammals with higher BMR have subjected to stronger purifying selection on mtDNA than did those with lower BMR. The evolution of mammalian mtDNA has been modified by two levels of energy metabolism, including MMR and BMR. Our study provides a more comprehensive view of mtDNA evolution in relation to energy metabolism.

  10. Relative effect of dose-rate values and fractionation on late responding tissues and tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malgieri, F.

    1995-01-01

    There are currently available different facilities for radiotherapy also with regard to the dose-rate values (in the ranges LDR - MDR - HDR), sometimes used alternatively or subsequently for the same tumour. We have set up a 'unitary' L-Q model, based on Liversage's and Dale's works, that explicitly include also the dose-rate value and a correction factor of the β parameter depending on the sublethal damage repair time constant, on the length of time of each irradiation and on the time interval between following irradiation for to realize the effect of the incomplete repair when the time interval is short as, for example, in the PLDR. This 'unitary' L-Q model is, of course, usable in the same way both for external beam therapy and for curietherapy and make possible to compute and compare, for each kind of tumour and normal tissue, the relative effect of the different available modality of radiotherapy also with regard to the dose-rate. We show and discuss the resulting relationships of the ratio BED 'late'/BED tumour changing the time-dose parameters and the values of the biological characteristic parameters T p , α/β and μ, for defined size of tumour control and different value of the doserate

  11. Rate of antioxidant degradation and color variations in dehydrated apples as related to water activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Vera; Vantaggi, Claudia

    2009-06-10

    Dehydrated apples were studied to evaluate the effects of water activity on the stability of their antioxidants and color. Apples were freeze-dried, ground, then equilibrated, and stored at eight water activity levels, ranging from 0.058 to 0.747, at 40 degrees C. Their contents of hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, catechin, epicatechin, polymeric flavan-3-ols, and hydroxymethylfurfural, their antioxidant activity values, and their Hunter colorimetric parameters were analyzed at different storage times. Antioxidant degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and was accelerated by increasing the water activity. The order of antioxidant stability in the products at water activity levels below 0.316 was catechin, epicatechin, and ascorbic acid acid acid; however, in the products at water activity levels above 0.316, the degradation of all antioxidants was very fast. The hydroxymethylfurfural formation rate increased exponentially during storage, especially at high water activity levels. The antioxidant activity of the dehydrated apples decreased during storage, consistent with antioxidant loss. The variations of the colorimetric parameters, namely, lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*), followed pseudo-zero-order kinetics and were accelerated by increasing water activity. All analytical indices indicated that the dehydrated apples were stable at water activity levels below 0.316, with the degradation rate accelerating upon exposure to higher relative humidities. Above 0.316, a small increase in water activity of the product would sharply increase the degradation rate constants for both antioxidant and color variations.

  12. International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies world report: Assisted Reproductive Technology 2008, 2009 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, S; Chambers, G M; de Mouzon, J; Nygren, K G; Zegers-Hochschild, F; Mansour, R; Ishihara, O; Banker, M; Adamson, G D

    2016-07-01

    What were utilization, outcomes and practices in assisted reproductive technology (ART) globally in 2008, 2009 and 2010? Global utilization and effectiveness remained relatively constant despite marked variations among countries, while the rate of single and frozen embryo transfers (FETs) increased with a concomitant slight reduction in multiple birth rates. ART is widely practised in all regions of the world. Monitoring utilization, an approximation of availability and access, as well as effectiveness and safety is an important component of universal access to reproductive health. This is a retrospective, cross-sectional survey on utilization, effectiveness and safety of ART procedures performed globally from 2008 to 2010. Between 58 and 61 countries submitted data from a total of nearly 2500 ART clinics each year. Aggregate country data were processed and analyzed based on forms and methods developed by the International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ICMART). Results are presented at country, regional and global level. For the years 2008, 2009 and 2010, >4 461 309 ART cycles were initiated, resulting in an estimated 1 144 858 babies born. The number of aspirations increased by 6.4% between 2008 and 2010, while FET cycles increased by 27.6%. Globally, ART utilization remained relatively constant at 436 cycles/million in 2008 and 474 cycles/million population in 2010, but with a wide country range of 8-4775 cycles/million population. ICSI remained constant at around 66% of non-donor aspiration cycles. The IVF/ICSI combined delivery rate (DR) per fresh aspiration was 19.8% in 2008; 19.7% in 2009 and 20.0% in 2010, with corresponding DRs for FET of 18.8, 19.7 and 20.7%. In fresh non-donor cycles, single embryo transfer increased from 25.7% in 2008 to 30.0% in 2010, while the average number of embryos transferred fell from 2.1 to 1.9, again with wide regional variation. The rates of twin deliveries following fresh non-donor transfers

  13. New Insights into Non-Avian Dinosaur Reproduction and Their Evolutionary and Ecological Implications: Linking Fossil Evidence to Allometries of Extant Close Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a high reproductive output contributes to the unique gigantism in large dinosaur taxa. In order to infer more information on dinosaur reproduction, we established allometries between body mass and different reproductive traits (egg mass, clutch mass, annual clutch mass) for extant phylogenetic brackets (birds, crocodiles and tortoises) of extinct non-avian dinosaurs. Allometries were applied to nine non-avian dinosaur taxa (theropods, hadrosaurs, and sauropodomorphs) for which fossil estimates on relevant traits are currently available. We found that the reproductive traits of most dinosaurs conformed to similar-sized or scaled-up extant reptiles or birds. The reproductive traits of theropods, which are considered more bird-like, were indeed consistent with birds, while the traits of sauropodomorphs conformed better to reptiles. Reproductive traits of hadrosaurs corresponded to both reptiles and birds. Excluding Massospondylus carinatus , all dinosaurs studied had an intermediary egg to body mass relationship to reptiles and birds. In contrast, dinosaur clutch masses fitted with either the masses predicted from allometries of birds (theropods) or to the masses of reptiles (all other taxa). Theropods studied had probably one clutch per year. For sauropodomorphs and hadrosaurs, more than one clutch per year was predicted. Contrary to current hypotheses, large dinosaurs did not have exceptionally high annual egg numbers (AEN). Independent of the extant model, the estimated dinosaur AEN did not exceed 850 eggs (75,000 kg sauropod) for any of the taxa studied. This estimated maximum is probably an overestimation due to unrealistic assumptions. According to most AEN estimations, the dinosaurs studied laid less than 200 eggs per year. Only some AEN estimates obtained for medium to large sized sauropods were higher (200-400 eggs). Our results provide new (testable) hypotheses, especially for reproductive traits that are insufficiently

  14. New insights into non-avian dinosaur reproduction and their evolutionary and ecological implications: linking fossil evidence to allometries of extant close relatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Werner

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that a high reproductive output contributes to the unique gigantism in large dinosaur taxa. In order to infer more information on dinosaur reproduction, we established allometries between body mass and different reproductive traits (egg mass, clutch mass, annual clutch mass for extant phylogenetic brackets (birds, crocodiles and tortoises of extinct non-avian dinosaurs. Allometries were applied to nine non-avian dinosaur taxa (theropods, hadrosaurs, and sauropodomorphs for which fossil estimates on relevant traits are currently available. We found that the reproductive traits of most dinosaurs conformed to similar-sized or scaled-up extant reptiles or birds. The reproductive traits of theropods, which are considered more bird-like, were indeed consistent with birds, while the traits of sauropodomorphs conformed better to reptiles. Reproductive traits of hadrosaurs corresponded to both reptiles and birds. Excluding Massospondyluscarinatus, all dinosaurs studied had an intermediary egg to body mass relationship to reptiles and birds. In contrast, dinosaur clutch masses fitted with either the masses predicted from allometries of birds (theropods or to the masses of reptiles (all other taxa. Theropods studied had probably one clutch per year. For sauropodomorphs and hadrosaurs, more than one clutch per year was predicted. Contrary to current hypotheses, large dinosaurs did not have exceptionally high annual egg numbers (AEN. Independent of the extant model, the estimated dinosaur AEN did not exceed 850 eggs (75,000 kg sauropod for any of the taxa studied. This estimated maximum is probably an overestimation due to unrealistic assumptions. According to most AEN estimations, the dinosaurs studied laid less than 200 eggs per year. Only some AEN estimates obtained for medium to large sized sauropods were higher (200-400 eggs. Our results provide new (testable hypotheses, especially for reproductive traits that are insufficiently

  15. New insights into non-avian dinosaur reproduction and their evolutionary and ecological implications: linking fossil evidence to allometries of extant close relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jan; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a high reproductive output contributes to the unique gigantism in large dinosaur taxa. In order to infer more information on dinosaur reproduction, we established allometries between body mass and different reproductive traits (egg mass, clutch mass, annual clutch mass) for extant phylogenetic brackets (birds, crocodiles and tortoises) of extinct non-avian dinosaurs. Allometries were applied to nine non-avian dinosaur taxa (theropods, hadrosaurs, and sauropodomorphs) for which fossil estimates on relevant traits are currently available. We found that the reproductive traits of most dinosaurs conformed to similar-sized or scaled-up extant reptiles or birds. The reproductive traits of theropods, which are considered more bird-like, were indeed consistent with birds, while the traits of sauropodomorphs conformed better to reptiles. Reproductive traits of hadrosaurs corresponded to both reptiles and birds. Excluding Massospondyluscarinatus, all dinosaurs studied had an intermediary egg to body mass relationship to reptiles and birds. In contrast, dinosaur clutch masses fitted with either the masses predicted from allometries of birds (theropods) or to the masses of reptiles (all other taxa). Theropods studied had probably one clutch per year. For sauropodomorphs and hadrosaurs, more than one clutch per year was predicted. Contrary to current hypotheses, large dinosaurs did not have exceptionally high annual egg numbers (AEN). Independent of the extant model, the estimated dinosaur AEN did not exceed 850 eggs (75,000 kg sauropod) for any of the taxa studied. This estimated maximum is probably an overestimation due to unrealistic assumptions. According to most AEN estimations, the dinosaurs studied laid less than 200 eggs per year. Only some AEN estimates obtained for medium to large sized sauropods were higher (200-400 eggs). Our results provide new (testable) hypotheses, especially for reproductive traits that are insufficiently documented

  16. The reproductive pattern and potential of free ranging female wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmsten, Anna; Jansson, Gunnar; Lundeheim, Nils; Dalin, Anne-Marie

    2017-08-01

    The number and spatial distribution of wild boars (Sus scrofa) has increased remarkably in Sweden as well as in other European countries. To understand the population dynamics of the wild boar, knowledge of its reproductive period, oestrus cycle and reproductive success is essential. The aim of this study was therefore to describe the seasonal reproductive pattern and reproductive potential of a wild boar population in Sweden. The study was based on findings from macroscopic examinations of the reproductive organs from 575 hunter-harvested female wild boars (>30 kg body weight). Samples were collected between December 2011 and December 2015 in the southern and middle parts of Sweden. The age of the sampled animals was determined and dressed weight was noted. The stage of the reproductive cycle was defined according to ovarian structures and in relation to the appearance of/and findings in the uterus. The crown-rump length (CRL) of the embryos/foetuses was used to calculate the oestrus/mating month and month for the expected farrowing. The macroscopic examination revealed a seasonal variation of reproductive stages, although cyclic and pregnant females were found in all seasons. Moreover, the estimated oestrus/mating and farrowing months based on the CRL showed that mating and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. The average litter size (no. of embryos or foetuses) per pregnant female was 5.4. Sow weight and age had significant effect on both the reproductive potential (ovulation rate and litter size) and pregnancy rate, respectively. The reproductive potential in the studied wild boar population was high compared to studies from other countries and farrowing may occur 'off-season'. This suggests that the environmental conditions in Sweden, including supplemental feeding, are favourable for wild boar reproduction.

  17. Relating high-temperature flow stress of AISI 316 stainless steel to strain and strain rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteazzi, S.; Paitti, G.; Boerman, D.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have performed an experimental determination of tensile stress-strain curves for different strain rates (4.67 x 10 - 5 , 4.67 x 10 - 2 s - 1 ) and for a variety of temperature conditions (773-1073 K) of AISI 316H stainless steel (annealed conditions) and also a computer analysis of the experimental curves using a fitting program which takes into consideration different constitutive relations describing the plastic flow behaviour of the metals. The results show that the materials tested are clearly affected by strain rate only at the highest temperature investigated (1073 K) and that the plastic strain is the more significant variable. Of the constitutive equations considered, Voce's relation gives the best fit for the true stress-time-strain curves. However, the Ludwik and Ludwigson equations also provide a description of the experimental data, whereas Hollomon's equation does not suitably characterize AISI 316H stainless steel and can be applied with some accuracy only at 1073 K. (author)

  18. Spontaneous eye blink rate as predictor of dopamine-related cognitive function-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongkees, Bryant J; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2016-12-01

    An extensive body of research suggests the spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR) is a non-invasive indirect marker of central dopamine (DA) function, with higher EBR predicting higher DA function. In the present review we provide a comprehensive overview of this literature. We broadly divide the available research in studies that aim to disentangle the dopaminergic underpinnings of EBR, investigate its utility in diagnosis of DA-related disorders and responsivity to drug treatment, and, lastly, investigate EBR as predictor of individual differences in DA-related cognitive performance. We conclude (i) EBR can reflect both DA receptor subtype D1 and D2 activity, although baseline EBR might be most strongly related to the latter, (ii) EBR can predict hypo- and hyperdopaminergic activity as well as normalization of this activity following treatment, and (iii) EBR can reliably predict individual differences in performance on many cognitive tasks, in particular those related to reward-driven behavior and cognitive flexibility. In sum, this review establishes EBR as a useful predictor of DA in a wide variety of contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Medication-related problem type and appearance rate in ambulatory hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drayer Debra K

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemodialysis (HD patients are at risk for medication-related problems (MRP. The MRP number, type, and appearance rate over time in ambulatory HD patients has not been investigated. Methods Randomly selected HD patients were enrolled to receive monthly pharmaceutical care visits. At each visit, MRP were identified through review of the patient chart, electronic medical record, patient interview, and communications with other healthcare disciplines. All MRP were categorized by type and medication class. MRP appearance rate was determined as the number of MRP identified per month/number of months in study. The number of MRP per patient-drug exposures were determined using: {[(number of patients × (mean number of medications]/(number of months of study} /number of MRP identified. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation or percentages. Results Patients were 62.6 ± 15.9 years old, had 6.4 ± 2.0 comorbid conditions, were taking 12.5 ± 4.2 medications, and 15.7 ± 7.2 doses per day at baseline. Medication-dosing problems (33.5%, adverse drug reactions (20.7%, and an indication that was not currently being treated (13.5% were the most common MRP. 5,373 medication orders were reviewed and a MRP was identified every 15.2 medication exposures. Overall MRP appearance rate was 0.68 ± 0.46 per patient per month. Conclusion MRP continue to occur at a high rate in ambulatory HD patients. Healthcare providers taking care of HD patients should be aware of this problem and efforts to avoid or resolve MRP should be undertaken at all HD clinics.

  20. Lifestyle-related attitudes: do they explain self-rated health and life-satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, A Simon; Jalundhwala, Yash J; Bewsher, Helen; Sharp, Lisa K; Walton, Surrey M; Schumock, Glen T; Caskey, Rachel N

    2018-05-01

    Strategies to improve public health may benefit from targeting specific lifestyles associated with poor health behaviors and outcomes. The aim of this study was to characterize and examine the relationship between health and lifestyle-related attitudes (HLAs) and self-rated health and life-satisfaction. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from a 2012 community wellness survey in Kirklees, UK. Using a validated HLA tool, respondents (n = 9130) were categorized into five segments: health conscious realists (33%), balanced compensators (14%), live-for-todays (18%), hedonistic immortals (10%), and unconfident fatalists (25%). Multivariate regression was used to examine whether HLAs could explain self-rated health using the EQ-5D visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) and life-satisfaction. Health conscious realists served as the reference group. Self-rated health differed by HLA, with adjusted mean EQ-VAS scores being significantly higher (better) among balanced compensators (1.15, 95% CI 0.27, 2.03) and lower scores among unconfident fatalists (- 9.02, 95% CI - 9.85, - 8.21) and live-for-todays (- 1.96, 95% CI - 2.80, - 1.14). Balanced compensators were less likely to report low life-satisfaction (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.62, 0.90), while unconfident fatalists were most likely to have low life-satisfaction (OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.92, 4.23). Segmentation by HLA explained differences in self-rated health and life-satisfaction, with unconfident fatalists being a distinct segment with significantly worse health perceptions and life-satisfaction. Health promotion efforts may benefit from considering the HLA segment that predominates a patient group, especially unconfident fatalists.

  1. Surface applicators for high dose rate brachytherapy in AIDS-related kaposi's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Michael D.C.; Yassa, Mariam; Podgorsak, Ervin B.; Roman, Ted N.; Schreiner, L. John; Souhami, Luis

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The development of commercially available surface applicators using high dose rate remote afterloading devices has enabled radiotherapy centers to treat selected superficial lesions using a remote afterloading brachytherapy unit. The dosimetric parameters of these applicators, the clinical implementation of this technique, and a review of the initial patient treatment regimes are presented. Methods and Materials: A set of six fixed-diameter (1, 2, and 3 cm), tungsten/steel surface applicators is available for use with a single stepping-source (Ir-192, 370 GBq) high dose rate afterloader. The source can be positioned either in a parallel or perpendicular orientation to the treatment plane at the center of a conical aperture that sits at an SSD of approximately 15 mm and is used with a 1-mm thick removable plastic cap. The surface dose rates, percent depth dose, and off-axis ratios were measured. A custom-built, ceiling-mounted immobilization device secures the applicator on the surface of the patient's lesion during treatment. Results: Between November 1994, and September 1996, 16 AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma patients having a total of 120 lesions have been treated with palliative intent. Treatment sites were distributed between the head and neck, extremity, and torso. Doses ranged from 8 to 20 Gy, with a median dose of 10 Gy delivered in a single fraction. Treatments were well tolerated with minimal skin reaction, except for patients with lesions treated to 20 Gy who developed moderate/severe desquamation. Conclusion: Radiotherapy centers equipped with a high dose rate remote afterloading unit may treat small selected surface lesions with commercially available surface applicators. These surface applicators must be used with a protective cap to eliminate electron contamination. The optimal surface dose appears to be either 10 or 15 Gy depending upon the height of the lesion

  2. Reproductive Disorders in Snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Selleri, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Reproduction of snakes is one of the challenging aspects of herpetology medicine. Due to the complexity of reproduction, several disorders may present before, during, or after this process. This article describes the physical examination, and radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic findings associated with reproductive disorders in snakes. Surgical techniques used to resolve reproductive disorders in snakes are described. Finally, common reproductive disorders in snakes are individually discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reproductive strategy, sexual development and attraction to facial characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, R Elisabeth; Law Smith, Miriam J; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Moore, Fhionna R; Davis, Hasker P; Stirrat, Michael; Tiddeman, Bernard; Perrett, David I

    2006-12-29

    Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex are two developmental milestones that have been associated with reproductive strategies. Stress during early development can retard or accelerate sexual maturation and reproduction. Early age of menarche is associated with absence of younger siblings, absence of a father figure during early life and increased weight. Father absence during early life is also associated with early marriage, pregnancy and divorce. Choice of partner characteristics is critical to successful implementation of sexual strategies. It has been suggested that sexually dimorphic traits (including those evident in the face) signal high-quality immune function and reproductive status. Masculinity in males has also been associated with low investment in mate and offspring. Thus, women's reproductive strategy should be matched to the probability of male investment, hence to male masculinity. Our review leads us to predict associations between the rate of sexual maturation and adult preferences for facial characteristics (enhanced sexual dimorphism and attractiveness). We find for men, engaging in sex at an early age is related to an increased preference for feminized female faces. Similarly, for women, the earlier the age of first sex the greater the preference for masculinity in opposite-sex faces. When we controlled sexual dimorphism in male faces, the speed of sexual development in women was not associated with differences in preference for male facial attractiveness. These developmental influences on partner choice were not mediated by self-rated attractiveness or parental relationships. We conclude that individuals assort in preferences based on

  4. Reproductive strategy, sexual development and attraction to facial characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, R. Elisabeth; Law Smith, Miriam J; Boothroyd, Lynda G; Moore, Fhionna R; Davis, Hasker P; Stirrat, Michael; Tiddeman, Bernard; Perrett, David I

    2006-01-01

    Sexual reproduction strategies vary both between and within species in the level of investment in offspring. Life-history theories suggest that the rate of sexual maturation is critically linked to reproductive strategy, with high investment being associated with few offspring and delayed maturation. For humans, age of puberty and age of first sex are two developmental milestones that have been associated with reproductive strategies. Stress during early development can retard or accelerate sexual maturation and reproduction. Early age of menarche is associated with absence of younger siblings, absence of a father figure during early life and increased weight. Father absence during early life is also associated with early marriage, pregnancy and divorce. Choice of partner characteristics is critical to successful implementation of sexual strategies. It has been suggested that sexually dimorphic traits (including those evident in the face) signal high-quality immune function and reproductive status. Masculinity in males has also been associated with low investment in mate and offspring. Thus, women's reproductive strategy should be matched to the probability of male investment, hence to male masculinity. Our review leads us to predict associations between the rate of sexual maturation and adult preferences for facial characteristics (enhanced sexual dimorphism and attractiveness). We find for men, engaging in sex at an early age is related to an increased preference for feminized female faces. Similarly, for women, the earlier the age of first sex the greater the preference for masculinity in opposite-sex faces. When we controlled sexual dimorphism in male faces, the speed of sexual development in women was not associated with differences in preference for male facial attractiveness. These developmental influences on partner choice were not mediated by self-rated attractiveness or parental relationships. We conclude that individuals assort in preferences based on

  5. An empirical test of evolutionary theories for reproductive senescence and reproductive effort in the garter snake Thamnophis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkman, Amanda M; Arnold, Stevan J; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2007-04-07

    Evolutionary theory predicts that differential reproductive effort and rate of reproductive senescence will evolve under different rates of external mortality. We examine the evolutionary divergence of age-specific reproduction in two life-history ecotypes of the western terrestrial garter snake, Thamnophis elegans. We test for the signature of reproductive senescence (decreasing fecundity with age) and increasing reproductive effort with age (increasing reproductive productivity per gram female) in replicate populations of two life-history ecotypes: snakes that grow fast, mature young and have shorter lifespans, and snakes that grow slow, mature late and have long lives. The difference between life-history ecotypes is due to genetic divergence in growth rate. We find (i) reproductive success (live litter mass) increases with age in both ecotypes, but does so more rapidly in the fast-growth ecotype, (ii) reproductive failure increases with age in both ecotypes, but the proportion of reproductive failure to total reproductive output remains invariant, and (iii) reproductive effort remains constant in fast-growth individuals with age, but declines in slow-growth individuals. This illustration of increasing fecundity with age, even at the latest ages, deviates from standard expectations for reproductive senescence, as does the lack of increases in reproductive effort. We discuss our findings in light of recent theories regarding the phenomenon of increased reproduction throughout life in organisms with indeterminate growth and its potential to offset theoretical expectations for the ubiquity of senescence.

  6. Student standpoints relevant for future reproductive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuburović Ankica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the various standpoints of students on their motivation for parenthood, planning and deciding on birth giving, influence between marriage and parenthood, parent role complexity and responsibility, on the knowledge of effect and consequences of the problem of insufficient birth giving, with an aim of getting to know the main characteristics of their possible reproductive behavior. The analyzed standpoints are part of a more comprehensive and inclusive research, carried out on a sample of 1494 surveyed persons (1000 secondary-school pupils and 494 students in four biggest regional centers - Belgrade, Novi Sad, Kragujevac and Niš. The orientation only to student’s standpoints had an aim to more completely analyze the already abundant empirical material, which is acceptable due to the fact that students are closer to beginning of birth giving according to their age-situation characteristic. The willingness and desire of the students to become parents is significant, but this is only one of their varied life aspirations (importance of partnership, professional engagement…. The intention is to bring into accordance the realization of the most important roles, which actually indicates to a fairly uniform importance in satisfying the basic individual needs. Apart from that, the need for parenthood is dominantly emotional and altruistic, which can be satisfied by having only one child. Possible reproductive norms - which are directed to having two children, whereby they are higher than the current fertility rates, but also somewhat lower normatively determined expectations in relation to the desired number of children, as well as a significant orientation towards marriage and parenthood and the existence of the knowledge on the problem of the impossibility of simple reproduction and conscience of social need for population reproduction - represent a gap for realization of measures for motivating birth giving and parenthood

  7. Visual monitoring of reproduction in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Iver; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1994-01-01

    Two complementary approaches to produce visual information from reproduction records are described and exemplified. The Event Display shows all reproductive events, over a year, for all cows in a herd, by symbols placed in an array with columns representing calendar weeks and rows representing...... individual cows. The Reproduction Monitor consists of graphs of insemination and pregnancy rates evaluated weekly with a Bayesian technique. These visual monitoring tools are well suited to explore temporal variation in reproductive performance, they provide a quick overview of herd performance...

  8. Interactions for pollinator visitation and their consequences for reproduction in a plant community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegland, Stein Joar; Totland, Ørjan

    2012-08-01

    Competition and facilitation in species interactions attract much attention in ecology, but their relative importance has seldom been evaluated in a community context. We assessed competitive and facilitative interactions for pollinator visitation among co-flowering species in a plant community, investigated the subsequent consequences for plant reproduction, and investigated whether effects could be trait-based. We removed the flowers of two species attractive to pollinators, in two separate experiments and assessed the effects on pollinator visitation rates and components of reproductive success in 11 co-flowering focal herb species. Overall, most focal species appear not to interact with the removal species with respect to pollinator visitation and subsequent reproduction (neutral interactions). Three focal species in the community had significantly higher reproductive responses (fruit production and seed weight) in the presence of the attractive removal species (facilitative interactions), but species interaction effects were less pronounced in species' flower visitation rates. A community-wide meta-analysis demonstrated that the two experiments did not have a significant effect on either facilitation or competition, and that there was no overall correlation between effect sizes for visitation and reproduction. Based on species-specific responses, it seems likely that floral traits such as similar flower colors contribute to interspecific facilitation of pollinator visitation and, in particular, that high pollinator dependence for plant reproduction, and associated pollen limitation, may contribute to subsequent interaction effects on reproduction in the focal species.

  9. Similar star formation rate and metallicity variability time-scales drive the fundamental metallicity relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars; McKinnon, Ryan; Marinacci, Federico; Simcoe, Robert A.; Springel, Volker; Pillepich, Annalisa; Naiman, Jill; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Weinberger, Rainer; Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy

    2018-06-01

    The fundamental metallicity relation (FMR) is a postulated correlation between galaxy stellar mass, star formation rate (SFR), and gas-phase metallicity. At its core, this relation posits that offsets from the mass-metallicity relation (MZR) at a fixed stellar mass are correlated with galactic SFR. In this Letter, we use hydrodynamical simulations to quantify the time-scales over which populations of galaxies oscillate about the average SFR and metallicity values at fixed stellar mass. We find that Illustris and IllustrisTNG predict that galaxy offsets from the star formation main sequence and MZR oscillate over similar time-scales, are often anticorrelated in their evolution, evolve with the halo dynamical time, and produce a pronounced FMR. Our models indicate that galaxies oscillate about equilibrium SFR and metallicity values - set by the galaxy's stellar mass - and that SFR and metallicity offsets evolve in an anticorrelated fashion. This anticorrelated variability of the metallicity and SFR offsets drives the existence of the FMR in our models. In contrast to Illustris and IllustrisTNG, we speculate that the SFR and metallicity evolution tracks may become decoupled in galaxy formation models dominated by feedback-driven globally bursty SFR histories, which could weaken the FMR residual correlation strength. This opens the possibility of discriminating between bursty and non-bursty feedback models based on the strength and persistence of the FMR - especially at high redshift.

  10. Differentiation of pain ratings in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Anja; Geuze, Elbert; Schmahl, Christian; Greffrath, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Bohus, Martin; Vermetten, Eric

    2009-06-01

    Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with chronic pain, preliminary evidence suggests reduced experimental pain sensitivity in this disorder. The questions addressed in the present study were whether pain perception would also be reduced in PTSD patients who are not suffering from chronic pain symptoms, and whether a reduction in pain sensitivity would also be present in combat veterans who did not develop PTSD. For this, we determined thermal detection and pain thresholds in 10 male combat-related PTSD patients, 10 combat control subjects (no PTSD) and 10 healthy controls without combat experience. All subjects were pain free. First, we measured thermal sensory thresholds with ramped heat and cold stimuli using the method of limits. Ramped thermal sensory stimulation revealed no deficits for the detection of (non-noxious) f2.1thermal stimuli between groups. In contrast, heat and cold pain thresholds in both combat groups (PTSD and combat controls) were significantly increased compared to healthy controls. However, these stimuli could not distinguish between the two groups due to ceiling effects. When using longer-lasting heat stimulation at different temperatures (30s duration; method of fixed stimuli), we found significantly lower frequency of pain reports in PTSD patients compared with both combat and healthy controls, as well as significantly lower pain ratings. Our results suggest an association of PTSD with reduced pain sensitivity, which could be related to PTSD-related (neuro-)psychological alterations or to a pre-existing risk factor for the disorder.

  11. LIFE CYCLE, DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF CARCINONEMERTES EPIALTI, A NEMERTEAN EGG PREDATOR OF THE SHORE CRAB, HEMIGRAPSUS OREGONENSIS, IN RELATION TO HOST SIZE, REPRODUCTION AND MOLT CYCLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuris, Armand M

    1978-02-01

    1. The geographic range of Carcinonemertes epialti has been greatly extended. The worms are found from Bahia San Quintin, Baja California, Mexico, to Page's Lagoon, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. 2. New host records for C. epialti include H. oregonensis, and H. nudus. It is rare on its type host Pugettia producta. Specimens of Carcinonemertes of uncertain affinities are also found on Cancer antennarius, C. anthonyi and C. productus. 3. Carcinonemertes epialti adults are egg predators on ovigerous hosts. Growth, demography and abundance are described in relation to the embryogenic stage of the host brood at Bodega Harbor, California. 4. Nonfeeding juveniles are ensheathed on individuals of both host sexes over 8.0 mm carapace width. 5. Transmission experiments show that contact transfer of juvenile nemerteans from males to other hosts may occur. 6. The percentage of infestation and mean density peak in autumn on H. oregonensis at Bodega Harbor. 7. Ovigerous female hosts are more frequently infested with C. epialti, particularly at small host sizes, than are male or nonovigerous female hosts at Bodega Harbor. However, average worm density on ovigerous females is low. 8. Mean density of C. epialti rises through late postmolt, declines during intermolt and rebuilds to a high level in late premolt H. oregonensisfrom Bodega Harbor. 9. Large crabs have a higher percentage of infestations and mean densities per infection than do small crabs. Nemerteans are more frequently found in the sternal-abdominal furrow and less frequently in the limb axillae on large crabs. 10. A model of C. epialti transmission and site occupancy is proposed, incorporating the influence of host size, sex, reproductive state, embryogenesis, molt cycle stage and molt cycle duration of H. oregonensis at Bodega Harbor. Site availability increases with host size. At higher densities the juvenile nemerteans increasingly occupy less preferred sites. Transferral of juvenile nemerteans occurs

  12. Relation between reproduction performance and indicators of feed intake, fear and social stress in commercial herds with group-housed non-lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2006-01-01

    Group-housing of non-lactating sows is becomming increasingly widespread in commercial sow herds in European countries as a result of changed legislation. Group-housing may lead to individual variation in feed intake, stress and fear, which may impair the reproduction ferformance. However, whether...... or the outcome of three fear tests were found. The results indicate that the unintended individual variation in feed intake in sows group-housed in commercial herds may be large enough to affect the reproduction performance. This calls for management initiatives to reduce unequal feed intake in group-housed sows....

  13. Restricted reproductive rights and risky sexual behaviour: How political disenfranchisement relates to women's sense of control, well-being and sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msetfi, Rachel; Jay, Sarah; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Kearns, Michelle; Kinsella, Elaine L; McMahon, Jennifer; Muldoon, Orla T; Naughton, Catherine; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have investigated the role of disenfranchisement and denial of agency in women's sexual health. To address this, a cross-sectional study of disenfranchisement, control (general and reproductive control) and health was conducted in Ireland, where abortion is severely restricted. Multiple mediation models ( N = 513 women) indicated that general but not reproductive control mediates the association between disenfranchisement and psychological well-being. Additionally, serial mediation shows disenfranchisement is associated with lower sense of control, which is linked to poorer well-being and risky sexual behaviour. Disenfranchisement arising from socio-political contexts may have important implications for women's sexual health.

  14. Relating Complexity and Error Rates of Ontology Concepts. More Complex NCIt Concepts Have More Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hua; Zheng, Ling; Perl, Yehoshua; Halper, Michael; De Coronado, Sherri; Ochs, Christopher

    2017-05-18

    Ontologies are knowledge structures that lend support to many health-information systems. A study is carried out to assess the quality of ontological concepts based on a measure of their complexity. The results show a relation between complexity of concepts and error rates of concepts. A measure of lateral complexity defined as the number of exhibited role types is used to distinguish between more complex and simpler concepts. Using a framework called an area taxonomy, a kind of abstraction network that summarizes the structural organization of an ontology, concepts are divided into two groups along these lines. Various concepts from each group are then subjected to a two-phase QA analysis to uncover and verify errors and inconsistencies in their modeling. A hierarchy of the National Cancer Institute thesaurus (NCIt) is used as our test-bed. A hypothesis pertaining to the expected error rates of the complex and simple concepts is tested. Our study was done on the NCIt's Biological Process hierarchy. Various errors, including missing roles, incorrect role targets, and incorrectly assigned roles, were discovered and verified in the two phases of our QA analysis. The overall findings confirmed our hypothesis by showing a statistically significant difference between the amounts of errors exhibited by more laterally complex concepts vis-à-vis simpler concepts. QA is an essential part of any ontology's maintenance regimen. In this paper, we reported on the results of a QA study targeting two groups of ontology concepts distinguished by their level of complexity, defined in terms of the number of exhibited role types. The study was carried out on a major component of an important ontology, the NCIt. The findings suggest that more complex concepts tend to have a higher error rate than simpler concepts. These findings can be utilized to guide ongoing efforts in ontology QA.

  15. Relative rates of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production by nitrifiers, denitrifiers, and nitrate respirers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, I. C.; Levine, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the atmospheric chemical and photochemical effects of biogenic nitric and nitrous oxide emissions. The magnitude of the biogenic emission of NO is noted to remain uncertain. Possible soil sources of NO and N2O encompass nitrification by autotropic and heterotropic nitrifiers, denitrification by nitrifiers and denitrifiers, nitrate respiration by fermenters, and chemodenitrification. Oxygen availability is the primary determinant of these organisms' relative rates of activity. The characteristics of this major influence are presently investigated in light of the effect of oxygen partial pressure on NO and N2O production by a wide variety of common soil-nitrifying, denitrifying, and nitrate-respiring bacteria under laboratory conditions. The results obtained indicate that aerobic soils are primary sources only when there is sufficient moisture to furnish anaerobic microsites for denitrification.

  16. Observational study of the relationship between entrainment rate and relative dispersion in deep convective clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaohao; Lu, Chunsong; Zhao, Tianliang; Liu, Yangang; Zhang, Guang Jun; Luo, Shi

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of entrainment rate (λ) on relative dispersion (ε) of cloud droplet size distributions (CDSD) in the 99 growing precipitating deep convective clouds during TOGA-COARE. The results show that entrainment suppresses ε, which is opposite to the traditional understanding that entrainment-mixing broadens CDSD. To examine how the relationship between ε and λ is affected by droplets with different sizes, CDSDs are divided into three portions with droplet radius processes is developed to illustrate the possible scenarios entailing different relationships between ε and λ. The number concentration of small droplets and the degree of evaporation of small droplets are found to be key factors that shift the sign (i.e., positive or negative) of the ε-λ relationship.

  17. Dispersion relation and growth rate of a relativistic electron beam propagating through a Langmuir wave wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, H.; Jafari, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a theory of free-electron laser (FEL) with a Langmuir wave wiggler in the presence of an axial magnetic field has been presented. The small wavelength of the plasma wave (in the sub-mm range) allows obtaining higher frequency than conventional wiggler FELs. Electron trajectories have been obtained by solving the equations of motion for a single electron. In addition, a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method has been used to simulate the electron trajectories. Employing a perturbation analysis, the dispersion relation for an electromagnetic and space-charge waves has been derived by solving the momentum transfer, continuity, and wave equations. Numerical calculations show that the growth rate increases with increasing the e-beam energy and e-beam density, while it decreases with increasing the strength of the axial guide magnetic field.

  18. Relation between Silver Nanoparticle Formation Rate and Antioxidant Capacity of Aqueous Plant Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azat Akbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Correlation between the antioxidant capacity and silver nanoparticle formation rates of pomegranate (Punica granatum, quince (Cydonia oblonga, chestnut (Castanea sativa, fig (Ficus carica, walnut (Juglans cinerea, black mulberry (Morus nigra, and white mulberry (Morus alba leaf extracts is investigated at a fixed illumination. Silver nanoparticles formed in all plant leaf extracts possess round shapes with average particle size of 15 to 25 nm, whereas corresponding surface plasmon resonance peak wavelengths vary between 422 nm and 451 nm. Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity technique is used as a reference method to determine total antioxidant capacity of the plant leaf extracts. Integrated absorbance over the plasmon resonance peaks exhibits better linear relation with antioxidant capacities of various plant leaf extracts compared to peak absorbance values, with correlation coefficient values of 0.9333 and 0.7221, respectively.

  19. A Computational Study on the Relation between Resting Heart Rate and Atrial Fibrillation Hemodynamics under Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Scarsoglio, Stefania; Saglietto, Andrea; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Clinical data indicating a heart rate (HR) target during rate control therapy for permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) and assessing its eventual relationship with reduced exercise tolerance are lacking. The present study aims at investigating the impact of resting HR on the hemodynamic response to exercise in permanent AF patients by means of a computational cardiovascular model. The AF lumped-parameter model was run to simulate resting (1 Metabolic Equivalent of Task-MET) and various exercise conditions (4 METs: brisk walking; 6 METs: skiing; 8 METs: running), considering different resting HR (70 bpm for the slower resting HR-SHR-simulations, and 100 bpm for the higher resting HR-HHR-simulations). To compare relative variations of cardiovascular variables upon exertion, the variation comparative index (VCI)-the absolute variation between the exercise and the resting values in SHR simulations referred to the absolute variation in HHR simulations-was calculated at each exercise grade (VCI4, VCI6 and VCI8). Pulmonary venous pressure underwent a greater increase in HHR compared to SHR simulations (VCI4 = 0.71, VCI6 = 0.73 and VCI8 = 0.77), while for systemic arterial pressure the opposite is true (VCI4 = 1.15, VCI6 = 1.36, VCI8 = 1.56). The computational findings suggest that a slower, with respect to a higher resting HR, might be preferable in permanent AF patients, since during exercise pulmonary venous pressure undergoes a slighter increase and systemic blood pressure reveals a more appropriate increase.

  20. Physiological Study on the Relation of Heart Rate Variability in Ageing and Thyroid Hormone Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed A. M. Shokr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate whether cardiac autonomic dysfunction in aging human might be related to an underlying thyroid disturbance. ageing has been associated with hypothyroidism and cardiac autonomic dysfunction. On the basis of body mass index (BMI, 150 patients were grouped into three groups (n = 50 48 years ± 2, 55 years ± 2 and 63 years ± 2. Electrocardiogram was recorded using PowerLab system and the time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV were calculated. Fasting blood samples were drawn for measurement of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, total thyroxin (T4 and total triiodothyronine (T3 concentrations. The levels of TSH, T4 and T3 were not significantly different between the groups. The frequency domain HRV parameter reflecting parasympathetic tone (high-frequency normalized units, HFnu was significantly reduced in aging third groups group. The parameters which reflect sympathetic activation (Heart rate, low-frequency normalized units; LFnu and the LF/HF ratio were significantly increased in the aging group. HFnu was significantly and negatively correlated with age, whereas LFnu and LF/HF ratio were significantly and positively correlated with the above mentioned parameters. No significant relationships were noted between the HRV parameters and the levels of TSH or thyroid hormones. Cardiac autonomic dysfunction in aging human is not linked with underlying thyroid disturbance.

  1. Relating coccolithophore calcification rates to phytoplankton community dynamics: Regional differences and implications for carbon export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Alex J.; Adey, Tim R.; Balch, William M.; Holligan, Patrick M.

    2007-03-01

    Recent measurements of surface coccolithophore calcification from the Atlantic Ocean (50°N-50°S) are compared to similar measurements from other oceanic settings. By combining the different data sets of surface measurements, we examine general and regional patterns of calcification relative to organic carbon production (photosynthesis) and other characteristics of the phytoplankton community. Generally, surface calcification and photosynthesis are positively correlated, although the strength of the relationship differs between biogeochemical provinces. Relationships between surface calcification, chlorophyll- a and calcite concentrations are also statistically significant, although again there is considerable regional variability. Such variability appears unrelated to phytoplankton community composition or hydrographic conditions, and may instead reflect variations in coccolithophore physiology. The contribution of inorganic carbon fixation (calcification) to total carbon fixation (calcification plus photosynthesis) is ˜1-10%, and we estimate a similar contribution from coccolithophores to total organic carbon fixation. However, these contributions vary between biogeochemical provinces, and occasionally coccolithophores may account for >20% of total carbon fixation in unproductive central subtropical gyres. Combining surface calcification and photosynthetic rates with standing stocks of calcite, particulate organic carbon, and estimated phytoplankton carbon allows us to examine the fates of these three carbon pools. The relative turnover times vary between different biogeochemical provinces, with no clear relationship to the overall productivity or phytoplankton community structure found in each province. Rather, interaction between coccolithophore physiology (coccolith production and detachment rates), species diversity (cell size), and food web dynamics (grazer ecology) may control the composition and turnover times of calcite particles in the upper ocean.

  2. Nasal congestion in relation to low air exchange rate in schools. Evaluation by acoustic rhinometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wålinder, R; Norbäck, D; Wieslander, G; Smedje, G; Erwall, C

    1997-09-01

    Upper airway symptoms are common, but there is little information available on clinical findings in relation to indoor air pollution. This pilot study was conducted to test whether increased levels of indoor air pollutants in schools may correlate to a swelling of the nasal mucosa. The assumption was made that the degree of swelling could be related to the degree of decongestive effect of xylometazoline, and measured by acoustic rhinometry. The study was performed among 15 subjects in a school with low air exchange rate (0.6 air changes/h) and 12 subjects in a school with high air exchange rate (5.2 air changes/h). Hygienic measurements were performed in both schools. Acoustic rhinometry was performed for each individual under standardized forms. Cross-sectional areas and volumes of the nasal cavity were measured before and after decongestion with xylometazoline hydrochloride. Absolute values of the minimal cross-sectional area were lower in the school with poor ventilation. The decongestive effect of xylometazoline was significantly higher in the school with low air exchange, when correction for the influence of age was made. A diminished decongestive effect was seen with increasing age. The exposure measurements showed that indoor concentrations of volatile organic compounds, bacteria and moulds were higher in the school with low ventilation. In conclusion, raised levels of indoor air pollutants due to inadequate ventilation in schools may affect the upper airways and cause a swelling of the nasal mucosa, and acoustic rhinometry could be a useful objective method to measure human nasal reactions to the indoor environment.

  3. Hormone levels predict individual differences in reproductive success in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jenny Q; Sharp, Peter J; Dawson, Alistair; Quetting, Michael; Hau, Michaela

    2011-08-22

    Hormones mediate major physiological and behavioural components of the reproductive phenotype of individuals. To understand basic evolutionary processes in the hormonal regulation of reproductive traits, we need to know whether, and during which reproductive phases, individual variation in hormone concentrations relates to fitness in natural populations. We related circulating concentrations of prolactin and corticosterone to parental behaviour and reproductive success during both the pre-breeding and the chick-rearing stages in both individuals of pairs of free-living house sparrows, Passer domesticus. Prolactin and baseline corticosterone concentrations in pre-breeding females, and prolactin concentrations in pre-breeding males, predicted total number of fledglings. When the strong effect of lay date on total fledgling number was corrected for, only pre-breeding baseline corticosterone, but not prolactin, was negatively correlated with the reproductive success of females. During the breeding season, nestling provisioning rates of both sexes were negatively correlated with stress-induced corticosterone levels. Lastly, individuals of both sexes with low baseline corticosterone before and high baseline corticosterone during breeding raised the most offspring, suggesting that either the plasticity of this trait contributes to reproductive success or that high parental effort leads to increased hormone concentrations. Thus hormone concentrations both before and during breeding, as well as their seasonal dynamics, predict reproductive success, suggesting that individual variation in absolute concentrations and in plasticity is functionally significant, and, if heritable, may be a target of selection.

  4. Hood River Steelhead Genetics Study; Relative Reproductive Success of Hatchery and Wild Steelhead in the Hood River, Final Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Michael

    2003-05-01

    microsatellite-based pedigree analysis, the relative total reproductive success (adult-to-adult production) of hatchery (H{sub old} or H{sub new}) and wild (W) fish for two populations, over multiple brood years. Our analyses of samples from fish that bred in the early to mid 1990's show that fish of 'old' hatchery stocks have much lower total fitness than wild fish (17% to 54% of wild fitness), but that 'new' stocks have fitness that is similar to that of wild fish (ranging from 85% to 108% of wild fitness, depending on parental gender and run year). Therefore, our results show that the decision to phase out the old, out-of-basin stocks and replace them with new, conservation hatchery stocks was well founded. We also conclude that the H{sub new} fish are leaving behind substantial numbers of wild-born offspring. The similar fitnesses of H{sub new} and W fish suggests that wild-born offspring of H{sub new} fish are unlikely to have negative genetic effects on the population when they in turn spawn in the wild. We will test this hypothesis once enough F2 offspring have returned. Another interesting result is that we were unable to match a large fraction of the unclipped, returning fish with parents from their brood year. Furthermore, we were missing more fathers than mothers. Because we sampled almost every possible anadromous parent, these results suggest that nonanadromous trout or precocious parr may be obtaining a substantial number of matings. Substantial reproduction by precocious parr could be one unintended consequence of the hatchery program.

  5. Correlation and clinical significance between glomerular filtration rate and age in living-related kidney donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiuyi; Shao Yahui; Wang Yanming; Zhang Aimin; Hao Junwen; Tian Jun; Sun Ben; Han Jiankui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To quantitatively investigate the effect of age on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in living-related kidney donors. to analyze the clinical value and the dependence of GFR on age and to provide an objective basis for the selection of the living kidney donor. Methods: One hundred and sixty-one living-related kidney donors were divided into four age groups, namely 20-29 years (n=52), 30-39 years (n=44), 40-49 years (n=38) and ≥50 years (n=27). On the other hand, the total donors were divided into the groups older than 55 years (n=24) and younger than 55 years (n=137). To quantify GFR in all the subjects using the 99 Tc m -diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99 Tc m -DTPA) renography according to standard procedure and to evaluate the effects of age on renal function. Results: The total GFR in living-related kidney donors was calculated as (89.55±12.87) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 . The GFR in the first to the four age groups were (88.27±12.29) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , (91.85±14.51) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , (98.25±11.26) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 and (88.24±13.20) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 . The difference of GFR were not significant between the four age groups (F=2.09, P=0.10). The GFR in the donors older than 55 years and younger than 55 years were (88.57±13.14) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 and (89.44±10.34) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , there no significant difference in GFR between the two groups (F=1.31, P=0.25). When relating GFR to age in all the living-related kidney donors, there was no significant correlation (r=-0.033, P=0.69). No serious complications occurred after living kidney transplantation, serum creatinine values and blood urea nitrogen recovered to the normal levels in a short period, hepatic and renal functions were normal. Conclusion: This study indicated that the GFR values were not correlated with the change of age in living-related kidney donors, and the results were helpful for the selection of living

  6. Relative rates of B meson decays into psi(2S) and J/psi mesons

    OpenAIRE

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Aguilo, E.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study of the relative rates of B meson decays into ψ(2S) and J/ψ mesons using 1.3  fb-1 of pp̅ collisions at √s=1.96  TeV recorded by the D0 detector operating at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We observe the channels Bs0→ψ(2S)ϕ, Bs0→J/ψϕ, B±→ψ(2S)K±, and B±→J/ψK± and we measure the relative branching fractions for these channels to be B(Bs0→ψ(2S)ϕ)/B(Bs0→J/ψϕ)=0.53±0.10(stat)±0.07(syst)±0.06(B), B(B±→ψ(2S)K±)/B(B±→J/ψK±)=0.63±0.05(stat)±0.03(syst)±0.07(B),where the final erro...

  7. Cesarean Section Rate in Singleton Primiparae and Related Factors in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Geng; Wei, Yu-Mei; Zhu, Wei-Wei; Yang, Hui-Xia

    2017-10-20

    The cesarean section rate (CSR) has been a main concern worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the CSR in Beijing, China, and to analyze the related factors of CS delivery. An observational study was conducted in 15 medical centers in Beijing using a systemic cluster sampling method. In total, 15,194 pregnancies were enrolled in the study between June 20, 2013 and November 30, 2013. Independent t-tests and Pearson's Chi-square test were used to examine differences between two groups, and related factors of the CSR were examined by multivariable logistic regression. The CSR was 41.9% (4471/10,671) in singleton primiparae. Women who were more than 35 years old had a 7.4-fold increased risk of CS delivery compared with women level. Neonates weighing 3000-3499 g had the lowest CSR (36.2%). Neonates weighing levels, residence, education level, and singleton fetal birth weight are all factors that might significantly affect the CSR.

  8. Characterization of tropical precipitation using drop size distribution an